Allain, J P
The residual risk of post-transfusion human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is low but slightly higher for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), the main reason being viraemia during the window period preceding antibody or antigen detection by enzyme immunoassays. Immunosilent-infected individuals and carriers of distant viral variants also play an unquantifiable role. Multiple techniques, e.g. reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), PCR, ligase-chain reaction, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) and transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) have been developed to amplify and detect viral genomes as single or multiplex assays. Equipment providing various degrees of automation has been adapted to these techniques. Applying nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT) to blood screening, two main approaches have been advocated: plasma pool and single-donation testing. Pool testing presents the advantage of lower cost and readily available equipment although it is prone to false negative and positive reactions. The time required to identify infected donations is incompatible with blood component release, and may lead to product waste. Single-unit testing, although appealing, is not yet fully automated and potentially very costly unless a systematic multiplex approach is taken. Although technically feasible, NAT applied to the blood supply needs to be clinically evaluated and its cost efficiency assessed in the general public health context. However, pool NAT is currently implemented in continental Europe and the USA.
Dunford, Linda; Carr, Michael J; Dean, Jonathan; Nguyen, Linh Thuy; Ta Thi, Thu Hong; Nguyen, Binh Thanh; Connell, Jeff; Coughlan, Suzie; Nguyen, Hien Tran; Hall, William W; Thi, Lan Anh Nguyen
Hepatitis B (HBV) infection is endemic in Viet Nam, with up to 8.4 million individuals estimated to be chronically infected. We describe results of a large, multicentre seroepidemiological and molecular study of the prevalence of HBV infection and blood-borne viral coinfections in Viet Nam. Individuals with varying risk factors for infection (n = 8654) were recruited from five centres; Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa and Can Tho. A mean prevalence rate of 10.7% was observed and levels of HBsAg were significantly higher in injecting drug users (IDUs) (17.4%, n = 174/1000) and dialysis patients (14.3%, n = 82/575) than in lower-risk groups (9.4%; pViet Nam and also highlights the significant levels of blood-borne virus coinfections, which have important implications for hepatitis-related morbidity and development of effective management strategies.
Fry, Craig L; Lintzeris, Nick
To develop a standard measure of blood-borne virus transmission risk behaviour, and examine the underlying psychometric properties. The Blood-borne Virus Transmission Risk Assessment Questionnaire (BBV-TRAQ) was developed over three consecutive phases of the original BBV-TRAQ study in adherence to classical scale development procedures, culminating in the recruitment of a development sample of current injecting drug users via convenience and snowball sampling. Needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), medical clinics, alcohol/drug agencies, peer-based and outreach organizations across inner and outer metropolitan Melbourne. Two hundred and nine current injecting drug users. The mean age was 27 years, 68% were male, 65% unemployed, 36% with prison history and 25% in methadone maintenance. BBV-TRAQ items cover specific injecting, sexual and skin penetration risk practices. BBV-TRAQ characteristics were assessed via measures of internal and test-retest reliability; collateral validation; and principal components analyses. The BBV-TRAQ has satisfactory psychometric properties. Internal (a=0.87), test-retest (r=0.84) and inter-observer reliability results were high, suggesting that the instrument provides a reliable measure of BBV risk behaviour and is reliable over time and across interviewers. A principal components analysis with varimax rotation produced a parsimonious factor solution despite modest communality, and indicated that three factors (injecting, sex and skin penetration/hygiene risks) are required to describe BBV risk behaviour. The BBV-TRAQ is reliable and represents the first risk assessment tool to incorporate sufficient coverage of injecting, sex and other skin penetration risk practices to be considered truly content valid. The questionnaire is indicated for use in addictions research, clinical, peer education and BBV risk behaviour surveillance settings.
Palus, Martin; Vancová, Marie; Širmarová, J.; Elsterová, Jana; Perner, Jan; Růžek, Daniel
Roč. 507, JUL (2017), s. 110-122 ISSN 0042-6822 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-34238A; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * tick-borne encephalitis virus * blood- brain barrier * neuroinfection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 3.353, year: 2016
Martin, Susan; Hilton, Shona; McDaid, Lisa M
Improving sexual health and blood-borne virus (BBV) outcomes continue to be of high priority within the United Kingdom (UK) and it is evident that the media can and do impact the public health agenda. This paper presents the first large-scale exploration of UK national newsprint media representations of sexual health and BBVs. Using keyword searches in electronic databases, 677 articles published during 2010 were identified from 12 national (UK-wide and Scottish) newspapers. Content analysis was used to identify manifest content and to examine the tone of articles. Although there was a mixed picture overall in terms of tone, negatively toned articles, which focussed on failures or blame, were common, particularly within HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, and other sexually transmissible infection coverage (41% were assessed as containing negative content; 46% had negative headlines). Differences were found by newspaper genre, with 'serious' newspaper articles appearing more positive and informative than 'midmarket' newspapers or 'tabloids'. Across the sample, particular individuals, behaviours and risk groups were focussed on, not always accurately, and there was little mention of deprivation and inequalities (9%). A gender imbalance was evident, particularly within reproductive health articles (71% focussed on women; 23% on men), raising questions concerning gender stereotyping. There is a need to challenge the role that media messages have in the reinforcement of a negative culture around sexual health in the UK and for a strong collective advocacy voice to ensure that future media coverage is positively portrayed.
Full Text Available Hepatitis B (HBV infection is endemic in Viet Nam, with up to 8.4 million individuals estimated to be chronically infected. We describe results of a large, multicentre seroepidemiological and molecular study of the prevalence of HBV infection and blood-borne viral coinfections in Viet Nam. Individuals with varying risk factors for infection (n = 8654 were recruited from five centres; Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa and Can Tho. A mean prevalence rate of 10.7% was observed and levels of HBsAg were significantly higher in injecting drug users (IDUs (17.4%, n = 174/1000 and dialysis patients (14.3%, n = 82/575 than in lower-risk groups (9.4%; p<0.001. Coinfection with HIV was seen in 28% of HBV-infected IDUs (n = 49/174 and 15.2% of commercial sex workers (CSWs; n = 15/99. HCV infection was present in 89.8% of the HBV-HIV coinfected IDUs (n = 44/49 and 40% of HBV-HIV coinfected CSWs (n = 16/40. Anti-HDV was detected in 10.7% (n = 34/318 of HBsAg positive individuals. Phylogenetic analysis of HBV S gene (n = 187 showed a predominance of genotype B4 (82.6%; genotypes C1 (14.6%, B2 (2.7% and C5 (0.5% were also identified. The precore mutation G1896A was identified in 35% of all specimens, and was more frequently observed in genotype B (41% than genotype C (3%; p<0.0001. In the immunodominant 'a' region of the surface gene, point mutations were identified in 31% (n = 58/187 of sequences, and 2.2% (n = 4/187 and 5.3% (n = 10/187 specimens contained the major vaccine escape mutations G145A/R and P120L/Q/S/T, respectively. 368 HBsAg positive individuals were genotyped for the IL28B SNP rs12979860 and no significant association between the IL28B SNP and clearance of HBsAg, HBV viral load or HBeAg was observed. This study confirms the high prevalence of HBV infection in Viet Nam and also highlights the significant levels of blood-borne virus coinfections, which have important implications for hepatitis-related morbidity and development of effective
Eskandarani, Hassan Ali; Kehrer, Michala; Christensen, Peer Brehm
to provide an updated evaluation of the annual frequency of registered exposures during the 2003-2012 period, the prevalence and incidence of transmission of HIV, HBV and HCV among HCWs, the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV among source patients, the follow-up by HBV vaccination and blood sampling in exposed...... HCWs and, finally, reporting habits. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All registered first-time cases of BBF exposure at Odense University Hospital during the 2003-2012 period were included. The exposed HCW and source patient were linked to a laboratory database to obtain the test results for HIV, HBV, HCV...... among HCWs was zero. The prevalence of anti-HIV among source patients was 0.9%, HBsAg 1.2% and anti-HCV/HCV-RNA 3.8%. In 2003-2012, 31.3% of the tested HCWs had an anti-HBs ≥ 10 IU/l at baseline and this increased to 76.1% after vaccination. In 2012, 95% of the HCWs had blood samples at the time...
A review of patient notification exercises (PNEs) carried out in Ireland between 1997 and 2011 to investigate potential exposure to blood-borne viruses (BBVs) in healthcare settings was undertaken to inform future policy and practice. A questionnaire was sent to key informants in the health services to identify all relevant PNEs. Structured interviews were conducted with key investigators, and available documentation was examined. Ten BBV-related PNEs were identified. Despite testing over 2000 patients, only one case of transmission was found. However, in-depth local investigations before undertaking the PNEs identified six cases of healthcare-associated transmission.
Full Text Available The concept of “serodiscordance” (mixed infection status is primarily associated with epidemiological concerns about HIV transmission risk in couples. We make the case for extending this concept to include families with mixed HIV and viral hepatitis status. Social research on couples with mixed HIV and hepatitis C status has laid an important foundation for illuminating how experiences of serodiscordance within intimate partnerships are much broader than concerns about risk. This body of work attests to serodiscordance holding promise as a valuable concept for understanding viral infections as socially situated and intensely relational phenomena. However, serodiscordance is still limited as a concept because of its near universal focus on couples. It is rarely applied to wider relationships, including family networks beyond the couple. Despite evidence in the literature that families are affected by blood-borne viruses in multiple social, emotional, financial, and generational ways, the concept of serodiscordance does not capture these broader dynamics. Making serodiscordance more inclusive is an important step in recognising the diverse ways families’ everyday lives, relationships, and futures can be entangled with HIV, hepatitis C, and hepatitis B, and for understanding how today’s era of effective treatment options might shape the “family life” of viral infections.
Muhammad Zuhaib Khan
Full Text Available Background. Blood-borne viral infections like viral hepatitis are highly prevalent in Pakistan. There is also a potential threat of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV spread in the country. Health care workers (HCWs are a high risk population for acquiring such viral infections and potential spread to the patients. This study aimed to determine the frequency of three blood-borne viruses: HCV, HBV, and HIV in HCWs of district Malakand in northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK province of Pakistan. Moreover, risk factors and preventive behaviors among HCWs were investigated in detail. Materials and Methods. Prevalence was investigated using serological assays followed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR based characterization. A total of 626 health care workers working at 17 different health care units, belonging to 6 different job categories, were included in this study. Results. HIV was not detected in the HCWs while rate of prevalence of HCV and HBV was far less (0.8 % and 0.64 %, resp. as compared to general population (4.7%–38%. The majority of HCWs were aware of the mode of spread of these viruses and associated risk factors. Needle stick injury was found to be the most important risk factor for possible acquisition of these infections.
Crawford, Gemma; Lobo, Roanna; Brown, Graham; Macri, Chloe; Smith, Hannah; Maycock, Bruce
In some high-income countries, a proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), other blood-borne virus (BBV) or sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnoses have been reported as acquired overseas in low- and middle-income countries. A review was conducted to explore HIV, other BBV or STI related knowledge, risk behavior and acquisition amongst expatriates and travelers, particularly males, travelling from high to low- and middle-income countries. Seven academic databases were searched for 26 peer reviewed articles that met inclusion criteria. Significant variability in the studies was noted, in age, travel duration and frequency and outcomes/risk factors measured and reported on. Risk factors described included longer duration of stay; being single; travel for romance or sex; alcohol and other drug use; lack of travel advice; being male; higher number of sexual partners; and inconsistent condom use. Vaccination, pre-travel health advice, and having fewer sexual partners were described as protective. Studies are needed focusing on the social context in which risk-taking occurs. Better collaboration is essential to deliver comprehensive health promotion interventions alongside more consistent pre- and post- travel testing and advice. Policy measures are crucial, including consistent evaluation indicators to assess impacts of HIV, other BBVs or STIs in the context of mobility. Risks and responses for these epidemics are shared globally. PMID:27999275
out to detect the presence of seed borne viruses in fourteen cowpea accessions ... were serologically indexed to detect any seed-borne viruses after acclimatisation to screen house conditions. The .... showed external virus-like symptoms were.
Full Text Available A formal Needle and Syringe Program (NSP is not provided in Australian prisons. Injecting equipment circulates in prisons as part of an informal and illegal economy. This paper examined how this economy generates blood-borne virus (BBV risk and risk mitigation opportunities for inmates.The HITS-p cohort recruited New South Wales inmates who had reported ever injecting drugs and who had a negative HCV serological test within 12 months prior to enrolment. For this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 participants enrolled in HITS-p. Participants included 10 women and were incarcerated in 12 prisons.A needle/syringe was nominated as being typically priced in the 'inside' prison economy at $100-$150, with a range of $50-$350. Purchase or hire of equipment was paid for in cash (including transactions that occurred outside prison and in exchange for drugs and other commodities. A range of other resources was required to enable successful needle/syringe economies, especially relationships with visitors and other prisoners, and violence to ensure payment of debts. Strategies to mitigate BBV risk included retaining one needle/syringe for personal use while hiring out others, keeping drug use (and ownership of equipment "quiet", stealing used equipment from the prison health clinic, and manufacture of syringes from other items available in the prison.The provision of prison NSP would disrupt the inside economies built around contraband needles/syringes, as well as minimise BBV risk. However, any model of prison NSP should be interrogated for any unanticipated markets that could be generated as a result of its regulatory practices.
Ellen Perrett, Stephanie; Erricker, Mark; Lyons, Marion
The purpose of this paper is to provide education on blood-borne viruses (BBVs) to prison staff to help reduce stigma within the prisons, improve the care prisoners receive and reduce the risk of occupational transmission. An e-module was used to improve staff understanding of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV at a prison in Wales, UK. An assessment was used to gather data on prison staff understanding of BBVs prior to undertaking the e-module. In total, 530/697 (76 per cent) prison staff completed the BBV e-module. Average pre- and post-course assessment scores were 8.6/11 and 10.85/11, respectively. Most staff understood the modes of hepatitis transmission, however, gaps in understanding were highlighted. In total, 22 per cent of staff believed HBV and HCV were airborne, 9 per cent believed transmission occurred through sharing cutlery. In total, 31 per cent of staff believed prisoners with hepatitis should declare their status to the prison. Practical implications: The e-module significantly improved staff understanding of BBVs and should be incorporated into future prison training packages. Future education should include how BBVs are not transmitted with an emphasis on casual contact. Medical confidentiality in prisons should also be addressed. Improving understanding will help reduce the stigma of BBVs within prison and improve the multidisciplinary care the prisoner receives. To the authors knowledge this is the first published evaluation of a BBV learning package for custodial staff. Evaluation of this educational package demonstrates a unique and valuable insight into the general understanding of BBVs by prison staff in Wales, UK.
Treloar, Carla; McCredie, Luke; Lloyd, Andrew R
A formal Needle and Syringe Program (NSP) is not provided in Australian prisons. Injecting equipment circulates in prisons as part of an informal and illegal economy. This paper examined how this economy generates blood-borne virus (BBV) risk and risk mitigation opportunities for inmates. The HITS-p cohort recruited New South Wales inmates who had reported ever injecting drugs and who had a negative HCV serological test within 12 months prior to enrolment. For this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 participants enrolled in HITS-p. Participants included 10 women and were incarcerated in 12 prisons. A needle/syringe was nominated as being typically priced in the 'inside' prison economy at $100-$150, with a range of $50-$350. Purchase or hire of equipment was paid for in cash (including transactions that occurred outside prison) and in exchange for drugs and other commodities. A range of other resources was required to enable successful needle/syringe economies, especially relationships with visitors and other prisoners, and violence to ensure payment of debts. Strategies to mitigate BBV risk included retaining one needle/syringe for personal use while hiring out others, keeping drug use (and ownership of equipment) "quiet", stealing used equipment from the prison health clinic, and manufacture of syringes from other items available in the prison. The provision of prison NSP would disrupt the inside economies built around contraband needles/syringes, as well as minimise BBV risk. However, any model of prison NSP should be interrogated for any unanticipated markets that could be generated as a result of its regulatory practices.
Hänscheid, H; Fernández, M; Lassmann, M
The radiation absorbed dose to blood and organs from activity in the blood is relevant for nuclear medicine dosimetry and for research in biodosimetry. The present study provides coefficients for the average absorbed dose rates to the blood from blood-borne activity for radionuclides frequently used in targeted radiotherapy and in PET diagnostics. The results were deduced from published data for vessel radius-dependent dose rate coefficients and reasonable assumptions on the blood-volume distribution as a function of the vessel radius. Different parts of the circulatory system were analyzed separately. Vessel size information for heart chambers, aorta, vena cava, pulmonary artery, and capillaries was taken from published results of morphometric measurements. The remaining blood not contained in the mentioned vessels was assumed to reside in fractal-like vascular trees, the smallest branches of which are the arterioles or venules. The applied vessel size distribution is consistent with recommendations of the ICRP on the blood-volume distribution in the human. The resulting average absorbed dose rates to the blood per nuclear disintegration per milliliter (ml) of blood are (in 10 −11 Gy·s −1 ·Bq −1 ·ml) Y-90: 5.58, I-131: 2.49, Lu-177: 1.72, Sm-153: 2.97, Tc-99m: 0.366, C-11: 4.56, F-18: 3.61, Ga-68: 5.94, I-124: 2.55. Photon radiation contributes 1.1–1.2·10 −11 Gy·s −1 ·Bq −1 ·ml to the total dose rate for positron emitters but significantly less for the other nuclides. Blood self-absorption of the energy emitted by ß-particles in the whole blood ranges from 37% for Y-90 to 80% for Tc-99m. The correspondent values in vascular trees, which are important for the absorbed dose to organs, range from 30% for Y-90 to 82% for Tc-99m. (paper)
Woodiness disease is the most important disorder of passion fruit worldwide. The causal agent in Brazil is the Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), and despite the economic relevance of passion fruit for agriculture there have been recently very few studies about this virus in Brazil and worldwide. This work reveals ...
virus in blood donors: investigation of type-specific differences in serologic reactivity and rate of alanine aminotransferase abnormalities. Transfusion 1993;. 33: 7-13. 45. McFarlane IG, Smith HM, Johnson PJ, Bray GP, Vergani 0, Williams R. Hepatitis. C virus antibodies in chronic active hepatitis: pathogenetic factor or false-.
Tso, David K. [University of British Columbia, Department of Radiology (Canada); Athreya, Sriharsha, E-mail: email@example.com [St. Joseph' s Healthcare Hamilton, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Canada)
Interventional radiologists are at risk of exposure to blood-borne pathogens in their day-to-day practice. Percutaneous exposure from unsafe sharps handling, mucocutaneous exposure from body fluid splashes, and glove perforation from excessive wear can expose the radiologist to potentially infectious material. The increasing prevalence of blood-borne pathogens, including hepatitis B and C, and human immunodeficiency virus, puts nurses, residents, fellows, and interventional radiologists at risk for occupational exposure. This review outlines suggestions to establish a culture of safety in the interventional suite.
Full Text Available Introduction: There has been no recent assessment of public attitudes and opinions concerning risk of blood-borne pathogen transmission during health care. To assess public attitudes and opinions towards dentists infected with blood-borne viruses, this study was carried out.Materials and Methods: Six items in this cross-sectional survey were used to assess current attitudes and opinions about dentists infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV, Hepatitis B and CViruses, and the risk of blood-borne virus transmission during health care in a sample of 500 cases, in Yazd. Data were analyzed by SPSS (version 13 and chi-square tests were used, when appropriate.Results: Of 500 respondents, 94% agreed that they want to know whether their dentist is infectedwith HIV, HBV or HCV; 93.8% agreed that disclosure of HIV, HBV or HCV infection in a provider should be mandatory. However, 15.8% did not believe that HIV-infected dentists were more likely to infect patients than those dentists infected with HBV or HCV. Opinions were divided on whether HIV-infected providers should be able to care for patients as long as they use good infection control:only 41.6% thought that infected providers should be allowed to provide patient care.Conclusion: These findings suggest that improved public education and risk communication on health care-associated blood-borne infections is needed.
Goldwater, Paul N
Pediatric infectious disease clinicians in industrialized countries may encounter iatrogenically transmitted HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections in refugee children from Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The consequences of political collapse and/or civil war-work migration, prostitution, intravenous drug use, defective public health resources, and poor access to good medical care-all contribute to the spread of blood-borne viruses. Inadequate infection control practices by medical establishments can lead to iatrogenic infection of children. Summaries of 4 cases in refugee children in Australia are a salient reminder of this problem.
Roč. 103, Suppl. 1 (2008), S29-S43 ISSN 0932-0113. [Vector-borne diseases: impact of climate change on vectors and rodent reservoirs. Berlin, 27.09.2007-28.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930611 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : moboviruses * epidemiology Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.473, year: 2008
Rushton, J. O.; Lecollinet, S.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Svobodová, Petra; Lussy, H.; Nowotny, N.
Roč. 19, č. 4 (2013), s. 635-637 ISSN 1080-6040 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) * strains Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 7.327, year: 2013
Fisker, Niels; Mygind, Lone H.; Krarup, Henrik B.; Licht, Dorthe; Georgsen, Jorgen; Christensen, Peer B.
Denmark is a country with low prevalence and incidence of blood borne viral infections. Among health care workers (HCWs) vaccination for hepatitis B is only offered to high-risk groups. The aims of this cross sectional survey were to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B, -C, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among the staff at a Danish University hospital and to correlate this with risk factors for transmission. Additionally, we wanted to examine the current frequency of blood exposure, reporting habits and hepatitis B vaccination status in the staff. Of 1439 eligible hospital staffs included, 960 (67%) were HCWs. The overall human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-, hepatitis C Virus (HCV)- and hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-prevalence was 0% (0/1439), 0.14% (2/1439) and 1.6% (23/1439), respectively. Twenty-three percent of HCWs were vaccinated against HBV. Age, blood transfusion and stay in endemic areas were associated independently to HBV infection as opposed to job-category, duration of employment, HBV vaccination status and blood exposure. Based on a 4-week recall period, the incidence of percutaneous blood exposure was 1.5/person-year. In conclusion the HIV and hepatitis prevalence was low despite frequent blood exposure and the principal risk factors were unrelated to work. Danish HCWs do not seem to be at increased risk of hepatitis B even though universal HBV vaccination has not been implemented
Freeman, Nancy K.; Corning, Lisa L.
Recommends universal precautions policies and procedures to minimize for children and adults in early childhood settings the risk of infection from exposure to blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B or HIV. Outlines symptoms of hepatitis B and HIV/AIDS. Discusses legal and ethical implications related to inclusion. Lists resources for teachers…
Eyer, L.; Valdés, James J.; Gil, V.A.; Nencka, Radim; Hřebabecký, Hubert; Šála, Michal; Salát, J.; Černý, Jiří; Palus, Martin; De Clercq, E.; Růžek, Daniel
Roč. 59, č. 9 (2015), s. 5483-5493 ISSN 0066-4804 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus * infection * molecular analyses Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; CC - Organic Chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 4.415, year: 2015
Reynolds, Erin S; Hart, Charles E; Hermance, Meghan E; Brining, Douglas L; Thangamani, Saravanan
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have continued to emerge in recent years, posing a significant health threat to millions of people worldwide. The majority of arboviruses that are pathogenic to humans are transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks, but other types of arthropod vectors can also be involved in the transmission of these viruses. To alleviate the health burdens associated with arbovirus infections, it is necessary to focus today's research on disease control and therapeutic strategies. Animal models for arboviruses are valuable experimental tools that can shed light on the pathophysiology of infection and will enable the evaluation of future treatments and vaccine candidates. Ideally an animal model will closely mimic the disease manifestations observed in humans. In this review, we outline the currently available animal models for several viruses vectored by mosquitoes, ticks, and midges, for which there are no standardly available vaccines or therapeutics.
Full Text Available Background: The risk for transmission of blood-borne viruses (BBVs such as Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV due to occupational exposure is a major concern in the health care setting.Materials and Methods: This study among 337 health care workers (HCWs accidentally exposed to BBVs was carried out from January 2009 to March 2015. The data were reviewed in labbafinejhad hospital, Tehran, Iran.Results: 4 HCWs had exposure to HBS Ag positive, which HBS antibody titer of them was higher than 10 mlu/ml, 6 HCWs were exposed to HCV seropositive patients underwent laboratory investigations for HCV-antibody on 4,12, 24 weeks that results were negative. 3 cases had exposure to HIV seropositive patients which received standard antiretroviral post exposure prophylaxis.Conclusion: Timely performance for PEP (Post Exposure Prophylaxis reducing BBVs transmission among HCWs.prophylaxis. Conclusions: Timely performance for PEP(Post Exposure Prophylaxis reducing BBVs transmission among HCWs.Key words: Outcome; Accidental Exposure; Blood Borne Viral Infections
Mavtchoutko, V; Vene, S; Haglund, M; Forsgren, M; Duks, A; Kalnina, V; Hörling, J; Lundkvist, A
Viruses of the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) antigenic complex, within the family Flaviviridae, cause a variety of diseases including uncomplicated febrile illness, encephalitis, meningo-encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever and chronic disease in humans, domesticated animals or wildlife species. TBE is a serious problem in Latvia with up to a 1,000 patients confirmed serologically annually 1994-1995. No previous data had been reported on the causative agent of TBE in Latvia. In the present study, a virus was isolated from serum of a patient with clinical symptoms of an acute TBE infection. Nucleotide sequence information obtained by direct reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the serological characteristics of the isolated virus strain, designated TBE-Latvia-1-96, indicated a closer relationship to the Vasilchenko strain, isolated in Novosibirsk (Siberia, Russia), as compared to the western European or far eastern subtypes of TBE viruses. In a mouse neurovirulence assay, a significant difference in survival rates (days) was shown between Latvia-1-96 and the western European TBE virus subtype. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Malenko, G V; Pogodina, V V; Karmysheva, V Ia
The effect of streptomycin (C) on persistence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus in Syrian hamsters infected with 3 strains of the virus (41/65, Aina/1448, Vasilchenko ) intracerebrally or subcutaneously was studied. In the animals not given C the infectious virus could be detected in the brain for 8-14 days but not later although their organs (mostly brains and spleens) contained the hemagglutinating antigen and viral antigen detectable by immunofluorescence. Intramuscularly C was given twice daily for 13-35 days in a daily dose of 200 mg/kg. The C-treated hamsters yielded 7 virulent TBE virus strains: 3 from the brain, 3 from the spleen, and one from the blood. No virus could be isolated from the liver, kidneys, or lungs despite the use of various methods for isolation including tissue explantation. The activating effect of C was observed against the background of 4-fold decrease in the titre of complement-fixing and antihemagglutinating antibodies. C exerted its activating effect both at early (70 days) and late (9 months) stages of TBE virus persistence. The activating effect of C appears to be due to its immunosuppressive properties and neurotoxic action on the CNS.
Gritsun, T S; Frolova, T V; Zhankov, A I; Armesto, M; Turner, S L; Frolova, M P; Pogodina, V V; Lashkevich, V A; Gould, E A
A strain of Tick-borne encephalitis virus designated Zausaev (Za) was isolated in Siberia from a patient who died of a progressive (2-year) form of tick-borne encephalitis 10 years after being bitten by a tick. The complete genomic sequence of this virus was determined, and an attempt was made to correlate the sequence with the biological characteristics of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this virus belongs to the Siberian subtype of Tick-borne encephalitis virus. Comparison of Za virus with two related viruses, a Far Eastern isolate, Sofjin, and a Siberian isolate, Vasilchenko, revealed differences among the three viruses in pathogenicity for Syrian hamsters, cytopathogenicity for PS cells, plaque morphology, and the electrophoretic profiles of virus-specific nonstructural proteins. Comparative amino acid alignments revealed 10 individual amino acid substitutions in the Za virus polyprotein sequence that were different from those of other tick-borne flaviviruses. Notably, the dimeric form of the Za virus NS1 protein migrated in polyacrylamide gels as a heterogeneous group of molecules with a significantly higher electrophoretic mobility than those of the Sofjin and Vasilchenko viruses. Two amino acid substitutions, T(277)-->V and E(279)-->G, within the NS1 dimerization domain are probably responsible for the altered oligomerization of Za virus NS1. These studies suggest that the patient from whom Za virus was isolated died due to increased pathogenicity of the latent virus following spontaneous mutagenesis.
Full Text Available Tick-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses (TBHFV are detected throughout the African and Eurasian continents and are an emerging or re-emerging threat to many nations. Due to the largely sporadic incidences of these severe diseases, information on human cases and research activities in general have been limited. In the past decade, however, novel TBHFVs have emerged and areas of endemicity have expanded. Therefore, the development of countermeasures is of utmost importance in combating TBHFV as elimination of vectors and interrupting enzootic cycles is all but impossible and ecologically questionable. As in vivo models are the only way to test efficacy and safety of countermeasures, understanding of the available animal models and the development and refinement of animal models is critical in negating the detrimental impact of TBHFVs on public and animal health.
Two highly pathogenic arthropod-borne (arbo)viruses, West Nile virus (WNV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV), recently (re-)emerged in both Europe and the Americas. This resulted in large-scale epidemics of severe encephalitic and arthritogenic human disease,
Mohammadali, Fatemeh; Pourfathollah, Aliakbar
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors referred to Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC), and determine any association between blood groups and blood- borne infections between the years of 2005 and 2011. This was a retrospective study conducted at TBTC. All of the donor serum samples were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis by using third generation ELISA kits and RPR test. Initial reactive samples were tested in duplicate. Confirmatory tests were performed on all repeatedly reactive donations. Blood group was determined by forward and reverse blood grouping. The results were subjected to chi square analysis for determination of statistical difference between the values among different categories according to SPSS program. Overall, 2031451 donor serum samples were collected in 2005-2011. Totally, 10451 were positive test for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis. The overall seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis was 0.39%, 0.11%, 0.005%, and 0.010%, respectively. Hepatitis B and HIV infections were significantly associated with blood group of donors (P blood group "A" and percentage of HBs Ag was lower in donors who had blood group O. There was no significant association between Hepatitis C and syphilis infections with ABO and Rh blood groups (P>0.05). Compared with neighboring countries and the international standards, prevalence of blood-borne infections is relatively low.
Venkat, Heather; Adams, Laura; Sunenshine, Rebecca; Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth; Levy, Craig; Kafenbaum, Tammy; Sylvester, Tammy; Smith, Kirk; Townsend, John; Dosmann, Melissa; Kamel, Hany; Patron, Roberto; Kuehnert, Matthew; Annambhotla, Pallavi; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Rabe, Ingrid B
St. Louis encephalitis virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that infrequently causes epidemic central nervous system infections. In the United States, blood donors are not screened for St. Louis encephalitis virus infection, and transmission through blood transfusion has not been reported. During September 2015, St. Louis encephalitis virus infection was confirmed in an Arizona kidney transplant recipient. An investigation was initiated to determine the infection source. The patient was interviewed, and medical records were reviewed. To determine the likelihood of mosquito-borne infection, mosquito surveillance data collected at patient and blood donor residences in timeframes consistent with their possible exposure periods were reviewed. To investigate other routes of exposure, organ and blood donor and recipient specimens were obtained and tested for evidence of St. Louis encephalitis virus infection. The patient presented with symptoms of central nervous system infection. Recent St. Louis encephalitis virus infection was serologically confirmed. The organ donor and three other organ recipients showed no laboratory or clinical evidence of St. Louis encephalitis virus infection. Among four donors of blood products received by the patient via transfusion, one donor had a serologically confirmed, recent St. Louis encephalitis virus infection. Exposure to an infected mosquito was unlikely based on the patient's minimal outdoor exposure. In addition, no St. Louis encephalitis virus-infected mosquito pools were identified around the patient's residence. This investigation provides evidence of the first reported possible case of St. Louis encephalitis virus transmission through blood product transfusion. Health care providers and public health professionals should maintain heightened awareness for St. Louis encephalitis virus transmission through blood transfusion in settings where outbreaks are identified. © 2017 AABB.
Maina, Solomon; Edwards, Owain R.; de Almeida, Luis; Ximenes, Abel
We present here the first complete genomic RNA sequence of the polerovirus Suakwa aphid-borne yellows virus (SABYV), from East Timor. The isolate sequenced came from a virus-infected pumpkin plant. The East Timorese genome had a nucleotide identity of 86.5% with the only other SABYV genome available, which is from Taiwan. PMID:27469955
Jennifer A. Scoble
Full Text Available A late preterm neonate born by cesarean section with intact membranes presented at 9 days of life with shock and liver failure. Surface cultures were negative but whole blood polymerase chain reaction was positive for herpes simplex virus type 2, underscoring the value of this test in early diagnosis of perinatally acquired disseminated herpes simplex virus infection without skin lesions.
Pereva, K I [Central Blood Bank, Colombo, General Hospital, Colombo (Sri Lanka)
Hepatitis B is a blood-borne viral disease which affects more than 250 million people world-wide, mostly in the third world. The disease can cause fatal liver cancer in adult life, if infected when young. This deals with the laboratory techniques used in the detection of hepatitis B virus of the donor blood. Natural blood transfusion service of Sri Lanka screens the hepatitis B surface antigen using the RIA technique to find out whether the normal healthy donors without a history of hepatitis are infected with hepatitis B virus.
Shannon, Avery B; Rucinsky, Renee; Gaff, Holly D; Brinkerhoff, R Jory
We collected blood and tick samples in eastern Maryland to quantify vector-borne pathogen exposure and infection in healthy cats and to assess occupational disease risk to veterinary professionals and others who regularly interact with household pets. Thirty-six percent of healthy cats parasitized by ticks at time of examination (9/25) were exposed to, and 14% of bloods (7/49) tested PCR-positive for, at least one vector-borne pathogen including several bloods and ticks with Borrelia miyamotoi, a recently recognized tick-borne zoonotic bacterium. There was no indication that high tick burdens were associated with exposure to vector-borne pathogens. Our results underscore the potential importance of cats to human vector-borne disease risk.
Palus, Martin; Bílý, Tomáš; Elsterová, Jana; Langhansová, Helena; Salát, J.; Vancová, Marie; Růžek, Daniel
Roč. 95, Pt 11 (2014), s. 2411-2426 ISSN 0022-1317 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116; GA ČR GAP302/12/2490; GA TA ČR TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis * Tick-borne encephalitis virus * human Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.183, year: 2014
Nathan D Grubaugh
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arthropod-borne viruses are important emerging pathogens world-wide. Viruses transmitted by mosquitoes, such as dengue, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, infect hundreds of millions of people and animals each year. Global surveillance of these viruses in mosquito vectors using molecular based assays is critical for prevention and control of the associated diseases. Here, we report an oligonucleotide DNA microarray design, termed ArboChip5.1, for multi-gene detection and identification of mosquito-borne RNA viruses from the genera Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae, Alphavirus (Togaviridae, Orthobunyavirus (Bunyaviridae, and Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The assay utilizes targeted PCR amplification of three genes from each virus genus for electrochemical detection on a portable, field-tested microarray platform. Fifty-two viruses propagated in cell-culture were used to evaluate the specificity of the PCR primer sets and the ArboChip5.1 microarray capture probes. The microarray detected all of the tested viruses and differentiated between many closely related viruses such as members of the dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and Semliki Forest virus clades. Laboratory infected mosquitoes were used to simulate field samples and to determine the limits of detection. Additionally, we identified dengue virus type 3, Japanese encephalitis virus, Tembusu virus, Culex flavivirus, and a Quang Binh-like virus from mosquitoes collected in Thailand in 2011 and 2012. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated that the described assay can be utilized in a comprehensive field surveillance program by the broad-range amplification and specific identification of arboviruses from infected mosquitoes. Furthermore, the microarray platform can be deployed in the field and viral RNA extraction to data analysis can occur in as little as 12 h. The information derived from the ArboChip5.1 microarray can help to establish
Ida Bagus Andika
Full Text Available Although the majority of plant viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors and invade the host plants through the aerial parts, there is a considerable number of plant viruses that infect roots via soil-inhabiting vectors such as plasmodiophorids, chytrids, and nematodes. These soil-borne viruses belong to diverse families, and many of them cause serious diseases in major crop plants. Thus, roots are important organs for the life cycle of many viruses. Compared to shoots, roots have a distinct metabolism and particular physiological characteristics due to the differences in development, cell composition, gene expression patterns, and surrounding environmental conditions. RNA silencing is an important innate defense mechanism to combat virus infection in plants, but the specific information on the activities and molecular mechanism of RNA silencing-mediated viral defense in root tissue is still limited. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current knowledge regarding RNA silencing aspects of the interactions between soil-borne viruses and host plants. Overall, research evidence suggests that soil-borne viruses have evolved to adapt to the distinct mechanism of antiviral RNA silencing in roots.
Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gettman, Alan; Becker, Elisabeth; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S.; LeBrun, Roger A.
West Nile Virus (WNV) and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus (EEEV) are both primarily bird viruses, which can be transmitted by several mosquito species. Differences in larval habitats, flight, and biting patterns of the primary vector species result in substantial differences in epidemiology, with WNV more common, primarily occurring in urban areas, and EEEV relatively rare, typically occurring near swamp habitats. The complex transmission ecology of these viruses complicates prediction of disease outbreaks. The Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management (DEM) and Department of Health (DoH) provide prevention assistance to towns and maintain a mosquito surveillance program to identify potential disease risk. Responses to potential outbreaks follow a protocol based on surveillance results, assessment of human risk, and technical consultation.
Markeshin, S Ia; Karavanov, A S; Kovin, V V; Zakharova, T F; Evstratov, Iu V; Bychkova, M V; Evstaf'ev, I L
The immune status of the Crimean population with respect to tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus has been studied. The results of the study confirm the existence of natural foci of TBE in the Crimea. The most active and potentially dangerous foci are located in forests of the mountain area of the peninsula. The study has revealed that humans are mainly exposed to the risk of contacting TBE virus infection during their work and rest in the forest.
Afelt, Aneta; Lacroix, Audrey; Zawadzka-Pawlewska, Urszula; Pokojski, Wojciech; Buchy, Philippe; Frutos, Roger
Environmental modifications are leading to biodiversity changes, loss and habitat disturbance. This in turn increases contacts between wildlife and hence the risk of transmission and emergence of zoonotic diseases. We analyzed the environment and land use using remote spatial data around the sampling locations of bats positive for coronavirus (21 sites) and astrovirus (11 sites) collected in 43 sites. A clear association between viruses and hosts was observed. Viruses associated to synanthropic bat genera, such as Myotis or Scotophilus were associated to highly transformed habitats with human presence while viruses associated to fruit bat genera were correlated with natural environments with dense forest, grassland areas and regions of high elevation. In particular, group C betacoronavirus were associated with mosaic habitats found in anthropized environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ahantarig, A.; Růžek, Daniel; Vancová, Marie; Janowitz, A.; Šťastná, Hana; Tesařová, Martina; Grubhoffer, Libor
Roč. 52, č. 5 (2009), s. 283-290 ISSN 0300-5526 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/1479; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * macrophage s * electron microscopy Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.106, year: 2009
Robin R. L. Simons
Full Text Available Bat-borne viruses can pose a serious threat to human health, with examples including Nipah virus (NiV in Bangladesh and Malaysia, and Marburg virus (MARV in Africa. To date, significant human outbreaks of such viruses have not been reported in the European Union (EU. However, EU countries have strong historical links with many of the countries where NiV and MARV are present and a corresponding high volume of commercial trade and human travel, which poses a potential risk of introduction of these viruses into the EU. In assessing the risks of introduction of these bat-borne zoonotic viruses to the EU, it is important to consider the location and range of bat species known to be susceptible to infection, together with the virus prevalence, seasonality of viral pulses, duration of infection and titre of virus in different bat tissues. In this paper, we review the current scientific knowledge of all these factors, in relation to the introduction of NiV and MARV into the EU.
Roč. 2009, č. 372691 (2009), s. 1-11 ISSN 1687-708X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Bhanja virus * biogeography * arboviruses Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology
Šikutová, Silvie; Hornok, S.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Doležálková, I.; Juřicová, Zina; Rudolf, Ivo
Roč. 135, 3-4 (2009), s. 267-271 ISSN 0378-1135 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis * Bhanja virus * Cattle * Horse * Sheep * Hungary Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.874, year: 2009
Fialová, Anna; Cimburek, Zdeněk; Iezzi, G.; Kopecký, Jan
Roč. 12, č. 7 (2010), s. 580-585 ISSN 1286-4579 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960811 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Dendritic cell * Tick saliva * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2010
Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyvirus causes severe yield losses in cowpea, an important legume crop in semi-arid regions of Africa. We have elucidated the genomic sequence of the virus and subsequently focused our attention on the so-called helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro), a
Mlotshwa, S.; Verver, J.; Sithole-Niang, I.; Kampen, van T.; Kammen, van A.; Wellink, J.
The genomic sequence of a Zimbabwe isolate of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV-Z) was determined by sequencing overlapping viral cDNA clones generated by RT-PCR using degenerate and/or specific primers. The sequence is 9465 nucleotides in length excluding the 3' terminal poly (A) tail and
Gallian, P; Piquet, Y; Assal, A; Djoudi, R; Chiaroni, J; Izopet, J; Tiberghien, P
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a non-enveloped RNA virus transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Autochthonous hepatitis E occurring in developed countries is caused by genotypes 3 and 4 and is a zoonotic infection. Humans are infected mostly after ingestion of undercooked meat from infected animals. Most HEV 3 and 4 infections are clinically inapparent. However, genotype 3 (HEV 3) can lead to chronic hepatitis in immuno-compromised patients such as organ-transplant recipients and patients with haematological malignancies. In Europe, HEV 3 is implicated in transfusion-transmitted HEV infection. In France, as observed in several European countries, prevalence of HEV RNA and specific IgG antibodies are high indicating that viral circulation is important. The systematic HEV NAT screening of blood donations used for preparation of solvent detergent plasma indicate that 1 to 2218 donation is infected by HEV RNA. The need or implementation's impacts of safety measures to prevent HEV transmission by blood transfusion are under reflexion by French's health authorities. The HEV NAT screening is the only available tool of prevention. Alternative strategies are under investigation including individual or mini pool NAT testing all or part of blood donations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Rozlosnik, Noemi; Kirkegaard, Julie; Olsen, Mark Holm
Viral contamination in waters intended for human consumption or human contact poses a high health riskand can, in worst-case, lead to viral outbreaks. The waterborne virus, norovirus is a major cause of viralgastroenteritis. Conventional detection methods of norovirus rely on microbiological...... methods likepolymerase chain reaction and a variety of sample preparations. These methods are time consuming,expensive and require highly trained personnel. Thus, viral surveillance cannot be done continuously and only provide an instant overview of the water quality.We are developing an all polymer...... detection system for online viral surveillance of waters. The detection isbased on differential impedance measurements between a reference and an electrode functionalized with abio-recognition element. The bio-recognition element is an aptamer specific to the target virus. We havepreviously shown very low...
Kurtzhals, J A; Kjeldsen, K; Heron, I
To evaluate the possible need for vaccination against diphtheria and tetanus of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), antibodies were measured in blood samples from 78 Danish HIV-infected men, born 1950-59, who could be expected to have received primary vaccination before...... they contracted the HIV infection. No patients (95% confidence interval: 0-4) had tetanus antibodies below the protective level, whereas 24 of the 78 patients (16-33) were unprotected against diphtheria. In the background population of the same age group and sex, 5% and 10% have been found unprotected against...... tetanus and diphtheria, respectively. No relationship between disease stages and antibody levels could be found. Neither was there any difference between patients with normal and reduced numbers of CD4+ lymphocytes. From 25 patients two blood samples were taken at an interval of at least one year. Anti...
Background: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is an agent of Transfusion Transmissible Infection (TTI) which serves as a threat to blood safety and sufficiency of blood and blood products supply. Objectives: This study aimed at determining the distribution patterns of HCV among potential blood donors in a private Blood Bank in ...
van der Sluijs, Mirjam Tineke Willemijn; de Smit, Abraham J; Moormann, Rob J M
Bluetongue is an economically important disease of ruminants. The causative agent, Bluetongue virus (BTV), is mainly transmitted by insect vectors. This review focuses on vector-free BTV transmission, and its epizootic and economic consequences. Vector-free transmission can either be vertical, from dam to fetus, or horizontal via direct contract. For several BTV-serotypes, vertical (transplacental) transmission has been described, resulting in severe congenital malformations. Transplacental transmission had been mainly associated with live vaccine strains. Yet, the European BTV-8 strain demonstrated a high incidence of transplacental transmission in natural circumstances. The relevance of transplacental transmission for the epizootiology is considered limited, especially in enzootic areas. However, transplacental transmission can have a substantial economic impact due to the loss of progeny. Inactivated vaccines have demonstrated to prevent transplacental transmission. Vector-free horizontal transmission has also been demonstrated. Since direct horizontal transmission requires close contact of animals, it is considered only relevant for within-farm spreading of BTV. The genetic determinants which enable vector-free transmission are present in virus strains circulating in the field. More research into the genetic changes which enable vector-free transmission is essential to better evaluate the risks associated with outbreaks of new BTV serotypes and to design more appropriate control measures.
Mario Luis Garcia de Figueiredo
Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cacipacore virus (CPCV, a possible bird-associated flavivirus, has yet to be detected in mosquitoes. Our purpose is examining CPCV in mosquitoes from the Amazon region of Brazil. METHODS: Approximately 3,253 Culicidae (grouped into 264 pools were collected from the Amazon region during 2002-2006 and analyzed using a Flavivirus genus-specific reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction followed by nested polymerase chain reaction assay and by nucleotide sequencing of amplicons. RESULTS: Nucleotide sequences from five mosquito samples showed high similarity to the those of CPCV originally isolated in the Amazon region. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of CPCV-infected mosquitoes which has implications on the arbovirus maintenance in nature and transmission to man.
Chang, Hsiao-Han; Huber, Roland G; Bond, Peter J; Grad, Yonatan H; Camerini, David; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Lipsitch, Marc
To analyse the proportions of protein identity between Zika virus and dengue, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, West Nile and chikungunya viruses as well as polymorphism between different Zika virus strains. We used published protein sequences for the Zika virus and obtained protein sequences for the other viruses from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) protein database or the NCBI virus variation resource. We used BLASTP to find regions of identity between viruses. We quantified the identity between the Zika virus and each of the other viruses, as well as within-Zika virus polymorphism for all amino acid k -mers across the proteome, with k ranging from 6 to 100. We assessed accessibility of protein fragments by calculating the solvent accessible surface area for the envelope and nonstructural-1 (NS1) proteins. In total, we identified 294 Zika virus protein fragments with both low proportion of identity with other viruses and low levels of polymorphisms among Zika virus strains. The list includes protein fragments from all Zika virus proteins, except NS3. NS4A has the highest number (190 k -mers) of protein fragments on the list. We provide a candidate list of protein fragments that could be used when developing a sensitive and specific serological test to detect previous Zika virus infections.
Pando-Robles, Victoria; Batista, Cesar V
Aedes-borne viruses are responsible for high-impact neglected tropical diseases and unpredictable outbreaks such as the ongoing Zika epidemics. Aedes mosquitoes spread different arboviruses such as Dengue virus (DENV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Zika virus, among others, and are responsible for the continuous emergence and reemergence of these pathogens. These viruses have complex transmission cycles that include two hosts, namely the Aedes mosquito as a vector and susceptible vertebrate hosts. Human infection with arboviruses causes diseases that range from subclinical or mild to febrile diseases, encephalitis, and hemorrhagic fever. Infected mosquitoes do not show detectable signs of disease, even though the virus maintains a lifelong persistent infection. The infection of the Aedes mosquito by viruses involves a molecular crosstalk between cell and viral proteins. An understanding of how mosquito vectors and viruses interact is of fundamental interest, and it also offers novel perspectives for disease control. In recent years, mass spectrometry (MS)-based strategies in combination with bioinformatics have been successfully applied to identify and quantify global changes in cellular proteins, lipids, peptides, and metabolites in response to viral infection. Although the information about proteomics in the Aedes mosquito is limited, the information that has been reported can set up the basis for future studies. This review reflects how MS-based approaches have extended our understanding of Aedes mosquito biology and the development of DENV and CHIKV infection in the vector. Finally, this review discusses future challenges in the field.
Sakkas, Hercules; Economou, Vangelis; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy
Zika virus infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease, first identified in Uganda in 1947. It is caused by the Zika arbovirus, and transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. For almost half a century, the Zika virus was reported as the causative agent of sporadic human infections. In 2007, the Zika virus emerged outside Asia and Africa causing an epidemic on the Island of Yap in Micronesia. The manifestation of the newly acquired human infection varies from asymptomatic to self-limiting acute febrile illness with symptoms and clinical features similar to those caused by the Dengue virus ('Dengue-like syndrome'). The real-time PCR and serological methods have been successfully applied for the diagnosis of the disease. The treatment is symptomatic, since there is no specific antiviral treatment or a vaccine. During the recent outbreaks in French Polynesia and Brazil, incidents of Guillain-Barrι syndrome and microcephaly were associated with Zika virus infection, giving rise to fears of further global spread of the virus. Prevention and vector control strategies have to be urgently implemented by national health authorities in order to contain future outbreaks in vulnerable populations. This review summarizes the existing information on Zika virus characteristics, pathogenesis and epidemiology, the available methods for the diagnosis of Zika virus infection and recent approaches for prevention and control.
Frolova, T V; Pogodina, V V; Larina, G I; Frolova, M P; Karmysheva, V Ia
Conditions of activation of persistent infection caused by subcutaneous inoculation of Syrian hamsters with the B-383 and Vasilchenko strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBE) were studied. After 2 administrations of cyclophosphane (CP) on day 170 of infection clinically manifest disease developed in some animals with increasingly severe pathomorphological lesions in the CNS. Several variants of activated TBE virus were isolated from brains and spleens of CP-treated hamsters. The activation of persistent infection was observed in the presence of marked decreased of humoral immunity level, weight of the thymus, and values of spontaneous rosette-formation.
Aims: To determine the seroprevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B viruses in directed blood donors in Nguru and also to see if there is co-infection of these viruses in this category of donor population. Method: This is a prospective study carried out at the blood bank of the Federal Medical Centre Nguru, Yobe State between ...
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the hepatitis agents known to be transmitted through blood and blood products. Hepatitis C virus has been implicated as a major cause of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. This study was, therefore, undertaken with the objective of determining the ...
N Lakshmi Priya; K Usha Krishnan; G Jayalakshmi; S Vasanthi
Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs). Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2%) were interns and the clinical ...
Miert, A.S.J.P.A.M. van; Duin, C.T.M. van; Schotman, A.J.H.; Franssen, F.F.
Tick-borne fever in goats caused by Ehrlichia (Cytoecetes) phagocytophila was characterised by high fever, dullness, anorexia, tachycardia and a slight to moderate inhibition of rumen motility. The animals developed a gradual decline in the total number of circulating white blood cells. There was a
Resman, Katarina; Korva, Miša; Fajs, Luka; Zidarič, Tanja; Trilar, Tomi; Zupanc, Tatjana Avšič
Seewis virus, the shrew-borne hantavirus from Sorex araneus, has been molecularly detected in reservoir hosts in many different central European countries and Russia. Slovenia is a known endemic country for rodent-borne hantaviruses, therefore the aim of the study was to investigate the presence of shrew-borne hantaviruses in insectivores. Viral L, S and M segment have been recovered only from tissue samples of 7 S. araneus, despite several shrew species were tested. Phylogenetic analysis showed high genetic diversity of SWSV in Slovenia, ranging from 3 to 19.4% for different viral segments. The most divergent were M segment sequences, with 19.4% nucleotide divergence among Slovenian strains. Above that, different SWSV strains from Slovenia do not group into separate geographic clusters. While three separate genetic clades were determined, two of them were simultaneously present in one location at the same time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yang, Yu; Garver, Lindsey S.; Bingham, Karen M.; Hang, Jun; Jochim, Ryan C.; Davidson, Silas A.; Richardson, Jason H.; Jarman, Richard G.
Mosquito blood meals taken from humans and animals potentially represent a useful source of blood for the detection of blood-borne pathogens. In this feasibility study, Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were fed with blood meals spiked with dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) and harvested at serial time points. These mosquitoes are not competent vectors, and the virus is not expected to replicate. Ingested blood was spotted on Whatman FTA cards and stored at room temperature. Mosquito abdomens were removed and stored at −80°C. Control blood meal aliquots were stored in vials or applied onto FTA cards. After 4 weeks of storage, the samples were extracted using beadbeating and QIAamp Viral RNA kit (Qiagen Sciences, Germantown, MD). Recovered viral RNA was analyzed by DENV-2 TaqMan RT-PCR assay and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Overall viral RNA recovery efficiency was 15% from the directly applied dried blood spots and approximately 20% or higher for dried blood spots made by blotting mosquito midgut on FTA cards. Viral RNA in mosquito-ingested blood decreases over time, but remains detectable 24 hours after blood feeding. The viral sequences in FTA-stored specimens can be maintained at room temperature. The strategy has the potential utility in expedited zoonotic virus discovery and blood-borne pathogen surveillance. PMID:26416112
Jemma L Geoghegan
Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses are a major cause of emerging disease with significant public health and economic impacts. However, the factors that determine their activity and seasonality are not well understood. In Australia, a network of sentinel cattle herds is used to monitor the distribution of several such viruses and to define virus-free regions. Herein, we utilize these serological data to describe the seasonality, and its drivers, of three economically important animal arboviruses: bluetongue virus, Akabane virus and bovine ephemeral fever virus. Through epidemiological time-series analyses of sero-surveillance data of 180 sentinel herds between 2004-2012, we compared seasonal parameters across latitudes, ranging from the tropical north (-10°S to the more temperate south (-40°S. This analysis revealed marked differences in seasonality between distinct geographic regions and climates: seasonality was most pronounced in southern regions and gradually decreased as latitude decreased toward the Equator. Further, we show that both the timing of epidemics and the average number of seroconversions have a strong geographical component, which likely reflect patterns of vector abundance through co-varying climatic factors, especially temperature and rainfall. Notably, despite their differences in biology, including insect vector species, all three viruses exhibited very similar seasonality. By revealing the factors that shape spatial and temporal distributions, our study provides a more complete understanding of arbovirus seasonality that will enable better risk predictions.
Full Text Available The explosive Zika virus epidemic in the Americas is amplifying spread of this emerging pathogen into previously unaffected regions of the world, including Europe (Gulland, 2016, where local populations are immunologically naïve. As summertime approaches in the northern hemisphere, Aedes mosquitoes in Europe may find suitable climatic conditions to acquire and subsequently transmit Zika virus from viremic travellers to local populations. While Aedes albopictus has proven to be a vector for the transmission of dengue and chikungunya viruses in Europe (Delisle et al., 2015; ECDC, n.d. there is growing experimental and ecological evidence to suggest that it may also be competent for Zika virus(Chouin-Carneiro et al., 2016; Grard et al., 2014; Li et al., 2012; Wong et al., 2013. Here we analyze and overlay the monthly flows of airline travellers arriving into European cities from Zika affected areas across the Americas, the predicted monthly estimates of the basic reproduction number of Zika virus in areas where Aedes mosquito populations reside in Europe (Aedes aegypti in Madeira, Portugal and Ae. albopictus in continental Europe, and human populations living within areas where mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus may be possible. We highlight specific geographic areas and timing of risk for Zika virus introduction and possible spread within Europe to inform the efficient use of human disease surveillance, vector surveillance and control, and public education resources.
Rocklöv, Joacim; Quam, Mikkel Brandon; Sudre, Bertrand; German, Matthew; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Brady, Oliver; Bogoch, Isaac I; Liu-Helmersson, Jing; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Semenza, Jan C; Ong, Mark; Aaslav, Kaja Kaasik; Khan, Kamran
The explosive Zika virus epidemic in the Americas is amplifying spread of this emerging pathogen into previously unaffected regions of the world, including Europe (Gulland, 2016), where local populations are immunologically naïve. As summertime approaches in the northern hemisphere, Aedes mosquitoes in Europe may find suitable climatic conditions to acquire and subsequently transmit Zika virus from viremic travellers to local populations. While Aedes albopictus has proven to be a vector for the transmission of dengue and chikungunya viruses in Europe (Delisle et al., 2015; ECDC, n.d.) there is growing experimental and ecological evidence to suggest that it may also be competent for Zika virus(Chouin-Carneiro et al., 2016; Grard et al., 2014; Li et al., 2012; Wong et al., 2013). Here we analyze and overlay the monthly flows of airline travellers arriving into European cities from Zika affected areas across the Americas, the predicted monthly estimates of the basic reproduction number of Zika virus in areas where Aedes mosquito populations reside in Europe (Aedes aegypti in Madeira, Portugal and Ae. albopictus in continental Europe), and human populations living within areas where mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus may be possible. We highlight specific geographic areas and timing of risk for Zika virus introduction and possible spread within Europe to inform the efficient use of human disease surveillance, vector surveillance and control, and public education resources. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kassem, Mona A; Gosalvez, Blanca; Garzo, Elisa; Fereres, Alberto; Gómez-Guillamón, Maria Luisa; Aranda, Miguel A
The genetic control of resistance to Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV; genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) in the TGR-1551 melon accession was studied through agroinoculation of a genetic family obtained from the cross between this accession and the susceptible Spanish cultivar 'Bola de Oro'. Segregation analyses were consistent with the hypothesis that one dominant gene and at least two more modifier genes confer resistance; one of these additional genes is likely present in the susceptible parent 'Bola de Oro'. Local and systemic accumulation of the virus was analyzed in a time course experiment, showing that TGR-1551 resistance was expressed systemically as a significant reduction of virus accumulation compared with susceptible controls, but not locally in agroinoculated cotyledons. In aphid transmission experiments, CABYV inoculation by aphids was significantly reduced in TGR-1551 plants, although the virus was acquired at a similar rate from TGR-1551 as from susceptible plants. Results of feeding behavior studies using the DC electrical penetration graph technique suggested that viruliferous aphids can salivate and feed from the phloem of TGR-1551 plants and that the observed reduction in virus transmission efficiency is not related to reduced salivation by Aphis gossypii in phloem sieve elements. Since the virus is able to accumulate to normal levels in agroinoculated tissues, our results suggest that resistance of TGR-1551 plants to CABYV is related to impairment of virus movement or translocation after it reaches the phloem sieve elements.
Ibaba, Jacques D; Laing, Mark D; Gubba, Augustine
Pepo aphid-borne yellows virus (PABYV) has been proposed as a putative representative of a new species in the genus Polerovirus in the family Luteoviridae. The genomes of two South African (SA) isolates of cucurbit-infecting PABYV were described in this record. Total RNA, extracted from a pattypan (Cucurbita pepo L.) and a baby marrow (C. pepo L.) leaf samples, was subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS) on the HiSeq Illumina platform. Sanger sequencing was subsequently used to authenticate the integrity of PABYV's genome generated from de novo assembly of the NGS data. PABYV genome of SA isolates consists of 5813 nucleotides and displays an organisation typical of poleroviruses. Genome sequence comparisons of the SA PABYV isolates to other poleroviruses support the classification of PABYV as a new species in the genus Polerovirus. Recombination analyses showed that PABYV and Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) shared the same ancestor for the genome part situated between breaking points. Phylogenetic analyses of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the coat protein genes showed that SA PABYV isolates shared distant relationship with CABYV and Suakwa aphid-borne yellows virus. Based on our results, we propose that PABYV is a distinct species in the genus Polerovirus.
Barral, Patricia; Sánchez-Niño, María Dolores; van Rooijen, Nico; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Batista, Facundo D
Natural killer T (NKT) cells play an important role in mounting protective responses to blood-borne infections. However, though the spleen is the largest blood filter in the body, the distribution and dynamics of NKT cells within this organ are not well characterized. Here we show that the majority of NKT cells patrol around the marginal zone (MZ) and red pulp (RP) of the spleen. In response to lipid antigen, these NKT cells become arrested and rapidly produce cytokines, while the small proportion of NKT cells located in the white pulp (WP) exhibit limited activation. Importantly, disruption of the splenic MZ by chemical or genetic approaches results in a severe reduction in NKT cell activation indicating the need of cooperation between both MZ macrophages and dendritic cells for efficient NKT cell responses. Thus, the location of splenic NKT cells in the MZ and RP facilitates their access to blood-borne antigen and enables the rapid initiation of protective immune responses.
Priya, N Lakshmi; Krishnan, K Usha; Jayalakshmi, G; Vasanthi, S
Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs). Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2%) were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%). Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.
N Lakshmi Priya
Full Text Available Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs. Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2% were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%. Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.
... virus, Siberian tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Far eastern Tick-borne encephalitis virus (formerly known as Russian ... viruses are closely related to TBEV and Far-eastern TBE, and include Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus in ...
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the most common transfusion transmissible infections hence the introduction of routine screening for its antibodies in blood donors in most blood banks. Methods: This was a retrospective study in which the blood donor screening register for all intending donors were reviewed ...
