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Sample records for blood blow metabolism

  1. Evaluation of cardiac blood blow, metabolism and sympathetic nerve function in patients with cardiac failure using PET and SPECT. Prognostic diagnosis based on the analysis of aggravating factors of the disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Yoshio; Shimozu, Junko; Yasumura, Yoshio; Nagatani, Kenzo; Miyatake, Kunio

    1998-01-01

    Focusing on the failure of energy metabolism, which is assumed to be attributed to the cardiac muscle disorder of a patient with cardiac failure, the characteristics and diagnostic significance of the metabolic disorders of cadiac muscles were investigated in those patients. The diagnostic efficacy of β-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) which is a imaging agent for lipid metabolism in the cardiac muscle was assessed in the clinical states of cardiac failure due to pulmonary hypertension. Even if there was a considerable increase in the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), the initial accumulation of BMIPP linearly increased, similarly to the increase in the accumulation of MIBI, a blood flow agent. The initial accumulation of BMIPP was thought to reflect a thicken cardiac muscle and/or increased blood flow. Also, its washing-out rate was suggested to be usable as an clinical indicator to estimate the loading of ventricular pressure. (M.N.)

  2. Evaluation of cardiac blood blow, metabolism and sympathetic nerve function in patients with cardiac failure using PET and SPECT. Prognostic diagnosis based on the analysis of aggravating factors of the disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Yoshio; Shimozu, Junko; Yasumura, Yoshio; Nagatani, Kenzo; Miyatake, Kunio [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    Focusing on the failure of energy metabolism, which is assumed to be attributed to the cardiac muscle disorder of a patient with cardiac failure, the characteristics and diagnostic significance of the metabolic disorders of cadiac muscles were investigated in those patients. The diagnostic efficacy of {beta}-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) which is a imaging agent for lipid metabolism in the cardiac muscle was assessed in the clinical states of cardiac failure due to pulmonary hypertension. Even if there was a considerable increase in the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), the initial accumulation of BMIPP linearly increased, similarly to the increase in the accumulation of MIBI, a blood flow agent. The initial accumulation of BMIPP was thought to reflect a thicken cardiac muscle and/or increased blood flow. Also, its washing-out rate was suggested to be usable as an clinical indicator to estimate the loading of ventricular pressure. (M.N.)

  3. Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood ... de sangre: panel metabólico ampliado What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...

  4. Experimental study of capacity of the blood blow of spinal cord using radiolabelling microspbere technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xuan; Li Rui

    2007-01-01

    Objective In order to study the relation ship between local blood flow and neurofunction at the later stage of spinal injury. Method: Measured the capacity of the local blood flow in the spinal cord injury by the radiolabelling microsphere technique and scored the nervus function grade. Result: There are no correlation between the local blood flow and the nervus function. Conclusion: It is obvious that the increase of the local blood supply can't reflect the nervus function. (authors)

  5. Bone blood flow and metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kaskinoro, Kimmo

    2012-01-01

    Human bone blood flow and metabolism during physical exercise remains poorly characterised. In the present study we measured femoral bone blood flow and glucose uptake in young healthy subjects by positron emission tomography in three separate protocols. In six women, blood flow was measured...... in femoral bone at rest and during one leg intermittent isometric exercise with increasing exercise intensities. In nine men, blood flow in femur was determined at rest and during dynamic one leg exercise, and two other physiological perturbations: moderate systemic hypoxia (14 O(2) ) at rest and during...... exercise, and during intra-femoral infusion of high-dose adenosine. Bone glucose uptake was measured at rest and during dynamic one leg exercise in five men. The results indicate that isometric exercise increased femoral bone blood flow from rest (1.8 ± 0.6 ml/100g/min) to low intensity exercise (4.1 ± 1...

  6. Metabolic profiles of cow's blood; a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppel, Kamila; Kuczyńska, Beata

    2016-10-01

    The term 'metabolic profile' refers to the analysis of blood biochemical parameters that are useful to assess and prevent metabolic and nutritional disorders in dairy herds. In the higher standards of milk production, the priority in modern breeding is keeping dairy cows in high lactation and healthy. The proper analysis, as well as control. of their feeding and metabolic status is immensely important for the health condition of the herd. The disproportion between the genetically determined ability for milk production and the limitations in improving the energy value of the ration may be the cause of metabolic disorders. Negative energy balance has a major impact on the body's hormonal balance and organ functions and mostly appears during transition periods: from 3 to 2 weeks prepartum until 2-3 weeks postpartum. The term 'transition' is used to underscore the important physiological, metabolic and nutritional changes occurring in this time. The manner in which these changes occur and how they are diagnosed and detected are extremely important, as they are closely related to clinical and subclinical postpartum diseases, lactation and reproductive performance - factors that significantly shape the profitability of production. Therefore the priority for intensive milk production is prevention of metabolic diseases and other disorders. It is the intent of this review to synthesize and summarize the information currently available on metabolic status and physiological changes in the cow's body that occur during lactation, as well as to discuss the interpretation of the results, which will be a useful diagnostic tool in nutritional evaluations of the dairy herd. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Lund; Vorstrup, S

    1991-01-01

    A review of the current literature regarding sleep-induced changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate (CMR) is presented. Early investigations have led to the notion that dreamless sleep was characterized by global values of CBF and CMR practically at the level of wakefulness......, while rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (dream sleep) was a state characterized by a dramatically increased level of CBF and possibly also of CMR. However, recent investigations firmly contradict this notion. Investigations on CBF and CMR performed during non-REM sleep, taking the effect of different...... current state identify the physiological processes involved in sleep or the physiological role of sleep....

  8. Small gliomas; Metabolism and blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Masaru; Shibasaki, Takashi; Horikoshi, Satoru; Ono, Nobuo; Zama, Akira; Kakegawa, Tohru; Ishiuchi, Shogo [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-02-01

    Eight patients with small gliomas (6 low-grade and 2 high-grade) localized in a single gyrus or less than 2 cm diameter were investigated using positron tomography and single photon emission computed tomography. All three tumors examined demonstrated hypermetabolism of amino acids. High-grade gliomas demonstrated hypermetabolism of glucose and high blood flow, but normal or low oxygen metabolism. High-grade gliomas also showed accumulation of [sup 201]Tl chloride and high or low accumulation of [sup 123]I-isopropyl iodoamphetamine. These indications allow preoperative diagnosis of the malignancy of small gliomas, which is important because small gliomas with high-grade malignancy need more extensive removal and adjuvant therapy. (author).

  9. Glucose metabolism in diabetic blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.J.; Crass, M.F. III

    1986-01-01

    Since glycolysis appears to be coupled to active ion transport in vascular smooth muscle, alterations in glucose metabolism may contribute to cellular dysfunction and angiopathy in diabetes. Uptake and utilization of glucose were studied in perfused blood vessels in which pulsatile flow and perfusion pressure were similar to those measured directly in vivo. Thoracic aortae isolated from 8-wk alloxan diabetic (D) and nondiabetic control rabbits were cannulated, tethered, and perfused with oxygenated buffer containing 7 or 25 mM glucose and tracer amounts of glucose-U -14 C. Norepinephrine (NE) (10 -6 M) and/or insulin (I) (150 μU/ml) and albumin (0.2%) were added. NE-induced tension development increased glucose uptake 39% and 14 CO 2 and lactate production 2.3-fold. With 7 mM glucose, marked decreases in glucose uptake (74%), 14 CO 2 (68%), lactate (30%), total tissue glycogen (75%), and tissue phospholipids (70%) were observed in D. Addition of I or elevation of exogenous glucose to 25 mM normalized glucose uptake, but had differential effects on the pattern of substrate utilization. Thus, in D, there was a marked depression of vascular glucose metabolism that was partially reversed by addition of low concentrations of insulin or D levels of glucose

  10. Sex differences of human cortical blood flow and energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Rodell, Anders

    2017-01-01

    cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen as functions of age in healthy volunteers of both sexes. Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen did not change with age for either sex and there were no differences of mean values of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen between men and women in cerebral...... cortex. Women had significant decreases of cerebral blood flow as function of age in frontal and parietal lobes. Young women had significantly higher cerebral blood flow than men in frontal and temporal lobes, but these differences had disappeared at age 65. The absent sex difference of cerebral energy...... turnover suggests that the known differences of synaptic density between the sexes are counteracted by opposite differences of individual synaptic activity....

  11. Frontiers in optical imaging of cerebral blood flow and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devor, Anna; Sakadžić, Sava; Srinivasan, Vivek J; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Nizar, Krystal; Saisan, Payam A; Tian, Peifang; Dale, Anders M; Vinogradov, Sergei A; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Boas, David A

    2012-07-01

    In vivo optical imaging of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism did not exist 50 years ago. While point optical fluorescence and absorption measurements of cellular metabolism and hemoglobin concentrations had already been introduced by then, point blood flow measurements appeared only 40 years ago. The advent of digital cameras has significantly advanced two-dimensional optical imaging of neuronal, metabolic, vascular, and hemodynamic signals. More recently, advanced laser sources have enabled a variety of novel three-dimensional high-spatial-resolution imaging approaches. Combined, as we discuss here, these methods are permitting a multifaceted investigation of the local regulation of CBF and metabolism with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. Through multimodal combination of these optical techniques with genetic methods of encoding optical reporter and actuator proteins, the future is bright for solving the mysteries of neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling and translating them to clinical utility.

  12. Sex differences of human cortical blood flow and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Rodell, Anders; Jónsdottir, Kristjana Y; Gjedde, Albert

    2017-07-01

    Brain energy metabolism is held to reflect energy demanding processes in neuropil related to the density and activity of synapses. There is recent evidence that men have higher density of synapses in temporal cortex than women. One consequence of these differences would be different rates of cortical energy turnover and blood flow in men and women. To test the hypotheses that rates of oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ) and cerebral blood flow are higher in men than in women in regions of cerebral cortex, and that the differences persist with aging, we used positron emission tomography to determine cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen as functions of age in healthy volunteers of both sexes. Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen did not change with age for either sex and there were no differences of mean values of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen between men and women in cerebral cortex. Women had significant decreases of cerebral blood flow as function of age in frontal and parietal lobes. Young women had significantly higher cerebral blood flow than men in frontal and temporal lobes, but these differences had disappeared at age 65. The absent sex difference of cerebral energy turnover suggests that the known differences of synaptic density between the sexes are counteracted by opposite differences of individual synaptic activity.

  13. BLOOD METABOLIC HORMONES AND LEPTIN IN GROWING LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Antunović

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the concentration of blood metabolic hormones and leptin levels in growing lambs. The research was carried out on Tsigai lambs in two periods (suckling and fattening during the winter feeding season. Lambs were suckling and ate a food mixture and alfalfa hay ad libitum, while during the fattening period they were fed only with the above mentioned mixture and alfalfa hay ad libitum. Their blood was analyzed on 35th and 75th day of age. Concentrations of minsulin, leptin and thyroid hormones were determined in the blood serum of lambs during both periods. In the blood of fattening lambs significantly higher (P0.05 insulin concentrations (1.05 and 0.54 μU/mL, were determined, compared to suckling lambs. A significant strong positive correlation between serum leptin and insulin (r = 0.85, P0.05. The concentration of thyroid hormones did not significantly differ depending on the period of measurement. These changes indicate that the measurement concentrations of metabolic hormones and leptin in blood are very important in order to understand the changes of metabolism and nutrient supply in growing lambs.

  14. Citrate metabolism in blood transfusions and its relationship due to metabolic alkalosis and respiratory acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Xu, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic alkalosis commonly results from excessive hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium (K(+)) and water (H2O) loss from the stomach or through the urine. The plasma anion gap increases in non-hypoproteinemic metabolic alkalosis due to an increased negative charge equivalent on albumin and the free ionized calcium (Ca(++)) content of plasma decreases. The mean citrate load in all patients was 8740±7027 mg from 6937±6603 mL of transfused blood products. The citrate load was significantly higher in patients with alkalosis (9164±4870 vs. 7809±3967, P alkalosis + respiratory acidosis and electrolyte imbalance may develop, blood transfusions may result in certain complications.

  15. Thar she blows! A novel method for DNA collection from cetacean blow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline H Frère

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular tools are now widely used to address crucial management and conservation questions. To date, dart biopsying has been the most commonly used method for collecting genetic data from cetaceans; however, this method has some drawbacks. Dart biopsying is considered inappropriate for young animals and has recently come under scrutiny from ethical boards, conservationists, and the general public. Thus, identifying alternative genetic collection techniques for cetaceans remains a priority, especially for internationally protected species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated whether blow-sampling, which involves collecting exhalations from the blowholes of cetaceans, could be developed as a new less invasive method for DNA collection. Our current methodology was developed using six bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, housed at the National Aquarium, Baltimore (USA, from which we were able to collect both blow and blood samples. For all six individuals, we found that their mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA profile taken from blow, matched their corresponding mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA profile collected from blood. This indicates that blow-sampling is a viable alternative method for DNA collection. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, we show that blow-sampling provides a viable and less invasive method for collection of genetic data, even for small cetaceans. In contrast to dart biopsying, the advantage of this method is that it capitalizes on the natural breathing behaviour of dolphins and can be applied to even very young dolphins. Both biopsy and blow-sampling require close proximity of the boat, but blow-sampling can be achieved when dolphins voluntarily bow-ride and involves no harmful contact.

  16. Cholesterol metabolism in blood cells of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoselova, E.G.; Kulagina, T.P.; Potekhina, N.I.

    1985-01-01

    Cholesterol metabolism in blood erythrocytes and lymphocytes of irradiated rats has been investigated. It has been found that at all terms and doses of irradiation, a suppression of the synthesis of erythrocyte cholesterol is observed. The increase of cholesterol quantiy in erythrocytes upon total gamma irradiation in the 10 Gr dose possibly is the result of growth of cholesterol transfer from plasma into erythrocyte cells. The study of the cholesterol synthesis in suspension of lymphocytes elminated from peripheral blood of control and irradiated rats has shown that at irradiation doses of 4 and 10 Gr in an hour acivation of cholesterol synthesis in vitro takes places

  17. 239Pu metabolism in the blood after its intratracheal administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldakov, L.A.; Khalturin, G.V.; Demina, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    The kinetics of the resorbed from the lungs plutonium metabolism and the forms of its presence in the blood as well as the dynamics of its deposit in the organs of secondary deposition (liver, skeleton) were studied in experiment with female rats. It was shown (gel-filtration method) that plutonium is present in blood serum in various physico-chemical forms: bound with macroglobulin, γ-globulin and albumin-transferrin fractions of proteins and not bound with proteins; this or that form of plutonium may dominate in time (4 min-64 days)

  18. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in the Rett syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hideto; Fueki, Noboru; Suzuki, Hisaharu; Sakuragawa, Norio; Iio, Masaaki

    1992-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on six patients with the Rett syndrome and the results were compared with the concurrent clinical status of the patients. The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) was low in five patients, and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) was low in four patients; both had a tendency to decline with advancing age. Although the cause is unknown, it is suggested that impaired oxidative metabolism exists in the Rett syndrome. An analysis of the distribution among brain regions showed that the ratios of values for the frontal cortex to those for the temporal cortex for both the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and CMRO 2 were lower than those for the controls, which may indicate the loss of of hyperfrontality in the Rett syndrome. Distribution of brain metabolism may be immature in the Rett syndrome. (author)

  19. Maternal blood metal levels and fetal markers of metabolic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian [Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Dodds, Linda, E-mail: l.dodds@dal.ca [Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Arbuckle, Tye E. [Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Ettinger, Adrienne S. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Shapiro, Gabriel D. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Fisher, Mandy [Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Taback, Shayne [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Bouchard, Maryse F. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Monnier, Patricia [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Dallaire, Renee [Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Fraser, William D. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Exposure to metals commonly found in the environment has been hypothesized to be associated with measures of fetal growth but the epidemiological literature is limited. The Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study recruited 2001 women during the first trimester of pregnancy from 10 Canadian sites. Our objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to metals (lead, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury) and fetal metabolic function. Average maternal metal concentrations in 1st and 3rd trimester blood samples were used to represent prenatal metals exposure. Leptin and adiponectin were measured in 1363 cord blood samples and served as markers of fetal metabolic function. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between metals and both high (≥90%) and low (≤10%) fetal adiponectin and leptin levels. Leptin levels were significantly higher in female infants compared to males. A significant relationship between maternal blood cadmium and odds of high leptin was observed among males but not females in adjusted models. When adjusting for birth weight z-score, lead was associated with an increased odd of high leptin. No other significant associations were found at the top or bottom 10th percentile in either leptin or adiponectin models. This study supports the proposition that maternal levels of cadmium influence cord blood adipokine levels in a sex-dependent manner. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and to determine how such findings at birth will translate into childhood anthropometric measures. - Highlights: • We determined relationships between maternal metal levels and cord blood adipokines. • Cord blood leptin levels were higher among female than male infants. • Maternal cadmium was associated with elevated leptin in male, not female infants. • No significant associations were observed between metals and

  20. Maternal blood metal levels and fetal markers of metabolic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Shapiro, Gabriel D.; Fisher, Mandy; Taback, Shayne; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renee; Fraser, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to metals commonly found in the environment has been hypothesized to be associated with measures of fetal growth but the epidemiological literature is limited. The Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study recruited 2001 women during the first trimester of pregnancy from 10 Canadian sites. Our objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to metals (lead, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury) and fetal metabolic function. Average maternal metal concentrations in 1st and 3rd trimester blood samples were used to represent prenatal metals exposure. Leptin and adiponectin were measured in 1363 cord blood samples and served as markers of fetal metabolic function. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between metals and both high (≥90%) and low (≤10%) fetal adiponectin and leptin levels. Leptin levels were significantly higher in female infants compared to males. A significant relationship between maternal blood cadmium and odds of high leptin was observed among males but not females in adjusted models. When adjusting for birth weight z-score, lead was associated with an increased odd of high leptin. No other significant associations were found at the top or bottom 10th percentile in either leptin or adiponectin models. This study supports the proposition that maternal levels of cadmium influence cord blood adipokine levels in a sex-dependent manner. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and to determine how such findings at birth will translate into childhood anthropometric measures. - Highlights: • We determined relationships between maternal metal levels and cord blood adipokines. • Cord blood leptin levels were higher among female than male infants. • Maternal cadmium was associated with elevated leptin in male, not female infants. • No significant associations were observed between metals and

  1. Cerebral blood flow and metabolic abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    In this review I summarize observations of PET and SPECT studies about cerebral blood flow and metabolic abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In very early AD flow or metabolism reduces first in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus. This reduction may arise from functional deafferentation caused by primary neural degeneration in the remote area of the entorhinal cortex that is the first to be pathologically affected in AD. Then medial temporal structures and parietotemporal association cortex show flow or metabolic reduction as disease processes. The reason why flow or metabolism in medial temporal structures shows delay in starting to reduce in spite of the earliest pathological affection remains to be elucidated. It is likely that anterior cingulate gyrus is functionally involved, since attention is the first non-memory domain to be affected, before deficits in language and visuospatial functions. However few reports have described involvement in the anterior cingulate gyrus. Relationship between cerebral blood flow or metabolism and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype has been investigated. Especially, the APOEε4 allele has been reported to increase risk and to lower onset age as a function of the inherited dose of the ε4 allele. Reduction of flow or metabolism in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus has been reported even in presymptomatic nondemented subjects who were cognitively normal and had at least a single ε4 allele. On the contrary the relation of ε4 allele to the progression rate of AD has been controversial from neuroimaging approaches. PET and SPECT imaging has become to be quite useful for assessing therapeutical effects of newly introduced treatment for AD. Recent investigations observed significant regional flow increase after donepezil hydrochloride treatment. Most of these observations have been made by applying computer assisted analysis of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection or statistical parametric mapping

  2. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hidemichi; Sakurai, Takashi; Hayashi, Tatsuo; Hashimoto, Takuo

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of reduction of cerebral circulation in the early phase of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has not yet been clarified. Previous studies have variously indicated that cerebral blood flow (CBF) reduction may be due to cerebral vasospasm, an elevation in intracranial pressure (ICP), constriction of intraparenchymal arterioles, or metabolic reduction. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between cerebral circulation and oxygen metabolism. In 36 patients with aneurysmal SAH, the values of mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (GMRO 2 ) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were measured by using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with arterial blood drawing and oxygen saturation of internal jugular bulb blood (SjO 2 ) in the acute stage (1-3 days after onset) and the spasm stage (7-10 days after onset). The patients in our study were selected by using the following criteria: no history of cerebrovascular or cardiopulmonary diseases; under the age of 70; the ruptured aneurysm was treated by clipping or coil embolization within 72 hours after onset; no symptoms of cerebral vasospasm; no signs of cerebral ischemic change on CT scans. These patients were divided into 2 groups according to the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) grading classification; the mild group (Grades I and II) consisted of 27 cases and the severe group (Grade IV) consisted of 9 cases. We studied differences in mCBF CMRO 2 , and OEF between the mild group and severe group. In the mild group, mCBF, CMRO 2 , and OEF were significantly higher than in the severe group during both the acute and the spasm stage. Also mCBF showed a direct correlation with CMRO 2 . All the patients were kept under the following conditions: the bed was positioned so that the upper body was raised at an angle at 30 deg; blood pressure was maintained at 130-150 mmHg and PaCO 2 of arterial blood was maintained at 35-40 mmHg; ICP

  3. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise: implications for fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, T.; Lieshout, J.J. van; Secher, Niels

    2008-01-01

    During exercise: the Kety-Schmidt-determined cerebral blood flow (CBF) does not change because the jugular vein is collapsed in the upright position. In contrast, when CBF is evaluated by (133)Xe clearance, by flow in the internal carotid artery, or by flow velocity in basal cerebral arteries......, a approximately 25% increase is detected with a parallel increase in metabolism. During activation, an increase in cerebral O(2) supply is required because there is no capillary recruitment within the brain and increased metabolism becomes dependent on an enhanced gradient for oxygen diffusion. During maximal...... whole body exercise, however, cerebral oxygenation decreases because of eventual arterial desaturation and marked hyperventilation-related hypocapnia of consequence for CBF. Reduced cerebral oxygenation affects recruitment of motor units, and supplemental O(2) enhances cerebral oxygenation and work...

  4. Metabolic control of muscle blood flow during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2003-01-01

    that combined blockade of NOS and PGI2, and NOS and cytochrome P450, both attenuate exercise-induced hyperemia in humans. Combined vasodilator blockade studies offer the potential to uncover important interactions and compensatory vasodilator responses. The signaling pathways that link metabolic events evoked...... to exert control of muscle vasodilation. Adenosine, nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin (PGI2), and endothelial-derived hyperpolarization factor (EDHF) are possible mediators of muscle vasodilation during exercise. In humans, adenosine has been shown to contribute to functional hyperemia as blood flow...... by muscle contraction to vasodilatory signals in the local vascular bed remains an important area of study....

  5. Brain energy metabolism and blood flow differences in healthy aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Chakravarty, M Mallar

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) are important indices of healthy aging of the brain. Although a frequent topic of study, changes of CBF and CMRO(2) during normal aging are still controversial, as some authors......, and in the temporal cortex. Because of the inverse relation between OEF and capillary oxygen tension, increased OEF can compromise oxygen delivery to neurons, with possible perturbation of energy turnover. The results establish a possible mechanism of progression from healthy to unhealthy brain aging, as the regions...

  6. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise: implications for fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secher, Neils H; Seifert, Thomas; Van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2008-01-01

    During exercise: the Kety-Schmidt-determined cerebral blood flow (CBF) does not change because the jugular vein is collapsed in the upright position. In contrast, when CBF is evaluated by (133)Xe clearance, by flow in the internal carotid artery, or by flow velocity in basal cerebral arteries, a approximately 25% increase is detected with a parallel increase in metabolism. During activation, an increase in cerebral O(2) supply is required because there is no capillary recruitment within the brain and increased metabolism becomes dependent on an enhanced gradient for oxygen diffusion. During maximal whole body exercise, however, cerebral oxygenation decreases because of eventual arterial desaturation and marked hyperventilation-related hypocapnia of consequence for CBF. Reduced cerebral oxygenation affects recruitment of motor units, and supplemental O(2) enhances cerebral oxygenation and work capacity without effects on muscle oxygenation. Also, the work of breathing and the increasing temperature of the brain during exercise are of importance for the development of so-called central fatigue. During prolonged exercise, the perceived exertion is related to accumulation of ammonia in the brain, and data support the theory that glycogen depletion in astrocytes limits the ability of the brain to accelerate its metabolism during activation. The release of interleukin-6 from the brain when exercise is prolonged may represent a signaling pathway in matching the metabolic response of the brain. Preliminary data suggest a coupling between the circulatory and metabolic perturbations in the brain during strenuous exercise and the ability of the brain to access slow-twitch muscle fiber populations.

  7. Acute effect of glucose on cerebral blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Liu, Peiying; Pascual, Juan M; Xiao, Guanghua; Huang, Hao; Lu, Hanzhang

    2015-02-01

    While it is known that specific nuclei of the brain, for example hypothalamus, contain glucose-sensing neurons thus their activity is affected by blood glucose level, the effect of glucose modulation on whole-brain metabolism is not completely understood. Several recent reports have elucidated the long-term impact of caloric restriction on the brain, showing that animals under caloric restriction had enhanced rate of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle flux accompanied by extended life span. However, acute effect of postprandial blood glucose increase has not been addressed in detail, partly due to a scarcity and complexity of measurement techniques. In this study, using a recently developed noninvasive MR technique, we measured dynamic changes in global cerebral metabolic rate of O2 (CMRO2 ) following a 50 g glucose ingestion (N = 10). A time dependent decrease in CMRO2 was observed, which was accompanied by a reduction in oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) with unaltered cerebral blood flow (CBF). At 40 min post-ingestion, the amount of CMRO2 reduction was 7.8 ± 1.6%. A control study without glucose ingestion was performed (N = 10), which revealed no changes in CMRO2 , CBF, or OEF, suggesting that the observations in the glucose study was not due to subject drowsiness or fatigue after staying inside the scanner. These findings suggest that ingestion of glucose may alter the rate of cerebral metabolism of oxygen in an acute setting. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The effect of glycerol on regional cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masatsune; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Nagata, Izumi; Yamagata, Sen; Taki, Waro; Kobayashi, Akira; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Nishizawa, Sadahiko.

    1989-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography with 15 O-labelled CO 2 , O 2 and CO gases, the effects of glycerol on regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood volume (CBV) and oxygen metabolism (CMRO 2 ) were investigated in 6 patients with meningioma accompanying peritumoral brain edema. The same study was done in 5 normal volunteers. The changes of blood gases, hematocrit and hemoglobin were also examined. After a drip infusion of glycerol, the regional CBF increased not only in the peritumoral cortex and white matter but also in the intact cortex and white matter on the contralateral side. The increase of CBF was extensive and substantially there were no regional differences. In contrast, the changes of CMRO 2 were not significant. This was derived from the increase in oxygen extraction fraction throughout extensive areas including the peritumoral area. There were no changes in CBV. Hematocrit and hemoglobin decreased to a small degree. In the normal volunteers, the same findings were noted. Thus, glycerol increases the functional reserve for cerebral oxygen metabolism, not only in the peritumoral regions but also in the intact regions. The effects of glycerol on hemodynamics and metabolism were discussed with reference to some differences from mannitol. (author)

  9. Whistle-blowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, K.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper five engineers in nuclear power, aerospace, and air-traffic control recount their experiences in following their consciences. Exposing errors or unethical conduct in any occupation is risky, but when engineering judgement is involved, the risks of blowing the whistle acquire an added dimension. A technical decision cannot always be categorized as strictly right or wrong - unlike situations in which an organization is falsifying documents or overcharging for a product. Consequently, the engineer must be convinced of being right and then wait, sometimes years and even decades after lives are lost or millions of dollars are spent, to be proved right or wrong. Frequently, the whistle-blower's career is destroyed in the meantime. In the following cases, which date from the 1970s and 1980s, the whistle-blowers have by now been vindicated to a degree for their actions, though the verdict may not be unanimous. And the careers of the first group may have even benefitted by blowing the whistle

  10. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Activity: Endocrine System Growth Disorders Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Your Endocrine System Movie: Endocrine ...

  11. Metabolic targets of endocrine disrupting chemicals assessed by cord blood transcriptome profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remy, Sylvie; Govarts, Eva; Wens, Britt

    2016-01-01

    Early life exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been frequently associated with impaired perinatal growth, an important risk factor for later onset of metabolic disorders. We analyzed whether the cord blood transcriptome showed early indications of alterations in metabolic...

  12. Effect of anxiety on cortical cerebral blood flow and metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, R.C.; Gur, R.E.; Resnick, S.M.; Skolnick, B.E.; Alavi, A.; Reivich, M.

    1987-01-01

    The relation between anxiety and cortical activity was compared in two samples of normal volunteers. One group was studied with the noninvasive xenon-133 inhalation technique for measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the other with positron emission tomography (PET) using 18 Flurodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) for measuring cerebral metabolic rates (CMR) for glucose. The inhalation technique produced less anxiety than the PET procedure, and for low anxiety subjects, there was a linear increase in CBF with anxiety. For higher anxiety subjects, however, there was a linear decrease in CBF with increased anxiety. The PET group manifested a linear decrease in CMR with increased anxiety. The results indicate that anxiety can have systematic effects on cortical activity, and this should be taken into consideration when comparing data from different procedures. They also suggest a physiologic explanation of a fundamental behavioral law that stipulates a curvilinear, inverted-U relationship between anxiety and performance

  13. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Complete Blood Count Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Getting a Blood Test (Video) Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel Blood ...

  14. Effect of flomoxef on blood coagulation and alcohol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, K; Matsubara, T

    1991-01-01

    The effect of flomoxef, a newly developed oxacephem antibiotic with an N-hydroxyethyltetrazolethiol (HTT) side chain, on blood coagulation and alcohol metabolism was compared with that of a series of cephalosporin antibiotics with N-methyltetrazolethiol (NMTT), thiadiazolethiol (TDT) or methylthiadiazolethiol (MTDT) side chains in position 3' of the cephalosporin nucleus known to cause hypoprothrombinemia and bleeding in patients who are malnourished, debilitated and/or of high age. A disulfiram-like effect caused by inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase was observed for NMTT-containing antibiotics. Studies were carried out on healthy volunteers and on rats. Eight-day treatment with 2 g flomoxef i.v. once or twice daily in five and six healthy male volunteers, respectively, did not cause any significant changes in prothrombin time (PT), coagulation factors II, VII, IX or X, in hepaplastin values or fibrinogen levels, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), platelet counts, bleeding time, or collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Inhibition of vitamin K epoxide reductase was observed in rats treated with flomoxef, yet to a much lesser extent than observed for cephalosporins with NMTT, TDT or MTDT side chains. This defect was quickly normalized by vitamin K injection. There were no differences between oxacephem (1-O) and cephem (1-S) compounds with respect to effects on blood clotting and platelet aggregation. Flomoxef and its side chain HTT showed no influence on alcohol metbolism.

  15. A nutritional and metabolic assessment of a cardiopulmonary bypass technique without donor blood

    OpenAIRE

    東,良平

    1993-01-01

    A nutritional and metabolic assessment of a cardiopulmonary bypass technique without donor blood was made in 23 patients undergoing open heart surgery (non-donor blood group). For comparison, 14 patients receiving cardiopulmonary bypass with donor blood prime (donor blood group) were also evaluated. 1)Serum transferrin level showed significantly more rapid recovery in the non-donor blood group compared to the donor blood group on the 7th post operative day. 2)Total protein, serum albumin, arm...

  16. Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels in Blood and Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Children: Is There a Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassandro, Carlotta; Banderali, Giuseppe; Radaelli, Giovanni; Borghi, Elisa; Moretti, Francesca; Verduci, Elvira

    2015-08-21

    Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in the pediatric population. Considering the different existing criteria to define metabolic syndrome, the use of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria has been suggested in children. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been associated with beneficial effects on health. The evidence about the relationship of DHA status in blood and components of the metabolic syndrome is unclear. This review discusses the possible association between DHA content in plasma and erythrocytes and components of the metabolic syndrome included in the IDF criteria (obesity, alteration of glucose metabolism, blood lipid profile, and blood pressure) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. The current evidence is inconsistent and no definitive conclusion can be drawn in the pediatric population. Well-designed longitudinal and powered trials need to clarify the possible association between blood DHA status and metabolic syndrome.

  17. Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels in Blood and Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Children: Is There a Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Lassandro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in the pediatric population. Considering the different existing criteria to define metabolic syndrome, the use of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria has been suggested in children. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA has been associated with beneficial effects on health. The evidence about the relationship of DHA status in blood and components of the metabolic syndrome is unclear. This review discusses the possible association between DHA content in plasma and erythrocytes and components of the metabolic syndrome included in the IDF criteria (obesity, alteration of glucose metabolism, blood lipid profile, and blood pressure and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. The current evidence is inconsistent and no definitive conclusion can be drawn in the pediatric population. Well-designed longitudinal and powered trials need to clarify the possible association between blood DHA status and metabolic syndrome.

  18. Donation intensity and metabolic syndrome in active whole-blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peffer, K.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Swinkels, D.W.; Geurts-Moespot, A.J.; den Heijer, M.; Atsma, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Increased iron and metabolic syndrome (MetS) go hand in hand. Frequent blood donation depletes iron stores. This study investigates whether high-intensity blood donation is associated with lower MetS prevalence compared with low-intensity blood donation, and whether iron

  19. Effects of blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure control on recovery of patients with gastric cancer complicated with metabolic syndrome after radical gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Zhou, Pingping; Hua, Qingli; Jin, Changming; Guo, Chunling; Song, Bing

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure control on recovery of patients with gastric cancer complicated with metabolic syndrome (MS) after radical gastrectomy. A total of 150 patients with gastric cancer, who were treated in Daqing Longnan Hospital from November, 2015 to May, 2017, were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into the MS group (80 cases) and non-MS group (70 cases). Patients in the MS group were given corresponding drugs to control blood pressure, blood lipids and blood glucose, while patients in the non-MS group were not treated with those drugs. Patients in the MS group were divided into the normal and abnormal groups according to the levels of blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure. Moreover, occurrences of complications were compared between the normal and abnormal groups. Before surgery, blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure in the MS group were significantly higher than those in the non-MS group (pblood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure of the MS group decreased significantly compared to those before operation (pblood glucose, 2 h postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, total triglycerides (TGs), LDL, mean blood pressure and BMI (pblood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure in patients with gastric cancer complicated with MS after radical gastrectomy can reduce the incidence of postoperative complications and promote postoperative recovery.

  20. Blowing Flap Experiment: PIV Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.; Bremmer, David M.

    2004-01-01

    PIV measurements of the flow in the region of a flap side edge are presented for several flap configurations. The test model is a NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Hicks Mod-B main element airfoil with a half-span Fowler flap. Air is blown from small slots located along the flap side edge on either the top, bottom or side surfaces. The test set up is described and flow measurements for a baseline and three blowing flap configurations are presented. The effects that the flap tip jets have on the structure of the flap side edge flow are discussed for each of the flap configurations tested. The results indicate that blowing air from a slot located along the top surface of the flap greatly weakened the top vortex system and pushed it further off the top surface. Blowing from the bottom flap surface kept the strong side vortex further outboard while blowing from the side surface only strengthened the flap vortex system. It is concluded that blowing from the top or bottom surfaces of the flap may lead to a reduction of flap side edge noise.

  1. Multidisciplinary Treatment of the Metabolic Syndrome Lowers Blood Pressure Variability Independent of Blood Pressure Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Yonit; Segev, Elad; Shefer, Gabi; Sack, Jessica; Tal, Brurya; Yaron, Marianna; Carmeli, Eli; Shefer, Lili; Margaliot, Miri; Limor, Rona; Gilad, Suzan; Sofer, Yael; Stern, Naftali

    2016-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) contributes to target organ damage independent of BP. The authors examined the effect of a 1-year multidisciplinary intervention on BPV in patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) as defined by criteria from the Third Report of the Adult Treatment Panel. Forty-four nondiabetic patients underwent clinical and biochemical profiling, 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), body composition, carotid intima-media thickness, and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). The intervention targeted all MetS components. BPV was assessed by the standard deviation of daytime systolic BP derived from ABPM. Patients with low and high BPV (lower or higher than the median daytime standard deviation of 11.6 mm Hg) did not differ in regards to systolic and diastolic BP, age, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and body mass index, but the high-variability group had higher values of low-density lipoprotein and leg fat. The 1-year intervention resulted in weight reduction but not BP-lowering. BPV declined in the high-variability group in association with lowering of PWV, C-reactive protein, glycated hemoglobin, alanine aminotransferase, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. A multidisciplinary intervention independent of BP-lowering normalized BPV, lowered PWV, and enhanced metabolic control. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in multi-infarct dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujike, Takashi; Terashi, Akiro; Soeda, Toshiyuki; Kitamura, Shin; Kato, Toshiaki; Iio, Masaaki.

    1985-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism were studied in three aged normal volunteers and 10 patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID) by Positron Emission Tomography using O-15. The diagnosis of MID was done according to the Loeb's modified ischemic score and X-ray CT findings. The MID patients, whose X-ray CT showed localized low density areas in the subcortical white matter and basal ganglia and thalamus, were studied. No occulusion was observed at anterior cerebral artery and/or middle cerebral artery on cerebral angiography. All cases of MID were mild dementias. Regional CBF, rOEF and rCMRO 2 were measured by the steady state technique described by Terry Jones et al. The values of rCBF in MID patients were significantly low compared with those of aged normal subjects in frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal cortices and thalamus. The values of CMRO 2 in MID were significantly low in frontal, temporal, occipital cortices and thalamus compared with normal subjects'. The OEF was 0.46 in aged normal subjects, and 0.52 in MID patients. The MID patients in the early stage of dementia showed the increased oxygen extraction fraction, and this fact suggests that ischemia is a significant pathogenic mechanism in the production and progression of multi-infarct dementia. The decrease of CBF and CMRO 2 in MID compared from normal subjects' were most remarkable in frontal cortex. The impairment of mental functions in MID should be caused by the decreased neuronal activities in frontal association cortex. (author)

  3. Metabolic clearance and blood production rates of estradiol in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, E C; Longcope, C; Maloof, F

    1975-09-01

    The metabolic clearance rate of 17beta-estradiol (MCR2), the plasma levels of 17beta-estradiol (E2)1, sex-steroid binding globulin (SSBG), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured in 10 hyperthyroid subjects (7 men and 3 women). The blood production rate of 17beta-estradiol (PB2) was calculated for all subjects. Nine of the 10 hyperthyroid subjects had a decreased MCR2 which returned towards normal in 5 of the 6 subjects restudied following therapy. In all 10 subjects the levels of SSBG were increased when they were hyperthyroid and returned toward normal with therapy. It is concluded that the decrease in MCR2 is largely due to the increased binding of 17beta-estradiol to SSBG. In 7 of the 10 hyperthyroid the plasma E2 concentrations were normal whereas 3 had slightly elevated levels. In 8 of the 10 hyperthyroid the PB2 was within the normal range. Only 2 hyperthyroid subjects had slightly elevated PB2. In the 6 subjects who were restudied after therapy, there was no consistent change in PB2 which remained in the normal range in all cases. It is concluded that the MCR2 is decreased in most subjects with hyperthyroidism in association with an increase of SSBG. Despite this change in MCR2 there is no significant change in PB2. The increase in SSBG levels in hyperthyroidism appears to be a direct effect of the elevation of thyroid hormone activity and is not mediated through estrogen.

  4. Holes at High Blowing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip M. Ligrani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.

  5. Hormone-metabolic parameters of blood serum at revealing the metabolic syndrome at liquidators on Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirkin, A.A.; Stepanova, N.A.; Danchenko, E.O.; Orekhova, D.S.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of research was the definition of the maintenance leptin, other hormones and some metabolic parameters in liquidators blood serum of group 1.1. Under supervision was 30 healthy persons who were not treat to action of radiation-ecological factors, and 154 liquidators. It is established, that in blood serum of liquidators with body mass index > 25 kg/m 2 leptin concentration is authentically raised and cortisol concentration is lowered. Following most important results are received: 1) hyperleptinemia and hypo-alpha-cholesterolemia can be markers of a radiating influence available in the past; 2) the strict algorithm of revealing of metabolic syndrome X allows to generate adequate groups of risk of the diseases interfaced with an insulin resistance and an atherosclerosis development; 3) the strict algorithm of metabolic syndrome X revealing allows to define concrete directions of metabolic preventive maintenance and therapy at the persons who have entered into risk-groups of diseases development. (authors)

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid ionic regulation, cerebral blood flow, and glucose use during chronic metabolic alkalosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeck, H.K.; Kuschinsky, W.

    1989-01-01

    Chronic metabolic alkalosis was induced in rats by combining a low K+ diet with a 0.2 M NaHCO3 solution as drinking fluid for either 15 or 27 days. Local cerebral blood flow and local cerebral glucose utilization were measured in 31 different structures of the brain in conscious animals by means of the iodo-[14C]antipyrine and 2-[14C]deoxy-D-glucose method. The treatment induced moderate [15 days, base excess (BE) 16 mM] to severe (27 days, BE 25 mM) hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis and K+ depletion. During moderate metabolic alkalosis no change in cerebral glucose utilization and blood flow was detectable in most brain structures when compared with controls. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) K+ and H+ concentrations were significantly decreased. During severe hypochloremic alkalosis, cerebral blood flow was decreased by 19% and cerebral glucose utilization by 24% when compared with the control values. The decrease in cerebral blood flow during severe metabolic alkalosis is attributed mainly to the decreased cerebral metabolism and to a lesser extent to a further decrease of the CSF H+ concentration. CSF K+ concentration was not further decreased. The results show an unaltered cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization together with a decrease in CSF H+ and K+ concentrations at moderate metabolic alkalosis and a decrease in cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization together with a further decreased CSF H+ concentration at severe metabolic alkalosis

  7. Dynamic shock wave: hammer blow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackme, Claude

    1978-01-01

    The general properties of shocks, their generation and the conditions of reflexion to an interface are dealt with in turn. By then applying these concepts to a liquid column and its environment (wall, free area, closing devices) the hammer blow is presented as being a relatively weak shock [fr

  8. Cerebral blood flow, oxygen and glucose metabolism with PET in progressive supranuclear palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Ichiya, Yuici; Kuwabara, Yasuo

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen metabolic rate and cerebral glucose metabolic rate were measured with positron emission tomography (PET) in four patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Decreased blood flow and hypometabolism of oxygen and glucose were found in both subcortical and cortical regions, particularly in the striatum including the head of the caudate nucleus and the frontal cortex. The coupling between blood flow and metabolism was preserved even in the regions which showed decreased blood flow and hypometabolism. These findings indicated the hypofunction, as revealed by decreased blood flow and hypometablolism on PET, both in the striatum and the frontal cortex, and which may underlie the pathophysiological mechanism of motor and mental disturbance in PSP. (author)

  9. Local cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism during seizure in spontaneously epileptic El mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Chisa; Ochi, Hironobu; Yamagami, Sakae; Kawabe, Joji; Kobashi, Toshiko; Okamura, Terue; Yamada, Ryusaku

    1995-01-01

    Local cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism were examined in spontaneously epileptic El mice using autoradiography with 125 I-IMP and 14 C-DG in the interictal phase and during seizure. El (+) mice that developed generalized tonic-clonic convulsions and El (-) mice that received no stimulation and had no history of epileptic seizures were examined. The seizure non-susceptible, maternal strain ddY mice were used as control. Uptake ratios for IMP and DG in mouse brain were calculated using the autoradiographic density. In the interictal phase, the pattern of local cerebral blood flow of El (+) mice was similar to that of ddY and El (-) mice, and glucose metabolism in the hippocampus was higher in El (+) mice than in El (-) and ddY mice, but flow and metabolism were nearly matched. During seizure, no significant changed blood flow and increased glucose metabolism in the hippocampus, the epileptic focus, and no markedly changed blood flow and depressed glucose metabolism in other brain regions were observed and considered to be flow-metabolism uncoupling. These observations have never been reported in clinical or experimental studies of epilepsy. Seizures did not cause large regional differences in cerebral blood flow. Therefore, only glucose metabolism is useful for detection of the focus of secondary generalized seizures in El mice, and appeared possibly to be related to the pathophysiology of secondary generalized epilepsy in El mice. (author)

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid levels in blood and metabolic syndrome in obese children: is there a link?