Frey, Stefan; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Altantuul, Damdin; Battsetseg, Jigjav; Davaadorj, Rendoo; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Buyanjargal, Tsoodol; Otgonbaatar, Dashdavaa; Zöller, Lothar; Speck, Stephanie; Wölfel, Roman; Dobler, Gerhard; Essbauer, Sandra
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes one of the most important inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, namely severe encephalitis in Europe and Asia. Since the 1980s tick-borne encephalitis is known in Mongolia with increasing numbers of human cases reported during the last years. So far, however, data on TBEV strains are still sparse. We herein report the isolation of a TBEV strain from Ixodes persulcatus ticks collected in Mongolia in 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of the E-gene classified this isolate as Siberian subtype of TBEV. The Mongolian TBEV strain showed differences in virus titers, plaque sizes, and growth properties in two human neuronal cell-lines. In addition, the 10,242 nucleotide long open-reading frame and the corresponding polyprotein sequence were revealed. The isolate grouped in the genetic subclade of the Siberian subtype. The strain Zausaev (AF527415) and Vasilchenko (AF069066) had 97 and 94 % identity on the nucleotide level. In summary, we herein describe first detailed data regarding TBEV from Mongolia. Further investigations of TBEV in Mongolia and adjacent areas are needed to understand the intricate dispersal of this virus.
Kindhauser, Mary Kay; Allen, Tomas; Frank, Veronika; Santhana, Ravi Shankar
Abstract Objective To describe the temporal and geographical distribution of Zika virus infection and associated neurological disorders, from 1947 to 1 February 2016, when Zika became a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Methods We did a literature search using the terms “Zika” and “ZIKV” in PubMed, cross-checked the findings for completeness against other published reviews and added formal notifications to WHO submitted under the International Health Regulations. Findings From the discovery of Zika virus in Uganda in 1947 to the declaration of a PHEIC by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 1 February 2016, a total of 74 countries and territories had reported human Zika virus infections. The timeline in this paper charts the discovery of the virus (1947), its isolation from mosquitos (1948), the first human infection (1952), the initial spread of infection from Asia to a Pacific island (2007), the first known instance of sexual transmission (2008), reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome (2014) and microcephaly (2015) linked to Zika infections and the first appearance of Zika in the Americas (from 2015). Conclusion Zika virus infection in humans appears to have changed in character as its geographical range has expanded from equatorial Africa and Asia. The change is from an endemic, mosquito-borne infection causing mild illness to one that can cause large outbreaks linked with neurological sequelae and congenital abnormalities. PMID:27708473
Full Text Available Assessing current fatigue of athletes to fine-tune training prescriptions is a critical task in competitive sports. Blood-borne surrogate markers are widely used despite the scarcity of validation trials with representative subjects and interventions. Moreover, differences between training modes and disciplines (e.g. due to differences in eccentric force production or calorie turnover have rarely been studied within a consistent design. Therefore, we investigated blood-borne fatigue markers during and after discipline-specific simulated training camps. A comprehensive panel of blood-born indicators was measured in 73 competitive athletes (28 cyclists, 22 team sports, 23 strength at 3 time-points: after a run-in resting phase (d 1, after a 6-day induction of fatigue (d 8 and following a subsequent 2-day recovery period (d 11. Venous blood samples were collected between 8 and 10 a.m. Courses of blood-borne indicators are considered as fatigue dependent if a significant deviation from baseline is present at day 8 (Δfatigue which significantly regresses towards baseline until day 11 (Δrecovery. With cycling, a fatigue dependent course was observed for creatine kinase (CK; Δfatigue 54±84 U/l; Δrecovery -60±83 U/l, urea (Δfatigue 11±9 mg/dl; Δrecovery -10±10 mg/dl, free testosterone (Δfatigue -1.3±2.1 pg/ml; Δrecovery 0.8±1.5 pg/ml and insulin linke growth factor 1 (IGF-1; Δfatigue -56±28 ng/ml; Δrecovery 53±29 ng/ml. For urea and IGF-1 95% confidence intervals for days 1 and 11 did not overlap with day 8. With strength and high-intensity interval training, respectively, fatigue-dependent courses and separated 95% confidence intervals were present for CK (strength: Δfatigue 582±649 U/l; Δrecovery -618±419 U/l; HIIT: Δfatigue 863±952 U/l; Δrecovery -741±842 U/l only. These results indicate that, within a comprehensive panel of blood-borne markers, changes in fatigue are most accurately reflected by urea and IGF-1 for cycling
Hecksteden, Anne; Skorski, Sabrina; Schwindling, Sascha; Hammes, Daniel; Pfeiffer, Mark; Kellmann, Michael; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim
Assessing current fatigue of athletes to fine-tune training prescriptions is a critical task in competitive sports. Blood-borne surrogate markers are widely used despite the scarcity of validation trials with representative subjects and interventions. Moreover, differences between training modes and disciplines (e.g. due to differences in eccentric force production or calorie turnover) have rarely been studied within a consistent design. Therefore, we investigated blood-borne fatigue markers during and after discipline-specific simulated training camps. A comprehensive panel of blood-born indicators was measured in 73 competitive athletes (28 cyclists, 22 team sports, 23 strength) at 3 time-points: after a run-in resting phase (d 1), after a 6-day induction of fatigue (d 8) and following a subsequent 2-day recovery period (d 11). Venous blood samples were collected between 8 and 10 a.m. Courses of blood-borne indicators are considered as fatigue dependent if a significant deviation from baseline is present at day 8 (Δfatigue) which significantly regresses towards baseline until day 11 (Δrecovery). With cycling, a fatigue dependent course was observed for creatine kinase (CK; Δfatigue 54±84 U/l; Δrecovery -60±83 U/l), urea (Δfatigue 11±9 mg/dl; Δrecovery -10±10 mg/dl), free testosterone (Δfatigue -1.3±2.1 pg/ml; Δrecovery 0.8±1.5 pg/ml) and insulin linke growth factor 1 (IGF-1; Δfatigue -56±28 ng/ml; Δrecovery 53±29 ng/ml). For urea and IGF-1 95% confidence intervals for days 1 and 11 did not overlap with day 8. With strength and high-intensity interval training, respectively, fatigue-dependent courses and separated 95% confidence intervals were present for CK (strength: Δfatigue 582±649 U/l; Δrecovery -618±419 U/l; HIIT: Δfatigue 863±952 U/l; Δrecovery -741±842 U/l) only. These results indicate that, within a comprehensive panel of blood-borne markers, changes in fatigue are most accurately reflected by urea and IGF-1 for cycling and by CK
Alexandra J Lee
Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a member of the Flavivirus genus of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, which includes Dengue, West Nile, Yellow Fever, and other mosquito-borne arboviruses. Infection by ZIKV can be difficult to distinguish from infection by other mosquito-borne Flaviviruses due to high sequence similarity, serum antibody cross-reactivity, and virus co-circulation in endemic areas. Indeed, existing serological methods are not able to consistently differentiate ZIKV from other Flaviviruses, which makes it extremely difficult to accurately calculate the incidence rate of Zika-associated Guillain-Barre in adults, microcephaly in newborns, or asymptomatic infections within a geographical area. In order to identify Zika-specific peptide regions that could be used as serology reagents, we have applied comparative genomics and protein structure analyses to identify amino acid residues that distinguish each of 10 Flavivirus species and subtypes from each other by calculating the specificity, sensitivity, and surface exposure of each residue in relevant target proteins. For ZIKV we identified 104 and 116 15-mer peptides in the E glycoprotein and NS1 non-structural protein, respectively, that contain multiple diagnostic sites and are located in surface-exposed regions in the tertiary protein structure. These sensitive, specific, and surface-exposed peptide regions should serve as useful reagents for seroprevalence studies to better distinguish between prior infections with any of these mosquito-borne Flaviviruses. The development of better detection methods and diagnostic tools will enable clinicians and public health workers to more accurately estimate the true incidence rate of asymptomatic infections, neurological syndromes, and birth defects associated with ZIKV infection.
Mel'nikova, Ol'ga V; Adel'shin, R V; Korzun, V M; Trushina, Yu N; Andaev, E I
The Irkutsk region is the unique territory where all known subtypes of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) circulate. In the last years, the phenomenon of changes in TBEV subtypes (substitution of the Far-Eastern subtype by the Siberian one) was noted in some regions of the Russian Federation. The results of individual investigation of 11522 Ixodes persulcatus ticks and brain specimens from 81 small mammals collected in natural foci of the Irkutsk region during 2006-2014 are presented in the article. More than 60 TBEV strains have been isolated and studied by virological methods; E gene fragments (1193 b.p.) of 68 isolates have been typed. The majority of the strains (irrespective of subtype) were of high virulence for laboratory mice (LM) in case of both intracerebral and subcutaneous inoculation of virus. All isolates from warm-blooded small mammals and humans were of high virulence for LM, but placed in the same clusters of the phylogenetic tree with ticks collected in the same area. Tick-borne strains of different virulence also did not form separate clusters on the tree. Phylogenetic analysis showed that modern TBEV genotypic landscape of the studied territory is changing toward absolute predominance of the Siberian subtype (94.1%). This subtype is represented by two groups with prototype strains “Zausaev” and “Vasilchenko”. The “Vasilchenko” group of strains is spread on the whole territory under study; the strains of “Zausaev” group were isolated previously in the Irkutsk suburbs. The European subtype of TBEV circulates in natural foci of Pribaikalie permanently (at least 5% of the random sampling); the strains are of high virulence for LM. The Far-Eastern TBEV subtype was not found within the group of isolates collected in 20062014. The phylogenetic relationship of the strains under study had a higher correlation with the place of isolation than with the year or source.
Full Text Available Background: Exposure to human blood and body fluids is a common risk for nurses. Many factors can affect the prevalence and incidence of this occupational hazard. Psychosocial factors at work may be a risk factor for the exposure. Objective: To assess needle stick, sharp injury and mucus exposure to blood-borne pathogens among nurses in Iran and to determine the association between these exposures and psychosocial factors at work. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on nurses in a public hospital, Tehran, Iran. 364 nurses received and 339 completed and returned a self-reported questionnaire containing demographic data, history of exposure to blood-borne pathogens at work during previous year and the General Nordic questionnaire for psychological and social factors at work (QPS Nordic 34+ Questionnaire. Results: Of 339 participants, 197 (58.1% reported needle-stick injury, 186 (54.6% reported another type of sharp injury, and 112 (33% reported a mucous membrane exposure during the previous year. More than half of the participants who had history of exposure, had not reported it. Those with middle or high level of stress had higher crude and adjusted odds than those with lower stress for all kinds of exposure. Adjusted odds ratios for high stress group (ranging from 2.8 to 4.4 were statistically different from 1. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of needle-stick and sharp injury and mucous membrane exposure to patients' blood or body fluids among studied nurses. There is a significant association between increasing psychosocial factors at work and exposure to blood-borne pathogens among this group of nurses.
The occurrence of Ixodes ricinus ticks and important tick-borne pathogens in areas with high tick-borne encephalitis prevalence in different altitudinal levels of the Czech Republic. Part I. Ixodes ricinus ticks and tick-borne encephalitis virus
Daniel, M.; Danielová, V.; Kříž, B.; Růžek, Daniel; Fialová, A.; Malý, M.; Materna, J.; Pejčoch, M.; Erhart, Jan
Roč. 65, č. 2 (2016), s. 118-128 ISSN 1210-7913 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * tick-borne encephalitis virus * occurence * altitude * region * season Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2016
Pavli, R.; Prins, M.; Skaracis, G.N.
Sugar beet plants with typical rhizomania symptoms were collected from the five major cultivation zones of Greece. The presence of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), the primary causal agent of the disease, was ascertained by DAS-ELISA in 38 out of 40 fields surveyed and the positive samples
Background/Aim: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. In developing countries, blood transfusion is still a major route of its transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HCV infection among blood donors and to determine some of the risk factors for the ...
Yurchenko, Oksana O; Dubina, Dmytro O; Vynograd, Nataliya O; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most common tick-borne viral infection in Eurasia; thousands of human cases are annually reported from several European countries. Several tick species are vectors of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), while TBE appears to be spreading from the Eurasian continent westward to Europe. Fifteen study sites were chosen from five territories of southern Ukraine, including Odessa, Mykolaiv, Kherson Oblast, the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, and Sevastopol. Tick collection was performed in spring season of three consecutive years (1988-1990) using either flagging technique or direct collection of specimens feeding on cattle. A total of 15,243 tick imagoes and nymphs were collected from nine species, including Dermacentor marginatus, D. reticulatus, Haemaphysalis parva, H. punctata, Hyalomma marginatum, Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus bursa, R. rossicus, and R. sanguineus, pooled in 282 monospecific samples. Supernatant of grinded pool was used for inoculation to suckling mice for virus isolation. Eight TBEV isolates were identified from ticks among six study sites. Ticks showed a minimum infection rate from 0.11% to 0.81%. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope (E) protein gene of seven isolates, assigned all to the European subtype (TBEV-Eu) showing a maximum identity of 97.17% to the "Pan" TBEV-Eu reference strain. Compared to 104 TBEV-Eu isolates they clustered within the same clade as the Pan reference strain and distinguished from other TBEV-Eu isolates. Amino acid sequence analysis of the South Ukrainian TBEV-Eu isolates revealed the presence of four amino acid substitutions 67 (N), 266 (R), 306 (V), and 407 (R), in the ectodomains II and III and in the stem-anchor region of the E protein gene. This study confirmed TBEV-Eu subtype distribution in the southern region of Ukraine, which eventually overlaps with TBEV-FE (Far Eastern subtype) and TBEV-Sib (Siberian subtype) domains, showing the heterogeneity of TBEV circulating in
Selinger, Martin; Wilkie, G. S.; Tong, L.; Gu, Q.; Schnettler, E.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Kohl, A.
Roč. 98, č. 8 (2017), s. 2043-2060 ISSN 0022-1317 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-03044S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : blood- brain -barrier * long noncoding RNAs * double-stranded-RNA * interferon * immune-response * gene-expression * stimulated genes * human astrocytes * viral-infection * protein * tick-borne encephalitis virus * neuronal cells * transcriptome analysis * host response * interferon Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 2.838, year: 2016
Full Text Available Lifespan and the proportion of older people in the population are increasing, with far reaching consequences for the social, political and economic landscape. Unless accompanied by an increase in health span, increases in age-related diseases will increase the burden on health care resources. Intervention studies to enhance healthy ageing need appropriate outcome measures, such as blood-borne biomarkers, which are easily obtainable, cost-effective, and widely accepted. To date there have been no systematic reviews of blood-borne biomarkers of mortality.To conduct a systematic review to identify available blood-borne biomarkers of mortality that can be used to predict healthy ageing post-retirement.Four databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science were searched. We included prospective cohort studies with a minimum of two years follow up and data available for participants with a mean age of 50 to 75 years at baseline.From a total of 11,555 studies identified in initial searches, 23 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Fifty-one blood borne biomarkers potentially predictive of mortality risk were identified. In total, 20 biomarkers were associated with mortality risk. Meta-analyses of mortality risk showed significant associations with C-reactive protein (Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality 1.42, p<0.001; Cancer-mortality 1.62, p<0.009; CVD-mortality 1.31, p = 0.033, N Terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide (Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality 1.43, p<0.001; CHD-mortality 1.58, p<0.001; CVD-mortality 1.67, p<0.001 and white blood cell count (Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality 1.36, p = 0.001. There was also evidence that brain natriuretic peptide, cholesterol fractions, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, fibrinogen, granulocytes, homocysteine, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, neutrophils, osteoprotegerin, procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide, serum uric acid, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, tissue inhibitor of
Formanová, P.; Černý, Jiří; Černá Bolfíková, B.; Valdés, James J.; Kozlová, I.; Dzhioev, Y.; Růžek, Daniel
Roč. 6, č. 1 (2015), s. 38-46 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116; GA ČR GAP302/12/2490 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus * tick-borne encephalitis * genome analysis * human patient s Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.690, year: 2015
Dodd, Roger Y; Hackett, John; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Dorsey, Kerri; Wu, Yanyun; Zou, Shimian; Qiu, Xiaoxing; Swanson, Priscilla; Schochetman, Gerald; Gao, Kui; Carrick, James M; Krysztof, David E; Stramer, Susan L
When xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) was first reported in association with chronic fatigue syndrome, it was suggested that it might offer a risk to blood safety. Thus, the prevalence of the virus among blood donors and, if present, its transmissibility by transfusion need to be defined. Two populations of routine blood donor samples (1435 and 13,399) were obtained for prevalence evaluations; samples from a linked donor-recipient repository were also evaluated. Samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to XMRV-related recombinant antigens and/or for XMRV RNA, using validated, high-throughput systems. The presence of antibodies to XMRV could not be confirmed among a total of 17,249 blood donors or recipients (0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0%-0.017%); 1763 tested samples were nonreactive for XMRV RNA (0%; 95% CI, 0%-0.17%). Evidence of infection was absent from 109 recipients and 830 evaluable blood samples tested after transfusion of a total of 3741 blood components. XMRV and related murine leukemia virus (MLV) markers are not present among a large population of blood donors and evidence of transfusion transmission could not be detected. Thus, these viruses do not currently pose a threat to blood recipient safety and further actions relating to XMRV and MLV are not justified. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.
Barral, Patricia; Sánchez-Niño, María Dolores; van Rooijen, Nico; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Batista, Facundo D
Natural killer T (NKT) cells play an important role in mounting protective responses to blood-borne infections. However, though the spleen is the largest blood filter in the body, the distribution and dynamics of NKT cells within this organ are not well characterized. Here we show that the majority of NKT cells patrol around the marginal zone (MZ) and red pulp (RP) of the spleen. In response to lipid antigen, these NKT cells become arrested and rapidly produce cytokines, while the small proportion of NKT cells located in the white pulp (WP) exhibit limited activation. Importantly, disruption of the splenic MZ by chemical or genetic approaches results in a severe reduction in NKT cell activation indicating the need of cooperation between both MZ macrophages and dendritic cells for efficient NKT cell responses. Thus, the location of splenic NKT cells in the MZ and RP facilitates their access to blood-borne antigen and enables the rapid initiation of protective immune responses. PMID:22505026
Cassidy R Gedling
Full Text Available For nearly 400 million years, insects and plants have been embattled in an evolutionary arms race. Insects have developed diverse feeding strategies and behaviors in an effort to circumvent and overcome an extensive collection of plant defense tactics. Sap-sucking insects often inject saliva into hosts plants, which contains a suite of effector proteins and even microbial communities that can alter the plant's defenses. Lacking salivary glands, leaf-feeding beetles represent an interesting group of phytophagous insects. Feeding beetles regurgitate onto leaf surfaces and it is thought that these oral secretions influence insect-plant interactions and even play a role in virus-vector specificity. Since the molecular and biological makeup of the regurgitant is virtually unknown, we carried out RNA sequencing and 16S rDNA analysis on a major soybean pest, Epilachna varivestis, to generate the first ever beetle "regurgitome" and characterize its microbiome. Interestingly, the regurgitant is comprised of a rich molecular assortment of genes encoding putative extracellular proteins involved in digestion, molting, immune defense, and detoxification. By carrying out plant inoculation assays, we reinforced the fundamental role of the regurgitant in beetle-borne virus specificity. Ultimately, these studies begin to characterize the importance of regurgitant in virus transmission and beetle-plant interactions.
Stensballe, Lone Graff; Ravn, Henrik; Kristensen, Kim
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization is associated with wheeze. OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of maternally derived RSV neutralizing antibodies in cord blood on RSV hospitalization and recurrent wheeze in infancy. METHODS: Among children from the Danish National Birth...
Kistner, Anna; Jacobson, Lena; Östergren, Jan; Hellström, Ann
Adults born preterm are at risk of developing cardiovascular morbidities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and blood pressure (BP) and salivary cortisol levels during adulthood. Sixty-nine subjects (mean age 22.6 years) were included. Subjects were adults who were: (a) ex-preterm infants with severe ROP (n = 22), born at gestational age (GA) <30 weeks with a birth weight (BW) <1,000 g, (b) ex-preterm infants with no/mild ROP (n = 21), born at GA <28 weeks with a BW <1,000 g, or (c) full-term controls (n = 26). Anthropometric data, office BP, ambulatory BP, and morning and evening salivary cortisol were analyzed. As adults, ex-preterm infants with severe ROP had on average 7.4 mm Hg higher systolic office BP than those with no/mild ROP (p = 0.019) and controls (p = 0.007). A high cortisol level, tall height, and severe ROP were independent predictors of higher ambulatory systolic BP during adulthood in forward stepwise regression analysis, independent of GA. Our results indicate that preterm infants with severe abnormal retinal vascular development during the neonatal period may be at an increased risk for increased BP during adulthood. We found no differences between those with no/mild ROP as infants and controls with regard to BP data. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Huang, Yan-Jang S; Lyons, Amy C; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Park, So Lee; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L
Infection of mosquitoes is an essential step for the transmission of mosquito-borne arboviruses in nature. Engorgement of infectious blood meals from viremic infected vertebrate hosts allows the entry of viruses and initiates infection of midgut epithelial cells. Historically, the infection process of arboviruses in mosquitoes has been studied through the engorgement of mosquitoes from viremic laboratory animals or from artificial feeders containing blood mixed with viruses harvested from cell cultures. The latter approach using so-called artificial blood meals is more frequently used since it is readily optimized to maximize viral titer, negates the use of animals and can be used with viruses for which there are no small animal models. Use of artificial blood meals has enabled numerous studies on mosquito infections with a wide variety of viruses; however, as described here, with suitable modification it can also be used to study the interplay between infection, specific blood components, and physiological consequences associated with blood engorgement. For hematophagous female mosquitoes, blood is the primary nutritional source supporting all physiological process including egg development, and also influences neurological processes and behaviors such as host-seeking. Interactions between these blood-driven vector biological processes and arbovirus infection that is mediated via blood engorgement have not yet been specifically studied. This is in part because presentation of virus in whole blood inevitably induces enzymatic digestion processes, hormone driven oogenesis, and other biological changes. In this study, the infection process of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Aedes aegypti was characterized by oral exposure via viral suspension meals within minimally bovine serum albumin complemented medium or within whole blood. The use of bovine serum albumin in infectious meals provides an opportunity to evaluate the role of serum albumin during the process of flavivirus
Iurchenko, O A; Vinograd, N A; Dubina, D A
The nucleotide sequences of the envelope (E) protein gene of three tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) strains 80, 85, and 290 isolated from Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Crimea in 1989-1990 were determined. A comparative analysis of the genetic structure of the strains showed their identity. A phylogenetic analysis of these strains with 34 other TBEV strains could assign them to the European genotype and showed their maximum (97.24%) identity to the Pan strain that occupies a separate position among the sequenced TBEV strains. The findings indicate that the TBEV European genotype strains circulated together with the TBEV Far Eastern genotype ones in the Crimea in 1980-1990.
Saba, T M; Antikatzides, T G
The influence of systemic heparin administration on the vascular clearance and tissue distribution of blood-borne microparticles was evaluated in normal rats and rats after operation (laparotomy plus intestinal manipulation) utilizing an (131)I- colloid which is phagocytized by the reticuloendothelial system (RES). Intravenous heparin administration (100 USP/100g body weight) into normal animals three minutes prior to colloid injection (50 mg/lOOg) induced a significant increase in pulmonary localization of the microparticles as compared to nonheparinized control rats, while hepatic and splenic uptake were decreased. Surgical trauma decreased hepatic RE uptake and increased pulmonary localization of the microparticles when injected systemically at 60 minutes postsurgery. Heparin administration 60 minutes after surgery and three minutes prior to colloid injection, magnified the increased pulmonary localization response with an associated further depression of the RES. The ability of heparin to alter both RE clearance function and lung localization of microparticles was dose dependent and a function of the interval between heparin administration and systemic particulate infusion. Thus, low dose heparin administration was capable of stimulating RE activity while heparin in doses of excess of 50 USP units/lOOg body weight decreased RE function. These findings suggest that the functional state of the hepatic RE system can be greatly affected in a dose-dependent manner by systemic heparin administration which may influence distribution of blood-borne microparticles.
Full Text Available Introduction: Barmah Forest virus (BFV is a mosquito-borne virus causing epidemic polyarthritis in Australia. This study used case follow-up of cases from the surveillance system to demonstrate that routinely collected BFV notification data were an unreliable indicator of the true location of exposure.Methods: BFV notifications from June 2001 to May 2011 were extracted from the New South Wales (NSW Notifiable Conditions Information Management System to study case distribution. Disease cluster analysis was performed using spatial scan statistics. Exposure history data were collected from cases notified in 2010 and 2011 to accurately determine travel to high-risk areas.Results: Cluster analysis using address data identified an area of increased BFV disease incidence in the mid-north coast of NSW contiguous with estuarine wetlands. When travel to this area was investigated, 96.7% (29/30 cases reported having visited coastal regions within four weeks of developing symptoms.Discussion: Along the central NSW coastline, extensive wetlands occur in close proximity to populated areas. These wetlands provide ideal breeding habitats for a range of mosquito species implicated in the transmission of BFV. This is the first study to fully assess case exposure with findings suggesting that sporadic cases of BFV in people living further away from the coast do not reflect alternative exposure sites but are likely to result from travel to coastal regions. Spatial analysis by case address alone may lead to inaccurate understandings of the true distribution of arboviral diseases. Subsequently, this information has important implications for the collection of mosquito-borne disease surveillance information and public health response strategies.
Full Text Available A quantitative understanding of the spread of contaminated farm dust between locations is a prerequisite for obtaining much-needed insight into one of the possible mechanisms of disease spread between farms. Here, we develop a model to calculate the quantity of contaminated farm-dust particles deposited at various locations downwind of a source farm and apply the model to assess the possible contribution of the wind-borne route to the transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza virus (HPAI during the 2003 epidemic in the Netherlands. The model is obtained from a Gaussian Plume Model by incorporating the dust deposition process, pathogen decay, and a model for the infection process on exposed farms. Using poultry- and avian influenza-specific parameter values we calculate the distance-dependent probability of between-farm transmission by this route. A comparison between the transmission risk pattern predicted by the model and the pattern observed during the 2003 epidemic reveals that the wind-borne route alone is insufficient to explain the observations although it could contribute substantially to the spread over short distance ranges, for example, explaining 24% of the transmission over distances up to 25 km.
Hartemink, N.; Purse, B.V.; Meiswinkel, R.; Brown, H.E.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Boender, G.J.; Rogers, D.J.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.
Geographical maps indicating the value of the basic reproduction number, R0, can be used to identify areas of higher risk for an outbreak after an introduction. We develop a methodology to create R0 maps for vector-borne diseases, using bluetongue virus as a case study. This method provides a tool
Širmarová, J.; Tichá, L.; Golovchenko, Maryna; Salát, Jiří; Grubhoffer, L.; Rudenko, Natalia; Nowotny, N.; Růžek, Daniel
Roč. 5, č. 5 (2014), s. 523-527 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * Lyme borreliosis * Seroprevalence * Zoo animals Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014
Full Text Available From 1 May 2015 to 31 October 2015 over 20 million visitors from all over the world visited the Universal Exhibition (EXPO hosted by Milan (Lombardy region, Italy, raising concerns about the possible introduction of mosquito-borne diseases from endemic countries. The entomological surveillance protocol performed in Lombardy over the last three years was implemented in the EXPO area and in the two major regional airports using both Center for Disease Control CO2 and Biogents Sentinel traps. This surveillance aimed to estimate the presence and densities of putative vectors, and also to support investigations, including the vector species involved and area of diffusion, on the local spread of Chikungunya, Dengue and West Nile viruses (WNV by competent vectors. From 3544 mosquitoes belonging to five different species, 28 pools of Culex spp. and 45 pools of Aedes spp. were screened for the presence of WNV, and for both Chikungunya and flaviviruses, respectively. The entomological surveillance highlighted a low density of potential vectors in the surveyed areas and did not reveal the presence of Chikungunya or Dengue viruses in the local competent vectors inside the EXPO area or in the two airports. In addition, the surveillance reported a low density of Culex spp. mosquitoes, which all tested negative for WNV.
Pirojsakul, Kwanchai; Thanapinyo, Apinya; Nuntnarumit, Pracha
Increased sympathetic nervous system activity has been proposed as a potential mechanism for the blood pressure (BP) elevation seen in individuals born small for gestational age (SGA). This study was carried out to detect the changes in BP and heart rate (HR) in children born SGA during exposure to stress and to assess for changes in urinary catecholamine excretion. Nineteen children aged 6-14 years born SGA and 17 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in the study. The stress test included a mathematical test and venipuncture. BP and HR were monitored during the test. Spot urine samples were collected at baseline and after the stress test to determine dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine levels. At baseline, there was no difference in BP and HR between the SGA and control groups, but mean urinary norepinephrine levels were slightly higher in the SGA group (55.7 ± 16.1 vs. 43.4 ± 3.8 mcg/gCr; P = 0.10). Compared to the control group, mean maximal HR increase was higher in the SGA group (31.3 ± 3.1 vs. 19.2 ± 3.8%; P = 0.008), and mean duration of maximal HR to baseline HR was longer (186 ± 23 vs. 97 ± 13 s, respectively; P = 0.003). There was a significant negative correlation between birth weight and maximal HR increase (r = -0.497, P = 0.003). Children born SGA showed significantly greater increases in HR and significantly longer periods of tachycardia during exposure to stress than did healthy controls. The rise in HR was inversely correlated with birth weight. These findings suggest that children born SGA have a greater increase in sympathetic response when exposed to stress than do healthy individuals.
Svoboda, Petra; Dobler, Gerhard; Markotić, Alemka; Kurolt, Ivan-Christian; Speck, Stephanie; Habuš, Josipa; Vucelja, Marko; Krajinović, Lidija Cvetko; Tadin, Ante; Margaletić, Josip; Essbauer, Sandra
In Croatia, several rodent- and vector-borne agents are endemic and of medical importance. In this study, we investigated hantaviruses and, for the first time, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Rickettsia spp. in small wild rodents from two different sites (mountainous and lowland region) in Croatia. In total, 194 transudate and tissue samples from 170 rodents (A. flavicollis, n=115; A. agrarius, n=2; Myodes glareolus, n=53) were tested for antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IIFT) and for nucleic acids by conventional (hantaviruses) and real-time RT-/PCRs (TBEV and Rickettsia spp.). A total of 25.5% (24/94) of the rodents from the mountainous area revealed specific antibodies against hantaviruses. In all, 21.3% (20/94) of the samples from the mountainous area and 29.0% (9/31) from the lowland area yielded positive results for either Puumala virus (PUUV) or Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) using a conventional RT-PCR. All processed samples (n=194) were negative for TBEV by IIFT or real-time RT-PCR. Serological evidence of rickettsial infection was detected in 4.3% (4/94) rodents from the mountainous region. Another 3.2% (3/94) rodents were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. None of the rodents (n=76) from the lowland area were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. Dual infection of PUUV and Rickettsia spp. was found in one M. glareolus from the mountainous area by RT-PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of Rickettsia spp. in small rodents from Croatia. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and M-segment sequences obtained from the two study sites revealed well-supported subgroups in Croatian PUUV and DOBV. Although somewhat limited, our data showed occurrence and prevalence of PUUV, DOBV, and rickettsiae in Croatia. Further studies are warranted to confirm these data and to determine the Rickettsia species present in rodents in these areas.
April D Davis
Full Text Available The study of rabies virus infection in bats can be challenging due to quarantine requirements, husbandry concerns, genetic differences among animals, and lack of medical history. To date, all rabies virus (RABV studies in bats have been performed in wild caught animals. Determining the RABV exposure history of a wild caught bat based on the presence or absence of viral neutralizing antibodies (VNA may be misleading. Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of VNA following natural or experimental inoculation is often ephemeral. With this knowledge, it is difficult to determine if a seronegative, wild caught bat has been previously exposed to RABV. The influence of prior rabies exposure in healthy, wild caught bats is unknown. To investigate the pathogenesis of RABV infection in bats born in captivity (naïve bats, naïve bats were inoculated intramuscularly with one of two Eptesicus fuscus rabies virus variants, EfV1 or EfV2. To determine the host response to a heterologous RABV, a separate group of naïve bats were inoculated with a Lasionycteris noctivagans RABV (LnV1. Six months following the first inoculation, all bats were challenged with EfV2. Our results indicate that naïve bats may have some level of innate resistance to intramuscular RABV inoculation. Additionally, naïve bats inoculated with the LnV demonstrated the lowest clinical infection rate of all groups. However, primary inoculation with EfV1 or LnV did not appear to be protective against a challenge with the more pathogenic EfV2.
Koumbi, Lemonica J; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Anastassiadou, Vassiliki; Machaira, Maria; Kafetzis, Dimitris A; Papaevangelou, Vassiliki
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a central role in antiviral immunity, detecting viruses via Toll-like receptors (TLR) and producing in response vast amounts of type I interferons (IFNs). Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes chronic infection after vertical transmission. This study investigated whether an HBV-infected maternal environment might influence DC numbers and pDC function in uninfected infants. Blood was collected from inactive HBsAg carrier and control mothers and their infants at birth and 1 and 6 months of age. HBV DNA was measured in maternal and neonatal perinatal sera using real-time PCR. The circulating frequencies of myeloid DCs (mDCs) and pDCs were determined in the babies by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and cord blood pDCs were stimulated with resiquimod, and alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) production and the pDC phenotype were assessed. The effect of the common-cold virus, rhinovirus (RV), on resiquimod stimulation was also determined. HBV DNA was detected in 62.3% of the mothers and 41% of their infants. DC numbers and pDC functions were similar between subjects and controls and were not correlated with maternal or neonatal viremia. RV infection did not induce pDC maturation until the age of 6 months, and it reduced TLR7-dependent resiquimod-induced IFN-alpha production similarly in both groups. Although the DC system is immature at birth, DCs of uninfected neonates of HBV-positive mothers are competent to initiate and maintain T-cell responses. RV is a weak inducer of IFN-alpha production until the age of 6 months and inhibits IFN-alpha responses triggered by the TLR7 pathway.
Frolova, T V; Pogodina, V V
The activating effect of adrenalin (A), prednisolone (P), and vincristine (V) on persistent infection caused by subcutaneous inoculation of Syrian hamsters with the Vasilchenko and B-383 strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBE) was studied. The drugs were administered once, twice, or three times 250-270 days after virus inoculation. Complement-fixing antigen was found in the organs of the infected animals given no A, P, or V; in the organ explants synthesis of hemagglutinin was observed but no infectious virus could be isolated. After treatment of the infected hamsters with A, P, or V organ explants yielded TBE virus strains which showed either high or low virulence for white mice. The activated TBE virus strains were obtained from explants of hamster brains and spleens but not liver. V produced the most marked activating effect, A the least.
Transmission of hepatitis viruses has been recognised as an undesirable effect of blood transfusion since the 1940s, when large outbreaks occurred following inoculation with a yellow fever vaccine which contained pooled human plasma. Further reports followed of jaundice occurring several months after transfusions with ...
Rich Josiah D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately one-third of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cases in the United States are associated with the practice of sharing of injection equipment and are preventable through the once-only use of syringes, needles and other injection equipment. Discussion Sterile syringes may be obtained legally by 4 methods depending on the state. They may be purchased over the counter, prescribed, obtained at syringe exchange programs or furnished by authorized agencies. Each of these avenues has advantages and disadvantages; therefore, legal access through all means is the most likely way to promote the use of sterile syringes. Summary By assisting illicit drug injectors to obtain sterile syringes the primary care provider is able to reduce the incidence of blood borne infections, and educate patients about safe syringe disposal. The provider is also able to initiate discussion about drug use in a nonjudgmental manner and to offer care to patients who are not yet ready to consider drug treatment.
Umolu, Patience Idia; Okoror, Lawrence Ehis; Orhue, Philip
Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B virus are blood borne pathogens that can be transmitted through blood transfusion and could pose a huge problem in areas where mechanisms of ensuring blood safety are suspect. This study became necessary in a population where most of the blood for transfusion is from commercial blood donors. A total of 130 donors comprising 120 commercial donors and 10 voluntary donors were tested for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B surface antigen in Benin city using Immunocomb HIV - 1 and 2 Biospot kit and Quimica Clinica Aplicada direct latex agglutination method respectively. Thirteen (10%) samples were HIV seropositive and 7(5.8%) were HBsAg positive. The age bracket 18 - 25years had the highest numbers of donors and also had the highest number of HBsAg positive cases (7.8%) while the age group 29 - 38years had highest number of HIV seropositive cases. High prevalence of HIV antibodies and Hepatitis B surface antigen was found among commercial blood donors. Appropriate and compulsory screening of blood donors using sensitive methods, must be ensured to prevent post transfusion hepatitis and HIV.
Gritsun, T S; Desai, A; Gould, E A
An infectious clone (pGGVs) of the tick-borne encephalitis complex virus Vasilchenko (Vs) was constructed previously. Virus recovered from pGGVs produced slightly smaller plaques than the Vs parental virus. Sequence analysis demonstrated five nucleotide differences between the original Vs virus and pGGVs; four of these mutations resulted in amino acid substitutions, while the fifth mutation was located in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). Two mutations were located in conserved regions and three mutations were located in variable regions of the virus genome. Reverse substitutions from the conserved regions of the genome, R(496)-->H in the envelope (E) gene and C(10884)-->T in the 3'UTR, were introduced both separately and together into the infectious clone and their biological effect on virus phenotype was evaluated. The engineered viruses with R(496) in the E protein produced plaques of smaller size than viruses with H(496) at this position. This mutation also affected the growth and neuroinvasiveness of the virus. In contrast, the consequence of a T(10884)-->C substitution within the 3'UTR was noticeable only in cytotoxicity and neuroinvasiveness tests. However, all virus mutants engineered by modification of the infectious clone, including one with two wild-type mutations, H(496) and T(10884), showed reduced neuroinvasiveness in comparison with the Vs parental virus. Therefore, although the H(496)-->R and T(10884)-->C substitutions clearly reduce virus virulence, the other mutations within the variable regions of the capsid (I(45)-->F) and the NS5 (T(2688)-->A and M(3385)-->I) genes also contribute to the process of attenuation. In terms of developing flavivirus vaccines, the impact of accumulating apparently minor mutations should be assessed in detail.
Guerrero-Latorre, Laura; Carratala, Anna; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Calgua, Byron; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Girones, Rosina
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of water-borne acute hepatitis in areas with poor sanitation. In 2004 an outbreak of HEV infection affected around 2,000 people in Eastern Chad (Dar Sila). This paper describes the decrease in the incidence of acute jaundice syndrome (AJS) from 2004 until 2009 when a mean incidence of 0.48 cases/1,000 people/year was recorded in the region. Outbreaks of AJS were identified in some of the camps in 2007 and 2008. Moreover, water samples from drinking water sources were screened for human adenoviruses considered as viral indicators and for hepatitis A virus and HEV. Screening of faecal samples from donkeys for HEV gave negative results. Some of the samples were also analysed for faecal coliforms showing values before disinfection treatment between 3 and >50 colony forming units per 100 mL. All water samples tested were negative for HEV and HAV; however, the presence of low levels of human adenoviruses in 4 out of 16 samples analysed indicates possible human faecal contamination of groundwater. Consequently, breakdowns in the treatment of drinking water and/or increased excretion of hepatitis viruses, which could be related to the arrival of a new population, could spread future outbreaks through drinking water.
Full Text Available Mikihiro Yunoki,1-3 Takeshi Kurosu,2 Ritsuko Kubota Koketsu,2,4 Kazuo Takahashi,5 Yoshinobu Okuno,4 Kazuyoshi Ikuta2,4 1Research and Development Division, Japan Blood Products Organization, Tokyo, 2Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka, 3Pathogenic Risk Evaluation, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Hokkaido, 4Research and Development Division, The Research Foundation for Microbial Diseases of Osaka University, Kagawa, 5Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Osaka, Japan Abstract: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, West Nile virus (WNV, and dengue virus (DenV are causal agents of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, and dengue fever, respectively. JEV is considered to be indigenized and widespread in Japan, whereas WNV and DenV are not indigenized in Japan. Globulin products seem to reflect the status of the donor population according to antivirus neutralization activity. However, the anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralization activities of globulin products derived from donors in Japan have not been clarified. Furthermore, potential candidates for the development of an effective immunotherapeutic drug for encephalitis caused by JEV, WNV, or DenV have also not been identified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the overall status of the donor population in Japan based on globulin products by evaluating anti-JEV, -WNV, and -DenV neutralizing activities of intravenous immunoglobulin. Overall, intravenous immunoglobulin products showed stable neutralizing activity against JEV but showed no or only weak activity against WNV or DenV. These results suggest that the epidemiological level against WNV and DenV in the donor population of Japan is still low, suggesting that these viruses are not yet indigenized. In addition, JEV vaccinations and/or infections in the donor population do not induce a cross-reactive antibody against WNV. Keywords
Horowitz, B.; Wiebe, M.E.; Lippin, A.; Vandersande, J.; Stryker, M.H.
The thermal inactivation of viruses in labile blood derivatives was evaluated by addition of marker viruses (VSV, Sindbis, Sendai, EMC) to anti-hemophilic factor (AHF) concentrates. The rate of virus inactivation at 60 degrees C was decreased by at least 100- to 700-fold by inclusion of 2.75 M glycine and 50 percent sucrose, or 3.0 M potassium citrate, additives which contribute to retention of protein biologic activity. Nonetheless, at least 10(4) infectious units of each virus was inactivated within 10 hours. Increasing the temperature from 60 to 70 or 80 degrees C caused a 90 percent or greater loss in AHF activity. An even greater decline in the rate of virus inactivation was observed on heating AHF in the lyophilized state, although no loss in AHF activity was observed after 72 hours of heating at 60 degrees C. Several of the proteins present in lyophilized AHF concentrates displayed an altered electrophoretic mobility as a result of exposure to 60 degrees C for 24 hours. Exposure of lyophilized AHF to irradiation from a cobalt 60 source resulted in an acceptable yield of AHF at 1.0, but not at 2.0, megarads. At 1 megarad, greater than or equal to 6.0 logs of VSV and 3.3 logs of Sindbis virus were inactivated
Julian, Ross; Meyer, Tim; Fullagar, Hugh H K; Skorski, Sabrina; Pfeiffer, Mark; Kellmann, Michael; Ferrauti, Alexander; Hecksteden, Anne
Julian, R, Meyer, T, Fullagar, HHK, Skorski, S, Pfeiffer, M, Kellmann, M, Ferrauti, A, and Hecksteden, A. Individual patterns in blood-borne indicators of fatigue-trait or chance. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 608-619, 2017-Blood-borne markers of fatigue such as creatine kinase (CK) and urea (U) are widely used to fine-tune training recommendations. However, predictive accuracy is low. A possible explanation for this dissatisfactory characteristic is the propensity of athletes to react to different patterns of fatigue indicators (e.g., predominantly muscular [CK] or metabolic [U]). The aim of the present trial was to explore this hypothesis by using repetitive fatigue-recovery cycles. A total of 22 elite junior swimmers and triathletes (18 ± 3 years) were monitored for 9 weeks throughout 2 training phases (low-intensity, high-volume [LIHV] and high-intensity, low-volume [HILV] phases). Blood samples were collected each Monday (recovered) and Friday (fatigued) morning. From measured values of CK, U, free-testosterone (FT), and cortisol (C) as determined in the rested and fatigued state, respectively, Monday-Friday differences (Δ) were calculated and classified by magnitude before calculation of ratios (ΔCK/ΔU and ΔFT/ΔC). Coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated as group-based estimates of reproducibility. Linear mixed modeling was used to differentiate inter- and intraindividual variability. Consistency of patterns was analyzed by comparing with threshold values (1.1 for all weeks). Reproducibility was very low for fatigue-induced changes (CV ≥ 100%) with interindividual variation accounting for 45-60% of overall variability. Case-wise analysis indicated consistent ΔCK/ΔU patterns for 7 individuals in LIHV and 7 in HILV; 5 responded consistently throughout. For ΔFT/ΔC the number of consistent patterns was 2 in LIHV and 3 in HILV. These findings highlight the potential value of an individualized and multivariate approach in the assessment of fatigue.
Halbach, R.; Junglen, S.; Rij, R.P. van
Recent virus discovery programs have identified an extensive reservoir of viruses in arthropods. It is thought that arthropod viruses, including mosquito-specific viruses, are ancestral to vertebrate-pathogenic arboviruses. Mosquito-specific viruses are restricted in vertebrate cells at multiple
Manyangarirwa, W.; Sibiya, J.; Mortensen, C A Nieves Paulino
The smallholder farming sector in much of the developing world relies on the use of farm-retained seed. The availability of good quality disease free seed is important in enhancing food security but seed-borne viruses can be a major problem on farm-retained seed. Seeds of tomato (Lycopersicon...... electron microscopy, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and biological assays. Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) was detected in 36% of tomato samples and in 8% of paprika samples using indicator Nicotiana tabacum cultivars Xanthinc and White Burley. Some 43% of cowpea samples were infected with Cowpea...
Full Text Available Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs are specialized scavenger cells that mediate high-capacity clearance of soluble waste macromolecules and colloid material, including blood-borne adenovirus. To explore if LSECs function as a sink for other viruses in blood, we studied the fate of virus-like particles (VLPs of two ubiquitous human DNA viruses, BK and JC polyomavirus, in mice. Like complete virions, VLPs specifically bind to receptors and enter cells, but unlike complete virions, they cannot replicate. 125I-labeled VLPs were used to assess blood decay, organ-, and hepatocellular distribution of ligand, and non-labeled VLPs to examine cellular uptake by immunohisto- and -cytochemistry. BK- and JC-VLPs rapidly distributed to liver, with lesser uptake in kidney and spleen. Liver uptake was predominantly in LSECs. Blood half-life (∼1 min, and tissue distribution of JC-VLPs and two JC-VLP-mutants (L55F and S269F that lack sialic acid binding affinity, were similar, indicating involvement of non-sialic acid receptors in cellular uptake. Liver uptake was not mediated by scavenger receptors. In spleen, the VLPs localized to the red pulp marginal zone reticuloendothelium, and in kidney to the endothelial lining of vasa recta segments, and the transitional epithelium of renal pelvis. Most VLP-positive vessels in renal medulla did not express PV-1/Meca 32, suggesting location to the non-fenestrated part of vasa recta. The endothelial cells of these vessels also efficiently endocytosed a scavenger receptor ligand, formaldehyde-denatured albumin, suggesting high endocytic activity compared to other renal endothelia. We conclude that LSECs very effectively cleared a large fraction of blood-borne BK- and JC-VLPs, indicating a central role of these cells in early removal of polyomavirus from the circulation. In addition, we report the novel finding that a subpopulation of endothelial cells in kidney, the main organ of polyomavirus persistence, showed
Aly, Hussein Hassan; Shimotohno, Kunitada; Hijikata, Makoto
Due to the high polymorphism of natural hepatitis C virus (HCV) variants, existing recombinant HCV replication models have failed to be effective in developing effective anti-HCV agents. In the current study, we describe an in vitro system that supports the infection and replication of natural HCV from patient blood using an immortalized primary human hepatocyte cell line cultured in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. Comparison of the gene expression profile of cells cultured in the 3D system to those cultured in the existing 2D system demonstrated an up-regulation of several genes activated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) signaling. Furthermore, using PPARα agonists and antagonists, we also analyzed the effect of PPARα signaling on the modulation of HCV replication using this system. The 3D in vitro system described in this study provides significant insight into the search for novel anti-HCV strategies that are specific to various strains of HCV.
Klamer, A; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, D M
Adiponectin levels measured in neonatal dried blood spot samples (DBSS) might be affected by both prematurity and being born small for gestational age (SGA). The aim of the study was to measure adiponectin levels in routinely collected neonatal DBSS taken on day 5 (range 3-12) postnatal from...
M.G. Keijzer-Veen (Mandy)
textabstractIn summary, the studies described in this thesis suggest that premature birth affects renal function and blood pressure at (young) adult age, and especially when born both SGA and premature. Minor differences are already detectable at young adult age. The biological mechanism is
Adekunle O.K.; Owa T.E.
greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrate...
Bierlaire, Damien; Mauguin, Sylvie; Broult, Julien; Musso, Didier
Between October 2013 and March 2014, French Polynesia experienced the largest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak ever described before the emergence of ZIKV in the Americas in 2015. As arbovirus transfusion-transmitted (TT) infections have been previously reported, we hypothesized that transfusion of blood products could also transmit ZIKV. Mitigation strategies to prevent ZIKV-TT infections included nonspecific measures and the implementation of a laboratory developed ZIKV-specific nucleic acid testing (NAT) assay. Donor sera were tested in pools of 3 and constitutive sera of ZIKV-reactive pools were tested individually. Donor sera were tested prospectively and retrospectively. A posttransfusion follow-up of a patient transfused with ZIKV RNA-reactive blood products was implemented. NAT detected 42 blood donor sera as ZIKV RNA reactive of 1505 tested (2.8%). Thirty ZIKV RNA-reactive blood products collected before the implementation of NAT were transfused to 26 recipients. Posttransfusion investigations were conducted by the hemovigilance unit and data were available for 12 recipients. Symptomatic ZIKV-TT infections were not reported. Predonation screening of blood donors, postdonation information, products discard, and quarantine of blood products were not effective enough to prevent transfusion of ZIKV RNA-reactive blood products. ZIKV NAT was an effective measure once implemented to prevent transfusion of ZIKV RNA-reactive blood products but it is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of this measure to prevent ZIKV-TT infection, which is a rare event. © 2017 AABB.
Gale, P; Brouwer, A; Ramnial, V; Kelly, L; Kosmider, R; Fooks, A R; Snary, E L
Expert opinion was elicited to undertake a qualitative risk assessment to estimate the current and future risks to the European Union (EU) from five vector-borne viruses listed by the World Organization for Animal Health. It was predicted that climate change will increase the risk of incursions of African horse sickness virus (AHSV), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) into the EU from other parts of the world, with African swine fever virus (ASFV) and West Nile virus (WNV) being less affected. Currently the predicted risks of incursion were lowest for RVFV and highest for ASFV. Risks of incursion were considered for six routes of entry (namely vectors, livestock, meat products, wildlife, pets and people). Climate change was predicted to increase the risk of incursion from entry of vectors for all five viruses to some degree, the strongest effects being predicted for AHSV, CCHFV and WNV. This work will facilitate identification of appropriate risk management options in relation to adaptations to climate change.
Mohammed, Hamish; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Tomashek, Kay; Foster, Gregory; Broulik, Amy S; Petersen, Lyle; Stramer, Susan L
A single instance of transfusion-transmitted dengue infection has been reported. The high incidence of dengue in endemic countries, the high proportion of asymptomatic infection, and the median 5-day viremia, however, suggest that transfusion-associated dengue transmission may be more widespread than documented. The prevalence of dengue virus (DENV) RNA was determined in all blood donations to the American Red Cross in Puerto Rico from September 20 to December 4, 2005, using a specific type of nucleic acid amplification test called transcription-mediated amplification (TMA). TMA-positive donations were defined as those having two repeatedly reactive TMA results. TMA-positive donations were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and by viral culture. Twelve (0.07%) of 16,521 blood donations tested were TMA-positive. Four were positive by RT-PCR (DENV serotypes 2 and 3). Virus was cultured from 3 of 4 RT-PCR-positive donations. One of the 12 TMA-positive donations was IgM-positive. Only 5 donations remained TMA-positive when diluted 1:16, as is done for routine minipool screening for other transfusion-transmissible viral infections (hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency, West Nile viruses [WNVs]). Nearly 1 in 1000 blood donations contained DENV RNA, and virus could be cultured from TMA-positive donations, suggesting a transfusion transmission risk similar to that which existed in the United States for WNV before universal donation screening. Similar to WNV, IgM antibody screening is likely to be ineffective, and some potentially infectious donations will be missed by minipool screening. Transfusion transmission should be considered in patients with dengue after blood transfusion.
Drewes, Stephan; Straková, Petra; Drexler, Jan F; Jacob, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer G
Rodents are distributed throughout the world and interact with humans in many ways. They provide vital ecosystem services, some species are useful models in biomedical research and some are held as pet animals. However, many rodent species can have adverse effects such as damage to crops and stored produce, and they are of health concern because of the transmission of pathogens to humans and livestock. The first rodent viruses were discovered by isolation approaches and resulted in break-through knowledge in immunology, molecular and cell biology, and cancer research. In addition to rodent-specific viruses, rodent-borne viruses are causing a large number of zoonotic diseases. Most prominent examples are reemerging outbreaks of human hemorrhagic fever disease cases caused by arena- and hantaviruses. In addition, rodents are reservoirs for vector-borne pathogens, such as tick-borne encephalitis virus and Borrelia spp., and may carry human pathogenic agents, but likely are not involved in their transmission to human. In our days, next-generation sequencing or high-throughput sequencing (HTS) is revolutionizing the speed of the discovery of novel viruses, but other molecular approaches, such as generic RT-PCR/PCR and rolling circle amplification techniques, contribute significantly to the rapidly ongoing process. However, the current knowledge still represents only the tip of the iceberg, when comparing the known human viruses to those known for rodents, the mammalian taxon with the largest species number. The diagnostic potential of HTS-based metagenomic approaches is illustrated by their use in the discovery and complete genome determination of novel borna- and adenoviruses as causative disease agents in squirrels. In conclusion, HTS, in combination with conventional RT-PCR/PCR-based approaches, resulted in a drastically increased knowledge of the diversity of rodent viruses. Future improvements of the used workflows, including bioinformatics analysis, will further
A new strategy to improve the cost-effectiveness of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and syphilis testing of blood donations in sub-Saharan Africa: a pilot study in Burkina Faso.
Kania, Dramane; Sangaré, Lassana; Sakandé, Jean; Koanda, Abdoulaye; Nébié, Yacouba Kompingnin; Zerbo, Oumarou; Combasséré, Alain Wilfried; Guissou, Innocent Pierre; Rouet, François
In Africa where blood-borne agents are highly prevalent, cheaper and feasible alternative strategies for blood donations testing are specifically required. From May to August 2002, 500 blood donations from Burkina Faso were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) according to two distinct strategies. The first strategy was a conventional simultaneous screening of these four blood-borne infectious agents on each blood donation by using single-marker assays. The second strategy was a sequential screening starting by HBsAg. HBsAg-nonreactive blood donations were then further tested for HIV. If nonreactive, they were further tested for syphilis. If nonreactive, they were finally assessed for HCV antibodies. The accuracy and cost-effectiveness of the two strategies were compared. By using the simultaneous strategy, the seroprevalences of HBsAg, HIV, syphilis, and HCV among blood donors in Ouagadougou were estimated to be 19.2, 9.8, 1.6, and 5.2%. No significant difference of HIV, syphilis, and HCV prevalence rates was observed by using the sequential strategy (9.2, 1.9, and 4.7%, respectively). Whatever the strategy used, 157 blood donations (31.4%) were found to be reactive for at least one transfusion-transmissible agent and were thus discarded. The sequential strategy allowed a cost decrease of euro 908.6, compared to the simultaneous strategy. Given that approximately there are 50,000 blood donations annually in Burkina Faso, the money savings reached potentially euro 90,860. In resource-limited settings, the implementation of a sequential strategy appears as a pragmatic solution to promote safe blood supply and ensure sustainability of the system.
Full Text Available Hypoxic tissue subvolumes are a hallmark feature of solid malignant tumors, relevant for cancer therapy and patient outcome because they increase both the intrinsic aggressiveness of tumor cells and their resistance to several commonly used anticancer strategies. Pathogenetic mechanisms leading to hypoxia are diverse, may coexist within the same tumor and are commonly grouped according to the duration of their effects. Chronic hypoxia is mainly caused by diffusion limitations resulting from enlarged intercapillary distances and adverse diffusion geometries and — to a lesser extent — by hypoxemia, compromised perfusion or long-lasting microregional flow stops. Conversely, acute hypoxia preferentially results from transient disruptions in perfusion. While each of these features of the tumor microenvironment can contribute to a critical reduction of oxygen availability, the delivery of imaging agents (as well as nutrients and anticancer agents may be compromised or remain unaffected. Thus, a critical appraisal of the effects of the various mechanisms leading to hypoxia with regard to the blood-borne delivery of imaging agents is necessary to judge their ability to correctly represent the hypoxic phenotype of solid malignancies.
Balogh, Zsuzsanna; Egyed, László; Ferenczi, Emőke; Bán, Enikő; Szomor, Katalin N; Takács, Mária; Berencsi, György
The aim of this work was to study the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection of goats and the possibilities to prevent human milk-borne infections either by immunizing animals or the heat treatment of milk. An experiment was conducted with 20 milking goats. Ten goats (half of them immunized) were challenged with live TBEV and 10 were left uninfected. Clinical signs and body temperatures of the animals were recorded and milk samples were collected daily. The presence of viral RNA and infectious virions in milk were detected by RT-PCR and intracerebral inoculation of suckling mice, respectively. Milk samples containing infectious virions were subjected to various heat treatment conditions and retested afterwards to assess the effect on infectivity. The infected goats did not show any clinical signs or fever compared to uninfected ones. Infectious virions were detected for 8-19 days from the milk samples (genome for 3-18 days by PCR) of infected goats. Immunized goats did not shed the virus. After heat treatment of the milk, the inoculated mice survived. Goats shed the virus with their milk without showing any symptoms. Human milk-borne infections can be avoided both by immunizing goats and boiling/pasteurizing infected milk. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Interim Report on SNP analysis and forensic microarray probe design for South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses, Rift Valley fever
Jaing, C; Gardner, S
The goal of this project is to develop forensic genotyping assays for select agent viruses, enhancing the current capabilities for the viral bioforensics and law enforcement community. We used a multipronged approach combining bioinformatics analysis, PCR-enriched samples, microarrays and TaqMan assays to develop high resolution and cost effective genotyping methods for strain level forensic discrimination of viruses. We have leveraged substantial experience and efficiency gained through year 1 on software development, SNP discovery, TaqMan signature design and phylogenetic signature mapping to scale up the development of forensics signatures in year 2. In this report, we have summarized the whole genome wide SNP analysis and microarray probe design for forensics characterization of South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis viruses and henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus and Japanese encephalitis virus.
ATKINS, E; CRONIN, M; ISACSON, P
Rabbit blood cells incubated in vitro with purified parainfluenza-5 virus (DA strain) released a rapidly acting pyrogen. Spleen and lymph node cells were inactive. The pyrogen resembled in behavior a pyrogen extracted from granulocytic exudates. Similar cells in the blood are believed to be activated by virus in vivo to produce the circulating endogenous pyrogen that mediates virus-induced fever.
Roberts, H C; Elbers, A R W; Conraths, F J; Holsteg, M; Hoereth-Boentgen, D; Gethmann, J; van Schaik, G
Surveillance for new emerging animal diseases from a European perspective is complicated by the non-harmonised approach across Member States for data capture, recording livestock populations and case definitions. In the summer of 2011, a new vector-borne Orthobunyavirus emerged in Northern Europe and for the first time, a coordinated approach to horizon scanning, risk communication, data and diagnostic test sharing allowed EU Member States to develop early predictions of the disease, its impact and risk management options. There are many different systems in place across the EU for syndromic and scanning surveillance and the differences in these systems have presented epidemiologists and risk assessors with concerns about their combined use in early identification of an emerging disease. The emergence of a new disease always will raise challenging issues around lack of capability and lack of knowledge; however, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) gave veterinary authorities an additional complex problem: the infection caused few clinical signs in adult animals, with no indication of the possible source and little evidence about its spread or means of transmission. This paper documents the different systems in place in some of the countries (Germany and the Netherlands) which detected disease initially and predicted its spread (to the UK) and how information sharing helped to inform early warning and risk assessment for Member States. Microarray technology was used to identify SBV as a new pathogen and data from the automated cattle milking systems coupled with farmer-derived data on reporting non-specific clinical signs gave the first indications of a widespread issue while the UK used meteorological modelling to map disease incursion. The coordinating role of both EFSA and the European Commission were vital as are the opportunities presented by web-based publishing for disseminating information to industry and the public. The future of detecting emerging disease looks more
Fajs, Luka; Durmiši, Emina; Knap, Nataša; Strle, Franc; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is the most important arboviral agent causing infections of the central nervous system in central Europe. Previous studies have shown that TBEV exhibits pronounced genetic variability, which is often correlated to the geographical origin of TBEV. Genetic variability of TBEV has previously been studied predominantly in rodents and ticks, while information about the variability in patients is scarce. In order to understand the molecular relationships of TBEV between natural hosts, vectors and humans, as well as correlation between phylogenetic and geographical clustering, sequences of TBEV E and NS5 protein genes, were obtained by direct sequencing of RT-PCR products from TBE-confirmed patients as well as from rodents and ticks collected from TBE-endemic regions in Slovenia. A total of 27 partial E protein gene sequences representing 15 human, 4 rodent and 8 tick samples and 30 partial NS5 protein gene sequences representing 17 human, 5 rodent and 8 tick samples were obtained. The complete genome sequence of TBEV strain Ljubljana I was simultaneously obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the E and NS5 protein gene sequences revealed a high degree of TBEV variability in patients, ticks and rodents. Furthermore, an evident correlation between geographical and phylogenetic clustering was shown that was independent of the TBEV host. Moreover, we show the presence of a possible recombination event in the TBEV genome obtained from a patient sample, which was supported with multiple recombination event detection methods. This is the first study that simultaneously analyzed the genetic relationships of directly sequenced TBEV samples from patients, ticks and rodents and provides the largest set of patient-derived TBEV sequences up to date. In addition, we have confirmed the geographical clustering of TBEV sequences in Slovenia and have provided evidence of a possible recombination event in the TBEV genome, obtained from a patient. PMID
Klaus, Christine; Beer, Martin; Saier, Regine; Schubert, Harald; Bischoff, Sabine; Süss, Jochen
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in animals is not well understood yet. TBE virus (TBEV) serology in several host species could be valuable for epidemiological analyses in the field as well as for the detection of clinical cases. However, performance and suitability of the available test systems are not well assessed. Therefore, we evaluated two commercial TBEV-ELISA kits in a pilot study and compared them for their suitability in veterinary applications. For this purpose, we tested 163 field collected goat sera and evaluated the results by serum neutralization test (SNT) as "gold standard". Twenty-eight SNT positive sera (17.2%) were detected. The best suited ELISA kit was used for determination of a species-specific cutoff for horses, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, mice, dogs, rabbits and monkeys with defined sera from animals without known or with improbable contact to TBEV. The level of non-specific ELISA results does not only differ between animal species but may also be influenced by the age of the tested animals. The number of sera which tested false positive by ELISA was higher in older than in young sheep. In order to obtain defined polyclonal sera as references, two dogs, cattle, goats, sheep, rabbits and pigs each, as well as one horse and 90 mice were immunized four times with a commercially available TBEV vaccine. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that commercial TBEV-ELISA kits are suitable for application in veterinary medicine for both, verification of clinical TBE cases and epidemiological screening. However, positive ELISA results should be verified by SNT. Only a very low number of false negative ELISA-results were found.
Huang, Angela Song-En; Shu, Pei-Yun; Yang, Chin-Hui
Zika virus infection, usually a mild disease transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquitos, has been reported to be possibly associated with microcephaly and neurologic complications. Taiwan's first imported case of Zika virus infection was found through fever screening at airport entry in January 2016. No virus was isolated from patient's blood taken during acute illness; however, PCR products showed that the virus was of Asian lineage closely related to virus from Cambodia. To prevent Zika virus from spreading in Taiwan, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control has strengthened efforts in quarantine and surveillance, increased Zika virus infection diagnostic capacity, implemented healthcare system preparedness plans, and enhanced vector control program through community mobilization and education. Besides the first imported case, no additional cases of Zika virus infection have been identified. Furthermore, no significant increase in the number of microcephaly or Guillain- Barré Syndrome has been observed in Taiwan. To date, there have been no autochthonous transmissions of Zika virus infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Levina, L S; Pogodina, V V
The method of explantation was used to examine 63 organs from M. rhesus monkeys 92-783 days after intracerebral and subcutaneous inoculation with the Vasilchenko, Aina/1448 and 41/65 strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus. The optimal time for examination of the explants by tests of the hemagglutinating, cytopathogenic activity of the virus and its pathogenicity for mice was found to be the 15th day of cultivation. A comparative study of the properties of 3 isolates obtained from explants of the spleen, liver and subcortical cerebral ganglia 202 and 307 days after inoculation of monkeys was carried out. The isolates differed from the parental TBE virus strains by their capacity to form small plaques in PEKV cell cultures (pig embryo kidney cells in versen medium).
Ufnal, Marcin; Skrzypecki, Janusz
Accumulating evidence suggests that blood borne hormones modulate brain mechanisms regulating blood pressure. This appears to be mediated by the circumventricular organs which are located in the walls of the brain ventricular system and lack the blood-brain barrier. Recent evidence shows that neurons of the circumventricular organs express receptors for the majority of cardiovascular hormones. Intracerebroventricular infusions of hormones and their antagonists is one approach to evaluate the influence of blood borne hormones on the neural mechanisms regulating arterial blood pressure. Interestingly, there is no clear correlation between peripheral and central effects of cardiovascular hormones. For example, angiotensin II increases blood pressure acting peripherally and centrally, whereas peripherally acting pressor catecholamines decrease blood pressure when infused intracerebroventricularly. The physiological role of such dual hemodynamic responses has not yet been clarified. In the paper we review studies on hemodynamic effects of catecholamines, neuropeptide Y, angiotensin II, aldosterone, natriuretic peptides, endothelins, histamine and bradykinin in the context of their role in a cross-talk between peripheral and brain mechanisms involved in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Yingjie; Liu, Qiqi; Zhou, Biao; Wang, Xiaobo; Chen, Suhong; Wang, Shengqi
Mosquito-borne viruses (MBVs) and parasites (MBPs) are transmitted through hematophagous arthropods-mosquitoes to homoiothermous vertebrates. This study aims at developing a detection method to monitor the spread of mosquito-borne diseases to new areas and diagnose the infections caused by MBVs and MBPs. In this assay, an ultra-sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) detection method was developed and used to simultaneously detect 19 common MBVs and MBPs. In vitro transcript RNA, virus-like particles (VLPs), and plasmids were established as positive or limit of detection (LOD) reference materials. MBVs and MBPs could be genotyped with high sensitivity and specificity. The cut-off values of probes were calculated. The absolute LODs of this strategy to detect serially diluted in vitro transcribed RNAs of MBVs and serially diluted plasmids of MBPs were 10 2 -10 3 copies/μl and 10 1 -10 2 copies/μl, respectively. Further, the LOD of detecting a strain of pre-quantified JEV was 10 1.8 -10 0.8 PFU/ml, fitted well in a linear regression model (coefficient of determination = 0.9678). Ultra-sensitive CL imaging DNA hybridization was developed and could simultaneously detect various MBVs and MBPs. The method described here has the potential to provide considerable labor savings due to its ability to screen for 19 mosquito-borne pathogens simultaneously.
Mansuy, Jean Michel; Mengelle, Catherine; Pasquier, Christophe; Chapuy-Regaud, Sabine; Delobel, Pierre; Martin-Blondel, Guillaume; Izopet, Jacques
We tested whole-blood and plasma samples from immunocompetent patients who had had benign Zika virus infections and found that Zika virus RNA persisted in whole blood substantially longer than in plasma. This finding may have implications for diagnosis of acute symptomatic and asymptomatic infections and for testing of blood donations.
Halouzka, Jiří; Juřicová, Zina; Janková, J.; Hubálek, Zdeněk
Roč. 53, č. 5 (2008), s. 266-271 ISSN 0375-8427 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930611 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : antibodies * West Nile virus * Tahyna virus * Batai virus * Sindbis virus * swine Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.659, year: 2008 http://old.vri.cz/docs/vetmed/53-5-266.pdf
Full Text Available Background: Although, in the past the risk of transfusion transmitted viral infections were high in hemophilia patients, but introduction of viral inactivation methods in1985,decreased the risk of human immunodeficiency and hepatitis C and B viruses transmission significantly. The aim of study was seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag, hepatitis C virus antibody (HCV Ab and human immunodeficiency virus antibody (HIVAb in hemophiliacs in west Azarbaijan of Iran, born in 1985-2010. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, fifty patients with hereditary bleeding disorders born in 1985-2010, from total 250 patients who had been registered in Urmia Hemophilia Society were enrolled through the year 2010 to assess their seroprevalence for HCV Ab, HIV Ab and HBs Ag. Thirty five of 50 patients had hemophilia. Also; we performed a subset analysis for hemophilia patients. Results: All 50 patients with hereditary bleeding disorders including 35 patients with hemophilia were seronegative for HIV Ab and HBs Ag. HCV-Ab was detected in serum of 3 of 50 (6% patients with bleeding disorders. After subset analysis for hemophilia (A and B patients, we found HCV infection in 8.57% (3 of 35 of hemophiliacs. Conclusion: In this study prevalence of HCV infection was very smaller than similar studies in Iran and other countries. This study shows the safety of using viral inactivated factor concentrates and recombinant factors after year 1985.None of Hemophiliacs were seropositive for HIV Ab and HBs Ag.
Weller, S C
Congress is putting pressure on OSHA to finalize its Universal Precaution standards by December. When the standards go into effect, textile rental companies that serve medical, dental, and outpatient care facilities--including private physician and dentist offices--must take steps to protect employees from blood-borne pathogens. Soiled linens, towels, gowns, and other items from any customer in risk categories link a textile rental facility and/or commercial laundry with the OSHA regulations. Read and heed this information.
Alfaresi, Mubarak S.; Alzaabi, Azza S.; Islam, Adeel A.; Elkoush, Abida A.; Elnazer, Ayat M.
To investigate the rate of infection caused by Torque teno virus (TTV) in United Arab Emirates (UAEs) healthy population as a pilot study in detecting TTV DNA in 100 healthy blood donors. We randomly choose a total of 100 healthy blood donors who attended Zayed Military Hospital, Abu Dhabi, UAE from January 20 to May 30, 2005. We carried out a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect TTV DNA. Real-time for TTV was positive in 75 (75%) donors. Eight (73%) non-UAE donors were TTV positive while 67 (75%) were UAEs. Among these donors, 72 (77%) were males and 3 (50%) were females. Our results demonstrated a high prevalence of TTV in UAE. (author)
Trotter, Patrick B; Summers, Dominic M; Robb, Matthew; Hulme, William; Ushiro-Lumb, Ines; Watson, Christopher J E; Neuberger, James; Bradley, J Andrew
Deceased organ donors are routinely screened for behaviors that increase the risk of transmissible blood-borne viral (BBV) infection, but the impact of this information on organ donation and transplant outcome is not well documented. Our aim was to establish the impact of such behavior on organ donation and utilization, as well transplant recipient outcomes. We identified all UK deceased organ donors from 2003 to 2015 with a disclosed history of increased risk behavior (IRB) including intravenous drug use (IVDU), imprisonment and increased risk sexual behavior. Of 17 262 potential donors, 659 (3.8%) had IRB for BBV and 285 (1.7%) were seropositive for BBV, of whom half had a history of IRB (mostly IVDU [78.5%]). Of actual donors with IRB, 393 were seronegative for viral markers at time of donation. A history of recent IVDU was associated with fewer potential donors proceeding to become actual organ donors (64% vs 75%, P = 0.007). Donors with IRB provided 1091 organs for transplantation (624 kidneys and 467 other organs). Transplant outcome was similar in recipients of organs from donors with and without IRB. There were 3 cases of unexpected hepatitis C virus transmission, all from an active IVDU donor who was hepatitis C virus seronegative at time of donation, but was found to be viremic on retrospective testing. Donors with a history of IRB provide a valuable source of organs for transplantation with good transplant outcomes and there is scope for increasing the use of organs from such donors.
Ergünay, Koray; Saygan, Mehmet B; Aydoğan, Sibel; Litzba, Nadine; Niedrig, Matthias; Pınar, Ahmet; Us, Dürdal
Dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV) are two of the globally prevalent vector-borne flaviviruses. Data on these viruses from Turkey is limited to a single study originating from the western, Aegean region of Turkey, where evidence for DENV exposure had been confirmed in residents and presence of hemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against YFV had been revealed. The aim of this study was to investigate the rates of seropositivity of DENV and YFV in blood donors from Central/Northern Anatolia, Turkey, for the demonstration of possible human exposure. Serum samples were collected by the Turkish Red Crescent Middle Anatolia Regional Blood Center from donation sites at Ankara, Konya, Eskişehir and Zonguldak provinces and included in the study after informed consent. Ankara is the capital and second most-populated city in Turkey. All samples were previously evaluated for West Nile and tick-borne encephalitis virus antibodies and found to be negative. A total of 2435 and 1502 sera have been evaluated for IgG antibodies against DENV and YFV, respectively. Commercial enzymelinked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and indirect immunofluorescence tests (IIFTs) were applied (Euroimmun, Germany) for DENV/YFV IgG surveillance. DENV IgG reactive sera were further evaluated for IgM by ELISA and a commercial mosaic IIFT to determine DENV subtypes. IgM positive samples were also analyzed by a commercial NS1 antigen detection assay (Bio-Rad Laboratories, France). YFV IgG reactive samples were evaluated by IIFT for IgM and via mosaic IIFT and antibody specificity were confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Anti-DENV IgGs were demonstrated in repeated assays in 0.9% (21/2435) of the sera. In two samples with borderline IgG results, presence of DENV IgM was detected, one of which was also borderline positive for DENV NS1 antigen. In 14.3% (3/21) of the IgG reactive sera, mosaic IIFT was evaluated as positive and displayed prominent reactivity for DENV-2 in
Gritsun, T S; Gould, E A
In less than 1 month we have constructed an infectious clone of attenuated tick-borne encephalitis virus (strain Vasilchenko) from 100 microl of unpurified virus suspension using long high fidelity PCR and a modified bacterial cloning system. Optimization of the 3' antisense primer concentration was essential to achieve PCR synthesis of an 11 kb cDNA copy of RNA from infectious virus. A novel system utilising two antisense primers, a 14-mer for reverse transcription and a 35-mer for long PCR, produced high yields of genomic length cDNA. Use of low copy number Able K cells and an incubation temperature of 28 degrees C increased the genetic stability of cloned cDNA. Clones containing 11 kb cDNA inserts produced colonies of reduced size, thus providing a positive selection system for full length clones. Sequencing of the infectious clone emphasised the improved fidelity of the method compared with conventional PCR and cloning methods. A simple and rapid strategy for genetic manipulation of the infectious clone is also described. These developments represent a significant advance in recombinant technology and should be applicable to positive stranded RNA viruses which cannot easily be purified or genetically manipulated.
Full Text Available The interaction between blood-borne pathogens and fibrinolysis is one of the most important mechanisms that mediate invasion and the establishment of infectious agents in their hosts. However, overproduction of plasmin (final product of the route has been related in other contexts to proliferation and migration of the arterial wall cells and degradation of the extracellular matrix. We have recently identified fibrinolysis-activating antigens from Dirofilaria immitis, a blood-borne parasite whose key pathological event (proliferative endarteritis is produced by similar mechanisms to those indicated above. The objective of this work is to study how two of this antigens [actin (ACT and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (FBAL] highly conserved in pathogens, activate fibrinolysis and to establish a relationship between this activation and the development of proliferative endarteritis during cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis. We demonstrate that both proteins bind plasminogen, enhance plasmin generation, stimulate the expression of the fibrinolytic activators tPA and uPA in endothelial cell cultures and are located on the surface of the worm in contact with the host's blood. ELISA, western blot and immunofluorescence techniques were employed for this purpose. Additionally, the implication of lysine residues in this interaction was analyzed by bioinformatics. The involvement of plasmin generated by the ACT/FBAL and plasminogen binding in cell proliferation and migration, and degradation of the extracellular matrix were shown in an "in vitro" model of endothelial and smooth muscle cells in culture. The obtained results indicate that ACT and FBAL from D. immitis activate fibrinolysis, which could be used by the parasite like a survival mechanism to avoid the clot formation. However, long-term overproduction of plasmin can trigger pathological events similar to those described in the emergence of proliferative endarteritis. Due to the high degree of
Lyamuya Eligius F
Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the latest Tanzanian National AIDS Control Programme (NACP report a total of 147,271 individuals donated blood during the year 2002. However, blood safety remains an issue of major concern in transfusion medicine in Tanzania where national blood transfusion services and policies, appropriate infrastructure, trained personnel and financial resources are inadequate. Most of the donated blood is screened for HIV alone. Methods We determined among blood donors at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and syphilis by donor type, sex and age and to determine association, if any, in the occurrence of the pathogens. The sample included 1599 consecutive donors, 1424(89.1% males and 175 (10.9% females, who donated blood between April 2004 and May, 2005. Most of them 1125 (70.4% were replacement donors and a few 474 (29.6% voluntary donors. Their age (in years ranged from 16 to 69, and most (72.2% were between 20–39 years. Results Two hundred and fifty four (15.9% of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 28 (1.8% had multiple infections. The current seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis among blood donors at MNH in Dar es Salaam was found to be 3.8%, 8.8%, 1.5% and 4.7%, respectively. Respective seroprevalences among HIV seronegative blood donors were 8.7% for HBV, 1.6% for HCV and 4.6% for syphilis. The differences in the prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections between replacement and voluntary donors were statistically significant (P 2 = 58.5 df = 5, P Conclusion The high (15.9% seroprevalence of blood-borne infections in blood donated at MNH calls for routine screening of blood donors for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis and for strict selection criteria of donors, with emphasis on getting young voluntary donors and for establishment of strict guidelines
Legarrea, S; Betancourt, M; Plaza, M; Fraile, A; García-Arenal, F; Fereres, A
Aphid-transmitted viruses frequently cause severe epidemics in lettuce grown under Mediterranean climates. Spatio-temporal dynamics of aphid-transmitted viruses and its vector were studied on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown under tunnels covered by two types of nets: a commercial UV-absorbing net (Bionet) and a Standard net. A group of plants infected by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, family Bromoviridae, genus Cucumovirus) and Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV, family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus) was transplanted in each plot. The same virus-infected source plants were artificially infested by the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas). Secondary spread of insects was weekly monitored and plants were sampled for the detection of viruses every two weeks. In 2008, the infection rate of both CMV and LMV were lower under the Bionet than under the Standard cover, probably due to the lower population density and lower dispersal rate achieved by M. euphorbiae. However, during spring of 2009, significant differences in the rate of infection between the two covers were only found for LMV six weeks after transplant. The spatial distribution of the viruses analysed by SADIE methodology was "at random", and it was not associated to the spatial pattern of the vector. The results obtained are discussed analyzing the wide range of interactions that occurred among UV-radiation, host plant, viruses, insect vector and environmental conditions. Our results show that UV-absorbing nets can be recommended as a component of an integrated disease management program to reduce secondary spread of lettuce viruses, although not as a control measure on its own. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hesamizadeh, Khashayar; Sharafi, Heidar; Keyvani, Hossein; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Najafi-Tireh Shabankareh, Azar; Sharifi Olyaie, Roghiyeh; Keshvari, Maryam
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) are both transmitted by the fecal-oral route and are known as the leading causes of acute viral hepatitis in the world, especially in developing countries. There is a lack of updated data on HAV and HEV seroprevalence in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HAV and HEV among a group of blood donors in Tehran, Iran. A cross-sectional study was performed from July 2014 to December 2014, on a total of 559 blood donors referred to the Tehran blood transfusion center. The serum samples were tested for antibodies to HAV and HEV, using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the present study, 536 (95.9%) cases were male and 23 (4.1%) female with mean age of 38 years. Out of 559 blood donors, 107 (19.1%) were first-time donors, 163 (29.2%) lapsed donors and 289 (51.7%) regular donors. Anti-HAV was found in 395 (70.7%) and anti-HEV in 45 (8.1%) of the blood donors. The HAV and HEV seroprevalence increased by age. There was no significant difference between genders in terms of anti-HAV and anti-HEV status. The HAV and HEV seroprevalence was significantly related to the level of education, where the donors with higher level of education had lower rate of HAV and HEV seroprevalence. The HAV and HEV seroprevalence was significantly higher in regular and lapsed donors than in first-time donors. The present study showed that both HAV and HEV infections are still endemic in Iran.
Kassem, Mona A; Juarez, Miguel; Gómez, Pedro; Mengual, Carmen M; Sempere, Raquel N; Plaza, María; Elena, Santiago F; Moreno, Aranzazu; Fereres, Alberto; Aranda, Miguel A
The genetic variability of a Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) (genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) population was evaluated by determining the nucleotide sequences of two genomic regions of CABYV isolates collected in open-field melon and squash crops during three consecutive years in Murcia (southeastern Spain). A phylogenetic analysis showed the existence of two major clades. The sequences did not cluster according to host, year, or locality of collection, and nucleotide similarities among isolates were 97 to 100 and 94 to 97% within and between clades, respectively. The ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions reflected that all open reading frames have been under purifying selection. Estimates of the population's genetic diversity were of the same magnitude as those previously reported for other plant virus populations sampled at larger spatial and temporal scales, suggesting either the presence of CABYV in the surveyed area long before it was first described, multiple introductions, or a particularly rapid diversification. We also determined the full-length sequences of three isolates, identifying the occurrence and location of recombination events along the CABYV genome. Furthermore, our field surveys indicated that Aphis gossypii was the major vector species of CABYV and the most abundant aphid species colonizing melon fields in the Murcia (Spain) region. Our surveys also suggested the importance of the weed species Ecballium elaterium as an alternative host and potential virus reservoir.
Zika virus is an emergent flavivirus transmitted by Aedes genus mosquitoes that recently reached the Americas and was soon implicated in an increase of microcephaly incidence. The objective of the present study is to systematically review the published data and perform a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of microcephaly in babies born to Zika virus-infected women during pregnancy. We searched PubMed and Cochrane databases, included cohort studies, and excluded case reports and case series publications. We extracted sample sizes and the number of microcephaly cases from eight studies, which permitted a calculation of prevalence rates that are pooled in a random-effects model meta-analysis. We estimated the prevalence of microcephaly of 2.3% (95% CI = 1.0–5.3%) among all pregnancies. Limitations include mixed samples of women infected at different pregnancy times, since it is known that infection at the first trimester is associated with higher risk to congenital anomalies. The estimates are deceptively low, given the devastating impact the infection causes over children and their families. We hope our study contributes to public health knowledge to fight Zika virus epidemics to protect mothers and their newborns. PMID:28783051
Bakonyi, Tamás; Jungbauer, Christof; Aberle, Stephan W; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Dimmel, Katharina; Stiasny, Karin; Allerberger, Franz; Nowotny, Norbert
Between July and August 2017, seven of 12,047 blood donations from eastern Austria, reacted positive to West Nile virus (WNV) in the cobas test (Roche). Follow-up investigations revealed Usutu virus (USUV) nucleic acid in six of these. Retrospective analyses of four blood donors diagnosed as WNV-infected in 2016 showed one USUV positive. Blood transfusion services and public health authorities in USUV-endemic areas should be aware of a possible increase of human USUV infections.
Chappell, M A; Payne, S J
Under decompression, bubbles can form in the human body, and these can be found both within the body tissues and the bloodstream. Mathematical models for the growth of both types of bubbles have previously been presented, but they have not been coupled together. This work thus explores the interaction between the growth of tissue and blood-borne bubbles under decompression, specifically looking at the extent to which they compete for the common resource of inert gas held in solution in the tissues. The influence of tissue bubbles is found to be significant for densities as low as 10 ml -1 for tissues which are poorly perfused. However, the effects of formation of bubbles in the blood are not found until the density of bubble production sites reaches 10 6 ml -1 . From comparison of the model predictions with experimental evidence for bubbles produced in animals and man under decompression, it is concluded that the density of tissue bubbles is likely to have a significant effect on the number of bubbles produced in the blood. However, the density of nucleation sites in the blood is unlikely to be sufficiently high in humans for the formation of bubbles in the blood to have a significant impact on the growth of the bubbles in the tissue
Achazi, K.; Růžek, Daniel; Donoso-Mantke, O.; Schlegel, M.; Ali, H. S.; Wenk, M.; Schmidt-Chanasit, J.; Ohlmeyer, L.; Ruhe, F.; Vor, T.; Kiffner, Ch.; Kallies, R.; Ulrich, R. G.; Niedrig, M.
Roč. 11, č. 6 (2011), 641-647 ISSN 1530-3667 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP302/10/P438; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Distribution * Monitoring * Rodents * Tick-borne encephalitis * Zoonosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.437, year: 2011
Eyer, L.; Šmídková, Markéta; Nencka, Radim; Neča, J.; Kastl, T.; Palus, Martin; De Clercq, E.; Růžek, Daniel
Roč. 133, Sep (2016), s. 119-129 ISSN 0166-3542 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-34238A; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-20054S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : structure-activity relationship * tick-borne encephalitis * nucleoside inhibitor * antiviral activity * cytotoxicity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry; EE - Microbiology, Virology (BC-A) Impact factor: 4.271, year: 2016
Flores-Morán, Adriana; Banuet-Martínez, Marina; Elorriaga-Verplancken, Fernando R; García-Ortuño, Luis Enrique; Sandoval-Sierra, Julieta; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina
To date, there is limited knowledge of the effects that abnormal sea surface temperature (SST) can have on the physiology of neonate pinnipeds. However, maternal nutritional deficiencies driven by alimentary restrictions would expectedly impact pinniped development and fitness, as an adequate supply of nutrients is essential for growth and proper functioning of all body systems, including red blood cell synthesis and clearance. Here, we investigated red blood cell morphology of California sea lion (CSL) pups from the San Benito Archipelago born during the 2014 and 2015 anomalously high SST events recorded in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. We examined whether atypical erythrocyte morphologies were more common in 2015, when the high SST event was more pronounced, and whether the stable isotope signature of pup fur, as an indicator of maternal feeding strategies, accounted for the number of atypical cells. Various atypical erythrocyte morphologies were more prevalent and more abundant than reference values. Evidence of iron deficiency was found in both years, and only pups born in 2014 showed evidence of active erythropoiesis. Microcytes and reticulocytes were more common in pups with higher isotopic δ 13 C and lower δ 15 N values, suggesting a probable relationship between maternal feeding strategies and the effect of climatic anomalies on red blood cell physiology of their pups. As developing pinnipeds require increased oxygen storage capacity for diving and foraging, the presence of atypical erythrocytes could be relevant to CSL pup fitness if the underlying cause is not reverted. This study is a first step to explore the effects that climatic alterations in the marine environment can have on the blood physiology of developing individuals.
Bamaga, Mohammad S.; Bokhari, Fawzi F.; Aboud, Abdulrehman M.; Al-Malki, M.; Alenzi, Faris Q.
To investigate the performance of the commercial Roche COBAS AmpliScreen assay, and demonstrate whether the COBAS AmpliScreen human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) test, v1.5, and COBAS AmpliScreen hepatitis C virus (HCV) v 2.0 for screening for HIV-1 and HCV RNA in the donated blood units from which plasma mini pools were collected, by nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT), could detect the positive pools and reduce the risk of transmission of infections for those routinely tested by serological assays. The study was performed on 3288 plasma samples collected from blood donors in a period of 13 months, from August 2004 to August 2005, at Al-Hada Armed Forces Hospital, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The samples were tested by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after RNA extraction (this represents the major method in NAT assays), in parallel with the routine serological testing to detect qualitatively for HIV-1 and HCV. The NAT assays that include an automated COBAS AmpliPrep system for RNA extraction and COBAS Amplicor Analyzer using AmpliScreen kits for RT-PCR assays, and the routine serological screening assays for the detection of the HIV-1 and HCV RNA in the plasma samples from the blood donors have shown to be a reliable combination that would meet our requirements. The collected data further confirms the results from the serological assays and enables us to decrease the residual risk of transmission to a minimum with the finding of no seronegative window period donation. The results demonstrate that out of 3288 samples, the percentages of RT-PCR (NAT) negative blood donations that were also confirmed as seronegative were 99% for HCV, and 99.1% for HIV-1. The modified combined systems (automated COBAS AmpliPrep system for RNA extraction and COBAS Amplicor Analyzer using AmpliScreen kits for RT-PCR assays) for NAT screening assays has allowed the release of all blood donations supplied in the
Formanová, Petra; Černý, Jiří; Bolfíková, Barbora Černá; Valdés, James J; Kozlova, Irina; Dzhioev, Yuri; Růžek, Daniel
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), one of the most important human neuroinfections across Eurasia. Up to date, only three full genome sequences of human European TBEV isolates are available, mostly due to difficulties with isolation of the virus from human patients. Here we present full genome characterization of an additional five low-passage TBEV strains isolated from human patients with severe forms of TBE. These strains were isolated in 1953 within Central Bohemia in the former Czechoslovakia, and belong to the historically oldest human TBEV isolates in Europe. We demonstrate here that all analyzed isolates are distantly phylogenetically related, indicating that the emergence of TBE in Central Europe was not caused by one predominant strain, but rather a pool of distantly related TBEV strains. Nucleotide identity between individual sequenced TBEV strains ranged from 97.5% to 99.6% and all strains shared large deletions in the 3' non-coding region, which has been recently suggested to be an important determinant of virulence. The number of unique amino acid substitutions varied from 3 to 9 in individual isolates, but no characteristic amino acid substitution typical exclusively for all human TBEV isolates was identified when compared to the isolates from ticks. We did, however, correlate that the exploration of the TBEV envelope glycoprotein by specific antibodies were in close proximity to these unique amino acid substitutions. Taken together, we report here the largest number of patient-derived European TBEV full genome sequences to date and provide a platform for further studies on evolution of TBEV since the first emergence of human TBE in Europe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Joseph W. Golden
Full Text Available Human pathogenic hantaviruses and arenaviruses are maintained in nature by persistent infection of rodent carrier populations. Several members of these virus groups can cause significant disease in humans that is generically termed viral hemorrhagic fever (HF and is characterized as a febrile illness with an increased propensity to cause acute inflammation. Human interaction with rodent carrier populations leads to infection. Arenaviruses are also viewed as potential biological weapons threat agents. There is an increased interest in studying these viruses in animal models to gain a deeper understating not only of viral pathogenesis, but also for the evaluation of medical countermeasures (MCM to mitigate disease threats. In this review, we examine current knowledge regarding animal models employed in the study of these viruses. We include analysis of infection models in natural reservoirs and also discuss the impact of strain heterogeneity on the susceptibility of animals to infection. This information should provide a comprehensive reference for those interested in the study of arenaviruses and hantaviruses not only for MCM development but also in the study of viral pathogenesis and the biology of these viruses in their natural reservoirs.
Labuda, M; Randolph, S E
Although TBE virus can be transmitted in the laboratory by a wide variety of ixodid tick species to a wide variety of vertebrate host species, nevertheless in nature endemic cycles of TBE virus depend principally on just two tick species, Ixodes ricinus in the western and I. persulcatus in the eastern Palaearctic. A complete transmission cycle, from tick to tick via vertebrates, occurs most efficiently between co-feeding ticks in the absence of a systemic viraemia. This non-systemic route depends on TBE virus replication within particular immunocompetent cells in the skin, and only certain vertebrate species, notably Apodemus mice, are susceptible to this. Amongst the potential tick vectors in Europe, only I. ricinus has the correct host relationships and appropriate natural life cycle to support such non-systemic transmission cycles. Within the wide European distribution of this tick-host relationship, only in certain places do larval and nymphal ticks feed together on the same hosts with sufficient coincidence to ensure TBE virus survival. The environmental factors that determine this seasonal coincidence are being identified with the help of remotely-sensed meteorological satellite imagery to create predictive risk maps of TBE foci.
Bílý, Tomáš; Palus, Martin; Eyer, L.; Elsterová, Jana; Vancová, Marie; Růžek, Daniel
Roč. 5, JUN 15 2015 (2015), s. 10745 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : dengue virus * replication sites * arboviruses Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2015
Eikelenboom, P.; Scott, J. R.; McBride, P. A.; Rozemuller, J. M.; Bruce, M. E.; Fraser, H.
The present study was designed to investigate blood-brain permeability and the possible involvement of plasma proteins and blood-borne cells in amyloid plaque formation in scrapie-affected mice. No abnormal extravasation of intravenously injected horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was found and with
Kovalev, S Y; Mukhacheva, T A
Tick-borne encephalitis is widespread in Eurasia and transmitted by Ixodes ticks. Classification of its causative agent, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), includes three subtypes, namely Far-Eastern, European, and Siberian (TBEV-Sib), as well as a group of 886-84-like strains with uncertain taxonomic status. TBEV-Sib is subdivided into three phylogenetic lineages: Baltic, Asian, and South-Siberian. A reason to reconsider TBEV-Sib classification was the analysis of 186 nucleotide sequences of an E gene fragment submitted to GenBank during the last two years. Within the South-Siberian lineage, we have identified a distinct group with prototype strains Aina and Vasilchenko as an individual lineage named East-Siberian. The analysis of reclassified lineages has promoted a new model of the evolutionary history of TBEV-Sib lineages and TBEV-Sib as a whole. Moreover, we present arguments supporting separation of 886-84-like strains into an individual TBEV subtype, which we propose to name Baikalian (TBEV-Bkl). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ahmed, J.; Bouloy, M.; Ergonul, O.; Fooks, A.R.; Paweska, J.; Chevalier, V.; Drosten, C.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Tordo, N.; Vatansever, Z.; Calistri, P.; Estrada-Pena, A.; Mirazimi, A.; Unger, H.; Yin, H.; Seitzer, U.
Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different
Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Cihlářová, Věra; Grubhoffer, Libor
Roč. 48, č. 3 (2004), s. 167-171 ISSN 0001-723X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/1326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * tick-borne encephalitis virus * RT-PCR Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.605, year: 2004
Černá, H.; Černý, M.; Habanová, H.; Šafářová, D.; Abushamsiya, K.; Navrátil, M.; Brzobohatý, Břetislav
Roč. 153, FEB2017 (2017), s. 78-88 ISSN 1874-3919 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Proteome * Pea seed-borne mosaic virus PSbMV * Potyvirus Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.914, year: 2016
Bukin, Y. S.; Dzhioev, Y.; Tkachev, S. E.; Kozlova, I.; Paramonov, A. I.; Růžek, Daniel; Qu, Z.; Zlobin, V. I.
Roč. 238, JUN 15 (2017), s. 124-132 ISSN 0168-1702 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus * E protein * physicochemical properties amino acid residue * antigen * antibody Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 2.628, year: 2016
Wallace, M Ariel Geer; Kormos, Tzipporah M; Pleil, Joachim D
Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime. The exposome is composed of endogenous and exogenous chemicals, many of which are measurable as biomarkers in blood, breath, and urine. Exposure to pollutants is assessed by analyzing biofluids for the pollutant itself or its metabolic products. New methods are being developed to use a subset of biomarkers, termed bioindicators, to demonstrate biological changes indicative of future adverse health effects. Typically, environmental biomarkers are assessed using noninvasive (excreted) media, such as breath and urine. Blood is often avoided for biomonitoring due to practical reasons such as medical personnel, infectious waste, or clinical setting, despite the fact that blood represents the central compartment that interacts with every living cell and is the most relevant biofluid for certain applications and analyses. The aims of this study were to (1) review the current use of blood samples in environmental health research, (2) briefly contrast blood with other biological media, and (3) propose additional applications for blood analysis in human exposure research.
Han, Yan-Hong; Xiang, Hai-Ying; Wang, Qian; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wu, Wen-Qi; Han, Cheng-Gui; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin
Melon aphid-borne yellows virus (MABYV) is a newly identified polerovirus occurring in China. Here, we demonstrate that the MABYV encoded P0 (P0(MA)) protein is a strong suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) with activity comparable to tobacco etch virus (TEV) HC-Pro. In addition we have shown that the LP F-box motif present at the N-terminus of P0(MA) is required for suppressor activity. Detailed mutational analyses on P0(MA) revealed that changing the conserved Trp 212 with non-ring structured amino acids altered silencing suppressor functions. Ala substitutions at positions 12 and 211 for Phe had no effect on P0 suppression-activity, whereas Arg and Glu substitutions had greatly decreased suppressor activity. Furthermore, substitutions targeting Phe at position 30 also resulted in reduced P0 suppression-activity. Altogether, these results suggest that ring structured Trp/Phe residues in P0 have important roles in suppressor activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shrestha, Ashish C; Flower, Robert L P; Seed, Clive R; Keller, Anthony J; Harley, Robert; Chan, Hiu-Tat; Hoad, Veronica; Warrilow, David; Northill, Judith; Holmberg, Jerry A; Faddy, Helen M
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) poses a risk to transfusion safety. In Australia, locally acquired HEV is rare and cases are mainly reported in travelers returning from countries endemic for HEV. The risk posed by HEV to transfusion safety in Australia is unknown; therefore, we aimed to measure the rate of current HEV infection in Australian blood donations. A total of 14,799 blood donations were tested for HEV RNA by transcription-mediated amplification, with confirmatory testing by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Viral load quantification and phylogenetic analysis was performed on HEV RNA-positive samples. One (0.0068%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0002%-0.0376%) sample was confirmed positive for HEV RNA, resulting in a risk of collecting a HEV-viremic donation of 1 in 14,799 (95% CI, 1 in 584,530 to 1 in 2,657). The viral load in this sample was approximately 15,000 IU/mL, and it was determined to be Genotype 3. Our finding of 1 in 14,799 Australian donations positive for HEV RNA is lower than that from many other developed countries; this is consistent with the relatively low seroprevalence in Australia. As this HEV RNA-positive sample was Genotype 3, it seems likely that this infection was acquired through zoonotic transmission, either within Australia or overseas in a developed nation. HEV has the potential to pose a risk to transfusion safety in Australia; however, additional, larger studies are required to quantify the magnitude of this risk. © 2016 AABB.
Morozova, O V; Bakhvalova, V N; Potapova, O F; Grishechkin, A E; Isaeva, E I; Aldarov, K V; Klinov, D V; Vorovich, M F
Among three main subtypes of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), the Siberian subtype is currently dominant in a majority of the endemic regions of Russia. However, inactivated vaccines are based on TBEV strains of the heterologous Far Eastern or the European subtypes isolated 40-77 years ago. To analyze the efficacy of the available vaccines against currently prevailing TBEV isolates of the Siberian subtype, mice were immunized subcutaneously three times (one group per each vaccine). The expression of seven cytokine genes was determined using RT-PCR. Sera were studied using homologous and heterologous ELISA, hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization tests with TBEV strains of the Far Eastern, Siberian and European subtypes. Cross-protective efficacy of the vaccines was evaluated with the TBEV strain 2689 of Siberian subtype isolated from an ixodid tick from the Novosibirsk, South-Western Siberia, Russia in 2010. The cytokine gene expression profile indicates a predominantly Th2 response due to exogenous antigen presentation. Titers for homologous combinations of vaccine strain and strain in ELISA, HI and neutralization tests exceeded those for heterologous antigen-antibody pairs. Despite antibody detection by means of ELISA, HI and neutralization tests, the mouse protection afforded by the vaccines differed significantly. Complete protection of mice challenged with 100 LD50 virus of the Siberian subtype was induced by the vaccine "Encevir" ("Microgen", Tomsk, Russia). The minimal immunization doze (MID50) of "Encevir" protecting 50% of the mice was less than 0.0016 ml. Partial protective effect of vaccines produced in Moscow, Russia and Austria revealed MID50 within recommended intervals (0.001-0.017 ml). However, the MID50 for the vaccine "Encepur" (Novartis, Germany) 0.04 ml exceeded acceptable limits with total loss of mice immunized with vaccine diluted 32, 100 and 320 fold. These results suggest regular evaluation of TBEV vaccines in regions
Kuehnert, Matthew J; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Moseley, Robin R; Pate, Lisa L; Galel, Susan A; Williamson, Phillip C; Busch, Michael P; Alsina, Jose O; Climent-Peris, Consuelo; Marks, Peter W; Epstein, Jay S; Nakhasi, Hira L; Hobson, J Peyton; Leiby, David A; Akolkar, Pradip N; Petersen, Lyle R; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda
Transfusion-transmitted infections have been documented for several arboviruses, including West Nile and dengue viruses (1). Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that has been identified as a cause of congenital microcephaly and other serious brain defects (2), became recognized as a potential threat to blood safety after reports from a 2013-2014 outbreak in French Polynesia. Blood safety concerns were based on very high infection incidence in the population at large during epidemics, the high percentage of persons with asymptomatic infection, the high proportion of blood donations with evidence of Zika virus nucleic acid upon retrospective testing, and an estimated 7-10-day period of viremia (3). At least one instance of transfusion transmission of Zika virus has been documented in Brazil after the virus emerged there, likely in 2014 (4). Rapid epidemic spread has followed to other areas of the Americas, including Puerto Rico.
Tenhola, Sirpa; Rahiala, Eero; Martikainen, Anneli; Halonen, Pirjo; Voutilainen, Raimo
Women with prior preeclamptic pregnancies have an increased risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Maternal preeclampsia has been associated with elevated blood pressure (BP) in offspring during childhood. The aim of our study was to determine whether elevated BP pressure and metabolic changes, such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and increased adrenal hormonal activity, are found in 12-yr-old children of preeclamptic mothers. Sixty children born after preeclamptic pregnancy (PRE) and 60 matched control subjects born after normotensive pregnancy (non-PRE) were studied at the age of 12 yr. The case-control pairs were matched for sex, gestational age (+/-1 wk), and size at birth. We measured BP and concentrations of blood glucose, serum fasting insulin, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and plasma epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE). Low density lipoprotein cholesterol was calculated according to the Friedewald-Fredrickson formula. The PRE children had significantly higher mean systolic (116.4 vs. 113.2 mm Hg; P = 0.021) and diastolic (73.9 vs. 70.3 mm Hg; P = 0.022) BP than the non-PRE children, even when adjusted by current weight and height. At 12 yr of age, systolic BP values correlated inversely with birth weight (r = -0.459; P < 0.001) and length SD scores (r = -0.429; P = 0.001) in the PRE children. The mean concentrations of serum total, low density lipoprotein, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides; fasting insulin; blood glucose; serum cortisol; and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate did not differ between the PRE and non-PRE groups. However, the mean plasma E concentration was higher in the PRE than in the non-PRE children (0.32 vs. 0.28 nmol/liter; P = 0.042), whereas the mean NE concentration did not differ between these two groups. In conclusion, 12-yr-old children born with maternal preeclampsia had elevated systolic and diastolic BPs and
Full Text Available Over the past decades, the risk of HBV transfusion–transmission has been steadily reduced through the recruitment of volunteer donors, the selection of donors based on risk-behavior evaluation, the development of increasingly more sensitive hepatitis B antigen (HBsAg assays, the use of hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc screening in some low-endemic countries, and the recent implementation of HBV nucleic acid testing (NAT. Despite this accumulation of blood safety measures, the desirable zero risk goal has yet to be achieved. The residual risk of HBV transfusion–transmission appears associated with the preseroconversion window period and occult HBV infection characterized by the absence of detectable HBsAg and extremely low levels of HBV DNA. Infected donations tested false-negative with serology and/or NAT still persist and derived blood components were shown to transmit the virus, although rarely. Questions regarding the apparent redundancy of some safety measures prompted debates on how to reduce the cost of HBV blood screening. In particular, accumulating data strongly suggests that HBsAg testing may add little, if any HBV risk reduction value when HBV NAT and anti-HBc screening also apply. Absence or minimal acceptable infectious risk needs to be assessed before considering discontinuing HBsAg. Nevertheless, HBsAg remains essential in high-endemic settings where anti-HBc testing cannot be implemented without compromising blood availability. HBV screening strategy should be decided according to local epidemiology, estimate of the infectious risk, and resources.
Shabani, Shkelzen; Kamio, Michiya; Derby, Charles D
When attacked by predators, diverse animals actively or passively release molecules that evoke alarm and related anti-predatory behavior by nearby conspecifics. The actively released molecules are alarm pheromones, whereas the passively released molecules are alarm cues. For example, many insects have alarm-signaling systems that involve active release of alarm pheromones from specialized glands and detection of these signals using specific sensors. Many crustaceans passively release alarm cues, but the nature of the cues, sensors and responses is poorly characterized. Here we show in laboratory and field experiments that injured Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, passively release alarm cues via blood (hemolymph) that induce alarm responses in the form of avoidance and suppression of feeding. These cues are detected exclusively through specific olfactory chemosensors, the aesthetasc sensilla. The alarm cues for Caribbean spiny lobsters are not unique to the species but do show some phylogenetic specificity: P. argus responds primarily with alarm behavior to conspecific blood, but with mixed alarm and appetitive behaviors to blood from the congener Panulirus interruptus, or with appetitive behaviors to blood from the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. This study lays the foundation for future neuroethological studies of alarm cue systems in this and other decapod crustaceans.
Huntington, Mark K; Allison, Jay; Nair, Dilip
Several mosquito-borne viral infections have recently emerged in North America; West Nile virus is the most common in the United States. Although West Nile virus generally causes a self-limited, flulike febrile illness, a serious neuroinvasive form may occur. Dengue is the most common vector-borne viral disease worldwide, and it has been a significant public health threat in the United States since 2009. Known as breakbone fever for its severe myalgias and arthralgias, dengue may cause a hemorrhagic syndrome. Chikungunya also causes flulike febrile illness and disabling arthralgias. Although meningoencephalitis may occur with chikungunya, bleeding is uncommon. Symptoms of Zika virus infection are similar to those of dengue, but milder. Zika virus increases the risk of fetal brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, if a pregnant woman is infected. Zika virus is spread through Aedes albopictus mosquito bites, is transmitted sexually, and may rarely spread nonsexually from person to person. Diagnosis of these vectorborne infections is clinical and serologic, and treatment is supportive. Other, well-established vector-borne diseases are also important. Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne bacterial disease that presents as a nonspecific syndrome of fever, headache, malaise, and myalgias. It is diagnosed via blood smear testing, with confirmatory serology. Ehrlichiosis is treated with doxycycline. Rickettsial infections are transmitted by fleas, mites, and ticks, and severity ranges from mild to life threatening. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, the most significant rickettsial infection, is primarily a clinical diagnosis that presents as fever, headache, myalgias, petechial rash, and tick exposure. Doxycycline is effective for rickettsial infections if administered promptly. Vector avoidance strategies are critical to the prevention of all of these infections.
Ohlsson, A; Vearncombe, M
The incidence, cause, and outcome of sepsis and the white blood cell response were studied in 6315 infants born in a regional perinatal unit. The incidence of neonatal sepsis was 6.5 per 1000 live births. Congenital sepsis (12 cases) was overwhelming, with associated maternal infection (92%), neutropenia (75%), and high rate of mortality (50%). The most common organism was Escherichia coli (58%). Gestational age and birth weight were similar in survivors and nonsurvivors. There was a strong correlation between total white blood cell count and both mature and immature neutrophil counts in survivors but this correlation decreased substantially in neonates that died. Analysis of variance indicated that the means for polymorphonuclear leukocyte and immature neutrophil counts were significantly higher in survivors. Nosocomial sepsis (38 cases) occurred in premature low birth weight infants receiving invasive, intensive care. The most common organism was Staphylococcus epidermidis (76%). Total white blood cell, polymorphonuclear leukocyte, and immature neutrophil counts rose significantly in response to sepsis. None died. Prevention of congenital sepsis requires methods to detect early maternal-fetal infection. Providing granulocytes to neutropenic neonates with congenital sepsis might improve outcome.
Nasrallah, Gheyath K.; Al Absi, Enas S.; Ghandour, Rula; Ali, Nadima H.; Taleb, Sara; Hedaya, Laila; Ali, Fatima; Huwaidy, Mariam; Husseini, Abdullatif
BACKGROUND Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an RNA virus transmitted mainly through zoonotic transmission or fecal–oral route. More than 80% of Qatar's population are expatriates, including many coming from hyperendemic countries; thus, it is important to estimate the seroprevalence and to compare between different nationalities. The results can be useful in alerting blood banks to the importance of HEV screening. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Samples from 5854 blood donations provided by Ham...
Thomas, F C
Bovine blood containing bluetongue virus was stored as whole blood with EDTA (4 degrees C), as washed cellular components (4 degrees C), and as washed cellular components with 10% DMSO (-70 degrees C). Periodic isolation attempts were made over a period of 330 days in four cell lines and embryonating chicken eggs (intravenous inoculation). Bluetongue virus was successfully isolated in all systems from most samples throughout the test period. There appeared to be more variation amongst days of...
Watt, Andrew D; Perez, Keyla A; Faux, Noel G; Pike, Kerryn E; Rowe, Christopher C; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Salvado, Olivier; Masters, Colin L; Villemagne, Victor L; Barnham, Kevin J
Diagnostic measures for Alzheimer's disease (AD) commonly rely on evaluating the levels of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of affected individuals. These levels are often combined with levels of an additional non-Aβ marker to increase predictive accuracy. Recent efforts to overcome the invasive nature of CSF collection led to the observation of Aβ species within the blood cellular fraction, however, little is known of what additional biomarkers may be found in this membranous fraction. The current study aimed to undertake a discovery-based proteomic investigation of the blood cellular fraction from AD patients (n = 18) and healthy controls (HC; n = 15) using copper immobilized metal affinity capture and Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Three candidate biomarkers were observed which could differentiate AD patients from HC (ROC AUC > 0.8). Bivariate pairwise comparisons revealed significant correlations between these markers and measures of AD severity including; MMSE, composite memory, brain amyloid burden, and hippocampal volume. A partial least squares regression model was generated using the three candidate markers along with blood levels of Aβ. This model was able to distinguish AD from HC with high specificity (90%) and sensitivity (77%) and was able to separate individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who converted to AD from MCI non-converters. While requiring further characterization, these candidate biomarkers reaffirm the potential efficacy of blood-based investigations into neurodegenerative conditions. Furthermore, the findings indicate that the incorporation of non-amyloid markers into predictive models, function to increase the accuracy of the diagnostic potential of Aβ.
Müller, Viktor; Marée, Athanasius F.M.; Boer, R.J. de
Kinetic parameters of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have been estimated from plasma virus levels following perturbation of the chronically infected (quasi-) steady state. We extend previous models by also considering the large pool of virus
Otsyula Moses G
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sykes' monkey and related forms (Cercopithecus mitis make up an abundant, widespread and morphologically diverse species complex in eastern Africa that naturally harbors a distinct simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVsyk. We carried out a retrospective serological survey of SIV infection from both wild and captive Sykes' monkeys from Kenya. We compared two commercially available, cross-reactive ELISA tests using HIV antigens with a novel SIVsyk antigen-specific Western blot assay and analyzed the data by origin, subspecies, age and sex. Results The SIVsyk antigen-specific Western blot assay detected more serum samples as positive than either of the cross-reactive ELISA assays. Using this assay, we found that seroprevalence is higher than previously reported, but extremely variable in wild populations (from 0.0 to 90.9%. Females were infected more often than males in both wild and captive populations. Seropositive infants were common. However, no seropositive juveniles were identified. Conclusion We have developed a specific and sensitive Western blot assay for anti-SIVsyk antibody detection. Sykes' monkeys are commonly infected with SIVsyk, but with extremely variable prevalence in the wild. Higher infection prevalence in females suggests predominantly sexual transmission. High infection prevalence in infants, but none in juveniles, suggests maternal antibodies, but little or no vertical transmission.
Koppelman, M. H. G. M.; Zaaijer, H. L.
Two considerations led us to study the genetic diversity and origin of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Dutch blood donors. Firstly, an HBV-infected Dutch blood donor was found negative by four assays used commonly for detection of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). How variable is HBsAg among HBV infected
Ponomareva, Eugenia P; Ternovoi, Vladimir A; Mikryukova, Tamara P; Protopopova, Elena V; Gladysheva, Anastasia V; Shvalov, Alexander N; Konovalova, Svetlana N; Chausov, Eugene V; Loktev, Valery B
The C11-13 strain from the Siberian subtype of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) was isolated from human brain using pig embryo kidney (PEK), 293, and Neuro-2a cells. Analysis of the complete viral genome of the C11-13 variants during six passages in these cells revealed that the cell-adapted C11-13 variants had multiple amino acid substitutions as compared to TBEV from human brain. Seven out of eight amino acids substitutions in the high-replicating C11-13(PEK) variant mapped to non-structural proteins; 13 out of 14 substitutions in the well-replicating C11-13(293) variant, and all four substitutions in the low-replicating C11-13(Neuro-2a) variant were also localized in non-structural proteins, predominantly in the NS2a (2), NS3 (6) and NS5 (3) proteins. The substitutions NS2a 1067 (Asn → Asp), NS2a 1168 (Leu → Val) in the N-terminus of NS2a and NS3 1745 (His → Gln) in the helicase domain of NS3 were found in all selected variants. We postulate that multiple substitutions in the NS2a, NS3 and NS5 genes play a key role in adaptation of TBEV to different cells.
In the last few decades through an awareness of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI), a majority of countries have mandated serology based blood screening assays for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, despite improved serology assays, the transfusion transmission of HIV, HCV, and HBV continues, primarily due to release of serology negative units that are infectious because of the window period (WP) and occult HBV infections (OBI). Effective mode of nucleic acid technology (NAT) testing of the viruses can be used to minimize the risk of TTIs. This review compiles the examples of NAT testing failures for all three viruses; analyzes the causes for failure, and the suggestions from retrospective studies to minimize such failures. The results suggest the safest path to be individual donation testing (ID) format for highest sensitivity, and detection of multiple regions for rapidly mutating and recombining viruses. The role of blood screening in the context of the donation and transfusion practices in India, the donor population, and the epidemiology is also discussed. World wide, as the public awareness of TTIs increases, as the recipient rights for safe blood are legally upheld, as the possibility to manage diseases such as hepatitis through expensive and prolonged treatment becomes accessible, and the societal responsibility to shoulder the health costs as in the case for HIV becomes routine, there is much to gain by preventing infections than treating diseases.
Full Text Available In the last few decades through an awareness of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI, a majority of countries have mandated serology based blood screening assays for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Hepatitis C virus (HCV, and Hepatitis B virus (HBV. However, despite improved serology assays, the transfusion transmission of HIV, HCV, and HBV continues, primarily due to release of serology negative units that are infectious because of the window period (WP and occult HBV infections (OBI. Effective mode of nucleic acid technology (NAT testing of the viruses can be used to minimize the risk of TTIs. This review compiles the examples of NAT testing failures for all three viruses; analyzes the causes for failure, and the suggestions from retrospective studies to minimize such failures. The results suggest the safest path to be individual donation testing (ID format for highest sensitivity, and detection of multiple regions for rapidly mutating and recombining viruses. The role of blood screening in the context of the donation and transfusion practices in India, the donor population, and the epidemiology is also discussed. World wide, as the public awareness of TTIs increases, as the recipient rights for safe blood are legally upheld, as the possibility to manage diseases such as hepatitis through expensive and prolonged treatment becomes accessible, and the societal responsibility to shoulder the health costs as in the case for HIV becomes routine, there is much to gain by preventing infections than treating diseases.
Robson Marcelo Di Piero
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus. However, the extracts did not protect the plants in experiments involving CABMV transmission by aphid vectors. An inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts on the virus particles was also demonstrated on Chenopodium quinoa, a CABMV local lesion host, by inoculating the plants with a mixture of extracts and virus suspension. Still in C. quinoa, the mushroom extracts from some isolates induced systemic resistance against the virus. These results showed that aqueous extracts from A. brasiliensis and L. edodes fruiting bodies had CABMV infectivity inhibitors, but that was not enough to control the viral disease on passion fruit plants at all, considering they were infected through a vector.O endurecimento dos frutos do maracujazeiro, causado pelo Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, é um dos problemas mais sérios que atingem a cultura. Tentativas de se obter plantas resistentes ao vírus ou estirpes fracas premunizantes não apresentaram sucesso até o momento. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de avaliar a proteção das plantas de maracujá contra o CABMV, utilizando preparações dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei, através da indução de resistência. Em experimentos conduzidos no interior de casa de vegetação, os extratos de basidiocarpos de ambos os cogumelos reduziram significativamente a incidência da virose em plantas de maracujá que tiveram as folhas pré-tratadas com esses extratos e que foram posteriormente inoculadas
Makkouk, Khaled M; Kumari, Safaa G
Cool-season food legumes (faba bean, lentil, chickpea and pea) and cereals (bread and durum wheat and barley) are the most important and widely cultivated crops in West Asia and North Africa (WANA), where they are the main source of carbohydrates and protein for the majority of the population. Persistently transmitted aphid-borne viruses pose a significant limitation to legume and cereal production worldwide. Surveys conducted in many countries in WANA during the last three decades established that the most important of these viruses are: Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV: genus Nanovirus; family Nanoviridae), Bean leafroll virus (BLRV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae), Beet western yellows virus (BWYV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae), Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae) and Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) which affect legume crops, and Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae), Barley yellow dwarf virus-MAV (BYDV-MAV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae) and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) which affect cereal crops. Loss in yield caused by these viruses is usually high when infection occurs early in the growing season. Many aphid vector species for the above-mentioned viruses are reported to be prevalent in the WANA region. In addition, in this region many wild species (annual or perennial) were found infected with these viruses and may play an important role in their ecology and spread. Fast spread of these diseases was always associated with high aphid vector populations and activity. Although virus disease management can be achieved by combining several control measures, development of resistant genotypes is undoubtedly one of the most appropriate control methods. Over the last three decades barley and wheat genotypes resistant to BYDV, faba bean genotypes resistant to BLRV, and
Perrin, Eliana M; O'Shea, T Michael; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Bose, Carl; Allred, Elizabeth N; Fichorova, Raina N; van der Burg, Jelske W; Leviton, Alan
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is associated with elevated blood concentrations of inflammation markers. It is not known to what extent inflammation precedes the development of obesity. METHODS: In a cohort of 882 infants born before 28 weeks of gestation, we examined relationships between
Weisheit, S.; Villar, M.; Tykalová, Hana; Popara, M.; Loecherbach, J.; Watson, M.; Růžek, Daniel; Grubhoffer, Libor; de la Fuente, J.; Fazakerley, J.K.; Bell-Sakyi, L.
Roč. 8, NOV 18 2015 (2015), s. 599 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-03044S; GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 238511 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tisk * Ixodes * flavivirus * tick-borne encephalitis virus * tick cell line * innate immunity * antiviral response Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2015
Maina, Solomon; Edwards, Owain R; de Almeida, Luis; Ximenes, Abel; Jones, Roger A C
Analysis of an RNA-seq library from cucumber leaf RNA extracted from a fast technology for analysis of nucleic acids (FTA) card revealed the first complete genome of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) from East Timor. We compare it with 35 complete CABYV genomes from other world regions. It most resembled the genome of the South Korean isolate HD118. Copyright © 2017 Maina et al.
Dubey, Anju; Sonker, Atul; Chaudhary, Rajendra K.
Introduction: Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country′s blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore t...
Kar, P; Bedi, P; Berry, N; Chakravorty, A; Gupta, R K; Saha, R; Das, B C
The prevalence of hepatitis G virus (HGV) has been determined in commercial as well as voluntary blood donors from India by detecting viral RNA genome using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. 45 professional blood donors from private blood banks and 50 healthy controls who opted for voluntary blood donation were recruited for the study. Both the groups were also screened serologically for HBV and HCV infection. The prevalence of HGV in the general population in India was found to be 4% but significantly a higher frequency (46.6%; pcommercial blood donors.
Kok Loon Wong
Full Text Available Human blood monocytes play a central role in dengue infections and form the majority of virus infected cells in the blood. Human blood monocytes are heterogeneous and divided into CD16(- and CD16(+ subsets. Monocyte subsets play distinct roles during disease, but it is not currently known if monocyte subsets differentially contribute to dengue protection and pathogenesis. Here, we compared the susceptibility and response of the human CD16(- and CD16(+ blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue virus in vitro. We found that both monocyte subsets were equally susceptible to dengue virus (DENV2 NGC, and capable of supporting the initial production of new infective virus particles. Both monocyte subsets produced anti-viral factors, including IFN-α, CXCL10 and TRAIL. However, CD16(+ monocytes were the major producers of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to dengue virus, including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, 3 and 4. The susceptibility of both monocyte subsets to infection was increased after IL-4 treatment, but this increase was more profound for the CD16(+ monocyte subset, particularly at early time points after virus exposure. These findings reveal the differential role that monocyte subsets might play during dengue disease.
Lindblom, Pontus; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Fryland, Linda; Matussek, Andreas; Haglund, Mats; Sjöwall, Johanna; Vene, Sirkka; Nyman, Dag; Forsberg, Pia; Lindgren, Per-Eric
We performed a cross-sectional study including 533 individuals (median age 61) from the highly TBE endemic Åland Islands in the archipelago between Sweden and Finland. Blood samples, questionnaires and vaccination records were obtained from all study participants. The aim was to investigate if there was any association between TBEV antibody titer and 12 health-related factors. Measurement of TBEV IgG antibodies was performed using two commercial ELISA assays (Enzygnost and Immunozym), and a third in-house rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test was used to measure TBEV neutralizing antibodies. The age of the individual and the number of vaccine doses were the two most important factors determining the immunological response to vaccination. The response to each vaccine dose declined linearly with increased age. A 35 year age difference corresponds to a vaccine dose increment from 3 to 4 to achieve the same immunological response. Participants previously vaccinated against other flaviviruses had lower odds of being seropositive for neutralizing TBEV antibodies on average, while participants with self-reported asthma had higher odds of being seropositive. By comparing the 3 serological assays we show that the Enzygnost and Immunozym assay differ due to choice of cutoffs, but not in overall accuracy.
Zaller, Nickolas; Nelson, Kenrad E.; Aladashvili, Malvina; Badridze, Nino; Rio, Carlos del; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz
Background: Growing awareness about the importance of blood safety for controlling the transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has helped to decrease the spread of this virus in many settings. This study was conducted in order to evaluate potential risk factors for HCV infection among blood donors in Georgia. Methods: The study population consisted of 553 blood donors in three major Georgian cities; Tbilisi, the capital city and Batumi and Poti, naval port cities. Risk factors were examined using a behavior questionnaire. All blood samples were initially tested using 3rd generation anti-HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and confirmed using recombinant immunoblot assays and nucleic acid testing. Results: Forty-three blood donors, 7.8%, were confirmed HCV positive. Significant risk factors included: drug injection ever (OR: 42; 95% CI: 3.2-550.7); history of hepatitis (OR: 25.9; 95% CI: 4.6-145.5); history of a previous surgical procedure (OR: 148.4; 95% CI: 26.9-817.4); blood transfusion (OR: 25.9; 95% CI: 3.2-210.9). Conclusions: This study found a very high prevalence of HCV among blood donors in Georgia. The main risk factor for HCV infection in this population of blood donors was previous contact with contaminated blood or blood products. Reliable screening of donors and their blood is critical for controlling the further spread of HCV in Georgia
Jackson, Bryan T; Brewster, Carlyle C; Paulson, Sally L
The effects of La Crosse virus (LACV) infection on blood feeding behavior in Aedes triseriatus (Say) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were investigated in the laboratory by measuring the size of the bloodmeal imbibed and the extent of refeeding by virus-infected and uninfected mosquitoes. LACV-infected Ae. triseriatus and Ae. albopictus took significantly less blood compared with uninfected mosquitoes. Twice as many virus-infected Ae. triseriatus mosquitoes refed compared with uninfected individuals (18 vs. 9%; P < 0.05); however, virus infection had no significant effect on the refeeding rate of Ae. albopictus. Reduction in bloodmeal size followed by an increased avidity for refeeding may lead to enhanced horizontal transmission of the LACV by its principal vector, Ae. triseriatus.