    OpenAIRE

    Lassandro, C.; Banderali, G.; Radaelli, G.; Borghi, E.; Moretti, F.; Verduci, E.

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in the pediatric population. Considering the different existing criteria to define metabolic syndrome, the use of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria has been suggested in children. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been associated with beneficial effects on health. The evidence about the relationship of DHA status in blood and components of the metabolic syndrome is unclear. This review discusses the possible association between DH...

  11. Regional brain glucose metabolism and blood flow in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsen, J.; Nedergaard, M.; Aarslew-Jensen, M.; Diemer, N.H.

    1990-01-01

    Brain regional glucose metabolism and regional blood flow were measured from autoradiographs by the uptake of [ 3 H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose and [ 14 C]iodoantipyrine in streptozocin-induced diabetic (STZ-D) rats. After 2 days of diabetes, glucose metabolism in the neocortex, basal ganglia, and white matter increased by 34, 37, and 8%, respectively, whereas blood flow was unchanged. After 4 mo, glucose metabolism in the same three regions was decreased by 32, 43, and 60%. This reduction was paralleled by a statistically nonsignificant reduction in blood flow in neocortex and basal ganglia. It is suggested that the decrease of brain glucose metabolism in STZ-D reflects increased ketone body oxidation and reduction of electrochemical work

  12. Hepatic encephalopathy is associated with decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism and blood flow, not increased ammonia uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Gitte; Keiding, Susanne; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO(2)) and blood flow (CBF) in patients with cirrhosis with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). It remains unclear, however, whether these disturbances are associated with HE or with cirrhosis itself and how they may relate to arterial blood...... associated with HE rather than the liver disease as such. The changes in CMRO(2) and CBF could not be linked to blood ammonia concentration or CMRA....

  13. Metabolic modulation of glutathione in whole blood components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead has been found to have the ability to interfere in the metabolism and biological activities of many proteins. It has also been found that metalloelements have strong affinity for sulfhydryl (-SH) groups in biological molecules including glutathione (GSH) in tissues. Because of these facts, it was of interest to investigate ...

  14. The impact of metabolic syndrome on metabolic, pro-inflammatory and prothrombotic markers according to the presence of high blood pressure criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Juliana S; Drager, Luciano F; Guerra-Riccio, Grazia M; Mostarda, Cristiano; Irigoyen, Maria C; Costa-Hong, Valeria; Bortolotto, Luiz A; Egan, Brent M; Lopes, Heno F

    2013-12-01

    We explored whether high blood pressure is associated with metabolic, inflammatory and prothrombotic dysregulation in patients with metabolic syndrome. We evaluated 135 consecutive overweight/obese patients. From this group, we selected 75 patients who were not under the regular use of medications for metabolic syndrome as defined by the current Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults criteria. The patients were divided into metabolic syndrome with and without high blood pressure criteria (≥130/≥85 mmHg). Compared to the 45 metabolic syndrome patients without high blood pressure, the 30 patients with metabolic syndrome and high blood pressure had significantly higher glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid and creatinine values; in contrast, these patients had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol values. Metabolic syndrome patients with high blood pressure also had significantly higher levels of retinol-binding protein 4, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, interleukin 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and lower levels of adiponectin. Moreover, patients with metabolic syndrome and high blood pressure had increased surrogate markers of sympathetic activity and decreased baroreflex sensitivity. Logistic regression analysis showed that high-density lipoprotein, retinol-binding protein 4 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were independently associated with metabolic syndrome patients with high blood pressure. There is a strong trend for an independent association between metabolic syndrome patients with high blood pressure and glucose levels. High blood pressure, which may be related to the autonomic dysfunction, is associated with metabolic, inflammatory and prothrombotic dysregulation in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  15. The impact of metabolic syndrome on metabolic, pro-inflammatory and prothrombotic markers according to the presence of high blood pressure criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana S. Gil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We explored whether high blood pressure is associated with metabolic, inflammatory and prothrombotic dysregulation in patients with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We evaluated 135 consecutive overweight/obese patients. From this group, we selected 75 patients who were not under the regular use of medications for metabolic syndrome as defined by the current Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults criteria. The patients were divided into metabolic syndrome with and without high blood pressure criteria (≥130/≥85 mmHg. RESULTS: Compared to the 45 metabolic syndrome patients without high blood pressure, the 30 patients with metabolic syndrome and high blood pressure had significantly higher glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid and creatinine values; in contrast, these patients had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol values. Metabolic syndrome patients with high blood pressure also had significantly higher levels of retinol-binding protein 4, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, interleukin 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and lower levels of adiponectin. Moreover, patients with metabolic syndrome and high blood pressure had increased surrogate markers of sympathetic activity and decreased baroreflex sensitivity. Logistic regression analysis showed that high-density lipoprotein, retinol-binding protein 4 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were independently associated with metabolic syndrome patients with high blood pressure. There is a strong trend for an independent association between metabolic syndrome patients with high blood pressure and glucose levels. CONCLUSIONS: High blood pressure, which may be related to the autonomic dysfunction, is associated with metabolic, inflammatory and prothrombotic dysregulation in patients with

  16. Transcriptional changes in blood after aerobic interval training in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Anja; Tjønna, Arnt E; Stølen, Tomas O; Røsbjørgen, Ragnhild E N; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2009-02-01

    Regular physical activity has beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome. Eleven metabolic syndrome patients performing 16 weeks of aerobic interval training, significantly reduced their risk of cardiovascular disease, in terms of improved VO2max, endothelial function, blood pressure, insulin signaling, and plasma lipid composition. The knowledge on underlying mechanism of exercise-induced improvements is sparse, and a broad spectrum of methods is needed to gain more insight. The aim was, for the first time, to determine whether transcriptional changes occur in blood cells of metabolic syndrome patients after participating in an exercise program. Blood was collected in PAXgene and EDTA tubes before and after 16 weeks of exercise. RNA was extracted and run on microarrays. Eleven biological processes and molecular functions were upregulated after exercise, whereas seven were downregulated. Blood clotting, cell adhesion, and steroid metabolism were among the downregulated processes, whereas steroid hormone-mediated signaling was upregulated. Downregulated protein levels of arginase 1 and von Willebrand factor confirmed microarray results. Increased transcription of genes involved in steroid hormone-mediated signaling, decreased levels of arginase 1, and reduced transcription of genes involved in cell adhesion, and blood clotting are likely to be involved in exercise-induced improvements of endothelial function, and improved cardiovascular risk profile of metabolic syndrome patients. These findings have provided new insights on exercise-induced improvement of cardiovascular health.

  17. Mannose and fructose metabolism in red blood cells during cold storage in SAGM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfsson, Óttar; Johannsson, Freyr; Magnusdottir, Manuela; Paglia, Giuseppe; Sigurjonsson, Ólafur E; Bordbar, Aarash; Palsson, Sirus; Brynjólfsson, Sigurður; Guðmundsson, Sveinn; Palsson, Bernhard

    2017-11-01

    Alternate sugar metabolism during red blood cell (RBC) storage is not well understood. Here we report fructose and mannose metabolism in RBCs during cold storage in SAGM and the impact that these monosaccharides have on metabolic biomarkers of RBC storage lesion. RBCs were stored in SAGM containing uniformly labeled 13 C-fructose or 13 C-mannose at 9 or 18 mmol/L concentration for 25 days. RBCs and media were sampled at 14 time points during storage and analyzed using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Blood banking quality assurance measurements were performed. Red blood cells incorporated fructose and mannose during cold storage in the presence of glucose. Mannose was metabolized in preference to glucose via glycolysis. Fructose lowered adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels and contributed little to ATP maintenance when added to SAGM. Both monosaccharides form the advanced glycation end product glycerate. Mannose activates enzymes in the RBC that take part in glycan synthesis. Fructose or mannose addition to RBC SAGM concentrates may not offset the shift in metabolism of RBCs that occurs after 10 days of storage. Fructose and mannose metabolism at 4°C in SAGM reflects their metabolism at physiologic temperature. Glycerate excretion is a measure of protein deglycosylation activity in stored RBCs. No cytoprotective effect was observed upon the addition of either fructose or mannose to SAGM. © 2017 AABB.

  18. Metabolic modulation of glutathione in whole blood components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... Key words: Lead acetate, glutathione (GSH), dithiobisdinitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), plasma and cytosolic ... fraction. Control containing 1 ml of venous blood and 1 ml of 0.9%. NaCl solution was also centrifuged for isolation of plasma. The packed cells were .... altered fatty acid composition of membranes?

  19. Unchanged cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism after acclimatization to high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Paulson, Olaf B; Hornbein, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of acclimatization to high altitude on cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism at rest and during exercise. Nine healthy, native sea-level residents were studied 3 weeks after arrival at Chacaltaya, Bolivia (5,260 m) and after reacclimatization to sea level....... At high altitude at rest, arterial carbon dioxide tension, oxygen saturation, and oxygen tension were significantly reduced, and arterial oxygen content was increased because of an increase in hemoglobin concentration. Global cerebral blood flow was similar in the four conditions. Cerebral oxygen delivery...... and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen and glucose also remained unchanged, whereas cerebral metabolic rates of lactate increased slightly but nonsignificantly at high altitude during exercise compared with high altitude at rest. Reaction time was unchanged. The data indicate that cerebral blood flow...

  20. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Selective Metabolic Adaptation of Streptococcus suis to Porcine Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Koczula

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that can cause severe pathologies such as septicemia and meningitis in its natural porcine host as well as in humans. Establishment of disease requires not only virulence of the infecting strain but also an appropriate metabolic activity of the pathogen in its host environment. However, it is yet largely unknown how the streptococcal metabolism adapts to the different host niches encountered during infection. Our previous isotopologue profiling studies on S. suis grown in porcine blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF revealed conserved activities of central carbon metabolism in both body fluids. On the other hand, they suggested differences in the de novo amino acid biosynthesis. This prompted us to further dissect S. suis adaptation to porcine blood and CSF by RNA deep sequencing (RNA-seq. In blood, the majority of differentially expressed genes were associated with transport of alternative carbohydrate sources and the carbohydrate metabolism (pentose phosphate pathway, glycogen metabolism. In CSF, predominantly genes involved in the biosynthesis of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids were differentially expressed. Especially, isoleucine biosynthesis seems to be of major importance for S. suis in CSF because several related biosynthetic genes were more highly expressed. In conclusion, our data revealed niche-specific metabolic gene activity which emphasizes a selective adaptation of S. suis to host environments.

  1. Cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen metabolism in thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Nobuyuki; Asakura, Ken

    1987-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) were studied in 20 cases of thalamic hemorrhage using positron CT and 15 O labeled gas steady-state inhalation method. CBF reduction was limited around the thalamus in the small sized hematoma. CBF were significantly diminished in the mean cortical, parietal, temporal, basal ganglia and thalamic area ipsilateral and cerebellar cortex contralateral to the medium sized hematoma. There was bilateral and diffuse CBF reduction in the large sized hematoma which was caused by increased intracranial pressure. CMRO 2 value were similary changed as CBF. OEF change showed within normal limit. Diffuse CBV reduction was observed in the large sized hematoma. This reduction was the result of decreased vascular bed caused by mass effect of the hematoma and hydrocephalus. Effect of surgical treatment such as ventricular drainage and hematoma evacuation were also discussed in correlation to CBF in some case using positron and single photon ECT. (author)

  2. Renal blood flow and metabolism after cold ischaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Petersen, H K

    1984-01-01

    Peroperative measurements of renal blood flow (RBF), renal O2-uptake, and renal venous lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio were performed before and after a period of 30-71 min of hypothermic (10-15 degrees C) renal ischaemia in nine patients, undergoing surgery for renal calculi. Before ischaemia, RBF.......01) immediately after re-established perfusion and 36% (P less than 0.02) 30 min later. In one additional patient, who had a short warm ischaemia (8 min), the flow pattern was the same. As arterial pressure remained constant, the reduced RBF signifies an increased renal vascular resistance. Renal O2-uptake...... and renal venous L/P ratio were almost constant, indicating no significant anaerobic processes being involved in the flow response. None of the patients showed any signs of reactive hyperaemia. It is concluded that hypothermic renal ischaemia may be followed by an increased renal vascular resistance even...

  3. Kidney Mass Reduction Leads to l-Arginine Metabolism-Dependent Blood Pressure Increase in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Samyuktha Muralidharan; Seebeck, Petra; Fingerhut, Ralph; Huang, Ji; Ming, Xiu-Fen; Yang, Zhihong; Verrey, François

    2018-02-25

    Uninephrectomy (UNX) is performed for various reasons, including kidney cancer or donation. Kidneys being the main site of l-arginine production in the body, we tested whether UNX mediated kidney mass reduction impacts l-arginine metabolism and thereby nitric oxide production and blood pressure regulation in mice. In a first series of experiments, we observed a significant increase in arterial blood pressure 8 days post-UNX in female and not in male mice. Further experimental series were performed in female mice, and the blood pressure increase was confirmed by telemetry. l-citrulline, that is used in the kidney to produce l-arginine, was elevated post-UNX as was also asymmetric dimethylarginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase that competes with l-arginine and is a marker for renal failure. Interestingly, the UNX-induced blood pressure increase was prevented by supplementation of the diet with 5% of the l-arginine precursor, l-citrulline. Because l-arginine is metabolized in the kidney and other peripheral tissues by arginase-2, we tested whether the lack of this metabolic pathway also compensates for decreased l-arginine production in the kidney and/or for local nitric oxide synthase inhibition and consecutive blood pressure increase. Indeed, upon uninephrectomy, arginase-2 knockout mice (Arg-2 -/- ) neither displayed an increase in asymmetric dimethylarginine and l-citrulline plasma levels nor a significant increase in blood pressure. UNX leads to a small increase in blood pressure that is prevented by l-citrulline supplementation or arginase deficiency, 2 measures that appear to compensate for the impact of kidney mass reduction on l-arginine metabolism. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  4. Metabolic Monitoring of Postischemic Myocardium during Intermittent Warm-Blood Cardioplegic Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borowski, A.; Kurt, M.; Calvo, S.; Paprotny, G.; Godehardt, E.; Fraessdorf, J.; Ghodsizad, A.

    2010-01-01

    In 12 patients undergoing elective myocardial revascularization with intermittent administration of warm-blood cardioplegic solution for myocardial protection, we analyzed metabolic changes by assay of global ischemia indicators (pH, lactate, glucose, and potassium), which we measured in the

  5. Metabolic monitoring of postischemic myocardium during intermittent warm-blood cardioplegic administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borowski, Andreas; Kurt, Muhammed; Calvo, Sanchez; Paprotny, Gerrit; Godehardt, Erhard; Fraessdorf, Jan; Ghodsizad, Ali

    2010-01-01

    In 12 patients undergoing elective myocardial revascularization with intermittent administration of warm-blood cardioplegic solution for myocardial protection, we analyzed metabolic changes by assay of global ischemia indicators (pH, lactate, glucose, and potassium), which we measured in the

  6. Blood Metabolic Signatures of Body Mass Index: A Targeted Metabolomics Study in the EPIC Cohort.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carayol, Marion; Leitzmann, Michael F; Ferrari, Pietro; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Achaintre, David; Stepien, Magdalena; Schmidt, Julie A; Travis, Ruth C; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Bachlechner, Ursula; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J Ramón; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Agudo, Antonio; Nilsson, Jan; Melander, Olle; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Jenab, Mazda; Key, Timothy J; Scalbert, Augustin; Rinaldi, Sabina

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics is now widely used to characterize metabolic phenotypes associated with lifestyle risk factors such as obesity. The objective of the present study was to explore the associations of body mass index (BMI) with 145 metabolites measured in blood samples in the European Prospective

  7. Muscle blood flow and muscle metabolism during exercise and heat stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil; Savard, G; Richter, Erik

    1990-01-01

    The effect of heat stress on blood flow and metabolism in an exercising leg was studied in seven subjects walking uphill (12-17%) at 5 km/h on a treadmill for 90 min or until exhaustion. The first 30 min of exercise were performed in a cool environment (18-21 degrees C); then subjects moved...

  8. Blood flow and glucose metabolism in stage IV breast cancer: Heterogeneity of response during chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.C. Krak (Nanda); J. van der Hoeven (John); O.S. Hoekstra (Otto); J.W.R. Twisk (Jos); E.E. van der Wall (Ernst); A.A. Lammertsma (Adriaan)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The purpose of the study was to compare early changes in blood flow (BF) and glucose metabolism (MRglu) in metastatic breast cancer lesions of patients treated with chemotherapy. Methods: Eleven women with stage IV cancer and lesions in breast, lymph nodes, liver, and bone

  9. Ontogeny of metabolic rate and red blood cell size in eyelid geckos: species follow different paths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Starostová

    Full Text Available While metabolism is a fundamental feature of all organisms, the causes of its scaling with body mass are not yet fully explained. Nevertheless, observations of negative correlations between red blood cell (RBC size and the rate of metabolism suggest that size variation of these cells responsible for oxygen supply may play a crucial role in determining metabolic rate scaling in vertebrates. Based on a prediction derived from the Cell Metabolism Hypothesis, metabolic rate should increase linearly with body mass in species with RBC size invariance, and slower than linearly when RBC size increases with body mass. We found support for that prediction in five species of eyelid geckos (family Eublepharidae with different patterns of RBC size variation during ontogenetic growth. During ontogeny, metabolic rate increases nearly linearly with body mass in those species of eyelid geckos where there is no correlation between RBC size and body mass, whereas non-linearity of metabolic rate scaling is evident in those species with ontogenetic increase of RBC size. Our findings provide evidence that ontogenetic variability in RBC size, possibly correlating with sizes of other cell types, could have important physiological consequences and can contribute to qualitatively different shape of the intraspecific relationship between metabolic rate and body mass.

  10. Ontogeny of metabolic rate and red blood cell size in eyelid geckos: species follow different paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostová, Zuzana; Konarzewski, Marek; Kozłowski, Jan; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    While metabolism is a fundamental feature of all organisms, the causes of its scaling with body mass are not yet fully explained. Nevertheless, observations of negative correlations between red blood cell (RBC) size and the rate of metabolism suggest that size variation of these cells responsible for oxygen supply may play a crucial role in determining metabolic rate scaling in vertebrates. Based on a prediction derived from the Cell Metabolism Hypothesis, metabolic rate should increase linearly with body mass in species with RBC size invariance, and slower than linearly when RBC size increases with body mass. We found support for that prediction in five species of eyelid geckos (family Eublepharidae) with different patterns of RBC size variation during ontogenetic growth. During ontogeny, metabolic rate increases nearly linearly with body mass in those species of eyelid geckos where there is no correlation between RBC size and body mass, whereas non-linearity of metabolic rate scaling is evident in those species with ontogenetic increase of RBC size. Our findings provide evidence that ontogenetic variability in RBC size, possibly correlating with sizes of other cell types, could have important physiological consequences and can contribute to qualitatively different shape of the intraspecific relationship between metabolic rate and body mass.

  11. Regional myocardial blood flow, metabolism and function assessed noninvasively by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelbert, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.; Hoffman, E.; Huang, S.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Positron emission computed tomography is a new technique for the noninvasive measure of myocardial blood flow, mechanical function and, in particular, metabolism. The capability of this new study means is due to the technological innovations of the imaging device and the availability of radioactive tracers that are specific for blood flow and metabolism. The device permits recording of cross-sectional images of the left ventricular myocardium that reflect quantitatively regional tracer tissue concentrations. By employing tracer kinetic models this new technique permits the measurement of regional glucose and fatty acid metabolism of the heart. While already an important new tool for investigative studies into cardiac physiology and pathophysiology, the clinical utility of positron emission tomography remains to be defined.

  12. The Coupling of Cerebral Metabolic Rate of Glucose and Cerebral Blood Flow In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Steen; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    The energy supplied to the brain by metabolic substrate is largely utilized for maintaining synaptic transmission. In this regulation cerebral blood flow and glucose consumption is tightly coupled as well in the resting condition as during activation. Quantification of cerebral blood flow...... not used for aerobic metabolism. Although some of the excess glucose uptake can be explained by lactate production, this phenomenon can still not account for the excess glucose uptake. Thus, more complex metabolic patterns in the brain might be reflected in the excess glucose uptake during activation......, and especially temporal relationships must be taken into account. What triggers the flow increase during functional brain activation is not entirely elucidated. The demand for excess glucose uptake may be important and a possible oxygen deficit in tissue distant from the capillaries is probably of minor...

  13. Global cerebral blood flow and metabolism during acute hyperketonemia in the awake and anesthetized rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Rasmus; Hasselbalch, Steen G.; Topp, Simon

    2006-01-01

    and cerebral metabolism could not be explained by alterations in blood pH or arterial CO2 tension. By measuring cerebral intracellular pH by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, it could further be concluded that the brain pH was unchanged during acute hyperketonemia. These observations indicate......In the human setting, it has been shown that acute increase in the concentration of ketone bodies by infusion of beta-hydroxybutyrate increased the cerebral blood flow (CBF) without affecting the overall cerebral metabolic activity. The mechanism by which this effect of ketone bodies was mediated...... that the mechanism responsible for the increase in CBF is rather a direct effect on the cerebral endothelium than via some metabolic interactions...

  14. Regional myocardial blood flow, metabolism and function assessed noninvasively by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelbert, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.; Hoffman, E.; Huang, S.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Positron emission computed tomography is a new technique for the noninvasive measure of myocardial blood flow, mechanical function and, in particular, metabolism. The capability of this new study means is due to the technological innovations of the imaging device and the availability of radioactive tracers that are specific for blood flow and metabolism. The device permits recording of cross-sectional images of the left ventricular myocardium that reflect quantitatively regional tracer tissue concentrations. By employing tracer kinetic models this new technique permits the measurement of regional glucose and fatty acid metabolism of the heart. While already an important new tool for investigative studies into cardiac physiology and pathophysiology, the clinical utility of positron emission tomography remains to be defined

  15. Citrate metabolism and its complications in non-massive blood transfusions: association with decompensated metabolic alkalosis+respiratory acidosis and serum electrolyte levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bıçakçı, Zafer; Olcay, Lale

    2014-06-01

    Metabolic alkalosis, which is a non-massive blood transfusion complication, is not reported in the literature although metabolic alkalosis dependent on citrate metabolism is reported to be a massive blood transfusion complication. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of elevated carbon dioxide production due to citrate metabolism and serum electrolyte imbalance in patients who received frequent non-massive blood transfusions. Fifteen inpatients who were diagnosed with different conditions and who received frequent blood transfusions (10-30 ml/kg/day) were prospectively evaluated. Patients who had initial metabolic alkalosis (bicarbonate>26 mmol/l), who needed at least one intensive blood transfusion in one-to-three days for a period of at least 15 days, and whose total transfusion amount did not fit the massive blood transfusion definition (alkalosis+respiratory acidosis developed as a result of citrate metabolism. There was a positive correlation between cumulative amount of citrate and the use of fresh frozen plasma, venous blood pH, ionized calcium, serum-blood gas sodium and mortality, whereas there was a negative correlation between cumulative amount of citrate and serum calcium levels, serum phosphorus levels and amount of urine chloride. In non-massive, but frequent blood transfusions, elevated carbon dioxide production due to citrate metabolism causes intracellular acidosis. As a result of intracellular acidosis compensation, decompensated metabolic alkalosis+respiratory acidosis and electrolyte imbalance may develop. This situation may contribute to the increase in mortality. In conclusion, it should be noted that non-massive, but frequent blood transfusions may result in certain complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Influence of age and degree of compensation of carbohydrate metabolism on metabolic changes in blood of women patients with type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikashinovich, Z I; Ishonina, O G; Krivolapova, E G

    The purpose of this study was a comprehensive analysis of various aspects of metabolism of erythrocytes in women with type 2 diabetes, according to the age characteristics of compensation of carbohydrate metabolism. The obtained results, based on the nature of changes in parameters of carbohydrate and energy metabolism, gas transport and antioxidant systems of blood, contribute to the understanding of the role of metabolic changes in red blood cells, leading to changes in their biological properties, severity of which reflects the adaptive capacity of the organism in terms of hyperglycemia in different age groups in type 2 diabetes.

  17. Blood flow to long bones indicates activity metabolism in mammals, reptiles and dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Roger S; Smith, Sarah L; White, Craig R; Henderson, Donald M; Schwarz-Wings, Daniela

    2012-02-07

    The cross-sectional area of a nutrient foramen of a long bone is related to blood flow requirements of the internal bone cells that are essential for dynamic bone remodelling. Foramen area increases with body size in parallel among living mammals and non-varanid reptiles, but is significantly larger in mammals. An index of blood flow rate through the foramina is about 10 times higher in mammals than in reptiles, and even higher if differences in blood pressure are considered. The scaling of foramen size correlates well with maximum whole-body metabolic rate during exercise in mammals and reptiles, but less well with resting metabolic rate. This relates to the role of blood flow associated with bone remodelling during and following activity. Mammals and varanid lizards have much higher aerobic metabolic rates and exercise-induced bone remodelling than non-varanid reptiles. Foramen areas of 10 species of dinosaur from five taxonomic groups are generally larger than from mammals, indicating a routinely highly active and aerobic lifestyle. The simple measurement holds possibilities offers the possibility of assessing other groups of extinct and living vertebrates in relation to body size, behaviour and habitat.

  18. Effects of MDMA on blood glucose levels and brain glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto-Montenegro, M.L.; Vaquero, J.J.; Garcia-Barreno, P.; Desco, M. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Laboratorio de Imagen, Medicina Experimental, Madrid (Spain); Arango, C. [Hospital General Gregorio Maranon, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Madrid (Spain); Ricaurte, G. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This study was designed to assess changes in glucose metabolism in rats administered single or repeated doses of MDMA. Two different experiments were performed: (1) A single-dose study with four groups receiving 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, saline or heat, and (2) a repeated-dose study with two groups receiving three doses, at intervals of 2 h, of 5 mg/kg or saline. Rats were imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET scanner 1 h after single-dose administration or 7 days after repeated doses. Glucose metabolism was measured in 12 cerebral regions of interest. Rectal temperature and blood glucose were monitored. Peak body temperature was reached 1 h after MDMA administration. Blood glucose levels decreased significantly after MDMA administration. In the single-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism showed hyperactivation in cerebellum and hypo-activation in the hippocampus, amygdala and auditory cortex. In the repeated-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism did not show any significant change at day 7. These results are the first to indicate that MDMA has the potential to produce significant hypoglycaemia. In addition, they show that MDMA alters glucose metabolism in components of the motor, limbic and somatosensory systems acutely but not on a long-term basis. (orig.)

  19. Effects of MDMA on blood glucose levels and brain glucose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto-Montenegro, M.L.; Vaquero, J.J.; Garcia-Barreno, P.; Desco, M.; Arango, C.; Ricaurte, G.

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to assess changes in glucose metabolism in rats administered single or repeated doses of MDMA. Two different experiments were performed: (1) A single-dose study with four groups receiving 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, saline or heat, and (2) a repeated-dose study with two groups receiving three doses, at intervals of 2 h, of 5 mg/kg or saline. Rats were imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET scanner 1 h after single-dose administration or 7 days after repeated doses. Glucose metabolism was measured in 12 cerebral regions of interest. Rectal temperature and blood glucose were monitored. Peak body temperature was reached 1 h after MDMA administration. Blood glucose levels decreased significantly after MDMA administration. In the single-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism showed hyperactivation in cerebellum and hypo-activation in the hippocampus, amygdala and auditory cortex. In the repeated-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism did not show any significant change at day 7. These results are the first to indicate that MDMA has the potential to produce significant hypoglycaemia. In addition, they show that MDMA alters glucose metabolism in components of the motor, limbic and somatosensory systems acutely but not on a long-term basis. (orig.)

  20. De-coupling of blood flow and metabolism in the rat brain induced by glutamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Shinichiro; Momosaki, Sotaro; Sasaki, Kazunari; Hosoi, Rie; Abe, Kohji; Inoue, Osamu; Gee, A.

    2009-01-01

    Glutamate plays an essential role in neuronal cell death in many neurological disorders. In this study, we examined both glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow in the same rat following infusion of glutamate or ibotenic acid using the dual-tracer technique. The effects of MK-801, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2,3-dioxo-benzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX), an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-kainate receptor antagonist, on the changes in the glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow induced by glutamate were also examined. The rats were microinjected with glutamate (1 μmol/μl, 2 μl) or ibotenic acid (10 μg/μl, 1 μl) into the right striatum, and dual-tracer autoradiograms of [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and [ 14 C]iofetamine (IMP) were obtained. MK-801 and NBQX were injected intravenously about 45 and 30 min, respectively, after the infusion of glutamate. De-coupling of blood flow and metabolism was noted in the glutamate-infused hemisphere (as assessed by no alteration of [ 18 F]FDG uptake and significant decrease of [ 14 C]IMP uptake). Pretreatments with MK-801, NBQX, or combined use of MK-801 and NBQX did not affect the de-coupling of the blood flow and metabolism induced by glutamate. A histochemical study revealed that about 20% neuronal cell death had occurred in the striatum at 105 min after the infusion of glutamate. In addition, a significant increase of the [ 18 F]FDG uptake and decrease of [ 14 C]IMP uptake were also seen in the rat brain infused with ibotenic acid. These results indicate that glutamate and ibotenic acid caused a significant de-coupling of blood flow and glucose metabolism in the intact rat brain during the early phase of neurodegeneration. It is necessary to evaluate the relation between metabotropic glutamate receptors and de-coupling of blood flow and metabolism. (author)

  1. Sympathetic influence on cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Secher, Niels H

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the possibility that autonomic activity influences cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism during exercise in humans. Apart from cerebral autoregulation, the arterial carbon dioxide tension, and neuronal activation, it may be that the autonomic nervous system influences CBF...... perfusion and reduces the near-infrared determined cerebral oxygenation at rest, but not during exercise associated with an increased cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO(2)), suggesting competition between CMRO(2) and sympathetic control of CBF. CMRO(2) does not change during even intense handgrip...

  2. Hyperlipidaemia is associated with increased insulin-mediated glucose metabolism, reduced fatty acid metabolism and normal blood pressure in transgenic mice overexpressing human apolipoprotein C1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, S.J.; Jong, M.C.; Que, I.; Dahlmans, V.E.H.; Pijl, H.; Radder, J.K.; Frölich, M.; Havekes, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis. Insulin resistance for glucose metabolism is associated with hyperlipidaemia and high blood pressure. In this study we investigated the effect of primary hyperlipidaemia on basal and insulin-mediated glucose and on non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) metabolism and mean arterial

  3. Ambulatory blood pressure response to a bout of HIIT in metabolic syndrome patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez-Jimenez, Miguel; Morales Palomo, Felix Alberto; García-Pallarés, J.; Mora-Rodríguez, Ricardo; Ortega, Juan Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of exercise to lower blood pressure may depend on the type and intensity of exercise. We study the short-term (i.e., 14-hour) effects of a bout of high-intensity aerobic interval training (HIIT) on blood pressure in metabolic syndrome (MSyn) patients. Methods: Nineteen MSyn patients (55.2±7.3 years, 6 women) entered the study. Eight of them were normotensive and eleven hypertensive according to MSyn threshold (≥130 mmHg for SBP and/or ≥85 mmHg for DBP). In the...

  4. FDG metabolism and uptake versus blood flow in women with untreated primary breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasadny, Kenneth R.; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Wahl, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between tumor blood flow and glucose utilization in women with untreated primary breast carcinomas. Noninvasive determinations of blood flow and glucose utilization with positron emission tomography (PET) were performed in 101 regions of tumor from nine women with untreated primary breast carcinoma. [ 15 O]H 2 O PET scans of tumor blood flow were compared with fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET scans of tumor glucose metabolism. Modeling of multiple parameters was undertaken and flow and glucose utilization compared. Mean whole-tumor blood flow was 14.9 ml dl -1 min -1 , but ranged from 7.6 to 29.2 ml dl -1 min -1 . Mean whole-tumor standardized uptake value corrected for lean body mass, SUV-lean (50-60 min), was 2.32±0.19 while mean K i was 1.2 ml dl -1 min -1 for FDG. SUV-lean and blood flow were strongly correlated (r=0.82, P=0.007) as were K 1 for FDG and flow (r=0.84, P=0.004). In these women with untreated breast cancers, FDG uptake (SUV-lean) and tumor blood flow are strongly correlated. The slope of FDG uptake versus blood flow appears higher at low flow rates, suggesting the possible presence of areas of tumor hypoxia. (orig.)

  5. FEASTING BLACK HOLE BLOWS BUBBLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A monstrous black hole's rude table manners include blowing huge bubbles of hot gas into space. At least, that's the gustatory practice followed by the supermassive black hole residing in the hub of the nearby galaxy NGC 4438. Known as a peculiar galaxy because of its unusual shape, NGC 4438 is in the Virgo Cluster, 50 million light-years from Earth. These NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of the galaxy's central region clearly show one of the bubbles rising from a dark band of dust. The other bubble, emanating from below the dust band, is barely visible, appearing as dim red blobs in the close-up picture of the galaxy's hub (the colorful picture at right). The background image represents a wider view of the galaxy, with the central region defined by the white box. These extremely hot bubbles are caused by the black hole's voracious eating habits. The eating machine is engorging itself with a banquet of material swirling around it in an accretion disk (the white region below the bright bubble). Some of this material is spewed from the disk in opposite directions. Acting like high-powered garden hoses, these twin jets of matter sweep out material in their paths. The jets eventually slam into a wall of dense, slow-moving gas, which is traveling at less than 223,000 mph (360,000 kph). The collision produces the glowing material. The bubbles will continue to expand and will eventually dissipate. Compared with the life of the galaxy, this bubble-blowing phase is a short-lived event. The bubble is much brighter on one side of the galaxy's center because the jet smashed into a denser amount of gas. The brighter bubble is 800 light-years tall and 800 light-years across. The observations are being presented June 5 at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Rochester, N.Y. Both pictures were taken March 24, 1999 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. False colors were used to enhance the details of the bubbles. The red regions in the picture denote the hot gas

  6. Effects of hyperthermia on cerebral blood flow and metabolism during prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Møller, Kirsten; Volianitis, Stefanos

    2002-01-01

    The development of hyperthermia during prolonged exercise in humans is associated with various changes in the brain, but it is not known whether the cerebral metabolism or the global cerebral blood flow (gCBF) is affected. Eight endurance-trained subjects completed two exercise bouts on a cycle...... ergometer. The gCBF and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen, glucose, and lactate were determined with the Kety-Schmidt technique after 15 min of exercise when core temperature was similar across trials, and at the end of exercise, either when subjects remained normothermic (core temperature = 37.9 degrees C...... with control at the end of exercise (43 +/- 4 vs. 51 +/- 4 ml. 100 g(-1). min(-1); P glucose, and the cerebral metabolic rate was therefore higher at the end...

  7. Age and metabolic risk factors associated with oxidatively damaged DNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhr, Mille; Jensen, Annie; Eriksen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with oxidative stress-generated damage to DNA and this could be related to metabolic disturbances. This study investigated the association between levels of oxidatively damaged DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and metabolic risk factors in 1,019 subjects, aged...... 18-93 years. DNA damage was analyzed as strand breaks by the comet assay and levels of formamidopyrimidine (FPG-) and human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1)-sensitive sites There was an association between age and levels of FPG-sensitive sites for women, but not for men. The same tendency......, cholesterol and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). In the group of men, there were significant positive associations between alcohol intake, HbA1c and FPG-sensitive sites in multivariate analysis. The levels of metabolic risk factors were positively associated with age, yet only few subjects fulfilled all...

  8. Radiation-induced vasculopathy implicated by depressed blood flow and metabolism in a pineal glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineura, K; Sasajima, T; Kowada, M [Akita University Hospital (Japan). Neurosurgical Service; Saitoh, H [Oodate Municipal Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Shishido, F [Research Inst. of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan)

    1993-08-01

    A case of radiation-induced vasculopathy of a pineal glioma was presented with haemodynamic and metabolic changes before and after radiotherapy. After radiation of 60 Gy with conventional fractionation (1.8-2.0 Gy daily, 5 days per week), regional blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction, metabolic rate of oxygen, kinetic metabolic rate of glucose and the rate constants (K2, K3) were markedly depressed (20% or greater) compared with the pre-irradiated study. 7 months after radiotherapy, the patient developed transient episodes of both right and left upper limb convulsion, terminating in generalized convulsion. When she developed status epilepticus, computed tomography showed extensive low density areas in the territory supplied by the right middle cerebral and the right posterior cerebral arteries. (author).

  9. Radiation-induced vasculopathy implicated by depressed blood flow and metabolism in a pineal glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineura, K.; Sasajima, T.; Kowada, M.

    1993-01-01

    A case of radiation-induced vasculopathy of a pineal glioma was presented with haemodynamic and metabolic changes before and after radiotherapy. After radiation of 60 Gy with conventional fractionation (1.8-2.0 Gy daily, 5 days per week), regional blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction, metabolic rate of oxygen, kinetic metabolic rate of glucose and the rate constants (K2, K3) were markedly depressed (20% or greater) compared with the pre-irradiated study. 7 months after radiotherapy, the patient developed transient episodes of both right and left upper limb convulsion, terminating in generalized convulsion. When she developed status epilepticus, computed tomography showed extensive low density areas in the territory supplied by the right middle cerebral and the right posterior cerebral arteries. (author)

  10. Hypothermia reduces cerebral metabolic rate and cerebral blood flow in newborn pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busija, D.W.; Leffler, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    The authors examined effects of hypothermia on cerebral metabolic rate and cerebral blood flow in anesthetized, newborn pigs (1-4 days old). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined with 15-μm radioactive microspheres. Regional CBF ranged from 44 to 66 ml·min -1 ·100 g -1 , and cerebral metabolic rate was 1.94 ± 0.23 ml O 2 ·100 g -1 ·min -1 during normothermia (39 degree C). Reduction of rectal temperature to 34-35 degree C decreased CBF and cerebral metabolic rate 40-50%. In another group of piglets, they examined responsiveness of the cerebral circulation to arterial hypercapnia during hypothermia. Although absolute values for normocapnic and hypercapnic CBF were reduced by hypothermia and absolute values for normocapnic and hypercapnic cerebrovascular resistance were increased, the percentage changes from control in these variables during hypercapnia were similar during normothermia and hypothermia. In another group of animals that were maintained normothermic and exposed to two episodes of hypercapnia, there was no attenuation of cerebrovascular dilation during the second episode. They conclude that hypothermia reduces CBF secondarily to a decrease in cerebral metabolic rate and that percent dilator responsiveness to arterial hypercapnia is unaltered when body temperature is reduced

  11. Cerebral blood flow and metabolic abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan). National Center Hospital for Mental, Nervous, and Muscular Disorders

    2001-04-01

    In this review I summarize observations of PET and SPECT studies about cerebral blood flow and metabolic abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In very early AD flow or metabolism reduces first in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus. This reduction may arise from functional deafferentation caused by primary neural degeneration in the remote area of the entorhinal cortex that is the first to be pathologically affected in AD. Then medial temporal structures and parietotemporal association cortex show flow or metabolic reduction as disease processes. The reason why flow or metabolism in medial temporal structures shows delay in starting to reduce in spite of the earliest pathological affection remains to be elucidated. It is likely that anterior cingulate gyrus is functionally involved, since attention is the first non-memory domain to be affected, before deficits in language and visuospatial functions. However few reports have described involvement in the anterior cingulate gyrus. Relationship between cerebral blood flow or metabolism and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype has been investigated. Especially, the APOE{epsilon}4 allele has been reported to increase risk and to lower onset age as a function of the inherited dose of the {epsilon}4 allele. Reduction of flow or metabolism in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus has been reported even in presymptomatic nondemented subjects who were cognitively normal and had at least a single {epsilon}4 allele. On the contrary the relation of {epsilon}4 allele to the progression rate of AD has been controversial from neuroimaging approaches. PET and SPECT imaging has become to be quite useful for assessing therapeutical effects of newly introduced treatment for AD. Recent investigations observed significant regional flow increase after donepezil hydrochloride treatment. Most of these observations have been made by applying computer assisted analysis of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection

  12. Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease: The relationship between regional cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, S.

    1985-03-01

    Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease has demonstrated the importance of the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and the cerebral metabolic activity. In acute stroke it has been found that within the first hours after the onset of symptoms cerebral blood flow in the affected area is more depressed than cerebral oxygen utilisation. This relative preservation of oxygen utilisation results from an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio far above its normal value. However, the oxygen extraction fraction subsequently falls in the following days indicating the transition from a situation of possibly reversible ischaemia to irreversible infarction. In patients with carotid occlusive disease an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio has been observed only in very few cases. It has been shown, however, that at an earlier stage the relationship between CBF and CBV (as CBF/CBV-ratio) provides a sensitive measure of diminished perfusion pressure which could be helpful for the selection of patients for EC-IC bypass surgery. In patients with sickle cell anaemia it has been found that oxygen delivery to the brain is maintained by an increase in cerebral blood flow, whereas the oxygen extraction ratio is not increased despite the presence of a low oxygen affinity haemoglobin. Preliminary observations in classical migraine suggest an ischaemic situation during the attack.