It is well known that water-borne enteric viruses are concentrated by bivalves. Why these viruses are selectively retained and remain infectious within shellfish tissues for extended periods is unknown. Our current hypothesis is that phagocytic hemocytes (blood cells) are a site of virus persiste...
Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Ujhelyi, Eszter; Neaigus, Alan
We assessed the prevalence of HIV and selected blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections among a convenience sample of 64 residents of Dzsumbuj, a predominantly Roma (Gypsy) neighbourhood in Budapest, Hungary. No cases of HIV were detected, while the prevalence of Hepatitis B infection (anti-HBc) was 27% and syphilis prevalence was 2%. Romas (n=50) were significantly more likely than non-Romas (n=14) to have HAV antibodies (80% vs. 43%) and less likely to be HBV immunized (anti-HBs only; 6% vs. 29%). Current drug injectors (n=13) were more likely than non-injectors (n=51) to have antibodies against HAV (85% vs. 69%) and HCV (85% vs. 8%). While HIV has not been introduced in this population, risk conditions for a potentially explosive HIV epidemic are present. Health care policies should focus on expanding coverage for HAV and HBV immunizations, and access to HIV preventive services needs to be extended to marginalized, mostly minority populations, such as the Roma in Europe. PMID:18935777
Background: HTLV type I/II is a blood borne infection that can be transmitted via blood transfusion. Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of human T – lymphotropic virus among blood donors in Osogbo, Nigeria. Methods: Diagnosis of Human T. Lymphotropic virus antigen was carried out on 372 serum samples ...
Full Text Available Abstract Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR has limited sensitivity when treating complicated samples, such as feces, waste-water in farms, and nucleic acids, protein rich tissue samples, all the factors may interfere with the sensitivity of PCR test or generate false results. In this study, we developed a sensitive RT-PCR, combination of red blood cell adsorption, for detecting Newcastle disease virus (NDV. One pair of primers which was highly homologous to three NDV pathotypes was designed according to the consensus nucleocapsid protein (NP gene sequence. To eliminate the interfere of microbes and toxic substances, we concentrated and purified NDV from varied samples utilizing the ability of NDV binding red blood cells (RBCs. The RT-PCR coupled with red blood cell adsorption was much more sensitive in comparison with regular RT-PCR. The approach could also be used to detect other viruses with the property of hemagglutination, such as influenza viruses.
Reisen, W.K.; Hahn, D.C.
The rapid geographic spread of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) across the United States has stimulated interest in comparative host infection studies to delineate competent avian hosts critical for viral amplification. We compared the host competence of four taxonomically related blackbird species (Icteridae) after experimental infection with WNV and with two endemic, mosquito-borne encephalitis viruses, western equine encephalomyelitis virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, WEEV), and St, Louis encephalitis virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, SLEV). We predicted differences in disease resistance among the blackbird species based on differences in life history, because they differ in geographic range and life history traits that include mating and breeding systems. Differences were observed among the response of these hosts to all three viruses, Red-winged Blackbirds were more susceptible to SLEV than Brewer's Blackbirds, whereas Brewer's Blackbirds were more susceptible to WEEV than Red-winged Blackbirds. In response to WNV infection, cowbirds showed the lowest mean viremias, cleared their infections faster, and showed lower antibody levels than concurrently infected species. Brown-headed Cowbirds also exhibited significantly lower viremia responses after infection with SLEV and WEEV as well as coinfection with WEEV and WNV than concurrently infected icterids. We concluded that cowbirds may be more resistant to infection to both native and introduced viruses because they experience heightened exposure to a variety of pathogens of parenting birds during the course of their parasitic life style.
de Fabritus, Lauriane; Nougairède, Antoine; Aubry, Fabien; Gould, Ernest A; de Lamballerie, Xavier
Large-scale codon re-encoding is a new method of attenuating RNA viruses. However, the use of infectious clones to generate attenuated viruses has inherent technical problems. We previously developed a bacterium-free reverse genetics protocol, designated ISA, and now combined it with large-scale random codon-re-encoding method to produce attenuated tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a pathogenic flavivirus which causes febrile illness and encephalitis in humans. We produced wild-type (WT) and two re-encoded TBEVs, containing 273 or 273+284 synonymous mutations in the NS5 and NS5+NS3 coding regions respectively. Both re-encoded viruses were attenuated when compared with WT virus using a laboratory mouse model and the relative level of attenuation increased with the degree of re-encoding. Moreover, all infected animals produced neutralizing antibodies. This novel, rapid and efficient approach to engineering attenuated viruses could potentially expedite the development of safe and effective new-generation live attenuated vaccines.
Liu, R.; Bennett, S. N.; Thongsripong, P.; Chandler, J. S.
Mosquitoes have long been vectors for disease, and humans, birds, and other vertebrates have served their role as hosts in the transmission cycle of arthropod-borne viruses. In California, there are several mosquito species that act as vectors, transmitting such disease agents as Western equine and St. Louis encephalitis viruses, filarial nematodes, Plasmodium (which causes malaria), and West Nile virus (WNV). Last year (2012-2013), California had over 450 reported cases of West Nile Virus in humans (http://westnile.ca.gov/). To begin to understand mosquitoes and their role in the bay area as vectors of diseases, including West Nile Virus, we trapped mosquitoes from various sites and examined their microbiomes, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and eukaryotes. Study sites were in Marin, San Mateo, and San Francisco counties, in areas that represented, respectively, rural, suburban, and urban habitats. The mosquitoes were identified through morphological characteristics, and verified molecularly by sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene extracted from a leg. Most mosquitoes were collected from San Mateo and Mill Valley and were identified as Culiseta incidens. Data from traditional culture-based and next-generation 454 sequencing methods applied to mosquito whole bodies, representing their microbiomes, will be discussed, to determine how mosquito and microbial diversity varies across sites sampled in the San Francisco Bay area.
Kash, John C; Walters, Kathie-Anne; Kindrachuk, Jason; Baxter, David; Scherler, Kelsey; Janosko, Krisztina B; Adams, Rick D; Herbert, Andrew S; James, Rebekah M; Stonier, Spencer W; Memoli, Matthew J; Dye, John M; Davey, Richard T; Chertow, Daniel S; Taubenberger, Jeffery K
The 2013-2015 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone was unprecedented in the number of documented cases, but there have been few published reports on immune responses in clinical cases and their relationships with the course of illness and severity of Ebola virus disease. Symptoms of Ebola virus disease can include severe headache, myalgia, asthenia, fever, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and hemorrhage. Although experimental treatments are in development, there are no current U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapies. We report a detailed study of host gene expression as measured by microarray in daily peripheral blood samples collected from a patient with severe Ebola virus disease. This individual was provided with supportive care without experimental therapies at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center from before onset of critical illness to recovery. Pearson analysis of daily gene expression signatures revealed marked gene expression changes in peripheral blood leukocytes that correlated with changes in serum and peripheral blood leukocytes, viral load, antibody responses, coagulopathy, multiple organ dysfunction, and then recovery. This study revealed marked shifts in immune and antiviral responses that preceded changes in medical condition, indicating that clearance of replicating Ebola virus from peripheral blood leukocytes is likely important for systemic viral clearance. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Dengue is an urban arbovirus whose aetiologic agent is the flavivirus with four distinct antigen serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4) that is transmitted to humans through the bite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Ghana is endemic for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and probably dengue viruses. Due to limited data ...
Movilla, Rebeca; Altet, Laura; Serrano, Lorena; Tabar, María-Dolores; Roura, Xavier
The spleen is a highly perfused organ involved in the immunological control and elimination of vector-borne pathogens (VBP), which could have a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of splenic disease. This study aimed to evaluate certain VBP in samples from dogs with splenic lesions. Seventy-seven EDTA-blood and 64 splenic tissue samples were collected from 78 dogs with splenic disease in a Mediterranean area. Babesia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp., Hepatozoon canis, Leishmania infantum, hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. and Rickettsia spp. were targeted using PCR assays. Sixty EDTA-blood samples from dogs without evidence of splenic lesions were included as a control group. More than half (51.56%) of the biopsies (33/64) were consistent with benign lesions and 48.43% (31/64) with malignancy, mostly hemangiosarcoma (25/31). PCR yielded positive results in 13 dogs with spleen alterations (16.67%), for Babesia canis (n = 3), Babesia gibsoni (n = 2), hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. (n = 2), Rickettsia massiliae (n = 1) and "Babesia vulpes" (n = 1), in blood; and for B. canis, B. gibsoni, Ehrlichia canis and L. infantum (n = 1 each), in spleen. Two control dogs (3.3%) were positive for B. gibsoni and H. canis (n = 1 each). Benign lesions were detected in the 61.54% of infected dogs (8/13); the remaining 38.46% were diagnosed with malignancies (5/13). Infection was significantly associated to the presence of splenic disease (P = 0.013). There was no difference in the prevalence of infection between dogs with benign and malignant splenic lesions (P = 0.69); however B. canis was more prevalent in dogs with hemangiosarcoma (P = 0.006). VBP infection could be involved in the pathogenesis of splenic disease. The immunological role of the spleen could predispose to alterations of this organ in infected dogs. Interestingly, all dogs with B. canis infection were diagnosed with hemangiosarcoma in the present survey. As previously
Jungbauer, C; Hourfar, M K; Stiasny, K; Aberle, S W; Cadar, D; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Mayr, W R
Eastern Austria is neighbouring regions with ongoing West Nile virus (WNV) transmissions. Three human WNV infections had been diagnosed during the past decade in Austria. The Austrian Red Cross Blood Service (ARC-BS) started a first voluntary screening for WNV in blood donors from Eastern Austria by Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) in June 2014. This is also the most extensive WNV surveillance programme in humans in Austria so far. In August 2014, one autochthonous WNV infection was detected in a blood donor from Vienna. By now, one in 67,800 whole blood donations was found to be positive for WNV RNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gislanne Brito Barros
Full Text Available Dentre os vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. destacam-se, respectivamente, pela severidade e ampla ocorrência o Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV e o Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV. Portanto, objetivaram-se, no presente trabalho, obter e avaliar plantas de feijão-caupi com resistência ao CPSMV e ao CABMV, visando ao desenvolvimento de cultivares essencialmente derivadas e novas cultivares. Realizaram-se oito cruzamentos seguidos de retrocruzamentos, utilizando a linhagem TE 97-309G-9 e a cultivar Patativa como genitores resistentes, e as cultivares BR3-Tracuateua, BRS-Urubuquara, BRS-Novaera, BRS-Guariba e Pretinho como genitores suscetíveis. As gerações F2 e F2RC1 foram desafiadas quanto à resistência por meio de inoculação mecânica com isolados do CPSMV e do CABMV. Nas gerações F2RC1, além da resistência foram avaliados os caracteres: número de dias para o início da floração, comprimento das vagens, número de grãos. vagem-1, peso de cem grãos e produção de grãos.planta-1. Todos os indivíduos F2 e F2RC1 foram analisados pelo teste χ² e se ajustaram à frequência esperada de 15 plantas suscetíveis 1 planta resistente a ambos os vírus. As médias das plantas F2RC1 resistentes, de cada retrocruzamento, foram comparadas com a média do seu respectivo genitor recorrente pelo teste 't' e as médias dos retrocruzamentos foram comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. Foi detectada variabilidade genética entre os retrocruzamentos para todos os caracteres. Todos os retrocruzamentos foram considerados promissores para produção de cultivares essencialmente derivadas resistentes ao CPSMV e ao CABMV e as plantas selecionadas possuem características que possibilitam a seleção de linhagens com grãos de bom padrão comercial e altamente produtivas.
Adams, Zachary; Morris, Gail; Campbell, Todd; Mostert, Karen; Dibdin, Nicholas; Fearon, Margaret; Elmoazzen, Heidi; Mercer, Dena; Young, Kimberly; Allan, David
Zika virus has emerged as a potential threat to the Canadian blood supply system. Stem cell donors within Canadian Blood Services' Cord Blood Bank (CBB) and OneMatch Stem Cell and Marrow Network (OM) now undergo screening measures designed to reduce the risk of Zika virus transmission. The impact these screening measures have on cord blood and unrelated adult stem cell donations is currently unknown. Among 146 donor workups initiated by OM between July 2016 and May 2017, 102 were completed and 44 workups were canceled. There were 17 potential donors (11.6%) with a risk of Zika virus exposure identified by the donor questionnaire (13 completed, 4 canceled workups). None of the workups involved a donor diagnosed with confirmed Zika virus within the past 6 months. Only 1 of the 44 canceled workups (and only 1 of 4 cases with a risk of Zika transmission) was canceled because of the risk of Zika transmission, and a backup donor was selected. Canadian Blood Services' CBB identified 25 of 875 cord blood units (2.9%) from women who donated their infants' cord blood and underwent screening that otherwise met the initial cell number thresholds for banking and had at least 1 risk factor for exposure to Zika virus. No women were diagnosed with Zika virus at any point of their pregnancy. All 25 units were discarded. Unrelated donors at OM have a higher incidence of a risk of exposure to Zika virus compared with cord blood donors. Only rarely did transplant centers cancel donor workups due to potential Zika virus exposure. The impact of screening for Zika virus exposure risk on cord blood banking was minor. Continued vigilance and surveillance is recommended. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bakker, Nicolaas A.; Verschuuren, Erik A.; Veeger, Nic J.; van der Bij, Wim; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W.; Kallenberg, Cees G.; Hepkema, Bouke G.
Background: Monitoring of the Epstein-Barr virus-DNA load is frequently used to identify patients at risk for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). Epstein-Barr virus DNA can be measured in the plasma and whole blood serum compartments. Methods: We compared levels of Epstein-Barr virus
Dusek, Robert J.; Richardson, D.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Heisey, Dennis M.
A marked decline in the Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpecker [RCW]) population at Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge, MS, was observed in 2002. Demographic changes - including absence of hatch-year birds, decreases in size of known groups, and loss of known groups-were identified during annual fall surveys and are uncharacteristic of RCW populations. In 2003, a serosurvey of 28 adult RCWs was conducted to investigate the presence of West Nile virus (WNV) exposure in the population, possibly providing insight into whether WNV may have been responsible for this decline. Blood smears were also examined from these birds for blood parasites. We found no evidence of West Nile virus exposure or blood parasites in any of the RCWs sampled. Further monitoring of the RCW population and WNV activity in other species at Noxubee NWR is recommended to further evaluate the potential role of WNV and blood parasites in their decline.
Brito, Barbara P; Gardner, Ian A; Hietala, Sharon K; Crossley, Beate M
Bluetongue is a vector-borne viral disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. The epidemiology of this disease has recently changed, with occurrence in new geographic areas. Various real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR) assays are used to detect Bluetongue virus (BTV); however, the impact of biologic differences between New World camelids and domestic ruminant samples on PCR efficiency, for which the BTV real-time qRT-PCR was initially validated are unknown. New world camelids are known to have important biologic differences in whole blood composition, including hemoglobin concentration, which can alter PCR performance. In the present study, sheep, cattle, and alpaca blood were spiked with BTV serotypes 10, 11, 13, and 17 and analyzed in 10-fold dilutions by real-time qRT-PCR to determine if species affected nucleic acid recovery and assay performance. A separate experiment was performed using spiked alpaca blood subsequently diluted in 10-fold series in sheep blood to assess the influence of alpaca blood on performance efficiency of the BTV real-time qRT-PCR assay. Results showed that BTV-specific nucleic acid detection from alpaca blood was consistently 1-2 logs lower than from sheep and cattle blood, and results were similar for each of the 4 BTV serotypes analyzed.
Hönig, Václav; Švec, P.; Halas, Petr; Vavrušková, Zuzana; Tykalová, Hana; Kilian, Patrik; Vetišková, Vendula; Dorňáková, Veronika; Štěrbová, Jarmila; Šimonová, Zuzana; Erhart, Jan; Štěrba, Ján; Golovchenko, Maryna; Rudenko, Natalia; Grubhoffer, Libor
Roč. 6, č. 5 (2015), s. 559-567 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/09/H026; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * tick-borne encephalitis * ixodes ricinus * environmental factors * lyme borreliosis Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (BC-A) Impact factor: 2.690, year: 2015 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S1877959X15000783/1-s2.0-S1877959X15000783-main.pdf?_tid=8785a702-8de3-11e5-bd28-00000aacb35f&acdnat=1447844587_a91b4e4d404a70fda98b06e4950edb11
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the patients who have antisocial personality disorder (ASPD and the healthy individuals in terms of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections (BTIs prevalences. Methods: This study is a prospective, single-center, open-label, non-randomized controlled clinical study. There were two groups in the study. The patient group consistsed of 100 males who were diagnosed as ASPD with a clinical interview form. The control group consisted of 98 healthy males who did not have any psychiatric disorder. Dermatologic examination was performed, and clinical findings were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patient group was 21.96±2.40 (range 20-37 years. The mean age of the control group was 24.20±2.88 (21-36 years. The most common disease was gonorrhea (25% followed by genital wart (11%, molluskum contagiosum (5%, HBsAg (4%, and HSV-2 seropositivity (4% in the patients group. In the control group, HSV-2 seropositivity (4.08%, genital wart (3.06%, molluskum contagiosum (3.06%, and gonorrhe (1.02% were commonly seen in the control group. STDs and/or BVTIs were found more common in the patients group (82% than that in the control group (45.91% (X2=30.62, p=0.000. Conclusions: The patients with ASPD are at greater risk than normal population to catch a STDs or BTIs because of their lower educational levels and riskier behaviors. This condition entertains a risk in the general population and the patients themselves.
Lani, R; Mohd Rahim, N F; Hassan, H; Yaghoobi, R; Chang, L-Y; AbuBakar, S; Zandi, K
The Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), which is transmitted by the ticks of Hyalomma spp. in general and H. marginatumin particular, can cause severe disease in humans, with mortality rates of 3-30%. Other than from the bites of infected ticks, CCHFV can also be transmitted through contact with patients with the acute phase of infection or contact with blood or tissues from viraemic livestock. Outbreaks of human cases of haemorrhagic manifestations have been documented since 1945 and described in parts of Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East and most recently India in 2011. In addition, serological evidence of the disease has been reported in some countries where no human cases were reported. As regional neighbours China and India have been affected by this virus, this study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of CCHFV among Orang Asli population of Malaysia as the most at risk people who residing in the deep forests. A total of 682 serum samples were collected from the Orang Asli population residing in eight states in peninsular Malaysia and analysed for the presence of anti-CCHFV immunoglobulin G (IgG) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The study subjects comprised 277 (40.6%) men and 405 (59.4%) women. However, anti-CCHFV IgG was detected in only one female serum sample (0.1%). The presence of anti-CCHFV IgG could not be correlated to age or sex from these findings. The results of this screening survey showed that the seroprevalence of the anti-CCHFV IgG among Malaysia's Orang Asli population is too low for detection or totally negative compared with that in neighbouring countries, such as India and China.
Mavenyengwa, Rooyen T; Mukesi, Munyaradzi; Chipare, Israel; Shoombe, Esra
Transfusion Transmissible Infections (TTIs) such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), syphilis, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are infections which are common in some communities in Southern Africa. It is important to screen blood donations for these infections. This is a retrospective study which involved reviewing of previous blood donation records for the year 2012 in Namibia. The records were analyzed to determine the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, Hepatitis B and C among blood donations with regard to gender, age and geographical region of the donors. The findings indicated a significantly low prevalence of HIV, syphilis, HBsAg and anti-Hepatitis C among the blood donations. A low infection rate of 1.3% by any of the four tested TTIs was found among the blood donations given by the donor population in Namibia in 2012. The blood donations given by the donor population in Namibia has a low infection rate with the HIV, syphilis, HBsAg and anti-HCV. A strict screening regime must continue to be used as the infections are still present albeit in small numbers.
Frolova, T V; Pogodina, V V; Frolova, M P; Karmysheva, V Ia
The properties of the Vasilchenko strain of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and its 3 variants isolated at various stages of persistent infection (383, 453, and 535 days) in Macaca rhesus monkeys and Syrian hamsters with different forms of the chronic TBE were studied. The process characterized by chronic focal inflammatory-degenerative changes in the brains of hamsters without the disturbance of motor functions was associated with persistence of different kinds of virus-specific antigens without virulent virus production. Brain explants of this group of hamsters yielded a virus with cytopathogenic properties but not pathogenic for mice. In a chronic disease developing without the initial acute period, a virus was recovered from hamsters which proved to be virulent for mice and to possess the hemagglutinating and high invasive activity. The most virulent strain was isolated from monkeys with continuously progressive chronic encephalitis with steady paralysis of the extremities. This isolate differed from the parental Vasilchenko strain by a high pathogenicity for hamsters by intracerebral and subcutaneous routes, and thermostability at 50 degrees C.
MacLachlan, N J; Nunamaker, R A; Katz, J B; Sawyer, M M; Akita, G Y; Osburn, B I; Tabachnick, W J
The interval after infection when bluetongue virus (BTV) was present in the blood of calves inoculated with BTV serotype 10 (BTV 10) was evaluated by virus isolation (VI) in embryonated chicken eggs (ECE), BTV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and in vitro blood feeding of vector Culicoides variipennis (C.v.) sonorensis. BTV nucleic acid was detected by PCR in blood cells for 16 to 20 weeks after infection whereas infectious virus was detected by VI in ECE for 2 to 8 weeks. BTV was detected in calf blood by in vitro feeding of C.v. sonorensis for only 0 to 2 weeks after inoculation of calves with BTV 10. Selected bloods which were positive by PCR analysis but not by VI in ECE were not infectious for sheep. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged viremia in BTV-infected cattle results from association of the virus with blood cells, especially erythrocytes. The fact that calf blood that contained viral nucleic acid as determined by PCR analysis, but not infectious virus as determined by VI in ECE, was not infectious for either the insect vector or sheep suggests that cattle whose blood contains BTV nucleic acid but not infectious virus are unimportant to the epidemiology of BTV infection.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV infection is usually restricted to the respiratory epithelium. Few studies have documented the presence of RSV in the systemic circulation, however there is no consistent information whether virus detection in the blood correlates with disease severity. Methods Balb/c mice were inoculated with live RSV, heat-inactivated RSV or medium. A subset of RSV-infected mice was treated with anti-RSV antibody 72 h post-inoculation. RSV RNA loads were measured by PCR in peripheral blood from day 1-21 post-inoculation and were correlated with upper and lower respiratory tract viral loads, the systemic cytokine response, lung inflammation and pulmonary function. Immunohistochemical staining was used to define the localization of RSV antigens in the respiratory tract and peripheral blood. Results RSV RNA loads were detected in peripheral blood from day 1 to 14 post-inoculation, peaked on day 5 and significantly correlated with nasal and lung RSV loads, airway obstruction, and blood CCL2 and CXCL1 expression. Treatment with anti-RSV antibody reduced blood RSV RNA loads and improved airway obstruction. Immunostaining identified RSV antigens in alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes. Conclusions RSV RNA was detected in peripheral blood upon infection with live RSV, followed a time-course parallel to viral loads assessed in the respiratory tract and was significantly correlated with RSV-induced airway disease.
Lieshout-Krikke, R. W.; Molenaar-de Backer, M. W. A.; van Swieten, P.; Zaaijer, H. L.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) is a reliable marker for HBV infection, but HBsAg-negative forms of HBV infection occur. The introduction of HBV DNA screening of Dutch blood donors, which were not preselected for absence of HBV core antibodies, enabled the characterization of
Zaaijer, H. L.; Torres, P.; Ontañón, A.; Ponte, L. González; Koppelman, M. H. G. M.; Lelie, P. N.; Hemert, F. J. van; Boot, H. J.
Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by the presence of HBV DNA while the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) remains undetectable. The HBV genomes in five asymptomatic blood donors with occult HBV infection and low viremia ( <10 to 1,000 HBV DNA copies/mL, genotype D) were studied. An
Slot, E.; Hogema, B. M.; Riezebos-Brilman, A.; Kok, T. M.; Molier, M.; Zaaijer, H. L.
In Europe, the dynamics of endemic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection remain enigmatic. We studied the presence of silent HEV infection among Dutch blood donors. Using donations collected throughout the Netherlands in 2011 and 2012, 40,176 donations were tested for HEV RNA in 459 pools of 48 or 480
Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Dengue Virus Transmission by Blood Stem Cell Donor after Travel to Sri Lanka; Germany, 2013. Created: 9/22/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 10/8/2014.
Background: The hepatitis C Virus (HCV) has become an important cause of chronic liver disease and liver cancerworldwide. Blood transfusion is one of the importantmodes of transmission. There is need to study the prevalence among those at risk such as sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients. Such information will broaden ...
Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Kootstra, Neeltje A.
HIV-1 can be isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and is easily propagated on primary cells in vitro. Here we describe the method for bulk isolation of the HIV-1 quasispecies and a limiting dilution virus isolation protocol by which single coexisting clones can be obtained. In addition,
Růžek, Daniel; Gritsun, T. S.; Forrester, N. L.; Gould, E. A.; Kopecký, Jan; Golovchenko, Maryna; Rudenko, Natalia; Grubhoffer, Libor
Roč. 374, č. 2 (2008), s. 249-255 ISSN 0042-6822 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/08/1509; GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/1479; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Grant - others:European Commission(GB) LSHG-CT-2004-511960 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus * neuroinvasiveness * viral phenotype Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.539, year: 2008
Full Text Available Regular screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively, and Treponema pallidum, in blood donors is essential to guaranteeing clinical transfusion safety. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG.A retrospective survey of blood donors from January 2011 to April 2013 was conducted to assess the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. The medical records were analyzed to verify the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donations stratified by gender, age and geographical region.Of the total 2937 consecutive blood donors, 1098 (37.39% had a minimum of one TTI and 185 (6.29% harbored co-infections. The general seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 7.83%, 10.01%, 3.71% and 21.51%, respectively. The most frequent TTI co-infections were HBV-T. pallidum 60 (2.04% and HIV-T. pallidum 46 (1.57%. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were highest among blood donors 38 to 47 years, 18 to 27 years and ≥ 48 years age, respectively (P<0.05. The seroprevalence of TTIs varied according to the population from which the blood was collected on Bioko Island.Our results firstly provide a comprehensive overview of TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island. Strict screening of blood donors and improved hematological examinations using standard operating procedures are recommended.
Saleem, M; Bilal, M; Anwar, S; Rehman, A; Ahmed, M
We present the optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra were acquired from 18 blood serum samples using a laser at 532 nm as the excitation source. A multivariate regression model based on partial least-squares regression is developed that uses Raman spectra to predict dengue infection with leave-one-sample-out cross validation. The prediction of dengue infection by our model yields correlation coefficient r 2 values of 0.9998 between the predicted and reference clinical results. The model was tested for six unknown human blood sera and found to be 100% accurate in accordance with the clinical results. (letter)
Full Text Available Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs from blood are increasingly recognized as biomarker candidates for human diseases. Clinical routine settings frequently include blood sampling in tubes with EDTA as anticoagulant without considering the influence of phlebotomy on the overall miRNA expression pattern. We collected blood samples from six healthy individuals each in an EDTA blood collection tube. Subsequently, the blood was transferred into PAXgeneTM tubes at three different time points, i.e. directly (0 min, 10 min, and 2 h after phlebotomy. As control blood was also directly collected in PAXgeneTM blood RNA tubes that contain a reagent to directly lyse blood cells and stabilize their content. For all six blood donors at the four conditions (24 samples we analyzed the abundance of 1,205 miRNAs by human Agilent miRNA V16 microarrays.While we found generally a homogenous pattern of the miRNA abundance in all 24 samples, the duration of the EDTA treatment appears to influence the miRNA abundance of specific miRNAs. The most significant changes are observed after longer EDTA exposition. Overall, the impact of the different blood sample conditions on the miRNA pattern was substantially lower than intra-individual variations. While samples belonging to one of the six individuals mostly cluster together, there was no comparable clustering for any of the four tested blood sampling conditions. The most affected miRNA was miR-769-3p that was not detected in any of the six PAXgene blood samples, but in all EDTA 2h samples. Accordingly, hsa-miR-769-3p was also the only miRNA that showed a significantly different abundance between the 4 blood sample conditions by an ANOVA analysis (Benjamini-Hochberg adjusted p-value of 0.003. Validation by qRT-PCR confirmed this finding.The pattern of blood-borne miRNA abundance is rather homogenous between the four tested blood sample conditions of six blood donors. There was a clustering between the miRNA profiles that belong
Renneboog, Nathan; Gathings, David; Hemmings, Sarah; Makasa, Emmanuel; Omer, Wigdan; Tipre, Meghan; Wright, Catherine; McAllister, Marilyn; Luvall, Jeffrey C.
West Nile Virus is a mosquito-borne virus of the family Flaviviridae. It infects birds and various mammals, including humans, and can cause encephalitis that may prove fatal, notably among vulnerable populations. Since its identification in New York City in 1999, WNV has become established in a broad range of ecological settings throughout North America, infecting more than 25,300 people and killing 1133 as of 2008 (CDC,2009). WNV is transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on infected birds. As a result, the degree of human infection depends on local ecology and human exposure. This study hypothesizes that remote sensing and GIS can be used to analyze environmental determinants of WNV transmission, such as climate, elevation, land cover, and vegetation densities, to map areas of WNV risk for surveillance and intervention.
[Genetic characterisation of Powassan virus (POWV) isolated from Haemophysalis longicornis ticks in Primorye and two strains of Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus): Alma-Arasan virus (AAV) isolated from Ixodes persulcatus ticks in Kazakhstan and Malyshevo virus isolated from Aedes vexans nipponii mosquitoes in Khabarovsk kray].
L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Botikov, A G; Aristova, V A
The complete genomes of the three tick-borne flaviviruses (genus Flavivirus, fam. Bunyaviridae) were sequenced: Povassan virus (POWV, strain LEIV-3070Prm, isolated from Haemophysalis logicornis in Primorsky Krai, Russia in 1977), Alma-Arasan virus (AAV, strain LEIV-1380Kaz, isolated from Ixodes persulcatus ticks in Kazakhstan in 1977) and Malyshevo virus (isolated from a pool of Aedes vexans nipponii mosquitoes, in the Khabarovsk Krai, Russia in 1978). It is shown that AAV and Malyshevo virus are the strains of Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and belong to Sibirian and Far-Eastern genotypes, respectively (GenBank ID: AAV KJ744033; strain Malyshevo KJ744034). Phylogenetically AAV is closest related (94,6% nt and 98,3% aa identity) to TBEV strains, isolated in Sibiria (Vasilchenko, Aino, Chita-653, Irkutsk-12). Malyshevo virus is closest related (96,4% nt and 98,3% nt identity) to strains of TBEV, isolated in Far Eastern part of Russia (1230, Spassk-72, Primorye-89). POWV LEIV-3070Prm has 99.7% identity with the prototype strain POWV LB, isolated in Canada and 99.5% of isolates with Far-Eastern strains of POWV (Spassk-9 and Nadezdinsk-1991).
Zapata, Juan Carlos; Carrion, Ricardo; Patterson, Jean L.; Crasta, Oswald; Zhang, Yan; Mani, Sachin; Jett, Marti; Poonia, Bhawna; Djavani, Mahmoud; White, David M.; Lukashevich, Igor S.; Salvato, Maria S.
Lassa virus (LASV) is the causative agent of Lassa Fever and is responsible for several hundred thousand infections and thousands of deaths annually in West Africa. LASV and the non-pathogenic Mopeia virus (MOPV) are both rodent-borne African arenaviruses. A live attenuated reassortant of MOPV and LASV, designated ML29, protects rodents and primates from LASV challenge and appears to be more attenuated than MOPV. To gain better insight into LASV-induced pathology and mechanism of attenuation we performed gene expression profiling in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) exposed to LASV and the vaccine candidate ML29. PBMC from healthy human subjects were exposed to either LASV or ML29. Although most PBMC are non-permissive for virus replication, they remain susceptible to signal transduction by virus particles. Total RNA was extracted and global gene expression was evaluated during the first 24 hours using high-density microarrays. Results were validated using RT-PCR, flow cytometry and ELISA. LASV and ML29 elicited differential expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISG), as well as genes involved in apoptosis, NF-kB signaling and the coagulation pathways. These genes could eventually serve as biomarkers to predict disease outcomes. The remarkable differential expression of thrombomodulin, a key regulator of inflammation and coagulation, suggests its involvement with vascular abnormalities and mortality in Lassa fever disease. PMID:24069471
Juan Carlos Zapata
Full Text Available Lassa virus (LASV is the causative agent of Lassa Fever and is responsible for several hundred thousand infections and thousands of deaths annually in West Africa. LASV and the non-pathogenic Mopeia virus (MOPV are both rodent-borne African arenaviruses. A live attenuated reassortant of MOPV and LASV, designated ML29, protects rodents and primates from LASV challenge and appears to be more attenuated than MOPV. To gain better insight into LASV-induced pathology and mechanism of attenuation we performed gene expression profiling in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC exposed to LASV and the vaccine candidate ML29. PBMC from healthy human subjects were exposed to either LASV or ML29. Although most PBMC are non-permissive for virus replication, they remain susceptible to signal transduction by virus particles. Total RNA was extracted and global gene expression was evaluated during the first 24 hours using high-density microarrays. Results were validated using RT-PCR, flow cytometry and ELISA. LASV and ML29 elicited differential expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISG, as well as genes involved in apoptosis, NF-kB signaling and the coagulation pathways. These genes could eventually serve as biomarkers to predict disease outcomes. The remarkable differential expression of thrombomodulin, a key regulator of inflammation and coagulation, suggests its involvement with vascular abnormalities and mortality in Lassa fever disease.
Drewes, S.; Straková, Petra; Drexler, J. F.; Jacob, J.; Ulrich, R. G.
Roč. 99, č. 4 (2017), s. 61-108 ISSN 0065-3527 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : hepatitis-e virus * squirrels Sciurus-vulgaris * dependent DNA-polymerase * korean hemorrhagic-fever * beaver Castor-canadensis * mouse Micromys-minutus * rats Rattus-norvegicus * rous-sarcoma-virus * West-Nile-virus * population-cycles Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 4.243, year: 2016
Hailemariam, Zerihun; Ahmed, Jabbar Sabir; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Nijhof, Ard Menzo
An essential step in the molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in blood is the extraction of DNA. When cooled storage of blood under field conditions prior to DNA extraction in a dedicated laboratory is not possible, the storage of blood on filter paper forms a promising alternative. We evaluated six DNA extraction methods from blood spotted on FTA Classic ® cards (FTA cards), to determine the optimal protocol for the subsequent molecular detection of TBPs by PCR and the Reverse Line Blot hybridization assay (RLB). Ten-fold serial dilutions of bovine blood infected with Babesia bovis, Theileria mutans, Anaplasma marginale or Ehrlichia ruminantium were made by dilution with uninfected blood and spotted on FTA cards. Subsequently, DNA was extracted from FTA cards using six different DNA extraction protocols. DNA was also isolated from whole blood dilutions using a commercial kit. PCR/RLB results showed that washing of 3mm discs punched from FTA cards with FTA purification reagent followed by DNA extraction using Chelex ® resin was the most sensitive procedure. The detection limit could be improved when more discs were used as starting material for the DNA extraction, whereby the use of sixteen 3mm discs proved to be most practical. The presented best practice method for the extraction of DNA from blood spotted on FTA cards will facilitate epidemiological studies on TBPs. It may be particularly useful for field studies where a cold chain is absent. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Chakraborty, W; Ray, R; Samanta, N; RoyChaudhuri, C
In spite of the rapid developments in various nanosensor technologies, it still remains challenging to realize a reliable ultrasensitive electrical biosensing platform which will be able to detect multiple viruses in blood simultaneously with a fairly high reproducibility without using secondary labels. In this paper, we have reported quantitative differentiation of Hep-B and Hep-C viruses in blood using nanoporous silicon oxide immunosensor array and artificial neural network (ANN). The peak frequency output (f p ) from the steady state sensitivity characteristics and the first cut off frequency (f c ) from the transient characteristics have been considered as inputs to the multilayer ANN. Implementation of several classifier blocks in the ANN architecture and coupling them with both the sensor chips, functionalized with Hep-B and Hep-C antibodies have enabled the quantification of the viruses with an accuracy of around 95% in the range of 0.04fM-1pM and with an accuracy of around 90% beyond 1pM and within 25nM in blood serum. This is the most sensitive report on multiple virus quantification using label free method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Margriet A van Gestel
Full Text Available To promote the efficient and safe application of adeno-associated virus (AAV vectors as a gene transfer tool in the central nervous system (CNS, transduction efficiency and clearance were studied for serotypes commonly used to transfect distinct areas of the brain. As AAV2 was shown to transduce only small volumes in several brain regions, this study compares the transduction efficiency of three AAV pseudotyped vectors, namely AAV2/1, AAV2/5 and AAV2/8, in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH. No difference was found between AAV2/1 and AAV2/5 in transduction efficiency. Both AAV2/1 and AAV2/5 achieved a higher transduction rate than AAV2/8. One hour after virus administration to the brain, no viral particles could be traced in blood, indicating that no or negligible numbers of virions crossed the blood-brain barrier. In order to investigate survival of AAV in blood, clearance was determined following systemic AAV administration. The half-life of AAV2/1, AAV2/2, AAV2/5 and AAV2/8 was calculated by determining virus clearance rates from blood after systemic injection. The half-life of AAV2/2 was 4.2 minutes, which was significantly lower than the half-lives of AAV2/1, AAV2/5 and AAV2/8. With a half-life of more than 11 hours, AAV2/8 particles remained detectable in blood significantly longer than AAV2/5. We conclude that application of AAV in the CNS is relatively safe as no AAV particles are detectable in blood after injection into the brain. With a half-life of 1.67 hours of AAV2/5, a systemic injection with 1×109 genomic copies of AAV would be fully cleared from blood after 2 days.
Albornoz, Amelina; Carletti, Tea; Corazza, Gianmarco; Marcello, Alessandro
Flaviviruses are a major cause of disease in humans and animals worldwide. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is the most important arthropod-borne flavivirus endemic in Europe and is the etiological agent of tick-borne encephalitis, a potentially fatal infection of the central nervous system. However, the contributions of host proteins during TBEV infection are poorly understood. In this work, we investigate the cellular protein TIA-1 and its cognate factor TIAR, which are stress-induced RNA-binding proteins involved in the repression of initiation of translation of cellular mRNAs and in the formation of stress granules. We show that TIA-1 and TIAR interact with viral RNA in TBEV-infected cells. During TBEV infection, cytoplasmic TIA-1 and TIAR are recruited at sites of viral replication with concomitant depletion from stress granules. This effect is specific, since G3BP1, another component of these cytoplasmic structures, remains localized to stress granules. Moreover, heat shock induction of stress granules containing TIA-1, but not G3BP1, is inhibited in TBEV-infected cells. Infection of cells depleted of TIA-1 or TIAR by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or TIA-1(-/-) mouse fibroblasts, leads to a significant increase in TBEV extracellular infectivity. Interestingly, TIAR(-/-) fibroblasts show the opposite effect on TBEV infection, and this phenotype appears to be related to an excess of TIA-1 in these cells. Taking advantage of a TBE-luciferase replicon system, we also observed increased luciferase activity in TIA-1(-/-) mouse fibroblasts at early time points, consistent with TIA-1-mediated inhibition at the level of the first round of viral translation. These results indicate that, in response to TBEV infection, TIA-1 is recruited to sites of virus replication to bind TBEV RNA and modulate viral translation independently of stress granule (SG) formation. This study (i) extends previous work that showed TIA-1/TIAR recruitment at sites of flavivirus replication
Welburn Susan C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis of blood borne infectious diseases relies primarily on the detection of the causative agent in the blood sample. Molecular techniques offer sensitive and specific tools for this although considerable difficulties exist when using these approaches in the field environment. In large scale epidemiological studies, FTA®cards are becoming increasingly popular for the rapid collection and archiving of a large number of samples. However, there are some difficulties in the downstream processing of these cards which is essential for the accurate diagnosis of infection. Here we describe recommendations for the best practice approach for sample processing from FTA®cards for the molecular diagnosis of trypanosomiasis using PCR. Results A comparison of five techniques was made. Detection from directly applied whole blood was less sensitive (35.6% than whole blood which was subsequently eluted from the cards using Chelex®100 (56.4%. Better apparent sensitivity was achieved when blood was lysed prior to application on the FTA cards (73.3% although this was not significant. This did not improve with subsequent elution using Chelex®100 (73.3% and was not significantly different from direct DNA extraction from blood in the field (68.3%. Conclusions Based on these results, the degree of effort required for each of these techniques and the difficulty of DNA extraction under field conditions, we recommend that blood is transferred onto FTA cards whole followed by elution in Chelex®100 as the best approach.
Ahmed, Heba A; MacLeod, Ewan T; Hide, Geoff; Welburn, Susan C; Picozzi, Kim
Diagnosis of blood borne infectious diseases relies primarily on the detection of the causative agent in the blood sample. Molecular techniques offer sensitive and specific tools for this although considerable difficulties exist when using these approaches in the field environment. In large scale epidemiological studies, FTA®cards are becoming increasingly popular for the rapid collection and archiving of a large number of samples. However, there are some difficulties in the downstream processing of these cards which is essential for the accurate diagnosis of infection. Here we describe recommendations for the best practice approach for sample processing from FTA®cards for the molecular diagnosis of trypanosomiasis using PCR. A comparison of five techniques was made. Detection from directly applied whole blood was less sensitive (35.6%) than whole blood which was subsequently eluted from the cards using Chelex®100 (56.4%). Better apparent sensitivity was achieved when blood was lysed prior to application on the FTA cards (73.3%) although this was not significant. This did not improve with subsequent elution using Chelex®100 (73.3%) and was not significantly different from direct DNA extraction from blood in the field (68.3%). Based on these results, the degree of effort required for each of these techniques and the difficulty of DNA extraction under field conditions, we recommend that blood is transferred onto FTA cards whole followed by elution in Chelex®100 as the best approach.
Background Diagnosis of blood borne infectious diseases relies primarily on the detection of the causative agent in the blood sample. Molecular techniques offer sensitive and specific tools for this although considerable difficulties exist when using these approaches in the field environment. In large scale epidemiological studies, FTA®cards are becoming increasingly popular for the rapid collection and archiving of a large number of samples. However, there are some difficulties in the downstream processing of these cards which is essential for the accurate diagnosis of infection. Here we describe recommendations for the best practice approach for sample processing from FTA®cards for the molecular diagnosis of trypanosomiasis using PCR. Results A comparison of five techniques was made. Detection from directly applied whole blood was less sensitive (35.6%) than whole blood which was subsequently eluted from the cards using Chelex®100 (56.4%). Better apparent sensitivity was achieved when blood was lysed prior to application on the FTA cards (73.3%) although this was not significant. This did not improve with subsequent elution using Chelex®100 (73.3%) and was not significantly different from direct DNA extraction from blood in the field (68.3%). Conclusions Based on these results, the degree of effort required for each of these techniques and the difficulty of DNA extraction under field conditions, we recommend that blood is transferred onto FTA cards whole followed by elution in Chelex®100 as the best approach. PMID:21548975
Tomerini, Deanna M; Dale, Pat E; Sipe, Neil
We examined the relationship between types of mosquito control programs and the mosquito-borne Ross River virus (RRV) disease in Queensland, Australia. Mosquito control information was collected through a survey of the responsible agencies (local governments), and RRV disease notification data were provided by the Queensland state health authority. The study developed a typology of mosquito control programs, based on the approaches used. Based on the analysis of data on RRV disease rates between mosquito control types within 4 climatic regions, each region had different combinations of mosquito control strategies in their programs; there were also general similarities in the relationship between program types and RRV rates between the regions. The long-term RRV disease rates were lower in areas where the mosquito control program included pre-emptive (rather than reactive) surveillance based on an extensive (rather than incomplete) knowledge of mosquito habitats, and where treatment of both saltwater and freshwater habitats (compared to only saltwater habitats, in coastal areas) occurred. The data indicate that mosquito control is an effective public health intervention to reduce mosquito-borne disease; hence, climate change adaptation strategies should ensure that adequate resources are available for effective vector control so as to manage the risk of mosquito-borne diseases.
Complete genome sequences of Zika Virus strains isolated from the blood of patients in 1 Thailand (2014) and Philippines (2012). 2 Ellison,D.W.1...Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea. 20 21 Running Head: Zika Virus Genomes 22 23 ABSTRACT 24 ZIKV is an arbovirus and member of the family...genome sequences of two Zika Virus (ZIKV) strains, Zika virus /H.sapiens-27 tc/THA/2014/SV0127-14 and Zika virus /H.sapiens-tc/PHL/2012/CPC-0740, isolated
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a blood borne infection just like hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) with a significant global health impact. Since the discovery of the HCV, several developments including a better understanding of the clinical epidemiology, availability of diagnostics ...
Introduction. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a blood borne infection just like hepatitis B virus (HBV) and. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) with a signifi- cant global health impact. Since the discovery of the. HCV, several developments including a better under- standing of the clinical epidemiology, ...
Goff, David C; Gillespie, Cathleen; Howard, George; Labarthe, Darwin R
Previous reports have described favorable changes in the relationship between systolic blood pressure and age in recent birth cohorts. The obesity epidemic might threaten that pattern. To update analyses of differences between birth cohorts in the relationship between systolic blood pressure and age and to determine whether increases in obesity have had adverse effects. We examined the systolic blood pressure distributions across birth cohorts born between 1890 and 1990 in 68,070 participants, aged 18-74 years, in the National Health (and Nutrition) Examination Surveys between 1960 and 2008. We postulated that age-adjusted 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles of systolic blood pressure had decreased in more recent versus earlier cohorts, and that this pattern had slowed or reversed recently due, at least in part, to obesity. After adjusting for gender, race, age and age(2), the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles of systolic blood pressure were 1.1, 1.4, 1.9, 2.5, and 3.4 mmHg lower for each decade more recently born (all P birth cohort were positive and significant (P distributions are shifted lower relative to earlier cohorts. Decreases of 1.9 mmHg in the median systolic blood pressure per decade translates into 11.4-13.3 mmHg over 6-7 decades, a shift that would contribute importantly to lower rates of cardiovascular diseases. These favorable changes are slowing, perhaps owing, at least in part, to the obesity epidemic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available During the last decade, French Guiana has been affected by major dengue fever outbreaks. Although this arbovirus has been a focus of many awareness campaigns, very little information is available about beliefs, attitudes and behaviors regarding vector-borne diseases among the population of French Guiana. During the first outbreak of the chikungunya virus, a quantitative survey was conducted among high school students to study experiences, practices and perceptions related to mosquito-borne diseases and to identify socio-demographic, cognitive and environmental factors that could be associated with the engagement in protective behaviors.A cross-sectional survey was administered in May 2014, with a total of 1462 students interviewed. Classrooms were randomly selected using a two-stage selection procedure with cluster samples. A multiple correspondence analysis (MCA associated with a hierarchical cluster analysis and with an ordinal logistic regression was performed. Chikungunya was less understood and perceived as a more dreadful disease than dengue fever. The analysis identified three groups of individual protection levels against mosquito-borne diseases: "low" (30%, "moderate" (42% and "high" (28%". Protective health behaviors were found to be performed more frequently among students who were female, had a parent with a higher educational status, lived in an individual house, and had a better understanding of the disease.This study allowed us to estimate the level of protective practices against vector-borne diseases among students after the emergence of a new arbovirus. These results revealed that the adoption of protective behaviors is a multi-factorial process that depends on both sociocultural and cognitive factors. These findings may help public health authorities to strengthen communication and outreach strategies, thereby increasing the adoption of protective health behaviors, particularly in high-risk populations.
Qualls, Whitney A; Day, Jonathan F; Xue, Rui-De; Bowers, Doria F
Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) female mosquitoes infected systemically with Sindbis virus (SINV) took longer than uninfected mosquitoes to locate and fully engorge on blood. On days 7 and 14 postexposure, blood feeding took 1.3 and 1.5 times longer in mosquitoes with a disseminated SINV infection, respectively. SINV dissemination did not affect the average weight of unfed Ae. aegypti, but did result in a 10 and 12% increase in blood imbibed compared with mosquitoes without a positive SINV dissemination and non-SINV-exposed mosquitoes, respectively. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes with a disseminated SINV infection fed an average of 4 h sooner than uninfected mosquitoes when offered a bloodmeal contained inside a DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) saturated (30%) bovine sausage casing. Together, these results indicate that behavioral changes in mosquito host-seeking, blood feeding and sensitivity to DEET occurred in mosquitoes after SINV infection and dissemination.
Allain, Jean-Pierre; Mihaljevic, Ivanka; Gonzalez-Fraile, Maria Isabel
BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is identified in 1:1000 to 1:50,000 European blood donations. This study intended to determine the infectivity of blood products from OBI donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Recipients of previous donations from OBI donors were investigated...... blood cells [RBCs], p Donor and recipient strains sequence homology of at least 99% confirmed transfusion-transmitted infection in 10 cases and excluded it in one case. CONCLUSION: Blood...... through lookback (systematic retrieval of recipients) or traceback (triggered by clinical cases). Serologic and genomic studies were undertaken on consenting donors and recipients. Multiple variables potentially affecting infectivity were examined. RESULTS: A total of 45 of 105 (42.9%) donor...
Mapako, Tonderai; Mvere, David A.; Chitiyo, McLeod E.; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Postma, Maarten J.; Van Hulst, Marinus
BACKGROUND: National Blood Service Zimbabwe human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk management strategy includes screening and discarding of first-time donations, which are collected in blood packs without an anticoagulant (dry pack). To evaluate the impact of discarding first-time donations on
Mössner, Belinda K; Staugaard, Benjamin; Jensen, Janne
AIM: To detect chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in dried blood spot (DBS) and compare these samples to venous blood sampling in real-life. METHODS: We included prospective patients with known viral infections from drug treatment......, but correctly classified 95% of the anti-HCV-positive patients with chronic and past infections. Anti-HBc and anti-HBS showed low sensitivity in DBS (68% and 42%). CONCLUSION: DBS sampling, combined with an automated analysis system, is a feasible screening method to diagnose chronic viral hepatitis and HIV...
Tabachnick, W J; MacLachlan, N J; Thompson, L H; Hunt, G J; Patton, J F
Cattle bloods containing only polymerase chain reaction (PCR)--detectable bluetongue-10 viral nucleic acid, but as determined by virus isolation techniques, not bluetongue-10 virus, were incapable of infecting intrathoracically inoculated Culicoides variipennis sonorensis. These insects also failed to transmit bluetongue-10 virus when fed on sheep. Cattle whose blood contain only PCR-detectable bluetongue viral nucleic acid, but no infectious virus, are unlikely to play a role in the epidemiology of bluetongue. The biological significance of PCR-based detection assays and their effect on animal health regulations on the international trade of livestock and livestock germplasm is discussed. Bluetongue virus infection provides a very useful model with which to study arthropod-transmitted RNA virus infections of humans and other animals.
Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV, a zoonotic paramyxovirus, is highly contagious in swine, and can cause fatal infections in humans following transmission from the swine host. The main viral targets in both species are the respiratory and central nervous systems, with viremia implicated as a mode of dissemination of NiV throughout the host. The presented work focused on the role of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC in the viremic spread of the virus in the swine host. B lymphocytes, CD4-CD8-, as well as CD4+CD8- T lymphocytes were not permissive to NiV, and expansion of the CD4+CD8- cells early post infection was consistent with functional humoral response to NiV infection observed in swine. In contrast, significant drop in the CD4+CD8- T cell frequency was observed in piglets which succumbed to the experimental infection, supporting the hypothesis that antibody development is the critical component of the protective immune response. Productive viral replication was detected in monocytes, CD6+CD8+ T lymphocytes and NK cells by recovery of infectious virus in the cell supernatants. Virus replication was supported by detection of the structural N and the non-structural C proteins or by detection of genomic RNA increase in the infected cells. Infection of T cells carrying CD6 marker, a strong ligand for the activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule ALCAM (CD166 highly expressed on the microvascular endothelial cell of the blood-air and the blood-brain barrier may explain NiV preferential tropism for small blood vessels of the lung and brain.
Ergunay, K.; Tkachev, S.; Kozlova, I.; Růžek, Daniel
Roč. 16, č. 1 (2016), s. 4-12 ISSN 1530-3667 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * serology * PCR * tick(s) * rodents Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.045, year: 2016
van der Linden, Vanessa; Pessoa, André; Dobyns, William; Barkovich, A James; Júnior, Hélio van der Linden; Filho, Epitacio Leite Rolim; Ribeiro, Erlane Marques; Leal, Mariana de Carvalho; Coimbra, Pablo Picasso de Araújo; Aragão, Maria de Fátima Viana Vasco; Verçosa, Islane; Ventura, Camila; Ramos, Regina Coeli; Cruz, Danielle Di Cavalcanti Sousa; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; Mota, Vivian Maria Ribeiro; Dott, Mary; Hillard, Christina; Moore, Cynthia A
Congenital Zika virus infection can cause microcephaly and severe brain abnormalities (1). Congenital Zika syndrome comprises a spectrum of clinical features (2); however, as is the case with most newly recognized teratogens, the earliest documented clinical presentation is expected to be the most severe. Initial descriptions of the effects of in utero Zika virus infection centered prominently on the finding of congenital microcephaly (3). To assess the possibility of clinical presentations that do not include congenital microcephaly, a retrospective assessment of 13 infants from the Brazilian states of Pernambuco and Ceará with normal head size at birth and laboratory evidence of congenital Zika virus infection was conducted. All infants had brain abnormalities on neuroimaging consistent with congenital Zika syndrome, including decreased brain volume, ventriculomegaly, subcortical calcifications, and cortical malformations. The earliest evaluation occurred on the second day of life. Among all infants, head growth was documented to have decelerated as early as 5 months of age, and 11 infants had microcephaly. These findings provide evidence that among infants with prenatal exposure to Zika virus, the absence of microcephaly at birth does not exclude congenital Zika virus infection or the presence of Zika-related brain and other abnormalities. These findings support the recommendation for comprehensive medical and developmental follow-up of infants exposed to Zika virus prenatally. Early neuroimaging might identify brain abnormalities related to congenital Zika infection even among infants with a normal head circumference (4).
Conclusions: Wielkopolska Region in west-central Poland is an area hyperendemic for HEV infection. In this part of Poland, the exposure of HIV-positive persons to this virus is not greater than that of healthy blood donors.
Li, Chung-Chen; Beck, Ingrid A; Seidel, Kristy D; Frenkel, Lisa M
The stability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) DNA in whole blood collected on filter paper (FTA Card) was evaluated. After >4 years of storage at room temperature in the dark our qualitative assay detected virus at a rate similar to that of our initial test (58 of 60, 97%; P = 0.16), suggesting long-term HIV-1 DNA stability.
Huang, G Khai Lin; Tio, Shio Yen; Caly, Leon; Nicholson, Suellen; Thevarajan, Irani; Papadakis, Georgina; Catton, Mike; Tong, Steven Y C; Druce, Julian
We describe a fatal case of Japanese encephalitis virus infection following short-term travel to Thailand. Viral RNA was detected in urine and whole blood out to 26 and 28 days, respectively, after the onset of symptoms. Live virus was isolated from a urine specimen from day 14.
Aubry, Maite; Laughhunn, Andrew; Santa Maria, Felicia; Lanteri, Marion C; Stassinopoulos, Adonis; Musso, Didier
Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus primarily transmitted through mosquito bite; however, DENV transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) have been reported and asymptomatic DENV RNA-positive blood donors have been identified in endemic countries. DENV is considered a high-risk pathogen for blood safety. One of the mitigation strategies to prevent arbovirus TTIs is pathogen inactivation. In this study we demonstrate that the amustaline and glutathione (S-303/GSH) treatment previously found effective against Zika virus in red blood cells (RBCs) is also effective in inactivating DENV. Red blood cells were spiked with high levels of DENV. Viral RNA loads and infectious titers were measured in the untreated control and before and after pathogen inactivation treatment of RBC samples. DENV infectivity was also assessed over five successive cell culture passages to detect any potential residual replicative virus. The mean ± SD DENV titer in RBCs before inactivation was 6.61 ± 0.19 log 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID 50 )/mL and the mean viral RNA load was 8.42 log genome equivalents/mL. No replicative DENV was detected either immediately after completion of treatment using S-303/GSH or after cell culture passages. Treatment using S-303/GSH inactivated high levels of DENV in RBCs to the limit of detection. In combination with previous studies showing the effective inactivation of DENV in plasma and platelets using the licensed amotosalen/UVA system, this study demonstrates that high levels of DENV can be inactivated in all blood components. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.
Macedo de Oliveira, Alexandre; Beecham, Brady D; Montgomery, Susan P; Lanciotti, Robert S; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Giachetti, Cristina; Pietrelli, Larry A; Stramer, Susan L; Safranek, Thomas J
A case of West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis associated with transfusion of blood that did not react when tested for WNV by minipool (MP) nucleic acid testing (NAT) is described. A Nebraska man developed clinical encephalitis 13 days after surgery and transfusion of 26 blood components. Antibody testing confirmed WNV infection. An investigation was initiated to determine the source of this infection. The patient's family members were interviewed to identify risk factors for WNV infection. Residual samples were retested for WNV RNA using transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) assay and two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Blood donors' follow-up serum samples were collected. All samples were tested for WNV-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies. The patient's family denied recent mosquito exposure. The 20 blood components collected after July 2003 did not react when tested for WNV in a six-member MP-NAT at the time of donation. Retrospective individual testing identified one sample as WNV-reactive by the TMA assay and one of the PCR assays. Seroconversion was demonstrated in the donor associated with this sample. WNV RNA detection by individual donation NAT demonstrates viremic blood escaping MP-NAT and supports transfusion-related WNV transmission. MP-NAT may not detect all WNV-infected blood donors, allowing WNV transmission to continue at low levels. WNV NAT assays might vary in sensitivity and pooling donations could further impact test performance. Understanding MP NAT limitations can improve strategies to maintain safety of the blood supply in the United States.
Kaidarova, Zhanna; Bravo, Marjorie D.; Kamel, Hany T.; Custer, Brian S; Busch, Michael P.; Lanteri, Marion C.
Background West Nile virus (WNV) infection is mostly asymptomatic but 20% of subjects report WNV fever and 1% of patients experience neurological diseases with higher rates in elderly and immunosuppressed persons. With no treatment and no vaccine to prevent the development of symptomatic infections, it is essential to understand prognostic factors influencing symptomatic disease outcome. Host genetic background has been linked to the development of WNV neuroinvasive disease. The present study investigates the association between the ABO and Rh(D) blood group status and WNV disease outcome. Study Design and Methods The distribution of blood groups was investigated within a cohort of 374 WNV+ blood donors including 244 asymptomatic (AS) and 130 symptomatic (S) WNV+ blood donors. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between A, B, O and Rh(D) blood groups and WNV clinical disease outcome. Results Symptomatic WNV+ donors exhibited increased frequencies of blood group A (S 47.6% AS 36.8%, P=0.04, OR [95%CI] 1.56 [1.01–2.40]) and Rh(D)-negative individuals (S 21.5% AS 13.1%, P=0.03, OR [95%CI] 1.82 [1.04–3.18]). Conclusion The findings suggest a genetic susceptibility placing blood group A and Rh(D)-negative individuals at risk for the development of symptomatic disease outcome after WNV infection. PMID:27189860
Pancewicz, Sławomir A; Hermanowska-Szpakowicz, Teresa
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the changes of anti-TBE virus antibodies serum concentration 3 months after administration of FSME Inject vaccine. The detection of IgG antibodies against TBE virus was performed in sera of 106 forest workers aged mean = 41.5. These sera were examined twice before and after vaccine administration using FSME Kombi-Kit. According to producer's information the "safe" concentration, which protects from TBE virus infection, is over 11VE. In examination 126 (24.5%) sera showed concentration of examined antibodies lower than 11 VE but in 80 (75.5%) sera antibodies concentration was from 12 to 47 VE (mean = 24.15 VE). In the examination 2 significant increase of antibodies concentration was stated. In all sera the concentration ranged from 9 to 62 VE (mean = 39.83 VE). The administration of TBE vaccine booster causes quick increase of antibodies against TBE virus to the level which is considered to be protective against TBE virus infection.