  13. Control rod blow out protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, J.R.; Flinn, W.S.; Groves, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    An absorber element blow-out protection system for a nuclear reactor having a pressure vessel through which a coolant is circulated. The blow-out protection system includes devices which hydraulically couple groups of guide tubes in which the absorber elements move, the coupling devices limiting coolant lift flow rate to a level commensurate with the raising of individual absorber elements but insufficient to raise a plurality of absorber elements simultaneously

  14. Blow-up: A Free Lunch?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Koenderink

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider operations that change the size of images, either shrinks or blow-ups. Image processing offers numerous possibilities, put at everyone's disposal with such computer programs as Adobe Photoshop. We consider a different class of operations, aimed at immediate visual awareness, rather than pixel arrays. We demonstrate cases of blow-ups that do not sacrifice apparent resolution. This apparent information gain is due to “amodal occlusion.”

  15. PIV Measurements on a Blowing Flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    PIV measurements of the flow in the region of a flap side edge are presented for several blowing flap configurations. The test model is a NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Hicks Mod-B main-element airfoil with a half-span Fowler flap. Air is blown from small slots located along the flap side edge on either the top, bottom or side surfaces. The test set up is described and flow measurements for a baseline and three blowing flap configurations are presented. The effects that the flap tip jets have on the structure of the flap side edge flow are discussed for each of the flap configurations tested. The results indicate that blowing air from a slot located along the top surface of the flap greatly weakened the top vortex system and pushed it further off the top surface. Blowing from the bottom flap surface kept the strong side vortex further outboard while blowing from the side surface only strengthened the vortex system or accelerated the merging of the side vortex to the flap top surface. It is concluded that blowing from the top or bottom surfaces of the flap may lead to a reduction of flap side edge noise.

  16. [LEVELS OF OBESITY, METABOLIC PROFILE, CONSUMPTION OF TABACO AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN SEDENTARY YOUTHS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño Navarrete, Felipe; Alarcón Hormazábal, Manuel; Delgado Floody, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    in Chile, the National Health Survey (ENS) conducted in 2009-2010 reported high prevalence of overweight, sedentary lifestyle, high cholesterol and metabolic syndrome in the population. to determine the prevalence in young sedentary obesity and consumption of tabaco and analyze their association with the metabolic profile, body fat percentage and blood pressure. 125 young sedentary, 26 men and 99 women, aged between 17 and 29 years old were evaluated. Body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (% fat), waist contour (CC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides: measurements were performed, glycemia and consumption of snuff. HDL-C (p = 0.000) and% MG (p = 0.043) were higher in women. 37.6% of young people turned smoker. 35, 2% of the sample showed excessive malnutrition. Obese subjects had higher levels: waist contour (p = 0.000) and% FM (p = 0.000). When analyzing obesity DC, this showed significant differences in BMI,% fat, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. BMI presented positive association with CC,% fat, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p tabaco in the study sample, while other variables are not high-risk categories, it is an opportune time to intervene and reverse these negative health trends now. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. A deuterium and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic investigation of blood flow and carbohydrate metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, C.S.E.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the development and application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques for this study of whole tissue metabolism, tissue perfusion and blood flow. The feasibility of spin imaging deuterium-enriched tissue water is demonstrated in cat brain in vivo and in situ. The potential application of D 2 O administration to deuterium-flow-imaging is considered. NMR investigations of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism were performed in rat liver in vivo and in situ. A coaxial, double-surface-coil, double-resonance probe was developed for carbon detection while decoupling neighboring proton scalar interactions ( 13 C-[ 1 H]) in hepatic tissue within the living animal. Hormonal and substrate regulation of hepatic glucose and glycogen metabolism was investigated by monitoring the metabolic fate of an administered c-dose of [1- 13 C]glucose. Label flux was directed primarily into newly-synthesized 13 C-labeled glycogen. A multiple resonance ( 1 H, 13 C, 31 P) liver perfusion probe was designed for complimentary carbohydrate metabolic studies in rat liver in vitro. A description of the 13 C-[ 1 H]/ 31 P NMR perfusion probe is given. The surgical technique used for liver excision and peripheral life-support apparatus required to maintain hepatic function are also detailed

  18. New insights into coupling and uncoupling of cerebral blood flow and metabolism in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Poornima; Chopp, Michael; Chen, Jieli

    2016-06-30

    The brain has high metabolic and energy needs and requires continuous cerebral blood flow (CBF), which is facilitated by a tight coupling between neuronal activity, CBF, and metabolism. Upon neuronal activation, there is an increase in energy demand, which is then met by a hemodynamic response that increases CBF. Such regional CBF increase in response to neuronal activation is observed using neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. The mechanisms and mediators (eg, nitric oxide, astrocytes, and ion channels) that regulate CBF-metabolism coupling have been extensively studied. The neurovascular unit is a conceptual model encompassing the anatomical and metabolic interactions between the neurons, vascular components, and glial cells in the brain. It is compromised under disease states such as stroke, diabetes, hypertension, dementias, and with aging, all of which trigger a cascade of inflammatory responses that exacerbate brain damage. Hence, tight regulation and maintenance of neurovascular coupling is central for brain homeostasis. This review article also discusses the waste clearance pathways in the brain such as the glymphatic system. The glymphatic system is a functional waste clearance pathway that removes metabolic wastes and neurotoxins from the brain along paravascular channels. Disruption of the glymphatic system burdens the brain with accumulating waste and has been reported in aging as well as several neurological diseases.

  19. Single pyruvate intake induces blood alkalization and modification of resting metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olek, Robert A; Luszczyk, Marcin; Kujach, Sylwester; Ziemann, Ewa; Pieszko, Magdalena; Pischel, Ivo; Laskowski, Radoslaw

    2015-03-01

    Three separate studies were performed with the aim to 1) determine the effect of a single sodium pyruvate intake on the blood acid-base status in males and females; 2) compare the effect of sodium and calcium pyruvate salts and establish their role in the lipolysis rate; and 3) quantify the effect of single pyruvate intake on the resting energy metabolism. In all, 48 individuals completed three separate studies. In all the studies, participants consumed a single dose of pyruvate 0.1 g/kg 60 min before commencing the measurements. The whole blood pH, bicarbonate concentration, base excess or plasma glycerol, free fatty acids, glucose concentrations, or resting energy expenditure and calculated respiratory exchange ratio were determined. The analysis of variance for repeated measurements was performed to examine the interaction between treatment and time. The single dose of sodium pyruvate induced blood alkalization, which was more marked in the male than in the female participants. Following the ingestion of sodium or calcium pyruvate, the blood acid-base parameters were higher than in the placebo trial. Furthermore, 3-h postingestion glycerol was lower in both pyruvate trials than in placebo. Resting energy expenditure did not differ between the trials; however, carbohydrate oxidation was increased after sodium pyruvate ingestion. Pyruvate intake induced mild alkalization in a sex-dependent fashion. Moreover, it accelerated carbohydrate metabolism and delayed the rate of glycerol appearance in the blood, but had no effect on the resting energy expenditure. Furthermore, sodium salt seems to have had a greater effect on the blood buffering level than calcium salt. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigations on the role of hemoglobin in sulfide metabolism by intact human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Christopher L; Savitsky, Anton; Feelisch, Martin; Cortese-Krott, Miriam M

    2018-03-01

    In addition to their role as oxygen transporters, red blood cells (RBCs) contribute to cardiovascular homeostasis by regulating nitric oxide (NO) metabolism via interaction of hemoglobin (Hb) with nitrite and NO itself. RBCs were proposed to also participate in sulfide metabolism. Although Hb is known to react with sulfide, sulfide metabolism by intact RBCs has not been characterized so far. Therefore we explored the role of Hb in sulfide metabolism in intact human RBCs. We find that upon exposure of washed RBCs to sulfide, no changes in oxy/deoxyhemoglobin (oxy/deoxyHb) are observed by UV-vis and EPR spectroscopy. However, sulfide reacts with methemoglobin (metHb), forming a methemoglobin-sulfide (metHb-SH) complex. Moreover, while metHb-SH is stable in cell-free systems even in the presence of biologically relevant thiols, it gradually decomposes to produce oxyHb, inorganic polysulfides and thiosulfate in intact cells, as detected by EPR and mass spectrometry. Taken together, our results demonstrate that under physiological conditions RBCs are able to metabolize sulfide via intermediate formation of a metHb-SH complex, which subsequently decomposes to oxyHb. We speculate that decomposition of metHb-SH is preceded by an inner-sphere electron transfer, forming reduced Hb (which binds oxygen to form oxyHb) and thiyl radical (a process we here define as "reductive sulfhydration"), which upon release, gives rise to the oxidized products, thiosulfate and polysulfides. Thus, not only is metHb an efficient scavenger and regulator of sulfide in blood, intracellular sulfide itself may play a role in keeping Hb in the reduced oxygen-binding form and, therefore, be involved in RBC physiology and function. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Metabolic syndrome and salt sensitivity of blood pressure in non-diabetic people in China: a dietary intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Gu, Dongfeng; Huang, Jianfeng; Rao, Dabeeru C; Jaquish, Cashell E; Hixson, James E; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Chen, Jichun; Lu, Fanghong; Hu, Dongsheng; Rice, Treva; Kelly, Tanika N; Hamm, L Lee; Whelton, Paul K; He, Jiang

    2009-03-07

    Since insulin resistance is thought to be the underlying mechanism for metabolic syndrome, affected individuals might be sensitive to a dietary sodium intervention. We aimed to examine the association between metabolic syndrome and salt sensitivity of blood pressure. 1906 Chinese participants without diabetes, aged 16 years or more, were selected to receive a low-sodium diet (51.3 mmol per day) for 7 days followed by a high-sodium diet (307.8 mmol per day) for an additional 7 days. Participants were excluded from the analysis if metabolic risk factor information was missing or if they did not complete their dietary interventions. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and on days 2, 5, 6, and 7 of each intervention. Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of three or more of: abdominal obesity, raised blood pressure, high triglyceride concentration, low HDL cholesterol, or high glucose. High salt sensitivity was defined as a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure of more than 5 mm Hg during low-sodium or an increase of more than 5 mm Hg during high-sodium intervention. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00721721. Of the 1881 participants with information regarding metabolic syndrome, 283 had metabolic syndrome. 1853 participants completed the low-sodium diet and 1845 completed the high-sodium diet. Multivariable-adjusted mean changes in blood pressure were significantly greater in participants with metabolic syndrome than in those without on both low-sodium and high-sodium diets (plow-sodium and a 3.13-fold increased odds (1.80-5.43) of high salt-sensitivity during the high-sodium intervention. These results suggest that metabolic syndrome enhances blood pressure response to sodium intake. Reduction in sodium intake could be an especially important component in reducing blood pressure in patients with multiple risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

  2. Metabolic parameters and blood leukocyte profiles in cows from herds with high or low mastitis incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtenius, K; Persson Waller, K; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Holtenius, P; Hallén Sandgren, C

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether there were differences in metabolic parameters and blood leukocyte profiles between cows in herds with high or low yearly mastitis incidence. In this study, 271 cows from 20 high yielding dairy herds were examined. According to the selection criteria, all herds had low somatic cell counts. Ten of the selected herds represented low mastitis treatment incidence (LMI) and ten herds had high mastitis treatment incidence (HMI). The farms were visited once and blood samples were taken from each cow that was in the interval from three weeks before to 15 weeks after parturition. The eosinophil count was significantly lower among cows from the HMI herds in the period from four weeks to 15 weeks after parturition. The plasma concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, insulin and urea did not differ between groups, but the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids was significantly higher among HMI cows during the period three weeks after parturition. The concentration of the amino acid tryptophan in plasma was significantly lower among the HMI cows prior to parturition. Glutamine was significantly lower in cows from HMI herds during the first three weeks after parturition. Arginine was consistently lower in HMI cows, although the decrease was only significant during the period from four to fifteen weeks after parturition. The results suggest that there were differences in the metabolism and immune status between herds with high or low yearly mastitis treatment incidence indicating an increased metabolic stress in HMI cows.

  3. Focal physiological uncoupling of cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism during somatosensory stimulation in human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, P.T.; Raichle, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    Coupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) was studied using multiple sequential administrations of 15 O-labeled radiotracers and positron emission tomography. In the resting state an excellent correlation between CBF and CMRO 2 was found when paired measurements of CBF and CMRO 2 from multiple (30-48) brain regions were tested in each of 33 normal subjects. Regional uncoupling of CBF and CMRO 2 was found, however, during neuronal activation induced by somatosensory stimulation. Stimulus-induced focal augmentation of cerebral blood flow (29% mean) far exceeded the concomitant local increase in tissue metabolic rate (mean, 5%), when resting-state and stimulated-state measurements were obtained in each of 9 subjects. Stimulus duration had no significant effect on response magnitude or on the degree of CBF-CMRO 2 uncoupling observed. Dynamic, physiological regulation of CBF by a mechanism (neuronal or biochemical) dependent on neuronal firing per se, but independent of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, is hypothesized

  4. DYNAMIC OF CHANGES OF BLOOD PLASMA ENERGY METABOLISM PARAMETERS IN SUCKLING COWS DURING CALVING INTERVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pavlik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of environmental condition changes during gazing period on energy metabolism parameters was investigated. Totally 40 Aberdeen Angus cows were selected for observation. Calving all of cows was situated into March. The feeding ration for the animals was comprised by pasture during the grazing period and corn silage, hay and granulated distiller’s grains during the winter period. At average age 9 days before calving, and subsequently 10, 81, 151, 189 and 273 days after calving, blood was sampled and analysed for glucose and NEFA (non-esterified fatty acid concentrations on KONELAB T20xt automatic analyser (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Finland and currently available commercial kits (Biovendor-Laboratorni medicina, Czech Republic. A rapid increase (p < 0.05 of glucose concentration was detected in blood plasma of cows in period before calving to 81 days post partum. Average value of glucose concentration at 273 days postpartum was significant (p < 0.05 lower comparing to day 189. The highest concentrations of NEFA in blood plasma of cows were found at 10 day postpartum. After that, during the persisted higher temperature period the NEFA concentration decreased significantly (p < 0.01 till 189 days postpartum. At the end of monitored period concentration of NEFA in blood plasma significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Changes of hot and cold season during the grazing period probably according to forage quality and had significant effects on blood plasma NEFA and glucose concentrations.

  5. Normal variations in the isotopic composition of metabolically relevant transition metals in human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heghe, L.; Cloquet, C.; Vanhaecke, F.

    2012-04-01

    Cu, Fe and Zn are transition metals with great catalytic, structural and regulating importance in the human body. Hence, an aberrant metabolism of these elements can have serious implications on the health of a person. It is assumed that, due to differences in isotope fractionation, the isotopic composition of these elements in whole blood of patients can be different from that in blood of healthy subjects. Therefore, isotopic analysis of the element affected by the disease can be a promising approach for early diagnosis. A method for isotopic analysis of Cu, Fe and Zn in human whole blood was developed. The simultaneous chromatographic isolation of these elements and the conditions for isotope ratio measurement via multi-collector ICP - mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) were optimized. So far, only whole blood of supposedly healthy volunteers (reference population) was analyzed. Results for Fe confirmed the known differences in isotopic composition between male and female blood. It is also shown that other parameters can have influence as well, e.g., the isotopic composition of Zn seems to be governed by the diet.

  6. Aerobic training does not alter blood pressure in menopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Aluísio Henrique Rodrigues de Andrade; Couto, Henrique Eduardo; Cardoso, Glêbia Alexa; Toscano, Lidiane Tavares; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio; Mota, Maria Paula Gonçalves

    2012-11-01

    Arterial Hypertension (AH) is an aggravating condition for Metabolic Syndrome (MS), as well as being aggravated by it. Menopause can make hypertension treatment more difficult, as it favors the worsening of MS components. Although there is evidence that exercise training reduces blood pressure, whether menopause and SM affect the exercise-induced benefits is yet to be elucidated. To compare the effects of aerobic training on blood pressure in non-menopausal and menopausal women with MS METHODS: A total of 44 women were recruited and divided into four groups: non-menopausal control (NMC: 39.5 ± 3.6 years, n = 11); menopausal control (MC: 54.9 ± 5.9 years, n = 12), non-menopausal aerobics (NMA: 43.1 ± 6.8 years, n = 11) and menopausal aerobics (MA: 52.1 ± 5 years, n = 10). The exercise groups performed aerobic training for three months, five times a week, at an intensity between 60% and 70% of heart rate reserve. The resting blood pressure and blood pressure response after 60 minutes of exercise were measured before and after the training period. The two-way ANOVA test was used, considering a p value 0.05). Three months of aerobic training improved MS components, but did not alter resting blood pressure or the BP response after an acute exercise session in women with MS.

  7. Milk composition and blood metabolic profile from holstein cows at different calving orders and lactation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Borges de Castro Dias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate milk composition and metabolic profile of Holstein cows at different calving orders in the beginning, middle, and end of lactation. One hundred ten Holstein cows were housed in a free stall system receiving the same diet and were grouped according to calving order (first, second, third, and fourth calving and days in milk (DIM: early (1-90 DIM, middle (91-180 DIM, and end of lactation (over 181 DIM for comparing milk yield, milk composition, and blood metabolic profile between the calving orders within the same lactation period. These parameters were also evaluated between lactation periods of the cows in different calving orders. The calving order, in any lactation stage, had no influence on milk yield per day and blood biochemical profile of Holstein cows receiving the same diet. However, calving order in all stages of lactation influenced milk composition. The first, second, third, and fourth calving order had no effect on the blood biochemical profile of Holstein cows, in any lactation stage. On the other hand, the different stages of lactation influenced milk yield and milk composition of Holstein cows.

  8. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Shin; Ujike, Takashi; Kuroki, Soemu; Sakamoto, Shizuki; Soeda, Toshiyuki; Terashi, Akiro; Iio, Masaaki

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine functional changes in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO/sub 2/) were determined using 0-15 positron emission tomography in 10 PD patients and five age-matched healthy volunteers. There was a tendency among PD patients towards a decreased CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. These values were significantly lower in the frontal cortex in the PD group than the control group. There was no difference in OEF between the groups. A more decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism was observed in patients staged as severer on the scale of Hoehn and Yahr. There was no correlation between cerebral oxygen metabolism and tremor, rigidity, or bradykinesis. A decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism was associated with mental disorders, such as depression, hallucination, and dementia. These results may provide an important clue for the understanding of mesocortical dopaminergic pathway and the relationship between PD and dementia. (N.K.).

  9. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Shin; Ujike, Takashi; Kuroki, Soemu; Sakamoto, Shizuki; Soeda, Toshiyuki; Terashi, Akiro; Iio, Masaaki.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine functional changes in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) were determined using 0-15 positron emission tomography in 10 PD patients and five age-matched healthy volunteers. There was a tendency among PD patients towards a decreased CBF and CMRO 2 in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. These values were significantly lower in the frontal cortex in the PD group than the control group. There was no difference in OEF between the groups. A more decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism was observed in patients staged as severer on the scale of Hoehn and Yahr. There was no correlation between cerebral oxygen metabolism and tremor, rigidity, or bradykinesis. A decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism was associated with mental disorders, such as depression, hallucination, and dementia. These results may provide an important clue for the understanding of mesocortical dopaminergic pathway and the relationship between PD and dementia. (N.K.)

  10. The relationship between the cerebral blood flow, oxygen consumption and glucose metabolism in primary degenerative dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Sasaki, Masayuki; Akashi, Yuko; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Masada, Kouji

    1995-01-01

    The CBF, CMRO 2 and CMRGlu were measured in patients with primary degenerative dementia including 5 patients with dementia of Alzheimer's type and 4 patients with Pick's disease, and then the correlation between the cerebral blood flow and energy metabolism was evaluated. The control subjects consisted of 5 age-matched normal volunteers. The CBF, CMRO 2 and CMRGlu decreased in the bilateral frontal, temporal and parietal regions in the patients with Alzheimer's dementia, while they decreased in the bilateral frontal and temporal regions in the patients with Pick's disease. Both the CBF and CMRO 2 were closely correlated with each other. However, the CMRGlu was more severely impaired than the CBF or CMRO 2 in both pathological conditions. These results suggested that CMRGlu began to decrease before the reduction of the aerobic metabolism and thus measuring the CMRGlu is considered to be the most sensitive method for detecting abnormal regions in primary degenerative dementia. (author)

  11. Sympathetic influence on cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Secher, Niels H

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the possibility that autonomic activity influences cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism during exercise in humans. Apart from cerebral autoregulation, the arterial carbon dioxide tension, and neuronal activation, it may be that the autonomic nervous system influences CBF...... perfusion and reduces the near-infrared determined cerebral oxygenation at rest, but not during exercise associated with an increased cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO(2)), suggesting competition between CMRO(2) and sympathetic control of CBF. CMRO(2) does not change during even intense handgrip......-oxidative carbohydrate uptake during exercise. Adrenaline appears to accelerate cerebral glycolysis through a beta2-adrenergic receptor mechanism since noradrenaline is without such an effect. In addition, the exercise-induced cerebral non-oxidative carbohydrate uptake is blocked by combined beta 1/2-adrenergic blockade...

  12. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow in man during light sleep (stage 2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Schmidt, J F; Holm, S

    1991-01-01

    We measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) during light sleep (stage 2) in 8 young healthy volunteers using the Kety-Schmidt technique with 133Xe as the inert gas. Measurements were performed during wakefulness and light sleep as verified by standard...... polysomnography. Unlike our previous study in man showing a highly significant 25% decrease in CMRO2 during deep sleep (stage 3-4) we found a modest but statistically significant decrease of 5% in CMRO2 during stage 2 sleep. Deep and light sleep are both characterized by an almost complete lack of mental activity....... They differ in respect of arousal threshold as a stronger stimulus is required to awaken a subject from deep sleep as compared to light sleep. Our results suggest that during non-rapid eye movement sleep cerebral metabolism and thereby cerebral synaptic activity is correlated to cerebral readiness rather than...

  13. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in patients with aphasia due to basal ganglionic lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Shin; Kato, Toshiaki; Ujike, Takashi; Kuroki, Soemu; Terashi, Akiro

    1987-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in right handed eight patients with subcortical lesion and aphasia were measured to investigate the correlation between aphasia and functional changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ) in the cortex and the basal ganglionic region. All patients had no lesion in the cortex, but in the basal ganglionic region (putamen, caudate nucleus, internal capsule, and periventricular white matter) on CT images. Patients with bilateral lesion were excluded in this study. Six patients with cerebral infarction in the left basal ganglionic region and two patients with the left putammal hemorrhage were examined. Five patients had non fluent Broca's type speech, two patients had poor comprehension, fluent Wernicke-type speech and one patient was globally aphasic. CBF, CMRO 2 , and oxygen extraction fraction were measured by the positron emission tomography using 15 O 2 , C 15 O 2 inhalation technique. In addition to reduction of CBF and CMRO 2 in the basal ganglionic region, CBF and CMRO 2 decreased in the left frontal cortex especially posterior part in four patients with Broca's aphasia. In two patients with Wernicke type aphasia, CBF and CMRO 2 decreased in the basal ganglionic region and the left temporal cortex. In a globally aphasic patient, marked reduction of CBF and CMRO 2 was observed in the left frontal and temporal cortex, in addition to the basal ganglionic region. These results suggest that dysfunction of cortex as well as that of basal ganglionic region might be related to the occurence of aphasia. However, in one patient with Broca's ahasia, CBF and CMRO 2 were preserved in the cortex and metabolic reduction was observed in only basal ganglia. This case indicates the relation between basal ganglionic lesion and the occurrence of aphasia. These results suggest that measurements of cerebral blood flow and metabolism were necessary to study the responsible lesion for aphasia. (author)

  14. Cerebral blood flow, oxidative metabolism and cerebrovascular carbon dioxide reactivity in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Strauss, Gitte Irene; Thomsen, Gerda

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal arterial carbon dioxide tension (P(a)CO(2)) in patients with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is unknown and controversial. The objective of this study was to measure global cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity (CO(2)R), and cerebral metabolic rates...... and hyperventilation with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) (14 patients) and/or the Kety-Schmidt technique (KS) (11 patients and all controls). In KS studies, CMR was measured by multiplying the arterial to jugular venous concentration difference (a-v D) by CBF. RESULTS: CBF did not differ...

  15. Endothelial progenitor cells physiology and metabolic plasticity in brain angiogenesis and blood-brain barrier modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Malinovskaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a considerable interest to the assessment of blood-brain barrier (BBB development as a part of cerebral angiogenesis developmental program. Embryonic and adult angiogenesis in the brain is governed by the coordinated activity of endothelial progenitor cells, brain microvascular endothelial cells, and non-endothelial cells contributing to the establishment of the BBB (pericytes, astrocytes, neurons. Metabolic and functional plasticity of endothelial progenitor cells controls their timely recruitment, precise homing to the brain microvessels, and efficient support of brain angiogenesis. Deciphering endothelial progenitor cells physiology would provide novel engineering approaches to establish adequate microfluidically-supported BBB models and brain microphysiological systems for translational studies.

  16. Regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in normal pressure hydrocephalus after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Masatsune; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Taki, Waro; Kobayashi, Akira; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Konishi, Junji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1989-05-01

    To clarify the pathophysiology of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) after subarachnoid hemorrhage, the authors measured cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral oxygen metabolic rates (CMRO{sub 2}), the cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral blood volume (CBV) in eight normal volunteers, six SAH patients with NPH, and seven patients without NPH by {sup 15}O-labeled gas and positron emission tomography (PET). In the NPH group, PET revealed a decrease in CBF in the lower regions of the cerebral cortex and a diffuse decrease in CMRO{sub 2}. The decrease in CBF in the lower frontal, temporal, and occipital cortices was significantly greater in the NPH than in the non-NPH group. Reduction of CMRO{sub 2} was also more extensive in the NPH group, and both CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were more markedly decreased in the lower frontal region. OEF was increased in all areas in both of the patient groups, but the increase was not significant in most areas. CBF, CMRO{sub 2} and OEF did not significantly differ between the non-NPH group and the normal volunteers. There was no significant difference in CBV among the three groups. These results indicate that NPH involves impairment of cerebral oxygen metabolism in the lower regions of the cerebral cortex, particularly in the lower frontal region. (author).

  17. Effects of IGFS on blood lipid metabolism in experimental hyperlipidemia rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yanwei; Tianjin Medical College of Chinese People's Armed Police Force, Tianjin; Yu Xiaofeng; Xu Huali; Qu Shaochun; Sui Dayuan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of injection of ginseng fruit saponins (IGFS) on total cholesterol (TC), lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism and antioxidative activity in experimental hyperlipidemia rats. Methods: The TC, lipoprotein cholesterol and lipidperoxidation (LPO) contents, prostacycline (PGI 2 ) and thromboxane (TXA 2 ) levels, superoxidedismutase (SOD) activity and blood viscosity were measured respectively in hyperlipidemia rats which had been given IGFS 10, 20 and 40 mg·kg -1 ·d - '1 ip, respectively, for fifteen days. In addition, fat accumulation in liver was observed. Results: The triglyceride (TG), TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) in serum, TXA 2 in plasma, LPO in serum and liver and blood viscosity were decreased significantly, and PGI 2 in plasma and SOD in serum and liver were significantly increased after administration with IGFS (20 and 40 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 ) in experimental hyperlipidemia rats. Moreover, IGFS decreased ratios of TC/HDL-c and LDL-c/HDL-c, increased the ratio of PGI 2 /TXA 2 and inhibit fat accumulation in liver. The content of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in serum were significantly increased after administration IGFS (40 mg·kg -1 · -1 ) in experimental hyperlipidemia rats. Conclusions: IGFS can inhibit arterioscleros by improving cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism, suppressing LPO and increasing antioxidation. (authors)

  18. Caloric restriction increases ketone bodies metabolism and preserves blood flow in aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiaoli; Watts, Lora

    2015-07-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase the life span and health span of a broad range of species. However, CR effects on in vivo brain functions are far from explored. In this study, we used multimetric neuroimaging methods to characterize the CR-induced changes of brain metabolic and vascular functions in aging rats. We found that old rats (24 months of age) with CR diet had reduced glucose uptake and lactate concentration, but increased ketone bodies level, compared with the age-matched and young (5 months of age) controls. The shifted metabolism was associated with preserved vascular function: old CR rats also had maintained cerebral blood flow relative to the age-matched controls. When investigating the metabolites in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle, we found that citrate and α-ketoglutarate were preserved in the old CR rats. We suggest that CR is neuroprotective; ketone bodies, cerebral blood flow, and α-ketoglutarate may play important roles in preserving brain physiology in aging. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Systematic Review of Chinese Traditional Exercise Baduanjin Modulating the Blood Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Mei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Baduanjin exercise is considered to be beneficial to modulate the blood lipid metabolism. The purpose of the systematic review was to assess the potential efficacy and safety of Baduanjin exercise. Methods. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI, VIP, Chinese Important Conference Papers Database, and Chinese Dissertation Database were searched for all prospective-controlled trials of Baduanjin exercise from their inception to December 31, 2011. Results. A total of 14 studies were included. Comparing with no treatment, Baduanjin exercise significantly reduced the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C in plasma, and elevated plasma HDL-C level for healthy participants, and the pooled MD (95% confidence interval, CI was −0.58 mmol/L (−0.86, −0.30 mmol/L, −0.22 mmol/L (−0.31, −0.13 mmol/L, −0.35 mmol/L (−0.54, −0.17 mmol/L, 0.13 mmol/L (0.06, 0.21 mmol/L, respectively. Baduanjin exercise also obviously decreased the levels of TG, LDL-C in plasma comparing with no treatment for patients, and the pooled MD (95% CI was −0.30 mmol/L (−0.40, −0.19 mmol/L, −0.38 mmol/L (−0.63, −0.13 mmol/L, but there was not obvious to decrease plasma TC level or elevate plasma HDL-C level in patients with the pooled MD (95%CI, −0.39 mmol/L (−1.09, 0.31 mmol/L and 0.22 mmol/L (−0.11, 0.55 mmol/L, respectively. In addition, the obvious advantage was not observed to modulate the blood lipid metabolism in comparing Baduanjin exercise with other exercises, regardless for health participants or patients. Conclusion. Studies indicated that Baduanjin exercise could significantly decrease the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C levels in plasma and elevate plasma HDL-C level for the healthy people. It also was helpful that Baduanjin exercise modulated the blood lipid metabolism for patients. Moreover, the Baduanjin exercise did not have an obvious advantage on modulating the lipid metabolism comparing with other exercises. But the

  20. Prenatal programming of adult mineral metabolism: relevance to blood pressure, dietary prevention strategies, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulter, Günter; Goessler, Walter; Papousek, Ilona

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that adult health outcomes such as the development of cardiovascular disease or diabetes can trace some of their roots back to prenatal development. This study investigated the epigenetic impact of a particular prenatal hormonal condition on specific health-related consequences, i.e., on concentrations of minerals and mineral metabolism in adults. In 70 university students, the second-to-fourth digit length (2D:4D) was measured as a proxy of prenatal sex steroid action, and the concentrations of sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and calcium (Ca) were determined in hair samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Mineral concentrations and the mineral ratios Na/K, Na/Mg, and Na/Ca were analyzed in multivariate analyses of variance, with digit ratios and sex of participants as grouping variables. The results were validated in a replication cohort from the general population, and with a wider age-range. In addition, the correlation of mineral concentrations and mineral ratios with blood pressure was examined. Men with relatively lower (i.e., more masculine) and women with relatively higher (i.e., more feminine) digit ratios had higher Na/K, Na/Mg, and Na/Ca ratios than their counterparts. Virtually identical results were obtained in the replication study. Moreover, Na concentrations and Na/K ratios were significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure. The findings suggest that the individual variation in mineral metabolism can be predicted by 2D:4D, indicating that prenatal sex steroid action may be involved in the epigenetic programming of specific metabolic conditions which are highly relevant to adult health and disease. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Hypertension prevalence and influence of basal metabolic rate on blood pressure among adult students in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurshad Ali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension is a global health issue and is currently increasing at rapid pace in South Asian countries including Bangladesh. Although, some studies on hypertension have been conducted in Bangladesh, there is a lack of scientific evidence in the adult student population that was missing from the previous and recent national cross-sectional studies. Moreover, the specific risk factors of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adults still need to be investigated. This study was conducted to estimate hypertension prevalence among adult students in Bangladesh and to test the hypothesis of Luke et al. (Hypertension 43:555–560, 2004 that basal metabolic rate (BMR and blood pressure are positively associated independent of body size. Method The data was collected on 184 adult university students (118 female and 66 male in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Anthropometric, BMR details and an average of at least two blood pressure measurements were obtained. Hypertension was defined by a systolic blood pressure (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or, diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg. Results Overall, 6.5% of participants had hypertension with significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence in male (12.1% than in the female (3.4% students. Age and BMI showed positive and significant correlation with hypertension among the students. When adjusted for body mass index (BMI, as well as other potentially confounding variables such as age, sex, smoking status and degree of urbanization, BMR was positively correlated with SBP and DBP (p < 0.001. Thus, higher BMR is associated with SBP and DBP; this is opposite the well documented inverse relationship between physical activity and blood pressure. If the influence of BMR on blood pressure is confirmed, the systematically elevated BMR might be an important predictor that can explain relatively high blood pressure and hypertension in humans. Conclusion This study reports the prevalence and associated risk factors

  2. Hypertension prevalence and influence of basal metabolic rate on blood pressure among adult students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nurshad; Mahmood, Shakil; Manirujjaman, M; Perveen, Rasheda; Al Nahid, Abdullah; Ahmed, Shamim; Khanum, Farida Adib; Rahman, Mustafizur

    2017-07-25

    Hypertension is a global health issue and is currently increasing at rapid pace in South Asian countries including Bangladesh. Although, some studies on hypertension have been conducted in Bangladesh, there is a lack of scientific evidence in the adult student population that was missing from the previous and recent national cross-sectional studies. Moreover, the specific risk factors of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adults still need to be investigated. This study was conducted to estimate hypertension prevalence among adult students in Bangladesh and to test the hypothesis of Luke et al. (Hypertension 43:555-560, 2004) that basal metabolic rate (BMR) and blood pressure are positively associated independent of body size. The data was collected on 184 adult university students (118 female and 66 male) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Anthropometric, BMR details and an average of at least two blood pressure measurements were obtained. Hypertension was defined by a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg and/or, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg. Overall, 6.5% of participants had hypertension with significantly (p < 0.001) higher prevalence in male (12.1%) than in the female (3.4%) students. Age and BMI showed positive and significant correlation with hypertension among the students. When adjusted for body mass index (BMI), as well as other potentially confounding variables such as age, sex, smoking status and degree of urbanization, BMR was positively correlated with SBP and DBP (p < 0.001). Thus, higher BMR is associated with SBP and DBP; this is opposite the well documented inverse relationship between physical activity and blood pressure. If the influence of BMR on blood pressure is confirmed, the systematically elevated BMR might be an important predictor that can explain relatively high blood pressure and hypertension in humans. This study reports the prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adult students. The

  3. Studies on glucose metabolism and blood perfusion in childhood partial seizure by positron emission CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michihiro, Narumi

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the glucose metabolism and blood perfusion of the interictal epileptic focus, 15 positron emission tomography (PET) measurements were performed in 14 children with partial seizures (2 with simple partial seizures, 2 with complex partial seizures, and 10 with partial seizures evolving to secondary generalized seizures), comprising 7 males and 7 females aged 1 to 12 years old at the onset of the epileptic seizures. The intervals between the seizure onset and PET examinations were 1 month to 7 years (mean 3 1/4 years). Radiopharmaceuticals such as 11 C-glucose, 11 CO 2 and 11 CO were used as indicators of local cerebral glucose metabolism, blood perfusion and blood flow, respectively. Apart from 2 cases, none of the patients showed abnormal x-ray computed tomographic scans (X-CT). The abnormal X-CT findings included cortical atrophy of the cerebrum apart from the epiletic focus in one case and cavum vergae in the other. Hypometabolism and hypoperfusion at the epileptic focus were observed in 10 patients undergoing single examinations who had suffered from epileptic seizures for more than 1 year. Out of 4 patients who had suffered from epileptic seizures for 1 year or less, one revealed a zone of hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in the epileptic focus and expanded region larger than that of the epileptic focus on the electroencephalogram. Two other patients revealed a zone of hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in an area contralateral to the epileptic focus. In the remaining one patient, PET examinations were performed twice. The initial PET pictures one year after seizure onset revealed a zone of hypermetabolism and hyperperfusion in the cerebellum ipsilateral to the epileptic focus, and the second PET at 6 months after the initial examination revealed hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in the focus, similarly to the 10 cases mentioned above. (J.P.N.)

  4. Blow-up : A free lunch?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, J.J.; Richards, W.; Van Doorn, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    We consider operations that change the size of images, either shrinks or blow-ups. Image processing offers numerous possibilities, put at everyone’s disposal with such computer programs as Adobe Photoshop. We consider a different class of operations, aimed at immediate visual awareness, rather than

  5. Muscle metabolism and whole blood amino acid profile in patients with liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Gitte; Sørensen, Michael; Buhl, Mads; Sandahl, Thomas D; Møller, Niels; Ott, Peter; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are used in liver cirrhosis to promote protein synthesis, support ammonia detoxification, and treat hepatic encephalopathy. Cirrhosis leads to subnormal BCAA plasma concentrations and studies indicate that levels are decreased due to their role in muscle ammonia removal. Muscle contribution has not been fully elucidated. We studied muscle amino acid metabolism in six healthy subjects, 13 cirrhosis patients and six patients with an episode of alcoholic hepatitis. Subjects had catheters inserted into the femoral artery and vein to obtain arterial (A) and venous (V) concentrations of amino acids (μmol/L blood). BCAA concentrations were lower in patients with cirrhosis compared to healthy subjects (p BCAA uptake was variable and on average higher in patients with alcoholic hepatitis and patients with stable cirrhosis compared to healthy subjects (mean A-V difference 0.5 and 32 vs. - 12 μmol/L blood) (p = 0.22). The release of aromatic amino acids (AAA) was comparable in the three groups (P > 0.30). The BCAA/AAA (Fischer's ratio) was lower in patients with cirrhosis and patients with alcoholic hepatitis compared to healthy subjects (mean 1.65, 1.17 and 2.73, both p BCAA and higher AAA blood concentrations compared to healthy subjects. The trend towards an increased muscle uptake of BCAA may have contributed but this was not significant.

  6. Novel Approaches to Investigate One-Carbon Metabolism and Related B-Vitamins in Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Amy; McNulty, Helene; Hughes, Catherine F.; Strain, J. J.; Ward, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension, a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke, is the world’s leading cause of preventable, premature death. A common polymorphism (677C→T) in the gene encoding the folate metabolizing enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is associated with increased blood pressure, and there is accumulating evidence demonstrating that this phenotype can be modulated, specifically in individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype, by the B-vitamin riboflavin, an essential co-factor for MTHFR. The underlying mechanism that links this polymorphism, and the related gene-nutrient interaction, with hypertension is currently unknown. Previous research has shown that 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the product of the reaction catalysed by MTHFR, appears to be a positive allosteric modulator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and may thus increase the production of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator. Blood pressure follows a circadian pattern, peaking shortly after wakening and falling during the night, a phenomenon known as ‘dipping’. Any deviation from this pattern, which can only be identified using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This review will consider the evidence linking this polymorphism and novel gene-nutrient interaction with hypertension and the potential mechanisms that might be involved. The role of ABPM in B-vitamin research and in nutrition research generally will also be reviewed. PMID:27845713

  7. Novel Approaches to Investigate One-Carbon Metabolism and Related B-Vitamins in Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy McMahon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension, a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke, is the world’s leading cause of preventable, premature death. A common polymorphism (677C→T in the gene encoding the folate metabolizing enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR is associated with increased blood pressure, and there is accumulating evidence demonstrating that this phenotype can be modulated, specifically in individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype, by the B-vitamin riboflavin, an essential co-factor for MTHFR. The underlying mechanism that links this polymorphism, and the related gene-nutrient interaction, with hypertension is currently unknown. Previous research has shown that 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the product of the reaction catalysed by MTHFR, appears to be a positive allosteric modulator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and may thus increase the production of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator. Blood pressure follows a circadian pattern, peaking shortly after wakening and falling during the night, a phenomenon known as ‘dipping’. Any deviation from this pattern, which can only be identified using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM, has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. This review will consider the evidence linking this polymorphism and novel gene-nutrient interaction with hypertension and the potential mechanisms that might be involved. The role of ABPM in B-vitamin research and in nutrition research generally will also be reviewed.

  8. Neural control of blood flow during exercise in human metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberg, Jacqueline K; Morgan, Barbara J; Sebranek, Joshua J; Proctor, Lester T; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Schrage, William G

    2014-09-01

    α-Adrenergic-mediated vasoconstriction is greater during simulated exercise in animal models of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) when compared with control animals. In an attempt to translate such findings to humans, we hypothesized that adults with MetSyn (n = 14, 35 ± 3 years old) would exhibit greater α-adrenergic responsiveness during exercise when compared with age-matched healthy control subjects (n = 16, 31 ± 3 years old). We measured muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; microneurography) and forearm blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) during dynamic forearm exercise (15% of maximal voluntary contraction). α-Adrenergic agonists (phenylephrine and clonidine) and an antagonist (phentolamine) were infused intra-arterially to assess α-adrenergic receptor responsiveness and restraint, respectively. Resting MSNA was ∼35% higher in adults with MetSyn (P exercise. Clonidine-mediated vasoconstriction was greater in adults with MetSyn (P  0.05). Interestingly, exercise-mediated vasodilatation was greater in MetSyn (P exercise blood flow during low-intensity hand-grip exercise when compared with age-matched healthy control subjects. These results suggest that adults with MetSyn exhibit compensatory vascular control mechanisms capable of preserving blood flow responses to exercise in the face of augmented sympathetic adrenergic activity. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  9. Cerebral circulation, metabolism, and blood-brain barrier of rats in hypocapnic hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.; Krieglstein, J.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of hypoxic hypoxia on physiological variables, cerebral circulation, cerebral metabolism, and blood-brain barrier were investigated in conscious, spontaneously breathing rats by exposing them to an atmosphere containing 7% O 2 . Hypoxia affected a marked hypotension, hypocapnia and alkalosis. Cortical tissue high-energy phosphates and glucose content were not affected by hypoxia, glucose 6-phosphate lactate, and pyruvate levels were significantly increased. Blood-brain barrier permeability, regional brain glucose content and lumped constant were not changed by hypoxia. Local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) rose by 40-70% of control values in gray matter and by 80-90% in white matter. Under hypoxia, columns of increased and decreased LCGU and were detectable in cortical gray matter. Color-coded [ 14 C]2-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiograms of rat brain are shown. Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) increased by 50-90% in gray matter and by up to 180% in white matter. Coupling between LCGU and LCBF in hypoxia remained unchanged. The data suggests a stimulation of glycolysis, increased glucose transport into the cell, and increased hexokinase activity. The physiological response of gray and white matter to hypoxia obviously differs. Uncoupling of the relation between LCGU and LCBF does not occur

  10. Effect of Blood Glucose Fluctuation on Some Trace Elements and Aldosterone Hormone among Type II Diabetic Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezz El-Arab, A.; El Fouly, A.H.; Mahmoud, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence determine that the metabolism of some trace elements is altered in diabetes mellitus (DM) type II. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of serum blood glucose fluctuation during (Random, Fasting and Postprandial 2 hours state) on some trace elements such as Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), Magnesium (Mg), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), and Aldosterone hormone in type II Diabetic patients associated with metabolic syndrome in comparison with healthy volunteers. The International Diabetes Federation (IFD) consensus the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome according to central obesity, lipid profile, blood glucose level and blood pressure. A significant change was observed in trace elements level (Cd, Cr, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, Na, and K) and Aldosterone hormone as a result of glucose fluctuation among type II diabetic patients.

  11. Influence of physical and emotional activity on the metabolic profile of blood serum of race horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Bayeva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article data are presented on dynamics of the level of indicators of metabolic profile of blood serum of race horses of the Ukrainian riding breed in the conditions of physical and emotional loading. Clinically healthy race horses were the object of  research. Blood was taken from the jugular vein to obtain serum and for further biochemical research. For the research 12 race horses from a training group were chosen. From time to time the animals took part in competitions; they were not specially used in races and were mostly used for the training of junior riders and sportsmen of different levels. Blood was taken in conditions of relative rest after ordinary training and after emotional stress during the entertainment performances when a large number of people were present and loud music was played. In the blood serum the following biochemical indicators were defined: whole protein, urea, creatinine, uric acid, total bilirubin and its fractions, glucose, cholestererol, triacylglycerol, calcium, ferrum, lactate, pyruvate, activity of the AlAT, SGOT, GGTP, LDH, an alkaline phosphatase – which makes it possible to determine reasonably accurately the adaptation potential of a horse under various types of loading. We established that during training and psychoemotional loading of racing horses of the training group of the Ukrainian riding breed, multidirectional changes in the level of biochemical indicators of blood serum occurred, which is evidence of stress in the metabolic processes in the animals’ organisms. Concentration of a biomarker of an oxidative stress, uric acid, increased after physical loading by 8.6%, and after emotional loading by 55.1%, which demonstrates that emotional stress had the more negative effect, indicating insufficient adaptation by the horses before demonstration performances. After physical loading, reaction of transamination in the horses’ liver cells intensified, and after emotional loading its intensity

  12. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during isoflurane-induced hypotension in patients subjected to surgery for cerebral aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J B; Cold, G E; Hansen, E S

    1987-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen were measured during isoflurane-induced hypotension in 10 patients subjected to craniotomy for clipping of a cerebral aneurysm. Flow and metabolism were measured 5-13 days after the subarachnoid haemorrhage by a modification of the classi......Cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen were measured during isoflurane-induced hypotension in 10 patients subjected to craniotomy for clipping of a cerebral aneurysm. Flow and metabolism were measured 5-13 days after the subarachnoid haemorrhage by a modification......). Controlled hypotension to an average MAP of 50-55 mm Hg was induced by increasing the dose of isoflurane, and maintained at an inspired concentration of 2.2 +/- 0.2%. This resulted in a significant decrease in CMRO2 (to 1.73 +/- 0.16 ml/100 g min-1), while CBF was unchanged. After the clipping...

  13. Prevalence and control of high blood pressure in primary care: results from the German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Study (GEMCAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balijepalli, Chakrapani; Bramlage, Peter; Lösch, Christian; Zemmrich, Claudia; Humphries, Karin H; Moebus, Susanne

    2014-06-01

    Contemporary epidemiological data on blood pressure readings, hypertension prevalence and control in unselected patient populations covering a broad age range are scarce. The aim here is to report the prevalence of high blood pressure and to identify factors associated with blood pressure control in a large German primary care sample. We used data from the German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Study including 35 869 patients aged 18-99 years. High blood pressure was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg or using antihypertensive therapy. Factors associated with blood pressure control among patients receiving antihypertensive therapy were examined using multiple logistic regressions to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The prevalence of high blood pressure, uncontrolled high blood pressure and untreated high blood pressure was 54.8%, 21.3% and 17.6%, respectively. Age >50 years (1.52; 1.40-1.65), male sex (1.30; 1.20-1.41), elevated waist circumference (1.55; 1.45-1.65), high cholesterol (1.24; 1.16-1.33), high triglycerides (1.11; 1.04-1.19) and concomitant diabetes (1.29; 1.20-1.40) were independently associated with uncontrolled high blood pressure. In a majority of patients we observed hypertension despite treatment for high blood pressures. Studies examining the reasons for treatment failure are highly warranted.

  14. Clinical significance of determination of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Suqing; Li Yusheng; Wang Lin; Chu Kaiqiu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar contents in pregnant women with gestational glucose metabolism disturbances. Methods: Fasting and 3h after oral 50g glucose serum levels of leptin were measured with RIA in 36 pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances (gestational diabetes mellitus or gestational impaired glucose tolerance) and 34 controls. Also, fasting serum insulin levels (with CLIA) and blood sugar contents 1h after oral 50 glucose (with glucose oxidase method) were determined in all these subjects. Results: 1. Serum levels of leptin in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 14.9 ± 4.3 μg/L (vs controls 9.8 ± 1.7 μg/L, P<0.01). 2. The serum levels of insulin and 1 h post - 50g glucose blood sugar contents in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 12.9±4.3mU/L and 11.0±1.4mmol/L respectively, which were both significantly positively correlated with the serum leptin levels (r=0.835, r=0.758 respectively) (vs levels in controls: 8.45±3.0mU/L and 7.84±1.3mmol/L). Conclusion: Elevation of fasting serum levels of leptin was demonstrated in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances and the level of leptin was positively correlated with that of insulin and blood sugar. (authors)

  15. Effect of rosuvastatin intensification therapy on blood lipid metabolism, adipocytokines and plaque stability after PCI in ACS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Quan Sun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of rosuvastatin intensification therapy on blood lipid metabolism, adipocytokines and plaque stability after PCI in ACS patients. Methods: ACS patients who received PCI in the hospital between July 2015 and January 2017were reviewed and divided into the routine dose group (n=60 who received rosuvastatin routine dose therapy after PCI and the intensification therapy group (n=46 who received rosuvastatin intensification therapy after PCI. The differences in blood lipid metabolism, adipocytokines and plaque stability were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Results: Before PCI, the differences in blood lipid metabolism, adipocytokines and plaque stability were not statistically significant between the two groups. 1 month after PCI, lipid metabolism indexes HDL-C and ApoA1 levels in peripheral blood of intensification therapy group were higher than those of routine dose group while LDL-C and ApoB levels were lower than those of routine dose group; adipocytokines APN and Leptin levels in serum were higher than those of routine dose group while Resistin level was lower than that of routine dose group; plaque stability- related indexes ICAM-1, MMP-1 and TIMP-1 levels were lower than those of routine dose group. Conclusion: Rosuvastatin intensification therapy after PCI could effectively regulate the lipid metabolism and increase the plaque stability in ACS patients.

  16. Effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on ambulatory blood pressure in metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brader, Lea Johanne; Uusitupa, M; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives:Dietary pattern is central in the prevention of hypertension and blood pressure (BP)-related diseases. A diet based on healthy Nordic foods may have a favourable impact on BP. The objective was to clarify whether a Nordic alternative for a healthy food pattern would have...... beneficial effects on ambulatory BP in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS).Subjects/methods:In total, 37 subjects were randomized to either a healthy Nordic diet or a control diet. A healthy Nordic diet embraced whole grains, rapeseed oil, berries, fruits, vegetables, fish, nuts and low-fat dairy...... weeks of intervention.Results:After 12 weeks, ambulatory diastolic BP (-4.4 mm Hg; P=0.001) and mean arterial pressure (-4.2 mm Hg; P=0.006) were lowered by the healthy Nordic diet compared with the control diet, whereas changes in ambulatory systolic BP did not differ significantly between diets (-3...

  17. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in patients with aphasia due to basal ganglionic lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Shin; Kato, Toshiaki; Ujike, Takashi; Kuroki, Soemu; Terashi, Akiro

    1987-03-01

    Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in right handed eight patients with subcortical lesion and aphasia were measured to investigate the correlation between aphasia and functional changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO/sub 2/) in the cortex and the basal ganglionic region. All patients had no lesion in the cortex, but in the basal ganglionic region (putamen, caudate nucleus, internal capsule, and periventricular white matter) on CT images. Patients with bilateral lesion were excluded in this study. Six patients with cerebral infarction in the left basal ganglionic region and two patients with the left putammal hemorrhage were examined. Five patients had non fluent Broca's type speech, two patients had poor comprehension, fluent Wernicke-type speech and one patient was globally aphasic. CBF, CMRO/sub 2/, and oxygen extraction fraction were measured by the positron emission tomography using /sup 15/O/sub 2/, C/sup 15/O/sub 2/ inhalation technique. In addition to reduction of CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ in the basal ganglionic region, CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ decreased in the left frontal cortex especially posterior part in four patients with Broca's aphasia. In two patients with Wernicke type aphasia, CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ decreased in the basal ganglionic region and the left temporal cortex. In a globally aphasic patient, marked reduction of CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ was observed in the left frontal and temporal cortex, in addition to the basal ganglionic region. These results suggest that dysfunction of cortex as well as that of basal ganglionic region might be related to the occurence of aphasia. However, in one patient with Broca's ahasia, CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ were preserved in the cortex and metabolic reduction was observed in only basal ganglia. This case indicates the relation between basal ganglionic lesion and the occurrence of aphasia.

  18. Regional blood flow distribution and oxygen metabolism during mesenteric ischemia and congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Ruy J; Garrido, Alejandra G; Ribeiro, Cristiane M F; Harada, Tomoyuki; Rocha-e-Silva, Mauricio

    2010-06-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia is a potentially fatal vascular emergency with mortality rates ranging between 60% and 80%. Several studies have extensively examined the hemodynamic and metabolic effects of superior mesenteric artery occlusion. On the other hand, the cardiocirculatory derangement and the tissue damage induced by intestinal outflow obstruction have not been investigated systematically. For these reasons we decided to assess the initial impact of venous mesenteric occlusion on intestinal blood flow distribution, and correlate these findings with other systemic and regional perfusion markers. Fourteen mongrel dogs were subjected to 45 min of superior mesenteric artery (SMAO) or vein occlusion (SMVO), and observed for 120 min after reperfusion. Systemic hemodynamics were evaluated using Swan-Ganz and arterial catheters. Regional blood flow (ultrasonic flow probes), intestinal O(2)-derived variables, and mesenteric-arterial and tonometric-arterial pCO(2) gradients (D(mv-a)pCO(2) and D(t-a)pCO(2)) were also calculated. SMVO was associated with hypotension and low cardiac output. A significant increase in the regional pCO(2) gradients was also observed in both groups during the ischemic period. After reperfusion, a progressive reduction in D(mv-a)pCO(2) occurred in the SMVO group; however, no improvement in D(t-a)pCO(2) was observed. The histopathologic injury scores were 2.7 +/- 0.5 and 4.8 +/- 0.2 for SMAO and SMVO, respectively. SMV occlusion promoted early and significant hemodynamic and metabolic derangement at systemic and regional levels. Additionally, systemic pCO(2) gradient is not a reliable parameter to evaluate the local intestinal oxygenation. Finally, the D(t-a)pCO(2) correlates with histologic changes during intestinal congestion or ischemia. However, minor histologic changes cannot be detected using this methodology. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dose-Dependent Effects of Radiation Therapy on Cerebral Blood Flow, Metabolism, and Neurocognitive Dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Carol A.; Zhou Sumin; Raynor, Renee; Tisch, Andrea; Light, Kim; Shafman, Timothy; Wong, Terence; Kirkpatrick, John; Turkington, Timothy; Hollis, Donna; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: A prospective study was performed to formally relate dose-dependent radiologically defined changes in normal brain induced by radiotherapy (RT) to neurocognitive dysfunction in subjects with primary brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Adult patients receiving three-dimensional RT for central nervous system (CNS) tumors were enrolled. Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning and neuropsychological testing were performed before RT and 3 weeks and 6 months after treatment. Analyses were performed for correlations between changes in 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG)-PET (metabolism), 15 O-PET (relative blood flow), regional radiation dose, follow-up time, and neuropsychological test scores. Results: Eleven subjects were enrolled and 6 completed follow-up studies. The PET data showed reduced FDG uptake, with average decreases of 2-6% in regions of the brain receiving greater than 40 Gy at 3 weeks' and 6 months' follow-up. The 15 O-H 2 O PET showed increases (<10%) at 3 weeks in relative regional blood flow in brain receiving greater than 30 Gy, but less at the 6-month follow-up studies. There were significant correlations between decreases in FDG uptake and increased scores from the Symptom Checklist-90-R, with an average increase in T score of 2 (p < 0.0001). The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test showed a significant correlation of decreased FDG uptake with increased errors and perseveration in test performance, with an average decrease in T score of 11 (p = 0.037). Conclusions: A dose-dependent response of CNS tissue was detected using FDG PET in this small number of patients. Decreases in CNS metabolism correlated with decreased performance on neuropsychological tests for problem solving, cognitive flexibility, and global measures of psychopathology. Additional research is needed to verify and define these findings

  20. FEATURES OF METABOLIC INDEXES OF BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES IN THE PATIENTS WITH EPIDURAL FIBROSIS FOLLOWING LUMBAR MICRODISCECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Isaeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A complex immunologic examination of fifty patients with clinically significant postoperative fibrosis has been performed. Immunogram indexes were determined, and activities of basic oxidation-reduction enzymes were investigated in blood lymphocytes. What concerned immune status of the patients under study, some peculiar features have been revealed, with respect to cellular and humoral compartments, i.e., relative increase in CD3+ population, a shift to CD4+ cells in the ratio of lymphocyte subpopulations, higher indexes of immune regulation and phagocytosis, increased IgG level, and lower content of IgA, as compared to appropriate controls. Metabolic parameters of lymphocytes reflect their functional activation, being expressed as an enhanced ability for intracellular synthetic processes, elevated functional activity of lymphocytes, and increased immune response. The general pattern of changes in immune status and metabolic indexes of lymphocytes allow us to assume participation of autoimmune component in progression of epidural fibrosis. The data obtained may be used in combined diagnostics and correction of this disorder. (Med. Immunol., vol. 10, N 6, pp 589-592.

  1. The relationship between the cerebral blood flow, oxygen consumption and glucose metabolism in primary degenerative dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Sasaki, Masayuki; Akashi, Yuko; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Masada, Kouji [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1995-03-01

    The CBF, CMRO{sub 2} and CMRGlu were measured in patients with primary degenerative dementia including 5 patients with dementia of Alzheimer`s type and 4 patients with Pick`s disease, and then the correlation between the cerebral blood flow and energy metabolism was evaluated. The control subjects consisted of 5 age-matched normal volunteers. The CBF, CMRO{sub 2} and CMRGlu decreased in the bilateral frontal, temporal and parietal regions in the patients with Alzheimer`s dementia, while they decreased in the bilateral frontal and temporal regions in the patients with Pick`s disease. Both the CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were closely correlated with each other. However, the CMRGlu was more severely impaired than the CBF or CMRO{sub 2} in both pathological conditions. These results suggested that CMRGlu began to decrease before the reduction of the aerobic metabolism and thus measuring the CMRGlu is considered to be the most sensitive method for detecting abnormal regions in primary degenerative dementia. (author).

  2. The cerebral blood flow and metabolism for Broca's aphasia using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshiaki

    1987-01-01

    A total of 11 patients with Broca's aphasia (BA) underwent positron emission tomography (PET) with the purpose of investigating the responsible region and the symptomatic flow and metabolism thresholds for BA. Computed tomography (CT) was concurrently performed. In the group of 3 patients undergoing PET with C-11 glucose, both PET and CT provided abnormal findings in the region that is thought to be responsible for BA (Broca's area), including the cortex and subcortex in the anterior region to Sylvian fissure. The Broca's area in the remaining one was shown as low C-11 accumulation area on PET and as isodensity on CT. The second group, consisting of 8 BA patients and 30 control patients without BA, underwent PET using O-15 steady method. PET showed reduction of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and oxygen metabolic rate (rCMRO 2 ) in the Broca's area in all BA patients. Computed tomography showed abnormal low density in the Broca's area in 3 patients, and abnormal findings in the basal ganglionic region and subcortex without evidence for abnormal low density in the Broca's area in the other 5 patients. Comparison of rCBF and rCMRO 2 in BA patients with those in control patients may show the symptomatic thresholds to be 20 - 27 ml/100 g/min for rCBF and 2.0 ml/100 g/min for rCMRO 2 . (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Association of erythrocyte deformability with red blood cell distribution width in metabolic diseases and thalassemia trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayá, Amparo; Alis, Rafael; Suescún, Marta; Rivera, Leonor; Murado, Julian; Romagnoli, Marco; Solá, Eva; Hernandez-Mijares, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Increased red blood distribution width (RDW) in anemia is related to disturbances in the cellular surface/volume ratio, usually accompanied by morphological alterations, while it has been shown in inflammatory diseases that the activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines disturbing erythropoiesis increases RDW. Recently it has been reported that higher RDW is related with decreased erythrocyte deformability, and that it could be related with the association of RDW and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. In order to analyze the influence of morphological alterations and proinflammatory status on the relationship between RDW and erythrocyte deformability, we analyzed erythrocyte deformability along with RDW and other hematological and biochemical parameters in 36 α-thalassemia, 20 β-thalassemia, 20 δβ-thalassemia trait carriers, 61 metabolic syndrome patients and 76 morbidly obese patients. RDW correlated inversely with erythrocyte deformability in minor β-thalassemia (r =-0.530, p thalassemia is often accompanied by more marked cell-shaped perturbations than other thalassemia traits. This could be the reason for this negative association only in this setting. Higher anisocytosis seems to be associated with greater morphologic alterations (shape/volume), which reduce erythrocyte deformability. The proinflammatory profile in metabolic patients can be related to the positive association of RDW with erythrocyte deformability found in these patients. However, further research is needed to explain the mechanisms underlying this association.

  4. Comparison of cerebral blood flow and metabolism to flumazenil binding potential in patients with hemodynamic ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukawa, Hirotsugu; Ogasawara, Kuniaki

    2003-01-01

    Because benzodiazepine receptors (BZR) are abundant in the cortex, an accumulation of 11 C-flumazenil which selectively bind to BZR may be useful as markers of neuron density. The aims of this study were to clarify the relationship between neuron density and cerebral oxygen metabolism and to investigate the usefulness of 11 C-flumazenil PET for detecting misery perfusion. The subjects were 16 patients with either internal carotid or middle cerebral arterial occlusive disease who underwent PET. Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), regional cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), regional cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO 2 ) and regional cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) to acetazolamide were calculated. After CBF study, flumazenil binding potential was measured using the [ 11 C] flumazenil bolus injection method. Forty-eight regions of interests (ROIs) were obtained in 16 patients. Flumazenil binding potential was correlated to CMRO 2 (r=0.337, p=0.0069), but in 7 of 48 ROIs, CMRO 2 decreased, whereas flumazenil binding potential did not change. Seventeen of 29 ROIs with decreased CVRC showed high OEF and the remaining 12 showed normal OEF. Flumazenil binding potential in ROIs with normal OEF was significantly lower than in those with high OEF (p=0.0003). This study demonstrated that 11 C-flumazenil PET is useful for detecting misery perfusion in patients with hemodynamic ischemia. (author)

  5. Modelling Blood Flow and Metabolism in the Preclinical Neonatal Brain during and Following Hypoxic-Ischaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Caldwell

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-ischaemia (HI is a major cause of neonatal brain injury, often leading to long-term damage or death. In order to improve understanding and test new treatments, piglets are used as preclinical models for human neonates. We have extended an earlier computational model of piglet cerebral physiology for application to multimodal experimental data recorded during episodes of induced HI. The data include monitoring with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, and the model simulates the circulatory and metabolic processes that give rise to the measured signals. Model extensions include simulation of the carotid arterial occlusion used to induce HI, inclusion of cytoplasmic pH, and loss of metabolic function due to cell death. Model behaviour is compared to data from two piglets, one of which recovered following HI while the other did not. Behaviourally-important model parameters are identified via sensitivity analysis, and these are optimised to simulate the experimental data. For the non-recovering piglet, we investigate several state changes that might explain why some MRS and NIRS signals do not return to their baseline values following the HI insult. We discover that the model can explain this failure better when we include, among other factors such as mitochondrial uncoupling and poor cerebral blood flow restoration, the death of around 40% of the brain tissue.

  6. Red Blood Cell Function and Dysfunction: Redox Regulation, Nitric Oxide Metabolism, Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Viktoria; Diederich, Lukas; Keller, T.C. Stevenson; Kramer, Christian M.; Lückstädt, Wiebke; Panknin, Christina; Suvorava, Tatsiana; Isakson, Brant E.; Kelm, Malte

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Recent clinical evidence identified anemia to be correlated with severe complications of cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as bleeding, thromboembolic events, stroke, hypertension, arrhythmias, and inflammation, particularly in elderly patients. The underlying mechanisms of these complications are largely unidentified. Recent Advances: Previously, red blood cells (RBCs) were considered exclusively as transporters of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues. More recent experimental evidence indicates that RBCs are important interorgan communication systems with additional functions, including participation in control of systemic nitric oxide metabolism, redox regulation, blood rheology, and viscosity. In this article, we aim to revise and discuss the potential impact of these noncanonical functions of RBCs and their dysfunction in the cardiovascular system and in anemia. Critical Issues: The mechanistic links between changes of RBC functional properties and cardiovascular complications related to anemia have not been untangled so far. Future Directions: To allow a better understanding of the complications associated with anemia in CVD, basic and translational science studies should be focused on identifying the role of noncanonical functions of RBCs in the cardiovascular system and on defining intrinsic and/or systemic dysfunction of RBCs in anemia and its relationship to CVD both in animal models and clinical settings. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 718–742. PMID:27889956

  7. Inherited renal tubulopathies associated with metabolic alkalosis: effects on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariceta, Gema; Rodríguez-Soriano, Juan

    2006-11-01

    Inherited tubular disorders associated with metabolic alkalosis are caused by several gene mutations encoding different tubular transporters responsible for NaCl renal handling. Body volume and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system status are determined by NaCl reabsorption in the distal nephron. Two common hallmarks in affected individuals: hypokalemia and normal / high blood pressure, support the differential diagnosis. Bartter's syndrome, characterized by hypokalemia and normal blood pressure, is a heterogenic disease caused by the loss of function of SLC12A1 (type 1), KCNJ1 (type 2), CLCNKB (type 3), or BSND genes (type 4). As a result, patients present with renal salt wasting and hypercalciuria. Gitelman's syndrome is caused by the loss of funcion of the SLC12A3 gene and may resemble Bartter's syndrome, though is associated with the very low urinary calcium. Liddle's syndrome, also with similar phenotype but with hypertension, is produced by the gain of function of the SNCC1B or SNCC1G genes, and must be distinguished from other entities of inherited hypertension such as Apparently Mineralocorticoid Excess, of glucocorticoid remediable hypertension.

  8. Simultaneous estimates of regional myocardial blood flow and metabolism by the developing chick heart using [201]thallium and [14C] 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostreva, D.R.; Wood, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Little is known about regional myocardial blood flow and metabolism in the developing heart. Simultaneous estimates of regional myocardial blood flow and glucose metabolism have been made in the adult rat by Yonekura et al using [ 201 ] Thallium (THAL) and [ 14 C]2-deoxyglucose (DG) autoradiography. Since glucose is the primary cardiac metabolic substrate during development, glucose utilization is also an estimate of myocardial metabolism. Examination and comparison of the THAL and DG autoradiographs revealed that there is an uncoupling of blood flow and metabolism in the developing chick heart. Areas of the heart which had marked glucose utilization did not always have marked blood flow. Regions of the heart which had marked blood flow but very little glucose utilization were the interventricular septum and the apex. One explanation for this disparity is that although blood flow may be established in these regions, normal cardiac function requiring significant substrate utilization may not be fully developed

  9. Ambulatory blood pressure response to a bout of HIIT in metabolic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Jimenez, M; Morales-Palomo, F; Pallares, J G; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Ortega, J F

    2017-07-01

    The effectiveness of exercise to lower blood pressure may depend on the type and intensity of exercise. We study the short-term (i.e., 14-h) effects of a bout of high-intensity aerobic interval training (HIIT) on blood pressure in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. Nineteen MetS patients (55.2 ± 7.3 years, 6 women) entered the study. Eight of them were normotensive and eleven hypertensive according to MetS threshold (≥130 mmHg for SBP and/or ≥85 mmHg for DBP). In the morning of 3 separated days, they underwent a cycling exercise bout of HIIT (>90% of maximal heart rate, ~85% VO 2max ), or a bout of isocaloric moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT; ~70% of maximal heart rate, ~60% VO 2max ), or a control no-exercise trial (REST). After exercise, ambulatory blood pressure (ABP; 14 h) was monitored, while subjects continued their habitual daily activities wearing a wrist-band activity monitor. No ABP differences were found for normotensive subjects. In hypertensive subjects, systolic ABP was reduced by 6.1 ± 2.2 mmHg after HIIT compared to MICT and REST (130.8 ± 3.9 vs. 137.4 ± 5.1 and 136.4 ± 3.8 mmHg, respectively; p HIIT exercise bout is superior to an equivalent bout of continuous exercise when used as a non-pharmacological aid in the treatment of hypertension in MetS.

  10. Morphological and Metabolic Parameters of Red Blood Cells after Their Treatment with Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Deryugina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to assess the morphology of red blood cells (RBC and the association of morphological parameters with lipid peroxidation processes and the content of organic phosphates in RBC when treating packed red blood cells with the ozonized saline solution (with an ozone concentration of 2 mg/l after different storage periods.Materials and methods. The morphology of human RBC, the concentration of malonic dialdehyde (MDA in RBC, the catalase activity, the concentration of ATP and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG were studied before and after treatment of RBC with the ozonized saline (with the ozone concentration of 2 mg/l after 7, 14, 21 and 30 days of storage.Results. The effect of ozone (2 ng/l in vitro on the packed red blood cells after 7–21 days of storage contributed to the recovery of RBC shape, increased the concentration of ATP and 2,3-DPG, and optimized the lipid peroxidation. Ozone did not demonstrate a pronounced positive effect on these parameters when the packed RBCs were stored for 30 days.Conclusion. The treatment of the packed RBCs with the ozonized saline solution (with the ozone concentration of 2 mg/l contributed to the recovery of the discocyte count due to optimization of lipid peroxidation processes in cell membranes and enhanced the synthesis of organic phosphates in cells due to the activation of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway. This can be used to improve the morphological and metabolic status of the packed RBCs before their transfusion. 

  11. Steady state peripheral blood provides cells with functional and metabolic characteristics of real hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdieu, Antonin; Avalon, Maryse; Lapostolle, Véronique; Ismail, Sadek; Mombled, Margaux; Debeissat, Christelle; Guérinet, Marianne; Duchez, Pascale; Chevaleyre, Jean; Vlaski-Lafarge, Marija; Villacreces, Arnaud; Praloran, Vincent; Ivanovic, Zoran; Brunet de la Grange, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are located in the bone marrow, also circulate in cord and peripheral blood. Despite high availability, HSCs from steady state peripheral blood (SSPB) are little known and not used for research or cell therapy. We thus aimed to characterize and select HSCs from SSPB by a direct approach with a view to delineating their main functional and metabolic properties and the mechanisms responsible for their maintenance. We chose to work on Side Population (SP) cells which are highly enriched in HSCs in mouse, human bone marrow, and cord blood. However, no SP cells from SSBP have as yet been characterized. Here we showed that SP cells from SSPB exhibited a higher proliferative capacity and generated more clonogenic progenitors than non-SP cells in vitro. Furthermore, xenotransplantation studies on immunodeficient mice demonstrated that SP cells are up to 45 times more enriched in cells with engraftment capacity than non-SP cells. From a cell regulation point of view, we showed that SP activity depended on O 2 concentrations close to those found in HSC niches, an effect which is dependent on both hypoxia-induced factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α. Moreover SP cells displayed a reduced mitochondrial mass and, in particular, a lower mitochondrial activity compared to non-SP cells, while they exhibited a similar level of glucose incorporation. These results provided evidence that SP cells from SSPB displayed properties of very primitive cells and HSC, thus rendering them an interesting model for research and cell therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Blow molding electric drives of Mechanical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhanov, S. S.; Ramazanov, M. A.; Tsirkunenko, A. T.

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the questions about the analysis of new possibilities, which gives the use of adjustable electric drives for blowing mechanisms of plastic production. Thus, the use of new semiconductor converters makes it possible not only to compensate the instability of the supply network by using special dynamic voltage regulators, but to improve (correct) the power factor. The calculation of economic efficiency in controlled electric drives of blowing mechanisms is given. On the basis of statistical analysis, the calculation of the reliability parameters of the regulated electric drives’ elements under consideration is given. It is shown that an increase in the reliability of adjustable electric drives is possible both due to overestimation of the electric drive’s installed power, and in simpler schemes with pulse-vector control.

  13. Cpt1a gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as an early biomarker of diet-related metabolic alterations

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz-Rua, Ruben

    2016-11-23

    Background: Research on biomarkers that provide early information about the development of future metabolic alterations is an emerging discipline. Gene expression analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is a promising tool to identify subjects at risk of developing diet-related diseases.

  14. Effect of graded hyperventilation on cerebral metabolism in a cisterna magna blood injection model of subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xiaodong; Bay-Hansen, Rikke; Hauerberg, John

    2006-01-01

    In subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with cerebrovascular instability, hyperventilation may induce a risk of inducing or aggravating cerebral ischemia. We measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen (CMRO2), glucose (CMRglc), and lactate (CMRlac) at different PaCO2 level...

  15. Regional disturbances in blood flow and metabolism in equine limb wound healing with formation of exuberant granulation tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette A.; Petersen, Lars; Bundgaard, Louise

    2014-01-01

    As in other fibroproliferative disorders, hypoxia has been suggested to play a key role in the pathogenesis of exuberant granulation tissue (EGT). The purpose of this study was to investigate metabolism and blood flow locally in full-thickness wounds healing with (limb wounds) and without (body...

  16. What Is the Best Blood Sampling Time for Metabolic Control of Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Concentrations in Tyrosinemia Type 1 Patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Esther; Daly, Anne; Venema-Liefaard, Gineke; van Rijn, Margreet; Derks, Terry G J; McKiernan, Patrick J; Heiner-Fokkema, Rebecca; MacDonald, Anita; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 with nitisinone and phenylalanine and tyrosine restricted diet has largely improved outcome, but the best blood sampling time for assessment of metabolic control is not known. AIM: To study diurnal and day-to-day variation of phenylalanine and

  17. Dehydration accelerates reductions in cerebral blood flow during prolonged exercise in the heat without compromising brain metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Llodio, Iñaki

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration hastens the decline in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during incremental exercise, whereas the cerebral metabolic rate for O2 (CMRO2 ) is preserved. It remains unknown whether CMRO2 is also maintained during prolonged exercise in the heat and whether an eventual decline in CBF is coupled...... to fatigue. Two studies were undertaken. In study 1, 10 male cyclists cycled in the heat for ∼2 h with (control) and without fluid replacement (dehydration) while internal and external carotid artery blood flow and core and blood temperature were obtained. Arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples...... were assessed with dehydration to evaluate CMRO2 . In study 2, in 8 male subjects, middle cerebral artery blood velocity was measured during prolonged exercise to exhaustion in both dehydrated and euhydrated states. After a rise at the onset of exercise, internal carotid artery flow declined...

  18. [Impact of metabolic syndrome in the control of blood pressure and dyslipemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, Enrique; García, Luis; Merino, Consolación; Costa, José A; González, Carmen; Pascual, José M

    2004-11-06

    The objective of the study was to assess the influence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in the control of blood pressure (BP) and dyslipemia. A cross sectional study was performed with 1,320 (634 M and 686 F), 40.1 (13.3) years-old, BMI 29.8 (4.7) hypertensive non-diabetic patients. MS was diagnosed according to NCEP-ATP-III guidelines. Blood pressure control goal was BP 20% at 10 years). Goals of C-LDL levels were those of NCEP-ATP-III. 461 (35%) patients had MS and the remaining 859 became controls. Patients with MS had higher initial levels of hypertension and were receiving more antihypertensive drugs: 2.1 [1.3] vs. 1.7 [1.3]; p < 0.001), yet the average systolic and diastolic BP achieved and the degree of control was similar in both groups 53% vs. 52%; (p = ns). Patients with MS had higher CR at ten years than controls (10.7 [8.3] vs. 7.9 [6.8], p < 0.001) but achieved the C-LDL goals at fewer proportions than controls (57% vs. 74%; p < 0.001). In a regression analysis, patients with MS had 26% less probabilities of achieving both goals (p < 0.001). Hypertensive patients with MS have higher CR, and need more antihypertensive drugs to achieve the same BP goals. Yet it is more difficult for them to achieve LDL cholesterol goals. Patients with MS remain a target for cardiovascular prevention.

  19. Subcortical cerebral blood flow and metabolic changes elicited by cortical spreading depression in rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mraovitch, S.; Calando, Y.; Goadsby, P.J.; Seylaz, J. (Laboratoire de Recherches Cerebrovasculaire, Paris (France))

    1992-06-01

    Changes in cerebral cortical perfusion (CBF{sub LDF}), local cerebral blood flow (lCBF) and local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU) elicited by unilateral cortical spreading depression (SD) were monitored and measured in separate groups of rats anesthetized with {alpha}-chloralose. CBF{sub LDF} was recorded with laser Doppler flowmetry, while lCBF and lCGU were measured by the quantitative autoradiographic ({sup 14}C)iodoantipyrine and ({sup 14}C)-2-deoxyglucose methods, respectively. SD elicited a wave of hyperemia after a latency of 2 to 3 min followed by an oligemic phase. Ninety minutes following the onset of SD cortical lCBF and lCGU were essentially the same as on the contralateral side and in sham-treated rats. However, alteration in the lCBF and lCGU in upper and lower brainstem persisted. The present results demonstrate that long-lasting cerebrovascular and metabolic alterations take place within the subcortical regions following SD. These regions provide an attractive site to integrate observations in man concerning spreading depression and the aura of migraine with the other features of the syndrome. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Blood and muscle metabolic responses to draught work of varying intensity and duration in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, M; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Skoglund-Wallberg, H

    1989-07-01

    Three standardbred trotters performed treadmill exercise at a velocity of 2 m s-1 with a draught load of both 34 kiloponds (kp) (test 1) and 80 kp (test 2), and also at 7 m s-1 with 34 kp (test 3). The heart rate increased to average values of 111 (+/- 5), 157 (+/- 10) and 197 (+/- 7) beats min-1 in tests 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Plasma free fatty acids increased only during tests 1 and 2. Blood lactate and muscle glucose-6-phosphate and lactate concentrations were low after tests 1 and 2, but high after test 3, where also muscle glycogen utilisation was greatest. Muscle creatine phosphate and adenosine triphosphate concentrations decreased after test 3 only. The study indicates that oxidative metabolism is most important for energy supply in muscles when exercise is performed with draught loads of both 34 and 80 kp at a low velocity. Glycogenolysis with lactate accumulation and phosphagen breakdown becomes much more important when, with a draught load of 34 kp, the velocity of exercise increases.

  1. Proteolytic receptor cleavage in the pathogenesis of blood rheology and co-morbidities in metabolic syndrome. Early forms of autodigestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Rafi; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal blood rheological properties seldom occur in isolation and instead are accompanied by other complications, often designated as co-morbidities. In the metabolic syndrome with complications like hypertension, diabetes and lack of normal microvascular blood flow, the underlying molecular mechanisms that simultaneously lead to elevated blood pressure and diabetes as well as abnormal microvascular rheology and other cell dysfunctions have remained largely unknown. In this review, we propose a new hypothesis for the origin of abnormal cell functions as well as multiple co-morbidities. Utilizing experimental models for the metabolic disease with diverse co-morbidities we summarize evidence for the presence of an uncontrolled extracellular proteolytic activity that causes ectodomain receptor cleavage and loss of their associated cell function. We summarize evidence for unchecked degrading proteinase activity, e.g. due to matrix metalloproteases, in patients with hypertension, Type II diabetes and obesity, in addition to evidence for receptor cleavage in the form of receptor fragments and decreased extracellular membrane expression levels. The evidence suggest that a shift in blood rheological properties and other co-morbidities may in fact be derived from a common mechanism that is due to uncontrolled proteolytic activity, i.e. an early form of autodigestion. Identification of the particular proteases involved and the mechanisms of their activation may open the door to treatment that simultaneously targets multiple co-morbidities in the metabolic syndrome.

  2. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during cardiopulmonary bypass with special reference to effects of hypotension induced by prostacyclin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feddersen, K.; Aren, C.; Nilsson, N.J.; Radegran, K.

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow and metabolism of oxygen, glucose, and lactate were studied in 43 patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass. Twenty-five patients received prostacyclin infusion, 50 ng per kilogram of body weight per minute, during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and 18 patients served as a control group. Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied by intraarterially injected xenon 133 and a single scintillation detector. Oxygen tension, carbon dioxide tension, oxygen saturation, glucose, and lactate were measured in arterial and cerebral venous blood. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased during hypothermia and prostacyclin infusion to less than 30 mm Hg. The regional CBF was, on average, 22 (standard deviation [SD] 4) ml/100 gm/min before CPB. It increased in the control group during hypothermia to 34 (SD 12) ml/100 gm/min, but decreased in the prostacyclin group to 15 (SD 5) ml/100 gm/min. It increased during rewarming in the prostacyclin group. After CPB, regional CBF was about 40 ml/100 gm/min in both groups. The cerebral arteriovenous oxygen pressure difference decreased more in the control group than in the prostacyclin group during hypothermia. The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen decreased in both groups from approximately 2 ml/100 gm/min to about 1 ml/100 gm/min during hypothermia, increased again during rewarming, and after CPB was at the levels measured before bypass in both groups. There was no difference between the groups in regard to glucose and lactate metabolism

  3. Effect of strict metabolic control on regulation of subcutaneous blood flow in insulin-dependent diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Mathiesen, E R; Saurbrey, Nina

    1987-01-01

    washout technique. Mean arterial blood pressure was reduced by a maximum of 23 mmHg by elevating the limb above heart level and elevated to a maximum of 65 mmHg by head-up tilt; in the latter position venous pressure was kept constantly low by activation of the leg muscle vein pump (heel raising......The effect of 10 weeks of improved metabolic control on the impaired autoregulation of the subcutaneous blood flow was studied at the level of the lateral malleolus in eight long-term insulin-dependent diabetic patients with clinical microangiopathy. Blood flow was measured by the local 133-Xenon......). Improved metabolic control was achieved using either continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or multiple insulin injections. The blood glucose concentration declined from (median) 12.7 to 6.8 mmol/l and the HbA1C level from 10.1 to 7.5% during strict metabolic control (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0...

  4. Cholesterol Transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Tavoosi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABCA1 and ABCG1 genes encode the cholesterol transporter proteins that play a key role in cholesterol and phospholipids homeostasis. This study was aimed at evaluating and comparing ABCA1 and ABCG1 genes expression in metabolic syndrome patients and healthy individuals. This case-control study was performed on 36 patients with metabolic syndrome and the same number of healthy individuals in Hamadan (west of Iran during 2013-2014. Total RNA was extracted from mononuclear cells and purified using RNeasy Mini Kit column. The expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 genes was performed by qRT-PCR. Lipid profile and fasting blood glucose were measured using colorimetric procedures. ABCG1 expression in metabolic syndrome patients was significantly lower (about 75% compared to that of control group, while for ABCA1 expression, there was no significant difference between the two studied groups. Comparison of other parameters such as HDL-C, FBS, BMI, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure between metabolic syndrome patients and healthy individuals showed significant differences (P<0.05. Decrease in ABCG1 expression in metabolic syndrome patients compared to healthy individuals suggests that hyperglycemia, related metabolites, and hyperlipidemia over the transporter capacity resulted in decreased expression of ABCG1. Absence of a significant change in ABCA1 gene expression between two groups can indicate a different regulation mechanism for ABCA1 expression.