Růžek, Daniel; Štěrba, Ján; Kopecký, Jan; Grubhoffer, Libor
Roč. 50, č. 4 (2006), s. 277-278 ISSN 0001-723X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/1479 Grant - others:Grant Agency of the University of South Bohemia(CZ) 35/2005/P-BF Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : TBE virus * Langat virus * Hy-HK attenuated variant Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.788, year: 2006
Boothe, Emily; Medeiros, Matthew C I; Kitron, Uriel D; Brawn, Jeffrey D; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Goldberg, Tony L; Walker, Edward D; Hamer, Gabriel L
Multiple mosquito-borne parasites cocirculate in nature and potentially interact. To understand the community of parasites cocirculating with West Nile virus (WNV), we screened the bloodmeal content of Culex pipiens L. mosquitoes for three common types of hemoparasites. Blood-fed Cx. pipiens were collected from a WNV-epidemic area in suburban Chicago, IL, from May to September 2005 through 2010. DNA was extracted from dissected abdomens and subject to PCR and direct sequencing to identify the vertebrate host. RNA was extracted from the head or thorax and screened for WNV using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Seventy-nine engorged females with avian host origin were screened using PCR and amplicon sequencing for filarioid nematodes, Haemosporida, and trypanosomatids. Filarioid nematodes were identified in 3.8% of the blooded abdomens, Plasmodium sp. in 8.9%, Haemoproteus in 31.6%, and Trypanosoma sp. in 6.3%. The sequences from these hemoparasite lineages were highly similar to sequences from birds in prior studies in suburban Chicago. Overall, 50.6% of blood-fed Culex pipiens contained hemoparasite DNA in their abdomen, presumably from current or prior bloodmeals. Additionally, we detected hemoparasite DNA in the blooded abdomen of three of 10 Cx. pipiens infected with WNV. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Zhao, Chao; Cheng, Xuanhong
Clinical analysis of acute viral infection in blood requires the separation of viral particles from blood cells, since the cytoplasmic enzyme inhibits the subsequent viral detection. To facilitate this procedure in settings without access to a centrifuge, we present a microfluidic device to continuously purify bionanoparticles from cells based on their different intrinsic movements on the microscale. In this device, a biological sample is layered on top of a physiological buffer, and both fluids are transported horizontally at the same flow rate in a straight channel under laminar flow. While the micron sized particles such as cells sediment to the bottom layer with a predictable terminal velocity, the nanoparticles move vertically by diffusion. As their vertical travel distances have a different dependence on time, the micro- and nanoparticles can preferentially reside in the bottom and top layers respectively after certain residence time, yielding purified viruses. We first performed numerical analysis to predicate the particle separation and then tested the theory using suspensions of synthetic particles and biological samples. The experimental results using dilute synthetic particles closely matched the numerical analysis of a two layer flow system containing different sized particles. Similar purification was achieved using diluted blood spiked with human immunodeficiency virus. However, viral purification in whole blood is compromised due to extensive bioparticle collisions. With the parallelization and automation potential offered by microfluidics, this device has the potential to function as an upstream sample preparation module to continuously provide cell depleted bio-nanoparticles for downstream analysis.
Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Glenn, Jolene A.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hershberger, Paul K.
Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition affecting the red blood cells of more than 20 species of marine and anadromous fishes in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Among populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) on the west coast of North America the disease causes anemia and elevated mortality in periodic epizootics. Presently, VEN is diagnosed by observation of typical cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in stained blood smears from infected fish. The causative agent, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), is unculturable and a presumed iridovirus by electron microscopy. In vivo amplification of the virus in pathogen-free laboratory stocks of Pacific herring with subsequent virus concentration, purification, DNA extraction, and high-throughput sequencing were used to obtain genomic ENV sequences. Fragments with the highest sequence identity to the family Iridoviridae were used to design four sets of ENV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. Testing of blood and tissue samples from experimentally and wild infected Pacific herring as well as DNA extracted from other amphibian and piscine iridoviruses verified the assays were specific to ENV with a limit of detection of 0.0003 ng. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of a 1448 bp fragment of the putative DNA polymerase gene supported inclusion of ENV in a proposed sixth genus of the family Iridoviridae that contains other erythrocytic viruses from ectothermic hosts. This study provides the first molecular evidence of ENV's inclusion within the Iridoviridae family and offers conventional PCR assays as a means of rapidly surveying the ENV-status of wild and propagated Pacific herring stocks.
寨卡病毒病是一种主要通过伊蚊叮咬传播的蚊媒传染病。伊蚊除了可以传播寨卡病毒外，还可以传播黄热病、登革热等多种疾病。近年来，随着旅行和贸易全球化、气候变暖等，蚊媒传染病相关疫情在全球多地暴发。该文主要介绍寨卡病毒病、黄热病等在我国首次输入的蚊媒传染病的流行情况，并对预防控制实施的重点措施进行了总结。%Zika virus disease is a mosquito-borne disease with aedes as a potential viral vector. Besides Zika virus, aedes can also serve as a vector for other viruses such as yellow fever virus and dengue virus.With the impact of globalization and climate changes, many regions in the world are experiencing outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases in recently years.This paper focuses on the epidemic, prevention and control measures of mosquito-borne infectious diseases such as Zika virus disease and yellow fever which are firstly imported to China.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Areas endemic for Plasmodium falciparum, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV overlap in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. HBV and HCV infections develop in the liver, where takes place the first development stage of P. falciparum before its further spread in blood. The complex mechanisms involved in the development of hepatitis may potentially influence the development of the liver stage of malaria parasites. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of these interactions could provide new pathophysiological insights for treatment strategies in Malaria. METHODOLOGY: We studied a cohort of 319 individuals living in a village where the three infections are prevalent. The patients were initially given a curative antimalarial treatment and were then monitored for the emergence of asexual P. falciparum forms in blood, fortnightly for one year, by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At inclusion, 65 (20.4% subjects had detectable malaria parasites in blood, 36 (11.3% were HBV chronic carriers, and 61 (18.9% were HCV chronic carriers. During follow-up, asexual P. falciparum forms were detected in the blood of 203 patients. The median time to P. falciparum emergence in blood was respectively 140 and 120 days in HBV- and HBV+ individuals, and 135 and 224 days in HCV- and HCV+ individuals. HCV carriage was associated with delayed emergence of asexual P. falciparum forms in blood relative to patients without HCV infection. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study represents first tentative evidence of a potential epidemiological interaction between HBV, HCV and P. falciparum infections. Age is an important confounding factor in this setting however multivariate analysis points to an interaction between P. falciparum and HCV at the hepatic level with a slower emergence of P. falciparum in HCV chronic carriers. More in depth analysis are necessary to unravel the basis of hepatic interactions between these two pathogens
Flanigan, Colleen A; Leung, Shu-Yin J; Rowe, Kirsten A; Levey, Wendy K; King, Andrea; Sommer, Jamie N; Morne, Johanne E; Zucker, Howard A
Approximately 75% of all hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in the United States and 73% of HCV-associated mortality occur in persons born during 1945-1965, placing this birth cohort at increased risk for liver cancer and other HCV-related liver disease (1). In the United States, an estimated 2.7 million persons are living with HCV infection, and it is estimated that up to 75% of these persons do not know their status. Since 2012, CDC has recommended that persons born during 1945-1965 receive one-time HCV testing. To increase the number of persons tested for HCV and to ensure timely diagnosis and linkage to care, in 2014, New York enacted a hepatitis C testing law that requires health care providers to offer HCV antibody screening to all persons born during 1945-1965 who are receiving services in primary care settings or as hospital inpatients, and to refer persons with positive HCV antibody tests for follow-up health care, including an HCV diagnostic test (i.e., HCV RNA).* The New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) used survey data from clinical laboratories and Medicaid claims and encounter data, and state and New York City (NYC) HCV surveillance data to assess the number of persons tested for HCV and number of persons with newly diagnosed HCV infections who were linked to care. During the first year of the HCV law implementation, there was a 51% increase in specimens submitted for HCV testing to surveyed clinical laboratories; testing rates among active Medicaid clients increased 52%, and linkage to care among persons with newly diagnosed HCV infection increased approximately 40% in New York and 11% in NYC. These findings highlight the potential for state laws to promote HCV testing and the utility of HCV surveillance and Medicaid claims data to monitor the quality of HCV testing and linkage to care for HCV-infected persons.
Saba Villarroel, Paola Mariela; Nurtop, Elif; Pastorino, Boris; Roca, Yelin; Drexler, Jan Felix; Gallian, Pierre; Jaenisch, Thomas; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Priet, Stéphane; Ninove, Laetitia; de Lamballerie, Xavier
Zika virus (ZIKV), was widely reported in Latin America and has been associated with neuropathologies, as microcephaly, but only few seroprevalence studies have been published to date. Our objective was to determine the seroprevalence amongst Bolivian blood donors and estimate the future potential circulation of the virus. A ZIKV seroprevalence study was conducted between December 2016 and April 2017 in 814 asymptomatic Bolivian volunteer blood donors residing in various eco-environments corresponding to contrasting entomological activities. It was based on detection of IgG to ZIKV using NS1 ELISA screening, followed by a seroneutralisation test in case of positive or equivocal ELISA result. Analysis revealed that ZIKV circulation occurred in tropical areas (Beni: 39%; Santa Cruz de la Sierra: 21.5%) but not in highlands (~0% in Cochabamba, La Paz, Tarija). It was modulated by Aedes aegypti activity and the virus spread was not limited by previous immunity to dengue. Cases were geo-localised in a wide range of urban areas in Santa Cruz and Trinidad. No differences in seroprevalence related to gender or age-groups could be identified. It is concluded that ZIKV has been intensely circulating in the Beni region and has still a significant potential for propagating in the area of Santa Cruz.
Experience of German Red Cross blood donor services with nucleic acid testing: results of screening more than 30 million blood donations for human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus.
Hourfar, Michael K; Jork, Christine; Schottstedt, Volkmar; Weber-Schehl, Marijke; Brixner, Veronika; Busch, Michael P; Geusendam, Geert; Gubbe, Knut; Mahnhardt, Christina; Mayr-Wohlfart, Uschi; Pichl, Lutz; Roth, W Kurt; Schmidt, Michael; Seifried, Erhard; Wright, David J
The risk of transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections is predominantly attributable to donations given during the early stage of infection when diagnostic tests may fail. In 1997, nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-testing was introduced at the German Red Cross (GRC) blood donor services to reduce this diagnostic window period (WP). A total of 31,524,571 blood donations collected from 1997 through 2005 were screened by minipool NAT, predominantly with pool sizes of 96 donations. These donations cover approximately 80 percent of all the blood collected in Germany during that period. Based on these data, the WP risk in the GRC blood donor population was estimated by using a state-of-the-art mathematic model. During the observation period, 23 HCV, 7 HIV-1, and 43 HBV NAT-only-positive donations were detected. On the basis of these data and estimated pre-NAT infectious WPs, the residual risk per unit transfused was estimated at 1 in 10.88 million for HCV (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.51-19.72 million), 1 in 4.30 million for HIV-1 (95% CI, 2.39-21.37 million), and 1 in 360,000 for HBV (95% CI, 0.19-3.36 million). Based on observed cases of breakthrough infections, the risk of transfusion-related infections may be even lower. The risk of a blood recipient becoming infected with HCV, HIV-1, or HBV has reached an extremely low level. Introduction of individual donation testing for HCV and HIV-1 would have a marginal effect on interception of WP donations.
Holzer, B R
It is known for many years that tick-borne diseases have worldwide a high economical impact on farming industry and veterinary medicine. But only in the last twenty years the importance of such diseases were notified in human medicine by the medical community and the public with emerging of the tick borne encephalitis virus and the description of Borrelia burgdorferi. It is often forgotten that many other infectious agents as bacteria, virus, Rickettsia or protozoa can be transmitted by ticks. Such diseases are rarely diagnosed in Europe either they are overlooked and misdiagnosed or they are connected with special professional activities. The development of new regions for tourism with different out door activities (adventure trips, trekking, hunting) leads to an exposure to different tick borne diseases, which are often misdiagnosed.
Abstract The seroprevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus was evaluated in a group of forestry rangers in the Lazio region of Italy. One hundred and forty-five forestry rangers and 282 blood donors were examined by two-tiered serological tests for B. burgdorferi and TBE virus. Information on occupation, residence, tick bites, outdoor leisure activities and other risk factors was obtained. The prevalence of IgG/IgM antibodies to B. bur...
Siemann, David N; Strange, Daniel P; Maharaj, Payal N; Shi, Pei-Yong; Verma, Saguna
Confirmed reports of Zika virus (ZIKV) in human seminal fluid for months after the clearance of viremia suggest the ability of ZIKV to establish persistent infection in the seminiferous tubules, an immune-privileged site in the testis protected by the blood-testis barrier, also called the Sertoli cell (SC) barrier (SCB). However, cellular targets of ZIKV in human testis and mechanisms by which the virus enters seminiferous tubules remain unclear. We demonstrate that primary human SCs were highly susceptible to ZIKV compared to the closely related dengue virus and induced the expression of alpha interferon (IFN-α), key cytokines, and cell adhesion molecules (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 [VCAM-1] and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM-1]). Furthermore, using an in vitro SCB model, we show that ZIKV was released on the adluminal side of the SCB model with a higher efficiency than in the blood-brain barrier model. ZIKV-infected SCs exhibited enhanced adhesion of leukocytes that correlated with decreases in SCB integrity. ZIKV infection did not affect the expression of tight and adherens junction proteins such as ZO-1, claudin, and JAM-A; however, exposure of SCs to inflammatory mediators derived from ZIKV-infected macrophages led to the degradation of the ZO-1 protein, which correlated with increased SCB permeability. Taken together, our data suggest that infection of SCs may be one of the crucial steps by which ZIKV gains access to the site of spermatozoon development and identify SCs as a therapeutic target to clear testicular infections. The SCB model opens up opportunities to assess interactions of SCs with other testicular cells and to test the ability of anti-ZIKV drugs to cross the barrier. IMPORTANCE Recent outbreaks of ZIKV, a neglected mosquito-borne flavivirus, have identified sexual transmission as a new route of disease spread, which has not been reported for other flaviviruses. To be able to sexually transmit for months after the clearance of
Nasrallah, Gheyath K; Al Absi, Enas S; Ghandour, Rula; Ali, Nadima H; Taleb, Sara; Hedaya, Laila; Ali, Fatima; Huwaidy, Mariam; Husseini, Abdullatif
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an RNA virus transmitted mainly through zoonotic transmission or fecal-oral route. More than 80% of Qatar's population are expatriates, including many coming from hyperendemic countries; thus, it is important to estimate the seroprevalence and to compare between different nationalities. The results can be useful in alerting blood banks to the importance of HEV screening. Samples from 5854 blood donations provided by Hamad Medical Corporation were tested in the period between June 2013 to June 2016. Samples were tested for the presence of anti-HEV immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM antibodies and viral RNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis, and multivariate logistic regression were used. Anti-HEV seroprevalence was 20.7%. A total of 1198 and 38 donations tested positive for IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. Of the IgM-positive donations four tested positive by PCR. A significant association was detected between HEV seroprevalence with age and nationality. The seroprevalence of anti-HEV was high in Qatar. Since HEV IgM and RNA were detected, this suggests the possibility of HEV transmission by transfusion. Blood banks in Qatar and the region should consider screening for HEV, especially when transfusion is intended to pregnant women or immunocompromised patients. © 2017 AABB.
Götz, Hannelore; de Jong, Birgitta; Lindbäck, Johan; Parment, Per Arne; Hedlund, Kjell Olof; Torvén, Maria; Ekdahl, Karl
In March 1999, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred affecting 30 day-care centres served by the same caterer. A retrospective cohort study was performed in 13 randomly selected day-care centres to determine the source and mode of transmission. Electron microscopy and PCR were used to verify the diagnosis. The overall attack rate (AR) was 37% (195/524): 30% in children and 62% in adults. Modified by the age of the patient, eating pumpkin salad served on 1 March was associated with becoming an early case (odds ratio = 3.9; 95% confidence interval 1.8-8.8). No significant association was found between food consumption and becoming a late case. The primary food-borne AR was 27% and the secondary AR was 14%. The same genotype of Norwalk-like virus was found in 5 cases and in 1 ill and 1 asymptomatic food-handler. Contamination by 1 of the food-handlers seems the most likely route of spread of the virus and underlines the importance of strict hygienic routines.
Garcêz, Renata Maia; Chaves, Alexandre Levi Rodrigues; Eiras, Marcelo; Meletti, Laura Maria Molina; de Azevedo Filho, Joaquim Adelino; da Silva, Leonardo Assis; Colariccio, Addolorata
Passion fruit woodiness may be caused by Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) and is currently the major passion fruit disease in Brazil. To assess the virus-vector-host interactions, a newly introduced golden passion fruit plantation located in eastern region of São Paulo State, Brazil, was monitored. Dissemination of CABMV was determined analyzing golden passion fruit plants monthly for 18 months by PTA-ELISA. Seasonality and aphid fauna diversity was determined by identification of the captured species using yellow sticky, yellow water-pan and green tile traps. Population composition of the aphid species was determined using the descriptive index of occurrence, dominance and general classification and overlap of species in the R program. Analyses of species grouping afforded to recognize 14 aphid species. The genus Aphis represented 55.42 % of the species captured. Aphid species formed two distinct clusters, one of which was characterized by the diversity of polyphagous species that presented high potential to spread CABMV. The low abundance and diversity of aphid species did not interfere negatively in the CABMV epidemiology. The genus Aphis, particularly Aphis fabae/solanella and A. gossypii, was crucial in the spread of CABMV in passion fruit orchards in the eastern State of São Paulo.
Wadowsky, Robert M; Laus, Stella; Green, Michael; Webber, Steven A; Rowe, David
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA load values were measured in samples of whole blood (n = 60) and plasma (n = 59) by TaqMan PCR and in samples of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) (n = 60) by competitive PCR (cPCR). The samples were obtained from 44 transplant recipients. The whole-blood and PBL loads correlated highly (r(2) > 0.900), whereas the plasma and PBL loads correlated poorly (r(2) = 0.512). Testing of whole blood by TaqMan PCR is an acceptable alternative to testing of PBLs by cPCR for quantifying EBV DNA load.
Otsyula Moses G; Robinson James; Elliott Debra; Munene Elephas; Ellis Brett R; Michael Scott F
Abstract Background The Sykes' monkey and related forms (Cercopithecus mitis) make up an abundant, widespread and morphologically diverse species complex in eastern Africa that naturally harbors a distinct simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVsyk). We carried out a retrospective serological survey of SIV infection from both wild and captive Sykes' monkeys from Kenya. We compared two commercially available, cross-reactive ELISA tests using HIV antigens with a novel SIVsyk antigen-specific Western...
Hadarits, Orsolya; Zóka, András; Barna, Gábor; Al-Aissa, Zahra; Rosta, Klára; Rigó, János; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Somogyi, Anikó; Firneisz, Gábor
We assessed the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) population in the cord blood of neonates born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a hypothesis generating pilot study, due to that, neonatal polycythemia may be the consequence of GDM pregnancy. Forty-five pregnant women with GDM (last trimester mean HbA1C = 33.9 mmol/mol) and 42 (nondiabetic) control pregnant women were enrolled after their routine 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between the 24th and 28th gestational week (with expected differences in their mean routine clinical characteristics: plasma glucose at OGTT: 0' = 5.07 vs. 4.62 mM, 120' = 8.9 vs. 5.76 mM, age = 35.07 vs. 31.66 years, prepregnancy body mass index = 27.9 vs. 23.9 kg/m(2), GDM vs. control, respectively) on a voluntary basis after signing the informed consent. EDTA-treated cord blood samples were analyzed by flow cytometry and the software Kaluza1.2 using CD45 and CD34-specific fluorescent antibodies to identify the HSPC population (CD34(+) cells within the CD45(dim) blast gate). The proportion of CD34(+)CD45(dim) HSPCs among the nucleated cells was significantly (P mothers with GDM (median 0.38%) compared to neonates born to nondiabetic mothers (median 0.32%) and according to treatment types (P cells in the cord blood may possibly be related to altered fetal stem cell mobilization in GDM pregnancy, yet these results should be interpreted only as preliminary due to the small sample sizes.
Anderson, Evan J
Moderate-late preterm infants, 33-35 weeks\\' gestational age (wGA), are at increased risk for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization (RSVH). The objective of this study is to quantify the burden of RSVH in moderate-late preterm infants.
Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Jing; Huang, Yi; Wright, David J; Li, Julin; Zhou, Zhongmin; He, Weilan; Yang, Tonghan; Yao, Fuzhu; Zhu, Xiangming; Wen, Guoxin; Bi, Xinhong; Tiemuer, Mei-hei-li; Wen, Xiuqiong; Huang, Mei; Cao, Ru'an; Yun, Zhongqiao; Lü, Yunlai; Ma, Hongli; Guo, Nan; Yu, Qilu; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua
A total of 2%-2.9% of the population in China is infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). This study estimated the prevalence and incidence of HCV among Chinese blood donors. We examined whole blood and apheresis platelet donations at five Chinese blood centers in 2008 to 2010. All donations were screened using two rounds of testing for alanine aminotransferase, antibody to human immunodeficiency virus Types 1 and 2, hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV, and syphilis. Screening reactivity is defined by a reactive result in one or both rounds of screening tests. Confirmatory tests (Ortho third-generation HCV enzyme immunoassay, Johnson & Johnson) were performed on anti-HCV screening-reactive samples. Confirmatory positive rates among first-time donors (prevalence) and repeat donors (incidence) were calculated by blood center and demographic categories. Donor characteristics associated with HCV confirmatory status among first-time donors were examined using trend test and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Among 821,314 donations, 40% came from repeat donors. The overall anti-HCV screening-reactive rate was 0.48%. Estimated HCV prevalence was 235 per 100,000 first-time donors; incidence was 10 per 100,000 person-years in repeat donors. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, first-time donors older than 25 years displayed higher HCV prevalence than the younger donors. Less education is associated with higher HCV prevalence. Donors 26 to 35 years old and those above 45 years displayed the highest incidence rate. High prevalence and incidence in donors indicate high residual risks for transfusion-transmitted HCV in Chinese patients. Implementation of minipool nucleic acid testing in routine donation screening may prevent a substantial number of transfusion-transmitted HCV infections. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.
Kessler, Harald H.; Stelzl, Evelyn; Raggam, Reinhard B.; Haas, Josef; Kirchmeir, Franz; Hegenbarth, Karin; Daghofer, Elisabeth; Santner, Brigitte I.; Marth, Egon; Stauber, Rudolf E.
In this study, we compared serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA concentrations with HCV RNA concentrations in whole blood collection tubes, including two different types of EDTA tubes and nucleic acid stabilization tubes (NASTs). We also investigated the impact of a processing delay on HCV RNA concentration in these tubes. In NASTs, the mean HCV RNA concentration was comparable to the mean serum HCV RNA concentration at “date zero.” In EDTA tubes, mean baseline HCV RNA concentrations were higher. Storage at room temperature up to 96 h did not result in a decline of HCV RNA concentration in any of the whole blood collection tubes. In NASTs, HCV RNA concentrations remained stable during the whole study period, whereas a significant increase of HCV RNA was observed in both types of EDTA tubes at 96 h compared to date zero. We concluded that HCV RNA remains stable in NASTs at room temperature for at least 96 h, allowing greater flexibility in sample collection and transport. PMID:11325991
Khasnatinov, Maxim A; Tuplin, Andrew; Gritsun, Dmitri J; Slovak, Mirko; Kazimirova, Maria; Lickova, Martina; Havlikova, Sabina; Klempa, Boris; Labuda, Milan; Gould, Ernest A; Gritsun, Tamara S
Over 50 million humans live in areas of potential exposure to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). The disease exhibits an estimated 16,000 cases recorded annually over 30 European and Asian countries. Conventionally, TBEV transmission to Ixodes spp. ticks occurs whilst feeding on viraemic animals. However, an alternative mechanism of non-viraemic transmission (NVT) between infected and uninfected ticks co-feeding on the same transmission-competent host, has also been demonstrated. Here, using laboratory-bred I. ricinus ticks, we demonstrate low and high efficiency NVT for TBEV strains Vasilchenko (Vs) and Hypr, respectively. These virus strains share high sequence similarity but are classified as two TBEV subtypes. The Vs strain is a Siberian subtype, naturally associated with I. persulcatus ticks whilst the Hypr strain is a European subtype, transmitted by I. ricinus ticks. In mammalian cell culture (porcine kidney cell line PS), Vs and Hypr induce low and high cytopathic effects (cpe), respectively. Using reverse genetics, we engineered a range of viable Vs/Hypr chimaeric strains, with substituted genes. No significant differences in replication rate were detected between wild-type and chimaeric viruses in cell culture. However, the chimaeric strain Vs[Hypr str] (Hypr structural and Vs non-structural genomic regions) demonstrated high efficiency NVT in I. ricinus whereas the counterpart Hypr[Vs str] was not transmitted by NVT, indicating that the virion structural proteins largely determine TBEV NVT transmission efficiency between ticks. In contrast, in cell culture, the extent of cpe was largely determined by the non-structural region of the TBEV genome. Chimaeras with Hypr non-structural genes were more cytotoxic for PS cells when compared with Vs genome-based chimaeras.
Maxim A Khasnatinov
Full Text Available Over 50 million humans live in areas of potential exposure to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV. The disease exhibits an estimated 16,000 cases recorded annually over 30 European and Asian countries. Conventionally, TBEV transmission to Ixodes spp. ticks occurs whilst feeding on viraemic animals. However, an alternative mechanism of non-viraemic transmission (NVT between infected and uninfected ticks co-feeding on the same transmission-competent host, has also been demonstrated. Here, using laboratory-bred I. ricinus ticks, we demonstrate low and high efficiency NVT for TBEV strains Vasilchenko (Vs and Hypr, respectively. These virus strains share high sequence similarity but are classified as two TBEV subtypes. The Vs strain is a Siberian subtype, naturally associated with I. persulcatus ticks whilst the Hypr strain is a European subtype, transmitted by I. ricinus ticks. In mammalian cell culture (porcine kidney cell line PS, Vs and Hypr induce low and high cytopathic effects (cpe, respectively. Using reverse genetics, we engineered a range of viable Vs/Hypr chimaeric strains, with substituted genes. No significant differences in replication rate were detected between wild-type and chimaeric viruses in cell culture. However, the chimaeric strain Vs[Hypr str] (Hypr structural and Vs non-structural genomic regions demonstrated high efficiency NVT in I. ricinus whereas the counterpart Hypr[Vs str] was not transmitted by NVT, indicating that the virion structural proteins largely determine TBEV NVT transmission efficiency between ticks. In contrast, in cell culture, the extent of cpe was largely determined by the non-structural region of the TBEV genome. Chimaeras with Hypr non-structural genes were more cytotoxic for PS cells when compared with Vs genome-based chimaeras.
Dubey, Anju; Sonker, Atul; Chaudhary, Rajendra K
Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country's blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore the levels of knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about HIV in young college student blood donors. The results showed that the proportion of participants with comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was lesser than expected. Increase in education level and male gender was found to be significantly associated with high HIV-related knowledge. The responses on the different aspects of HIV-related attitude were also varied and there is still stigma associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) even in the educated groups. There was a spectrum of myths and misperceptions emphasizing the need of education that recognizes the social context of attitude towards HIV. Results from this study may contribute to the development of appropriate educational and training material for this group of donors which in turn, may assist in achieving the elusive goal of safe blood supply in future.
Full Text Available Introduction: Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country′s blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore the levels of knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about HIV in young college student blood donors. Results: The results showed that the proportion of participants with comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was lesser than expected. Increase in education level and male gender was found to be significantly associated with high HIV-related knowledge. The responses on the different aspects of HIV-related attitude were also varied and there is still stigma associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS even in the educated groups. Discussion: There was a spectrum of myths and misperceptions emphasizing the need of education that recognizes the social context of attitude towards HIV. Results from this study may contribute to the development of appropriate educational and training material for this group of donors which in turn, may assist in achieving the elusive goal of safe blood supply in future.
ATKINS, E; HUANG, W C
A substance with pyrogenic properties appears in the blood streams of rabbits made febrile by the intravenous inoculation of the PR8 strain of influenza A and Newcastle disease viruses (NDV). By means of a technique involving passive transfer of sera from animals given virus to recipient rabbits, the titer of circulating pyrogen was found to be closely correlated with the course of fever produced by virus. Certain properties of the pyrogen are described which differentiate it from the originally injected virus and suggest that the induced pyrogen is of endogenous origin. These properties resemble those of endogenous pyrogens occurring in other forms of experimental fever. The source of virus-induced pyrogen is unknown. In vitro incubation of virus with various constituents of the circulation did not result in the appearance of endogenous pyrogen. Granulocytopenia induced by HN(2) failed to influence either fever or the production of endogenous pyrogen in rabbits injected with NDV. Similarly, the intraperitoneal inoculation of NDV into prepared exudates did not modify the febrile response. These findings do not lend support to the possibility that the polymorphonuclear leukocyte is a significant source of endogenous pyrogen in virus-induced fever. It is concluded that the liberation of an endogenous pyrogen from some as yet undefined source is an essential step in the pathogenesis of fever caused by the influenza group of viruses.
Meo, S.A.; Abdo, A.A.; Baksh, N.D.; Sanie, F.M.
To determine an association between transmission of hepatitis B virus and secretor and non-secretor status of salivary blood group antigens. Study Design: Cross-sectional, analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: The Department of Physiology and Division of Hepatology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from 2007 to 2009. Methodology: Eighty eight known patients, who were positive for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen [HBsAg] were recruited. Saliva was collected for investigating the secretor and non-secretor status by using blood typing kit number Kemtec Educational Science USA. Hepatitis B Surface antigen test was performed on Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique. Polymerase chain reaction [PCR] on saliva was also carried out in High Performance Thermal Cycler-Palm- Cycler [Corbett Life Science, Sydney, Australia] and enzymatic amplification of extracted viral DNA was performed using primers covering the promoter of the core region of HBV. Results: Out of the 88 subjects, 61 belong to blood group O, 20 to A and 7 subjects to blood group B. Fifty subjects were secretors [salivary blood group antigens positive] and 38 subjects were non-secretors [salivary blood group antigens negative]. Among core gene positive 25 (69.4%) were secretors and 11 (30.6%) were non-secretors. However, in core gene negative 25 (48.1%) were secretors and 27 (51.9%) were non-secretors. Conclusion: The result shows an association [p=0.047] between secretor and non-secretors status of the salivary blood group antigens with core gene positive and core gene negative. (author)
Coffey, Lark L; Pesavento, Patricia A; Keesler, Rebekah I; Singapuri, Anil; Watanabe, Jennifer; Watanabe, Rie; Yee, JoAnn; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Cruzen, Christina; Christe, Kari L; Reader, J Rachel; von Morgenland, Wilhelm; Gibbons, Anne M; Allen, A Mark; Linnen, Jeff; Gao, Kui; Delwart, Eric; Simmons, Graham; Stone, Mars; Lanteri, Marion; Bakkour, Sonia; Busch, Michael; Morrison, John; Van Rompay, Koen K A
Animal models of Zika virus (ZIKV) are needed to better understand tropism and pathogenesis and to test candidate vaccines and therapies to curtail the pandemic. Humans and rhesus macaques possess similar fetal development and placental biology that is not shared between humans and rodents. We inoculated 2 non-pregnant rhesus macaques with a 2015 Brazilian ZIKV strain. Consistent with most human infections, the animals experienced no clinical disease but developed short-lived plasma viremias that cleared as neutralizing antibody developed. In 1 animal, viral RNA (vRNA) could be detected longer in whole blood than in plasma. Despite no major histopathologic changes, many adult tissues contained vRNA 14 days post-infection with highest levels in hemolymphatic tissues. These observations warrant further studies to investigate ZIKV persistence and its potential clinical implications for transmission via blood products or tissue and organ transplants.
Lark L Coffey
Full Text Available Animal models of Zika virus (ZIKV are needed to better understand tropism and pathogenesis and to test candidate vaccines and therapies to curtail the pandemic. Humans and rhesus macaques possess similar fetal development and placental biology that is not shared between humans and rodents. We inoculated 2 non-pregnant rhesus macaques with a 2015 Brazilian ZIKV strain. Consistent with most human infections, the animals experienced no clinical disease but developed short-lived plasma viremias that cleared as neutralizing antibody developed. In 1 animal, viral RNA (vRNA could be detected longer in whole blood than in plasma. Despite no major histopathologic changes, many adult tissues contained vRNA 14 days post-infection with highest levels in hemolymphatic tissues. These observations warrant further studies to investigate ZIKV persistence and its potential clinical implications for transmission via blood products or tissue and organ transplants.
Kotani, S.; Yoshimoto, S.; Yamato, K.; Fujishita, M.; Yamashita, M.; Ohtsuki, Y.; Taguchi, H.; Miyoshi, I.
Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) was serially transmitted for 5 passages from rabbit to rabbit by blood transfusion. The virus could be transmitted with 20 ml of whole blood or washed blood cell suspension (fresh or stored for 1-2 weeks at 4 degrees C) but not with cell-free plasma from seroconverted rabbits. Seroconversion occurred 2-4 weeks after blood transfusion and serum anti-HTLV-I titers ranged from 1:20 to 1:640 with the immunofluorescence assay. From transfusion recipients of the 1st to 4th passages, virus-producing cell lines were established by culturing lymphocytes in the presence of T-cell growth factor (TCGF). Three of the 4 cell lines became TCGF-independent after 2-12 months of continuous culture. Blood was transfused between rabbits of opposite sexes and the recipient origin of each cell line was determined by chromosome analysis. We also investigated the effect of X-irradiation (6,000 rad) on blood from seropositive rabbits. Seroconversion likewise occurred in rabbits transfused with blood that had been irradiated immediately before transfusion but not in rabbits transfused with blood that had been irradiated and stored for 1-2 weeks at 4 degrees C. Thus, our rabbit model shows that HTLV-I is serially transmissible by blood transfusion and that this can be prevented by irradiation of blood. The same procedure, therefore, may be useful for the prevention of transfusion-related transmission of HTLV-I in humans.
Semenza, Jan C; Tran, Annelise; Espinosa, Laura; Sudre, Bertrand; Domanovic, Dragoslav; Paz, Shlomit
West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted by mosquitoes in both urban as well as in rural environments and can be pathogenic in birds, horses and humans. Extrinsic factors such as temperature and land use are determinants of WNV outbreaks in Europe, along with intrinsic factors of the vector and virus. With a multivariate model for WNV transmission we computed the probability of WNV infection in 2014, with July 2014 temperature anomalies. We applied the July temperature anomalies under the balanced A1B climate change scenario (mix of all energy sources, fossil and non-fossil) for 2025 and 2050 to model and project the risk of WNV infection in the future. Since asymptomatic infections are common in humans (which can result in the contamination of the donated blood) we estimated the predictive prevalence of WNV infections in the blood donor population. External validation of the probability model with 2014 cases indicated good prediction, based on an Area Under Curve (AUC) of 0.871 (SD = 0.032), on the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC). The climate change projections for 2025 reveal a higher probability of WNV infection particularly at the edges of the current transmission areas (for example in Eastern Croatia, Northeastern and Northwestern Turkey) and an even further expansion in 2050. The prevalence of infection in (blood donor) populations in the outbreak-affected districts is expected to expand in the future. Predictive modelling of environmental and climatic drivers of WNV can be a valuable tool for public health practice. It can help delineate districts at risk for future transmission. These areas can be subjected to integrated disease and vector surveillance, outreach to the public and health care providers, implementation of personal protective measures, screening of blood donors, and vector abatement activities.
Pulliam, Juliet R C; Epstein, Jonathan H; Dushoff, Jonathan; Rahman, Sohayati A; Bunning, Michel; Jamaluddin, Aziz A; Hyatt, Alex D; Field, Hume E; Dobson, Andrew P; Daszak, Peter
Emerging zoonoses threaten global health, yet the processes by which they emerge are complex and poorly understood. Nipah virus (NiV) is an important threat owing to its broad host and geographical range, high case fatality, potential for human-to-human transmission and lack of effective prevention or therapies. Here, we investigate the origin of the first identified outbreak of NiV encephalitis in Malaysia and Singapore. We analyse data on livestock production from the index site (a commercial pig farm in Malaysia) prior to and during the outbreak, on Malaysian agricultural production, and from surveys of NiV's wildlife reservoir (flying foxes). Our analyses suggest that repeated introduction of NiV from wildlife changed infection dynamics in pigs. Initial viral introduction produced an explosive epizootic that drove itself to extinction but primed the population for enzootic persistence upon reintroduction of the virus. The resultant within-farm persistence permitted regional spread and increased the number of human infections. This study refutes an earlier hypothesis that anomalous El Niño Southern Oscillation-related climatic conditions drove emergence and suggests that priming for persistence drove the emergence of a novel zoonotic pathogen. Thus, we provide empirical evidence for a causative mechanism previously proposed as a precursor to widespread infection with H5N1 avian influenza and other emerging pathogens.
Li, Fang; Wang, Yueyun; Yu, Lan; Cao, Shengbo; Wang, Ke; Yuan, Jiaolong; Wang, Chong; Wang, Kunlun; Cui, Min; Fu, Zhen F
Japanese encephalitis is an acute zoonotic, mosquito-borne disease caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Japanese encephalitis is characterized by extensive inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, the pathogenic mechanisms contributing to the BBB disruption are not known. Here, using a mouse model of intravenous JEV infection, we show that virus titers increased exponentially in the brain from 2 to 5 days postinfection. This was accompanied by an early, dramatic increase in the level of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the brain. Enhancement of BBB permeability, however, was not observed until day 4, suggesting that viral entry and the onset of inflammation in the CNS occurred prior to BBB damage. In vitro studies revealed that direct infection with JEV could not induce changes in the permeability of brain microvascular endothelial cell monolayers. However, brain extracts derived from symptomatic JEV-infected mice, but not from mock-infected mice, induced significant permeability of the endothelial monolayer. Consistent with a role for inflammatory mediators in BBB disruption, the administration of gamma interferon-neutralizing antibody ameliorated the enhancement of BBB permeability in JEV-infected mice. Taken together, our data suggest that JEV enters the CNS, propagates in neurons, and induces the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which result in the disruption of the BBB. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, resulting in 70,000 cases each year, in which approximately 20 to 30% of cases are fatal, and a high proportion of patients survive with serious neurological and psychiatric sequelae. Pathologically, JEV infection causes an acute encephalopathy accompanied by BBB dysfunction; however, the mechanism is not clear. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of BBB disruption in JEV infection is important. Our data demonstrate
Elias, Lucília de Almeida; Bastos, Francisco Inacio
This article assesses the historical context and the conceptual frame of setting up damage containment programs in the field of public health, with special emphasis on the Brazilian experience. The survey seeks to assess the relevance of such programs in the ongoing efforts to curb the spread of blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections, especially AIDS and hepatitis C. Findings from both the Brazilian and the international literature demonstrate that practical damage containment initiatives tend to be more effective when integrated with other public health measures based on common goals. Damage containment initiatives, aligned with the basic principles of public health do not limit themselves to a priori models or health care per se. They encompass a variety of pragmatic measures based on public policies and should be in line with the demands of the communities since the moment of their inception and implemented in the context of full partnership with such communities.
Chen, Yen-Liang; Abdul Ghafar, Nahdiyah; Karuna, Ratna; Fu, Yilong; Lim, Siew Pheng; Schul, Wouter; Gu, Feng; Herve, Maxime; Yokohama, Fumiaki; Wang, Gang; Cerny, Daniela; Fink, Katja; Blasco, Francesca; Shi, Pei-Yong
In a recent clinical trial, balapiravir, a prodrug of a cytidine analog (R1479), failed to achieve efficacy (reducing viremia after treatment) in dengue patients, although the plasma trough concentration of R1479 remained above the 50% effective concentration (EC(50)). Here, we report experimental evidence to explain the discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo results and its implication for drug development. R1479 lost its potency by 125-fold when balapiravir was used to treat primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs; one of the major cells targeted for viral replication) that were preinfected with dengue virus. The elevated EC(50) was greater than the plasma trough concentration of R1479 observed in dengue patients treated with balapiravir and could possibly explain the efficacy failure. Mechanistically, dengue virus infection triggered PBMCs to generate cytokines, which decreased their efficiency of conversion of R1479 to its triphosphate form (the active antiviral ingredient), resulting in decreased antiviral potency. In contrast to the cytidine-based compound R1479, the potency of an adenosine-based inhibitor of dengue virus (NITD008) was much less affected. Taken together, our results demonstrate that viral infection in patients before treatment could significantly affect the conversion of the prodrug to its active form; such an effect should be calculated when estimating the dose efficacious for humans.
Michael G Berg
Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV and human pegivirus (HPgV, formerly GBV-C, are the only known human viruses in the Hepacivirus and Pegivirus genera, respectively, of the family Flaviviridae. We present the discovery of a second pegivirus, provisionally designated human pegivirus 2 (HPgV-2, by next-generation sequencing of plasma from an HCV-infected patient with multiple bloodborne exposures who died from sepsis of unknown etiology. HPgV-2 is highly divergent, situated on a deep phylogenetic branch in a clade that includes rodent and bat pegiviruses, with which it shares <32% amino acid identity. Molecular and serological tools were developed and validated for high-throughput screening of plasma samples, and a panel of 3 independent serological markers strongly correlated antibody responses with viral RNA positivity (99.9% negative predictive value. Discovery of 11 additional RNA-positive samples from a total of 2440 screened (0.45% revealed 93-94% nucleotide identity between HPgV-2 strains. All 12 HPgV-2 RNA-positive cases were identified in individuals also testing positive for HCV RNA (12 of 983; 1.22%, including 2 samples co-infected with HIV, but HPgV-2 RNA was not detected in non-HCV-infected individuals (p<0.0001, including those singly infected by HIV (p = 0.0075 or HBV (p = 0.0077, nor in volunteer blood donors (p = 0.0082. Nine of the 12 (75% HPgV-2 RNA positive samples were reactive for antibodies to viral serologic markers, whereas only 28 of 2,429 (1.15% HPgV-2 RNA negative samples were seropositive. Longitudinal sampling in two individuals revealed that active HPgV-2 infection can persist in blood for at least 7 weeks, despite the presence of virus-specific antibodies. One individual harboring both HPgV-2 and HCV RNA was found to be seronegative for both viruses, suggesting a high likelihood of simultaneous acquisition of HCV and HPgV-2 infection from an acute co-transmission event. Taken together, our results indicate that HPgV-2 is a
Erice, A; Sannerud, K J; Leske, V L; Aeppli, D; Balfour, H H
A study was conducted to compare our standard culture with a new microculture procedure for isolation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from blood leukocytes. A total of 137 blood specimens from 102 HIV-1 antibody-positive individuals (52 were asymptomatic, 31 were symptomatic, and 19 had AIDS) were cultured in a microculture system in which 10(6) of the patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were cocultured with 10(6) phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBMC from an HIV-1 antibody-negative blood donor in 1.2 ml of culture medium. Results were compared with those of a historical control group of 139 standard HIV-1 cultures from 108 HIV-1 antibody-positive subjects (58 were asymptomatic, 36 were symptomatic, and 14 had AIDS). For standard cultures, 10 x 10(6) of the patients' PBMC were cocultured with 5 x 10(6) PHA-stimulated PBMC from an HIV-1 antibody-negative blood donor in 15 ml of culture medium. HIV-1 was isolated in 128 (93%) microcultures and 133 (96%) standard cultures. Both methods identified more than 75% of the positive cultures within 7 days and 100% of the positive cultures within 14 days. The isolation rates for HIV-1 in microcultures compared with standard cultures were 91 versus 93% (specimens from asymptomatic individuals), 93 versus 96% (specimens from symptomatic individuals), and 97 versus 100% (specimens from patients with AIDS). The median time to positivity for both culture methods was 7 days, and this correlated significantly with symptoms and CD4+ cell counts. The microculture method is a sensitive and less expensive system for isolation of HIV-1 from PBMC of HIV-1 antibody-positive individuals, and we recommend it as the culture method of choice, especially for children and patients with AIDS and severe anemia or leukopenia whose blood volume is an important consideration.
Tandoi, Francesco; Caviglia, Gian Paolo; Pittaluga, Fabrizia; Abate, Maria Lorena; Smedile, Antonina; Romagnoli, Renato; Salizzoni, Mauro
Occult hepatitis B virus infection is defined as detectable HBV-DNA in liver of HBsAg-negative individuals, with or without detectable serum HBV-DNA. In deceased liver donors, results of tissue analysis cannot be obtained prior to allocation for liver transplantation. we investigated prevalence and predictability of occult hepatitis B using blood markers of viral exposure/infection in deceased liver donors. In 50 consecutive HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive and 20 age-matched HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-negative donors, a nested-PCR assay was employed in liver biopsies for diagnosis of occult hepatitis B according to Taormina criteria. All donors were characterized for plasma HBV-DNA and serum anti-HBs/anti-HBe. In liver tissue, occult hepatitis B was present in 30/50 anti-HBc-positive (60%) and in 0/20 anti-HBc-negative donors (pdonors with detectable HBV-DNA in plasma (n=5) or anti-HBs>1,000 mIU/mL (n=5) eventually showed occult infection, i.e, 10/30 occult hepatitis B-positive donors which could have been identified prior to transplantation. In the remaining 40 anti-HBc-positive donors, probability of occult infection was 62% for anti-HBe-positive and/or anti-HBs ≥ 58 mIU/mL; 29% for anti-HBe-negative and anti-HBsdonors, combining anti-HBc with other blood markers of hepatitis B exposure/infection allows to predict occult hepatitis B with certainty and speed in one third of cases. These findings might help refine the allocation of livers from anti-HBc-positive donors. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
West, Jane; Wright, John; Fairley, Lesley; Sattar, Naveed; Whincup, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie A
There is evidence that South Asian individuals have higher fat mass for a given weight than Europeans. One study reported that the greater fatness for a given birthweight may increase with increasing birth weight, suggesting that any attempt to increase mean birth weight in South Asians would markedly increase their fatness. Our objective was to examine whether differences in cord leptin values between White British and Pakistani infants vary by birth weight category. We examined the difference in cord leptin levels between 659 White British and 823 Pakistani infants recruited to the Born in Bradford cohort study, by clinical categories and thirds of the birth weight distribution. Pakistani infants had a lower mean birthweight but higher cord leptin levels than White British infants [ratio of geometric mean(RGM) of cord leptin adjusted for birth weight = 1.36 (95% CI 1.26,1.46)]. Birthweight was positively associated with cord leptin levels in both groups, with no evidence that the regression lines in the two groups diverged from each other with increasing birthweight.The relative ethnic difference in cord leptin was similar in low (distribution [RGM (95% CI) in lowest, mid and highest thirds were 1.37 (1.20, 1.57), 1.36 (1.20, 1.54) and 1.31 (1.16, 1.52), respectively, P-interaction = 0.51]. We found marked differences in cord leptin levels between Pakistani and White British infants but no evidence that this difference increases with increasing birthweight.
Sepehri, Mitra; Sejersen, Tobias; Qvortrup, Klaus; Lerche, Catharina M; Serup, Jørgen
Tattoo pigments are deposited in the skin and known to distribute to regional lymph nodes. Tattoo pigments are small particles and may be hypothesized to reach the blood stream and become distributed to peripheral organs. This has not been studied in the past. The aim of the study was to trace tattoo pigments in internal organs in mice extensively tattooed with 2 different tattoo ink products. Three groups of mice were studied, i.e., 10 tattooed black, 10 tattooed red, and 5 untreated controls. They were tattooed on the entire back with commercial tattoo inks, black and red. Mice were sacrificed after 1 year. Samples were isolated from tattooed skin, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, kidney, and lung. Samples were examined for deposits of tattoo pigments by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM identified intracellular tattoo pigments in the skin and in lymph nodes. TEM in both groups of tattooed mice showed tattoo pigment deposits in the Kupffer cells in the liver, which is a new observation. TEM detected no pigment in other internal organs. Light microscopy showed dense pigment in the skin and in lymph nodes but not in internal organs. The study demonstrated black and red tattoo pigment deposits in the liver; thus, tattoo pigment distributed from the tattooed skin via the blood stream to this important organ of detoxification. The finding adds a new dimension to tattoo pigment distribution in the body, i.e., as observed via the blood in addition to the lymphatic pathway. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Reyes-Urueña, Juliana; Brugal, M Teresa; Majo, Xavier; Domingo-Salvany, Antonia; Caylà, Joan A
The study's aim was to estimate the self-reported prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), and to describe their associated risk factors in a population of users of illicit drugs recruited in Catalonia- Spain, during 2012. Cross-sectional study. People with illicit drugs use were selected in three different types of healthcare centres. The questionnaire was a piloted, structured ad hoc instrument. An analysis was made to identify factors associated to self-reported HCV, HIV and co-infection. Correlates of reported infections were determined using univariate and multivariate Poisson regression (with robust variance). Among 512 participants, 39.65% self-reported positive serostatus for HCV and 14.84% for HIV, co-infection was reported by 13.48%. Among the 224 injecting drug users (IDUs), 187 (83.48%), 68 (30.36%) and 66 (29.46%) reported being positive for HCV, HIV and co-infection, respectively. A higher proportion of HIV-infected cases was observed among women, (18.33% vs. 13.78% in men). Prevalence of HCV, HIV and co-infection were higher among participants with early onset of drug consumption, long periods of drug injection or who were unemployed. A positive serostatus was self-reported by 21(7.34%) participants who did not report any injection; among them 16 and eight, reported being positive for HCV and HIV, respectively; three reported co-infection. Only two people declared exchanging sex for money. For those that reported a negative test, the median time since the last HIV test was 11.41 months (inter-quartile range (IQR) 4-12) and for the HCV test was 4.5 months (IQR 2-7). Among drug users in Catalonia, HIV, HCV and co-infection prevalence are still a big issue especially among IDUs. Women and drug users who have never injected drugs are groups with a significant risk of infection; this might be related to their high-risk behaviours and to being unaware of their serological status.
R Hussein, Nawfal
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a public health problem. The lack of information about the seroprevalence and risk factors is an obstacle for preventive public health plans to reduce the burden of viral hepatitis. Therefore, this study was conducted in Iraq, where no studies had been performed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HBV infection. Blood samples were collected form 438 blood donors attending blood bank in Duhok city. Serum samples were tested for HBV core-antibodies (HBcAb) and HBV surface-antigen (HBsAg) by ELISA. Various risk factors were recorded and multivariate analysis was performed. 5/438 (1.14%) of the subjects were HBsAg positive (HBsAg and HBcAb positive) and 36/438 (8.2%) were HBcAb positive. Hence, 41 cases were exposed to HBV and data analysis was based on that. Univariate analysis showed that there were significant associations between history of illegitimate sexual contact, history of alcohol or history of dental surgeries and HBV exposure (p<0.05 for all). Then, multivariate analysis was conducted to find HBV exposure predictive factors. It was found that history of dental surgery was a predictive factor for exposure to the virus (P=0.03, OR: 2.397). This study suggested that the history of dental surgery was predictive for HBV transmission in Duhok city. Further population-based study is needed to determine HBV risk factors in the society and public health plan based on that should be considered.
Melanson, Vanessa R; Jochim, Ryan; Yarnell, Michael; Ferlez, Karen Bingham; Shashikumar, Soumya; Richardson, Jason H
Vector-borne pathogen surveillance programmes typically rely on the collection of large numbers of potential vectors followed by screening protocols focused on detecting pathogens in the arthropods. These processes are laborious, time consuming, expensive, and require screening of large numbers of samples. To streamline the surveillance process, increase sample throughput, and improve cost-effectiveness, a method to detect dengue virus and malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum) by leveraging the sugar-feeding behaviour of mosquitoes and their habit of expectorating infectious agents in their saliva during feeding was investigated in this study. Dengue virus 2 (DENV-2) infected female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and P. falciparum infected female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were allowed to feed on honey coated Flinders Technical Associates -FTA® cards dyed with blue food colouring. The feeding resulted in deposition of saliva containing either DENV-2 particles or P. falciparum sporozoites onto the FTA card. Nucleic acid was extracted from each card and the appropriate real-time PCR (qPCR) assay was run to detect the pathogen of interest. As little as one plaque forming unit (PFU) of DENV-2 and as few as 60 P. falciparum parasites deposited on FTA cards from infected mosquitoes were detected via qPCR. Hence, their use to collect mosquito saliva for pathogen detection is a relevant technique for vector surveillance. This study provides laboratory confirmation that FTA cards can be used to capture and stabilize expectorated DENV-2 particles and P. falciparum sporozoites from infectious, sugar-feeding mosquitoes in very low numbers. Thus, the FTA card-based mosquito saliva capture method offers promise to overcome current limitations and revolutionize traditional mosquito-based pathogen surveillance programmes. Field testing and further method development are required to optimize this strategy.
Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.
Guidelines to prevent the transmission of blood-borne diseases, especially those caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), in the school setting are provided in this resource manual for school staff. Sections include information on the reasons for the development of this manual; a summary of the means of HIV…
Karwowski, Mateusz P.; Morman, Suzette A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Law, Terence; Kellogg, Mark; Woolf, Alan D.
Though most childhood lead exposure in the USA results from ingestion of lead-based paint dust, non-paint sources are increasingly implicated. We present interdisciplinary findings from and policy implications of a case of elevated blood lead (13–18 mcg/dL, reference level Malaysian folk diaper powder. Analyses showed the powder contains 62 % lead by weight (primarily lead oxide) and elevated antimony [1000 parts per million (ppm)], arsenic (55 ppm), bismuth (110 ppm), and thallium (31 ppm). These metals are highly bioaccessible in simulated gastric fluids, but only slightly bioaccessible in simulated lung fluids and simulated urine, suggesting that the primary lead exposure routes were ingestion via hand-mouth transmission and ingestion of inhaled dusts cleared from the respiratory tract. Four weeks after discontinuing use of the powder, the infant’s venous blood lead level was 8 mcg/dL. Unregulated, imported folk remedies can be a source of toxicant exposure. Additional research on import policy, product regulation, public health surveillance, and culturally sensitive risk communication is needed to develop efficacious risk reduction strategies in the USA. The more widespread use of contaminated folk remedies in the countries from which they originate is a substantial concern.
Suligoi, Barbara; Raimondo, Mariangela; Regine, Vincenza; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Camoni, Laura
The safety of blood with regards to transmission of infectious diseases is guaranteed by European laws that regulate both the selection of donors through pre-donation questionnaires and serological screening. However, variability in the epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in different countries and some differences in the selection of donors can influence the efficacy (with regards to the safety of blood) of these processes. In this study we compared the prevalence of HIV in blood donations in the three macro-areas of Europe and in various western European countries, analysed the criteria of selection and rewarding of donors in western European countries, and studied the trend in the prevalence of HIV in Italy from to 1995 and 2006. European data were derived from the European Centre for the Surveillance of HIV; Italian data were obtained from the Transfusion-Transmitted Infections Surveillance System and National and Regional Register of blood and plasma. The information on eligibility criteria and rewarding offered to donors was derived from international sources. The prevalence of HIV in blood donations was highest in eastern Europe, followed by central Europe and western Europe. Among the western European countries, Spain, Italy and Israel had the highest prevalences; the prevalence was noted to be higher in countries which did not offer any rewarding to the donor. In Italy the prevalence of HIV was 3.8 cases per 100,000 donations in 2006 and increased between 1995 and 2006, both among donations from repeat donors and first time donors. The data highlight the need to continue improving the selection of donors and the coverage of the surveillance systems for HIV infection in transfusion services.
Niazi, S.K.; Alam, M.
Background: The study was planned to determine the presence of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in Pakistani blood donors, using Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAT). Methods: The blood donors for study were selected on the basis of the standard questionnaire and routine screening results. Six donors were pooled using an automated pipettor and NAT for WNV was performed on Roche Cobas s 201 NAT system. The reactive pools were resolved in Individual Donation-NAT (ID-NAT) format and a sample from FFP bags of reactive donations was retrieved. NAT was again performed on retrieved plasma bag (RPB) sample to confirm the reactive donations. The donors were also recalled and interviewed about history of illness related to recent WNV infection. Results: After serological screening of 1929 donors during the study period, 1860 donors were selected for NAT test for WNV detection. The mean age of the donors was 28±8.77 (range: 18–57 years). 1847 (99.3%) donors were male and 13 (0.7%) were female. NAT for WNV identified six initially reactive pools (0.32%). On follow-up testing with RPB samples, 4 donors (0.21%) were found confirmed reactive for WNV RNA (NAT yield of 1 in 465 blood donors). Conclusion: WNV is a threat to safety of blood products in Pakistan. A screening strategy can be implemented after a large-scale study and financial considerations. One of the reduced cost screening strategies is seasonal screening of blood donors for WNV, with pooling of samples. (author)
Moutailler, S; Popovici, I; Devillers, E; Vayssier-Taussat, M; Eloit, M
Ticks transmit more pathogens-including bacteria, parasites and viruses-than any other arthropod vector. Although the epidemiological status of many tick-borne bacteria is very well characterized, tick-borne viruses are still relatively under-studied. Recently, several novel tick-borne viruses have been isolated from human febrile illnesses following tick bites, indicating the existence of other potential new and unknown tick-borne viruses. We used high-throughput sequencing to analyse the virome of Ixodes ricinus, the main vector of tick-borne pathogens in Europe. The majority of collected viral sequences were assigned to two potentially novel Nairovirus and Phlebovirus viruses, with prevalence rates ranging from 3.95% to 23.88% in adults and estimated to be between 0.14% and 72.16% in nymphs. These viruses could not be isolated from the brains of inoculated immunocompromised mice, perhaps indicating that they are unable to infect vertebrates. Within the I. ricinus virome, we also identified contigs with >90% identity to the known Eyach virus. Initially isolated in the 1980s, this virus was indirectly associated with human disease, but had never been extensively studied. Eyach virus prevalence varied between 0.07% and 5.26% in ticks from the French Ardennes and Alsace regions. Eyach virus was successfully isolated following intracerebral inoculation of immunocompromised mice with Eyach virus-positive tick extracts. This virus was also able to multiply and persist in the blood of immunocompetent mice inoculated by intraperitoneal injection, and caused brain infections in three of nine juveniles, without any obvious deleterious effects.
Frimmel, Silvius; Leister, Matthias; Löbermann, Micha; Feldhusen, Frerk; Seelmann, Matthias; Süss, Jochen; Reisinger, Emil Christian
Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, a federal state in the north east of Germany, has never been a risk area for TBEV infection, but a few autochthonous cases, along with TBEV-RNA detection in ticks, have shown a low level of activity in natural foci of the virus in the past. As wild game and domestic animals have been shown to be useful sentinels for TBEV we examined sera from wild game shot in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania for the prevalence of TBEV antibodies. A total of 359 sera from wild game were investigated. All animals were shot in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in 2012. Thirteen of 359 sera tested positive or borderline for anti-TBEV-IgG with ELISA and four samples tested positive using NT. The four TBEV-positive sera confirmed by NT constitute the first detection of TBEV-antibodies in sera of wild game in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania since 1986-1989. This underlines that the serological examination of wild game can be a useful tool in defining areas of possible TBEV infection, especially in areas of low TBEV-endemicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Sepehri, Mitra; Steen Sejersen, Tobias; Qvortrup, Klaus
AIM: Tattoo pigments are deposited in the skin and known to distribute to regional lymph nodes. Tattoo pigments are small particles and may be hypothesized to reach the blood stream and become distributed to peripheral organs. This has not been studied in the past. The aim of the study was to trace....... Mice were sacrificed after 1 year. Samples were isolated from tattooed skin, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, kidney, and lung. Samples were examined for deposits of tattoo pigments by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). RESULTS: TEM identified intracellular tattoo pigments...... in the skin and in lymph nodes. TEM in both groups of tattooed mice showed tattoo pigment deposits in the Kupffer cells in the liver, which is a new observation. TEM detected no pigment in other internal organs. Light microscopy showed dense pigment in the skin and in lymph nodes but not in internal organs...
Mazda, T; Nakata, K; Ota, K; Kaminuma, Y; Katayama, T
In Japan, the major transfusion-associated disease is non-A, non-B hepatitis. We studied the relationship between transfusion history and blood donor antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV). The positive rate of antibodies to the HCV nonstructural protein (c100-3) depended on age and the time elapsed since transfusion. The anti-c100-3 ratio for subjects with transfusions made prior to 20 years ago was high. One quarter century ago, a change occurred in national blood policy from paid to non-paid voluntary donations. We also have studied the anti-HCV positive rate among donors with prior transfusion using a second generation HCV test kit which includes anti-HCV core antibody detection. The anti-HCV positive rate for the second generation test was higher than that for the anti-c100-3 test. Introduction of the second generation test is therefore more useful in screening than the anti-c100-3 test for blood programs.
M. V. Mesentseva
Full Text Available Abstract. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE is severe neuroinfectious disease with involvement of immune mechanisms in pathogenesis. Comparative analysis of synthesis of key cytokines had been performed for the TBE virus (TBEV infected cells and in the presence of inactivated vaccine against TBE in vitro. Persistent TBEV infection of immortal tissue culture of human larynx cancer cells caused transcription activation of interferons IFNα, IFNγ, IFNλ1, interleukins IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor TNFα as well as one of apoptosis factors Fas. Comparison of transcription and production of cytokines revealed that the TBEV infection resulted in posttranscription Th1 shift of cytokine response. In the presence of inactivated vaccine against TBE based on the same strain Sofjin of the TBEV activation of transcription of cytokines IFNα, IFNλ1, IL-4, IL-10 was also observed as after the TBEV infection that together with an additional stimulation of GM-CSF production might serve as an evidence of Th2 response. Involvement of IFNIII type (IFNλ1 both during persistent infection and after addition of inactivated vaccines was found in the first time. Differences in dynamics of cytokines IL-2, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNFα response during the TBEV infection and in the presence of inactivated vaccine are described.