  5. Metabolic syndrome in patients with high blood pressure in Cuiabá-Mato Grosso State: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Gilberto Paulo Pereira; Scala, Luiz César Nazário; Alves, Carlos José; França, Giovanny Vinícius Araújo de; Cassanelli, Tatiane; Jardim, Paulo César Brandão Veiga

    2009-06-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is a cluster of predisposing factors for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus, whose epidemiological characteristics are poorly known at regional and national levels. To estimate the prevalence of MS and its associated factors in a sample of patients with high blood pressure in the urban area of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State. This was a cross-sectional study (May to November 2007) in a sample of 120 patients with high blood pressure (aged > or = 20 years), paired by gender and selected by the systematic sampling of a source population of 567 patients with high blood pressure in Cuiabá. All patients answered to home inquiries to provide sociodemographic and life habits data. The following measurements were taken: blood pressure; body mass index (BMI); waist and hip circumferences; plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid levels; homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA); C-reactive protein, uric acid and fibrinogen levels. High blood pressure criterion: average systolic blood pressure > or = 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure > or = 90 mmHg; and Metabolic Syndrome diagnosis according to the I Brazilian Directive for Metabolic Syndrome and the NCEP-ATP III criteria. 120 patients (60 women), with high blood pressure and an average age of 58.3 +/- 12.6 years, were analyzed. We found a MS prevalence of 70.8% (95%CI 61.8 to 78.8), predominantly among women (81.7% vs. 60.0%; p=0.009), with no difference between adults (71.4%) and elderly patients (70.2%). The multiple regression analysis showed a positive association between MS and BMI > or = 25 kg/m(2), insulin resistance and family history of high blood pressure. A high prevalence of MS was observed among patients with high blood pressure living in Cuiabá, with a significant association with BMI > or = 25 kg/m(2), insulin resistance (HOMA index) and, especially, a family history of high blood pressure. These results suggest the need for deeper studies on this

  6. Vitamin K2 Improves Anxiety and Depression but not Cognition in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome: a Role of Blood Glucose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancheva, Silvia M; Zhelyazkova-Savova, Maria D

    2016-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a socially important disorder of energy utilization and storage, recognized as a factor predisposing to the development of depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment in humans. In the present study we examined the effects of vitamin K2 on the behavior of rats with metabolic syndrome and looked for relationships with the effects on blood sugar. Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: a control group on a regular rat chow, a metabolic syndrome (MS) group fed a high-fat high-fructose diet, a control group treated with vitamin K2 and a MS group treated with vitamin K2. Vitamin K2 was given by gavage. At the end of the study (after 10 weeks) behavioral tests were performed and fasting blood glucose was measured. Anxiety was determined using the social interaction test and depression was assessed by the Porsolt test. Memory effects were estimated by the object recognition test. Correlations between fasting blood glucose and behavioral performance were analyzed. The rats from the MS group had elevated blood glucose. They had anxiety, depression and memory deficit. Vitamin K2 normalized blood glucose, reduced anxiety and depression, but did not improve memory. Time of social interaction (inverse index of anxiety) and memory recognition were negatively correlated with blood glucose in the untreated rats but the immobility time (measure of depression) was not. When vitamin K2-treated rats were added, the correlation of blood glucose with the time of social interaction was kept, but the one with the recognition memory was lost. It might be that the anxiolytic effect of vitamin K2 in this setting is at least partly due to its effects on blood glucose, while the anti-depressant effect is glucose-independent. The present study demonstrated that vitamin K2 prevented the development of anxiety and depression, but did not improve the memory deficit caused by the dietary manipulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome. It might be that

  7. Associations of iron metabolism genes with blood manganese levels: a population-based study with validation data from animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Henn Birgit

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given mounting evidence for adverse effects from excess manganese exposure, it is critical to understand host factors, such as genetics, that affect manganese metabolism. Methods Archived blood samples, collected from 332 Mexican women at delivery, were analyzed for manganese. We evaluated associations of manganese with functional variants in three candidate iron metabolism genes: HFE [hemochromatosis], TF [transferrin], and ALAD [δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase]. We used a knockout mouse model to parallel our significant results as a novel method of validating the observed associations between genotype and blood manganese in our epidemiologic data. Results Percentage of participants carrying at least one copy of HFE C282Y, HFE H63D, TF P570S, and ALAD K59N variant alleles was 2.4%, 17.7%, 20.1%, and 6.4%, respectively. Percentage carrying at least one copy of either C282Y or H63D allele in HFE gene was 19.6%. Geometric mean (geometric standard deviation manganese concentrations were 17.0 (1.5 μg/l. Women with any HFE variant allele had 12% lower blood manganese concentrations than women with no variant alleles (β = -0.12 [95% CI = -0.23 to -0.01]. TF and ALAD variants were not significant predictors of blood manganese. In animal models, Hfe-/- mice displayed a significant reduction in blood manganese compared with Hfe+/+ mice, replicating the altered manganese metabolism found in our human research. Conclusions Our study suggests that genetic variants in iron metabolism genes may contribute to variability in manganese exposure by affecting manganese absorption, distribution, or excretion. Genetic background may be critical to consider in studies that rely on environmental manganese measurements.

  8. Blow-up in nonlinear Schroedinger equations. II. Similarity structure of the blow-up singularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rypdal, K.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1986-01-01

    invariance and generalizations of the latter. This generalized "quasi-invariance" reveals the nature of the blow-up singularity and resolves an old controversy. Most of the previous work has been done on the cubic nonlinearity. We generalize the results to an arbitrary power nonlinearity....

  9. Blood metabolism study on protection of residual renal function of hemodialysis patients by traditional Chinese medicine Kidney Flaccidity Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiong-Dan; Wu, Wei-Hua; Zeng, Yan; Wen, Ji; Li, Xiao-Jun; Pan, Wei; Zhang, Mao-Ping; Hu, Bo; Lei, Chun-Yan; Fan, Junming

    2018-04-30

    In recent years, metabolomics using high-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) has been used to study the metabolic profiles in plasma, urine, stool and tissue in animal model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the previous work, we found that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) "Kidney Flaccidity Compound" (KFC) based on "kidney flaccidity theory" can improve renal function and quality of life of patients with kidney disease. This study aimed to investigate the metabolic profiles in peripheral blood of hemodialysis patients administrated by KFC for 1.5 and 3 months and explore the potential metabolic mechanism using UPLC. Results showed that 121 metabolites were different between KFC 3-months group and untreated control, of which 75 were significantly upregulated and 46 were significantly downregulated. In the 1.5-months treatment group, there were 365 metabolites, of which 164 were significantly upregulated and 192 downregulated. There were 6 metabolites and 15 metabolites upregulated 3-fold in 3-months and 1.5-months KFC treatment group, respectively. In addition, more than 60 new metabolites were identified in the peripheral blood in KFC treated patients, including two potential diagnostic markers MGDG 30:8 and 2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-[[(1R,4S) -2,2,4-trimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-5-yl]oxy]oxane-3,4,5-triol. The pathway enrichment analysis showed thce differential metabolites mainly enriched in Arginine and proline metabolism, Urea cycle, Tyrosine metabolism, Methionine metabolism, Tricarboxylic acid cycle, and Androgen and estrogen metabolism. The findings are helpful to reveal the mechanism of KFC protects CKD, and to provide a new strategy for recovery renal function in hemodialysis patients.

  10. IDMS of FeO(OH) extracted from blood digests for studies of iron metabolism in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, N.E.; Yergey

    1996-01-01

    The following isolation procedures were used for the determination of iron in water and digested whole blood matrices in connection with isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) of iron in blood for metabolic studies: precipitation as hydroxide, ion exchange chromatography using membrane filters, and evaporation of the untreated matrix followed by extraction of the residue with dilute acid. Although recovery is better with the cation exchange techniques, overall precision of IDMS analysis favours direct precipitation, which is also simpler and quicker. 3 refs., 3 tabs

  11. CO2 -dependent metabolic modulation in red blood cells stored under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Larry J; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic red blood cell (RBC) storage reduces oxidative damage, maintains adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) levels, and has superior 24-hour recovery at 6 weeks compared to standard storage. This study will determine if removal of CO2 during O2 depletion by gas exchange may affect RBCs during anaerobic storage. This is a matched three-arm study (n = 14): control, O2 and CO2 depleted with Ar (AN), and O2 depleted with 95%Ar/5%CO2 (AN[CO2 ]). RBCs in additives AS-3 or OFAS-3 were evenly divided into three bags, and anaerobic conditions were established by gas exchange. Bags were stored at 1 to 6°C in closed chambers under anaerobic conditions or ambient air, sampled weekly for up to 9 weeks for a panel of in vitro tests. A full metabolomics screening was conducted for the first 4 weeks of storage. Purging with Ar (AN) results in alkalization of the RBC and increased glucose consumption. The addition of 5% CO2 to the purging gas prevented CO2 loss with an equivalent starting and final pH and lactate to control bags (p > 0.5, Days 0-21). ATP levels are higher in AN[CO2 ] (p < 0.0001). DPG was maintained beyond 2 weeks in the AN arm (p < 0.0001). Surprisingly, DPG was lost at the same rate in both control and AN[CO2 ] arms (p = 0.6). Maintenance of ATP in the AN[CO2 ] arm demonstrates that ATP production is not solely a function of the pH effect on glycolysis. CO2 in anaerobic storage prevented the maintenance of DPG, and DPG production appears to be pH dependent. CO2 as well as O2 depletion provides metabolic advantage for stored RBCs. © 2015 AABB.

  12. Metabolic liver function measured in vivo by dynamic (18)F-FDGal PET/CT without arterial blood sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsager, Jacob; Munk, Ole Lajord; Sørensen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic liver function can be measured by dynamic PET/CT with the radio-labelled galactose-analogue 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-galactose ((18)F-FDGal) in terms of hepatic systemic clearance of (18)F-FDGal (K, ml blood/ml liver tissue/min). The method requires arterial blood sampling from a radial artery (arterial input function), and the aim of this study was to develop a method for extracting an image-derived, non-invasive input function from a volume of interest (VOI). Dynamic (18)F-FDGal PET/CT data from 16 subjects without liver disease (healthy subjects) and 16 patients with liver cirrhosis were included in the study. Five different input VOIs were tested: four in the abdominal aorta and one in the left ventricle of the heart. Arterial input function from manual blood sampling was available for all subjects. K*-values were calculated using time-activity curves (TACs) from each VOI as input and compared to the K-value calculated using arterial blood samples as input. Each input VOI was tested on PET data reconstructed with and without resolution modelling. All five image-derived input VOIs yielded K*-values that correlated significantly with K calculated using arterial blood samples. Furthermore, TACs from two different VOIs yielded K*-values that did not statistically deviate from K calculated using arterial blood samples. A semicircle drawn in the posterior part of the abdominal aorta was the only VOI that was successful for both healthy subjects and patients as well as for PET data reconstructed with and without resolution modelling. Metabolic liver function using (18)F-FDGal PET/CT can be measured without arterial blood samples by using input data from a semicircle VOI drawn in the posterior part of the abdominal aorta.

  13. Comparison of metabolic, hematological, and peripheral blood leukocyte cytokine profiles of dairy cows and heifers during the periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, N N; Fortes, M R S; Piper, E K; Vankan, D M; de Cisneros, J Prada J; Wittek, T

    2013-04-01

    The periparturient period presents major physiological challenges for the dairy cow. It is a period that is affected by metabolic stressors, major changes in endocrine status, and altered immune function, which together result in an increased risk of disease. Immunological, hematological, and metabolic profiles from the periparturient period of heifers (primipara) were compared with those of cows (pluripara) to test the hypothesis that at the time of calving they have qualitatively different peripheral blood profiles. Blood samples were collected from 22 Holstein-Friesian animals on 3 occasions: approximately 2 wk before calving, within 24h after calving, and approximately 2 wk after calving. Quantitative PCR was used to measure the expression of a selected set of cytokines and receptors by peripheral blood leukocytes. Additional analyses included hemoglobin concentration, red cell, platelet and white cell counts (total and differentiated), and clinical diagnostic biochemical profiles. Total leukocyte counts, neutrophils, and lymphocytes were higher in heifers than cows before calving and within 24h after calving. Alkaline phosphatase was consistently higher in heifers than cows and several significant differences were observed between the 2 groups with regards to cytokine and cytokine-receptor mRNA expression. The results warrant further investigation from the perspective of identifying risk factors for metabolic and parturient disease in dairy cattle. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Early and progressive impairment of spinal blood flow-glucose metabolism coupling in motor neuron degeneration of ALS model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Kazunori; Masamoto, Kazuto; Morimoto, Nobutoshi; Kurata, Tomoko; Mimoto, Takahumi; Obata, Takayuki; Kanno, Iwao; Abe, Koji

    2012-03-01

    The exact mechanism of selective motor neuron death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains still unclear. In the present study, we performed in vivo capillary imaging, directly measured spinal blood flow (SBF) and glucose metabolism, and analyzed whether if a possible flow-metabolism coupling is disturbed in motor neuron degeneration of ALS model mice. In vivo capillary imaging showed progressive decrease of capillary diameter, capillary density, and red blood cell speed during the disease course. Spinal blood flow was progressively decreased in the anterior gray matter (GM) from presymptomatic stage to 0.80-fold of wild-type (WT) mice, 0.61 at early-symptomatic, and 0.49 at end stage of the disease. Local spinal glucose utilization (LSGU) was transiently increased to 1.19-fold in anterior GM at presymptomatic stage, which in turn progressively decreased to 0.84 and 0.60 at early-symptomatic and end stage of the disease. The LSGU/SBF ratio representing flow-metabolism uncoupling (FMU) preceded the sequential pathological changes in the spinal cord of ALS mice and was preferentially found in the affected region of ALS. The present study suggests that this early and progressive FMU could profoundly involve in the whole disease process as a vascular factor of ALS pathology, and could also be a potential target for therapeutic intervention of ALS.

  15. Blow Flies Visiting Decaying Alligators: Is Succession Synchronous or Asynchronous?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelder, Mark P.; McCreadie, John W.; Major, Clinton S.

    2009-01-01

    Succession patterns of adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on decaying alligators were investigated in Mobile (Ala, USA) during August 2002. The most abundant blow fly species visiting the carcasses were Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricus), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricus), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart). Lucilia coeruleiviridis was collected more often during the early stages of decomposition, followed by Chrysomya spp., C...

  16. THIRD-GENERATION FOAM BLOWING AGENTS FOR FOAM INSULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study of third-generation blowing agents for foam insulation. (NOTE: the search for third-generation foam blowing agents has led to the realization that, as the number of potential substitutes increases, new concerns, such as their potential to act a...

  17. Blow Flies Visiting Decaying Alligators: Is Succession Synchronous or Asynchronous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Nelder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Succession patterns of adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae on decaying alligators were investigated in Mobile (Ala, USA during August 2002. The most abundant blow fly species visiting the carcasses were Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricus, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricus, Phormia regina (Meigen, and Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart. Lucilia coeruleiviridis was collected more often during the early stages of decomposition, followed by Chrysomya spp., Cochliomyia macellaria, and Phormia regina in the later stages. Lucilia coeruleiviridis was the only synchronous blow fly on the three carcasses; other blow fly species exhibited only site-specific synchrony. Using dichotomous correlations and analyses of variance, we demonstrated that blow fly-community succession was asynchronous among three alligators; however, Monte Carlo simulations indicate that there was some degree of synchrony between the carcasses.

  18. Advanced Trailing Edge Blowing Concepts for Fan Noise Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar RIZEA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study documents trailing edge blowing research performed to reduce rotor / stator interaction noise in turbofan engines. The existing technique of filling every velocity deficit requires a large amount of air and is therefore impractical. The purpose of this research is to investigate new blowing configurations in order to achieve noise reduction with lesser amounts of air. Using the new configurations air is not injected into every fan blade, but is instead varied circumferentially. For example, blowing air may be applied to alternating fan blades. This type of blowing configuration both reduces the amount of air used and changes the spectral shape of the tonal interaction noise. The original tones at the blade passing frequency and its harmonics are reduced and new tones are introduced between them. This change in the tonal spectral shape increases the performance of acoustic liners used in conjunction with trailing edge blowing.

  19. Use of cooling tower blow down in ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, N; Singh, V; Panno, B; Wilcoxon, M

    2010-01-01

    Reducing water consumption in bioethanol production conserves an increasingly scarce natural resource, lowers production costs, and minimizes effluent management issues. The suitability of cooling tower blow down water for reuse in fermentation was investigated as a means to lower water consumption. Extensive chemical characterization of the blow down water revealed low concentrations of toxic elements and total dissolved solids. Fermentation carried out with cooling tower blow down water resulted in similar levels of ethanol and residual glucose as a control study using deionized water. The study noted good tolerance by yeast to the specific scale and corrosion inhibitors found in the cooling tower blow down water. This research indicates that, under appropriate conditions, reuse of blow down water from cooling towers in fermentation is feasible.

  20. Investigation of Airfoil Aeroacoustics with Blowing Control Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baha ZAFER

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, it is dealt with computational aero-acoustic analysis of an airfoil with jet blowing. The airfoil shape is selected as NACA0015 profile with jet blowing on upper surface. The calculations of analysis are done by using commercial finite volume solver. The k-ε turbulence model is used for the turbulence modeling and the Ffowcs Williams and Hawking acoustic analogy model is run for determination of acoustic data. The numerical results are compared with experimental data for computed Sound Pressure Level without jet blowing and well agreement is observed. In the case of jet blowing, the effects of different jet angle, velocity ratio and angle of attack on airfoil are investigated and noise levels of non jet cases and jet blowing cases are studied.

  1. Maternal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure deregulates blood pressure, adiposity, cholesterol metabolism and social interaction in mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan-I; Chiang, Chin-Wei; Lin, Hui-Ching; Zhao, Jin-Feng; Li, Cheng-Ta; Shyue, Song-Kun; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan

    2016-05-01

    Long-term exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is highly associated with carcinogenicity, fetotoxicity, psychological disorders and metabolic diseases, but the detrimental effects and mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the effect of exposing mouse mothers to DEHP, and the underlying mechanism, on blood pressure, obesity and cholesterol metabolism as well as psychological and learning behaviors in offspring. Tail-cuff plethysmography was used for blood pressure measurement; Western blot used was for phosphorylation and expression of protein; hematoxylin and eosin staining, Nissl staining and Golgi staining were used for histological examination. The serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose were measured by blood biochemical analysis. Hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels were assessed by colorimetric assay kits. Offspring behaviors were evaluated by open-field activity, elevated plus maze, social preference test and Morris water maze. Maternal DEHP exposure deregulated the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and upregulated angiotensin type 1 receptor in offspring, which led to increased blood pressure. It led to obesity in offspring by increasing the size of adipocytes in white adipose tissue and number of adipocytes in brown adipose tissue. It increased the serum level of cholesterol in offspring by decreasing the hepatic capacity for cholesterol clearance. The impaired social interaction ability induced by maternal DEHP exposure might be due to abnormal neuronal development. Collectively, our findings provide new evidence that maternal exposure to DEHP has a lasting effect on the physiological functions of the vascular system, adipose tissue and nerve system in offspring.

  2. Role of reduced insulin-stimulated bone blood flow in the pathogenesis of metabolic insulin resistance and diabetic bone fragility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Pamela S

    2016-08-01

    Worldwide, 387 million adults live with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and an additional 205 million cases are projected by 2035. Because T2D has numerous complications, there is significant morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Identification of early events in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2D might lead to more effective treatments that would mitigate health and monetary costs. Here, we present our hypothesis that impaired bone blood flow is an early event in the pathogenesis of whole-body metabolic insulin resistance that ultimately leads to T2D. Two recent developments in different fields form the basis for this hypothesis. First, reduced vascular function has been identified as an early event in the development of T2D. In particular, before the onset of tissue or whole body metabolic insulin resistance, insulin-stimulated, endothelium-mediated skeletal muscle blood flow is impaired. Insulin resistance of the vascular endothelium reduces delivery of insulin and glucose to skeletal muscle, which leads to tissue and whole-body metabolic insulin resistance. Second is the paradigm-shifting discovery that the skeleton has an endocrine function that is essential for maintenance of whole-body glucose homeostasis. Specifically, in response to insulin signaling, osteoblasts secret osteocalcin, which stimulates pancreatic insulin production and enhances insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, adipose, and liver. Furthermore, the skeleton is not metabolically inert, but contributes to whole-body glucose utilization, consuming 20% that of skeletal muscle and 50% that of white adipose tissue. Without insulin signaling or without osteocalcin activity, experimental animals become hyperglycemic and insulin resistant. Currently, it is not known if insulin-stimulated, endothelium-mediated blood flow to bone plays a role in the development of whole body metabolic insulin resistance. We hypothesize that it is a key, early event. Microvascular dysfunction is a

  3. Diagnostic potential of stored dried blood spots for inborn errors of metabolism: a metabolic autopsy of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Noriyuki; Ihara, Kenji; Hirata, Yuichiro; Yamada, Kenji; Lee, Sooyoung; Kanemasa, Hikaru; Motomura, Yoshitomo; Baba, Haruhisa; Tanaka, Tamami; Sakai, Yasunari; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Ohga, Shouichi

    2018-05-02

    It is estimated that 1-5% of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases might be caused by undiagnosed inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs); however, the postmortem identification of IEMs remains difficult. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of dried blood spots (DBSs) stored after newborn screening tests as a metabolic autopsy to determine the causes of death in infants and children who died suddenly and unexpectedly. Infants or toddlers who had suddenly died without a definite diagnosis between July 2008 and December 2012 at Kyushu University Hospital in Japan were enrolled in this study. Their Guthrie cards, which had been stored for several years at 4-8°C, were used for an acylcarnitine analysis by tandem mass spectrometry to identify inborn errors of metabolism. Fifteen infants and children who died at less than 2 years of age and for whom the cause of death was unknown were enrolled for the study. After correcting the C0 and C8 values assuming the hydrolysation of acylcarnitine in the stored DBSs, the corrected C8 value of one case just exceeded the cut-off level for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency screening. Genetic and biochemical analyses confirmed this patient to have MCAD deficiency. DBSs stored after newborn screening tests are a promising tool for metabolic autopsy. The appropriate compensation of acylcarnitine data and subsequent genetic and biochemical analyses are essential for the postmortem diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Effects of magnesium supplements on blood pressure, endothelial function and metabolic parameters in healthy young men with a family history of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosaro, E; Bonafini, S; Montagnana, M; Danese, E; Trettene, M S; Minuz, P; Delva, P; Fava, C

    2014-11-01

    Magnesium plays an important role in the modulation of vascular tone and endothelial function and can regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Patients with hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have low body magnesium content; indeed, magnesium supplementation has been shown to have a positive effect on blood pressure (BP) and gluco-metabolic parameters. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of magnesium supplements on hemodynamic and metabolic parameters in healthy men with a positive family history of MetS or T2DM. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 8-week crossover trial with a 4 week wash-out period, oral supplements of 8.1 mmol of magnesium-pidolate or placebo were administered twice a day to 14 healthy normomagnesemic participants, aged 23-33 years. The primary endpoint was office BP, measured with a semiautomatic oscillometric device. Secondary endpoints included characteristics of the MetS, namely endothelial function, arterial stiffness and inflammation. Plasma and urinary magnesium were measured in all participants while free intracellular magnesium was measured only in a subsample. There was no significant difference in either systolic and diastolic BP in participants post-magnesium supplementation and post-placebo treatment when compared to baseline BP measurements. Further, the metabolic, inflammatory and hemodynamic parameters did not vary significantly during the study. Our study showed no beneficial effect of magnesium supplements on BP, vascular function and glycolipid profile in young men with a family history of MetS/T2DM (trial registration at clinicaltrial.gov ID: NCT01181830; 12th of Aug 2010). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lin), which signals cells to increase their anabolic activities. Metabolism is a complicated chemical process, so it's not ... how those enzymes or hormones work. When the metabolism of body chemicals is ... Hyperthyroidism (pronounced: hi-per-THIGH-roy-dih-zum). Hyperthyroidism ...

  6. Bernoulli Suction Effect on Soap Bubble Blowing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, John; Ryu, Sangjin

    2015-11-01

    As a model system for thin-film bubble with two gas-liquid interfaces, we experimentally investigated the pinch-off of soap bubble blowing. Using the lab-built bubble blower and high-speed videography, we have found that the scaling law exponent of soap bubble pinch-off is 2/3, which is similar to that of soap film bridge. Because air flowed through the decreasing neck of soap film tube, we studied possible Bernoulli suction effect on soap bubble pinch-off by evaluating the Reynolds number of airflow. Image processing was utilized to calculate approximate volume of growing soap film tube and the volume flow rate of the airflow, and the Reynolds number was estimated to be 800-3200. This result suggests that soap bubbling may involve the Bernoulli suction effect.

  7. 10 blows that stopped nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komanoff, C.

    1991-01-01

    The author describes these 10 blows in chronological order, 1973 through 1981, namely: (1) Arab Oil Embargo; (2) India Explodes a Bomb; (3) NRC replaces AEC; (4) Fire at Browns Ferry; (5) General Electric and NRC Engineers switch Sides; (6) Amory Lovins Recasts the Energy Debate; (7) The Seabrook Occupation; (8) The Three Mile Island Accident; (9) Federal Reserve Tightens the Money Supply; and (1) Pacific Gas and Electric Co. Gets it Backwards at Diablo Canyon. he stops there, not including the Washington Public Power Supply fiasco and the Chernobyl disaster, feeling nuclear expansion was essentially foreclosed without them. Further, he feels nuclear power seems fated to be forever at the mercy of forces beyond its control

  8. Simulation of the Two Stages Stretch-Blow Molding Process: Infrared Heating and Blowing Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordival, M.; Schmidt, F. M.; Le Maoult, Y.; Velay, V.

    2007-01-01

    In the Stretch-Blow Molding (SBM) process, the temperature distribution of the reheated perform affects drastically the blowing kinematic, the bottle thickness distribution, as well as the orientation induced by stretching. Consequently, mechanical and optical properties of the final bottle are closely related to heating conditions. In order to predict the 3D temperature distribution of a rotating preform, numerical software using control-volume method has been developed. Since PET behaves like a semi-transparent medium, the radiative flux absorption was computed using Beer Lambert law. In a second step, 2D axi-symmetric simulations of the SBM have been developed using the finite element package ABAQUS registered . Temperature profiles through the preform wall thickness and along its length were computed and applied as initial condition. Air pressure inside the preform was not considered as an input variable, but was automatically computed using a thermodynamic model. The heat transfer coefficient applied between the mold and the polymer was also measured. Finally, the G'sell law was used for modeling PET behavior. For both heating and blowing stage simulations, a good agreement has been observed with experimental measurements. This work is part of the European project ''APT P ACK'' (Advanced knowledge of Polymer deformation for Tomorrow's PACKaging)

  9. Simulation of the Two Stages Stretch-Blow Molding Process: Infrared Heating and Blowing Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordival, M.; Schmidt, F. M.; Le Maoult, Y.; Velay, V.

    2007-05-01

    In the Stretch-Blow Molding (SBM) process, the temperature distribution of the reheated perform affects drastically the blowing kinematic, the bottle thickness distribution, as well as the orientation induced by stretching. Consequently, mechanical and optical properties of the final bottle are closely related to heating conditions. In order to predict the 3D temperature distribution of a rotating preform, numerical software using control-volume method has been developed. Since PET behaves like a semi-transparent medium, the radiative flux absorption was computed using Beer Lambert law. In a second step, 2D axi-symmetric simulations of the SBM have been developed using the finite element package ABAQUS®. Temperature profiles through the preform wall thickness and along its length were computed and applied as initial condition. Air pressure inside the preform was not considered as an input variable, but was automatically computed using a thermodynamic model. The heat transfer coefficient applied between the mold and the polymer was also measured. Finally, the G'sell law was used for modeling PET behavior. For both heating and blowing stage simulations, a good agreement has been observed with experimental measurements. This work is part of the European project "APT_PACK" (Advanced knowledge of Polymer deformation for Tomorrow's PACKaging).

  10. Brain metabolism is significantly impaired at blood glucose below 6 mM and brain glucose below 1 mM in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Meierhans, Roman; B?chir, Markus; Ludwig, Silke; Sommerfeld, Jutta; Brandi, Giovanna; Haberth?r, Christoph; Stocker, Reto; Stover, John F

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The optimal blood glucose target following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) must be defined. Cerebral microdialysis was used to investigate the influence of arterial blood and brain glucose on cerebral glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, and calculated indices of downstream metabolism. Methods In twenty TBI patients, microdialysis catheters inserted in the edematous frontal lobe were dialyzed at 1 ?l/min, collecting samples at 60 minute intervals. Occult metabolic alteratio...

  11. DNA methylation of candidate genes in peripheral blood from patients with type 2 diabetes or the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Otterdijk, Sanne D; Binder, Alexandra M; Szarc Vel Szic, Katarzyna; Schwald, Julia; Michels, Karin B

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing and several studies suggested an involvement of DNA methylation in the development of these metabolic diseases. This study was designed to investigate if differential DNA methylation in blood can function as a biomarker for T2D and/or MetS. Pyrosequencing analyses were performed for the candidate genes KCNJ11, PPARγ, PDK4, KCNQ1, SCD1, PDX1, FTO and PEG3 in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) from 25 patients diagnosed with only T2D, 9 patients diagnosed with T2D and MetS and 11 control subjects without any metabolic disorders. No significant differences in gene-specific methylation between patients and controls were observed, although a trend towards significance was observed for PEG3. Differential methylation was observed between the groups in 4 out of the 42 single CpG loci located in the promoters regions of the genes FTO, KCNJ11, PPARγ and PDK4. A trend towards a positive correlation was observed for PEG3 methylation with HDL cholesterol levels. Altered levels of DNA methylation in PBLs of specific loci might serve as a biomarker for T2D or MetS, although further investigation is required.

  12. DNA methylation of candidate genes in peripheral blood from patients with type 2 diabetes or the metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne D van Otterdijk

    Full Text Available The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D and the metabolic syndrome (MetS is increasing and several studies suggested an involvement of DNA methylation in the development of these metabolic diseases. This study was designed to investigate if differential DNA methylation in blood can function as a biomarker for T2D and/or MetS.Pyrosequencing analyses were performed for the candidate genes KCNJ11, PPARγ, PDK4, KCNQ1, SCD1, PDX1, FTO and PEG3 in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs from 25 patients diagnosed with only T2D, 9 patients diagnosed with T2D and MetS and 11 control subjects without any metabolic disorders.No significant differences in gene-specific methylation between patients and controls were observed, although a trend towards significance was observed for PEG3. Differential methylation was observed between the groups in 4 out of the 42 single CpG loci located in the promoters regions of the genes FTO, KCNJ11, PPARγ and PDK4. A trend towards a positive correlation was observed for PEG3 methylation with HDL cholesterol levels.Altered levels of DNA methylation in PBLs of specific loci might serve as a biomarker for T2D or MetS, although further investigation is required.

  13. Analysis of relationship between blood lipid metabolism levels and hs-CRP levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Fengjian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between blood lipid metabolism levels and hs-CRP levels in the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: The levels of plasma blood lipid (with biochemistry) and serum hs-CRP(with high-sensitive immuno turbidimetry) were determined in 96 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as well as 68 normal controls. Results: The plasma blood lipid levels in 96 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were significantly lower than those in 68 controls, plasma TC and LDL-C levels were not much difference (P>0.05), plasma HDL-C level was significantly difference (P<0.05), but TG and Lp (a) levels were very prominently difference (P<0.01). And the plasma hs-CRP level was significantly increased also (P<0.01). The close relationship was between blood lipid and hs-CRP levels. Conclusion: The study of relationship between blood lipid levels and hs-CRP levels in patients with COPD was helpful for understand the disease process as well as possible mechanisms. (authors)

  14. Dehydration accelerates reductions in cerebral blood flow during prolonged exercise in the heat without compromising brain metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Llodio, Iñaki; Garcia, Benjamin; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José

    2015-11-01

    Dehydration hastens the decline in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during incremental exercise, whereas the cerebral metabolic rate for O2 (CMRO2 ) is preserved. It remains unknown whether CMRO2 is also maintained during prolonged exercise in the heat and whether an eventual decline in CBF is coupled to fatigue. Two studies were undertaken. In study 1, 10 male cyclists cycled in the heat for ∼2 h with (control) and without fluid replacement (dehydration) while internal and external carotid artery blood flow and core and blood temperature were obtained. Arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples were assessed with dehydration to evaluate CMRO2 . In study 2, in 8 male subjects, middle cerebral artery blood velocity was measured during prolonged exercise to exhaustion in both dehydrated and euhydrated states. After a rise at the onset of exercise, internal carotid artery flow declined to baseline with progressive dehydration (P dehydration accelerates the decline in CBF without affecting CMRO2 and also restricts extracranial perfusion. Thus, fatigue is related to a reduction in CBF and extracranial perfusion rather than CMRO2 . Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Transport and metabolism at blood-brain interfaces and in neural cells: relevance to bilirubin-induced encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eGazzin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bilirubin, the end-product of heme catabolism, circulates in non pathological plasma mostly as a protein-bound species. When bilirubin concentration builds up, the free fraction of the molecule increases. Unbound bilirubin then diffuses across blood-brain interfaces into the brain, where it accumulates and exerts neurotoxic effects. In this classical view of bilirubin neurotoxicity, blood-brain interfaces act merely as structural barriers impeding the penetration of the pigment-bound carrier protein, and neural cells are considered as passive targets of its toxicity. Yet, the role of blood-brain interfaces in the occurrence of bilirubin encephalopathy appears more complex than being simple barriers to the diffusion of bilirubin, and neural cells such as astrocytes and neurons can play an active role in controlling the balance between the neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects of bilirubin. This article reviews the emerging in vivo and in vitro data showing that transport and metabolic detoxification mechanisms at the blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers may modulate bilirubin flux across both cellular interfaces, and that these protective functions can be affected in chronic hyperbilirubinemia. Then the in vivo and in vitro arguments in favor of the physiological antioxidant function of intracerebral bilirubin are presented, as well as with the potential role of transporters such as ABCC-1 and metabolizing enzymes such as cytochromes P-450 in setting the cerebral cell- and structure-specific toxicity of bilirubin following hyperbilirubinemia. The relevance of these data to the pathophysiology of bilirubin-induced neurological diseases is discussed.

  16. Maternal malaria status and metabolic profiles in pregnancy and in cord blood: relationships with birth size in Nigerian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoola Omolola O

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is more common in pregnant than in non-pregnant Nigerian women, and is associated with small birth size and the attendant short- and long-term health risks. The influence of malaria on maternal metabolic status in pregnancy and in cord blood and how this relates to birth size has not been studied. The study objective was to define relationships between maternal and cord serum metabolic markers, maternal malaria status and birth size. Methods During pregnancy, anthropometric measurements, blood film for malaria parasites and assays for lipids, glucose, insulin and TNF were obtained from 467 mothers and these analytes and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I were obtained from cord blood of 187 babies. Results Overall prevalence of maternal malaria was 52%, associated with younger age, anaemia and smaller infant birth size. Mothers with malaria had significantly lower cholesterol (total, HDL and LDL and higher TNF, but no difference in triglyceride. In contrast, there was no effect of maternal malaria on cord blood lipids, but the median (range cord IGF-I was significantly lower in babies whose mothers had malaria: 60.4 (24,145μg/L, versus no malaria: 76.5 (24, 150μg/L, p = 0.03. On regression analysis, the key determinants of birth weight included maternal total cholesterol, malarial status and cord insulin and IGF-I. Conclusions Malaria in pregnancy was common and associated with reduced birth size, lower maternal lipids and higher TNF. In the setting of endemic malaria, maternal total cholesterol during pregnancy and cord blood insulin and IGF-I levels are potential biomarkers of foetal growth and birth size.

  17. Effects of ranolazine on ischemic threshold, coronary sinus blood flow, and myocardial metabolism in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagger, J P; Bøtker, H E; Thomassen, A; Nielsen, T T

    1997-07-01

    Cytoprotection or metabolic modulation is a new principle in the treatment of angina pectoris. The effect of ranolazine (a cytoprotective drug) on ischemic threshold, coronary sinus blood flow, and myocardial metabolism was evaluated by means of two pacing sequences in nine male patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and in eight male controls. Ranolazine was given as an intravenous bolus followed by continuous infusion; the mean total dose was 32.7 mg and 31.7 mg in patients and controls, respectively. Angina pectoris was relieved in two patients after ranolazine but pacing time to pain was unchanged in the remaining patients. Maximal ST depression was lower (p = 0.02), but pacing time to maximal and to 1-mm ST depression remained unchanged after the drug. Ranolazine had no overall influence on coronary sinus blood flow, cardiac oxygen consumption, blood pressure, and heart rate. Cardiac uptake of free fatty acids (FFA) was reduced (p = 0.01), and net uptakes of glucose (p = 0.07) and lactate (p = 0.06) tended to be lower after ranolazine in CAD patients and controls. Ranolazine had no direct influence on cardiac exchange of glutamate, alanine, and citrate or on the arterial concentration of any metabolite. In the present study ranolazine had minimal clinical effects. A decrease in myocardial FFA utilization, however, allows greater myocardial glucose oxidation, which may increase the energy production in relation to oxygen availability.

  18. The Relationship Between the Metabolic Syndrome and Systolic Inter-Arm Systolic Blood Pressure Difference in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun; Choi, Seong Woo; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon; Han, Mi Ah; Kim, Gwang Seok; Kim, Sung Gil; Oh, Hye Jong; Choi, Cheol Won

    2015-10-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between metabolic syndrome and systolic inter-arm blood pressure difference (sIAD) in Korean adults. This study included 410 adults (235 males, 175 females) who were over 30 years old and had undergone a health check from July to December in 2013. The incidence of high sIAD and metabolic syndrome were 23.4% and 23.2%, respectively. Key study results were as follows: First, the sIAD levels increased significantly with an increase in metabolic syndrome score (p<0.001), shown by sIAD levels after adjusted the variables that affect sIAD levels (age, gender, smoking, drinking, exercising, total cholesterol, and body mass index). These were 4.6±0.7 mmHg for metabolic syndrome score (MSS) 0; 5.8±0.5 mmHg for MSS 1; 6.2±0.6 mmHg for MSS 2, 9.2±0.8 mmHg for MSS 3; and 9.9±1.2 mmHg for MSS ≥4 (p<0.001). Second, the sIAD level of the metabolic syndrome group (9.3±0.7 mmHg) was significantly higher (p<0.001) than for the nonmetabolic syndrome group (5.7±0.3 mmHg). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome and an increased number of its components are associated with the sIAD levels in Korean adults.

  19. An ex Vivo Model for Evaluating Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability, Efflux, and Drug Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellman, Karin; Aadal Nielsen, Peter; Ek, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    , risperidone, citalopram, fluoxetine, and haloperidol were studied, and one preselected metabolite for each drug was analyzed, identified, and quantified. Metabolite identification studies of clozapine and midazolam showed that the locust brain was highly metabolically active, and 18 and 14 metabolites...

  20. Decreased in vitro mitochondrial function is associated with enhanced brain metabolism, blood flow, and memory in Surf1-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Pulliam, Daniel A; Deepa, Sathyaseelan S; Halloran, Jonathan J; Hussong, Stacy A; Burbank, Raquel R; Bresnen, Andrew; Liu, Yuhong; Podlutskaya, Natalia; Soundararajan, Anuradha; Muir, Eric; Duong, Timothy Q; Bokov, Alex F; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo; Richardson, Arlan G; Van Remmen, Holly; Fox, Peter T; Galvan, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have challenged the prevailing view that reduced mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress are correlated with reduced longevity. Mice carrying a homozygous knockout (KO) of the Surf1 gene showed a significant decrease in mitochondrial electron transport chain Complex IV activity, yet displayed increased lifespan and reduced brain damage after excitotoxic insults. In the present study, we examined brain metabolism, brain hemodynamics, and memory of Surf1 KO mice using in vitro measures of mitochondrial function, in vivo neuroimaging, and behavioral testing. We show that decreased respiration and increased generation of hydrogen peroxide in isolated Surf1 KO brain mitochondria are associated with increased brain glucose metabolism, cerebral blood flow, and lactate levels, and with enhanced memory in Surf1 KO mice. These metabolic and functional changes in Surf1 KO brains were accompanied by higher levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, and by increases in the activated form of cyclic AMP response element-binding factor, which is integral to memory formation. These findings suggest that Surf1 deficiency-induced metabolic alterations may have positive effects on brain function. Exploring the relationship between mitochondrial activity, oxidative stress, and brain function will enhance our understanding of cognitive aging and of age-related neurologic disorders. PMID:23838831

  1. Feeding conditions control the expression of genes involved in sterol metabolism in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of normoweight and diet-induced (cafeteria) obese rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caimari, A.; Oliver, P.; Rodenburg, W.; Keijer, J.; Palou, A.

    2010-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are easily obtainable cells from blood whose gene expression profiles have been proven to be highly robust in distinguishing a disease state from healthy state. Sterol metabolism is of physiological importance, and although its nutritional response in liver

  2. Altered free radical metabolism in acute mountain sickness: implications for dynamic cerebral autoregulation and blood-brain barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D M; Evans, K A; James, P E

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) function would be compromised in acute mountain sickness (AMS) subsequent to a hypoxia-mediated alteration in systemic free radical metabolism. Eighteen male lowlanders were examined in normoxia (21% O...... developed clinical AMS (AMS+) and were more hypoxaemic relative to subjects without AMS (AMS-). A more marked increase in the venous concentration of the ascorbate radical (A(*-)), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and increased susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation was observed during...

  3. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  4. Blood flow to long bones indicates activity metabolism in mammals, reptiles and dinosaurs

    OpenAIRE

    Seymour, Roger S.; Smith, Sarah L.; White, Craig R.; Henderson, Donald M.; Schwarz-Wings, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    The cross-sectional area of a nutrient foramen of a long bone is related to blood flow requirements of the internal bone cells that are essential for dynamic bone remodelling. Foramen area increases with body size in parallel among living mammals and non-varanid reptiles, but is significantly larger in mammals. An index of blood flow rate through the foramina is about 10 times higher in mammals than in reptiles, and even higher if differences in blood pressure are considered. The scaling of f...

  5. Umbilical cord blood lactate: a valuable tool in the assessment of fetal metabolic acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, A.C.; Staer-Jensen, J.; Jorgensen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    asphyxia using ROC-curves, where an ABE value less than -12 was used as "gold standard" for significant intrapartum asphyxia. STUDY DESIGN: This is a descriptive study of umbilical cord arterial blood samples from 2554 singleton deliveries. The deliveries took place at the Department of Obstetrics......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was (1) to evaluate the relationship between umbilical cord arterial blood lactate and pH, standard base excess (SBE), and actual base excess (ABE) at delivery and (2) to suggest a cut-off level of umbilical cord arterial blood lactate in predicting fetal...

  6. Blowing-up Semilinear Wave Equation with Exponential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Blowing-up Semilinear Wave Equation with Exponential Nonlinearity in Two Space ... We investigate the initial value problem for some semi-linear wave equation in two space dimensions with exponential nonlinearity growth. ... Current Issue

  7. Heterotic Mini-landscape in blow-up

    CERN Document Server

    Bizet, Nana Geraldine Cabo

    2013-01-01

    Localization properties of fields in compact extra dimensions are crucial ingredients for string model building, particularly in the framework of orbifold compactifications. Realistic models often require a slight deviation from the orbifold point, that can be analyzed using field theoretic methods considering (singlet) fields with nontrivial vacuum expectation values. Some of these fields correspond to blow-up modes that represent the resolution of orbifold singularities. Improving on previous analyses we give here an explicit example of the blow-up of a model from the heterotic Mini-landscape. An exact identification of the blow-up modes at various fixed points and fixed tori with orbifold twisted fields is given. We match the massless spectra and identify the blow-up modes as non-universal axions of compactified string theory. We stress the important role of the Green-Schwarz anomaly polynomial for the description of the resolution of orbifold singularities.

  8. Impaired myocardial blood flow reserve in subjects with metabolic syndrome analyzed using positron emission tomography and N-13 labeled ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teragawa, Hiroki; Kihara, Yasuki [Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Morita, Koichi; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Shishido, Hiroki; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Hirokawa, Yutaka [Hiroshima Heiwa Clinic, Hiroshima (Japan); Chayama, Kazuaki [Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Molecular Science and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Coronary vasomotor response might be impaired in metabolic syndrome (MS); however, the precise abnormality has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess coronary-vasomotor response in MS subjects using N-13 labeled ammonia and positron emission tomography. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured at rest and during adenosine infusion in MS subjects (n = 13, MS group) with no definite evidence of heart disease and in subjects without MS (n = 14, non-MS group). Coronary vascular resistance (CVR) was calculated by dividing the mean aortic blood pressure by MBF. Myocardial blood flow reserve (MFR) was calculated as the ratio of the MBF during adenosine infusion to that during rest. Blood chemical parameters were measured to evaluate their relationship with MFR. During adenosine infusion, MBF was lower (p = 0.0085) and CVR higher (p = 0.0128) in the MS group than in the non-MS group and MFR was significantly lower in the MS group than in the non-MS group (2.13 {+-} 0.99 vs. 3.38 {+-} 0.95, p = 0.0027). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (p < 0.05) and the presence of hypertension (p < 0.05) were independent determinants of MFR. The results indicate that MFR was impaired in MS subjects, suggesting that an abnormal coronary microvascular response occurred in these subjects. This abnormality may have been partially due to insulin resistance and hypertension. (orig.)

  9. Association of blood pressure and metabolic syndrome components with magnesium levels in drinking water in some Serbian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasic-Milutinovic, Zorica; Perunicic-Pekovic, Gordana; Jovanovic, Dragana; Gluvic, Zoran; Cankovic-Kadijevic, Milce

    2012-03-01

    Chronic exposure to insufficient levels of magnesium (Mg) in drinking water increases the risk of magnesium deficiency and its association with hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to assess the potential association of mineral contents in drinking water with blood pressure and other components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (BMI as measure of obesity, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin resistance, index-HOMA IR), in a healthy population. This study was conducted in three randomly selected municipalities (Pozarevac, Grocka and Banovci), and recruited 90 healthy blood donors, aged 20-50 years. The Pozarevac area had a four times higher mean Mg level in drinking water (42 mg L(-1)) than Grocka (11 mg L(-1)). Diastolic blood pressure was lowest in subjects from Pozarevac. Serum Mg (sMg) was highest, and serum Ca(2+)/Mg (sCa/Mg) lowest in subjects from Pozarevac, and after adjustment for confounders (age, gender, BMI), only total cholesterol and sMg levels were independent predictors of diastolic blood pressure, sMg levels were independent predictors of triglycerides, and sCa/Mg predicted glucose levels. These results suggest that Mg supplementation in areas of lower magnesium levels in drinking water may be an important measure in the prevention of hypertension and MetS in general.

  10. Impaired myocardial blood flow reserve in subjects with metabolic syndrome analyzed using positron emission tomography and N-13 labeled ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teragawa, Hiroki; Kihara, Yasuki; Morita, Koichi; Tamaki, Nagara; Shishido, Hiroki; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Hirokawa, Yutaka; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2010-01-01

    Coronary vasomotor response might be impaired in metabolic syndrome (MS); however, the precise abnormality has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess coronary-vasomotor response in MS subjects using N-13 labeled ammonia and positron emission tomography. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured at rest and during adenosine infusion in MS subjects (n = 13, MS group) with no definite evidence of heart disease and in subjects without MS (n = 14, non-MS group). Coronary vascular resistance (CVR) was calculated by dividing the mean aortic blood pressure by MBF. Myocardial blood flow reserve (MFR) was calculated as the ratio of the MBF during adenosine infusion to that during rest. Blood chemical parameters were measured to evaluate their relationship with MFR. During adenosine infusion, MBF was lower (p = 0.0085) and CVR higher (p = 0.0128) in the MS group than in the non-MS group and MFR was significantly lower in the MS group than in the non-MS group (2.13 ± 0.99 vs. 3.38 ± 0.95, p = 0.0027). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (p < 0.05) and the presence of hypertension (p < 0.05) were independent determinants of MFR. The results indicate that MFR was impaired in MS subjects, suggesting that an abnormal coronary microvascular response occurred in these subjects. This abnormality may have been partially due to insulin resistance and hypertension. (orig.)

  11. LS1 Report: Blowing away the cobwebs

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    With the pressure tests now complete (see here), we are coming to the equally important phase of cleaning the machine. With all the work performed over the past year, quite a lot of dust and dirt has accumulated in certain areas of the accelerator.   Result of the flushing performed in 2007 in Sector 5-6... This year, in Sector 6-7, the filters were particularly clean. A simple and efficient solution, known as helium flushing, has been devised by the Cryogenics group (TE-CRG) to clean up these areas. “We circulate helium gas around the machine in both the cryogenic distribution lines and the magnets,” explains Gérard Ferlin, who is responsible for the flushing operations. “This blows all the debris into a filter at the outlet. ” The flow-rate needs to be high enough to ensure that everything is swept away, so the helium is injected at rates of between 15 and 40 metres per second, much higher than in normal operation. “There&rs...

  12. Umbilical cord blood lactate: a valuable tool in the assessment of fetal metabolic acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Anne Cathrine Roslev; Staer-Jensen, Jette; Jørgensen, Jan Stener

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was (1) to evaluate the relationship between umbilical cord arterial blood lactate and pH, standard base excess (SBE), and actual base excess (ABE) at delivery and (2) to suggest a cut-off level of umbilical cord arterial blood lactate in predicting fetal asphyxia usi...... ROC-curves, where an ABE value less than -12 was used as "gold standard" for significant intrapartum asphyxia.......The aim of the present study was (1) to evaluate the relationship between umbilical cord arterial blood lactate and pH, standard base excess (SBE), and actual base excess (ABE) at delivery and (2) to suggest a cut-off level of umbilical cord arterial blood lactate in predicting fetal asphyxia using...

  13. Blood indicators of seasonal metabolic patterns in captive adult gray wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    Blood samples and physical data were collected weekly from a colony of gray wolves (Canis lupus) maintained under natural weather arid light conditions. Sampling over 33 continuous months indicated that hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cells, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and thyroxine exhibited consistent circannual patterns of variation in both males and females. Hemoglobin levels peaked at 15-16 g/dl in January in females and at 16-17 g/dl in February in males, and were lowest in August at 10.5-11.5 g/dl (P patterns of hematocrit, red blood cells, and MCHC were similarly timed. Females also had a cyclic pattern of white blood cell counts and body weight; their weight peaked in early February and was lowest in August (P pattern.

  14. Polypropylenes foam consisting of thermally expandable microcapsule as blowing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeoung, Sun Kyung; Hwang, Ye Jin; Lee, Hyun Wook; Kwak, Sung Bok; Han, In-Soo; Ha, Jin Uk

    2016-03-01

    The structure of thermally expandable microcapsule (TEMs) is consisted of a thermoplastic shell which is filled with liquid hydrocarbon at core. The shell of TEMs becomes soft when the temperature is higher than boiling temperature of liquid hydrocarbon. The shell of TEMs is expanded under the high temperature because the inner pressure of TEMs is increased by vaporization of hydrocarbon core. Therefore, the TEMs are applicable for blowing agents and light weight fillers. In this research, we fabricated the polypropylene (PP) foam by using the TEMs and chemical blowing agents and compared to their physical properties. The density of the specimen was decreased when the contents of chemical blowing agents and TEMs were increased. In addition, the mechanical properties (i.e. tensile strength and impact strength) of specimens were deteriorated with increasing amount of chemical blowing agents and TEMs. However, PP foam produced with TEMs showed higher impact strength than the one with the chemical blowing agent. In order to clarify the dependence of impact strength of PP foam as the blowing agent, the morphology difference of the PP foams was investigated. Expanding properties of PP foams produced with TEMs was changed with TEMs content of PP foams. Processing conditions also influenced the mechanical properties of PP foam containing TEMs.

  15. [Role of mesenteric lymph drainage improving the metabolism of red blood cell in hemorrhagic shock rats following fluid resuscitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rui; Du, Hui-bo; Lu, Bei; Si, Yong-hua; Zhang, Li-min; Zhang, Yu-pin; Zhao, Zi-gang; Niu, Chun-yu

    2012-08-01

    To observe the effects of mesenteric lymph drainage on the metabolism of red blood cell (RBC) in hemorrhagic shock (HS) rats following fluid resuscitation. Eighteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham group (n=6), HS group (n=6), HS + drainage group (n=6). After 1.5 hours of HS model prepared, the animals were given fluid resuscitation by lost blood plus equal volume of Ringer solution within 30 minutes in HS and HS + drainage groups, and mesenteric lymph drainage was performed after 1 hour of hypotension in HS + drainage group. At 3 hours after resuscitation or corresponding time, blood samples were obtained from abdominal aorta. Membrane suspensions of RBC prepared from part of whole blood samples were used to measure the activities of adenosine triphosphate ase (ATPase) and contents of ATP and lactic acid (LA), the intracellular fluid of RBC prepared from part of whole blood samples was used to determine the concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid (2,3-DPG), Na(+) and K(+), plasma samples isolated from blood by centrifugation were used to determine the concentration of Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and total Ca. Compared with sham group, the content of ATP (μmol/g), activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (μmol×mg(-1)×h(-1)) and Ca(2+)-ATPase (μmol×mg(-1)×h(-1)) in RBC membrane and total Ca (mmol/L) in plasma were decreased markedly (ATP: 6.698±0.938 vs. 10.670±1.466, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase: 0.042±0.010 vs. 0.066±0.019, Ca(2+)-ATPase: 0.054±0.015 vs. 0.081±0.017, total Ca: 2.27±0.18 vs. 2.66±0.21, P0.05). Compared with HS group, the contents of 2,3-DPG (4.459±0.900) and ATP (8.859±1.189), the activities of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (0.089±0.022), Ca(2+)-ATPase (0.082±0.020) of RBC were increased in HS + drainage group, and the level of LA (2.060±0.810) was decreased observably (Pdrainage plays an important role in improving the metabolism of RBC in HS rats following fluid resuscitation, subsequently, may preserve the structure and function of RBC.

  16. In-vivo measurements of regional acetylcholine esterase activity in degenerative dementia: comparison with blood flow and glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herholz, K; Bauer, B; Wienhard, K; Kracht, L; Mielke, R; Lenz, M O; Strotmann, T; Heiss, W D

    2000-01-01

    Memory and attention are cognitive functions that depend heavily on the cholinergic system. Local activity of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) is an indicator of its integrity. Using a recently developed tracer for positron emission tomography (PET), C-11-labeled N-methyl-4-piperidyl-acetate (C11-MP4A), we measured regional AChE activity in 4 non-demented subjects, 4 patients with dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT) and 1 patient with senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT), and compared the findings with measurements of blood flow (CBF) and glucose metabolism (CMRGlc). Initial tracer extraction was closely related to CBF. AChE activity was reduced significantly in all brain regions in demented subjects, whereas reduction of CMRGlc and CBF was more limited to temporo-parietal association areas. AChE activity in SDLT was in the lower range of values in DAT. Our results indicate that, compared to non-demented controls, there is a global reduction of cortical AChE activity in dementia. Dementia, cholinergic system, acetylcholine esterase, positron emission tomography, cerebral blood flow, cerebral glucose metabolism.

  17. Cerebral ammonia metabolism in hyperammonemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, A J; Mora, S N; Cruz, N F; Gelbard, A S

    1985-06-01

    The short-term metabolic fate of blood-borne (/sup 13/N)ammonia was determined in the brains of chronically (8- or 14-week portacaval-shunted rats) or acutely (urease-treated) hyperammonemic rats. Using a freeze-blowing technique it was shown that the overwhelming route for metabolism of blood-borne (/sup 13/N)ammonia in normal, chronically hyperammonemic and acutely hyperammonemic rat brain was incorporation into glutamine (amide). However, the rate of turnover of (/sup 13/N)ammonia to L-(amide-/sup 13/N)glutamine was slower in the hyperammonemic rat brain than in the normal rat brain. The activities of several enzymes involved in cerebral ammonia and glutamate metabolism were also measured in the brains of 14-week portacaval-shunted rats. The rat brain appears to have little capacity to adapt to chronic hyperammonemia because there were no differences in activity compared with those of weight-matched controls for the following brain enzymes involved in glutamate/ammonia metabolism: glutamine synthetase, glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamine transaminase, glutaminase, and glutamate decarboxylase. The present findings are discussed in the context of the known deleterious effects on the CNS of high ammonia levels in a variety of diseases.

  18. Cpt1a gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as an early biomarker of diet-related metabolic alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Díaz-Rúa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research on biomarkers that provide early information about the development of future metabolic alterations is an emerging discipline. Gene expression analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC is a promising tool to identify subjects at risk of developing diet-related diseases. Objective: We analysed PBMC expression of key energy homeostasis-related genes in a time-course analysis in order to find out early markers of metabolic alterations due to sustained intake of high-fat (HF and high-protein (HP diets. Design: We administered HF and HP diets (4 months to adult Wistar rats in isocaloric conditions to a control diet, mainly to avoid overweight associated with the intake of hyperlipidic diets and, thus, to be able to characterise markers of metabolically obese normal-weight (MONW syndrome. PBMC samples were collected at different time points of dietary treatment and expression of relevant energy homeostatic genes analysed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Serum parameters related with metabolic syndrome, as well as fat deposition in liver, were also analysed. Results: The most outstanding results were those obtained for the expression of the lipolytic gene carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a. Cpt1a expression in PBMC increased after only 1 month of exposure to both unbalanced diets, and this increased expression was maintained thereafter. Interestingly, in the case of the HF diet, Cpt1a expression was altered even in the absence of increased body weight but correlated with alterations such as higher insulin resistance, alteration of serum lipid profile and, particularly, increased fat deposition in liver, a feature characteristic of metabolic syndrome, which was even observed in animals fed with HP diet. Conclusions: We propose Cpt1a gene expression analysis in PBMC as an early biomarker of metabolic alterations associated with MONW phenotype due to the intake of isocaloric HF diets, as

  19. Effect of age and blood collection site on the metabolic profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different collection site did not affect the examined parameters, but some statistically significant differences were observed between the age groups. However, all the parameters agreed with the data reported in the literature and contribute to our knowledge of the metabolic profile of ostriches. South African Journal of Animal ...

  20. Identifying metabolic syndrome without blood tests in young adults: The Terneuzen Birth Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.L.A. de; Renders, C.M.; Kuipers, E.C.C.; Wouwe, J.P. van; Buuren, S. van; Jonge, G.A. de; Hirasing, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Within the context of the obesity epidemic identifying young adults at risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease is important. A practical approach is based on the identification of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Our objective was to develop a simple and efficient stepwise strategy

  1. Low cerebral blood flow after cardiac arrest is not associated with anaerobic cerebral metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.; Ainslie, Philip N.; Hinssen, S.; Aries, M.J.; Bisschops, Laurens L.; Hofmeijer, Jeannette; van der Hoeven, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study Estimation of cerebral anaerobic metabolism in survivors and non-survivors after cardiac arrest. Methods We performed an observational study in twenty comatose patients after cardiac arrest and 19 healthy control subjects. We measured mean flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery

  2. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow in man during light sleep (stage 2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Schmidt, J F; Holm, S

    1991-01-01

    . They differ in respect of arousal threshold as a stronger stimulus is required to awaken a subject from deep sleep as compared to light sleep. Our results suggest that during non-rapid eye movement sleep cerebral metabolism and thereby cerebral synaptic activity is correlated to cerebral readiness rather than...

  3. Relationship between relative cerebral blood flow, relative cerebral blood volume, and relative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen in the preterm neonatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourhashemi, Mina; Kongolo, Guy; Mahmoudzadeh, Mahdi; Goudjil, Sabrina; Wallois, Fabrice

    2017-04-01

    The mechanisms responsible for coupling between relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and relative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen ([Formula: see text]), an important function of the microcirculation in preterm infants, remain unclear. Identification of a causal relationship between rCBF-rCBV and [Formula: see text] in preterms may, therefore, help to elucidate the principles of cortical hemodynamics during development. We simultaneously recorded rCBF and rCBV and estimated [Formula: see text] by two independent acquisition systems: diffuse correlation spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively, in 10 preterms aged between 28 and 35 weeks of gestational age. Transfer entropy was calculated in order to determine the directionality between rCBF-rCBV and [Formula: see text]. The surrogate method was applied to determine statistical significance. The results show that rCBV and [Formula: see text] have a predominant driving influence on rCBF at the resting state in the preterm neonatal brain. Statistical analysis robustly detected the correct directionality of rCBV on rCBF and [Formula: see text] on rCBF. This study helps to clarify the early organization of the rCBV-rCBF and [Formula: see text] inter-relationship in the immature cortex.

  4. Changes in Cholinesterase Activity in Blood of Adolescent with Metabolic Syndrome after Supplementation with Extract from Aronia melanocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Duchnowicz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS are growing problems among children and adolescents. There are no reports of changes in the activity of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE in children and adolescents with metabolic syndrome especially after supplementation with extract from Aronia melanocarpa. Materials studied included plasma and erythrocytes isolated from peripheral blood of patients with MetS and healthy subjects. We have estimated the following parameters: acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE activity, lipid peroxidation and lipids levels in plasma, and erythrocytes membrane. In patients with MetS, a significant increase in AChE and BChE activity, higher LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, and lower HDL-cholesterol level were observed. Supplementation with A. melanocarpa extract resulted in mild but statistically significant reduction of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triacylglycerol levels and caused an increase in HDL-cholesterol level and a decrease in lipid peroxidation in plasma patients with MetS. Additionally, a decrease in lipid peroxidation and cholesterol level and a decrease in AChE activity in the erythrocyte membranes after supplementation with A. melanocarpa were noted. Summarizing, an increase in AChE and BChE activity and disruption of lipid metabolism in patients with MetS were observed. After supplementation of MetS patients with A. melanocarpa extract, a decrease in AChE activity and oxidative stress was noted.

  5. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism of the patients with a carotid stenosis evaluated by SPECT and 1H-MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Masaaki; Nishi, Kyouko; Shinno, Kiyohito; Nagahiro, Shinji; Ohtsuka, Hideki; Harada, Masafumi

    1998-01-01

    We examined cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolic states in patients with a severe carotid stenosis by SPECT and proton MRS ( 1 H-MRS). SPECT using 99m Tc-HMPAO and 1 H-MRS were performed in twenty five patients with over 70% carotid stenosis. Moreover, 10 patients were evaluated by these methods after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) on the ipsilateral side was reduced in 17 patients (Group A) while NAA of other 8 patients was not reduced (Group B). In Group A, although regional CBF was reduced in only 4 of 17 patients, 11 patients showed decline of cerebral vasoreactivity evaluated by acetazolamide injection. Concentration of NAA and regional CBF showed significant correlations. After CEA, ipsilateral NAA was increased significantly compared to preoperative NAA level. In 6 of 7 patients in Group A, cerebral vasoreactivity also improved postoperatively. These results indicated that ipsilatereal NAA metabolism and cerebral vasoreactivity can be improved after CEA. SPECT and 1 H-MRS were useful to evaluate CBF and metabolism in patients with carotid stenosis. (author)

  6. Blood harmane is correlated with cerebellar metabolism in essential tremor: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Zheng, Wei; Mao, Xiangling; Shungu, Dikoma C

    2007-08-07

    On proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1)H MRSI), there is a decrease in cerebellar N-acetylaspartate/total creatine (NAA/tCr) in essential tremor (ET), signifying cerebellar neuronal dysfunction or degeneration. Harmane, which is present in the human diet, is a potent tremor-producing neurotoxin. Blood harmane concentrations seem to be elevated in ET. To assess in patients with ET whether blood harmane concentration is correlated with cerebellar NAA/tCR, a neuroimaging measure of neuronal dysfunction or degeneration. Twelve patients with ET underwent (1)H MRSI. The major neuroanatomic structure of interest was the cerebellar cortex. Secondary regions were the central cerebellar white matter, cerebellar vermis, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Blood concentrations of harmane and another neurotoxin, lead, were also assessed. Mean +/- SD cerebellar NAA/tCR was 1.52 +/- 0.41. In a linear regression model that adjusted for age and gender, log blood harmane concentration was a predictor of cerebellar NAA/tCR (beta = -0.41, p = 0.009); every 1 g(-10)/mL unit increase in log blood harmane concentration was associated with a 0.41 unit decrease in cerebellar NAA/tCR. The association between blood harmane concentration and brain NAA/tCR only occurred in the cerebellar cortex; it was not observed in secondary brain regions of interest. Furthermore, the association was specific to harmane and not another neurotoxin, lead. This study provides additional support for the emerging link between harmane, a neurotoxin, and ET. Further studies are warranted to address whether cerebellar harmane concentrations are associated with cerebellar pathology in postmortem studies of the ET brain.

  7. LIPID METABOLISM INDICES AND FATTY ACIDS PROFILE IN THE BLOOD SERUM OF BROILER CHICKENS FED A DIET WITH LIGNOCELLULOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bogusławska-Tryk

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the research was to determine lipid metabolism indices and fatty acid profile in the blood serum of Ross 308 chickens (n = 48, fed a finisher mixture supplemented with 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0% of lignocellulose. The feeding trial lasted from 21 to 42 d of the birds' age. Blood samples were collected from each chicken at 42d of age from the pterygoid canal vein. In the blood serum the content of triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TCHOL and high density lipoprotein (HDL fraction was determined by the spectrophotometric method. The fatty acids concentration was estimated with the use of the gas chromatography method. Lignocellulose in doses of 0.5 and 1.0% significantly reduced the concentration of triglycerides and low density lipoprotein (LDL fraction. Saturated fatty acids (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA content was not affected by dietary treatments whereas lignocellulose significantly influenced the profile of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA from n-3 and n-6 families. Insoluble fiber decreased (p< 0.05 serum concentration of a-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3 and increased share of docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3, dihomogammalinolenic acid (C20:3n-6 and arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 in total PUFA, compared to the control birds. The results of the present study have shown that the incorporation of limited amounts of lignocellulose into the broiler diet can influence the lipid metabolism in the chickens.

  8. Association of Polymorphisms of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism with Blood Pressure and Lipid Values in Mexican Hypertensive Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Estela Ríos-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension and dyslipidemia exhibit an important clinical relationship because an increase in blood lipids yields an increase in blood pressure (BP. We analyzed the associations of seven polymorphisms of genes involved in lipid metabolism (APOA5 rs3135506, APOB rs1042031, FABP2 rs1799883, LDLR rs5925, LIPC rs1800588, LPL rs328, and MTTP rs1800591 with blood pressure and lipid values in Mexican hypertensive (HT patients. A total of 160 HT patients and 160 normotensive individuals were included. Genotyping was performed through PCR-RFLP, PCR-AIRS, and sequencing. The results showed significant associations in the HT group and HT subgroups classified as normolipemic and hyperlipemic. The alleles FABP2 p.55T, LIPC −514T, and MTTP −493T were associated with elevated systolic BP. Five alleles were associated with lipids. LPL p.474X and FABP2 p.55T were associated with decreased total cholesterol and LDL-C, respectively; APOA5 p.19W with increased HDL-C; APOA5 p.19W and FABP2 p.55T with increased triglycerides; and APOB p.4181K and LDLR c.1959T with decreased triglycerides. The APOB p.E4181K polymorphism increases the risk for HT (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.17–2.93; P=0.001 under the dominant model. These findings indicate that polymorphisms of lipid metabolism genes modify systolic BP and lipid levels and may be important in the development of essential hypertension and dyslipidemia in Mexican HT patients.

  9. Effect of oral salt loading on blood pressure and lymphocyte sodium metabolism in borderline hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K E; Jest, P; Klitgaard, N A

    1986-01-01

    A randomized double-blind cross-over trial was performed to test the effects of oral salt loading (normal diet + 200 mmol NaCl/day for 4 weeks followed by normal diet + 400 mmol/day for 1 week) against placebo on blood pressure and lymphocyte sodium homeostasis in 10 young borderline hypertensive...... men, genetically predisposed for essential hypertension. Salt loading caused no significant changes in blood pressure levels, lymphocyte sodium content and efflux. In conclusion, our subjects seem insensitive to a few weeks of excessive salt intake....

  10. The effect of metformin on blood pressure and metabolism in nondiabetic hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snorgaard, O; Køber, L; Carlsen, J

    1997-01-01

    ), metformin 500 mg b.i.d. (n = 10), or placebo b.i.d. (n = 5) for 12 weeks. Office blood pressure (oBP), ambulatory blood pressure (aBP), lipoproteins, and oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) were measured/performed before and during treatment. SUBJECTS: Sixteen male and nine female nondiabetic (OGTT) patients......, not significantly different comparing metformin and placebo. Systolic oBP, diastolic aBP, and systolic aBP showed no significant change by treatment. The decline in diastolic oBP was 5 mmHg in the pooled group of metformin-treated patients, P

  11. Metabolic profiling of human lung cancer blood plasma using 1H NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokova, Daria; Dementeva, Natalia; Kotelnikov, Oleg; Ponomaryova, Anastasia; Cherdyntseva, Nadezhda; Kzhyshkowska, Juliya

    2017-11-01

    Lung cancer (both small cell and non-small cell) is the second most common cancer in both men and women. The article represents results of evaluating of the plasma metabolic profiles of 100 lung cancer patients and 100 controls to investigate significant metabolites using 400 MHz 1H NMR spectrometer. The results of multivariate statistical analysis show that a medium-field NMR spectrometer can obtain the data which are already sufficient for clinical metabolomics.

  12. Changes in Angiotensin Receptor Distribution and in Aortic Morphology Are Associated with Blood Pressure Control in Aged Metabolic Syndrome Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Guarner-Lans

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS in blood pressure regulation in MS during aging is unknown. It participates in metabolic syndrome (MS and aging regulating vascular tone and remodeling. RAS might participate in a compensatory mechanism decreasing blood pressure and allowing MS rats to reach 18 months of age and it might form part of therapeutical procedures to ameliorate MS. We studied histological changes and distribution of RAS receptors in aortas of MS aged rats. Electron microscopy images showed premature aging in MS since the increased fibrosis, enlarged endothelium, and invasion of this layer by muscle cells that was present in control 18-month-old aortas were also found in 6-month-old aortas from MS rats. AT1, AT2, and Mas receptors mediate the effects of Ang II and Ang 1-7, respectively. Fluorescence from AT2 decreased with age in control and MS aortas, while fluorescence of AT1 increased in aortas from MS rats at 6 months and diminished during aging. Mas expression increased in MS rats and remained unchanged in control rats. In conclusion, there is premature aging in the aortas from MS rats and the elevated expression of Mas receptor might contribute to decrease blood pressure during aging in MS.

  13. Impact of grape pomace consumption on the blood lipid profile and liver genes associated with lipid metabolism of young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianmei; Bansode, Rishipal R; Smith, Ivy N; Hurley, Steven L

    2017-08-01

    Herein, we investigated the effects of grape pomace (GP) in diet on body weight, blood lipid profile, and expression of liver genes associated with lipid metabolism using a young rat model. In this study, twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats at 7 weeks of age were randomly divided into 4 groups, which were fed modified AIN-93G diets containing 0% (control), 6.9%, 13.8%, and 20.7% of GP for 10 weeks. Feed consumption and body weight were weekly determined. Blood samples were obtained at the beginning and end of the feeding period for cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and glucose analysis. At the end of the feeding period, all rats were fasted overnight and euthanized. Heart, kidney, and liver samples were obtained and weighed. Liver tissues were used for gene expression analysis. GP-containing diet did not influence the body weight of the rats. As GP content increased, blood triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) decreased (P consumption of a diet containing appropriate amount of GP may help in the reduction of body fat accumulation and prevention of obesity. This is the first study revealing the change in gene expression caused by long-term consumption of GP-containing diet.

  14. Blood Pressure Associated with Arsenic Methylation and Arsenic Metabolism Caused by Chronic Exposure to Arsenic in Tube Well Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bing Gan; Ye, Bi Xiong; Yu, Jiang Ping; Yang, Lin Sheng; Li, Hai Rong; Xia, Ya Juan; Wu, Ke Gong

    2017-05-01

    The effects of arsenic exposure from drinking water, arsenic metabolism, and arsenic methylation on blood pressure (BP) were observed in this study. The BP and arsenic species of 560 participants were determined. Logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the odds ratios of BP associated with arsenic metabolites and arsenic methylation capability. BP was positively associated with cumulative arsenic exposure (CAE). Subjects with abnormal diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and pulse pressure (PP) usually had higher urinary iAs (inorganic arsenic), MMA (monomethylated arsenic), DMA (dimethylated arsenic), and TAs (total arsenic) than subjects with normal DBP, SBP, and PP. The iAs%, MMA%, and DMA% differed slightly between subjects with abnormal BP and those with normal BP. The PMI and SMI were slightly higher in subjects with abnormal PP than in those with normal PP. Our findings suggest that higher CAE may elevate BP. Males may have a higher risk of abnormal DBP, whereas females have a higher risk of abnormal SBP and PP. Higher urinary iAs may increase the risk of abnormal BP. Lower PMI may elevate the BP. However, higher SMI may increase the DBP and SBP, and lower SMI may elevate the PP. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  15. Systematic Sensitivity Analysis of Metabolic Controllers During Reductions in Skeletal Muscle Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Cabrera, Marco

    2000-01-01

    An acute reduction in oxygen delivery to skeletal muscle is generally associated with profound derangements in substrate metabolism. Given the complexity of the human bioenergetic system and its components, it is difficult to quantify the interaction of cellular metabolic processes to maintain ATP homeostasis during stress (e.g., hypoxia, ischemia, and exercise). Of special interest is the determination of mechanisms relating tissue oxygenation to observed metabolic responses at the tissue, organ, and whole body levels and the quantification of how changes in oxygen availability affect the pathways of ATP synthesis and their regulation. In this study, we apply a previously developed mathematical model of human bioenergetics to study effects of ischemia during periods of increased ATP turnover (e.g., exercise). By using systematic sensitivity analysis the oxidative phosphorylation rate was found to be the most important rate parameter affecting lactate production during ischemia under resting conditions. Here we examine whether mild exercise under ischemic conditions alters the relative importance of pathways and parameters previously obtained.

  16. Blood lead levels, iron metabolism gene polymorphisms and homocysteine: a gene-environment interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lee, Mee-Ri; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2017-12-01

    Homocysteine has been causally associated with various adverse health outcomes. Evidence supporting the relationship between lead and homocysteine levels has been accumulating, but most prior studies have not focused on the interaction with genetic polymorphisms. From a community-based prospective cohort, we analysed 386 participants (aged 41-71 years) with information regarding blood lead and plasma homocysteine levels. Blood lead levels were measured between 2001 and 2003, and plasma homocysteine levels were measured in 2007. Interactions of lead levels with 42 genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five genes ( TF , HFE , CBS , BHMT and MTR ) were assessed via a 2-degree of freedom (df) joint test and a 1-df interaction test. In secondary analyses using imputation, we further assessed 58 imputed SNPs in the TF and MTHFR genes. Blood lead concentrations were positively associated with plasma homocysteine levels (p=0.0276). Six SNPs in the TF and MTR genes were screened using the 2-df joint test, and among them, three SNPs in the TF gene showed interactions with lead with respect to homocysteine levels through the 1-df interaction test (plead levels. Blood lead levels were positively associated with plasma homocysteine levels measured 4-6 years later, and three SNPs in the TF gene modified the association. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Relationships of blood pressure to fibrinolysis : influence of anthropometry, metabolic profile and behavioural variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cigolini, M; Targher, G; Seidell, J C; Tonoli, M; Schiavon, R; Agostino, G; de Sandre, G

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between blood pressure and the plasma fibrinolytic system and to verify whether this association was independent or mediated by one or more potential confounding factor. DESIGN: A random sample of 94 males aged 38 years subdivided into normotensives,

  18. Growth, Feed Utilization and Blood Metabolic Responses to Different Amylose-amylopectin Ratio Fed Diets in Tilapia (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Yao Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted in tilapia to determine the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, digestive enzymes, and postprandial blood metabolites in response to different dietary amylose-amylopectin ratios. Five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets containing an equal starch level with different amylose-amylopectin ratios of 0.11 (diet 1, 0.24 (diet 2, 0.47 (diet 3, 0.76 (diet 4 and 0.98 (diet 5 were formulated using high-amylose corn starch (as the amylose source and waxy rice (as the amylopectin source. Each diet was hand-fed to six tanks of 15 fish each, three times a day over a 6-wk period. After the growth trial, a postprandial blood metabolic test was carried out. Fish fed diet 2 exhibited the highest percent weight gain and feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio, whereas fish fed with diet 5 showed the lowest growth and feed utilization among treatments. The digestibility for starch in fish fed diet 1 and 2 was higher than those in fish fed with other diets (p<0.05. The highest activities for protease, lipase and amylase were found in fish fed the diet 2, diet 1, and diet 1 respectively among dietary treatments, while the lowest values for these indexes were observed in fish fed the diet 3, diet 5 and diet 4, respectively. The liver glycogen concentrations in fish fed diets 4 and 5 were found higher than in fish fed other diets (p<0.05. The feeding rate, hepatosomatic index, condition factor, and plasma parmeters (glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol did not differ across treatments. In terms of postprandial blood responses, peak blood glucose and triglycerides were lower after 3 or 6 h in the fish fed with diets 3–5 than in the fish fed diet 1, but delayed peak blood total amino acid time was observed in fish fed with the diets 1 or 2. The lowest peak values for each of the three blood metabolites were observed in fish fed diet 5. The

  19. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reduced production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  20. Metabolic markers associated with insulin resistance predict type 2 diabetes in Koreans with normal blood pressure or prehypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ki-Chul; Park, Hyun-Young; Kim, Min-Ju; Reaven, Gerald

    2016-03-22

    Questions remain as to the association between essential hypertension and increased incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The premise of this analysis is that insulin resistance/compensatory hyperinsulinemia is a major predictor of T2DM, and the greater the prevalence of insulin resistance within any population, normotensive or hypertensive, the more likely T2DM will develop. The hypothesis to be tested is that surrogate estimates of insulin resistance will predict incident T2DM to a significant degree in persons with normal blood pressure or prehypertension. Analysis of data from a population-based survey of 10, 038 inhabitants of rural and urban areas of Korea, ≥40 years-old, initiated in 2001, with measures of demographic and metabolic characteristics at baseline and 8-years later. Participants were classified as having normal blood pressure or prehypertension, and three simple manifestations of insulin resistance related to the pathophysiology of T2DM used to predict incident T2DM: (1) glycemia (plasma glucose concentration 2-hour after 75 g oral glucose challenge = 2-hour PG); (2) hyperinsulinemia (plasma insulin concentration 2-hour after 75 g oral glucose challenge = 2-hour PI); and (3) dyslipidemia (ratio of fasting plasma triglyceride/high/density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration = TG/HDL-C ratio). Fully adjusted hazard ratios (HR, 95 % CI) for incident T2DM were highest (P insulin resistance was the 2-hour PI concentration. Subjects with normal blood pressure in the highest quartile of 2-hour PI concentrations were significantly associated with incident T2DM, with HRs of 1.5 (1.02-2.20, P = 0.25) and 2.02 (1.35-3.02, P insulin resistance (glycemia, insulinemia, and dyslipidemia) predict the development of T2DM in patients with either normal blood pressure or prehypertension.

  1. The effects of local blowing perturbations on thermal turbulent structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Can; Araya, Guillermo; Leonardi, Stefano; Castillo, Luciano

    2013-11-01

    Blowing is an active flow control technique with several industrial applications, particularly in film cooling of turbine blades. In the past, the effects of localized blowing have been mostly analyzed on the velocity field and its influence of the flow parameters and turbulence structures (Krogstad and Kourakine, 2000). However, little literature can be found on the effects of blowing on the coherent thermal structures. In the present study, an incompressible turbulent channel flow with given steady blowing at the wall is simulated via DNS by means of five spanwise holes. The Reynolds number based on the friction velocity and half channel height is approximately Re = 394 and the molecular Prandtl number is Pr = 0.71. Temperature is considered a passive scalar with isothermal conditions at the wall. Different blowing amplitudes and perturbing angles (with respect to the streamwise direction) are applied to find out their effects on the turbulent thermal structures by means of a two-point correlation analysis. In addition, local reduction and increase of drag are connected to vorticity. The corresponding influence of perturbing amplitudes and angles on the energy budget of thermal fluctuations and turbulent Prandtl numbers are also shown and discussed.

  2. Helical instability in film blowing process: Analogy to buckling instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Sung; Kwon, Ilyoung; Jung, Hyun Wook; Hyun, Jae Chun

    2017-12-01

    The film blowing process is one of the most important polymer processing operations, widely used for producing bi-axially oriented film products in a single-step process. Among the instabilities observed in this film blowing process, i.e., draw resonance and helical motion occurring on the inflated film bubble, the helical instability is a unique phenomenon portraying the snake-like undulation motion of the bubble, having the period on the order of few seconds. This helical instability in the film blowing process is commonly found at the process conditions of a high blow-up ratio with too low a freezeline position and/or too high extrusion temperature. In this study, employing an analogy to the buckling instability for falling viscous threads, the compressive force caused by the pressure difference between inside and outside of the film bubble is introduced into the simulation model along with the scaling law derived from the force balance between viscous force and centripetal force of the film bubble. The simulation using this model reveals a close agreement with the experimental results of the film blowing process of polyethylene polymers such as low density polyethylene and linear low density polyethylene.

  3. Altered cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in patients with liver disease and minimal encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, A.H.; Yap, E.W.; Rhoades, H.M.; Wong, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    We measured CBF and the CMRglc in normal controls and in patients with severe liver disease and evidence for minimal hepatic encephalopathy using positron emission tomography. Regions were defined in frontal, temporal, parietal, and visual cortex; the thalamus; the caudate; the cerebellum; and the white matter along with a whole-slice value obtained at the level of the thalamus. There was no difference in whole-slice CBF and CMRglc values. Individual regional values were normalized to the whole-slice value and subjected to a two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. When normalized CBF and CMRglc values for regions were compared between groups, significant differences were demonstrated (F = 5.650, p = 0.00014 and F = 4.58, p = 0.0073, respectively). These pattern differences were due to higher CBF and CMRglc in the cerebellum, thalamus, and caudate in patients and lower values in the cortex. Standardized coefficients extracted from a discriminant function analysis permitted correct group assignment for 95.5% of the CBF studies and for 92.9% of the CMRglc studies. The similarity of the altered pattern of cerebral metabolism and flow in our patients to that seen in rats subjected to portacaval shunts or ammonia infusions suggests that this toxin may alter flow and metabolism and that this, in turn, causes the clinical expression of encephalopathy

  4. Cerebral O2 metabolism and cerebral blood flow in humans during deep and rapid-eye-movement sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Schmidt, J F; Wildschiødtz, Gordon

    1991-01-01

    on examination of this question. We have now measured CBF and CMRO2 in young healthy volunteers using the Kety-Schmidt technique with 133Xe as the inert gas. Measurements were performed during wakefulness, deep sleep (stage 3/4), and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep as verified by standard polysomnography...... associated with light anesthesia. During REM sleep (dream sleep) CMRO2 was practically the same as in the awake state. Changes in CBF paralleled changes in CMRO2 during both deep and REM sleep.......It could be expected that the various stages of sleep were reflected in variation of the overall level of cerebral activity and thereby in the magnitude of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). The elusive nature of sleep imposes major methodological restrictions...

  5. The influence of the known radioprotective compounds on the metabolism of red blood cells. Pt. 1. Effect of crysteamine on the cellular level of the intermediates and coenzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmiel, J.; Kopczynski, Z.; Rybczynska, M.

    1976-01-01

    Cysteamine added to the human blood smples in the final concentration of 6.5 x 10 -3 M, 1,9 x 10 -2 M and 3,8 x 10 -2 M exerts a significant effect on the metabolism of erythrocytes. The chromatographic determination of carbohydrate intermediates and coenzymes in red blood cells indicates that in lower concentration of the drug the rate of anaerobic metabolism of glucose is increased. Higher concentration of cysteamine (3.8 x 10 -3 M) enhances aerobic catabolism of glucose in pentose shunt. (author)

  6. Effects of Dietary Electrolyte Balance on Growth Performance, Nitrogen Metabolism and Some Blood Biochemical Parameters of Growing Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different dietary electrolyte balance (DEB on growth performance, nitrogen (N metabolism and some blood biochemical parameters were investigated in 2 to 3 months old growing rabbits. A total of 150 growing rabbits of 2 months age were randomly divided into five groups according to average body weight, with 30 rabbits in each group. The DEB levels of the five experimental diets were −154, −3.16, +201, +347, and +500 meq/kg of dry matter (DM, respectively. There was a 7-d adaptation period and a 23-d experimental period. The results showed that the DEB levels had a quadratic affect on the average daily feed intake (ADFI (p<0.001. The greatest ADFI was achieved when the DEB level was +201 meq/kg DM. Fecal N (FN content linearly decreased (0.047, while digestible N (DN, retained N (RN, efficiency of intake N converted into digestible N (DN/IN and the efficiency of intake N converted into retained N (RN/IN linearly increased with the DEB increase (0.020, 0.004, 0.021, and 0.049, respectively. Serum phosphorus (P ion content linearly increased with the DEB increase (p = 0.036. The DEB had a quadratic relationship with serum anion gap (AG (p = 0.002 and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH content (p = 0.016. The DEB levels quadratically affected base excess (BE in the plasma (p<0.001. In conclusion, the DEB unaffected growth performance but affected feed intake, N metabolism and some blood biochemical parameters of growing rabbits.