Yoshikawa, Minako Jen; Kusriastuti, Rita
Labor flow and travelers are important factors contributing to the spread of Dengue virus infection and chikungunya fever. Bali Province of Indonesia, a popular resort and tourist destination, has these factors and suffers from mosquito-borne infectious diseases. Using area study approach, a series of fieldwork was conducted in Bali to obtain up-to-date primary disease data, to learn more about public health measures, and to interview health officers, hotel personnel, and other resource persons. The national data including information on two other provinces were obtained for comparison. The health ministry reported 5,810 and 11,697 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bali in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Moreover, two densely populated tourist areas and one district have shown a particularly high incidence and sharp increases in 2010. Cases of chikungunya fever reported in Bali more than doubled in 2010 from the previous year. Our findings suggest that Bali can benefit from a significant reduction in vector populations and dissemination of disease preventive knowledge among both local residents and foreign visitors. This will require a concerted and trans-border approach, which may prove difficult in the province. PMID:23874141
Full Text Available Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV is a polerovirus (Luteoviridae family with a capsid composed of the major coat protein and a minor component referred to as the readthrough protein (RT. Two forms of the RT were reported: a full-length protein of 74 kDa detected in infected plants and a truncated form of 55 kDa (RT* incorporated into virions. Both forms were detected in CABYV-infected plants. To clarify the specific roles of each protein in the viral cycle, we generated by deletion a polerovirus mutant able to synthesize only the RT* which is incorporated into the particle. This mutant was unable to move systemically from inoculated leaves inferring that the C-terminal half of the RT is required for efficient long-distance transport of CABYV. Among a collection of CABYV mutants bearing point mutations in the central domain of the RT, we obtained a mutant impaired in the correct processing of the RT which does not produce the RT*. This mutant accumulated very poorly in upper non-inoculated leaves, suggesting that the RT* has a functional role in long-distance movement of CABYV. Taken together, these results infer that both RT proteins are required for an efficient CABYV movement.
Boissinot, Sylvaine; Erdinger, Monique; Monsion, Baptiste; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Brault, Véronique
Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) is a polerovirus (Luteoviridae family) with a capsid composed of the major coat protein and a minor component referred to as the readthrough protein (RT). Two forms of the RT were reported: a full-length protein of 74 kDa detected in infected plants and a truncated form of 55 kDa (RT*) incorporated into virions. Both forms were detected in CABYV-infected plants. To clarify the specific roles of each protein in the viral cycle, we generated by deletion a polerovirus mutant able to synthesize only the RT* which is incorporated into the particle. This mutant was unable to move systemically from inoculated leaves inferring that the C-terminal half of the RT is required for efficient long-distance transport of CABYV. Among a collection of CABYV mutants bearing point mutations in the central domain of the RT, we obtained a mutant impaired in the correct processing of the RT which does not produce the RT*. This mutant accumulated very poorly in upper non-inoculated leaves, suggesting that the RT* has a functional role in long-distance movement of CABYV. Taken together, these results infer that both RT proteins are required for an efficient CABYV movement.
Westby, Katie M; Muturi, Ephantus J; Juliano, Steven A
Evolutionary theory predicts that vector-borne pathogens should have low virulence for their vector because of selection against pathogens that harm the vector sufficiently to reduce transmission. Environmental factors such as nutritional stress can alter vector-pathogen associations by making the vectors more susceptible to pathogens (condition-dependent competence) and vulnerable to the harm caused by pathogen replication (condition-dependent virulence). We tested the hypotheses of condition-dependent competence and condition-dependent virulence by examining the interactive effects of short-term sugar deprivation and exposure to La Crosse virus (LACV) in female Aedes albopictus (Skuse). We predicted that infection status interacts with sugar deprivation to alter willingness to blood feed and fecundity in the second gonotrophic cycle (condition-dependent virulence). Sugar deprivation had no effect on body infection or disseminated infection rates. Infection status, sugar treatment, and their interaction had no effect on fecundity. Mosquitoes that had intermittent access to sugar were significantly more willing to take a second bloodmeal compared with those that had continuous access to sugar. Infection status and the interaction with sugar treatment had no effect on blood-feeding behavior. Thus, we found no evidence of short-term sugar deprivation leading to condition-dependent competence for, or condition-dependent virulence of, LACV in Ae. albopictus. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Herpesviruses are a large group of DNA viruses infecting mainly vertebrates. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68 is often used as a model in studies of the pathogenesis of clinically important human gammaherpesviruses such as Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. This rodent virus appears to be geographically widespread; however, its natural transmission cycle is unknown. Following detection of MHV68 in field-collected ticks, including isolation of the virus from tick salivary glands and ovaries, we investigated whether MHV68 is a tick-borne virus. Uninfected Ixodes ricinus ticks were shown to acquire the virus by feeding on experimentally infected laboratory mice. The virus survived tick molting, and the molted ticks transmitted the virus to uninfected laboratory mice on which they subsequently fed. MHV68 was isolated from the tick salivary glands, consistent with transmission via tick saliva. The virus survived in ticks without loss of infectivity for at least 120 days, and subsequently was transmitted vertically from one tick generation to the next, surviving more than 500 days. Furthermore, the F1 generation (derived from F0 infected females transmitted MHV68 to uninfected mice on which they fed, with MHV68 M3 gene transcripts detected in blood, lung, and spleen tissue of mice on which F1 nymphs and F1 adults engorged. These experimental data fulfill the transmission criteria that define an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus, the largest biological group of viruses. Currently, African swine fever virus (ASFV is the only DNA virus recognized as an arbovirus. Like ASFV, MHV68 showed evidence of pathogenesis in ticks. Previous studies have reported MHV68 in free-living ticks and in mammals commonly infested with I. ricinus, and neutralizing antibodies to MHV68 have been detected in large mammals (e.g., deer including humans. Further studies are needed to determine if these reports are the result of tick-borne transmission
Knierim, Dennis; Maiss, Edgar; Kenyon, Lawrence; Winter, Stephan; Menzel, Wulf
Luffa aphid-borne yellows virus (LABYV) was proposed as the name for a previously undescribed polerovirus based on partial genome sequences obtained from samples of cucurbit plants collected in Thailand between 2008 and 2013. In this study, we determined the first full-length genome sequence of LABYV. Based on phylogenetic analysis and genome properties, it is clear that this virus represents a distinct species in the genus Polerovirus. Analysis of sequences from sample TH24, which was collected in 2010 from a luffa plant in Thailand, reveals the presence of two different full-length genome consensus sequences.
Qureshi, Muhammad Salman Haider; Qureshi, Bakhtawar Wajeeha; Khan, Ramsha
Zika virus belongs to the family of Flaviviridae. The Flaviviridae family also includes other human pathogens like West Nile virus (WNV), Yellow fever virus (YFV), mosquito transmitted Dengue virus (DENV), Tick borne encephalitic virus (TBEV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Zika virus is a mosquito-borne disease and is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito.
Melillo Fenech, Tanya
A vector-borne disease is one in which the pathogenic microorganism is transmitted from an infected individual to another individual by an arthropod or other agent. The transmission depends upon the attributes and requirements of at least three different Iiving organisms : the pathologic agent which is either a virus, protozoa, bacteria or helminth (worm); the vector, which is commonly an arthropod such as ticks or mosquitoes; and the human host.
A comparison of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, and human T-lymphotropic virus marker rates for directed versus volunteer blood donations to the American Red Cross during 2005 to 2010.
Dorsey, Kerri A; Moritz, Erin D; Steele, Whitney R; Eder, Anne F; Stramer, Susan L
At most US blood centers, patients may still opt to choose specific donors to give blood for their anticipated transfusion needs. However, there is little evidence of improved safety with directed donation when compared to volunteer donation. The percentage of directed donations made to the American Red Cross (ARC) from 1995 to 2010 was determined. Infectious disease marker rates for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) were calculated for volunteer and directed donations made from 2005 to 2010. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to compare marker-positive rates of directed donations to volunteer donations. The percentage of donations from directed donors declined from 1.6% in 1995 to 0.12% in 2010. From 2005 to 2010, the ARC collected 38,894,782 volunteer and 69,869 directed donations. Rates of HIV, HCV, HBV, and HTLV for volunteer donations were 2.9, 32.2, 12.4, and 2.5 per 100,000 donations, respectively; for directed, the rates were 7.2, 93.0, 40.1, and 18.6 per 100,000. After demographics and first-time or repeat status were adjusted for, corresponding ORs of viral marker positivity in directed versus volunteer donations were not significant for HIV, HBV, or HTLV and significant for HCV (OR, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.90). Directed donations have declined by 92% at the ARC since 1995, but have higher viral marker rates than volunteer donations. The difference can be explained in part by the effects of first-time or repeat status of the donors. Patients considering directed donation should be appropriately counseled about the potential risks. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.
Early determinants of blood pressure and renal function : follow-up of very preterm born individuals young adulcy [vroege determinanten van bloeddruk en nierfunctie : follow-up van zeer prematuur geborenen tot in young volwassenheid
In summary, the studies described in this thesis suggest that premature birth affects renal function and blood pressure at (young) adult age, and especially when born both SGA and premature. Minor differences are already detectable at young adult age. The biological mechanism is likely to originate
Integration of a Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato into Mountain Ecosystems, Following a Shift in the Altitudinal Limit of Distribution of Their Vector, Ixodes ricinus (Krkonoše Mountains, Czech Republic)
Danielová, V.; Daniel, M.; Schwarzová, L.; Materna, J.; Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Holubová, J.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Kilian, P.
Roč. 10, č. 3 (2010), s. 223-230 ISSN 1530-3667 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA310/06/1546 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies * Climate * Ixodes ricinus tick * Mountain ecosystems * Tick-borne encephalitis virus Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2010
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a blood borne, circular and positive single stranded virus with high spread rates. With the passage of time the frequency of HCV is increasing in different parts of the world. HCV is a major cause, which may end in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV has six main genotypes with many ...
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus classified as a member of the Hepacivirus genus in the family Flavirviridae, and was first described by Choo et al. in 1989 as the causative agent of non-A-non-B post-transfusion hepatitis. HCV is a major cause of blood-borne
Rodak, L.; Smid, B.; Valicek, L.
In the blood sera of pigs vaccinated with inactivated vaccines manufactured by three different manufacturers the RIA method was used to determine the specific antibodies to the virus of Aujeszky's disease. In certain groups of vaccinated pigs the results of the RIA examination are unfavourably affected by the bond of antibodies to the cellular antigenous determinants. This proves that following vaccination antibodies are formed not only against the viral antigen but also against the antigens of cells on which the vaccination virus is propagated. These shortcomings are eliminated by the use of suitable cellular cultures for the preparation of viral and control antigens. Antigens are applicable for RIA and for ELISA examinations of blood sera of infected and vaccinated pigs. The advantages are described of the RIA and ELISA methods as compared with the virus neutralization test. (author)
Rodak, L; Smid, B; Valicek, L [Vyzkumny Ustav Veterinarniho Lekarstvi, Brno-Medlanky (Czechoslovakia)
In the blood sera of pigs vaccinated with inactivated vaccines manufactured by three different manufacturers the RIA method was used to determine the specific antibodies to the virus of Aujeszky's disease. In certain groups of vaccinated pigs the results of the RIA examination are unfavourably affected by the bond of antibodies to the cellular antigenous determinants. This proves that following vaccination antibodies are formed not only against the viral antigen but also against the antigens of cells on which the vaccination virus is propagated. These shortcomings are eliminated by the use of suitable cellular cultures for the preparation of viral and control antigens. Antigens are applicable for RIA and for ELISA examinations of blood sera of infected and vaccinated pigs. The advantages are described of the RIA and ELISA methods as compared with the virus neutralization test.
Boxman, Ingeborg L A; Jansen, Claudia C C; Hägele, Geke; Zwartkruis-Nahuis, Ans; Cremer, Jeroen; Vennema, Harry; Tijsma, Aloys S L
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the use of porcine blood(products) in food could be a risk for a hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. HEV RNA was detected in 33/36 batches of (non-heated) liquid products and in 7/24 spray dried powder products. Contamination levels varied among
Cornelissen, M; Heeregrave, E.J.; Zorgdrager, F.; Pollakis, G.; Paxton, W.A.; van der Kuyl, A.C.
Infection of cell cultures with cell-free virus isolated from HIV-infected patients is notoriously difficult and results in a loss of viral variation. Here, we describe viral sequences from PBMC, U87.CD4.CCR5 and U87.CD4.CXCR4 cell cultures and compare them to those from blood plasma from 12
Ul-Hassan, Zahoor; Al-Bahrani, Ahmad T; Panhotra, Bodh R
Human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I and type II (HTLV-I/II) infections can be transfusion associated, leading to tropical paraparesis, myelopathy and other neurological disorders. The aim of this study is to circumvent the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and to describe the prevalence of HTLV-I/II antibody among blood donors of Al-Hasa region and the cost effectiveness of screening blood donors. The study was conducted at the Department of Laboratory and Blood Bank, King Fahad Hospital, Al-Hofuf, Al-Hasa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period of 1997 to 2003. A total of 47426 blood donors were screened for HTLV-I/II antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test, during the 7 years of study period. The positive samples were confirmed by western blot analysis. Overall, HTLV-I antibody positivity (confirmed by western blot) was 3/47426 (0.006%). Out of 3 donors positive for HTLV-I antibody during 1997 to 1998, 2 were expatriates (Indian) and one was native Saudi donor. Human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I antibody positivity among the native Saudi donors was 1/47426 (0.002%) (2/100000 blood donors). None of the donor were positive for HTLV-II antibody. During the last 5 consecutive years of the study period (1999-2003), none of the donor was positive for HTLV-I/II antibody. Al-Hasa region is non-endemic for HTLV-I/II virus infections. Screening of native Saudi blood donors for these viruses does not appear to be cost effective.
Banner, Jytte; Smith, H; Sweet, C
Previous work with a neonatal ferret model for human SIDS had indicated that inflammation caused by a combination of influenza virus and bacterial endotoxin may be a cause of human SIDS. To determine whether cytokines may be involved in this inflammatory response, levels of interleukin (IL)-1 beta......, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were examined, using ELISA assays, in culture supernatants of human peripheral blood leucocytes infected with influenza virus and subsequently incubated with endotoxin. Levels of TNF-alpha were increased compared to cells incubated with virus or endotoxin...... alone. Levels of IL-1 beta were also increased whereas levels of IL-6 were generally not enhanced. Cytokines appeared within 1-2 h of stimulation with virus or endotoxin and increased subsequently to reach maximum titres between 16 and 20 h post treatment. While levels of cytokine were much lower when...
Full Text Available Ticks transmit more pathogens—including bacteria, parasites and viruses—than any other arthropod vector. Although the epidemiological status of many tick-borne bacteria is very well characterized, tick-borne viruses are still relatively under-studied. Recently, several novel tick-borne viruses have been isolated from human febrile illnesses following tick bites, indicating the existence of other potential new and unknown tick-borne viruses. We used high-throughput sequencing to analyse the virome of Ixodes ricinus, the main vector of tick-borne pathogens in Europe. The majority of collected viral sequences were assigned to two potentially novel Nairovirus and Phlebovirus viruses, with prevalence rates ranging from 3.95% to 23.88% in adults and estimated to be between 0.14% and 72.16% in nymphs. These viruses could not be isolated from the brains of inoculated immunocompromised mice, perhaps indicating that they are unable to infect vertebrates. Within the I. ricinus virome, we also identified contigs with >90% identity to the known Eyach virus. Initially isolated in the 1980s, this virus was indirectly associated with human disease, but had never been extensively studied. Eyach virus prevalence varied between 0.07% and 5.26% in ticks from the French Ardennes and Alsace regions. Eyach virus was successfully isolated following intracerebral inoculation of immunocompromised mice with Eyach virus-positive tick extracts. This virus was also able to multiply and persist in the blood of immunocompetent mice inoculated by intraperitoneal injection, and caused brain infections in three of nine juveniles, without any obvious deleterious effects.
Full Text Available The kinetics and distribution of infiltrating blood monocytes into the central nervous system and their involvement in the cerebral immune response together with resident macrophages, namely microglia, were evaluated in experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 encephalitis (HSE. To distinguish microglia from blood monocyte-derived macrophages, chimeras were generated by conditioning C57BL/6 recipient mice with chemotherapy regimen followed by transplantation of bone morrow-derived cells that expressed the green fluorescent protein. Mice were infected intranasally with a sub-lethal dose of HSV-1 (1.2 x 10(6 plaque forming units. Brains were harvested prior to and on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 post-infection for flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis. The amounts of neutrophils (P < 0.05 and "Ly6C hi" inflammatory monocytes (P < 0.001 significantly increased in the CNS compared to non-infected controls on day 6 post-infection, which corresponded to more severe clinical signs of HSE. Levels decreased on day 8 for both leukocytes subpopulations (P < 0.05 for inflammatory monocytes compared to non-infected controls to reach baseline levels on day 10 following infection. The percentage of "Ly6C low" patrolling monocytes significantly increased (P < 0.01 at a later time point (day 8, which correlated with the resolution phase of HSE. Histological analysis demonstrated that blood leukocytes colonized mostly the olfactory bulb and the brainstem, which corresponded to regions where HSV-1 particles were detected. Furthermore, infiltrating cells from the monocytic lineage could differentiate into activated local tissue macrophages that express the microglia marker, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1. The lack of albumin detection in the brain parenchyma of infected mice showed that the infiltration of blood leukocytes was not necessarily related to a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier but could be the result of a functional recruitment. Thus
Lola C Hudson
Full Text Available Lola C Hudson1, Brenda A Colby1, Rick B Meeker21Department of Molecular Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA; 2Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: Earlier studies suggested that the combination of alcohol use and immunodeficiency virus infection resulted in more severe neurologic disease than either condition individually. These deleterious interactions could be due to increased immune cell and virus trafficking or may result from interactions between ethanol and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated toxicity within the brain. To determine the extent to which increased trafficking played a role, we examined the effect of ethanol on the migration of different peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs subsets across a brain endothelial cell monolayer. We utilized combinations of feline brain endothelial cells with astrocytes, and/or microglia with either acute exposure to 0.08 g/dL ethanol, a combination of ethanol and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, or FIV alone. Adherence of PBMCs to endothelium was increased in all combinations of cells with the addition of ethanol. Despite increased PBMC adhesion with ethanol treatment, transmigration of B cells, monocytes, CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells was not increased and was actually decreased in the presence of astrocytes. Expression of three common adhesion molecules, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1, ICAM2, and vascular cell adhesion molecule, was unchanged or slightly decreased by ethanol. This indicated that although adherence is increased by ethanol it is not due to an increased expression of adhesion molecules. RANTES, MIP1α, MIP1β, and MCP-1 mRNA expression was also studied in brain endothelial cells, astrocytes and microglia by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Ethanol treatment of astrocytes resulted in modest changes of
Full Text Available Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV worldwide. Most of data came from lower Egypt regions (Cairo and northern to it. So, we decided to study risk factors and prevalence of HCV transmission in our governorate. In this cross sectional study, we recruited 631 blood donors from April, 2011 to March 2012 who were tested for anti-HCV, HBs Ag, anti- HBc and anti-HIV. Fifty seven donors were excluded as they are HBs Ag and anti-HBc positive. We found 138 (24% HCV seropositive participants. Logistic regression final model demonstrated that endoscopy, hospital admission, socioeconomic status, IV drug use and age made a significant contribution to prediction (P=0.0001. The level of education also made significant contribution to prediction (P=0.014. In conclusion, it is wise to determine high HCV prevalence areas and risk factors for its seropositivity then build up a governorate suitable infection control program concentrating upon prevention more than treatment of HCV patients. Also, the introduction of pre-test and post-test counseling in blood banks will help in better donor selection and early detection of patients.
Pacios-Palma, Isabel; Santoro, Simone; Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos
Myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) are the major viral diseases that affect the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). These diseases arrived in Europe within the last decades and have caused wild rabbit populations to decline dramatically. Both viruses are currently considered to be endemic in the Iberian Peninsula; periodic outbreaks that strongly impact wild populations regularly occur. Myxoma virus (MV) and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) alter the physiology of infected rabbits, resulting in physical deterioration. Consequently, the persistence and viability of natural populations are affected. The main goal of our study was to determine if blood biochemistry is correlated with serostatus in wild European rabbits. We carried out seven live-trapping sessions in three wild rabbit populations over a two-year period. Blood samples were collected to measure anti-MV and anti-RHDV antibody concentrations and to measure biochemical parameters related to organ function, protein metabolism, and nutritional status. Overall, we found no significant relationships between rabbit serostatus and biochemistry. Our main result was that rabbits that were seropositive for both MV and RHDV had low gamma glutamyltransferase concentrations. Given the robustness of our analyses, the lack of significant relationships may indicate that the biochemical parameters measured are poor proxies for serostatus. Another explanation is that wild rabbits might be producing attenuated physiological responses to these viruses because the latter are now enzootic in the study area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meena, Monika; Jindal, Tarun; Hazarika, Anjali
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are important transfusion-transmissible infections. This study was performed to assess the prevalence of HBV and HCV seropositivity among blood donors at a tertiary care hospital-based blood bank in India. The blood donation records over 5 years (2005-2009) were reviewed, retrospectively, for the prevalence and yearly trends of HBV and HCV seropositivity. A total of 94,716 donations were received. The overall number of HBV-seropositive donations was 1353 and that for HCV was 537, with the prevalence rates of 1.43% for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 0.57% for HCV. The seropositivity rate was higher in the replacement donors compared to the voluntary donors. The annual rates showed decreasing trends in case of HBsAg, but in case of HCV, there was a linear increase. Our study raises serious concerns regarding the HBV and HCV prevalence in our country. Although HBV showed decreasing trends, it cannot be relied upon because the donors were screened only for HBsAg. HCV is clearly on the rise. Stringent measures need to be taken on urgent basis including dissemination of information, strict screening of blood, inclusion of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen and other sensitive markers to the screening protocol, and better donor recruitment. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.
Wei, Shun-Guang; Yu, Yang; Felder, Robert B
We previously reported that microinjection of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) into the subfornical organ (SFO) elicits a pressor response accompanied by increases in inflammation and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity in the SFO and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The present study sought to determine whether blood-borne IL-1β induces similar neurochemical changes in the SFO and PVN and, if so, whether increased inflammation and RAS activity at the SFO level orchestrate the sympathoexcitatory response to circulating IL-1β. In urethane-anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats, intravenous injection of IL-1β (500 ng) increased blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity, and mRNA for angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II type 1a receptor, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-1β, as well as the tumor necrosis factor-α p55 receptor and the IL-1 receptor, in the SFO and PVN. Pretreatment with SFO microinjections of the angiotensin II type 1a receptor blocker losartan (1 µg), the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (1 µg), or the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor NS-398 (2 µg) attenuated expression of these excitatory mediators in the SFO and downstream in the PVN and the IL-1β-induced pressor responses. An SFO lesion minimized the IL-1β-induced expression of inflammatory and RAS components as well as c-Fos, an indicator of neuronal excitation, in the PVN. These studies demonstrate that circulating IL-1β, which increases in cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension and heart failure, acts on the SFO to increase inflammation and RAS activity in the SFO and PVN and that intervening in these neurochemical processes in the SFO can significantly reduce the sympathetic response.
Waleska Mayara Gomes de Lima
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is difficulty in gathering data on the prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus in blood donors as confirmatory testing is not mandatory in Brazil. This suggests there may be an underreporting of the prevalence. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 in donors of a blood bank in Caruaru, Brazil. METHODS: This was an observational, epidemiological, descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study with information about the serology of donors of the Caruaru Blood Center, Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia de Pernambuco (Hemope from May 2006 to December 2010. The data were analyzed using the Excel 2010 computer program (Microsoft Office(r. RESULTS: Of 61,881 donors, 60 (0.096% individuals were identified as potential carriers of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2. Of these, 28 (0.045% were positive and 32 (0.051% had inconclusive results in the serological screening. Forty-five (0.072% were retested; 17 were positive (0.027% and 3 inconclusive (0.005%. After confirmatory tests, 8 were positive (0.013%. Six (75% of the confirmed cases were women. CONCLUSION: Epidemiological surveys like this are very important in order to create campaigns to attract donors and reduce the costs of laboratory tests.
Bloch, Evan M; Crookes, Robert L; Hull, Jennifer; Fawcus, Sue; Gangaram, Rajesh; Anthony, John; Ingram, Charlotte; Ngcobo, Solomuzi; Croxford, Julie; Creel, Darryl V; Murphy, Edward L
Globally, as in South Africa, obstetric hemorrhage (OH) remains a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. Although blood transfusion is critical to OH management, the incidence and predictors of transfusion as well as their relation to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are poorly described. A cross-sectional study was conducted of all peripartum patients at four major hospitals in South Africa (April to July 2012). Comprehensive clinical data were collected on patients who sustained OH and/or were transfused. Logistic regression was used to model risk factors for OH and transfusion. A total of 15,725 peripartum women were evaluated, of whom 3969 (25.2%) were HIV positive. Overall, 387 (2.5%) women sustained OH and 438 (2.8%) received transfusions, including 213 (1.4%) women with both OH and transfusion. There was no significant difference in OH incidence between HIV-positive (2.8%) and HIV-negative (2.3%) patients (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-1.25). In contrast, the incidence of blood transfusion was significantly higher in HIV-positive (3.7%) than in HIV-negative (2.4%) patients (adjusted OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.14-2.03). Other risk factors for transfusion included OH, low prenatal hemoglobin, the treating hospital, lack of prenatal care, and gestational age of not more than 34 weeks. In the South African obstetric setting, the incidence of peripartum blood transfusion is significantly higher than in the United States and other high-income countries while OH incidence is similar. While OH and prenatal anemia are major predictors of transfusion, HIV infection is a common and independent contributing factor. © 2015 AABB.
Nakayasu, Miki; Hirano, Minato; Muto, Memi; Kobayashi, Shintaro; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Yoshii, Kentaro
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a zoonotic agent causing severe encephalitis in humans. IgM antibody detection is useful for the serological diagnosis of TBEV infection, because IgM has high specificity for each flavivirus and indicates a recent infection. Commercial IgM-ELISA kits are somewhat expensive and difficulties in their sensitivity have been suggested due to their format and formalin-inactivated antigens. Therefore, the development of an inexpensive IgM-ELISA with high specificity and sensitivity is needed. In this study, a μ-capture ELISA was developed to detect TBEV-specific IgM antibodies using subviral particles (SPs) with strep-tag (strep-SP-IgM-ELISA). The results of our strep-SP-IgM-ELISA were highly correlated with diagnoses made by the neutralization test (sensitivity: 94.1%), and our strep-SP-IgM-ELISA could detect anti-TBEV IgM antibodies in patients who could not be diagnosed with the neutralization test. Besides, 51 of 52 positive samples by a commercial IgM-ELISA were also diagnosed as positive by our strep-SP-IgM-ELISA (98.1%), and our strep-SP-IgM-ELISA could detect anti-TBEV IgM antibodies in all samples that were inconclusive based on the commercial IgM-ELISA. Our strep-SP-IgM-ELISA will be useful for diagnoses in TBE-endemic areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
[FAB immunoglobulin fragments. I. The comparative characteristics of the serological and virus-neutralizing properties of a gamma globulin against tick-borne encephalitis and of the FAB fragments isolated from it].
Barban, P S; Minaeva, V M; Pantiukhina, A N; Startseva, M G
A comparative study was made of the serological properties and virus-neutralizing activity of antiencephalitis gamma-globulin and Fab-fragments isolated from it by gel-filtration. Horse immunoglobulins against the autumno-summer tick-borne encephalitis virus could be disintegrated with the aid of papaine to monovalent Fab-fragments which (according to the complement fixation reaction, the test of suppression of the complement fixation, and the HAIT) retained the serological activity whose level was compared with that of the serological activity of gamma-globulin. Fab-fragments possessed a marked virus-neutralizing activity. The mean value of a logarithm of the neutralization index was 2.65 +/- 0.2 for Fab-fragments and 3.74 +/- 0.38 for gamma-globulin (P less than 0.01).
Routine screening of blood donations at Qingdao central blood bank, China, for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA with a real-time, multiplex nucleic acid test for HBV, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus Types 1 and 2.
Yang, Zhongsi; Xu, Lei; Liu, Li; Feng, Qiuxia; Zhang, Longmu; Ma, Weijuan; Saldanha, John; Wang, Mingmin; Zhao, Lin
The Roche cobas TaqScreen MPX test was used to evaluate the rate of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative donations that were hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA reactive from June 2010 to January 2011 in Qingdao, China. HBsAg-negative samples from 65,800 voluntary blood donors were tested with the cobas TaqScreen MPX test in pools of 6 on the Roche cobas s 201 blood screening platform. Samples positive for HBV DNA and negative for HBsAg were quantitated with the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HBV test. In addition, serologic tests for HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antibody, anti-hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), anti-hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe), and hepatitis B e antigen (HBe) were done using the Roche electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. A total of 80 nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) test-reactive pools were identified and 59 pools (74%) resolved to a reactive sample. All samples were HBV DNA reactive and the viral load in each sample was quantitated. The viral loads of the samples ranged from less than 20 to 34,600 IU/mL; 13 samples (22%) had viral loads of more than 20 IU/mL, 27 samples (45.8%) had viral loads of less than 20 IU/mL, and 19 samples (32.2%) had undetectable viral loads. Of the 59 NAT-reactive samples, 40 (67.8%) were anti-HBc positive. Fifteen of the 59 samples could not be confirmed as NAT reactive either by an alternative NAT test or by serology. The HBV NAT yield in blood donors in Qingdao is 0.06% (38/65,800). This study confirmed the value of NAT for interdicting HBV-positive donations and preventing transfusion-transmitted HBV infections. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.
Yu. V. Ostankova
Full Text Available The prevalence of HBV infection is estimated by the frequency of occurrence of HBsAg and varies depending on the geographic region. Chronic infection is characterized by a stable presence of HBsAg for 6 months, with the exception of the occult form of the disease, characterized by the absence of HBsAg, an extremely low level of HBV DNA in the blood serum. The problem of identifying occult HBV (ocHBV is especially relevant because of the development of transplantology and transfusiology. However, serological screening of donor blood used in the Russian Federation and Central Asian countries does not reveal HBV seronegative donors. Since HBV infection is possible with the introduction of small doses of the virus, the importance of using complex molecular methods for detecting donor ocHBV is obvious, despite the low viral load, since donor blood is used predominantly in patients with severe course of various diseases characterized by increased susceptibility to HBV because of immunosuppression. The aim of our work was to study the characteristics of the genetic structure of the ocHBV in donors in Astana, Kazakhstan. A total of 500 blood plasma samples from HBsAg-negative donors were obtained in 2012 from residents of Kazakhstan, Astana. Using the method, we proposed to detect HBV DNA with a low viral load, HBV was detected in 9.4% of donors. Serological markers were found in 12.7% of patients with HBV DNA, 8.5% had HBcor IgG antibodies, 4.2% had HBcor IgG and HBe IgG antibodies at the same time. Thus, in 41 (87.3% of the blood donor, ocHBV was seronegative. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the 47 isolates showed that the HBV of genotype D (95.75% prevails in the examined group in comparison with HBV of genotype A (4.25%. HBV subgenotypes are represented in the following ratios: D1 — 46.8%, D2 — 17.05%, D3 — 31.9%, A2 — 4.25%. In a comparative analysis, the distribution of HBV subgenotypes in the group with ocHBV and in the case of the
Prodouz, K.N.; Fratantoni, J.C.; Boone, E.J.; Bonner, R.F.
Inactivation of virus by UV radiation was examined as a potential method for sterilization of blood products. Samples of attenuated poliovirus, platelets and plasma were uniformly irradiated with a XeCl excimer laser that delivered 40 nsec pulses of UV at 308 nm (UVB308). Intensities and exposure does were varied from 0.11 to 1.40 MW/cm2 and 0.51 to 56.0 J/cm2, respectively. In studies conducted with low intensity UVB308 (less than or equal to 0.17 MW/cm2), using exposure doses greater than or equal to 10.8 J/cm2, it was possible to inactivate poliovirus by 4 to 6 log10. Platelets irradiated with doses less than or equal to 21.5 J/cm2 exhibited minimal damage as assessed by aggregation activity and spontaneous release of serotonin. Examination of the coagulation activity of irradiated plasma indicated that exposure doses less than or equal to 21.5 J/cm2 resulted in less than 20% increase in prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times. The use of UVB308 at a higher intensity (1.4 MW/cm2) over a similar range of exposure doses did not enhance viral inactivation but did result in increased damage to platelet and plasma proteins. These results demonstrate that at 308 nm there exists a window of efficacy for exposure doses between 10.8 and 21.5 J/cm2 and peak intensities less than or equal to 0.17 MW/cm2 in which a hardy virus is significantly inactivated and platelets and plasma proteins are, by functional criteria, minimally affected. Increased viral inactivation cannot be accomplished with higher UV intensities and will require additional or alternate measures
Eriksen, Mette Brandt; Jakobsen, Marianne Antonius; Kringsholm, Birgitte
Blood-borne viral infections are widespread among injecting drug users; however, it is difficult to include these patients in serological surveys. Therefore, we developed a national surveillance program based on postmortem testing of persons whose deaths were drug related. Blood collected...
Full Text Available Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily parenterally by contaminated blood and is often associated with: intravenous drug abuse, invasive procedures, blood transfusions, acupuncture, tattooing, and alcohol and tobacco use. This study aimed to quantify and evaluate the risk factors among blood donors, volunteer blood donors and replacement individuals, infected or not by the C virus. The main transmission routes of C virus were identified in 55 men and 25 women (GI monitored by the Ambulatory Unit of the Department of Tropical Diseases, Botucatu Medical School, and in 24 men and 26 women (GII, all active blood donors at the Bauru State Hospital Transfusional Agency. Both groups were similar in: tobacco and alcohol consumption, sexual behavior, tattooing and illicit drug use. The duration of alcohol and tobacco consumption and blood transfusions in GI were longer, whereas the option for steady partners, condom use, disposable materials and piercings were predominant in GII. In conclusion, the risk factors for hepatitis C demonstrate the necessity of health policies that act on the primary and secondary prevention levels (respectively, reduction of infection incidence and hepatopathy risk.
Cap, Andrew P; Pidcoke, Heather F; Keil, Shawn D; Staples, Hilary M; Anantpadma, Manu; Carrion, Ricardo; Davey, Robert A; Frazer-Abel, Ashley; Taylor, Audra L; Gonzales, Richard; Patterson, Jean L; Goodrich, Raymond P
Transfusion of plasma from recovered patients after Ebolavirus (EBOV) infection, typically called "convalescent plasma," is an effective treatment for active disease available in endemic areas, but carries the risk of introducing other pathogens, including other strains of EBOV. A pathogen reduction technology using ultraviolet light and riboflavin (UV+RB) is effective against multiple enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that are similar in structure to EBOV. We hypothesized that UV+RB is effective against EBOV in blood products without activating complement or reducing protective immunoglobulin titers that are important for the treatment of Ebola virus disease (EVD). Four in vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of UV+RB on green fluorescent protein EBOV (EBOV-GFP), wild-type EBOV in serum, and whole blood, respectively, and on immunoglobulins and complement in plasma. Initial titers for Experiments 1 to 3 were 4.21 log GFP units/mL, 4.96 log infectious units/mL, and 4.23 log plaque-forming units/mL. Conditions tested in the first three experiments included the following: 1-EBOV-GFP plus UV+RB; 2-EBOV-GFP plus RB only; 3-EBOV-GFP plus UV only; 4-EBOV-GFP without RB or UV; 5-virus-free control plus UV only; and 6-virus-free control without RB or UV. UV+RB reduced EBOV titers to nondetectable levels in both nonhuman primate serum (≥2.8- to 3.2-log reduction) and human whole blood (≥3.0-log reduction) without decreasing protective antibody titers in human plasma. Our in vitro results demonstrate that the UV+RB treatment efficiently reduces EBOV titers to below limits of detection in both serum and whole blood. In vivo testing to determine whether UV+RB can improve convalescent blood product safety is indicated. © 2016 AABB.
Ashish C. Shrestha
Full Text Available Abstract Background As one of the causative agents of viral hepatitis, hepatitis E virus (HEV has gained public health attention globally. HEV epidemics occur in developing countries, associated with faecal contamination of water and poor sanitation. In industrialised nations, HEV infections are associated with travel to countries endemic for HEV, however, autochthonous infections, mainly through zoonotic transmission, are increasingly being reported. HEV can also be transmitted by blood transfusion. Nepal has experienced a number of HEV outbreaks, and recent earthquakes resulted in predictions raising the risk of an HEV outbreak to very high. This study aimed to measure HEV exposure in Nepalese blood donors after large earthquakes. Methods Samples (n = 1,845 were collected from blood donors from Kathmandu, Chitwan, Bhaktapur and Kavre. Demographic details, including age and sex along with possible risk factors associated with HEV exposure were collected via a study-specific questionnaire. Samples were tested for HEV IgM, IgG and antigen. The proportion of donors positive for HEV IgM or IgG was calculated overall, and for each of the variables studied. Chi square and regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with HEV exposure. Results Of the donors residing in earthquake affected regions (Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Kavre, 3.2% (54/1,686; 95% CI 2.7–4.0% were HEV IgM positive and two donors were positive for HEV antigen. Overall, 41.9% (773/1,845; 95% CI 39.7–44.2% of donors were HEV IgG positive, with regional variation observed. Higher HEV IgG and IgM prevalence was observed in donors who reported eating pork, likely an indicator of zoonotic transmission. Previous exposure to HEV in Nepalese blood donors is relatively high. Conclusion Detection of recent markers of HEV infection in healthy donors suggests recent asymptomatic HEV infection and therefore transfusion-transmission in vulnerable patients is a risk in
Shrestha, Ashish C; Flower, Robert L P; Seed, Clive R; Rajkarnikar, Manita; Shrestha, Shrawan K; Thapa, Uru; Hoad, Veronica C; Faddy, Helen M
As one of the causative agents of viral hepatitis, hepatitis E virus (HEV) has gained public health attention globally. HEV epidemics occur in developing countries, associated with faecal contamination of water and poor sanitation. In industrialised nations, HEV infections are associated with travel to countries endemic for HEV, however, autochthonous infections, mainly through zoonotic transmission, are increasingly being reported. HEV can also be transmitted by blood transfusion. Nepal has experienced a number of HEV outbreaks, and recent earthquakes resulted in predictions raising the risk of an HEV outbreak to very high. This study aimed to measure HEV exposure in Nepalese blood donors after large earthquakes. Samples (n = 1,845) were collected from blood donors from Kathmandu, Chitwan, Bhaktapur and Kavre. Demographic details, including age and sex along with possible risk factors associated with HEV exposure were collected via a study-specific questionnaire. Samples were tested for HEV IgM, IgG and antigen. The proportion of donors positive for HEV IgM or IgG was calculated overall, and for each of the variables studied. Chi square and regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with HEV exposure. Of the donors residing in earthquake affected regions (Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Kavre), 3.2% (54/1,686; 95% CI 2.7-4.0%) were HEV IgM positive and two donors were positive for HEV antigen. Overall, 41.9% (773/1,845; 95% CI 39.7-44.2%) of donors were HEV IgG positive, with regional variation observed. Higher HEV IgG and IgM prevalence was observed in donors who reported eating pork, likely an indicator of zoonotic transmission. Previous exposure to HEV in Nepalese blood donors is relatively high. Detection of recent markers of HEV infection in healthy donors suggests recent asymptomatic HEV infection and therefore transfusion-transmission in vulnerable patients is a risk in Nepal. Surprisingly, this study did not provide evidence of a large
Detection and genetic characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) derived from ticks removed from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and isolated from spleen samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Croatia.
Jemeršić, Lorena; Dežđek, Danko; Brnić, Dragan; Prpić, Jelena; Janicki, Zdravko; Keros, Tomislav; Roić, Besi; Slavica, Alen; Terzić, Svjetlana; Konjević, Dean; Beck, Relja
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a growing public health concern in central and northern European countries. Even though TBE is a notifiable disease in Croatia, there is a significant lack of information in regard to vector tick identification, distribution as well as TBE virus prevalence in ticks or animals. The aim of our study was to identify and to investigate the viral prevalence of TBE virus in ticks removed from red fox (Vulpes vulpes) carcasses hunted in endemic areas in northern Croatia and to gain a better insight in the role of wild ungulates, especially red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the maintenance of the TBE virus in the natural cycle. We identified 5 tick species (Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes hexagonus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Dermacentor reticulatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus) removed from 40 red foxes. However, TBE virus was isolated only from adult I. ricinus and I. hexagonus ticks showing a viral prevalence (1.6%) similar to or higher than reported in endemic areas of other European countries. Furthermore, 2 positive spleen samples from 182 red deer (1.1%) were found. Croatian TBE virus isolates were genetically analyzed, and they were shown to be closely related, all belonging to the European TBE virus subgroup. However, on the basis of nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis, 2 clusters were identified. Our results show that further investigation is needed to understand the clustering of isolates and to identify the most common TBE virus reservoir hosts in Croatia. Sentinel surveys based on wild animal species would give a better insight in defining TBE virus-endemic and possible risk areas in Croatia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Musso, D; Richard, V; Teissier, A; Stone, M; Lanteri, M C; Latoni, G; Alsina, J; Reik, R; Busch, M P
Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission through semen donation has never been reported but the risk is supported by the detection of ZIKV in semen and the demonstration of ZIKV sexual transmission. The potential impact of ZIKV on assisted reproductive procedures should be evaluated. We tested longitudinally collected semen samples provided by asymptomatic blood donors who tested positive for ZIKV RNA in plasma during ZIKV outbreaks in Puerto Rico and Florida in 2016. Five of the 14 (35.7%) asymptomatic blood donors provided semen samples that tested positive for ZIKV RNA, with ZIKV RNA loads ranging from 8.03 × 10 3 to 2.55 × 10 6 copies/mL. Plasma collected at the same time as the semen tested negative for ZIKV RNA for most ZIKV RNA-positive semen collections; all corresponding plasma samples tested positive or equivocal for anti-ZIKV IgG antibodies and all except one tested positive for ZIKV IgM antibodies. The rate of detection of ZIKV RNA in semen in asymptomatic donors is not significantly different from the rate previously reported for symptomatic patients. Our results that show a high percentage of detection of ZIKV RNA in the semen of asymptomatic men confirm that ZIKV is a new threat for reproductive medicine and should have important implications for assisted reproductive technology. We recommend that semen donations from men at risk for ZIKV infection should be tested for ZIKV RNA, regardless of symptoms of ZIKV infection. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Márcia Poinho EncarnaçÃo de Morais
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2 is endemic in Brazil, but few studies have investigated the seroprevalence of HTLV and its subtypes among blood donors in the capital city Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. Aim: To estimate the seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 and to identify circulating subtypes among blood donors in Manaus. Materials and Methods: Blood donors (2001-2003 were screened for HTLV-1/2 antibodies by ELISA. Positive results were confirmed and subtyped by Western blot assays. Prevalence rates were calculated and compared with demographic data. Results: Among the 87,402 individuals screened, 116 (0.13% were seropositive for HTLV-1/2. A second sample (76/116 was collected and retested by HTLV-1/2 ELISA, of which only 41/76 were positive. Western blot confirmed HTLV infection in 24/41 retested blood donors [HTLV-1 (n=16, HTLV-2 (n=5 and HTLV-untypable (n=3]. Discussion: HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are prevalent among blood donors in Manaus. However, additional studies are needed to comprehend the epidemiology of HTLV-1/2 in Amazonas not only to understand the pathophysiology of the disease providing adequate medical assistance, but also to reduce or block virus transmission.
Hsia, Chu Chieh; Chizhikov, Vladimir E.; Yang, Amy X.; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Hewlett, Indira; Duncan, Robert; Puri, Raj K.; Nakhasi, Hira L.; Kaplan, Gerardo G.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) are transfusion-transmitted human pathogens that have a major impact on blood safety and public health worldwide. We developed a microarray multiplex assay for the simultaneous detection and discrimination of these three viruses. The microarray consists of 16 oligonucleotide probes, immobilized on a silylated glass slide. Amplicons from multiplex PCR were labeled with Cy-5 and hybridized to the microarray. The assay detected 1 International Unit (IU), 10 IU, 20 IU of HBV, HCV, and HIV-1, respectively, in a single multiplex reaction. The assay also detected and discriminated the presence of two or three of these viruses in a single sample. Our data represent a proof-of-concept for the possible use of highly sensitive multiplex microarray assay to screen and confirm the presence of these viruses in blood donors and patients
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I infection is considered as a public health challenge in endemic areas. The virus is associated with severe diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. One of the major routes of the HTLV-I transmission includes blood transfusion. Sabzevar is located in the endemic region of HTLV-I infection. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-I infection in the blood donors in Sabzevar. Materials and Methods: A total of 35,067 blood donors in Sabzevar from March 2009 to April 2012 who were screened with HTLV-I on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screening test were included in this survey. Reactive samples that confirmed by western blot were considered to be seropositive cases. The required data were obtained from blood donors′ database of blood transfusion service. Results: The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 based on the positive result of western blot test was 0.14%. The seropositive donors aged 17-59 years with a mean age of 38.10 ± 11.82. The prevalence rates of HTLV-I infection in 3 years of study were 0.19%, 0.14%, and 0.09%, respectively. A significant relation between age, sex, educational level, and history of blood donation was observed with seropositivity of HTLV-I. Conclusion: The improvement of donor selection and laboratory screening caused a decline in the prevalence of infection in blood donors. Given the lower prevalence of infection in regular donors with lower age and higher educational level, more efforts should be done to attract blood donors from these populations.
Pereira, Felicidade Mota; Zarife, Maria Alice Sant'ana; Reis, Eliana Almeida Gomes; G. Reis, Mitermayer
Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is diagnosed by the presence of antibodies and is supplemented by confirmatory testing methods, such as recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) and HCV-RNA detection. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of RIBA testing to diagnose HCV infection in blood donors positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Methods: A total of 102 subjects positive for anti-HCV determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at the Hematology and Hemotherapy Found...
Full Text Available Ebola and Marburg viruses (family Filoviridae, genera Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus cause haemorrhagic fevers in humans, often associated with high mortality rates. The presence of antibodies to Ebola virus (EBOV and Marburg virus (MARV has been reported in some African countries in individuals without a history of haemorrhagic fever. In this study, we present a MARV and EBOV seroprevalence study conducted amongst blood donors in the Republic of Congo and the analysis of risk factors for contact with EBOV.In 2011, we conducted a MARV and EBOV seroprevalence study amongst 809 blood donors recruited in rural (75; 9.3% and urban (734; 90.7% areas of the Republic of Congo. Serum titres of IgG antibodies to MARV and EBOV were assessed by indirect double-immunofluorescence microscopy. MARV seroprevalence was 0.5% (4 in 809 without any identified risk factors. Prevalence of IgG to EBOV was 2.5%, peaking at 4% in rural areas and in Pointe Noire. Independent risk factors identified by multivariate analysis were contact with bats and exposure to birds.This MARV and EBOV serological survey performed in the Republic of Congo identifies a probable role for environmental determinants of exposure to EBOV. It highlights the requirement for extending our understanding of the ecological and epidemiological risk of bats (previously identified as a potential ecological reservoir and birds as vectors of EBOV to humans, and characterising the protection potentially afforded by EBOV-specific antibodies as detected in blood donors.
Heijden, van der H.M.J.F.; Bouwstra, R.J.; Mars, M.H.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Wellenberg, G.J.; Maanen, van C.
To detect Schmallenberg virus (SBV) infections in ruminants and to perform SBV epidemiological studies a cost-effective serological test is required. For these purposes an indirect whole virus Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for detection of SBV specific antibodies in ruminant blood
occupational infection by HIV and other blood borne pathogens. Key Words: HIV .... percent of health care personnel report adverse events while taking ... hypersensitivity reactions. tAvailable as a .... blood and tissue donors. Transfusion 1995;.
S. Fontél, Kristina; Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham
In Europe, clinical signs indicative of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), would immediately lead to collection of blood and relevant organ material for further laboratory examination for this vesicular disease virus. Today, the first line system for detection of virus in the sample material is real t...... time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic utility of stabilized blood for detection of FMDV RNA in this system....
Seri, Benjamin; Minga, Albert; Gabillard, Delphine; Dembele, Bamori; Konate, Seidou; Le Carrou, Jérôme; Dohoun, Lambert; Abo, Yao; Karcher, Sophie; Coffie, Patrick; N'Dri-Yoman, Thérèse; Attia, Alain; Eholié, Serge P; Danel, Christine; Lacombe, Karine; Anglaret, Xavier; Boyd, Anders
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share common risk factors. The parallel description of their frequency over time may help capture their similarities and differences. Using data from the National Transfusion Center of Abidjan, we estimated the following over a 20-year period: (1) the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity at first contact; and (2) the incidence of HIV and HBsAg seroconversion in negative first-time blood donors. Between 1992 and 2012, 422319 donors (men [M] = 74%) provided 1063825 blood donations. For first-time donors, HIV prevalence decreased from 7.1% (M = 5.9%, women [W] =11.0%) in 1992-1994 to 1.1% (M = 0.8%, W = 2.0%) in 2010-2012. Prevalence of HBsAg positivity remained stable at 10.8% (M = 11.7%, W = 7.3%) in 1992-1994 to 11.1% (M = 12.5%, W = 7.1%) in 2010-2012. Among regular donors (N = 129256), the incidence of becoming HIV or HBsAg positive, respectively, decreased from 4.9 per 100 (M = 4.5, W = 8.6) and 7.3 per 100 person-years (M = 7.8, W = 2.3) in 1992-1994 to 0.07 (M = 0.06, W = 0.11) and 0.2 per 100 person-years (M = 0.2, W = 0.2) in 2010-2012. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence and incidence decreased dramatically over time, whereas HBV prevalence remained stable. Incidence of HBsAg seroconversion, although decreasing, still reached unexpected levels, suggesting that the risk of HBV infection in adults may be higher than expected. Hepatitis B surface antigen-negative blood-donors should be offered HBV vaccination.
Seri, Benjamin; Minga, Albert; Gabillard, Delphine; Dembele, Bamori; Konate, Seidou; Le Carrou, Jérôme; Dohoun, Lambert; Abo, Yao; Karcher, Sophie; Coffie, Patrick; N’Dri-Yoman, Thérèse; Attia, Alain; Eholié, Serge P; Danel, Christine; Lacombe, Karine; Anglaret, Xavier; Boyd, Anders
Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share common risk factors. The parallel description of their frequency over time may help capture their similarities and differences. Methods Using data from the National Transfusion Center of Abidjan, we estimated the following over a 20-year period: (1) the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity at first contact; and (2) the incidence of HIV and HBsAg seroconversion in negative first-time blood donors. Results Between 1992 and 2012, 422319 donors (men [M] = 74%) provided 1063825 blood donations. For first-time donors, HIV prevalence decreased from 7.1% (M = 5.9%, women [W] =11.0%) in 1992–1994 to 1.1% (M = 0.8%, W = 2.0%) in 2010–2012. Prevalence of HBsAg positivity remained stable at 10.8% (M = 11.7%, W = 7.3%) in 1992–1994 to 11.1% (M = 12.5%, W = 7.1%) in 2010–2012. Among regular donors (N = 129256), the incidence of becoming HIV or HBsAg positive, respectively, decreased from 4.9 per 100 (M = 4.5, W = 8.6) and 7.3 per 100 person-years (M = 7.8, W = 2.3) in 1992–1994 to 0.07 (M = 0.06, W = 0.11) and 0.2 per 100 person-years (M = 0.2, W = 0.2) in 2010–2012. Conclusions Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence and incidence decreased dramatically over time, whereas HBV prevalence remained stable. Incidence of HBsAg seroconversion, although decreasing, still reached unexpected levels, suggesting that the risk of HBV infection in adults may be higher than expected. Hepatitis B surface antigen-negative blood-donors should be offered HBV vaccination. PMID:29644251
Cap, Andrew P.; Pidcoke, Heather F.; Keil, Shawn D.; Staples, Hilary M.; Anantpadma, Manu; Carrion, Ricardo; Davey, Robert A.; Frazer-Abel, Ashley; Taylor, Audra L.; Gonzales, Richard; Patterson, Jean L.; Goodrich, Raymond P.
BACKGROUND Transfusion of plasma from recovered patients after Ebolavirus (EBOV) infection, typically called ‘convalescent plasma,’ is an effective treatment for active disease available in endemic areas, but carries the risk of introducing other pathogens, including other strains of EBOV. A pathogen reduction technology using ultraviolet light and riboflavin (UV + RB) is effective against multiple enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that are similar in structure to EBOV. We hypothesized that UV + RB is effective against EBOV in blood products without activating complement or reducing protective immunoglobulin titers that are important for the treatment of ebolavirus disease (EVD). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Four in vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of UV + RB on green fluorescent protein EBOV (EBOV-GFP), wild-type EBOV in serum and whole blood, respectively, and on immunoglobulins and complement in plasma. Initial titers for Experiments 1–3 were: 4.21 log10 GFP units/mL, 4.96 log10 infectious units per mL, and 4.23 log10 plaque forming units per mL (PFU/mL). Conditions tested in the first three experiments included: 1. EBOV-GFP + UV + RB; 2. EBOV-GFP + RB only; 3 EBOV-GFP + UV only; 4. EBOV-GFP without RB or UV; 5. Virus-free control + UV only; and 6. Virus-free control without RB or UV. RESULTS UV + RB reduced EBOV titers to non-detectable levels in both non-human primate serum (≥ 2.8 to 3.2 log reduction) and human whole blood (≥ 3.0 log reduction) without decreasing protective antibody titers in human plasma. CONCLUSION Our in vitro results demonstrate that the UV + RB treatment efficiently reduces EBOV titers to below limits of detection in both serum and whole blood. In vivo testing to determine whether UV + RB can improve convalescent blood product safety is indicated. PMID:27001363
Lutomiah, Joel; Omondi, David; Masiga, Daniel; Mutai, Collins; Mireji, Paul O; Ongus, Juliette; Linthicum, Ken J; Sang, Rosemary
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonosis of domestic ruminants in Africa. Blood-fed mosquitoes collected during the 2006-2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya were analyzed to determine the virus infection status and animal source of the blood meals. Blood meals from individual mosquito abdomens were screened for viruses using Vero cells and RT-PCR. DNA was also extracted and the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes amplified by PCR. Purified amplicons were sequenced and queried in GenBank and Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) to identify the putative blood meal sources. The predominant species in Garissa were Aedes ochraceus, (n=561, 76%) and Ae. mcintoshi, (n=176, 24%), and Mansonia uniformis, (n=24, 72.7%) in Baringo. Ae. ochraceus fed on goats (37.6%), cattle (16.4%), donkeys (10.7%), sheep (5.9%), and humans (5.3%). Ae. mcintoshi fed on the same animals in almost equal proportions. RVFV was isolated from Ae. ochraceus that had fed on sheep (4), goats (3), human (1), cattle (1), and unidentified host (1), with infection and dissemination rates of 1.8% (10/561) and 50% (5/10), respectively, and 0.56% (1/176) and 100% (1/1) in Ae. mcintoshi. In Baringo, Ma. uniformis fed on sheep (38%), frogs (13%), duikers (8%), cattle (4%), goats (4%), and unidentified hosts (29%), with infection and dissemination rates of 25% (6/24) and 83.3% (5/6), respectively. Ndumu virus (NDUV) was also isolated from Ae. ochraceus with infection and dissemination rates of 2.3% (13/561) and 76.9% (10/13), and Ae. mcintoshi, 2.8% (5/176) and 80% (4/5), respectively. Ten of the infected Ae. ochraceus had fed on goats, sheep (1), and unidentified hosts (2), and Ae. mcintoshi on goats (3), camel (1), and donkey (1). This study has demonstrated that RVFV and NDUV were concurrently circulating during the outbreak, and sheep and goats were the main amplifiers of these viruses respectively.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV is transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a species that lives in close association with human dwellings. The behavior of DENV-infected mosquitoes needs further investigation, especially regarding the potential influence of DENV on mosquito biting motivation and avidity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We orally challenged 4-5 day-old Ae. aegypti females with a low passage DENV serotype -2 (DENV-2 to test whether the virus influences motivation to feed (the likelihood that a mosquito obtains a blood-meal and the size of its blood meal and avidity (the likelihood to re-feed after an interrupted first blood-meal. To assay motivation, we offered mosquitoes an anesthetized mouse for 2, 3, 4 or 5 minutes 7 or 14 days after the initial blood meals and measured the time they started feeding. 60.5% of the unexposed mosquitoes fed on the mouse, but only 40.5% of the positive ones did. Exposed but negative mosquitoes behaved similarly to unexposed ones (55.0% feeding. Thus DENV-2 infection decreased the mosquitoes' motivation to feed. To assay avidity, we offered the same mosquitoes a mouse two hours after the first round of feeding, and we measured the time at which they started probing. The exposed (positive or negative mosquitoes were more likely to re-feed than the unexposed ones and, in particular, the size of the previous blood-meal that kept mosquitoes from re-feeding was larger in the exposed than in the unexposed mosquitoes. Thus, DENV-2 infection increased mosquito avidity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: DENV-2 significantly decreased the mosquitoes' motivation to feed, but increased their avidity (even after taking account the amount of blood previously imbibed. As these are important components of transmission, we expect that the changes of the blood-feeding behaviour impact the vectorial capacity Ae. aegypti for dengue.
Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Sylvestre, Gabriel; Gandini, Mariana; Koella, Jacob C
Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a species that lives in close association with human dwellings. The behavior of DENV-infected mosquitoes needs further investigation, especially regarding the potential influence of DENV on mosquito biting motivation and avidity. We orally challenged 4-5 day-old Ae. aegypti females with a low passage DENV serotype -2 (DENV-2) to test whether the virus influences motivation to feed (the likelihood that a mosquito obtains a blood-meal and the size of its blood meal) and avidity (the likelihood to re-feed after an interrupted first blood-meal). To assay motivation, we offered mosquitoes an anesthetized mouse for 2, 3, 4 or 5 minutes 7 or 14 days after the initial blood meals and measured the time they started feeding. 60.5% of the unexposed mosquitoes fed on the mouse, but only 40.5% of the positive ones did. Exposed but negative mosquitoes behaved similarly to unexposed ones (55.0% feeding). Thus DENV-2 infection decreased the mosquitoes' motivation to feed. To assay avidity, we offered the same mosquitoes a mouse two hours after the first round of feeding, and we measured the time at which they started probing. The exposed (positive or negative) mosquitoes were more likely to re-feed than the unexposed ones and, in particular, the size of the previous blood-meal that kept mosquitoes from re-feeding was larger in the exposed than in the unexposed mosquitoes. Thus, DENV-2 infection increased mosquito avidity. DENV-2 significantly decreased the mosquitoes' motivation to feed, but increased their avidity (even after taking account the amount of blood previously imbibed). As these are important components of transmission, we expect that the changes of the blood-feeding behaviour impact the vectorial capacity Ae. aegypti for dengue.
Wang, Xun; Jia, Yao; Xie, Yun-zheng; Li, Xiu-mei; Liu, Xiao-ying; Wu, Xiao-fei
The practicable and effective methods for residual risk assessment on transfusion-transmitted disease was to establish the mathematic models. Based on the characteristics of the repeat donors which donated their blood on a regular base, a model of sero-conversion during the interval of donations was established to assess the incidence of the repeat donors. Based on the characteristics of the prevalence in the population, a model of 'prevalence increased with the age of the donor' was established to assess the incidence of those first-time donors. And based on the impact of the windows period through blood screening program, a model of residual risk associated with the incidence and the length of the windows period was established to assess the residual risk of blood transfusion. In this paper, above said 3 kinds of mathematic models were jointly applied to assess the residual risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) which was transmitted through blood transfusion in Shanghai, based on data from the routine blood collection and screening program. All the anti-HCV unqualified blood donations were confirmed before assessment. Results showed that the residual risk of HCV transmitted through blood transfusion during Jan. 1(st), 2007 to Dec. 31(st), 2008 in Shanghai was 1:101 000. Data showed that the results of residual risk assessment with mathematic models was valuable. The residual risk of transfusion-transmitted HCV in Shanghai was at a safe level, according to the results in this paper.
Zlobin, Vladimir I; Pogodina, Vanda V; Kahl, Olaf
Tick-borne encephalitis virus is the etiological agent of a severe human disease transmitted by hard ticks. It occurs in large parts of eastern, central, and western Asia and in Europe with thousands of human cases each year. Here, the discovery of the virus by Soviet scientists in the late 1930s in the Far East is described. The pioneering work involved with this discovery, which resulted in great scientific and epidemiological achievement, was undertaken under the most difficult conditions, and some of the scientists and their technical assistants paid for it with their health and even their lives. This paper briefly outlines the steps on the way that elucidated the basic etiology and eco-epidemiology of the disease, and does not omit that, as one result of the expeditions and the political situation in the former Soviet Union at that time, some scientists were sent to prison. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Notkins, Abner Louis; Mahar, Suellen; Scheele, Christina; Goffman, Joel
If viremic sera from mice chronically infected with lactic dehydrogenase virus (LDV) were first treated with ether or ultraviolet light to inactivate the infectious virus, neutralizing antibody could be demonstrated. Significant amounts of antibody, however, were not detected until the mice had been infected for about 2½ months and its presence did not result in the elimination of the chronic viremia. Virus isolated from sera containing neutralizing antibody was found to be relatively resistant to neutralization by anti-LDV. Further studies revealed that the resistant virus existed in the form of an infectious virus-antibody complex (sensitized virus). The presence of such a complex was demonstrated by the fact that the virus fraction which persisted after in vivo or in vitro exposure to mouse anti-LDV was readily neutralized by goat anti-mouse sera or goat anti-mouse γ-globulin, whereas virus that had not been previously exposed to mouse anti-LDV was completely resistant to neutralization by goat anti-mouse sera. These findings suggest that (a) sensitization may play an important role in the resistance and susceptibility of a virus to neutralization by antiviral antibody, and (b) an anti-γ-globulin may prove useful in neutralizing the resistant fraction and in demonstrating otherwise undetectable antiviral antibody. PMID:5944351
Gröner, Albrecht; Broumis, Connie; Fang, Randel; Nowak, Thomas; Popp, Birgit; Schäfer, Wolfram; Roth, Nathan J
Careful selection and testing of plasma reduces the risk of blood-borne viruses in the starting material for plasma-derived products. Furthermore, effective measures such as pasteurization at 60°C for 10 hours have been implemented in the manufacturing process of therapeutic plasma proteins such as human albumin, coagulation factors, immunoglobulins, and enzyme inhibitors to inactivate blood-borne viruses of concern. A comprehensive compilation of the virus reduction capacity of pasteurization is presented including the effect of stabilizers used to protect the therapeutic protein from modifications during heat treatment. The virus inactivation kinetics of pasteurization for a broad range of viruses were evaluated in the relevant intermediates from more than 15 different plasma manufacturing processes. Studies were carried out under the routine manufacturing target variables, such as temperature and product-specific stabilizer composition. Additional studies were also performed under robustness conditions, that is, outside production specifications. The data demonstrate that pasteurization inactivates a wide range of enveloped and nonenveloped viruses of diverse physicochemical characteristics. After a maximum of 6 hours' incubation, no residual infectivity could be detected for the majority of enveloped viruses. Effective inactivation of a range of nonenveloped viruses, with the exception of nonhuman parvoviruses, was documented. Pasteurization is a very robust and reliable virus inactivation method with a broad effectiveness against known blood-borne pathogens and emerging or potentially emerging viruses. Pasteurization has proven itself to be a highly effective step, in combination with other complementary safety measures, toward assuring the virus safety of final product. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.
Wang, Xue; Zoueva, Olga; Zhao, Jiangqin; Ye, Zhiping; Hewlett, Indira
Influenza A virus has been detected in the blood of some infected individuals, and may pose a safety concern for collection, handling and transport of specimens for epidemiological and public health investigations if infectious virus is present in samples. Furthermore the effect of storage on virus stability and infectivity has not been well studied. We examined the stability of novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus RNA when the virus was stored in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), plasma, or buffy coated blood at either room temperature or 4°C using a sensitive Taqman RT-PCR assay. We also investigated virus infectivity using the EID(50) assay when virus was stored in PBS, plasma, or buffy coats isolated from blood at 4°C. Viral RNA stability was affected by the matrix used for storage. The recovery of viral RNA was highest when virus was stored in PBS with lower amounts being recovered from plasma and buffy coats at either room temperature or 4°C. Incubation time did not appear to be a major factor for viral RNA stability, although there was gradual decline after longer periods post-incubation. Both sample matrix and incubation time affected virus infectivity. The decay in virus infectivity was greatest in PBS followed by buffy coats and plasma. Virus infectivity was abolished in buffy coats at day 20 post-incubation when virus concentrations were low. These data indicate that encapsidated viral RNA was stable overall in all three liquid matrices at room temperature or 4°C although it was most stable in PBS; virus infectivity in buffy coats at 4°C decayed in a time dependent manner while it remained unchanged in plasma. These findings have implications for storage, handling and transport of blood derived samples from influenza patients for epidemiological and laboratory investigations. It should be noted that there is little known about influenza viremia, and whether influenza viruses can be transmitted by blood or blood derived samples.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza A virus has been detected in the blood of some infected individuals, and may pose a safety concern for collection, handling and transport of specimens for epidemiological and public health investigations if infectious virus is present in samples. Furthermore the effect of storage on virus stability and infectivity has not been well studied. Methods We examined the stability of novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1 virus RNA when the virus was stored in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, plasma, or buffy coated blood at either room temperature or 4°C using a sensitive Taqman RT-PCR assay. We also investigated virus infectivity using the EID50 assay when virus was stored in PBS, plasma, or buffy coats isolated from blood at 4°C. Results Viral RNA stability was affected by the matrix used for storage. The recovery of viral RNA was highest when virus was stored in PBS with lower amounts being recovered from plasma and buffy coats at either room temperature or 4°C. Incubation time did not appear to be a major factor for viral RNA stability, although there was gradual decline after longer periods post-incubation. Both sample matrix and incubation time affected virus infectivity. The decay in virus infectivity was greatest in PBS followed by buffy coats and plasma. Virus infectivity was abolished in buffy coats at day 20 post-incubation when virus concentrations were low. Conclusion These data indicate that encapsidated viral RNA was stable overall in all three liquid matrices at room temperature or 4°C although it was most stable in PBS; virus infectivity in buffy coats at 4°C decayed in a time dependent manner while it remained unchanged in plasma. These findings have implications for storage, handling and transport of blood derived samples from influenza patients for epidemiological and laboratory investigations. It should be noted that there is little known about influenza viremia, and whether influenza viruses can be
The neurovirulence and neuroinvasiveness of chimeric tick-borne encephalitis/dengue virus can be attenuated by introducing defined mutations into the envelope and NS5 protein genes and the 3' non-coding region of the genome
Engel, Amber R.; Rumyantsev, Alexander A.; Maximova, Olga A.; Speicher, James M.; Heiss, Brian; Murphy, Brian R.; Pletnev, Alexander G.
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a severe disease affecting thousands of people throughout Eurasia. Despite the use of formalin-inactivated vaccines in endemic areas, an increasing incidence of TBE emphasizes the need for an alternative vaccine that will induce a more durable immunity against TBE virus (TBEV). The chimeric attenuated virus vaccine candidate containing the structural protein genes of TBEV on a dengue virus genetic background (TBEV/DEN4) retains a high level of neurovirulence in both mice and monkeys. Therefore, attenuating mutations were introduced into the envelope (E 315 ) and NS5 (NS5 654,655 ) proteins, and into the 3' non-coding region (Δ30) of TBEV/DEN4. The variant that contained all three mutations (vΔ30/E 315 /NS5 654,655 ) was significantly attenuated for neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence and displayed a reduced level of replication and virus-induced histopathology in the brains of mice. The high level of safety in the central nervous system indicates that vΔ30/E 315 /NS5 654,655 should be further evaluated as a TBEV vaccine.
Full Text Available In support of the response to the 2013-2016 Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak in Western Africa, we investigated the persistence of Ebola virus/H.sapiens-tc/GIN/2014/Makona-C05 (EBOV/Mak-C05 on non-porous surfaces that are representative of hospitals, airplanes, and personal protective equipment. We performed persistence studies in three clinically-relevant human fluid matrices (blood, simulated vomit, and feces, and at environments representative of in-flight airline passenger cabins, environmentally-controlled hospital rooms, and open-air Ebola treatment centers in Western Africa. We also compared the surface stability of EBOV/Mak-C05 to that of the prototype Ebola virus/H.sapiens-tc/COD/1976/Yambuku-Mayinga (EBOV/Yam-May, in a subset of these conditions. We show that on inert, non-porous surfaces, EBOV decay rates are matrix- and environment-dependent. Among the clinically-relevant matrices tested, EBOV persisted longest in dried human blood, had limited viability in dried simulated vomit, and did not persist in feces. EBOV/Mak-C05 and EBOV/Yam-May decay rates in dried matrices were not significantly different. However, during the drying process in human blood, EBOV/Yam-May showed significantly greater loss in viability than EBOV/Mak-C05 under environmental conditions relevant to the outbreak region, and to a lesser extent in conditions relevant to an environmentally-controlled hospital room. This factor may contribute to increased communicability of EBOV/Mak-C05 when surfaces contaminated with dried human blood are the vector and may partially explain the magnitude of the most recent outbreak, compared to prior outbreaks. These EBOV persistence data will improve public health efforts by informing risk assessments, structure remediation decisions, and response procedures for future EVD outbreaks.
To determine the seroprevalence of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus-1/2 (HTLV-1/2) in blood donors in Northern Pakistan. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Transfusion, Rawalpindi, from July to August 2013. Methodology:A total of 2100 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies during the study period, in a pool of six, on a highly sensitive, Chemiluminiscent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA) based system. The screening test reactive donors were recalled, counseled and interviewed, and a fresh sample was obtained for confirmatory testing. Confirmation was performed using additional immunoassays including Line Immunoassay (LIA); with additional testing for HTLV-1 pvDNAPCR. Frequency and percentages were determined. Results: Four donors (0.19%) were repeatedly screening test-reactive and were subsequently confirmed to be HTLV-1 infected by line immunoassay and HTLV-1 pvDNAPCR. All four donors were male with mean age of 27 ± 6.27 years. Two (50%) of the positive donors gave history of Multiple Sexual Partners (MSP). Conclusion: HTLV-1 seroprevalence in Northern Pakistan blood donors was determined to be 0.19%. Large scale studies, including the cost effectiveness of screening blood donations for anti-HTLV-1/2 in Pakistan, are recommended. (author)
Avettand-Fènoël, Véronique; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Blanche, Stéphane; Burgard, Marianne; Floch, Corinne; Toure, Kadidia; Allemon, Marie-Christine; Warszawski, Josiane; Rouzioux, Christine
HIV-1 diagnosis in babies born to seropositive mothers is one of the challenges of HIV epidemics in children. A simple, rapid protocol was developed for quantifying HIV-1 DNA in whole blood samples and was used in the ANRS French pediatric cohort in conditions of prevention of mother-to-child transmission. A quantitative HIV-1 DNA protocol (LTR real-time PCR) requiring small blood volumes was developed. First, analytical reproducibility was evaluated on 172 samples. Results obtained on blood cell pellets and Ficoll-Hypaque separated mononuclear cells were compared in 48 adult HIV-1 samples. Second, the protocol was applied to HIV-1 diagnosis in infants in parallel with plasma HIV-RNA quantitation. This prospective study was performed in children born between May 2005 and April 2007 included in the ANRS cohort. The assay showed good reproducibility. The 95% detection cut-off value was 6 copies/PCR, that is, 40 copies/10(6) leukocytes. HIV-DNA levels in whole blood were highly correlated with those obtained after Ficoll-Hypaque separation (r = 0.900, P mothers have received HAART. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Inoue, Ryo; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Sunaba, Chinatsu; Itoh, Mitsugi; Ushida, Kazunari
The combination of Flinders Technology Associates filter papers (FTA cards) and real-time PCR was examined to establish a simple and rapid technique for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from whole pig blood. A modified live PRRS vaccine was diluted with either sterilised saline or pig whole blood, and the suspensions were applied onto the FTA cards. The real-time RT-PCR detection of PRRSV was performed directly with the samples applied to the FTA card without the RNA extraction step. Six whole blood samples from at random selected piglets in the PRRSV infected farm were also assayed in this study. The expected PCR product was successfully amplified from either saline diluted or pig whole blood diluted vaccine. The same PCR ampliocon was detected from all blood samples assayed in this study. This study suggested that the combination of an FTA card and real-time PCR is a rapid and easy technique for the detection of PRRSV. This technique can remarkably shorten the time required for PRRSV detection from whole blood and makes the procedure much easier.
Steininger, Christoph; Kundi, Michael; Jatzko, Gerlinde; Kiss, Herbert; Lischka, Andreas; Holzmann, Heidemarie
Virological and clinical data from 73 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected pregnant women who gave birth to 75 children were merged retrospectively, by logistic regression analysis, to investigate risk factors for vertical transmission of HCV. Eighty-two percent of the HCV-infected mothers were HCV-RNA-positive during pregnancy, and 10% were coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Nine children were HCV infected, 1 was HIV infected, but none was HIV-HCV coinfected. Among vaginal deliveries, the mean HCV load of mothers who transmitted HCV to their infants was higher than that of those who did not (8.1 x 10(5) vs. 1.4 x 10(4) copies/mL; P=.056). A reduction in umbilical cord-blood pH (relative risk, 3.9; P=.04) or the occurrence of perineal or vaginal laceration (relative risk, 6.4; P=.028) during vaginal delivery significantly increased the risk of vertical HCV transmission. In conclusion, high maternal viremia, infantile hypoxia, and intrapartum exposure to virus-contaminated maternal blood increased the risk of HCV transmission during vaginal deliveries. Consequently, cesarean section may reduce the risk of vertical HCV transmission in selected cases.
Attia, M. A.; Zekri, A. R.; Goudsmit, J.; Boom, R.; Khaled, H. M.; Mansour, M. T.; de Wolf, F.; el-Din, H. M.; Sol, C. J.
Serum samples from 429 cancer patients, 82 unpaid blood donors, and 74 paid blood donors were tested for hepatitis C virus (HCV) markers in two commercially available enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). A total of 229 of 429 (53.4%) cancer patients were positive by the two EIAs. A total of 34 of 156 (21.8%)
Kiyoshi Ferreira Fukutani
Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti (L. is vector of several arboviruses including dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, and more recently zika. Previous transcriptomic studies have been performed to elucidate altered pathways in response to viral infection. However, the intrinsic coupling between alimentation and infection were unappreciated in these studies. Feeding is required for the initial mosquito contact with the virus and these events are highly dependent. Addressing this relationship, we reinterrogated datasets of virus-infected mosquitoes with two different diet schemes (fed and unfed mosquitoes, evaluating the metabolic cross-talk during both processes. We constructed coexpression networks with the differentially expressed genes of these comparison: virus-infected versus blood-fed mosquitoes and virus-infected versus unfed mosquitoes. Our analysis identified one module with 110 genes that correlated with infection status (representing ~0.7% of the A. aegypti genome. Furthermore, we performed a machine-learning approach and summarized the infection status using only four genes (AAEL012128, AAEL014210, AAEL002477, and AAEL005350. While three of the four genes were annotated as hypothetical proteins, AAEL012128 gene is a membrane amino acid transporter correlated with viral envelope binding. This gene alone is able to discriminate all infected samples and thus should have a key role to discriminate viral infection in the A. aegypti mosquito. Moreover, validation using external datasets found this gene as differentially expressed in four transcriptomic experiments. Therefore, these genes may serve as a proxy of viral infection in the mosquito and the others 106 identified genes provides a framework to future studies.
Kragh, Marie; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Thysen, Anna Hammerich
Background: First-born children are at higher risk for development of a range of immune-mediated diseases. The underlying mechanism of ‘birth-order-effects’ on disease risk is largely unknown, but in utero programming of the child's immune system may play a role. Objective: We studied the associa...... programing may contribute to later development of immune-mediated diseases by increasing overall immune reactivity in first-born children as compared to younger siblings.......Background: First-born children are at higher risk for development of a range of immune-mediated diseases. The underlying mechanism of ‘birth-order-effects’ on disease risk is largely unknown, but in utero programming of the child's immune system may play a role. Objective: We studied...
Bedeković, T; Šimić, I; Krešić, N; Lojkić, I
Lumpy skin disease caused by Capripoxvirus is at the moment the most important threat to European cattle industry. The only way for successful control of disease is fast and efficient diagnosis and vaccination. According to EU legislation, vaccination against LDS can be conducted only after confirmation of the disease. Croatia has a special position regarding LSD-in 2016, for the first-time vaccination of the entire cattle population was conducted without an index case. The presence of vaccine viral particles was detected in milk, skin nodules, blood and nasal swabs in seven from total of eight herds. The presence of virus genome was detected in five cows from 10 up to 21-day post-vaccination. The virus was successfully isolated on cell culture from 10 up to 21-day post-vaccination from three animals. The obtained results support the need for further efforts to develop safer vaccines against LSDV. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, the ... not travel to areas where there is a Zika virus outbreak. If you do decide to travel, first ...
Soa Fy Andriamandimby
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2005, there were outbreaks of febrile polyarthritis due to Chikungunya virus (CHIKV in the Comoros Islands. CHIKV then spread to other islands in the Indian Ocean: La Réunion, Mauritius, Seychelles and Madagascar. These outbreaks revealed the lack of surveillance and preparedness of Madagascar and other countries. Thus, it was decided in 2007 to establish a syndrome-based surveillance network to monitor dengue-like illness. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the use of capillary blood samples blotted on filter papers for molecular diagnosis of CHIKV infection. Venous blood samples can be difficult to obtain and the shipment of serum in appropriate temperature conditions is too costly for most developing countries. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Venous blood and dried-blood blotted on filter paper (DBFP were collected during the last CHIKV outbreak in Madagascar (2010 and as part of our routine surveillance of dengue-like illness. All samples were tested by real-time RT-PCR and results with serum and DBFP samples were compared for each patient. The sensitivity and specificity of tests performed with DBFP, relative to those with venous samples (defined as 100% were 93.1% (95% CI:[84.7-97.7] and 94.4% (95% CI:[88.3-97.7], respectively. The Kappa coefficient 0.87 (95% CI:[0.80-0.94] was excellent. CONCLUSION: This study shows that DBFP specimens can be used as a cost-effective alternative sampling method for the surveillance and monitoring of CHIKV circulation and emergence in developing countries, and probably also for other arboviruses. The loss of sensitivity is insignificant and involved a very small number of patients, all with low viral loads. Whether viruses can be isolated from dried blood spots remains to be determined.
Full Text Available Vinte e quatro caprinos de uma semana de idade, soronegativos pela imunodifusão em gel de agar para artrite encefalite caprina (AEC, foram utilizados para estudo de infecção experimental pelo vírus da AEC. Dezesseis animais foram inoculados com lentivirus caprino, amostra Cork, oito pela via intravenosa e oito por instilação nasal. Oito animais serviram como controle, inoculados pelas vias intranasal ou intravenosa com 1ml de meio de cultura de células não infectadas. Os animais foram sacrificados aos 2, 6, 12 e 20 dias pós-inoculação (PI, e colhidas amostras do sistema nervoso central, articulações, tonsilas, linfonodos, pulmões, rins, timo, baço e intestinos delgado e grosso para histopatologia e imunoistoquímica. Um animal inoculado com o vírus da AEC pela via intranasal e sacrificado aos 20 dias PI apresentou imunomarcação positiva em um macrófago alveolar. Concluiu-se que a via aerógena é uma provável rota de infecção pelo vírus da AEC.The caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV experimental infection was studied in 24 one-week-old seronegative kids. Sixteen kids were inoculated with CAEV-Cork, with 10(6 TCID50/ml concentration, being eight inoculated intravenously, and eight intranasally. Eight animals were used as controls, being four inoculated intravenously, and four intranasally with non-infected cell culture medium. Since the day of the inoculation, clinical evaluation was performed daily, until the day of the sacrifice. Blood samples were taken for serological tests. The animals were killed in pairs at 2, 6, 12 and 20 days post-inoculation (PI and tissues samples of central nervous system, joints, tonsils, lymphonodes, lungs, kidneys, thymus, spleen, small and large intestine were collected for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. One animal CAEV inoculated intranasally and killed at 20 days PI showed immunohistochemical positive reaction in an alveolar macrophage. It was concluded that
Santos, Bruna Parapinski; Souza, Fernando Nogueira; Blagitz, Maiara Garcia; Batista, Camila Freitas; Bertagnon, Heloísa Godoi; Diniz, Soraia Araújo; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Haddad, João Paulo Amaral; Della Libera, Alice Maria Melville Paiva
The exact influence of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection on blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) and monocyte/macrophages of goats remains unclear. Thus, the present study sought to explore the blood and milk PMNL and monocyte/macrophage functions in naturally CAEV-infected goats. The present study used 18 healthy Saanen goats that were segregated according to sera test outcomes into serologically CAEV negative (n=8; 14 halves) and positive (n=10; 14 halves) groups. All milk samples from mammary halves with milk bacteriologically positive outcomes, somatic cell count ≥2×10 6 cellsmL -1 , and abnormal secretions in the strip cup test were excluded. We evaluated the percentage of blood and milk PMNLs and monocyte/macrophages, the viability of PMNLs and monocyte/macrophages, the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the nonopsonized phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by flow cytometry. In the present study, a higher percentage of milk macrophages (CD14 + ) and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes undergoing late apoptosis or necrosis (Annexin-V + /Propidium iodide + ) was observed in CAEV-infected goats; we did not find any further alterations in blood and milk PMNL and monocyte/macrophage functions. Thus, regarding our results, the goats naturally infected with CAEV did not reveal pronounced dysfunctions in blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ashshi, Ahmed Mohamed
Transmission of dengue virus (DENV) through blood transfusion has been documented and hence screening for DENV during blood donation has been recently recommended by the American Association of Blood Banks and Centres of Disease Control and Prevention. DENV is endemic in the Western province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and serotypes 1, 2 and 3, but not 4, have been detected. However, little is known regarding the rates of DENV during blood donation in the kingdom. The aim of this study was therefore to measure the prevalence of dengue virus and its serotypes in eligible Saudi blood donors in the endemic Western region of KSA. This was a cross-sectional study and serum samples were collected from 910 eligible Saudi male blood donors. DENV IgM and IgG antibodies were measured serologically by ELISA while viral serotypes were detected by a single step IVD CE certified multiplex RT-PCR kit. The overall prevalence was 39 and 5.5% for IgG+ and IgM+, respectively. There were 12 (1.3%) with exclusively IgM+, 317 (34.8%) exclusively IgG+ and 38 (4.2%) with dual IgM+/IgG+ donors. The overall prevalence was 3.2% (n = 29) and 2.3% (n = 21) for primary and secondary infections. PCR was positive in 5.5% (n = 50) and, DENV-2 (n = 24; 48%) was the most frequent serotype and was significantly higher than DENV-1 (20%; P = 0.02) and DENV-3 (2%; P = 0.1 × 10 -5 ) but not DENV-4 (30%; P = 0.2). There was no significant difference between both DENV-4 and DENV-1 (P = 0.4). The combination of the PCR and serology findings showed that 22 (2.4%) and 28 (3.1%) donors had primary and secondary viremic infections, respectively. The detected rates of DENV by PCR suggest a potential high risk of viral transmission by blood transfusion. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report the detection of DENV-4 serotype in Saudi Arabia. More studies are required to measure the precise prevalence of DENV serotypes and their potential
Kříž, B.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Malý, M.; Daniel, M.; Straková, Petra; Betášová, Lenka
Roč. 15, č. 8 (2015), s. 489-493 ISSN 1530-3667 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Serological survey * Tick-borne encephalitis Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 1.956, year: 2015
Impact of using different blood donor subpopulations and models on the estimation of transfusion transmission residual risk of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus in Zimbabwe.
Mapako, Tonderai; Janssen, Mart P; Mvere, David A; Emmanuel, Jean C; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Postma, Maarten J; van Hulst, Marinus
Various models for estimating the residual risk (RR) of transmission of infections by blood transfusion have been published mainly based on data from high-income countries. However, to obtain the data required for such an assessment remains challenging for most developing settings. The National Blood Service Zimbabwe (NBSZ) adapted a published incidence-window period (IWP) model, which has less demanding data requirements. In this study we assess the impact of various definitions of blood donor subpopulations and models on RR estimates. We compared the outcomes of two published models and an adapted NBSZ model. The Schreiber IWP model (Model 1), an amended version (Model 2), and an adapted NBSZ model (Model 3) were applied. Variably the three models include prevalence, incidence, preseroconversion intervals, mean lifetime risk, and person-years at risk. Annual mean RR estimates and 95% confidence intervals for each of the three models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) were determined using NBSZ blood donor data from 2002 through 2011. The annual mean RR estimates for Models 1 through 3 were 1 in 6542, 5805, and 6418, respectively for HIV; 1 in 1978, 2027, and 1628 for HBV; and 1 in 9588, 15,126, and 7750, for HCV. The adapted NBSZ model provided comparable results to the published methods and these highlight the high occurrence of HBV in Zimbabwe. The adapted NBSZ model could be used as an alternative to estimate RRs when in settings where two repeat donations are not available. © 2016 AABB.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: West Nile virus (WNV is endemic in the US, varying seasonally and by geographic region. WNV can be transmitted by blood transfusion, and mandatory screening of blood for WNV was recently introduced throughout the US. Guidelines for selecting cost-effective strategies for screening blood for WNV do not exist. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis for screening blood for WNV using a computer-based mathematical model, and using data from prospective studies, retrospective studies, and published literature. For three geographic areas with varying WNV-transmission intensity and length of transmission season, the model was used to estimate lifetime costs, quality-adjusted life expectancy, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios associated with alternative screening strategies in a target population of blood-transfusion recipients. We compared the status quo (baseline screening using a donor questionnaire to several strategies which differed by nucleic acid testing of either pooled or individual samples, universal versus targeted screening of donations designated for immunocompromised patients, and seasonal versus year-long screening. In low-transmission areas with short WNV seasons, screening by questionnaire alone was the most cost-effective strategy. In areas with high levels of WNV transmission, seasonal screening of individual samples and restricting screening to blood donations designated for immunocompromised recipients was the most cost-effective strategy. Seasonal screening of the entire recipient pool added minimal clinical benefit, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios exceeding US$1.7 million per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Year-round screening offered no additional benefit compared to seasonal screening in any of the transmission settings. CONCLUSIONS: In areas with high levels of WNV transmission, seasonal screening of individual samples and restricting screening to blood donations
Caroline T Korves
Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is endemic in the US, varying seasonally and by geographic region. WNV can be transmitted by blood transfusion, and mandatory screening of blood for WNV was recently introduced throughout the US. Guidelines for selecting cost-effective strategies for screening blood for WNV do not exist.We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis for screening blood for WNV using a computer-based mathematical model, and using data from prospective studies, retrospective studies, and published literature. For three geographic areas with varying WNV-transmission intensity and length of transmission season, the model was used to estimate lifetime costs, quality-adjusted life expectancy, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios associated with alternative screening strategies in a target population of blood-transfusion recipients. We compared the status quo (baseline screening using a donor questionnaire to several strategies which differed by nucleic acid testing of either pooled or individual samples, universal versus targeted screening of donations designated for immunocompromised patients, and seasonal versus year-long screening. In low-transmission areas with short WNV seasons, screening by questionnaire alone was the most cost-effective strategy. In areas with high levels of WNV transmission, seasonal screening of individual samples and restricting screening to blood donations designated for immunocompromised recipients was the most cost-effective strategy. Seasonal screening of the entire recipient pool added minimal clinical benefit, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios exceeding USD 1.7 million per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Year-round screening offered no additional benefit compared to seasonal screening in any of the transmission settings.In areas with high levels of WNV transmission, seasonal screening of individual samples and restricting screening to blood donations designated for immunocompromised recipients is cost
Lu, Guiyang; Su, Yingying; Wang, Ning
Zika virus belongs to Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus. In response to the current cluster of congenital malformations (microcephaly) and other neurological complications (Guillain-Barré Syndrome) that could be linked to Zika virus infection, WHO declares that Zika virus is of global public health importance. Data sources were from peer review articles and WHO documents. The sources of Zika virus infection would include patients, people with asymptomatic infections and primates. The infectious period of Zika virus remains unclear. However, according to the period that RNA of Zika virus can be positively detected in blood, saliva, urine or semen, we can presume that the communicable period may last for 2 months or even longer. Zika virus is primarily transmitted to humans by infected Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Presumptive vertical, blood or sexual routes of transmission have been reported. More evidence indicated the existence of a cause-effect relationship between Zika virus infection and congenital microcephaly/Guillain-Barre syndrome. Strategies include successful control the amount of mosquitoes and minimize the contacts between mosquitoes and human beings could effectively prevent the Zika virus transmission. Other preventive measures as cutting off vertical, blood or sexual routes of transmission should also be adopted. The epidemiology of Zika virus remains uncertain which calls for further research.
He, Miao; Zhu, Jiang; Yin, Huimin; Ke, Ling; Gao, Lei; Pan, Zhihong; Yang, Xiuhua; Li, Wuping
Background Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is a common pathogen which causes a variety of diseases. Persistent B19 infection is related to the degree of host immunodeficiency in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, the existence, loading, virus evolution and distribution of B19 in Chinese HIV-positive patients have not been determined. Materials and methods. We investigated 573 HIV-positive blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China in the last two decades. Bl9-specific serology and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the prevalence of B19/HIV co-infection. Viral genome fragments were subjected to phylogeny and haplotype analysis. Results B19 genomic DNA was found in 26 of 573 (4.5%) HIV-positive individuals, a higher prevalence than in blood donors. DNA levels ranged from 5.3×102–1.1×105 copies/mL. The seroprevalence of IgG was significantly lower in HIV-positive samples than in HIV-negative blood donors, indicating deficient production of B19-specific IgG in the former. The B19 isolates were genotype-1 subtype B19-1A which formed a monophyletic group; seven distinct haplotypes were discovered with 60% of the B19/HIV co-infected variants sharing one central haplotype. Discussion. This study on the prevalence, phylogeny and distribution of human parvovirus B19 in Sichuan, China, demonstrates the persistence of B19 in the circulation of both immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects, with implications for blood safety. PMID:22790259
Demir, Tulin; Kilic, Selcuk
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a single-stranded RNA virus in the Flaviviridae family and transmitted to human through infected mosquitos (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus). Virus is closely related with other flaviviruses; dengue virus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus phylogenetically. Due to the possible relationship between virus and clinical features including microcephaly, ventricule, and eye deformities, Guillain-Barre syndrome increases the interest on this virus gradually. Along with the vector-borne transmission, exposure via blood transfusion and sexual contact are further concerns. Since December 2015, CDC reported 440.000-1.300.000 possible cases in Brazil and as of 19 January 2016, El Salvador, Venezuela, Colombia, Brazil, Surinam, French Guana, Honduras, Mexico, and Panama are the countries with active epidemic. CDC recommends ZIKV screening for all pregnants including asymptomatic cases those living in the active epidemic areas. Recently, virus is detected in the USA and most European countries including UK, Netherlands, Denmark, Switzerland, and Italy as a travel-associated infection. Owing to the changing world with increased capabilities for transportation globally, this vector-borne infection represents a valuable marker for the ability of spreading of any infection from its original area that it was first seen. In this review, we summarized the up-to-date data and reports in terms of the importance of the ZIKV infection in the public health.
Hidari, Kazuya I.P.J.; Suzuki, Takashi
Dengue virus is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue virus causes fever and hemorrhagic disorders in humans and non-human primates. Direct interaction of the virus introduced by a mosquito bite with host receptor molecule(s) is crucial for virus propagation and the pathological progression of dengue diseases. Therefore, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between dengue virus and its receptor(s) in both humans and mosquitoes is essent...
Narin, I.; Gedik, H.; Voss, A.
This review of last year's literature on blood-borne pathogens (= pathogenic microorganisms that are found in human blood) focuses on hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the most common pathogens, despite the fact that other microorganisms may cause
Mapako, Tonderai; Mvere, David A; Chitiyo, McLeod E; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Postma, Maarten J; van Hulst, Marinus
National Blood Service Zimbabwe human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk management strategy includes screening and discarding of first-time donations, which are collected in blood packs without an anticoagulant (dry pack). To evaluate the impact of discarding first-time donations on blood safety the HIV prevalence, incidence, and residual risk in first-time and repeat donations (wet packs) were compared. Donor data from 2002 to 2010 were retrieved from a centralized national electronic donor database and retrospectively analyzed. Chi-square test was used to compare HIV prevalence with relative risk (RR), and the RR point estimates and 95% confidence interval (CI) are reported. Trend analysis was done using Cochran-Armitage trend test. HIV residual risk estimates were determined using published residual risk estimation models. Over the 9 years the overall HIV prevalence estimates are 1.29% (n = 116,058) and 0.42% (n = 434,695) for first-time and repeat donations, respectively. The overall RR was 3.1 (95% CI, 2.9-3.3; p donations in first-time was 1:7384 (range, 1:11,308-1:5356) and in repeat donors it was 1:5496 (range, 1:9943-1:3347). The significantly high HIV prevalence estimates recorded in first-time over repeat donations is indicative of the effectiveness of the HIV risk management strategy. However, comparable residual transmission risk estimates in first-time and repeat donors point to the need to further review the risk management strategies. Given the potential wastage of valuable resources, future studies should focus on the cost-effectiveness and utility of screening and discarding first-time donations. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.
Baroni, Miriam; Matucci, Andrea; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Soprana, Elisa; Rossolillo, Paola; Lopalco, Lucia; Zipeto, Donato; Siccardi, Antonio G; De Santis, Claudio
The hypothesis that open conformers of HLA-C on target cells might directly exert an effect on their infectability by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been suggested previously. This was tested by exploiting the peculiar specificity of monoclonal antibody (mAb) L31 for HLA-C open conformers to show that normal levels of Env-driven fusion were restored in HLA-C transfectants of a major histocompatibility complex-deleted (fusion-incompetent) cell line. The physiological relevance of this finding is now confirmed in this report, where small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology was used to silence HLA-C expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from 11 healthy donors. Infectability by HIV (strains IIIB and Bal and primary isolates) was significantly reduced (P=0.016) in silenced cells compared with cells that maintained HLA-C expression in 10 of the 11 PBL donors. Normal infectability was resumed, together with HLA-C expression, when the effect of siRNA interference waned after several days in culture. Additional confirmation of the HLA-C effect was obtained in several assays employing HLA-C-positive and -negative cell lines, a number of HIV strains and also pseudoviruses. In particular, viruses pseudotyped with env genes from HIV strains AC10 and QH0692.42 were assayed on siRNA-silenced lymphocytes from three healthy donors: the differences in infection with pseudoviruses were even higher than those observed in infections with normal viruses.
Czarny, Piotr; Merecz-Sadowska, Anna; Majchrzak, Kinga; Jabłkowski, Maciej; Szemraj, Janusz; Śliwiński, Tomasz; Karwowski, Bolesław
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can infect extrahepatic tissues, including lymphocytes, creating reservoir of the virus. Moreover, HCV proteins can interact with DNA damage response proteins of infected cells. In this article we investigated the influence of the virus infection and a new ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir ± dasabuvir ± ribavirin (OBV/PTV/r ± DSV ± RBV) anti-HCV therapy on the PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, mainly lymphocytes) DNA base excision repair (BER) system. BER protein activity was analyzed in the nuclear and mitochondrial extracts (NE and ME) of PBMC isolated from patients before and after therapy, and from subjects without HCV, using modeled double-strand DNA, with 2'-deoxyuridine substitution as the DNA damage. The NE and ME obtained from patients before therapy demonstrated lower efficacy of 2'-deoxyuridine removal and DNA repair polymerization than those of the control group or patients after therapy. Moreover, the extracts from the patients after therapy had similar activity to those from the control group. However, the efficacy of apurinic/apyrimidinic site excision in NE did not differ between the studied groups. We postulate that infection of lymphocytes by the HCV can lead to a decrease in the activity of BER enzymes. However, the use of novel therapy results in the improvement of glycosylase activity as well as the regeneration of endonuclease and other crucial repair enzymes.
Full Text Available Most reports from the United States suggest Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes feed minimally on humans. Given the abundance of C. quinquefasciatus in residential Tucson and parts of metropolitan Phoenix, and the arrival of West Nile virus to this area, discovering the blood meal hosts of the local population is important. Using a sandwich ELISA technique, the local C. quinquefasciatus were found to feed on both humans and birds. This suggests they should be considered potential West Nile virus vectors.
van Dodewaard, Caitlin A M; Richards, Stephanie L; Harris, Jonathan W
Commercially available blood can be used as an alternative to live animals to maintain mosquito colonies and deliver infectious bloodmeals during research studies. We analyzed the extent to which two methods for blood coagulate removal (defibrination or addition of sodium citrate) affected life table characteristics (i.e., fecundity, fertility, hatch rate, and adult survival) and vector competence (infection, dissemination, and transmission) of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) for dengue virus (DENV). Two types of bovine blood were tested at two extrinsic incubation temperatures (27 or 30°C) for DENV-infected and uninfected mosquitoes. Fully engorged mosquitoes were transferred to individual cages containing an oviposition cup and a substrate. Eggs (fecundity) and hatched larvae (fertility) were counted. At 14 and 21 d post feeding on a DENV-infected bloodmeal, 15 mosquitoes were sampled from each group, and vector competence was analyzed (bodies [infection], legs [dissemination], and saliva [transmission]). Differences in life table characteristics and vector competence were analyzed for mosquitoes fed blood processed using different methods for removal of coagulates. The method for removal of coagulates significantly impacted fecundity, fertility, and hatch time in the uninfected group, but not DENV-infected group. Infected mosquitoes showed significantly higher fecundity and faster hatch time than uninfected mosquitoes. We show no significant differences in infection or dissemination rates between groups; however, horizontal transmission rate was significantly higher in mosquitoes fed DENV-infected citrated compared with defibrinated blood. We expect the findings of this study to inform research using artificial blood delivery methods to assess vector competence. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Soares, Filipa A C; Pedersen, Roger A; Vallier, Ludovic
This protocol describes the efficient isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from circulating blood via density gradient centrifugation and subsequent generation of integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells are cultured for 9 days to allow expansion of the erythroblast population. The erythroblasts are then used to derive human induced pluripotent stem cells using Sendai viral vectors, each expressing one of the four reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc.
Palus, Martin; Vojtíšková, Jarmila; Salát, Jiří; Kopecký, Jan; Grubhoffer, Libor; Lipoldová, Marie; Demant, P.; Růžek, Daniel
Roč. 10, JUN 2013 (2013), s. 77 E-ISSN 1742-2094 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0006/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis * Flavivirus encephalitis * Neuroinflammation * Antibody production Subject RIV: EC - Immunology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UMG-J) Impact factor: 4.902, year: 2013
Aims. To establish the true incidence of HCV infection in volunteer blood donors in the Western Gape, and compare risk factors and clinical and biochemical features of viraemic and non-viraemic subjects. Methods. All donors attending the Western Province. Blood Transfusion Service between December 1992 and.
Jun 1, 2017 ... Abstract: Objectives: To deter- mine the prevalence of Hepatitis. C virus (HCV) antibodies in mother-infant pair, and risk fac- tors for vertical transmission of. HCV in ABUTH Zaria. Method: One hundred mother- infant pair had serological deter- mination for HCV antibodies from birth to 28days and a repeat.
Kolodziejek, J.; Seidel, B.; Jungbauer, C.; Dimmel, K.; Kolodziejek, M.; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Allerberger, F.; Nowotny, N.
Roč. 10, č. 5 (2015), e0126381 E-ISSN 1932-6203 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile virus * Austria Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015
Kandawasvika, Gwendoline Q.; Ogundipe, Enitan; Gumbo, Felicity Z.; Kurewa, Edith N.; Mapingure, Munyaradzi P.; Stray-Pedersen, Babill
Aim: The aim of this article is to document the risk of neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) among infants enrolled in a programme for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) in Zimbabwe using the Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener (BINS). Method: We prospectively followed up infants at three…
Thompson, J. R.; Wetzel, S.; Klerks, M. M.; Vašková, Dana; Schoen, C. D.; Špak, Josef; Jelkmann, W.
Roč. 111, - (2003), s. 85-93 ISSN 0166-0934 Grant - others:GA-(EU) QRLT-PL99-1553 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5051902 Keywords : virus diseases * strawberry * detection methods Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.826, year: 2003
Mardulyn, P.; Goffredo, M.; Conte, A.; Hendrickx, G.; Meiswinkel, R.; Balenghien, T.; Sghaier, S.; Lohr, Y.; Gilbert, M.
Bluetongue (BT) is a commonly cited example of a disease with a distribution believed to have recently expanded in response to global warming. The BT virus is transmitted to ruminants by biting midges of the genus Culicoides, and it has been hypothesized that the emergence of BT in Mediterranean
Zhang, Shuo; Li, Dexin
Since Zika virus (ZIKV) has firstly been isolated in 1947, Uganda, outbreaks of Zika fever have been reported in many areas such as in Africa, Southeast Asia and America. Imported cases in China also have been reported. Zika virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, and include Africa subtype and Asia subtype. It is a mosquito-borne virus primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Sexual transmission, Blood transmission and mother-to-fetus transmission were also reported. Zika virus can go though blood-brain barrier and infect central nervous system. Symptoms are generally mild and self-limited, but recent evidence suggests a possible association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal outcomes, such as congenital microcephaly, as well as a possible association with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Laboratorial Diagnosis includes nucleic acid detection, Serological test, and isolation of virus. Currently, no vaccine or medication exists to prevent or treat Zika virus infection. Preventive measures against Zika virus infection should be taken through prevention of mosquito bites and surveillance in epidemic area.
van Vuuren, M; Penzhorn, B L
The role of African wildlife in the occurrence of vector-borne infections in domestic animals has gained renewed interest as emerging and re-emerging infections occur worldwide at an increasing rate. In Africa, biodiversity conservation and the expansion of livestock production have increased the risk of transmitting vector-borne infections between wildlife and livestock. The indigenous African pathogens with transboundary potential, such as Rift Valley fever virus, African horse sickness virus, bluetongue virus, lumpy skin disease virus, African swine fever virus, and blood-borne parasites have received the most attention. There is no evidence for persistent vector-borne viral infections in African wildlife. For some viral infections, wildlife may act as a reservoir through the inter-epidemic circulation of viruses with mild or subclinical manifestations. Wildlife may also act as introductory or transporting hosts when moved to new regions, e.g. for lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus. Wildlife may also act as amplifying hosts when exposed to viruses in the early part of the warm season when vectors are active, with spillover to domestic animals later in the season, e.g. with bluetongue and African horse sickness. Some tick species found on domestic animals are more abundant on wildlife hosts; some depend on wildlife hosts to complete their life cycle. Since the endemic stability of a disease depends on a sufficiently large tick population to ensure that domestic animals become infected at an early age, the presence of wildlife hosts that augment tick numbers may be beneficial. Many wild ungulate species are reservoirs of Anaplasma spp., while the role of wildlife in the epidemiology of heartwater (Ehrlichia ruminantium infection) has not been elucidated. Wild ungulates are not usually reservoirs of piroplasms that affect livestock; however, there are two exceptions: zebra, which are reservoirs of Babesia caballi and Theileria
Seggers, Jorien; Haadsma, Maaike L.; Bastide-van Gemert, Sacha la; Heineman, Maas Jan; Kok, Joke H.; Middelburg, Karin J.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Schendelaar, Pamela; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna
Recent studies suggest that in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are associated with suboptimal cardiometabolic outcome in offspring. It is unknown whether preimplantation genetic screening (PGS), which involves embryo biopsy, affects blood pressure (BP),
Seggers, Jorien; Haadsma, Maaike L.; la Bastide-van Gemert, Sacha; Heineman, Maas Jan; Kok, Joke H.; Middelburg, Karin J.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Schendelaar, Pamela; Van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are associated with suboptimal cardiometabolic outcome in offspring. It is unknown whether preimplantation genetic screening (PGS), which involves embryo biopsy, affects blood pressure
Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs are potentially valuable cell sources for disease models and future therapeutic applications; however, inefficient generation and the presence of integrated transgenes remain as problems limiting their current use. Here, we developed a new Sendai virus vector, TS12KOS, which has improved efficiency, does not integrate into the cellular DNA, and can be easily eliminated. TS12KOS carries KLF4, OCT3/4, and SOX2 in a single vector and can easily generate iPSCs from human blood cells. Using TS12KOS, we established iPSC lines from chimpanzee blood, and used DNA array analysis to show that the global gene-expression pattern of chimpanzee iPSCs is similar to those of human embryonic stem cell and iPSC lines. These results demonstrated that our new vector is useful for generating iPSCs from the blood cells of both human and chimpanzee. In addition, the chimpanzee iPSCs are expected to facilitate unique studies into human physiology and disease.
Barbara S. Beltz
Full Text Available New neurons continue to be born and integrated into the brains of adult decapod crustaceans. Evidence in crayfish indicates that the 1st-generation neural precursors that generate these adult-born neurons originate in the immune system and travel to the neurogenic niche via the circulatory system. These precursors are attracted to the niche, become integrated amongst niche cells, and undergo mitosis within a few days; both daughters of this division migrate away from the niche toward the brain clusters where they will divide again and differentiate into neurons. In the crustacean brain, the rate of neuronal production is highly sensitive to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT levels. These effects are lineage-dependent, as serotonin's influence is limited to late 2nd-generation neural precursors and their progeny. Experiments indicate that serotonin regulates adult neurogenesis in the crustacean brain by multiple mechanisms: via direct effects of serotonin released from brain neurons into the hemolymph or by local release onto target cells, or by indirect influences via a serotonin-mediated release of agents from other regions, such as hormones from the sinus gland and cytokines from hematopoietic tissues. Evidence in crayfish also indicates that serotonin mediates the attraction of neural precursors generated by the immune system to the neurogenic niche. Thus, studies in the crustacean brain have revealed multiple roles for this monoamine in adult neurogenesis, and identified several pathways by which serotonin influences the generation of new neurons.
Background: Hepatitis B virus infection which is the world's most common blood borne viral infection is highly endemic in Nigeria. Health care workers including medical students are at risk of acquiring the infection while at work. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of HBV infection among medical ...
Burkhardt, Melanie A.; Waser, Jasmin; Milleret, Vincent; Gerber, Isabel; Emmert, Maximilian Y.; Foolen, Jasper; Hoerstrup, Simon P.; Schlottig, Falko; Vogel, Viola
Low correlations of cell culture data with clinical outcomes pose major medical challenges with costly consequences. While the majority of biomaterials are tested using in vitro cell monocultures, the importance of synergistic interactions between different cell types on paracrine signalling has recently been highlighted. In this proof-of-concept study, we asked whether the first contact of surfaces with whole human blood could steer the tissue healing response. This hypothesis was tested using alkali-treatment of rough titanium (Ti) surfaces since they have clinically been shown to improve early implant integration and stability, yet blood-free in vitro cell cultures poorly correlated with in vivo tissue healing. We show that alkali-treatment, compared to native Ti surfaces, increased blood clot thickness, including platelet adhesion. Strikingly, blood clots with entrapped blood cells in synergistic interactions with fibroblasts, but not fibroblasts alone, upregulated the secretion of major factors associated with fast healing. This includes matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) to break down extracellular matrix and the growth factor VEGF, known for its angiogenic potential. Consequently, in vitro test platforms, which consider whole blood-implant interactions, might be superior in predicting wound healing in response to biomaterial properties.
Laus, Stella; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Green, Michael; Wadowsky, Robert M.
Automated and manual extraction systems have been used with real-time PCR for quantification of Epstein-Barr virus [human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4)] DNA in whole blood, but few studies have evaluated relative performances. In the present study, the automated QIAsymphony and manual QIAamp extraction systems (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) were assessed using paired aliquots derived from clinical whole-blood specimens and an in-house, real-time PCR assay. The detection limits using the QIAsymphony and QIAam...
Rojas, Alicia; Rojas, Diana; Montenegro, Víctor M; Baneth, Gad
Canine filarioids are important nematodes transmitted to dogs by arthropods. Diagnosis of canine filariosis is accomplished by the microscopic identification of microfilariae, serology or PCR for filarial-DNA. The aim of this study was to evaluate a molecular assay for the detection of canine filariae in dog blood, to compare its performance to other diagnostic techniques, and to determine the relationship between microfilarial concentration and infection with other vector-borne pathogens. Blood samples from 146 dogs from Costa Rica were subjected to the detection of canine filarioids by four different methods: the microhematocrit tube test (MCT), Knott's modified test, serology and a high resolution melt and quantitative real-time PCR (HRM-qPCR). Co-infection with other vector-borne pathogens was also evaluated. Fifteen percent of the dogs were positive to Dirofilaria immitis by at least one of the methods. The HRM-qPCR produced distinctive melting plots for the different filarial worms and revealed that 11.6% of dogs were infected with Acanthocheilonema reconditum. The latter assay had a limit of detection of 2.4x10⁻⁴ mf/μl and detected infections with lower microfilarial concentrations in comparison to the microscopic techniques and the serological assay. The MCT and Knott's test only detected dogs with D. immitis microfilaremias above 0.7 mf/μl. Nevertheless, there was a strong correlation between the microfilarial concentration obtained by the Knott's modified test and the HRM-qPCR (r = 0.906, p HRM-qPCR showed the most sensitive and reliable performance in the detection of blood filaroids in comparison to the Knott's modified test, the MCT test and a serological assay.
bin Tarif Abid
Full Text Available Abstract Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV and Ganjam virus (GV are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.
Bin Tarif, Abid; Lasecka, Lidia; Holzer, Barbara; Baron, Michael D
Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.
Dimitrov, D H; Melnick, J L; Hollinger, F B
To define the optimal conditions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) detection in microcultures, experiments were conducted with different ratios of patient and donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Donor/patient PBMC ratios ranged from 1:1 to 1:125. Optimal results were obtained when 1,500,000 donor cells were cocultured with equal or smaller quantities of patient PBMCs. Thus, virologic endpoints could be achieved by diluting patient cells. Smaller numbers of donor cells, with or without larger numbers of patients cells, resulted in lower rates of HIV isolation. Similarly, the direct stimulation of patient PBMCs with phytohemagglutinin without the addition of normal donor cells lowered the sensitivity of the assay significantly. We suggest that a microculture procedure using a fixed quantity of donor cells with different dilutions of patient cells may be useful for monitoring changing HIV levels during antiviral therapy.
Fawaz, Naglaa A; Tamim, Hala; Almawi, Wassim Y
The seroprevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-I/II was assessed in 13,443 consecutive blood donors in eastern Saudi Arabia between 1998 and 2001. Screening by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmation by Western blot resulted in 8 (0.060%) positive cases, of which 5 (0.056%) belonged to Saudi and 3 (0.113%) to non-Saudi donors. The majority of the HTLV-positive donations (6/8) were for patients, and none had a history of known risk factor for HTLV-I/II transmission. Although the very low prevalence of HTLV-I/II among Saudi donors does not support routine screening, screening of donors from other nationalities may be initiated, especially those from HTLV-I/II endemic areas.
Shin, Y; Mori, T; Okita, M; Gemma, T; Kai, C; Mikami, T
For a rapid diagnosis of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection, the reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was carried out to detect CDV nucleoprotein (NP) gene from canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Two sets of primers were targeted to two regions of NP gene of CDV Onderstepoort strain. The NP gene fragments were well amplified by the RT-PCR in each of the RNA extracts from Vero cells infected with 6 laboratory strains of CDV including Onderstepoort strain, and from PBMCs of a dog experimentally infected with CDV. The amplified NP gene was detected in 17 of 32 samples from dogs which were clinically suspected for CDV infection at veterinary hospitals. No RT-PCR product was found in 52 samples from healthy dogs including 40 specific pathogen free beagles vaccinated with an attenuated live virus-vaccine for CDV and 12 stray dogs. The RT-PCR provides a fast, sensitive, and supplementary method for the diagnosis of CDV infection in dogs.
Yui, Shunsuke; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Imadome, Ken-ichi; Arai, Ayako; Takahashi, Mikiko; Ohashi, Ryuji; Tamai, Hayato; Moriya, Keiichi; Nakayama, Kazutaka; Shimizu, Akira; Inokuchi, Koiti
We report a case of the extremely rare condition Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) which occurred after umbilical cord blood transplantation. A 25-year-old Japanese man underwent cord blood transplantation from a male human leukocyte antigen 4/6-matched donor due to acute myeloid leukemia with trisomy 8. Bone marrow examination on day 30 showed chimerism with at least 90% donor cells and complete hematological response. Chronic symptoms of graft-versus-host disease appeared only on the skin and were successfully treated with cyclosporine alone. Three years later, however, the patient experienced repeated cold-like symptoms and was hospitalized with liver dysfunction. A high fever developed and was followed by significant edema of the right side of the face. The EBV DNA copy number in whole peripheral blood was 2×10(4)/mL. Liver biopsy showed invasion of EBV-infected CD8-positive T cells. Southern blotting analysis of the whole peripheral blood showed that the T-cell receptor Cβ1 rearrangement was positive. On the basis of these results, EBV-positive T-cell LPD was diagnosed and treated with prednisolone, cyclosporine, and etoposide, followed by cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone. However, the patient died of cardiac function failure, pneumonia, and pulmonary hemorrhage, all of unidentified cause. Most cases of EBV-related LPD after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation consist of EBV-positive B-cell LPD, and, to our knowledge, de novo EBV-positive T-cell LPD subsequent to transplantation has not been previously reported.
Smatti, Maria K; Yassine, Hadi M; AbuOdeh, Raed; AlMarawani, Asmaa; Taleb, Sara A; Althani, Asmaa A; Nasrallah, Gheyath K
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis. EBV is highly prevalent lymphotropic herpesvirus and has been linked to several malignancies. Transmission is generally by oral secretions, but can be through blood transfusions and organ transplantations. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence, viremia rates, and circulating genotypes of EBV in healthy blood donors in Qatar. Blood samples from 673 blood donors of different nationalities residing in Qatar (mainly Qatar, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Pakistan, and India) were collected and tested for anti-EBV capsid (VCA; IgG & IgM), nuclear (EBNA; IgG), and early (EA-D; IgG) antigens. Avidity testing was determined when active infection was suspected. DNA was extracted from the buffy coat and subjected to EBV-DNA quantification using qRT-PCR. Genotyping was performed using nested-PCR targeting EBV-EBNA2 gene, and phylogeny by sequence analysis of the LMP-1 gene. 97.9% (673/659) of the samples were seropositive as indicated by the presence VCA-IgG, while 52.6% (354/673) had detectible EBV-DNA. EBV seroprevalence and viremia rates increased significantly with age. Genotyping of 51 randomly selected samples showed predominance of Genotype 1 (72.5%, 37/51) as compared to genotype 2 (3.5%), and mixed infections were detected in 4% of the samples. Sub-genotyping for these samples revealed that the Mediterranean strain was predominant (65.3%), followed by B95.8 prototype and North Carolina strains (12.2% each), and China1 strain (6%). As a first study to evaluate EBV infection in highly diverse population in Qatar, where expatriates represent more than 85% of the population, our results indicated high seroprevalence and viremia rate of EBV in different nationalities, with genotype 1 and Mediterranean strain being predominant. Clinical significance of these finding have not been investigated and shall be evaluated in future studies.
Allain, J-P; Anokwa, M; Casbard, A; Owusu-Ofori, S; Dennis-Antwi, J
Ghana is one of the countries of sub-Saharan Africa where the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in blood donors ranges between 1 and 4%. Considering the social importance of religion and the very high level of religious practice observed in Ghana, the hypothesis that these factors may play a role in containing HIV was tested. Consenting HIV-infected candidate blood donors, and two age- and gender-matched seronegative control donors, were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their religious and sexual behaviour. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used. Irrespective of their HIV status or religion, 95% of the respondents believed that extra-marital sex was a sin, and 79% of those tempted to have an extra-marital affair considered that their religious beliefs helped them to abstain. In the multivariable models, having a formal role in church activities was associated with reduced odds of HIV [odds ratio (OR) = 0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21-0.80]. Worshipping at the same location for more than 20 years was associated with a reduced risk (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.08-1.10). In addition to other factors limiting HIV spread, such as male circumcision, relatively high level of education and an absence of armed conflicts in Ghana, the use of condoms conferred a reduced risk. An active role in religion, and reporting a lengthy duration of worship at the same place was beneficial. Collecting blood at places of worship with a strict behavioural code and from donors practicing in the community of their birth might improve blood safety.
Washington Parks Robyn
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-I can be transmitted by intravenous inoculation of contaminated blood or blood product or sexually through mucosal surfaces. Here we performed a pilot study in the SIVmac251 macaque model to address whether the route of viral entry influences the kinetics of the appearance and the size of virus-specific immune in different tissue compartments. Methods For this purpose, of 2 genetically defined Mamu-A*01-positive macaques, 1 was exposed intravenously and the other intrarectally to the same SIVmac251 viral stock and virus-specific CD8+ T-cells were measured within the first 12 days of infection in the blood and at day 12 in several tissues following euthanasia. Results Virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses to Gag, Env, and particularly Tat appeared earlier in the blood of the animal exposed by the mucosal route than in the animal exposed intravenously. The magnitude of these virus-specific responses was consistently higher in the systemic tissues and GALT of the macaque exposed by the intravenous route, suggesting a higher viral burden in the tissues as reflected by the faster appearance of virus in plasma. Differences in the ability of the virus-specific CD8+ T-cells to respond in vitro to specific peptide stimulation were also observed and the greatest proliferative ability was found in the GALT of the animal infected by the intrarectal route. Conclusions These data may suggest that the natural mucosal barrier may delay viral spreading. The consequences of this observation, if confirmed in studies with a larger number of animals, may have implications in vaccine development.
Kurtasova, L M; Tolstikova, A E; Savchenko, A A
Explore the immunological parameters, levels of activity of NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenases lymphocytes, interferon status parameters, phagocytic activity and chemiluminescence response of neutrophils in the blood of children in the acute phase of infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. 65 children at the age of 4-6 years old with infectious mononucleosis caused by EBV in acute phase were observed. Such indexes as cell-mediated, humoral and interferon immunity, NAD(P)-depended dehydrogenases activity in blood lymphocyte, phagocytes activity, levels of spontaneous and induced chemiluminescence ofperipheral blood neutrophils were studied. Children with EVB-infection have immunophenotype spectrum changes and changes of enzymes status of blood lymphocytes against the increasing in leucocytes and the useful increasing in lymphocytes. The useful increasing in IgA, IgM, IgG contenting in serum blood were found. The decreasing of spontaneous production of IFN alpha and the decreasing of induced production of IFNalpha, IFNgamma were determined. The breach of phagocytes activity and chemiluminescent response of blood neutrophils were found. The children in the acute phase of infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, there are changes in the immune status, changes the activity of NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenases in blood lymphocytes, marked changes in functional and metabolic state of peripheral blood neutrophils.
Rodak, L.; Smid, B.; Valicek, L. (Vyzkumny Ustav Veterinarniho Lekarstvi, Brno-Medlanky (Czechoslovakia))
In the blood sera of pigs vaccinated with inactivated vaccines manufactured by three different manufacturers the RIA method was used to determine the specific antibodies to the virus of Aujeszky's disease. In certain groups of vaccinated pigs the results of the RIA examination are unfavourably affected by the bond of antibodies to the cellular antigenous determinants. This proves that following vaccination antibodies are formed not only against the viral antigen but also against the antigens of cells on which the vaccination virus is propagated. These shortcomings are eliminated by the use of suitable cellular cultures for the preparation of viral and control antigens. Antigens are applicable for RIA and for ELISA examinations of blood sera of infected and vaccinated pigs. The advantages are described of the RIA and ELISA methods as compared with the virus neutralization test.
Mérens, Audrey; Guérin, Philippe Jean; Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Nicand, Elisabeth
Biological samples collected in refugee camps during an outbreak of hepatitis E were used to compare the accuracy of hepatitis E virus RNA amplification by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for sera and dried blood spots (concordance of 90.6%). Biological profiles (RT-PCR and serology) of asymptomatic individuals were also analyzed.
F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); H.G. Loggen; R.H.J. Bakker (Roland); J.A.A.M. van Asten (Jack); J.G. Kreeftenberg; P. van der Marel; G. van Steenis (Bert)
textabstractIn the present report an in vitro method for obtaining a secondary human antibody response to a dog kidney cell vaccine against rabies virus (DKCV) is described. Cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from normal rabies-immune and nonimmune donors were stimulated in vitro by
Bresters, D.; Zaaijer, H. L.; Cuypers, H. T.; Reesink, H. W.; Winkel, I. N.; van Exel-Oehlers, P. J.; van Drimmelen, A. A.; Jansen, P. L.; van der Poel, C. L.; Lelie, P. N.
To establish the value of the second-generation recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA-2) and cDNA polymerase chain reaction (cDNA PCR) for confirmation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, anti-HCV reaction patterns and the presence of HCV RNA were examined in 610 blood donors and 255 non-A, non-B
Consten, E. C.; van der Meer, J. T.; de Wolf, F.; Heij, H. A.; Henny, P. C.; van Lanschot, J. J.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection via the transfusion of blood tested by inappropriately stored or expired rapid antibody assays in Zambia. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Surgical patients (n = 370) were tested with antibody
Růžek, Daniel; Salát, Jiří; Singh, S. K.; Kopecký, Jan
Roč. 6, č. 5 (2011), e20472 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP302/10/P438; GA ČR GAP502/11/2116; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM * WEST-NILE-VIRUS * MICROVASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS * TIGHT JUNCTION PROTEINS * MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS * INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE * PERMEABILITY CHANGES Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011
Rim, Yeri Alice; Nam, Yoojun; Ju, Ji Hyeon
The recent development of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) proved that mature somatic cells can return to an undifferentiated, pluripotent state. Now, reprogramming is done with various types of adult somatic cells: keratinocytes, urine cells, fibroblasts, etc. Early experiments were usually done with dermal fibroblasts. However, this required an invasive surgical procedure to obtain fibroblasts from the patients. Therefore, suspension cells, such as blood and urine cells, were considered ideal for reprogramming because of the convenience of obtaining the primary cells. Here, we report an efficient protocol for iPSC generation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). By plating the transduced PBMCs serially to a new, matrix-coated plate using centrifugation, this protocol can easily provide iPSC colonies. This method is also applicable to umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs). This study presents a simple and efficient protocol for the reprogramming of PBMCs and CBMCs.