  7. Uptake and metabolism of sulphated steroids by the blood-brain barrier in the adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, M Zeeshan; Dolman, Diana E M; Begley, David J; Abbott, N Joan; Cazacu-Davidescu, Mihaela; Corol, Delia I; Fry, Jonathan P

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the origin of the neuroactive steroids dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and pregnenolone sulphate (PregS) in the brain or of their subsequent metabolism. Using rat brain perfusion in situ, we have found 3 H-PregS to enter more rapidly than 3 H-DHEAS and both to undergo extensive (> 50%) desulphation within 0.5 min of uptake. Enzyme activity for the steroid sulphatase catalysing this deconjugation was enriched in the capillary fraction of the blood-brain barrier and its mRNA expressed in cultures of rat brain endothelial cells and astrocytes. Although permeability measurements suggested a net efflux, addition of the efflux inhibitors GF120918 and/or MK571 to the perfusate reduced rather than enhanced the uptake of 3 H-DHEAS and 3 H-PregS; a further reduction was seen upon the addition of unlabelled steroid sulphate, suggesting a saturable uptake transporter. Analysis of brain fractions after 0.5 min perfusion with the 3 H-steroid sulphates showed no further metabolism of PregS beyond the liberation of free steroid pregnenolone. By contrast, DHEAS underwent 17-hydroxylation to form androstenediol in both the steroid sulphate and the free steroid fractions, with some additional formation of androstenedione in the latter. Our results indicate a gain of free steroid from circulating steroid sulphates as hormone precursors at the blood-brain barrier, with implications for ageing, neurogenesis, neuronal survival, learning and memory. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  8. Blood lipids and adipokines concentrations during a 6-month nutritional and physical activity intervention for metabolic syndrome treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courteix Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report changes in body weight, total and central fat mass, metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory parameters in overweight people who participated in a six months weight loss intervention associating diet management and exercise. Subjects and Methods Fourteen subjects (10 M, 4 F, mean age 62.9 ± 6.9 years, BMI 30.4+/- 3.8 kg/m2 presenting the characteristics of the Metabolic Syndrome (MS were included in the survey. They followed a three weeks (D0 to D20 cure in a medical establishment and a six months (D20 to M3 and M6 follow up at home. During the cure, they receive a balanced diet corresponding to 500 Kcal deficit vs their dayly energy expenditure (DEE and they exercised 2 to 3 hours per day. At D0, D20, M3 and M6, body composition (lean mass, total and central fat mass was analyzed with DEXA, blood pressure was taken and blood was collected to evaluate glycaemia, triglycerides, total, LDL and HDL cholesterol, insulin, leptin and adiponectin levels, CRP and pro-inflammatory interleukines IL1, IL.6 and TNFalpha. Results All parameters listed above except the cytokine were improved at D20, so that 4 subjects among 14 still presented the MS. After returning to home, these parameters remained stable. Conclusion The efficacy of therapeutic lifestyle modifications with education and exercise and diet was demonstrated, but the compliance to the new healthy lifestyle initiated during the cure was not optimal.

  9. Impaired Glucose Metabolism Is Associated with Visit-to-Visit Blood Pressure Variability in Participants without Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo Sasaki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated data from 10,088 participants without cardiovascular disease (CVD who underwent 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests and had more than four visits during the first 5 years following the test to investigate the association between impaired glucose metabolism and visit-to-visit blood pressure (BP variability. Participants were classified into groups of normal glucose tolerance (NGT, impaired fasting glucose (IFG, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, and diabetes. Visit-to-visit BP variability was estimated for each individual using standard deviation (SD and coefficients of variation (CV, defined as SD/mean. SDs and CVs of systolic BP (SBP values were divided into quartiles. The samples falling in the highest quartile were considered as having high SD/CV. The adjusted odds ratio (OR for high SD of SBP in the IFG (OR, 1.39; P<0.003, IGT (OR, 1.26; P<0.001, and diabetes (OR, 1.54; P<0.001 groups was significantly higher than that for high SD of SBP in the NGT group. Similarly, the OR for high CV of SBP in the IGT and diabetes groups was significantly higher than that for high CV of SBP in the NGT group. In participants without CVD, impaired glucose metabolism may modulate visit-to-visit BP variability.

  10. Effect of STA-proximal MCA bypass. Improvement of cerebral blood flow and metabolism and neuropsychological function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Akira; Funayama, Masayuki; Miura, Kazuyuki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Suzuki, Michiyasu; Kuroda, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Toshiaki

    1998-01-01

    We investigated cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism in patients with hemodynamic ischemia by positron emission tomography (PET) and thermal diffusion flow meter. We also studied neuropsychological functions to evaluate the effects of surgical revascularization. Bypass surgery of the superficial temporal artery to the proximal middle cerebral artery was performed on 26 patients satisfying the following categories: stenosis or occlusive lesion in main cerebral arteries; no marked focus of infarction on CT or MRI. PET was performed before and 1 month after the operation, and CBF, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were analyzed. Cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) was also calculated after acetazolamide challenge. CBF during the operation was continuously measured with a thermal diffusion flow meter. CO 2 response of CBF was analyzed before and after anastomosis. Neuropsychological functions were evaluated by Hasegawa dementia scale revised (HDS-R), mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Wechsler adult intelligence scale revised (WAIS-R). Before the operation, increase in OEF accorded with the decrease in CBF, and a significant relationship between both CBF and CVRC, and OEF and CVRC was found. A decrease in CVRC was noted prior to a decrease in CBF and elevation of OEF. CVRC caused by acetazolamide might reflect CO 2 reactivity. Significant improvement of CBF and CVRC, and normalization of OEF were observed after the operation. Also, significant improvement of neuropsychological function was observed by HDS-R and WAIS-R. Disturbance in neuropsychological function might reflect elevation of OEF. (author)

  11. *NO and oxyradical metabolism in new cell lines of rat brain capillary endothelial cells forming the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasig, I E; Giese, H; Schroeter, M L; Sporbert, A; Utepbergenov, D I; Buchwalow, I B; Neubert, K; Schönfelder, G; Freyer, D; Schimke, I; Siems, W E; Paul, M; Haseloff, R F; Blasig, R

    2001-09-01

    To investigate the relevance of *NO and oxyradicals in the blood-brain barrier (BBB), differentiated and well-proliferating brain capillary endothelial cells (BCEC) are required. Therefore, rat BCEC (rBCEC) were transfected with immortalizing genes. The resulting lines exhibited endothelial characteristics (factor VIII, angiotensin-converting enzyme, high prostacyclin/thromboxane release rates) and BBB markers (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase). The control line rBCEC2 (mock transfected) revealed fibroblastoid morphology, less factor VIII, reduced gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, weak radical defence, low prostanoid metabolism, and limited proliferation. Lines transfected with immortalizing genes (especially rBCEC4, polyoma virus large T antigen) conserved primary properties: epitheloid morphology, subcultivation with high proliferation rate under pure culture conditions, and powerful defence against reactive oxygen species (Mn-, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione) effectively controlling radical metabolism. Only 100 microM H2O2 overcame this defence and stimulated the formation of eicosanoids similarly as in primary cells. Some BBB markers were expressed to a lower degree; however, cocultivation with astrocytes intensified these markers (e.g., alkaline phosphatase) and paraendothelial tightness, indicating induction of BBB properties. Inducible NO synthase was induced by a cytokine plus lipopolysaccharide mixture in all lines and primary cells, resulting in *NO release. Comparing the cell lines obtained, rBCEC4 are stable immortalized and reveal the best conservation of properties from primary cells, including enzymes producing or decomposing reactive species. These cells can be subcultivated in large amounts and, hence, they are suitable to study the role of radical metabolism in the BBB and in the cerebral microvasculature. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  12. Sepsis does not alter red blood cell glucose metabolism or Na+ concentration: A 2H-, 23Na-NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotchkiss, R.S.; Song, S.K.; Ling, C.S.; Ackerman, J.J.; Karl, I.E.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of sepsis on intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) and glucose metabolism were examined in rat red blood cells (RBCs) by using 23Na- and 2H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Sepsis was induced in 15 halothane-anesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats by using the cecal ligation and perforation technique; 14 control rats underwent cecal manipulation without ligation. The animals were fasted for 36 h, but allowed free access to water. At 36 h postsurgery, RBCs were examined by 23Na-NMR by using dysprosium tripolyphosphate as a chemical shift reagent. Human RBCs from 17 critically ill nonseptic patients and from 7 patients who were diagnosed as septic were also examined for [Na+]i. Five rat RBC specimens had [Na+]i determined by both 23Na-NMR and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). For glucose metabolism studies, RBCs from septic and control rats were suspended in modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing [6,6-2H2]glucose and examined by 2H-NMR. No significant differences in [Na+]i or glucose utilization were found in RBCs from control or septic rats. There were no differences in [Na+]i in the two groups of patients. The [Na+]i determined by NMR spectroscopy agreed closely with measurements using ICP-AES and establish that 100% of the [Na+]i of the RBC is visible by NMR. Glucose measurements determined by 2H-NMR correlated closely (correlation coefficient = 0.93) with enzymatic analysis. These studies showed no evidence that sepsis disturbed RBC membrane function or metabolism

  13. Brain metabolism is significantly impaired at blood glucose below 6 mM and brain glucose beneath 1 mM in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Meierhans, R; Bechir, M; Ludwig, S; Sommerfeld, J; Brandi, G; Haberthur, C; Stocker, R; Stover, J F

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The optimal blood glucose target following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) must be defined. Cerebral microdialysis was used to investigate the influence of arterial blood and brain glucose on cerebral glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, and calculated indices of downstream metabolism. METHODS: In twenty TBI patients, microdialysis catheters inserted in the edematous frontal lobe were dialyzed at 1 mul/ min, collecting samples at 60 minute intervals. Occult metab...

  14. Whole-brain blood flow and oxygen metabolism in the rat after halothane anesthesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjedde, A; Hindfeldt, B [Cerebrovascular Research Center, Department of Neurology, The New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, New York, U.S.A.; Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden)

    1975-01-01

    A recent modification of the Kety-Schmidt wash-out technique for /sup 133/xenon was used to measure whole-brain flow (CBF) and oxygen consumption (CMRsub(o2)) 1 to 4 hours after termination of halothane anesthesia in 15 Wistar rats. In this 3-hour experimental period, mean CBF and CMRsub(o2) were reduced to 29 and 43 percent of control values, respectively. CBF and CMRsub(o2) determined at the beginning and end of the experimental period were not significantly different from each other. Cerebral venous O/sub 2/ tension was significantly higher than in the control group, supporting recent suggestions of a primary, intrinsic effect of halothane on the homeostatic control of this variable. It is concluded that halothane is not useful for cerebral metabolic studies in the rat.

  15. The UDP-glucuronosyltransferases of the blood-brain barrier: their role in drug metabolism and detoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed eOuzzine

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs form a multigenic family of membrane-bound enzymes expressed in various tissues, including brain. They catalyze the formation of β-Dglucuronides from structurally unrelated substances (drugs, other xenobiotics, as well as endogenous compounds by the linkage of glucuronic acid from the high energy donor, UDP-αD-glucuronic acid. In brain, UGTs actively participate to the overall protection of the tissue against the intrusion of potentially harmful lipophilic substances that are metabolized as hydrophilic glucuronides. These metabolites are generally inactive, except for important pharmacologically glucuronides such as morphine-6-glucuronide. UGTs are mainly expressed in endothelial cells and astrocytes of the blood brain barrier. They are also associated to brain interfaces devoid of blood-brain barrier, such as circumventricular organ, pineal gland, pituitary gland and neuro-olfactory tissues. Beside their key-role as a detoxication barrier, UGTs play a role in the steady-state of endogenous compounds, like steroids or dopamine that participate to the function of the brain. UGT isoforms of family 1A, 2A, 2B and 3A are expressed in brain tissues to various levels and are known to present distinct but overlapping substrate specificity. The importance of these enzyme species with regard to the formation of toxic, pharmacologically or physiologically relevant glucuronides in the brain will be discussed.

  16. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in senile dementia of Alzheimer's type and vascular dementia with deep white matter changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohgi, H.; Yonezawa, H.; Takahashi, S.; Sato, N.; Kato, E.; Kudo, M.; Hatano, K.; Sasaki, T.

    1998-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (rCMRO 2 ), oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF), and cerebral blood volume (rCBV) were investigated using positron emission tomography (PET) in 16 patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT), and compared with those of 6 nondemented and 3 demented patients with deep white matter high signal (DWMH) on T2-weighted MRI and 6 controls. rCBF, rCMRO 2 and rCBV were determined using C 15 O 2 , 15 O 2 and C 15 O, respectively. rCBF and CMRO 2 were significantly decreased in the frontal, parietal and temporal cortex (P 2 was significantly reduced in only the frontal and temporal cortex of demented patients (P < 0.05). rOEF was significantly increased in the parietal cortex of patients with SDAT and in the white matter of patients with SDAT or DWMH (P < 0.05), and the increase in the frontal white matter significantly paralleled the progression of dementia in patients with SDAT (P < 0.05). rCBV was significantly decreased in the parietal and temporal cortex of patients with SDAT (P < 0.05), but not in any areas of those with DWMH. (orig.)

  17. Effects of acute L-carnitine intake on metabolic and blood lactate levels of elite badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroğlu, Hüseyin; Senel, Omer; Güzel, Nevin A

    2008-04-01

    Purpose of this study is to research the effects of acute L-Carnitine intake on badminton players' metabolic and blood lactate values. A total of 16 Turkish national badminton players (8 male, 8 female) were voluntarily participated into study. MaxVO2, MET, energy consumption, HR (heart rate), VE (minute ventilation), R (respiratory exchange ratio), AT (anaerobic threshold), oxygen pulse and blood lactate (LA) of subjects were measured by Sensormedics VmaxST and Accutrend Lactate Analyzer. The participants were subjected to the test protocol twice before and after 2g of L-Carnitine intake. The data were evaluated by the use of SPSS 13.0 for Windows. No significant differences were found between 1st. (without L-Carnitine intake) and 2nd. (with L-Carnitine intake) measurements of female participants as regards to all measured parameters. There was a significant difference in EMHR (exercise maximum heart rate) of males between two measurements (p0.05). Respiratory exchange ratio of males was significantly different at anaerobic threshold (pbadminton players.

  18. Reduced cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in extremely preterm neonates with low-grade germinal matrix- intraventricular hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Yi; Hagan, Katherine; Fenoglio, Angela; Grant, P. Ellen; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2016-05-01

    Low-grade germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) is the most common complication in extremely premature neonates. The occurrence of GM-IVH is highly associated with hemodynamic instability in the premature brain, yet the long-term impact of low-grade GM-IVH on cerebral blood flow and neuronal health have not been fully investigated. We used an innovative combination of frequency-domain near infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (FDNIRS-DCS) to measure cerebral oxygen saturation (SO2) and an index of cerebral blood flow (CBFi) at the infant’s bedside and compute an index of cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2i). We enrolled twenty extremely low gestational age (ELGA) neonates (seven with low-grade GM-IVH) and monitored them weekly until they reached full-term equivalent age. During their hospital stay, we observed consistently lower CBFi and CMRO2i in ELGA neonates with low-grade GM-IVH compared to neonates without hemorrhages. Furthermore, lower CBFi and CMRO2i in the former group persists even after the resolution of the hemorrhage. In contrast, SO2 does not differ between groups. Thus, CBFi and CMRO2i may have better sensitivity than SO2 in detecting GM-IVH-related effects on infant brain development. FDNIRS-DCS methods may have clinical benefit for monitoring the evolution of GM-IVH, evaluating treatment response, and potentially predicting neurodevelopmental outcome.

  19. The index of a vector field under blow ups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seade, J.

    1991-08-01

    A useful technique when studying the behaviour of holomorphic vector fields around their isolated singularities is that of blowing up the singular points. On the other hand, the most basic invariant of a vector field with isolated singularities is its local index, as defined by Poincare and Hopf. It is thus natural to ask how does the index of a vector field behaves under blowing ups? The purpose of this work is to study and answer this question, by taking a rather general point of view and bearing in mind that complex manifolds have a powerful birational invariant, the Todd genus. 20 refs

  20. INCOMPRESSIBLE LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYER CONTROL BY BLOWING AND SUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZZEDINE NAHOUI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional incompressible laminar boundary layer and its control using blowing and suction over a flat plate and around the NACA 0012 and 661012 profiles, is studied numerically. The study is based on the Prandtl boundary layer model using the finite differences method and the Crank-Nicolson scheme. The velocity distribution, the boundary layer thickness and the friction coefficient, are determined and presented with and without control. The application of the control technique, has demonstrated its positive effect on the transition point and the friction coefficient. Both control procedures are compared for different lengths, speeds and angles of blowing and suction.

  1. Blood-brain transfer and metabolism of 6-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, J.; Dyve, S.; Kuwabara, H.; Guttman, M.; Diksic, M.; Gjedde, A.

    1990-01-01

    In a study designed to reveal the rates of blood-brain transfer and decarboxylation of fluoro-L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (FDOPA), we discovered a major discrepancy between the DOPA decarboxylase activity reported in the literature and the rate of FDOPA decarboxylation measured in the study. Donor rats received intravenous injections of 6 mCi fluorine-18-labeled FDOPA. The donor rats synthesized methyl-FDOPA. Arterial plasma, containing both FDOPA and methyl-FDOPA, was sampled from the donor rats at different times and reinjected into recipient rats in which it circulated for 20 s. The blood-brain clearance of the mixture of labeled tracers in the plasma was determined by an integral method. The individual permeabilities were determined by linear regression analysis, according to which the average methyl-FDOPA permeability in the blood-brain barrier was twice that of FDOPA, which averaged 0.037 ml g-1 min-1. The permeability ratio was used to determine the fractional clearance from the brain of FDOPA (and hence of methyl-FDOPA), which averaged 0.081 min-1. In the striatum, the measured average FDOPA decarboxylation rate constant (kD3) was 0.010 min-1, or no more than 1% of the rate of striatal decarboxylation of DOPA measured in vitro and in vivo. We interpreted this finding as further evidence in favor of the hypothesis that striatum has two dopamine (DA) pools, of which only DA in the large pool is protected from metabolism. Hence, no more than 1% of the quantity of fluoro-DA theoretically synthesized was actually retained in striatum

  2. SYMBIOTIC STAR BLOWS BUBBLES INTO SPACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A tempestuous relationship between an unlikely pair of stars may have created an oddly shaped, gaseous nebula that resembles an hourglass nestled within an hourglass. Images taken with Earth-based telescopes have shown the larger, hourglass-shaped nebula. But this picture, taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, reveals a small, bright nebula embedded in the center of the larger one (close-up of nebula in inset). Astronomers have dubbed the entire nebula the 'Southern Crab Nebula' (He2-104), because, from ground-based telescopes, it looks like the body and legs of a crab. The nebula is several light-years long. The possible creators of these shapes cannot be seen at all in this Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 image. It's a pair of aging stars buried in the glow of the tiny, central nebula. One of them is a red giant, a bloated star that is exhausting its nuclear fuel and is shedding its outer layers in a powerful stellar wind. Its companion is a hot, white dwarf, a stellar zombie of a burned-out star. This odd duo of a red giant and a white dwarf is called a symbiotic system. The red giant is also a Mira Variable, a pulsating red giant, that is far away from its partner. It could take as much as 100 years for the two to orbit around each other. Astronomers speculate that the interaction between these two stars may have sparked episodic outbursts of material, creating the gaseous bubbles that form the nebula. They interact by playing a celestial game of 'catch': as the red giant throws off its bulk in a powerful stellar wind, the white dwarf catches some of it. As a result, an accretion disk of material forms around the white dwarf and spirals onto its hot surface. Gas continues to build up on the surface until it sparks an eruption, blowing material into space. This explosive event may have happened twice in the 'Southern Crab.' Astronomers speculate that the hourglass-shaped nebulae represent two separate outbursts that occurred several thousand years apart

  3. Renal blood flow and metabolism after cold ischaemia: peroperative measurements in patients with calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H K; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1984-01-01

    Peroperative measurements of renal blood flow (RBF), renal O2-uptake, and renal venous lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio were performed before and after a period of 30-71 min of hypothermic (10-15 degrees C) renal ischaemia in nine patients, undergoing surgery for renal calculi. Before ischaemia, RBF.......01) immediately after re-established perfusion and 36% (P less than 0.02) 30 min later. In one additional patient, who had a short warm ischaemia (8 min), the flow pattern was the same. As arterial pressure remained constant, the reduced RBF signifies an increased renal vascular resistance. Renal O2-uptake...... and renal venous L/P ratio were almost constant, indicating no significant anaerobic processes being involved in the flow response. None of the patients showed any signs of reactive hyperaemia. It is concluded that hypothermic renal ischaemia may be followed by an increased renal vascular resistance even...

  4. Evaluation of cerebral blood flow, cerebral metabolism and cerebral function by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Chuzo; Higuchi, Toshihiro; Umeda, Masahiro; Naruse, Shoji; Horikawa, Yoshiharu; Ueda, Satoshi; Furuya, Seiichi.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic resonance (MR) method has the unique potentiality of detecting cerebral metabolites, cerebral blood flow and brain functions in a noninvasive fashion. We have developed several MR techniques to detect these cerebral parameters with the use of clinical MRI scanners. By modifying the MR spectroscopy (MRS) technique, both 31 P- and 1 H-MRS data can be obtained from multiple, localized regions (multi-voxel method) of the brain, and the distribution of each metabolite in the brain can be readily visualized by metabolite mapping. The use of diffusion weighted images (DWI) permits visualization of the anisotropy of water diffusion in white matter, and based on the difference of diffusion coefficiency, the differential diagnosis between epidermoid tumor and arachnoid cyst can be made. By employing dynamic-MRI (Dyn-MRI) with Gd-DTPA administration, it is possible to examine the difference in blood circulation between brain tumor tissue and normal tissue, as well as among different types of brain tumors. By using magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) imaging, it has become possible to detect brain tumors, and with a small dose of Gd-DTPA, to visualize the vascular system. Functional MRI (fMRI) visualizes the activated brain by using conventional gradient echo technique on conventional MRI scanners. This method has the unique characteristic of detecting a brain function with high spatial and temporal resolution by using the intrinsic substance. Moreover, the localization of motor and sensory areas was detected by noninvasive means within few minutes. The fMRI procedure will be used in the future to analyze the higher and complex brain functions. In conclusion, multi-modality MR is a powerful technique that is useful for investigating the pathogenesis of many diseases, and provides a noninvasive analytic modality for studying brain function. (author)

  5. Influence of antihypertensive therapy on cerebral perfusion in patients with metabolic syndrome: relationship with cognitive function and 24-h arterial blood pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimova, Nataliya Y; Chernov, Vladimir I; Efimova, Irina Y; Lishmanov, Yuri B

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the regional cerebral blood flow, cognitive function, and parameters of 24-h arterial blood pressure monitoring in patients with metabolic syndrome before and after combination antihypertensive therapy. The study involved 54 patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) investigated by brain single-photon emission computed tomography, 24-h blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and comprehensive neuropsychological testing before and after 24 weeks of combination antihypertensive therapy. Patients with metabolic syndrome had significantly poorer regional cerebral blood flow compared with control group: by 7% (P = 0.003) in right anterior parietal cortex, by 6% (P = 0.028) in left anterior parietal cortex, by 8% (P = 0.007) in right superior frontal lobe, and by 10% (P = 0.00002) and 7% (P = 0.006) in right and left temporal brain regions, correspondingly. The results of neuropsychological testing showed 11% decrease in mentation (P = 0.002), and 19% (P = 0.011) and 20% (P = 0.009) decrease in immediate verbal and visual memory in patients with MetS as compared with control group. Relationships between the indices of ABPM, cerebral perfusion, and cognitive function were found. Data showed an improvement of regional cerebral blood flow, ABPM parameters, and indicators of cognitive functions after 6 months of antihypertensive therapy in patients with MetS. The study showed the presence of diffuse disturbances in cerebral perfusion is associated with cognitive disorders in patients with metabolic syndrome. Combination antihypertensive treatment exerts beneficial effects on the 24-h blood pressure profile, increases cerebral blood flow, and improves cognitive function in patients with MetS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The coupling of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism with brain activation is similar for simple and complex stimuli in human primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffeth, Valerie E M; Simon, Aaron B; Buxton, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative functional MRI (fMRI) experiments to measure blood flow and oxygen metabolism coupling in the brain typically rely on simple repetitive stimuli. Here we compared such stimuli with a more naturalistic stimulus. Previous work on the primary visual cortex showed that direct attentional modulation evokes a blood flow (CBF) response with a relatively large oxygen metabolism (CMRO2) response in comparison to an unattended stimulus, which evokes a much smaller metabolic response relative to the flow response. We hypothesized that a similar effect would be associated with a more engaging stimulus, and tested this by measuring the primary human visual cortex response to two contrast levels of a radial flickering checkerboard in comparison to the response to free viewing of brief movie clips. We did not find a significant difference in the blood flow-metabolism coupling (n=%ΔCBF/%ΔCMRO2) between the movie stimulus and the flickering checkerboards employing two different analysis methods: a standard analysis using the Davis model and a new analysis using a heuristic model dependent only on measured quantities. This finding suggests that in the primary visual cortex a naturalistic stimulus (in comparison to a simple repetitive stimulus) is either not sufficient to provoke a change in flow-metabolism coupling by attentional modulation as hypothesized, that the experimental design disrupted the cognitive processes underlying the response to a more natural stimulus, or that the technique used is not sensitive enough to detect a small difference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic risks of neonates at birth following in utero exposure to HIV-ART: the amino acid profile of cord blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moutloatse, Gontse P.; Schoeman, Johannes C.; Lindeque, Zander; van Reenen, Mari; Hankemeier, Thomas; Bunders, Madeleine J.; Reinecke, Carolus J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Untargeted metabolomics of cord blood indicated that antiretroviral therapy to HIV-infected mothers (HIV-ART) did not compromise the exposed neonates with regard to the stress of neonatal hypoglycaemia at birth. However, identified biomarkers reflected stress in their energy metabolism,

  8. Investigation Of Arterial Blood Pressure Level And Metabolic Indices In Patients With Arterial Hypertension At Pharmacotherapy With Antihypertensive Medicines Of Various Chemical Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Kh. Glybochko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to carry on the comparative analysis of medicines of various chemical structure, Telmisar-tan and Bisoprolol, and to reveal their effect on the arterial blood pressure level and the indices of various metabolic processes in patients with arterial hypertension. 60 out-patients with arterial hypertension (stage II risk III both males and females aged 33-55 have been under study taking Telmisartan and Bisoprolol for 3 months. While treating the patients the arterial blood pressure level control and biochemical investigations for determination the indices of metabolic processes have been carried out. The investigated medications have provided the decrease of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure parameters, the increase of concentration of total and ionized calcium, chlorine ions, urea and total bilirubin in blood plasma. Therapy with Telmisartan has shown more significant increase of potassium level in erythro-cytes, decrease of levels of natrium, glucose, glycolized hemoglobin and triglycerides and increased contents of alani-naminotransferase and aspartataminotransferase. The course of therapy with Bisoprolol has restored the normal level of magnesium in blood plasma, has not have any influence on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, increased the level of alaninaminotransferase and significantly increased the contents of total and ionized calcium, urea and creatinine. 3-months therapy with Telmisartan and Bisoprolol has proved the decrease of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure in patients with arterial hypertension. The medications under study have had active and variable effects on metabolic indices

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF CFC AND HCFC SUBSTITUTES FOR BLOWING POLYURETHANE FOAM INSULATION PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a cooperative effort to identiry chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbon substitutes for blowing polyurethane foam insulation products. The substantial ongoing effort is identifying third-generation blowing agets for polyurethane foams to repla...

  10. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids Deal With Injections and Blood Tests Blood Culture Anemia Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Hemoglobin Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests and Procedures ( ...

  11. CO2-dependent metabolic modulation in red blood cells stored under anaerobic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Larry J.; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    2015-01-01

    Background Anaerobic RBC storage reduces oxidative damage, maintains ATP & 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) levels and has superior 24hr recovery at 6weeks compared to standard storage. This study will determine if removal of CO2 during O2 depletion by gas exchange may affect RBC during anaerobic storage. Methods This is a matched 3 arm study (n=14): control, O2&CO2 depleted with Ar (AN), O2 depleted with 95%Ar/5%CO2 (AN[CO2]). RBC in additives AS-3 or OFAS3 were evenly divided into 3 bags, and anaerobic conditions were established by gas exchange. Bags were stored 1-6°C in closed chambers under anaerobic conditions or ambient air, sampled weekly for up to 9weeks for a panel of in vitro tests. A full metabolomics screening was conducted for the first 4 weeks of storage. Results Purging with Ar (AN) results in alkalization of the RBC and increased glucose consumption. The addition of 5%CO2 to the purging gas prevented CO2 loss with an equivalent starting and final pH and lactate to control bags (p>0.5, days0-21). ATP levels are higher in AN[CO2] (p<0.0001). DPG was maintained beyond 2 weeks in the AN arm (p<0.0001). Surprisingly, DPG was lost at the same rate in both control and AN[CO2] arms (p=0.6). Conclusion Maintenance of ATP in the AN[CO2] arm demonstrates that ATP production is not solely a function of the pH effect on glycolysis. CO2 in anaerobic storage prevented the maintenance of DPG, and DPG production appears to be pH dependent. CO2 as well as O2 depletion provides metabolic advantage for stored RBC. PMID:26477888

  12. Relationships among ventilation-perfusion distribution, multiple inert gas methodology and metabolic blood-gas tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A S; Patterson, R W; Kaufman, R D

    1987-12-01

    The retention equations upon which the Multiple Inert Gas Method is based are derived from basic principles using elementary algebra. It is shown that widely disparate distributions produce indistinguishable sets of retentions. The limits of resolution of perfused compartments in the VA/Q distribution obtainable by the use of the multiple inert gas method are explored mathematically, and determined to be at most shunt and two alveolar compartments ("tripartite" distribution). Every continuous distribution studied produced retentions indistinguishable from those of its unique "matching" tripartite distribution. When a distribution is minimally specified, it is unique. Any additional specification (increased resolution--more compartments) of the distribution results in the existence of an infinitude of possible distributions characterized by indistinguishable sets of retention values. No further increase in resolution results from the use of more tracers. When sets of retention values were extracted from published multiple inert gas method continuous distributions, and compared with the published "measured" retention sets, substantial differences were found. This illustrates the potential errors incurred in the practical, in vivo application of the multiple inert gas method. In preliminary studies, the tripartite distribution could be determined with at least comparable accuracy by blood-gas (oxygen, carbon dioxide) measurements.

  13. Neuronal response of the hippocampal formation to injury: blood flow, glucose metabolism, and protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, M.; Wasterlain, C.G.; Ackermann, R.F.; Finch, D.; Lear, J.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The reaction of the hippocampal formation to entorhinal lesions was studied from the viewpoints of cerebral blood flow ([ 123 I]isopropyl-iodoamphetamine[IMP])-glucose utilization ([ 14 C]2-deoxyglucose), and protein synthesis ([ 14 C]leucine), using single- and double-label autoradiography. Researchers' studies showed decreased glucose utilization in the inner part, and increased glucose utilization in the outer part of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, starting 3 days after the lesion; increased uptake of [ 123 I]IMP around the lesion from 1 to 3 days postlesion; and starting 3 days after the lesion, marked decrease in [ 14 C]leucine incorporation into proteins and cell loss in the dorsal CA1 and dorsal subiculum in about one-half of the rats. These changes were present only in animals with lesions which invaded the ventral hippocampal formation in which axons of CA1 cells travel. By contrast, transsection of the 3rd and 4th cranial nerves resulted, 3 to 9 days after injury, in a striking increase in protein synthesis in the oculomotor and trochlear nuclei. These results raise the possibility that in some neurons the failure of central regeneration may result from the cell's inability to increase its rate of protein synthesis in response to axonal injury

  14. Numerical study of blow-up in the Davey-Stewartson system

    KAUST Repository

    Klein, Christian; Muite, Benson; Roidot, Kristelle

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear dispersive partial differential equations such as the nonlinear Schrödinger equations can have solutions that blow up. We numerically study the long time behavior and potential blow-up of solutions to the focusing Davey-Stewartson II equation by analyzing perturbations of the lump and the Ozawa solutions. It is shown in this way that both are unstable to blow-up and dispersion, and that blow-up in the Ozawa solution is generic.

  15. Numerical study of blow-up in the Davey-Stewartson system

    KAUST Repository

    Klein, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Nonlinear dispersive partial differential equations such as the nonlinear Schrödinger equations can have solutions that blow up. We numerically study the long time behavior and potential blow-up of solutions to the focusing Davey-Stewartson II equation by analyzing perturbations of the lump and the Ozawa solutions. It is shown in this way that both are unstable to blow-up and dispersion, and that blow-up in the Ozawa solution is generic.

  16. Whistle Blowing: What Do Contemporary Ethical Theories Say?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosupeng Mpho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The rising number of scandals leading to the closure of many large companies is worrisome. The traditional belief is that business and ethics are oxymorons and one is not expected to be totally virtuous during business operations. Nonetheless, this does not mean ethical standards should be side-lined. Professional associations such as the Chartered Financial Institute (CFA uphold moral values and urge members to exercise high moral standards and diligence in their duties. Philosophically, major accounting scandals could have been nipped in the bud by whistle blowing before the wrong deeds escalated. However whistle blowing is a major issue and is viewed as disloyalty. In this paper, the dilemmas of whistle blowing are evaluated using contemporary ethical theories which are: egoism, deontology and utilitarianism. The analysis shows that deontology and utilitarianism are based on altruism and may support whistle blowing because they are grounded on consideration of other people. It is worth noting that morally upright adults are often a result of being brought up as ethical children from a psychological standpoint.

  17. Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals attract blow flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flies transport specific bacteria with their larvae which provides a wider range of nutrients for those bacteria. Our hypothesis was that this symbiotic interaction may depend on interkingdom signaling. We obtained Proteus mirabilis from the salivary glands of the blow fly Lucilia sericat. This s...

  18. Reduction of airfoil trailing edge noise by trailing edge blowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhard, T; Carolus, T; Erbslöh, S

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise and its reduction by trailing edge blowing. A Somers S834 airfoil section which originally was designed for small wind turbines is investigated. To mimic realistic Reynolds numbers the boundary layer is tripped on pressure and suction side. The chordwise position of the blowing slot is varied. The acoustic sources, i.e. the unsteady flow quantities in the turbulent boundary layer in the vicinity of the trailing edge, are quantified for the airfoil without and with trailing edge blowing by means of a large eddy simulation and complementary measurements. Eventually the far field airfoil noise is measured by a two-microphone filtering and correlation and a 40 microphone array technique. Both, LES-prediction and measurements showed that a suitable blowing jet on the airfoil suction side is able to reduce significantly the turbulence intensity and the induced surface pressure fluctuations in the trailing edge region. As a consequence, trailing edge noise associated with a spectral hump around 500 Hz could be reduced by 3 dB. For that a jet velocity of 50% of the free field velocity was sufficient. The most favourable slot position was at 90% chord length

  19. Dolphins Who Blow Bubbles: Anthropological Machines and Native Informants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lord, C.

    2011-01-01

    "Dolphins Who Blow Bubbles: Anthropological Machines and Native Informants" engages a reading between an Oscar winning and now ‘cult’ activist film The Cove (Louise Psihoyos 2009) and classical texts on the human-animal threshold. Giorgio Agamben’s The Open (2002) and Jacques Derrida’s "The Animal

  20. Effect of Yixinkangtai Capsule combined with diltiazem on endothelial function, blood viscosity and lipid metabolism in patients with unstable angina pectoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Yuan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the effect of Yixinkangtai Capsule combined with diltiazem on endothelial function, blood viscosity and lipid metabolism in patients with unstable angina pectoris. Methods: A total of 150 patients with unstable angina pectoris who were treated in the hospital between February 2014 and February 2017 were divided into the control group (n=75 and the research group (n=75 according to the random number table method. Control group received clinical conventional therapy, research group received Yixinkangtai Capsule combined with diltiazem therapy on the basis of conventional therapy, and both groups received 3 months of treatment. Differences in endothelial function, blood viscosity and lipid metabolism were compared between the two groups of patients before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, the differences in serum levels of endothelial function indexes, blood viscosity indexes and lipid metabolism indexes were not statistically significant between the two groups. After 3 months of treatment, serum NO level of research group was higher than that of control group while ET-1 level was lower than that of control group; serum blood viscosity index TXB2 content of research group was lower than that of control group while PGI2 content was higher than that of control group; serum lipid metabolism indexes TG, TC and LDL-C contents of research group were lower than those of control group while HDL-C content was higher than that of control group. Conclusion: Yixinkangtai Capsule combined with diltiazem therapy can effectively optimize the endothelial function, reduce the blood viscosity and balance the lipid metabolism in patients with unstable angina pectoris.

  1. Significant biochemical, biophysical and metabolic diversity in circulating human cord blood reticulocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Malleret

    Full Text Available The transition from enucleated reticulocytes to mature normocytes is marked by substantial remodeling of the erythrocytic cytoplasm and membrane. Despite conspicuous changes, most studies describe the maturing reticulocyte as a homogenous erythropoietic cell type. While reticulocyte staging based on fluorescent RNA stains such as thiazole orange have been useful in a clinical setting; these 'sub-vital' stains may confound delicate studies on reticulocyte biology and may preclude their use in heamoparasite invasion studies.Here we use highly purified populations of reticulocytes isolated from cord blood, sorted by flow cytometry into four sequential subpopulations based on transferrin receptor (CD71 expression: CD71high, CD71medium, CD71low and CD71negative. Each of these subgroups was phenotyped in terms of their, morphology, membrane antigens, biomechanical properties and metabolomic profile.Superficially CD71high and CD71medium reticulocytes share a similar gross morphology (large and multilobular when compared to the smaller, smooth and increasingly concave reticulocytes as seen in the in the CD71low and CD71negativesamples. However, between each of the four sample sets we observe significant decreases in shear modulus, cytoadhesive capacity, erythroid receptor expression (CD44, CD55, CD147, CD235R, and CD242 and metabolite concentrations. Interestingly increasing amounts of boric acid was found in the mature reticulocytes.Reticulocyte maturation is a dynamic and continuous process, confounding efforts to rigidly classify them. Certainly this study does not offer an alternative classification strategy; instead we used a nondestructive sampling method to examine key phenotypic changes of in reticulocytes. Our study emphasizes a need to focus greater attention on reticulocyte biology.

  2. Blow-Up Time for Nonlinear Heat Equations with Transcendental Nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Chul Pak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A blow-up time for nonlinear heat equations with transcendental nonlinearity is investigated. An upper bound of the first blow-up time is presented. It is pointed out that the upper bound of the first blow-up time depends on the support of the initial datum.

  3. Blowing snow detection from ground-based ceilometers : Application to East Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gossart, Alexandra; Souverijns, Niels; Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; Lhermitte, S.L.M.; Lenaerts, Jan T M; Schween, Jan H.; Mangold, Alexander; Laffineur, Quentin; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Blowing snow impacts Antarctic ice sheet surface mass balance by snow redistribution and sublimation. However, numerical models poorly represent blowing snow processes, while direct observations are limited in space and time. Satellite retrieval of blowing snow is hindered by clouds and only the

  4. Effects of respiratory alkalosis and acidosis on myocardial blood flow and metabolism in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmaier, S; Weyland, A; Buhre, W; Stephan, H; Rieke, H; Filoda, K; Sonntag, H

    1998-10-01

    Variation of the arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) is not uncommon in anesthetic practice. However, little is known about the myocardial consequences of respiratory alkalosis and acidosis, particularly in patients with coronary artery disease. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of variation in PaCO2 on myocardial blood flow (MBF), metabolism, and systemic hemodynamics in patients before elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery. In 10 male anesthetized patients, measurements of MBF, myocardial contractility, metabolism, and systemic hemodynamics were made in a randomized sequence at PaCO2 levels of 30, 40, and 50 mmHg, respectively. The MBF was measured using the Kety-Schmidt technique with argon as a tracer. End-diastolic left ventricular pressure and the maximal increase of left ventricular pressure were assessed using a manometer-tipped catheter. The cardiac index significantly changed with varying PaCO2 levels (hypocapnia, - 9%; hypercapnia, 13%). This reaction was associated with inverse changes in systemic vascular resistance index levels. The MBF significantly increased by 15% during hypercapnia, whereas no change was found during hypocapnia. Myocardial oxygen and glucose uptake and the maximal increase of left ventricular pressure were not affected by varying PaCO2 levels. In anesthetized patients with coronary artery disease, short-term variations in PaCO2 have significant effects on MBF but do not influence global myocardial oxygen and glucose uptake. Changes in systemic hemodynamics associated with respiratory alkalosis and acidosis are caused by changes in systemic vascular resistance rather than by alterations in myocardial contractility.

  5. Effect of STA-proximal MCA bypass. Improvement of cerebral blood flow and metabolism and neuropsychological function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Akira; Funayama, Masayuki; Miura, Kazuyuki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Suzuki, Michiyasu; Kuroda, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Toshiaki [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-11-01

    We investigated cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism in patients with hemodynamic ischemia by positron emission tomography (PET) and thermal diffusion flow meter. We also studied neuropsychological functions to evaluate the effects of surgical revascularization. Bypass surgery of the superficial temporal artery to the proximal middle cerebral artery was performed on 26 patients satisfying the following categories: stenosis or occlusive lesion in main cerebral arteries; no marked focus of infarction on CT or MRI. PET was performed before and 1 month after the operation, and CBF, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were analyzed. Cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) was also calculated after acetazolamide challenge. CBF during the operation was continuously measured with a thermal diffusion flow meter. CO{sub 2} response of CBF was analyzed before and after anastomosis. Neuropsychological functions were evaluated by Hasegawa dementia scale revised (HDS-R), mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Wechsler adult intelligence scale revised (WAIS-R). Before the operation, increase in OEF accorded with the decrease in CBF, and a significant relationship between both CBF and CVRC, and OEF and CVRC was found. A decrease in CVRC was noted prior to a decrease in CBF and elevation of OEF. CVRC caused by acetazolamide might reflect CO{sub 2} reactivity. Significant improvement of CBF and CVRC, and normalization of OEF were observed after the operation. Also, significant improvement of neuropsychological function was observed by HDS-R and WAIS-R. Disturbance in neuropsychological function might reflect elevation of OEF. (author)

  6. Second-tier test for quantification of underivatized amino acids in dry blood spot for metabolic diseases in newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunyan; Zhu, Hongbin; Zhang, Wenyan; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shuying

    2013-02-01

    The quantitative analysis of amino acids (AAs) in single dry blood spot (DBS) samples is an important issue for metabolic diseases as a second-tier test in newborn screening. An analytical method for quantifying underivatized AAs in DBS was developed by using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The sample preparation in this method is simple and ion-pairing agent is not used in the mobile phase that could avoid ion suppression, which happens in mass spectrometry and avoids damage to the column. Through chromatographic separation, some isomeric compounds could be identified and quantified, which cannot be solved through only appropriate multiple reactions monitoring transitions by MS/MS. The concentrations of the different AAs were determined using non-deuterated internal standard. All calibration curves showed excellent linearity within test ranges. For most of the amino acids the accuracy of extraction recovery was between 85.3 and 115 %, and the precision of relative standard deviation was <7.0 %. The 35 AAs could be identified in DBS specimens by the developed LC-MS/MS method in 17-19 min, and eventually 24 AAs in DBS were quantified. The results of the present study prove that this method as a second-tier test in newborn screening for metabolic diseases could be performed by the quantification of free AAs in DBS using the LC-MS/MS method. The assay has advantages of high sensitive, specific, and inexpensive merits because non-deuterated internal standard and acetic acid instead of ion-pairing agent in mobile phase are used in this protocol.