... a reduced production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...
Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Cárdenas-Youngs, Yexenia; Calvo, Miquel; da Silva, Marcelle Figueira Marques; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Amorós, Inmaculada; Moreno, Yolanda; Moreno-Mesonero, Laura; Rosell, Rosa; Ganges, Llilianne; Araujo, Rosa; Girones, Rosina
In this study, the use of skimmed milk flocculation (SMF) to simultaneously concentrate viruses, bacteria and protozoa was evaluated. We selected strains of faecal indicator bacteria and pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori. The viruses selected were adenovirus (HAdV 35), rotavirus (RoV SA-11), the bacteriophage MS2 and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The protozoa tested were Acanthamoeba, Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The mean recoveries with q(RT)PCR were 66% (HAdV 35), 24% (MS2), 28% (RoV SA-11), 15% (BVDV), 60% (E. coli), 30% (H. pylori) and 21% (Acanthamoeba castellanii). When testing the infectivity, the mean recoveries were 59% (HAdV 35), 12% (MS2), 26% (RoV SA-11) and 0.7% (BVDV). The protozoa Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum were studied by immunofluorescence with recoveries of 18% and 13%, respectively. Although q(RT)PCR consistently showed higher quantification values (as expected), q(RT)PCR and the infectivity assays showed similar recoveries for HAdV 35 and RoV SA-11. Additionally, we investigated modelling the variability and uncertainty of the recovery with this method to extrapolate the quantification obtained by q(RT)PCR and estimate the real concentration. The 95% prediction intervals of the real concentration of the microorganisms inoculated were calculated using a general non-parametric bootstrap procedure adapted in our context to estimate the technical error of the measurements. SMF shows recoveries with a low variability that permits the use of a mathematical approximation to predict the concentration of the pathogen and indicator with acceptable low intervals. The values of uncertainty may be used for a quantitative microbial risk analysis or diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Christian Ramos Flores
Full Text Available Resumen INTRODUCCIÓN La mayor parte de las transfusiones se llevan a cabo en mujeres. La introducción en los bancos de sangre de las técnicas serológicas disminuyó la incidencia de infección por virus de hepatitis C después de una transfusión. En México, las pacientes que se transfundieron antes de 1994 están en riesgo de presentar una infección por virus de hepatitis C. El objetivo de este estudio fue medir la asociación entre el antecedente transfusional antes de 1994 e infección por virus de hepatitis C en mujeres atendidas en la zona metropolitana de Guadalajara, México. MÉTODOS Estudio observacional, analítico, de casos y controles, en el que se incluyeron mujeres sanas y mujeres con infección por hepatitis vírica tipo C, en las cuales se determinó el antecedente transfusional antes y después de 1994. El grupo de casos lo conforman 150 mujeres con diagnóstico serológico y confirmatorio de hepatitis C, en tanto el grupo control son 150 mujeres sanas con serología negativa. RESULTADOS Se encontró un odds ratio de 9,07 (intervalo de confianza 95% 5,37 – 15,3; p<0,001, una proporción de casos expuestos de 0,72, de controles expuestos de 0,22, una fracción atribuible poblacional de 0,64 (intervalo de confianza 0,53 – 0,73 y una fracción atribuible en expuestos de 0,88 (intervalo de confianza 0,81 – 0,93. CONCLUSIONES En las mujeres, el haber tenido una transfusión antes de 1994 en la zona metropolitana de Guadalajara, representa un riesgo 9,07 veces mayor de infección por virus de la hepatitis C que no tener antecedente transfusional en esa fecha.
Manjunatha N. Belaganahalli
Full Text Available The International Committee for Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV recognizes four species of tick-borne orbiviruses (TBOs: Chenuda virus, Chobar Gorge virus, Wad Medani virus and Great Island virus (genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Nucleotide (nt and amino acid (aa sequence comparisons provide a basis for orbivirus detection and classification, however full genome sequence data were only available for the Great Island virus species. We report representative genome-sequences for the three other TBO species (virus isolates: Chenuda virus (CNUV; Chobar Gorge virus (CGV and Wad Medani virus (WMV. Phylogenetic comparisons show that TBOs cluster separately from insect-borne orbiviruses (IBOs. CNUV, CGV, WMV and GIV share low level aa/nt identities with other orbiviruses, in ‘conserved’ Pol, T2 and T13 proteins/genes, identifying them as four distinct virus-species. The TBO genome segment encoding cell attachment, outer capsid protein 1 (OC1, is approximately half the size of the equivalent segment from insect-borne orbiviruses, helping to explain why tick-borne orbiviruses have a ~1 kb smaller genome.
Health and Development at Age 19-24 Months of 19 Children Who Were Born with Microcephaly and Laboratory Evidence of Congenital Zika Virus Infection During the 2015 Zika Virus Outbreak - Brazil, 2017.
Satterfield-Nash, Ashley; Kotzky, Kim; Allen, Jacob; Bertolli, Jeanne; Moore, Cynthia A; Pereira, Isabela Ornelas; Pessoa, André; Melo, Flavio; Santelli, Ana Carolina Faria E Silva; Boyle, Coleen A; Peacock, Georgina
In November 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MOH) declared the Zika virus outbreak a public health emergency after an increase in microcephaly cases was reported in the northeast region of the country (1). During 2015-2016, 15 states in Brazil with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus transmission reported an increase in birth prevalence of microcephaly (2.8 cases per 10,000 live births), significantly exceeding prevalence in four states without confirmed transmission (0.6 per 10,000) (2). Although children with microcephaly and laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection have been described in early infancy (3), their subsequent health and development have not been well characterized, constraining planning for the care and support of these children and their families. The Brazilian MOH, the State Health Secretariat of Paraíba, and CDC collaborated on a follow-up investigation of the health and development of children in northeastern Brazil who were reported to national surveillance with microcephaly at birth. Nineteen children with microcephaly at birth and laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection were assessed through clinical evaluations, caregiver interviews, and review of medical records. At follow-up (ages 19-24 months), most of these children had severe motor impairment, seizure disorders, hearing and vision abnormalities, and sleep difficulties. Children with microcephaly and laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection have severe functional limitations and will require specialized care from clinicians and caregivers as they age.
Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Sams, C. F.
The ability to detect cytomegalovirus-specific T-cells (CD4(+)) in the peripheral blood by flow cytometry has been recently described by Picker et al. In this method, cells are incubated with viral antigen and responding (cytokine producing) T-cells are then identified by flow cytometry. To date, this technique has not been reliably used to detect Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific T-cells primarily due to the superantigen/mitogenic properties of the virus which non-specifically activate T-cells. By modifying culture conditions under which the antigens are presented, we have overcome this limitation and developed an assay to detect and quantitate EBV-specific T-cells. The detection of cytokine producing T-cells by flow cytometry requires an extremely strong signal (such as culture in the presence of PMA and ionomycin). Our data indicate that in modified culture conditions (early removal of viral antigen) the non-specific activation of T-cells by EBV is reduced, but antigen presentation will continue uninhibited. Using this method, EBV-specific T-cells may be legitimately detected using flow cytometry. No reduction in the numbers of antigen-specific T-cells was observed by the early removal of target antigen when verified using cytomegalovirus antigen (a virus with no non-specific T-cell activation properties). In EBV-seropositive individuals, the phenotype of the EBV-specific cytokine producing T-cells was evaluated using four-color flow cytometry and found to be CD45(+), CD3(+), CD4(+), CD45RA(-), CD69(+), CD25(-). This phenotype indicates the stimulation of circulating previously unactivated memory T-cells. No cytokine production was observed in CD4(+) T-cells from EBV-seronegative individuals, confirming the specificity of this assay. In addition, the use of four color cytometry (CD45, CD3, CD69, IFNgamma/IL-2) allows the total quantitative assessment of EBV-specific T-cells while monitoring the interference of EBV non-specific mitogenic activity. This method may
Molenaar-de Backer, M W A; Russcher, A; Kroes, A C M; Koppelman, M H G M; Lanfermeijer, M; Zaaijer, H L
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) DNA can be detected in blood over a long period after acute infection. Several reports associate the presence of B19V DNA with disease, irrespective of timing of the initial B19V infection. This study aims to analyze the properties of B19V DNA in blood, differentiating between bare, non-infectious strands of DNA and B19V DNA in viable virions. Ten blood donors with asymptomatic acute B19V infection were followed and sampled up to 22 months after infection. The samples were treated with and without an endonuclease and tested for B19V DNA, to distinguish between DNA in virions and naked DNA. In the acute phase of infection, high levels of B19V DNA were detected, concurrent with B19V IgM antibodies. B19V DNA apparently was encapsidated, as indicated by resistance to endonuclease degradation. Subsequently, B19V DNA remained detectable for more than one year in all donors at low levels (<10 5 IU/mL). Approximately 150days after infection B19V DNA became degradable by an endonuclease, indicating that this concerned naked DNA. In some donors a second endonuclease-resistant peak occurred. Detection of B19V DNA in blood by PCR does not necessarily imply that B19V replication takes place and that infectious B19V virions are present. We propose that remnant B19V DNA strands can be released from tissues without active replication. This finding urges to reconsider an assumed role of B19V infection mainly based on B19V DNA detection in blood, a much debated subject in clinical syndromes such as myocarditis and arthritis. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Isusi, M.; Eguidazu, J.; Oleaga, L.; Grande, D.
To describe the radiological features of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and its correlation with the blood CD4 cell count. We present 44 HIV+patients, 24 with CD4 cell counts of less than 200 cells/mm''3 (group A) and 20 in whom the CD4 counts surpassed this level (group B). We also assessed the chest x-ray images to determine whether or not there was any correlation with the blood CD4 cell counts. Fisher's exact test was used for the statistical study of the differences in the radiological findings in the two groups. The incidence of atypical features was significantly greater in the patients with CD4 cell counts of less than 200 cells/mm''3 (group A) than in those with CD4 counts of over 200 cells/mm''3 (group B). Among HIV+patients, those with a more intact immune status were more likely to present lung x-ray images typical of post-primary TB, with cavitary lesions in upper lobes. The group of patients in whom the immune deficiency was more marked showed a greater incidence of atypical pulmonary findings, more characteristics of primary TB. (Author)
Strecker, Thomas; Palyi, Bernadett; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Jonckheere, Sylvie; de Clerck, Hilde; Bore, Joseph Akoi; Gabriel, Martin; Stoecker, Kilian; Eickmann, Markus; van Herp, Michel; Formenty, Pierre; Di Caro, Antonino; Becker, Stephan
Reliable reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based diagnosis of Ebola virus infection currently requires a blood sample obtained by intravenous puncture. During the current Ebola outbreak in Guinea, we evaluated the usability of capillary blood samples collected from fingersticks of patients suspected of having Ebola virus disease (EVD) for field diagnostics during an outbreak emergency. A total of 120 venous and capillary blood samples were collected from 53 patients admitted to the Ebola Treatment Centre in Guéckédou, Guinea, between July and August 2014. All sample specimens were analyzed by RT-PCR using the RealStar Filovirus Screen RT-PCR Kit 1.0 from altona Diagnostics (Germany). We compared samples obtained by venipuncture and those obtained by capillary blood sampling absorbed onto swab devices. The resulting sensitivity and specificity of tests performed with capillary blood samples were 86.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.9%-95.6%; 33/38 patients) and 100% (95% CI, 84.6%-100%; 22/22 patients), respectively. Our data suggest that capillary blood samples could serve as an alternative to venous blood samples for the diagnosis of EVD in resource-limited settings during a crisis. This can be of particular advantage in cases when venipuncture is difficult to perform-for example, with newborns and infants or when adult patients reject venipuncture for cultural or religious reasons. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Full Text Available Purpose: Hepatitis C virus (HCV is an important agent for chronic and acute hepatitis. Occult hepatitis C remains a major health problem worldwide. Patients with chronic occult HCV may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of occult hepatitis C by IS-PCR-ISH (in situ PCR in situ hybridisation in the patients with abnormal ALT. Materials and Methods: The blood samples were taken from 53 patients including 17 females (32.1% and 36 (67.9% males who had abnormal alanine transaminase (ALT for more than 1 year. The mean ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST level were 41.02 ± 9.3 and 24.17 ± 7.3, respectively. The patients′ age were between 4 and 70-years old with mean age 38 ± 13. All the patients were negative for HCV antibody, HCV RNA and HBs Ag. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were separated with ficoll gradient from each blood sample, then the cells were fixed on slides by cold acetone and followed by IS-PCR-ISH for HCV RNA detection. Results: Seventeen (32% patients including 6 (11.3% females and 11 (20.7% males showed positive results for HCV RNA by in situ-PCR in situ hybridisation. Ten (18.8% positive cases were between 20 and 40-years old and 6 (11.3% positive patients were between 40 and 60 years old. Ten (19.6% patients who were positive for IS-PCR-ISH also had positive anti-HBc IgG and 7 (13.2% patients were negative for HBc-IgG. Conclusion: In the present study high rate of 32% occult hepatitis C were found among the patients with elevated ALT.
Walden, T.L.; Al-Ansari, H.M.; Farkas, W.R.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville
Sublethal doses of whole-body irradiation induced the elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP). Experiments were conducted to determine if recovery from radiomimetic drugs also resulted in elevation of ZPP. Daily injections with hydroxyurea and other cytotoxic drugs for 10 days caused ZPP elevation and a dose of radiation too low to cause ZPP elevation by itself caused ZPP elevation when hydroxyurea was administered prior to irradiation. Friend leukemia virus also brought about an elevation of ZPP. However, not all factors that increased erythropoiesis brought about ZPP elevation. The elevated erythropoiesis in response to hypoxia and the enhanced erythropoiesis that followed administration of folic acid to folic acid-deficient mice was not accompanied by ZPP elevation. (orig.)
Walden, T.L.; Al-Ansari, H.M.; Farkas, W.R.
Sublethal doses of whole-body irradiation induced the elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP). Experiments were conducted to determine if recovery from radiomimetic drugs also resulted in elevation of ZPP. Daily injections with hydroxyurea and other cytotoxic drugs for 10 days caused ZPP elevation and a dose of radiation too low to cause ZPP elevation by itself caused ZPP elevation when hydroxyurea was administered prior to irradiation. Friend leukemia virus also brought about an elevation of ZPP. However, not all factors that increased erythropoiesis brought about ZPP elevation. The elevated erythropoiesis in response to hypoxia and the enhanced erythropoiesis that followed administration of folic acid to folic acid-deficient mice was not accompanied by ZPP elevation.
The centrifugally purified virions which were labeled with 3 H-Glucosamine and 14 C-Leucine were adsorbed and eluted onto red blood cells (RBC), and their 3 H/ 14 C ratio in each steps of procedure were determined. The result showed that the excess glucosamine containing substances (GS) were removed from virions during adsorption-elution onto RBC, and remained attached on the RBC without dispersing into the medium. A similar result was obtained by using the glutaraldehyde treated RBC. (auth.)
Spahr, Carina; Ryll, René; Knauf-Witzens, Tobias; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W; Ulrich, Rainer G; Johne, Reimar
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E, an emerging infectious disease of humans. HEV infections have also been described in various animal species. Whereas domestic pigs and wild boars are well-known animal reservoirs for HEV, the knowledge on natural HEV infection in zoo animals is scarce so far. Here, we analysed 244 sera from 66 mammal species derived from three zoos in Germany using a commercial double antigen sandwich ELISA. HEV-specific antibodies were detected in 16 animal species, with the highest detection rates in suids (33.3%) and carnivores (27.0%). However, RNA of the human pathogenic HEV genotypes 1-4 was not detected in the serum samples from suids or carnivores. Using a broad spectrum RT-PCR, a ratHEV-related sequence was identified in a sample of a female Syrian brown bear (Ursus arctos syriacus). Subsequent serum samples within a period of five years confirmed a HEV seroconversion in this animal. No symptoms of hepatitis were recorded. In a follow-up investigation at the same location, closely related ratHEV sequences were identified in free-living Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), whereas feeder rats (Rattus norvegicus forma domestica) were negative for HEV-specific antibodies and RNA. Therefore, a spillover infection of ratHEV from free-living Norway rats is most likely. The results indicate that a wide range of zoo animals can be naturally infected with HEV or HEV-related viruses. Their distinct role as possible reservoir animals for HEV and sources of HEV infection for humans and other animals remains to be investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Subbotin, A V; Poponnikova, T V; Zinchuk, S F
Twenty two children with mixed-infection of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and ixodic tick borreliosis (ITB) were studied. Blood hydrocortisone level was changed in 94.5% of the cases. The most significant activation of hydrocortisone secretion in combination with the most pronounced and prolonged general brain manifestations, was detected in infants. Blood hydrocortisone level correlated with clinical symptoms of combined TBE and ITB infections. Along with higher hydrocortisone level, down-regulation of production of antibodies both to B. burgdorferi and to TBE virus was specific for all children studied.
AbuOdeh, Raed O.; Al-Absi, Enas; Ali, Nadima H.; Khalili, Makiyeh; Al-Mawlawi, Naema; Hadwan, Tameem A.; Al Thani, Asmaa A.; Nasrallah, Gheyath K.
Human Pegivirus (HPgV), formerly GB virus-C/ Hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV), collectively known as GBV-C, is widely spread and has been reported to be associated with non-A–E hepatitis. To our knowledge, no previous study was conducted about HPgV in Qatar. Thus, the objectives of this study were as follows: (i) to determine the rates of HPgV infection in Qatar among healthy blood donors and HBV-infected patients, and (ii) to determine the most predominant HPgV gen...
Igbinosa, Irogue I; Rabe, Ingrid B; Oduyebo, Titilope; Rasmussen, Sonja A
Since local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus was first reported in Brazil in early 2015, the virus has spread rapidly, with active transmission reported in at least 61 countries and territories worldwide, including the United States. Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe brain anomalies. The virus is transmitted primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito, but other routes of transmission include sexual, mother-to-fetus during pregnancy, mother-to-infant at delivery, laboratory exposure, and, possibly, transfusion of blood products. Most persons with Zika virus infection are asymptomatic or have only mild symptoms; hospitalizations and deaths are rare. When symptoms are present, maculopapular rash, fever, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis are most common. Zika virus testing is recommended for persons with possible exposure (those who have traveled to or live in an area with active transmission, or persons who had sex without a condom with a person with possible exposure) if they have symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease. Testing is also recommended for pregnant women with possible exposure, regardless of whether symptoms are present. Treatment is supportive, and no vaccine is currently available. The primary methods of prevention include avoiding bites of infected Aedes mosquitoes and reducing the risk of sexual transmission. Pregnant women should not travel to areas with active Zika virus transmission, and men and women who are planning to conceive in the near future should consider avoiding nonessential travel to these areas. Condoms can reduce the risk of sexual transmission.
Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Desmarets, Lowiese M; Olyslaegers, Dominique A J; Vermeulen, Ben L; Dewerchin, Hannah L; Nauwynck, Hans J
The ability to productively infect monocytes/macrophages is the most important difference between the low virulent feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and the lethal feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). In vitro, the replication of FECV in peripheral blood monocytes always drops after 12h post inoculation, while FIPV sustains its replication in the monocytes from 45% of the cats. The accessory proteins of feline coronaviruses have been speculated to play a prominent role in virulence as deletions were found to be associated with attenuated viruses. Still, no functions have been ascribed to them. In order to investigate if the accessory proteins of FIPV are important for sustaining its replication in monocytes, replication kinetics were determined for FIPV 79-1146 and its deletion mutants, lacking either accessory protein open reading frame 3abc (FIPV-Δ3), 7ab (FIPV-Δ7) or both (FIPV-Δ3Δ7). Results showed that the deletion mutants FIPV-Δ7 and FIPV-Δ3Δ7 could not maintain their replication, which was in sharp contrast to wt-FIPV. FIPV-Δ3 could still sustain its replication, but the percentage of infected monocytes was always lower compared to wt-FIPV. In conclusion, this study showed that ORF7 is crucial for FIPV replication in monocytes/macrophages, giving an explanation for its importance in vivo, its role in the development of FIP and its conservation in field strains. The effect of an ORF3 deletion was less pronounced, indicating only a supportive role of ORF3 encoded proteins during the infection of the in vivo target cell by FIPVs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mardulyn, Patrick; Goffredo, Maria; Conte, Annamaria; Hendrickx, Guy; Meiswinkel, Rudolf; Balenghien, Thomas; Sghaier, Soufien; Lohr, Youssef; Gilbert, Marius
Bluetongue (BT) is a commonly cited example of a disease with a distribution believed to have recently expanded in response to global warming. The BT virus is transmitted to ruminants by biting midges of the genus Culicoides, and it has been hypothesized that the emergence of BT in Mediterranean Europe during the last two decades is a consequence of the recent colonization of the region by Culicoides imicola and linked to climate change. To better understand the mechanism responsible for the northward spread of BT, we tested the hypothesis of a recent colonization of Italy by C. imicola, by obtaining samples from more than 60 localities across Italy, Corsica, Southern France, and Northern Africa (the hypothesized source point for the recent invasion of C. imicola), and by genotyping them with 10 newly identified microsatellite loci. The patterns of genetic variation within and among the sampled populations were characterized and used in a rigorous approximate Bayesian computation framework to compare three competing historical hypotheses related to the arrival and establishment of C. imicola in Italy. The hypothesis of an ancient presence of the insect vector was strongly favoured by this analysis, with an associated P ≥ 99%, suggesting that causes other than the northward range expansion of C. imicola may have supported the emergence of BT in southern Europe. Overall, this study illustrates the potential of molecular genetic markers for exploring the assumed link between climate change and the spread of diseases. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Maria K Smatti
Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis. EBV is highly prevalent lymphotropic herpesvirus and has been linked to several malignancies. Transmission is generally by oral secretions, but can be through blood transfusions and organ transplantations. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence, viremia rates, and circulating genotypes of EBV in healthy blood donors in Qatar.Blood samples from 673 blood donors of different nationalities residing in Qatar (mainly Qatar, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Pakistan, and India were collected and tested for anti-EBV capsid (VCA; IgG & IgM, nuclear (EBNA; IgG, and early (EA-D; IgG antigens. Avidity testing was determined when active infection was suspected. DNA was extracted from the buffy coat and subjected to EBV-DNA quantification using qRT-PCR. Genotyping was performed using nested-PCR targeting EBV-EBNA2 gene, and phylogeny by sequence analysis of the LMP-1 gene.97.9% (673/659 of the samples were seropositive as indicated by the presence VCA-IgG, while 52.6% (354/673 had detectible EBV-DNA. EBV seroprevalence and viremia rates increased significantly with age. Genotyping of 51 randomly selected samples showed predominance of Genotype 1 (72.5%, 37/51 as compared to genotype 2 (3.5%, and mixed infections were detected in 4% of the samples. Sub-genotyping for these samples revealed that the Mediterranean strain was predominant (65.3%, followed by B95.8 prototype and North Carolina strains (12.2% each, and China1 strain (6%.As a first study to evaluate EBV infection in highly diverse population in Qatar, where expatriates represent more than 85% of the population, our results indicated high seroprevalence and viremia rate of EBV in different nationalities, with genotype 1 and Mediterranean strain being predominant. Clinical significance of these finding have not been investigated and shall be evaluated in future studies.
N. N. Ilyinskikh
Full Text Available The authors have previously conducted studies that demonstrate the increased level of cytogenetic disturbances in patients with Ixodes tick-borne borreliosis (ITB. The severity of arthritis associated with ITB (AITB is also ascertained to depend on whether the patient has certain HLA-DRB1 alleles.Objective: to assess the association between HLA-DRB1 gene polymorphism and cytogenetic changes in the peripheral blood T lymphocytes of patients with AITB.Subjects and methods. 146 patients with AITB, 100 clinically healthy convalescents with ITB (CITB, and a control group of 98 healthy blood donors (HBDs without a history of tick-borne infections were examined using cytogenetic (micronucleus analysis of cytokinesis-blocked peripheral blood T lymphocytes and molecular genetic (PCR analysis of HLA-DRB1 gene polymorphism methods.Results and discussion. The frequency of cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes with micronuclei in the AITB group was significantly higher than that in the CITB and HBD groups (p<0.01 with the exception of the results obtained in the subgroup of patients with AITB who had the DRB1*10 allele (p>0.05. The highest levels of lymphocytes with micronuclei were observed in AITB patients with the DRB1*17(03, *01, and *04 alleles as compared to those in the CITB and HBD groups (p<0.001. The CITB group showed the most significant increase in the detection rate of lymphocytes with micronuclei in people with the DRB1*01, DRB1*04, or *17(03 alleles. At the same time, there were no significant differences in the number of lymphocytes with micronuclei in the HBD group, depending on the HLA-DRB1 gene alleles (p>0.05. Thus, the patients with AITB had the highest frequency of cytogenetic disorders with the exception of individuals with the DRB1*10 allele.
White, Martyn K.; Wollebo, Hassen S.; Beckham, J. David; Tyler, Kenneth L.; Khalili, Kamel
The emergence of Zika virus in the Americas has followed a pattern that is familiar from earlier epidemics of other viruses, where a new disease is introduced into a human population and then spreads rapidly with important public health consequences. In the case of Zika virus, an accumulating body of recent evidence implicates the virus in the etiology of serious pathologies of the human nervous system, that is, the occurrence of microcephaly in neonates and Guillain–Barré syndrome in adults. Zika virus is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) and a member of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. Zika virions are enveloped and icosahedral, and contain a nonsegmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome, which encodes 3 structural and 7 nonstructural proteins that are expressed as a single polyprotein that undergoes cleavage. Zika genomic RNA replicates in the cytoplasm of infected host cells. Zika virus was first detected in 1947 in the blood of a febrile monkey in Uganda’s Zika Forest and in crushed suspensions of the Aedes mosquito, which is one of the vectors for Zika virus. The virus remained obscure, with a few human cases confined to Africa and Asia. There are two lineages of the Zika virus, African and Asian, with the Asian strain causing outbreaks in Micronesia in 2007 and French Polynesia in 2013–2014. From here, the virus spread to Brazil with the first report of autochthonous Zika transmission in the Americas in March 2015. The rapid advance of the virus in the Americas and its likely association with microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome make Zika an urgent public health concern. PMID:27464346
Růžek, Daniel; Dobler, G.; Mantke, O. D.
Roč. 8, č. 4 (2010), s. 223-232 ISSN 1477-8939 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP302/10/P438; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis * Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Pathogenesis * Clinical data Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology
Ndiaye, O; Gozlan, J; Diop-Ndiaye, H; Sall, A S; Chapelain, S; Leprêtre, A; Maynart, M; Gueye, M; Lo, G; Thiam, M; Ba, I; Lacombe, K; Girard, P M; Mboup, S; Kane, C T
The aim of this pilot study was to analyze the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genotypes circulating in Senegal among Drug User (DUs), using Dried Blood Spots (DBS) as RNA source for molecular assays. Heroin and/or cocaine users (n = 506) were recruited in Dakar from April to July 2011, using a Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) method. DBS preparation consisted of five drops of whole blood from finger applied to a Whatman paper card. HCV infection was screened by the detection of anti-HCV antibodies, using a rapid immune-chromatographic test. HCV RNA was quantified on anti-HCV positive DBS, using the Abbott RealTime HCV® Genotyping was performed on DBS with detectable viral load with Versant® HCV Genotype 2.0 Assay (LiPA) and Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay®. Among the 506 participants, 120 were tested as positive for anti-HCV antibodies and their samples were analyzed for HCV RNA viral load and genotype. Out of the 120 DBS tested, HCV RNA was detected on 25 (20.8%). The median viral load was 15,058 IU/ml (ranging from 710 to 766,740 IU/ml). All positive DBS were suitable for the genotyping assay, that showed a predominance of genotype 1 (21/25) including 16 genotypes 1a and 5 genotypes 1b. HCV genotype 1 prevails in a DU population in Dakar. DBS could be useful for HCV RNA genotyping, but optimal storage conditions should required avoiding RNA impairment. Acknowledging this limitation, DBS could be a great interest for detecting and genotyping HCV viremic patients. J. Med. Virol. 89:484-488, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Silva, Mariana Ruiz; Briseno, Jose A. Aguilar; Upasani, Vinit; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Smit, Jolanda M.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.
Dengue and chikungunya are viral diseases transmitted to humans by infected Aedes spp. mosquitoes. With an estimated 390 million infected people per year dengue virus (DENV) currently causes the most prevalent arboviral disease. During the last decade chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has caused large
Galel, Susan A; Simon, Toby L; Williamson, Phillip C; AuBuchon, James P; Waxman, Dan A; Erickson, Yasuko; Bertuzis, Rasa; Duncan, John R; Malhotra, Khushbeer; Vaks, Jeffrey; Huynh, Nancy; Pate, Lisa Lee
Use of nucleic acid testing (NAT) in donor infectious disease screening improves transfusion safety. Advances in NAT technology include improvements in assay sensitivity and system automation, and real-time viral target discrimination in multiplex assays. This article describes the sensitivity and specificity of cobas MPX, a multiplex assay for detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 Group M, HIV-2 and HIV-1 Group O RNA, HCV RNA, and HBV DNA, for use on the cobas 6800/8800 Systems. The specificity of cobas MPX was evaluated in samples from donors of blood and source plasma in the United States. Analytic sensitivity was determined with reference standards. Infectious window periods (WPs) before NAT detectability were calculated for current donor screening assays. The specificity of cobas MPX was 99.946% (99.883%-99.980%) in 11,203 blood donor samples tested individually (IDT), 100% (99.994%-100%) in 63,012 donor samples tested in pools of 6, and 99.994% (99.988%-99.998%) in 108,306 source plasma donations tested in pools of 96. Seven HCV NAT-yield donations and one seronegative occult HBV infection were detected. Ninety-five percent and 50% detection limits in plasma (IU/mL) were 25.7 and 3.8 for HIV-1M, 7.0 and 1.3 for HCV, and 1.4 and 0.3 for HBV. The HBV WP was 1 to 4 days shorter than other donor screening assays by IDT. cobas MPX demonstrated high specificity in blood and source plasma donations tested individually and in pools. High sensitivity, in particular for HBV, shortens the WP and may enhance detection of occult HBV. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.
Steinmann, Eike; Gravemann, Ute; Friesland, Martina; Doerrbecker, Juliane; Müller, Thomas H; Pietschmann, Thomas; Seltsam, Axel
Contamination of blood products with hepatitis C virus (HCV) can cause infections resulting in acute and chronic liver diseases. Pathogen reduction methods such as photodynamic treatment with methylene blue (MB) plus visible light as well as irradiation with shortwave ultraviolet (UVC) light were developed to inactivate viruses and other pathogens in plasma and platelet concentrates (PCs), respectively. So far, their inactivation capacities for HCV have only been tested in inactivation studies using model viruses for HCV. Recently, a HCV infection system for the propagation of infectious HCV in cell culture was developed. Inactivation studies were performed with cell culture-derived HCV and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a model for HCV. Plasma units or PCs were spiked with high titers of cell culture-grown viruses. After treatment of the blood units with MB plus light (Theraflex MB-Plasma system, MacoPharma) or UVC (Theraflex UV-Platelets system, MacoPharma), residual viral infectivity was assessed using sensitive cell culture systems. HCV was sensitive to inactivation by both pathogen reduction procedures. HCV in plasma was efficiently inactivated by MB plus light below the detection limit already by 1/12 of the full light dose. HCV in PCs was inactivated by UVC irradiation with a reduction factor of more than 5 log. BVDV was less sensitive to the two pathogen reduction methods. Functional assays with human HCV offer an efficient tool to directly assess the inactivation capacity of pathogen reduction procedures. Pathogen reduction technologies such as MB plus light treatment and UVC irradiation have the potential to significantly reduce transfusion-transmitted HCV infections. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.
El-Cheikh, Jean; Fürst, Sabine; Casalonga, Francois; Crocchiolo, Roberto; Castagna, Luca; Granata, Angela; Oudin, Claire; Faucher, Catherine; Berger, Pierre; Sarran, Anthony; Blaise, Didier
We report here the case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) related to human polyomavirus JC (JCV) infection after an allogeneic transplantation with umbilical cord blood cells in 59-year-old woman with follicular Non Hodgkin lymphoma. She presented with dysphagia and weakness; magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated marked signal abnormality in the sub-cortical white matter of the left frontal lobe and in the posterior limb of the right internal capsule. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for John Cunningham (JC) virus. JC viral DNA in the CSF was positive, establishing the diagnosis of PML. Brain biopsy was not done. Extensive investigations for other viral infections seen in immuno-compromised patients were negative. The patient's neurologic deficits rapidly increased throughout her hospital stay, and she died one month after the diagnosis. These findings could have practical implications and demonstrate that in patients presenting neurological symptoms and radiological signs after UCBT, the JCV encephalitis must be early suspected.
Huh, Hee Jae; Park, Jong Eun; Kim, Ji Youn; Yun, Sun Ae; Lee, Myoung Keun; Lee, Nam Yong; Kim, Jong Won; Ki, Chang Seok
There has been increasing interest in standardized and quantitative Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA testing for the management of EBV disease. We evaluated the performance of the Real-Q EBV Quantification Kit (BioSewoom, Korea) in whole blood (WB). Nucleic acid extraction and real-time PCR were performed by using the MagNA Pure 96 (Roche Diagnostics, Germany) and 7500 Fast real-time PCR system (Applied Biosystems, USA), respectively. Assay sensitivity, linearity, and conversion factor were determined by using the World Health Organization international standard diluted in EBV-negative WB. We used 81 WB clinical specimens to compare performance of the Real-Q EBV Quantification Kit and artus EBV RG PCR Kit (Qiagen, Germany). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the Real-Q kit were 453 and 750 IU/mL, respectively. The conversion factor from EBV genomic copies to IU was 0.62. The linear range of the assay was from 750 to 10⁶ IU/mL. Viral load values measured with the Real-Q assay were on average 0.54 log₁₀ copies/mL higher than those measured with the artus assay. The Real-Q assay offered good analytical performance for EBV DNA quantification in WB.
Taffin, Elien Rl; Paepe, Dominique; Ghys, Liesbeth Fe; De Roover, Katrien; Van de Maele, Isabel; Saunders, Jimmy H; Duchateau, Luc; Daminet, Sylvie
Objectives Hypertension is a common cause of proteinuria in HIV-infected people. In cats, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection appears to be associated with proteinuria. Therefore, the results from systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurements in naturally infected FIV-positive cats were reviewed to assess whether hypertension contributes to the observed proteinuria in these cats. Ultrasonographic findings in FIV-positive cats were reviewed to complete renal assessment and to extend the scant knowledge on renal ultrasonography in cats. Methods Data from client-owned, naturally infected FIV-positive cats were retrospectively reviewed. To obtain a control group, records were reviewed from age-matched, privately owned, FIV-negative cats. Results Data from 91 FIV-infected and 113 control cats were compared. FIV-infected cats showed a significantly lower SBP ( P 0.4) occurred more frequently in FIV-infected cats ( P <0.001). Renal ultrasonography showed abnormalities in 60/91 FIV-infected cats, with hyperechogenic cortices in 39/91 and enlarged kidneys in 31/91. Conclusions and relevance Hypertension can be excluded as a common cause of renal damage leading to proteinuria in FIV-infected cats. Proteinuria and poorly concentrated urine are common in naturally infected FIV-positive cats, in contrast to azotaemia. Clinicians should cautiously interpret ultrasonographic abnormalities as these occur in over half of FIV-infected cats.
DiNuzzo, Mauro; Mangia, Silvia; Maraviglia, Bruno; Giove, Federico
In this article, we examined theoretically the role of human cerebral glycogen in buffering the metabolic requirement of a 360-second brain stimulation, expanding our previous modeling study of neurometabolic coupling. We found that glycogen synthesis and degradation affects the relative amount of glucose taken up by neurons versus astrocytes. Under conditions of 175:115 mmol/L (∼1.5:1) neuronal versus astrocytic activation-induced Na(+) influx ratio, ∼12% of astrocytic glycogen is mobilized. This results in the rapid increase of intracellular glucose-6-phosphate level on stimulation and nearly 40% mean decrease of glucose flow through hexokinase (HK) in astrocytes via product inhibition. The suppression of astrocytic glucose phosphorylation, in turn, favors the channeling of glucose from interstitium to nearby activated neurons, without a critical effect on the concurrent intercellular lactate trafficking. Under conditions of increased neuronal versus astrocytic activation-induced Na(+) influx ratio to 190:65 mmol/L (∼3:1), glycogen is not significantly degraded and blood glucose is primarily taken up by neurons. These results support a role for astrocytic glycogen in preserving extracellular glucose for neuronal utilization, rather than providing lactate to neurons as is commonly accepted by the current 'thinking paradigm'. This might be critical in subcellular domains during functional conditions associated with fast energetic demands.
Zinser, Margaret; Ramberg, Frank; Willott, Elizabeth
Most reports from the United States suggest Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes feed minimally on humans. Given the abundance of C. quinquefasciatus in residential Tucson and parts of metropolitan Phoenix, and the arrival of West Nile virus to this area, discovering the blood meal hosts of the local population is important. Using a sandwich ELISA technique, the local C. quinquefasciatus were found to feed on both humans and birds. This suggests they should be considered potential West Nile viru...
Yu, Claro; Zimmerman, Carl; Stone, Roger; Engle, Ronald E.; Elkins, William; Nardone, Glenn A.; Emerson, Suzanne U.; Purcell, Robert H.
Recent reports from Japan implicated wild Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in the zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E to humans. Seroprevalence studies were performed to determine if imported feral populations of Sika deer in Maryland and Virginia posed a similar risk of transmitting hepatitis E virus (HEV). Hunters collected blood on filter paper disks from freshly killed deer. The disks were desiccated and delivered to a collection point. The dried filters were weighed to estimate the amount of b...
Brittany L. Dodson
Full Text Available Zika virus is a newly emergent mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused recent large outbreaks in the new world, leading to dramatic increases in serious disease pathology including Guillain-Barre syndrome, newborn microcephaly, and infant brain damage. Although Aedes mosquitoes are thought to be the primary mosquito species driving infection, the virus has been isolated from dozens of mosquito species, including Culex and Anopheles species, and we lack a thorough understanding of which mosquito species to target for vector control. We exposed Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to blood meals supplemented with two Zika virus strains. Mosquito bodies, legs, and saliva were collected five, seven, and 14 days post blood meal and tested for infectious virus by plaque assay. Regardless of titer, virus strain, or timepoint, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were refractory to Zika virus infection. We conclude that Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes likely do not contribute significantly to Zika virus transmission to humans. However, future studies should continue to explore the potential for other novel potential vectors to transmit the virus.
Marques, Brunna Lemos Crespo; do Espírito-Santo, Márcia Paschoal; Marques, Vanessa Alves; Miguel, Juliana Custódio; da Silva, Elisangela Ferreira; Villela-Nogueira, Cristiane Alves; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Lampe, Elisabeth; Villar, Livia Melo
Dried blood spots (DBS) could be an excellent alternative for HCV diagnosis, since it is less invasive and can be stored and transported without refrigeration. The aim of this study was to optimize quantitative and qualitative methods for HCV detection in DBS. DBS and serum samples were collected from 99 subjects (59 anti-HCV/HCV RNA positive and 40 seronegative samples). Seven extraction methods and different PCR parameters were evaluated in DBS samples in the quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) developed to amplify the 5' noncoding region of HCV. A qualitative PCR for amplification of NS5B region of HCV was also valued and the nested-PCR sequenced. The qRT-PCR showed good correlation to commercial assay for HCV viral measurement in serum. To quantify HCV RNA in DBS, it was necessary to increase reverse transcriptase and cDNA concentration. HCV RNA quantification in DBS demonstrated sensitivity of 65.9%, 100% of specificity and kappa statistic of 0.65. The median viral load of DBS samples was 5.38 log10 copies/ml (minimum value=1.76 and maximum value=10.48 log10 copies/ml). HCV RNA was detected in NS5B regions and nucleotide sequences obtained in 43 serum and 11 DBS samples. The presence of the same subtype was observed in paired serum and DBS samples. In this study, it was possible to demonstrate that, despite the low sensitivity, the optimized protocol was able to determine the viral load, as well as, the infecting HCV genotype, validating the usefulness of DBS for viral load determination and molecular epidemiology studies of HCV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
AbuOdeh, Raed; Al-Mawlawi, Naema; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Bohol, Marie Fe F; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N; Hasan, Haydar A; AbuOdeh, Lamees; Nasrallah, Gheyath K
Torque Teno virus (TTV) has been associated with non A-G hepatitis. The goal of this study was to estimate the infection rates and genotypic characteristics of TTV in the State of Qatar. A total of 644 blood samples representing different nationalities: (i) Qatari (118) and (ii) non-Qatari (526) nationals (mostly from Arab and South Eeast Asia countries) were tested for the presence of TTV DNA by nested PCR. The majority (573) of the blood samples belonged to healthy blood donors, whereas 54 and 53 of the blood samples belonged to patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), respectively. The results obtained showed that the TTV infection rates in the healthy blood donors, and those infected with HBV or HCV patients were 81.4, 90.75 and 84.9%, respectively. Significant association between TTV viremia and age, or nationality was observed. Sequence analysis of PCR fragments amplified from the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of all (531) TTV positive samples showed that 65.5% (348/531) of the PCR fragment sequences were classified into main genogroup 3, followed by main genogroups 5 (24%), 2 (5.8%), and 1 (4.7%). Genogroup 4 was not detected among the our studied subjects. Phylogenetic and pairwise analyses using sequences from TTV viremic samples also showed an overall close similarity to the main genogroup 3. In conclusion, there was no significant difference in the rates of TTV detection among Qataris and non-Qataris and several genotypes, mainly genotype 3, were isolated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
explore the potential of this infection crossing the species barrier and thereby .... The virus targets mainly the brain of the unborn animal resulting in neurological ... The virus is located in the blood of the adult infected animal or in the central ...
Full Text Available Vaccines that target blood-feeding disease vectors, such as mosquitoes and ticks, have the potential to protect against the many diseases caused by vector-borne pathogens. We tested the ability of an anti-tick vaccine derived from a tick cement protein (64TRP of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus to protect mice against tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV transmitted by infected Ixodes ricinus ticks. The vaccine has a "dual action" in immunized animals: when infested with ticks, the inflammatory and immune responses first disrupt the skin feeding site, resulting in impaired blood feeding, and then specific anti-64TRP antibodies cross-react with midgut antigenic epitopes, causing rupture of the tick midgut and death of engorged ticks. Three parameters were measured: "transmission," number of uninfected nymphal ticks that became infected when cofeeding with an infected adult female tick; "support," number of mice supporting virus transmission from the infected tick to cofeeding uninfected nymphs; and "survival," number of mice that survived infection by tick bite and subsequent challenge by intraperitoneal inoculation of a lethal dose of TBEV. We show that one dose of the 64TRP vaccine protects mice against lethal challenge by infected ticks; control animals developed a fatal viral encephalitis. The protective effect of the 64TRP vaccine was comparable to that of a single dose of a commercial TBEV vaccine, while the transmission-blocking effect of 64TRP was better than that of the antiviral vaccine in reducing the number of animals supporting virus transmission. By contrast, the commercial antitick vaccine (TickGARD that targets only the tick's midgut showed transmission-blocking activity but was not protective. The 64TRP vaccine demonstrates the potential to control vector-borne disease by interfering with pathogen transmission, apparently by mediating a local cutaneous inflammatory immune response at the tick-feeding site.
Wingender, Gerhard; Schumak, Beatrix; Schurich, Anna; Gessner, J Engelbert; Endl, Elmar; Limmer, Andreas; Knolle, Percy A
Dissemination of soluble molecules or antigens via the blood stream is considered to lead to a uniform distribution in the various organs of the body, but organ-specific microarchitecture and vascularization may influence this. Following intravenous injection of αCD3ε antibody (αCD3εAb) we observed clear differences in antibody binding to Fcγ receptor (FcγR)+ antigen-presenting cells (APCs) or T lymphocytes in different organs. Significant binding of blood-borne αCD3εAb was only detected in the spleen and liver and not in the thymus or lymph node. In the spleen, only 10% of dendritic cells/macrophages and 40% of T-cell receptor (TCR)-β+ cells were positive for αCD3εAb, and, dependent on FcγR-mediated cross-linking of αCD3εAb, a similar percentage of splenic TCR-β+ cells were stimulated and became CD69+. Stimulation of TCR-β+ cells in the liver was at least as efficient as in the spleen, but almost all T cells and all scavenger liver sinusoidal endothelial cells bound αCD3εAb. In contrast to CD69 up-regulation, only CD4+ natural killer T (NKT) cells and CD11ahigh CD8+ T cells were activated by αCD3εAb and expressed interferon (IFN)-γ. Again, IFN-γ release from NKT/T cells was at least as efficient in the liver as in the spleen. Taken together, our results support the notion that the combination of extensive hepatic vascularization and very high scavenger activity allows the liver to fulfill its metabolic tasks and to promote stimulation of the large but widely distributed hepatic population of NKT/T cells. PMID:16423047
Ceelen, Manon; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M; Prein, Janneke; Smit, Judith J; Vermeiden, Jan P W; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A
Little is known about post-natal growth in IVF offspring and the effects of rates of early post-natal growth on blood pressure and body fat composition during childhood and adolescence. The follow-up study comprised 233 IVF children aged 8-18 years and 233 spontaneously conceived controls born to subfertile parents. Growth data from birth to 4 years of age, available for 392 children (n = 193 IVF, n = 199 control), were used to study early post-natal growth. Furthermore, early post-natal growth velocity (weight gain) was related to blood pressure and skinfold measurements at follow-up. We found significantly lower weight, height and BMI standard deviation scores (SDSs) at 3 months, and weight SDS at 6 months of age in IVF children compared with controls. Likewise, IVF children demonstrated a greater gain in weight SDS (P pressure in IVF children (P = 0.014 systolic, 0.04 diastolic) but not in controls. Growth during late infancy was not related to skinfold thickness in IVF children, unlike controls (P = 0.002 peripheral sum, 0.003 total sum). Growth during early childhood was related to skinfold thickness in both IVF and controls (P = 0.005 and 0.01 peripheral sum and P = 0.003 and 0.005 total sum, respectively). Late infancy growth velocity of IVF children was significantly higher compared with controls. Nevertheless, early childhood growth instead of infancy growth seemed to predict cardiovascular risk factors in IVF children. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and to follow-up growth and development of IVF children into adulthood.
Benjamin, Isaac; Fernández, Gissel; Figueira, José Valentin; Parpacén, Leticia; Urbina, María Teresa; Medina, Randolfo
To describe the consequences of Zika virus infection at 10 weeks of gestation in an IVF-conceived pregnancy in Venezuela. A case report. Private assisted reproduction unit. A 36-year-old patient who conceived her first pregnancy through IVF and became infected with Zika virus at 10 weeks' gestation in Venezuela. In vitro fertilization with fresh ET. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging Zika diagnostic methods. Zika virus detection by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in maternal plasma, PCR in amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood. Ultrasonography findings of anatomic abnormalities. Zika infection was confirmed at 10 weeks' gestation by real-time PCR; ultrasound results appeared normal. At 19 weeks' gestation, an ultrasound revealed biometry on three SDs below the means for all parameters but with no apparent anatomic abnormality. Zika virus was positive in maternal urine and amniotic fluid by PCR at 19 weeks' gestation. Ultrasound at 21 weeks + 4 days of gestation showed fetal cerebellar hypoplasia with ventricular dysmorphia, particularly marked on the left, consistent with microcephaly and ventriculomegaly. Because of the poor prognosis, pregnancy was interrupted at 24 weeks' gestation, in France. The PCR in umbilical cord blood taken in this procedure was positive for Zika virus. Initial ultrasound findings in pregnancy may not be informative. Only at 21 weeks + 4 days of gestation did an ultrasound reveal fetal microcephaly and ventriculomegaly. Combined clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings provided a complete picture of the severe damage caused by Zika infection. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Toscana virus (TOSV is a Phlebotomus-transmitted RNA virus and a frequent cause of human meningitis and meningoencephalitis in Southern Europe during the summer season. While evidence for TOSV-related central nervous system (CNS cases is increasing, little is known about the host defenses against TOSV. We evaluated innate immune response to TOSV by analyzing frequency and activation of blood antigen-presenting cells (APCs and cytokine levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from patients with TOSV neuroinvasive infection and controls. An altered frequency of different blood APC subsets was observed in TOSV-infected patients, with signs of monocytic deactivation. Nevertheless, a proper or even increased responsiveness of toll-like receptor 3 and 7/8 was observed in blood APCs of these patients as compared to healthy controls. Systemic levels of cytokines remained low in TOSV-infected patients, while levels of anti-inflammatory and antiviral mediators were significantly higher in CSF from TOSV-infected patients as compared to patients with other infectious and noninfectious neurological diseases. Thus, the early host response to TOSV appears effective for viral clearance, by proper response to TLR3 and TLR7/8 agonists in peripheral blood and by a strong and selective antiviral and anti-inflammatory response in the CNS.
Felicidade Mota Pereira
Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is diagnosed by the presence of antibodies and is supplemented by confirmatory testing methods, such as recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA and HCV-RNA detection. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of RIBA testing to diagnose HCV infection in blood donors positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Methods: A total of 102 subjects positive for anti-HCV determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA at the Hematology and Hemotherapy Foundation of Bahia (HEMOBA were later assessed with new samples using the Abbott Architect anti-HCV test (Abbott Diagnostics, Wiesbaden, Germany, the RIBA III test (Chiron RIBA HCV 3.0 SIA, Chiron Corp., Emeryville, CA, USA, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR; COBAS® AMPLICOR HCV Roche Diagnostics Corp., Indianapolis, IN, USA and line probe assay (LiPA - Siemens, Tarrytown, NY, USA genotyping for HCV diagnosis. Results: Of these new samples, 38.2% (39/102 were positive, 57.8% (59/102 were negative and 3.9% (4/102 were indeterminate for anti-HCV; HCV-RNA was detected in 22.5% (23/102 of the samples. RIBA results were positive in 58.1% (25/43, negative in 9.3% (4/43 and indeterminate in 32.6% (14/43 of the samples. The prevailing genotypes were 1 (78.3%, 18/23, 3 (17.4%, 4/23 and 2 (4.3%, 1/23. All 14 samples with indeterminate RIBA results had undetectable viral loads (detection limit ≤50 IU/mL. Of these samples, 71.4% (10/14 were reevaluated six months later. Eighty percent (8/10 of these samples remained indeterminate by RIBA, and 20% (2/10 were negative. Conclusions: In this study, individuals with indeterminate RIBA results had no detectable HCV-RNA.
Pereira, Felicidade Mota; Zarife, Maria Alice Sant'ana; Reis, Eliana Almeida Gomes; G Reis, Mitermayer
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is diagnosed by the presence of antibodies and is supplemented by confirmatory testing methods, such as recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) and HCV-RNA detection. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of RIBA testing to diagnose HCV infection in blood donors positive for anti-HCV antibodies. A total of 102 subjects positive for anti-HCV determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at the Hematology and Hemotherapy Foundation of Bahia (HEMOBA) were later assessed with new samples using the Abbott Architect anti-HCV test (Abbott Diagnostics, Wiesbaden, Germany), the RIBA III test (Chiron RIBA HCV 3.0 SIA, Chiron Corp., Emeryville, CA, USA), the polymerase chain reaction (PCR; COBAS® AMPLICOR HCV Roche Diagnostics Corp., Indianapolis, IN, USA) and line probe assay (LiPA - Siemens, Tarrytown, NY, USA) genotyping for HCV diagnosis. Of these new samples, 38.2% (39/102) were positive, 57.8% (59/102) were negative and 3.9% (4/102) were indeterminate for anti-HCV; HCV-RNA was detected in 22.5% (23/102) of the samples. RIBA results were positive in 58.1% (25/43), negative in 9.3% (4/43) and indeterminate in 32.6% (14/43) of the samples. The prevailing genotypes were 1 (78.3%, 18/23), 3 (17.4%, 4/23) and 2 (4.3%, 1/23). All 14 samples with indeterminate RIBA results had undetectable viral loads (detection limit ≤50 IU/mL). Of these samples, 71.4% (10/14) were reevaluated six months later. Eighty percent (8/10) of these samples remained indeterminate by RIBA, and 20% (2/10) were negative. In this study, individuals with indeterminate RIBA results had no detectable HCV-RNA.
Reiche Edna Maria Vissoci
Full Text Available This study evaluated the usefulness of the anti-HBc, hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV, human T cell lymphotropic virus I and II antibodies (anti-HTLV I/II, serologic tests for syphilis, and surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg as surrogate markers for the risk for HIV infection in 80,284 serum samples from blood donors from the Blood Bank of "Hospital Universitário Regional Norte do Paraná", Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil, analyzed from July 1994 to April 2001. Among 39 blood donors with positive serology for HIV, 12 (30.8% were anti-HBc positive, 10 (25.6% for anti-HCV, 1 (2.6% for anti-HTLV I/I, 1 (2.6% was positive for syphilis, and 1 (2.6% for HBsAg. Among the donors with negative serology for HIV, these markers were detected in 8,407 (10.5%, 441 (0.5%, 189 (0.2%, 464 (0.6%, and 473 (0.6% samples, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001 for anti-HBc and anti-HCV. Although the predictive positive value for these surrogate markers were low for HIV infection, the results confirmed the anti-HBc and anti-HCV as useful surrogate markers for HIV infection thus reinforcing the maintenance of them in the screening for blood donors contributing to the prevention of the small number of cases in which HIV is still transmitted by transfusion.
Tissot Dupont, H; Raoult, D
Due to their worldwide distribution, from hottest to coldest climates, and due to their behaviour, ticks are capable of transmitting numerous human and animal bacterial viral or parasitous diseases. Depending on the disease, they play the role of biological vector or intermediate host. In France, six tick borne diseases are of epidemiologic importance. Q fever (not often tick-borne), Mediterranean Spotted Fever, Lyme disease, Turalemia (human and animal), Babesiosis and Tick-borne Viral Encephalitis.
Miyamura, Tatsuo; Saito, Izumu (National Institute of Health, Tokyo (Japan)); Katayama, Tohru (Tokyo National Chest Hospital (Japan)); Kikuchi, Shu; Tateda, Akira (Sendai National Hospital (Japan)); Houghton, M.; Choo, Quilim; Kuo, G. (Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, CA (USA))
A cDNA clone has been derived from the plasma of a chimpanzee with chronic non-A, non-B viral hepatits (NANBH). The authors have assayed for antibodies reacting with the encoded antigen in sera from posttransfusion hepatitis patients (643 samples from 23 patients) and their corresponding donors collected during the past 10 years in Japan. The antibody was detected in 15 out of 17 (88.2%) posttransfusion NANBH (PT-NANBH) patients whose sera over time displayed multiple alanine aminotransferase (ALT) peaks. In general, the antibody was detected after several peaks of serum ALT elevations and, once detected, it persisted for years. Of the 15 well-defined cases of PT-NANBH that showed multiple ALT peaks and hepatitis C virus seroconversions, 11 (73.3%) were shown to be transfused with at least one unit of blood positive for the antibody. The retrospective analysis showed that all tested donor blood found to be positive for the antibody had been transfused to recipients who afterwards developed NANBH. These data strongly suggest that the cloned cDNA originated from an etiological agent of NANBH termed the hepatitis C virus. Furthermore, the present study demonstrates that had the screening been done with the anti-hepatitis C virus assay, 11 out of 17 (64.7%) cases of chronic PT-NANBH and 1 out of 6 (16.6%) acute PT-NANBH would have been prevented.
Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Johnson, Kenneth L.; Naylor, Stephen; Muddiman, David C.; Poland, Gregory A.
This is the first report of the direct identification of a HLA-DRB1*03 measles-derived peptide from measles virus infected EBV-transformed B cells. We purified HLA-DR3-peptide complexes from EBV-B cells infected with measles virus (Edmonston strain) and sequenced the HLA-DR3-peptides by mass spectrometry. A class II peptide, derived from a measles phosphoprotein, ASDVETAEGGEIHELLRLQ (P1, residues 179-197), exhibited the capacity to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells to proliferate. Our data provides direct evidence that the antigenic peptide of measles virus was processed by antigen-presenting cells, presented in the context of HLA class II molecules, and was recognized by peripheral blood T cells from healthy individuals previously immunized with measles vaccine. The approach described herein provides a useful methodology for the future identification of HLA-presented pathogen-derived epitopes using mass spectrometry. The study of cell-mediated immune responses to the measles-derived peptide in immune persons should provide significant insight into the design and development of new vaccines
Miyamura, Tatsuo; Saito, Izumu; Katayama, Tohru; Kikuchi, Shu; Tateda, Akira; Houghton, M.; Choo, Quilim; Kuo, G.
A cDNA clone has been derived from the plasma of a chimpanzee with chronic non-A, non-B viral hepatits (NANBH). The authors have assayed for antibodies reacting with the encoded antigen in sera from posttransfusion hepatitis patients (643 samples from 23 patients) and their corresponding donors collected during the past 10 years in Japan. The antibody was detected in 15 out of 17 (88.2%) posttransfusion NANBH (PT-NANBH) patients whose sera over time displayed multiple alanine aminotransferase (ALT) peaks. In general, the antibody was detected after several peaks of serum ALT elevations and, once detected, it persisted for years. Of the 15 well-defined cases of PT-NANBH that showed multiple ALT peaks and hepatitis C virus seroconversions, 11 (73.3%) were shown to be transfused with at least one unit of blood positive for the antibody. The retrospective analysis showed that all tested donor blood found to be positive for the antibody had been transfused to recipients who afterwards developed NANBH. These data strongly suggest that the cloned cDNA originated from an etiological agent of NANBH termed the hepatitis C virus. Furthermore, the present study demonstrates that had the screening been done with the anti-hepatitis C virus assay, 11 out of 17 (64.7%) cases of chronic PT-NANBH and 1 out of 6 (16.6%) acute PT-NANBH would have been prevented
Michlmayr, Daniela; Andrade, Paulina; Gonzalez, Karla; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva
The recent Zika pandemic in the Americas is linked to congenital birth defects and Guillain-Barré syndrome. White blood cells (WBCs) play an important role in host immune responses early in arboviral infection. Infected WBCs can also function as 'Trojan horses' and carry viruses into immune-sheltered spaces, including the placenta, testes and brain. Therefore, defining which WBCs are permissive to Zika virus (ZIKV) is critical. Here, we analyse ZIKV infectivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro and from Nicaraguan Zika patients and show CD14 + CD16 + monocytes are the main target of infection, with ZIKV replication detected in some dendritic cells. The frequency of CD14 + monocytes was significantly decreased, while the CD14 + CD16 + monocyte population was significantly expanded during ZIKV infection compared to uninfected controls. Viral RNA was detected in PBMCs from all patients, but in serum from only a subset, suggesting PBMCs may be a reservoir for ZIKV. In Zika patients, the frequency of infected cells was lower but the percentage of infected CD14 + CD16 + monocytes was significantly higher compared to dengue cases. The gene expression profile in monocytes isolated from ZIKV- and dengue virus-infected patients was comparable, except for significant differences in interferon-γ, CXCL12, XCL1, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 levels. Thus, our study provides a detailed picture of the innate immune profile of ZIKV infection and highlights the important role of monocytes, and CD14 + CD16 + monocytes in particular.
Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Mapako, Tonderai; Khoza, Star; Emmanuel, Jean C; Marowa, Lucy; Mvere, David; Postma, Maarten J; van Hulst, Marinus
The aim of this study was to assess the cost effectiveness of introducing individual-donation nucleic acid testing (ID-NAT), in addition to serologic tests, compared with the exclusive use of serologic tests for the identification of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) I and II among blood donors in Zimbabwe. The costs, health consequences, and cost effectiveness of adding ID-NAT to serologic tests, compared with serologic testing alone, were estimated from a health care perspective using a decision-analytic model. The introduction of ID-NAT in addition to serologic tests would lower the risk of HBV, HCV, and HIV transmission to 46.9, 0.3, and 2.7 per 100,000 donations, respectively. ID-NAT would prevent an estimated 25, 6, and 9 HBV, HCV, and HIV transfusion-transmitted infections per 100,000 donations, respectively. The introduction of this intervention would result in an estimated 212 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is estimated at US$17,774/QALY, a value far more than three times the gross national income per capita for Zimbabwe. Although the introduction of NAT could further improve the safety of the blood supply, current evidence suggests that it cannot be considered cost effective. Reducing the test costs for NAT through efficient donor recruitment, negotiating the price of reagents, and the efficient use of technology will improve cost effectiveness. © 2016 AABB.