  7. Blood pressure-independent effect of candesartan on cardio-ankle vascular index in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Bokuda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Kanako Bokuda1, Atsuhiro Ichihara1,2, Mariyo Sakoda1, Asako Mito1, Kenichiro Kinouchi1, Hiroshi Itoh11Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Endocrinology and Anti-Aging Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs are known to reduce the cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. This study was designed to examine the effect of an ARB candesartan on subclinical atherosclerosis assessed by cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI in comparison with calcium channel blockers (CCBs alone in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS. A total of 53 consecutive hypertensive patients with MetS were randomly assigned to the candesartan group, in which candesartan was added on, or the CCBs group, in which CCBs were added on. Clinical and biological parameters were obtained before and after the 12-month treatment period. The primary measure of efficacy was the %change in CAVI. When treated with candesartan, but not CCBs, CAVI significantly decreased from 8.7 to 7.7 by 11%. Blood pressure (BP significantly decreased with both treatments, but the differences between groups were not significant. The changes in other parameters remained unchanged in both the groups. Analysis of covariance found that both the BP reduction and the therapy difference contributed to the decrease in CAVI, but the BP reduction was not involved in the decrease in CAVI caused by the difference in the therapy. Candesartan may be a better antihypertensive drug than CCBs to that subclinical atherosclerosis of patients with MetS.Keywords: albuminuria, ambulatory blood pressure, calcium channel blockers, carotid ­intima-media thickness

  8. Changes in glutamate concentration, glucose metabolism, and cerebral blood flow during focal brain cooling of the epileptogenic cortex in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Sadahiro; Fujii, Masami; Inoue, Takao; He, Yeting; Maruta, Yuichi; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Suehiro, Eiichi; Imoto, Hirochika; Ishihara, Hideyuki; Oka, Fumiaki; Matsumoto, Mishiya; Owada, Yuji; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2014-05-01

    Recently, focal brain cooling (FBC) was proposed as a method for treating refractory epilepsy. However, the precise influence of cooling on the molecular basis of epilepsy has not been elucidated. Thus the aim of this study was to assess the effect of FBC on glutamate (Glu) concentration, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and glucose metabolism in patients with intractable epilepsy. Nine patients underwent FBC at 15°C for 30 min prior to cortical resection (n = 6) or hippocampectomy (n = 3). Measurement of metabolites and CBF, as well as electrocorticography (ECoG), was performed. Epileptic discharge (ED), as observed by ECoG, disappeared in the cooling period and reappeared in the rewarming period. Glu concentrations were high during the precooling period and were reduced to 51.2% during the cooling period (p = 0.025). Glycerol levels showed a similar decrease (p = 0.028). Lactate concentration was high during the precooling period and was reduced during the cooling period (21.3% decrease; p = 0.005). Glucose and pyruvate levels were maintained throughout the procedure. Changes in CBF were parallel to those observed by ECoG. FBC reduced EDs and concentrations of Glu and glycerol. This demonstrates the neuroprotective effect of FBC. Our findings confirm that FBC is a reasonable and optimal treatment option for patients with intractable epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  9. The Effects Of Two Fitness Programs With Different Metabolic Demands On Oxidative Stress In The Blood Of Young Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordjevic Dusica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of two metabolically different exercise programs on the redox state of women who were physically inactive before the beginning of the study. For this purpose, participants (women 25±5 years old chose one of two popular fitness programs, Pilates or Tae Bo, and attended it 3 times a week for 12 weeks. At the beginning and end of the study, body composition analysis and venous blood sampling were performed. The levels of superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation were measured in plasma, and the levels of reduced glutathione and the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase were measured in erythrocytes. Only the Tae Bo program induced changes (positive in body composition, whereas both exercise programs induced slight oxidative stress in exercisers. In the Tae Bo group, the levels of hydrogen peroxide were significantly increased, whereas the levels of reduced glutathione were decreased after three months of training. In the Pilates group, hydrogen peroxide and catalase activity were increased, and nitrites decreased. However, at the end of the study, those two groups had no significantly different values for any pro/antioxidant compared with the subjects who served as controls. This finding suggests that moderate physical activity, such as recreational fitness programs, may induce the increased production of reactive oxygen species but do not lead to a serious disturbance of the redox homeostasis of exercisers.

  10. Role of Metabolic Genes in Blood Arsenic Concentrations of Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Rahbar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a toxic metalloid with known adverse effects on human health. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST genes, including GSTT1, GSTP1, and GSTM1, play a major role in detoxification and metabolism of xenobiotics. We investigated the association between GST genotypes and whole blood arsenic concentrations (BASC in Jamaican children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD. We used data from 100 ASD cases and their 1:1 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD controls (age 2–8 years from Jamaica. Using log-transformed BASC as the dependent variable in a General Linear Model, we observed a significant interaction between GSTP1 and ASD case status while controlling for several confounding variables. However, for GSTT1 and GSTM1 we did not observe any significant associations with BASC. Our findings indicate that TD children who had the Ile/Ile or Ile/Val genotype for GSTP1 had a significantly higher geometric mean BASC than those with genotype Val/Val (3.67 µg/L vs. 2.69 µg/L, p < 0.01. Although, among the ASD cases, this difference was not statistically significant, the direction of the observed difference was consistent with that of the TD control children. These findings suggest a possible role of GSTP1 in the detoxification of arsenic.

  11. Predictive utility of blood pressure, waist circumference and body mass index for metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjono, Milawaty; Lee, Jimmy

    2013-05-01

    This study aims to examine and compare the predictive utility of blood pressure (BP), waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), and to determine optimal cut-off values in prediction of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with chronic schizophrenia. About 100 patients with chronic schizophrenia were recruited. BMI and BP were measured and laboratory tests to evaluate patients' high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels were performed. Presence of MetS was examined according to AHA/NHLBI guidelines. Predictive utility of BP, WC and BMI was examined using receiver operating curve and discriminant indices were determined accordingly. Forty-six (46%) patients were identified to have MetS. BMI of ≥23 kg m(-2) was most accurate (AUC = 0.83, P < 0.001), with sensitivity of 93.5%, specificity of 48.1%, positive predictive value of 60.6% and negative predictive value of 92.9% in identifying MetS. This finding has immediate and significant clinical implications in the local population with schizophrenia. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Employee perceptions regarding whistle-blowing in the workplace: A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Perks

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of whistle-blowing is to eradicate unethical behaviour in the work place. This article investigates the perceptions of South African employees (n=387 employed in medium and large organisations regarding whistle-blowing. Respondents regard personal viewpoints and the supportive organisational environment as determining factors for whistle-blowing. South African employees have faced minimal negative consequences and will again engage in whistle-blowing, regardless of union support. Organisations can create a whistle-blowing culture by having a personal code of ethics, using hotlines, having an ethical committee, engaging in periodic ethics training and doing an annual ethical audit.

  13. Effect of diet composition and mixture of selected food additives on the erythrocytic system and iron metabolism in peripheral blood of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Joanna; Kuchlewska, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic processes of food additives which are "exogenous xenobiotics" are catalysed, primarily, by enzymes located in microsomes of hepatocytes affiliated to P-450 cytochrome superfamily, containing iron. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of diet composition and selected food additives on the erythrocyte system and iron metabolism in peripheral blood of male rats. The experiment was carried out on 30 male rats sorted into three equinumerous groups. For drinking animals received pure, settled tap water, animals from group III were receiving additionally an aqueous solution of sodium (nitrate), potassium nitrite, benzoic acid, sorbic acid and monosodium glutamate. Ascertained a significant effect of changes in diet composition on the increase in hematocrit marker value and the count of red blood cells in blood of animals examined. Used food additives diminished hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit value and red blood cell count, diminishing also iron concentration in serum, the total iron binding capacity and transferrin saturation with iron. Analysis of the results allowed ascertain adverse changes in values of the erythrocytic system markers, occurring under the influence of the applied mixture of food additives. Used food additives change the iron metabolism, most likely from the necessity of applied xenobiotics biotransformation by heme-containing monoxygenases of P-450 cytochrome.

  14. Organic and inorganic sources of zinc, copper and selenium in diets for dairy cows: intake, blood metabolic profile, milk yield and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Simões Cortinhas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effects of feeding dairy cows with organic or inorganic sources of zinc (Zn, copper (Cu and selenium (Se on blood concentrations of these minerals, blood metabolic profiles, nutrient intake and milk yield and composition. Nineteen Holstein cows were selected and randomly assigned to two groups for receiving organic (n = 9 or inorganic (n = 10 sources of Zn, Cu and Se from 60 days before the expected date of calving to 80 days of lactation. Samples of feed, orts and milk were collected for analysis. Body condition score (BCS was determined and blood samples were collected for analysis of Zn, Cu and Se concentrations, as well as for metabolic profile. Supplying organic or inorganic sources of Zn, Cu, and Se did not affect dry matter and nutrient intake, blood metabolic profile, milk yield and composition, plasma concentration of these minerals, and BCS or change the BCS in cows from 60 days before the expected date of calving to 80 days of lactation. An effect of time was observed on all feed intake variables, plasma concentrations of Zn and Se, milk yield, milk protein content, BCS and change in BCS.

  15. Some peculiarities of radioactive elements metabolism in body according to the indices of activity of blood and urine in malignant neoplasms of different localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelashvili, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    Background beta-radioactivity of blood and day urine in 115 patients (36 healthy ones and 79 suffering from malignant tumor of different localization) taking into account age was determined. It is shown that changes in background radioactivity of blood and urine both in healthy and oncologic patients are mostly presented in old age. Increase of background radioactivity of blood and urine takes place mainly not due to 40 K, but other beta-active elements - in healthy persons. Activity of blood and day urine in patients with malignant tumors decreases due to other beta-emittor, but not 40 K. Some changes in metabolic processes of beta-active elements of an organism both with the growth increase and when developing malignant tumors are established. 1 tab

  16. Blueberries improve endothelial function, but not blood pressure, in adults with metabolic syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, April J; Cash, Katherine C; Champagne, Catherine M; Gupta, Alok K; Boston, Raymond; Beyl, Robbie A; Johnson, William D; Cefalu, William T

    2015-05-27

    Blueberry consumption has been shown to have various health benefits in humans. However, little is known about the effect of blueberry consumption on blood pressure, endothelial function and insulin sensitivity in humans. The present study investigated the role of blueberry consumption on modifying blood pressure in subjects with metabolic syndrome. In addition, endothelial function and insulin sensitivity (secondary measurements) were also assessed. A double-blind and placebo-controlled study was conducted in 44 adults (blueberry, n = 23; and placebo, n = 21). They were randomized to receive a blueberry or placebo smoothie twice daily for six weeks. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure, endothelial function and insulin sensitivity were assessed pre- and post-intervention. The blood pressure and insulin sensitivity did not differ between the blueberry and placebo groups. However, the mean change in resting endothelial function, expressed as reactive hyperemia index (RHI), was improved significantly more in the group consuming the blueberries versus the placebo group (p = 0.024). Even after adjusting for confounding factors, i.e., the percent body fat and gender, the blueberry group still had a greater improvement in endothelial function when compared to their counterpart (RHI; 0.32 ± 0.13 versus -0.33 ± 0.14; p = 0.0023). In conclusion, daily dietary consumption of blueberries did not improve blood pressure, but improved (i.e., increased) endothelial function over six weeks in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

  17. Relationship between metabolic control and self-monitoring of blood glucose in insulin-treated patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto González, Alfonso; Quintela Fernández, Niurka; Pumar López, Alfonso; Darias Garzón, Ricardo; Rivas Fernández, Margarita; Barberá Comes, Gloria

    2015-05-01

    To assess the relationship between metabolic control (MC) and frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in insulin-treated patients with type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 (T2DM) diabetes mellitus, and to analyze the factors associated to MC. A multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted in which endocrinologists enrolled diabetic patients treated with insulin who used a glucometer. The cut-off value for MC was HbA1c ≤ 7%. Grade of acceptance of the glucometer was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). A total of 341 patients (53.5% males) with a mean age (SD) 52.8 (16.3) years, mean HbA1c of 7.69% (1.25) and 128 (37.5%) with T1DM and 211 (61.9%) with T2DM were evaluable. SMBG was done by 86.1% at least once weekly. No relationship was seen between MC and SMBG (P=.678) in the overall sample or in the T1DM (P=.940) or T2DM (P=.343) subgroups. In the logistic regression model, hyperglycemic episodes (Exp-b [risk] 1.794, P=0.022), falsely elevated HbA1c values (Exp-b 3.182, P=.005), and VAS (Exp-b 1.269, P=.008) were associated to poor MC in the total sample. Hyperglycemic episodes (Exp-b 2.538, P=.004), falsely elevated HbA1c values (Exp-b 3.125, P=.012), and VAS (Exp-b 1.316, P=.026) were associated to poor MC in the T2DM subgroup, while body mass index (Exp-b 1.143, P=.046) was associated to poor MC in the T1DM subgroup. In this retrospective, non-controlled study on patients with DM treated with insulin who used a glucometer, no relationship was seen between the degree of metabolic control and frequency of use of the glucometer. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis in detecting inborn errors of metabolism using blood spots: a metabonomic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, M.A.; Papakonstantinou, E.; Benaki, D.; Spraul, M.; Shulpis, K.; Koupparis, M.A.; Mikros, E.

    2004-01-01

    NMR spectra of extracted blood spots were used to investigate the possibility for the development of a new method for mass screening concerning the diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). Blood spots were collected on filter papers from normal, phenylketonuric (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) subjects and their Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) 1 H NMR spectra were acquired. The spectra were reduced to a number of spectral descriptors and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. The scores plot showed that PKU and MSUD samples were well discriminated from the main cluster of points

  19. The Strong Disjoint Blow-Up/Collapse Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor N. Salas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be a topological vector space, and let be the algebra of continuous linear operators on . The operators are disjoint hypercyclic if there is such that the orbit is dense in . Bès and Peris have shown that if satisfy the Disjoint Blow-up/Collapse property, then they are disjoint hypercyclic. In a recent paper Bès, Martin, and Sanders, among other things, have characterized disjoint hypercyclic -tuples of weighted shifts in terms of this property. We introduce the Strong Disjoint Blow-up/Collapse property and prove that if satisfy this new property, then they have a dense linear manifold of disjoint hypercyclic vectors. This allows us to give a partial affirmative answer to one of their questions.

  20. INCOMPRESSIBLE LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYER CONTROL BY BLOWING AND SUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    AZZEDINE NAHOUI; LAKHDAR BAHI

    2013-01-01

    A two-dimensional incompressible laminar boundary layer and its control using blowing and suction over a flat plate and around the NACA 0012 and 661012 profiles, is studied numerically. The study is based on the Prandtl boundary layer model using the finite differences method and the Crank-Nicolson scheme. The velocity distribution, the boundary layer thickness and the friction coefficient, are determined and presented with and without control. The application of the control technique, has de...

  1. Blow.MOD2: a program for blowdown transient calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doval, A.

    1990-01-01

    The BLOW.MOD2 program has been developed to calculate the blowdown phase in a pressurized vessel after a break/valve is opened. It is a one volume model where break height and flow area are specified. Moody critical flow model was adopted under saturation conditions for flow calculation through the break. Heat transfer from structures and internals have been taken into account. Long term depressurization results and a more complex model are compared satisfactorily. (Author)

  2. Blood glucose control for individuals with type-2 diabetes: acute effects of resistance exercise of lower cardiovascular-metabolic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Sérgio R; Simões, Graziela C; Moraes, José Fernando V N; Motta, Daisy F; Campbell, Carmen S G; Simões, Herbert G

    2012-10-01

    This study compared the effects of resistance exercise (RE) intensities on blood glucose (GLUC) of individuals without (ND) and with type-2 diabetes (T2D). Nine individuals with T2D and 10 ND performed: (a) RE circuit at 23% of 1 maximal repetition (1RM) (RE_L); (b) RE circuit at 43% 1RM (RE_M); and (c) control (CON) session. Blood lactate (LAC) and GLUC were measured before, during, and postinterventions. Double product (DP) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. The area under the curve (AUC) revealed the effects of RE circuits in reducing GLUC in individuals with T2D (RE_L: 12,556 ± 3,269 vs. RE_M: 13,433 ± 3,054 vs. CON: 14,576 ± 3,922 mg.dl(-1).145 minutes; p AUC of GLUC in RE_L in comparison to RE_M. Similarly, for ND the RE_L reduced the AUC of GLUC when compared with RE_M and CON (RE_L: 10,943 ± 956 vs. RE_M: 12,156 ± 1,062 vs. CON: 11,498 ± 882 mg.dl(-1).145 minutes; p AUC of GLUC was higher for T2D compared with ND on CON condition (p = 0.02). However, after RE circuits the difference between groups for AUC of GLUC was abolished. The RE_M for T2D was more stressful when compared with RE_L for LAC (CON: 1.3 ± 0.5 vs. RE_L: 5.5 ± 1.5 vs. RE_M: 6.8 ± 1.3 mmol·L(-1); p < 0.05), DP (CON: 8,415 ± 1,223 vs. RE_L: 15,980 ± 2,007 vs. RE_M: 18,047 ± 3,693 mmHg.bpm(-1); p < 0.05), and RPE (RE_L: 11 ± 2 vs. RE_M: 13 ± 2 Borg Scale; p < 0.05). We concluded that RE_L and RE_M were effective in reducing GLUC for individuals with T2D, with lower cardiovascular-metabolic and perceptual stress being observed for RE_L. These data suggest that acute RE sessions at light or moderate intensities are effective for controlling GLUC in individuals with T2D.

  3. Comprehensive metabolic panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic panel - comprehensive; Chem-20; SMA20; Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-20; SMAC20; Metabolic panel 20 ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) - blood. In: ... Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: ...

  4. Analysis of Tonguing and Blowing Actions During Clarinet Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Pàmies-Vilà

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Articulation on the clarinet is achieved by a combination of precise actions taking place inside the player's mouth. With the aim to analyse the effects of tonguing and blowing actions during playing, several physical variables are measured and parameters related to articulation are studied. Mouth pressure, mouthpiece pressure and reed displacement are recorded in an experiment with clarinet players to evaluate the influence of the player's actions on the selected parameters and on the sound. The results show that different combinations of tongue and blowing actions are used during performance. Portato and legato playing show constant blowing throughout the musical phrase, which varies according to the dynamic level. In portato, short tongue-reed interaction is used homogeneously among players and playing conditions. In staccato playing, where the tongue-reed contact is longer, the mouth pressure is reduced significantly between notes. Such a mouth-pressure decrease might be used to stop the note in slow staccato playing. It is hereby shown that when the note is stopped by the action of the tongue both the attack and release transients are shorter compared to the case where the vibration of the reed is stopped by a decrease of mouth pressure.

  5. Sex determination mechanisms in the Calliphoridae (blow flies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M J; Pimsler, M L; Tarone, A M

    2014-01-01

    The Calliphoridae or blow flies are a family of insects that occupy diverse habitats and perform important ecological roles, particularly the decomposition of animal remains. Some Calliphoridae species are also important in the forensic sciences, in agriculture (e.g. as livestock pests) and in medicine (e.g. maggot therapy). Calliphoridae provide striking examples in support of the hypothesis that sex determination regulatory gene hierarchies evolve in the reverse order, with the gene at the top being the most recently added. Unlike the model fly Drosophila melanogaster, where sex is determined by the number of X chromosomes, in the Australian sheep blow fly (Lucilia cuprina) sex is determined by a Y-linked male-determining gene (M). A different regulatory system appears to operate in the hairy maggot blow fly (Chrysomya rufifacies) where the maternal genotype determines sex. It is hypothesized that females heterozygous for a dominant female-determining factor (F/f) produce only female offspring and homozygous f/f females produce only sons. The bottom of the regulatory hierarchy appears to be the same in D. melanogaster and L. cuprina, with sex-specific splicing of doublesex transcripts being controlled by the female-specific Transformer (TRA) protein. We discuss a model that has been proposed for how tra transcripts are sex-specifically spliced in calliphorids, which is very different from D. melanogaster. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Control of leading edge vortex breakdown by blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, K. D.; Iwanski, K. P.; Nelson, R. C.; Ng, T. T.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation into the effects of using a jet of air to control the vortex breakdown position on a 70 degree delta wing is presented. The specific objectives focused on optimizing the blowing positions in terms of maximum lift increments obtained for minimum blowing rates. The tests were conducted at chord Reynolds numbers of 150,000, 200,000, and 250,000 at angles of incidence of 30 and 35 degrees. Visualization and force data is presented to show the effect of the jet on the wing aerodynamic characteristics. The results indicate a jet position located at and aligned parallel to the leading edge to be the optimum. Nearness to the apex and tangency to the upper surface were also crucial factors. The influence of the jet on the leading edge vortex structure was examined using laser Doppler anemometry. Velocity surveys through the vortex showed that at high blowing rates the parallel velocity in the outer swirling region of the vortex increased and the normal velocity decreased. This resulted in a decrease in the swirling angle in the outer region. The peak core velocity was reduced and the vortex breakdown was delayed.

  7. Analysis of Tonguing and Blowing Actions During Clarinet Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pàmies-Vilà, Montserrat; Hofmann, Alex; Chatziioannou, Vasileios

    2018-01-01

    Articulation on the clarinet is achieved by a combination of precise actions taking place inside the player's mouth. With the aim to analyse the effects of tonguing and blowing actions during playing, several physical variables are measured and parameters related to articulation are studied. Mouth pressure, mouthpiece pressure and reed displacement are recorded in an experiment with clarinet players to evaluate the influence of the player's actions on the selected parameters and on the sound. The results show that different combinations of tongue and blowing actions are used during performance. Portato and legato playing show constant blowing throughout the musical phrase, which varies according to the dynamic level. In portato, short tongue-reed interaction is used homogeneously among players and playing conditions. In staccato playing, where the tongue-reed contact is longer, the mouth pressure is reduced significantly between notes. Such a mouth-pressure decrease might be used to stop the note in slow staccato playing. It is hereby shown that when the note is stopped by the action of the tongue both the attack and release transients are shorter compared to the case where the vibration of the reed is stopped by a decrease of mouth pressure.

  8. Different effects of paliperidone and risperidone therapy on blood lipid and Hcy metabolism as well as endocrine hormones in patients with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Bei-Fang Fan; Ze-Hui Li; Shuo Yang; Cai-Hong Gao

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To explore the different effects of paliperidone and risperidone therapy on blood lipid and Hcy metabolism as well as endocrine hormones in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 118 patients with schizophrenia who were treated in the hospital between December 2014 and February 2017 were collected as the research subjects and divided into control group and study group by random number table, each group with 59 cases. Control group received risperidone thera...

  9. The structural and metabolic peculiarities of the blood cells in children suffered from the influence of the unfavorable factors of the Chernobyl' accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanova, E.I.; Davidenko, O.A.; Galichanskaya, T.Ya.; Knyazeva, O.B.; Eremenko, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    Of 1195 children studied in different postaccidents periods, there were 875 children with doses on the thyroid gland from 10 to 980 and the doses of the total irradiation from 1.0 to 5.2. The presence of correlation relationship between the manifestation of the morphological and metabolic changes in the blood cells and the intencity of the freeradical processes in the organism has been determined. 17 refs.; 2 tabs

  10. Combination therapy with lercanidipine and enalapril reduced central blood pressure augmentation in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Bruno, Rosa Maria; Cartoni, Giulia; Stea, Francesco; Magagna, Armando; Virdis, Agostino; Grassi, Davide; Ferri, Claudio; Taddei, Stefano

    2017-05-01

    Arterial stiffness and blood pressure (BP) augmentation are independent predictors of cardiovascular events. In a randomized, open, parallel group study we compared the effect on these parameters of combination therapy with an ACE-inhibitor plus calcium channel blocker or thiazide diuretic in 76 hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome uncontrolled by ACE-inhibitor monotherapy. After 4weeks run-in with enalapril (ENA, 20mg), patients were randomized to a combination therapy with lercanidipine (LER, 10-20mg) or hydrochlorothiazide (HCT, 12.5-25mg) for 24weeks. Aortic stiffness (carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity, PWV), central BP values and augmentation (augmentation index, AIx) were measured by applanation tonometry. The two groups showed similar office and central BP after run-in. Office (ENA/LER: from 149.1±4.9/94.5±1.5 to 131.7±8.1/82.2±5.3; ENA/HCT: from 150.3±4.7/94.7±2.1 to 133.1±7.1/82.8±5.3mmHg) and central BP (ENA/LER 127.4±17.1/85.2±12.1 to 120.5±13.5/80.0±9.5mmHg; ENA/HCT 121.6±13.4/79.3±9.5mmHg) were similarly reduced after 24weeks. PWV was comparable after run-in and not differently reduced by the two treatments (ENA/LER from 8.6±1.5 to 8.1±1.3m/s, pmetabolic syndrome not controlled by ENA alone. These results indicate a positive effect of the combination of ENA/LER on central BP augmentation, suggesting a potential additive role for cardiovascular protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on ambulatory blood pressure in metabolic syndrome: a randomized SYSDIET sub-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brader, L; Uusitupa, M; Dragsted, L O; Hermansen, K

    2014-01-01

    Dietary pattern is central in the prevention of hypertension and blood pressure (BP)-related diseases. A diet based on healthy Nordic foods may have a favourable impact on BP. The objective was to clarify whether a Nordic alternative for a healthy food pattern would have beneficial effects on ambulatory BP in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS). In total, 37 subjects were randomized to either a healthy Nordic diet or a control diet. A healthy Nordic diet embraced whole grains, rapeseed oil, berries, fruits, vegetables, fish, nuts and low-fat dairy products of Nordic origin. The mean nutrient intake in the Nordic countries formed the control diet, embracing wheat products, dairy fat-based spread and a lower intake of fruits, vegetables and fish. Diets were isoenergetic. Ambulatory BP was monitored and 24-h urine was collected before and after 12 weeks of intervention. After 12 weeks, ambulatory diastolic BP (-4.4 mm Hg; P=0.001) and mean arterial pressure (-4.2 mm Hg; P=0.006) were lowered by the healthy Nordic diet compared with the control diet, whereas changes in ambulatory systolic BP did not differ significantly between diets (-3.5 mm Hg; P=0.122). Heart rate tended to be lower in those on the healthy Nordic diet (P=0.057). Urinary sodium and potassium excretions were unaffected by diets and consequently not associated with the healthy Nordic diet-induced lowering of BP. Consumption of Nordic varieties of health-enhancing foods for 12 weeks decreased diastolic ambulatory BP and mean arterial pressure in subjects with features of MetS during weight-stable condition, suggesting beneficial effects of a healthy Nordic dietary pattern on ambulatory BP.

  12. Correlation between quantitative EEG and cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudoh, Masako; Takahashi, Satoshi; Yonezawa, Hisashi

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative scalp EEG and cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen metabolism (CMRO 2 ) measured by the steady-state 15 O technique and positron emission tomography were studied in 19 patients with mild to moderate dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT) and age-matched controls (EEG=19, PET=6). Scalp electrodes were placed according to the international 10-20 method except for Cz, T3, and T4. To evaluate the relative changes in power for each frequency band between the two groups, the percentage power fraction (percentage power for each frequency band at a site compared to the total power at that site; %delta for 2.0-3.8 Hz, %theta for 4.0-7.8 Hz, %alpha for 8.0-12.8 Hz, %beta for 13.0-25.4 Hz) was calculated. Compared with controls, DAT patients showed a significant decrease in %alpha, while significant increases in %theta at all electrodes, and significant increases in %delta at the temporal, parietal and occipital electrodes were observed. The patient group displayed a significant decrease in rCBF and rCMRO 2 in the parietal, temporal and frontal cortices, but the reduction in rCMRO 2 was less remarkable than that of rCBF. %Theta at P3, O1 and O2 showed a significant negative correlation with rCBF, and %theta at P3, O1showed a significant negative correlation with rCMRO 2 . %Delta at P3, P4 and T5 was significantly negatively correlated with rCBF in the corresponding regions, and %alpha at almost all the electrodes (except O1, F3, P3) was significantly positively correlated with rCBF in the corresponding regions. %Delta and %alpha did not show any significant correlation with rCMRO 2 . (author)

  13. The effects of anticholinergic drugs on regional cerebral blood flow, and oxygen metabolism in previously untreated patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Satoko; Takahashi, Satoshi; Yonezawa, Hisashi; Sato, Yoshitomo

    1998-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and oxygen metabolism (rCMRO 2 ) were measured using the steady-state 15 O technique and positron emission tomography (PET) in six previously untreated patients with Parkinson's disease before and after trihexyphenidyl (THP) treatment. The patients comprised of 4 men and 2 women with Hoehn-Yahr stage II-III. Their ages at the onset of the study ranged from 46 to 57 years (mean±SD, 51.8±3.7) and the duration of the illness ranged from 10 to 48 months (mean±SD, 28.8±15.5). The PET study, assessments of the disability and cognitive function were undergone twice. The first time assessments were done was when the patients were not receiving any drugs, and the second time was one to three months after administration of 6 mg THP. All patients showed clinical improvement after THP treatment. The mean disability score of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale decreased from 35.1 (SD±11.3) to 25.7 (SD±11.6). The cognitive function assessed by Hasegawa's dementia rating scale-revised, Mini-Mental State Examination, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, were not significantly different before and after the THP treatment. After the THP treatment, rCBF and rCMRO 2 decreased significantly in the striatum (about 15%) and all cerebral cortices (about 10%) on both sides contralateral and ipsilateral to the predominantly symptomatic limbs. We conclude that an anticholinergic THP decreases the rCBF and rCMRO 2 significantly in the cerebral cortices without cognitive impairment in early untreated patients with Parkinson's disease. (author)

  14. [Blood-sugar self control. A means for the diabetic of controlling his metabolic management. Quality control of a battery-run pocket size reflectometer (glucose-meter)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, F; Jörgens, V; Chantelau, E; Berchtold, P; Berger, M

    1980-07-26

    Home blood glucose monitoring by diabetic patients has recently been advocated as an effective means to improve metabolic control. The Glucocheck apparatus, a pocket-size battery-driven reflectance-meter (in Germany commercially available under the name Glucose-meter), has been evaluated for accuracy and practicability. In 450 blood glucose measurements, the variance between the values obtained using the Glucocheck apparatus and routine clinical laboratory procedures was +/- 11.7%. Especially in the low range of blood glucose concentrations, the Glucocheck method was very reliable. The quantitative precision of the Glucocheck method depends, however, quite considerably on the ability of the patient to use the apparatus correctly. In order to profit from Glucocheck in clinical practice, particular efforts to educate the patients in its use are necessary.

  15. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during controlled hypotension with sodium-nitroprusside and general anaesthesia for total hip replacement a.m. Charnley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenemann, L.; Jensen, K.; Thomsen, L.; Riisager, S.

    1987-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRo 2 ) were studied during hypotension induced with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in 10 patients undergoing total hip replacement a.m. Charnley. Cerebral blood flow was measured using an injection of xenon-133 into an arm vein. The decay curve was detected by five scintillation counters placed over each hemisphere and analysed with the Novo 10a cerebrograph. Blood samples were drawn from the radial artery and the jugular venous bulb to calculate the CMRo 2 . In the gropu as a whole, there were significant decreases in mean arterial pressure and in cerebrovascular resistance. There were no significant changes, in either CBF or CMRo 2 in the gropu as a whole, but there were substantial individual differences. In conclusion, the use of SNP-induced hypotension for extracranial surgery should be used only in patients monitored closely. (author)

  16. Dynamics of indicators of a metabolic exchange and condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities after traction extension at patients with lumbar and sacral dorsopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotenko К.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study influence of traction therapy in a pulse mode in a complex with electrotherapy on a condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities and level of a metabolic exchange. Material and methods. There had been examined 120 patients with a lumbar and sacral dorsopathy aged from 22 to 69 years (middle age of 49,5 years with prescription of a disease from 1 to 5 years, among them men of 34,2%, women of 65,8%. Results. The analysis of effects of various medical methods on a condition of local blood circulation in the bottom extremities showed that the most expressed its compensation is noted at complex application of mechanical pulse traction influence and electrotherapy for patients with a dorsopathy of lumbar and sacral department of a backbone that is confirmed by restoration to normal values of all indicators rheovasogramm. Conclusion. High clinical results of application of the combined medical and rehabilitation complex are based on compensation of local blood circulation that is shown in elimination of deficiency of blood supply due to improvement of a tone of arterial vessels and elimination of venous stagnation, and also due to increase of linear speed of a blood-groove and development of collateral blood circulation. Application of electrical impulse and mechanical traction influences, more at their combination promotes fermentative activity of the systems responsible for a protein exchange that is important for prevention of degenerate and dystrophic process progressing.

  17. Chronic free-choice drinking in crossed high alcohol preferring mice leads to sustained blood ethanol levels and metabolic tolerance without evidence of liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David; Buckingham, Amy; Ross, Ruth Ann; Halcomb, Meredith; Grahame, Nicholas

    2013-02-01

    Crossed high alcohol preferring (cHAP) mice were selectively bred from a cross of the HAP1 × HAP2 replicate lines, and we demonstrate blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) during free-choice drinking that are reminiscent of those observed in alcohol-dependent humans. Therefore, this line may provide an unprecedented opportunity to learn about the consequences of excessive voluntary ethanol (EtOH) consumption, including metabolic tolerance and liver pathology. Cytochrome p450 2E1 (CYP2E1) induction plays a prominent role in driving both metabolic tolerance and EtOH-induced liver injury. In this report, we sought to characterize cHAP drinking by assessing whether pharmacologically relevant BEC levels are sustained throughout the active portion of the light-dark cycle. Given that cHAP intakes and BECs are similar to those observed in mice given an EtOH liquid diet, we assessed whether free-choice exposure results in metabolic tolerance, hepatic enzyme induction, and hepatic steatosis. In experiment 1, blood samples were taken across the dark portion of a 12:12 light-dark cycle to examine the pattern of EtOH accumulation in these mice. In experiments 1 and 2, mice were injected with EtOH following 3 to 4 weeks of access to water or 10% EtOH and water, and blood samples were taken to assess metabolic tolerance. In experiment 3, 24 mice had 4 weeks of access to 10% EtOH and water or water alone, followed by necropsy and hepatological assessment. In experiment 1, cHAP mice mean BEC values exceeded 80 mg/dl at all sampling points and approached 200 mg/dl during the middle of the dark cycle. In experiments 1 and 2, EtOH-exposed mice metabolized EtOH faster than EtOH-naïve mice, demonstrating metabolic tolerance (p alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. These results demonstrate that excessive intake by cHAP mice results in sustained BECs throughout the active period, leading to the development of metabolic tolerance and evidence of CYP2E1 induction

  18. [The non-etherifying and free fatty acids of blood plasma. Pathogenesis of arterial hypertension and symptoms of syndrome of overeating-metabolic syndrome: a lecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N

    2013-12-01

    From point of view of physiology, the metabolic syndrome is a syndrome of overeating when an optimal by the content of fatty acids in food is too much a physologically. This condition forms an omental variant of increase of body mass. The oleic triglycerides cumulate in fatty cells of omentum and after activation of lypolisis at the level of paracrinically regulating associations of cells and organs release into blood many non-etherifying fatty acids. The albumin has no possibilities to bind them all. The polar fatty acids-free fatty acids which are not bind by albumin form in blood direct heterogeneous micelles which spontaneously incorporate into plasmatic membrane of monolayer of endothelium. At that, the hydrophilic lipid pores are formed through which Ca2+, Na+ and water get into cytosol and K+ gets out. The hydration of cytosol and hypercalcinemia increase dimensions, thickness of monolayer of epithelium, narrow lumen of arterioles of muscular type and increase resistance to blood flow in distal section of arterial channel. The hydrodynamic pressure increases compensatory in proximal section of arterial channel along with the development of arterial hypertension. The late in phylogenesis insulin has no possibilities to block lipolysis in fatty cells of omentum hence these cells have no receptors to this insulin. While in blood plasma the concentration of non-etherifying acids is increased the cell will not absorb and oxidize glucose. The non-etherifying form the resistance too late in phylogenesis insulin, hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The concentration of oleic triglycerides increases in blood. The increase in omentum of number of fatty cells of loose connective tissue forms biological reaction of inflammation right up to destruction of overloaded oleic triglycerides cells on the type of apoptosis. This occurrence increases the concentration of C-reactive protein in blood plasma. All symptoms of syndrome of overeating (metabolic syndrome) are formed in

  19. Effects of diuretics on sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor-induced changes in blood pressure in obese rats suffering from the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Asadur; Kittikulsuth, Wararat; Fujisawa, Yoshihide; Sufiun, Abu; Rafiq, Kazi; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Nakano, Daisuke; Sohara, Eisei; Uchida, Shinichi; Nishiyama, Akira

    2016-05-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate whether diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide + furosemide) impact on the effects of a sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor on glucose metabolism and blood pressure (BP) in metabolic syndrome SHR/NDmcr-cp(+/+) rats (SHRcp). Male 13-week-old SHRcp were treated with: vehicle; the SGLT2-inhibitor luseogliflozin (10 mg/kg per day); diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide; 10 mg/kg/day + furosemide; 5 mg/kg per day); or luseogliflozin + diuretics (n = 5-8 for each group) daily by oral gavage for 5 weeks. BP and glucose metabolism were evaluated by a telemetry system and oral glucose tolerance test, respectively. Vehicle-treated SHRcp developed nondipper type hypertension (dark vs. light-period mean arterial pressure: 148.6 ± 0.7 and 148.0 ± 0.7 mmHg, respectively, P = 0.2) and insulin resistance. Compared with vehicle-treated animals, luseogliflozin-treated rats showed an approximately 4000-fold increase in urinary excretion of glucose and improved glucose metabolism. Luseogliflozin also significantly decreased BP and turned the circadian rhythm of BP from a nondipper to dipper pattern (dark vs. light-period mean arterial pressure: 138.0 ± 1.6 and 132.0 ± 1.3 mmHg, respectively, P diuretics did not influence luseogliflozin-induced improvement of glucose metabolism and circadian rhythm of BP in SHRcp. These data suggest that a SGLT2 inhibitor elicits its beneficial effects on glucose metabolism and hypertension in study participants with metabolic syndrome undergoing treatment with diuretics.

  20. Metabolic profiling of five flavonoids from Dragon's Blood in human liver microsomes using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujuan; Zhang, Yushi; Wang, Rui; Wei, Lizhong; Deng, Yulin; Ren, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Although much is known about the pharmacological activities of Dragon's Blood (DB, a traditional Chinese herb), its metabolism in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes has not been studied. This study aims to identify the metabolic profile of five flavonoids (loureirin A, loureirin B, loureirin C, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone and 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone) from DB in HLMs as well as the CYP enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of them. High-resolution mass spectrometry was used to characterize the structures of their metabolites and 10 cDNA-expressed CYP enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5) were used to verify which isozymes mediate in the metabolism of the metabolites. Totally, 29 metabolites including 10 metabolites of loureirin A, 10 metabolites of loureirin B, 4 metabolites of loureirin C, 2 metabolites of 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone and 3 metabolites of 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone were elucidated and identified on the basis of the high-resolution MS n data. The metabolic profile of the five flavonoids in HLMs involved hydroxylation, oxidation and demethylation. Among them, hydroxylation was the predominant biotransformation of the five flavonoids in HLMs, occurring in combination with other metabolic reactions. Assay with recombinant P450s revealed that CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 played an important role in the hydroxylation of flavonoids in HLMs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first in vitro evaluation of the metabolic profile of loureirin A, loureirin B, loureirin C, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone and 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone in HLMs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Monitoring carcinogenesis in a case of oral squamous cell carcinoma using a panel of new metabolic blood biomarkers as liquid biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Martin; Hoefert, Sebastian; Krimmel, Michael; Biegner, Thorsten; Feyen, Oliver; Teriete, Peter; Reinert, Siegmar

    2016-09-01

    One of the common malignant tumors of the head and neck worldwide with generally unfavorable prognosis is squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) of the oral cavity. Early detection of primary, secondary, or recurrent OSCC by liquid biopsy tools is much needed. Twelve blood biomarkers were used for monitoring a case of OSCC suffering from precancerous oral lichen ruber planus mucosae (OLP). After curative R0 tumor resection of primary OSCC (buccal mucosa), elevated epitope detection in monocytes (EDIM)-Apo10, EDIM-transketolase-like-1 (TKTL1), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag), total serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and its anaerobic isoforms (LDH-4, LDH-5) decreased to normal levels. Three and six months after surgery, transformation of suspicious mucosal lesions has been accompanied with an increase of EDIM scores, total serum LDH values, and a metabolic shift from aerobic (decrease of LDH-1, LDH-2) to anaerobic (increase of LDH-4, LDH-5) conditions. Two months later, secondary OSCC was histopathologically analyzed after tissue biopsy. Cytokeratin fraction 21-1 (CYFRA 21-1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) were not affected during the clinical course of carcinogenesis. A combination strategy using a standardized panel of established (metabolic) blood biomarkers (TKTL1, LDH, LDH isoenzymes) is worth and can be recommended among others (apoptosis resistance-related Apo10, SCC-Ag) for early detection and diagnosis of primary, secondary, and recurrent OSCC. A tandem strategy utilizing (metabolic pronounced) routine liquid biopsies with imaging techniques may enhance diagnosis of OSCC in the future. Although we demonstrated the diagnostic utility of separated liquid biopsies in our previous study cohorts, further investigations in a larger patient cohort are necessary to recommend this combination strategy (EDIM blood test, LDH value, metabolic shift of LDH isoenzymes, and others, e.g., SCC-Ag or immunophenotyping) as a

  2. Maternal glucocorticoid elevation and associated blood metabonome changes might be involved in metabolic programming of intrauterine growth retardation in rats exposed to caffeine prenatally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou, Hao; Liu, Yansong; Liang, Gai; Huang, Jing; Hu, Jieqiong; Yan, You-e; Li, Xiaojun; Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang; Zhang, Yuanzhen; Feng, Jianghua; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetuses are over-exposed to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids (GC), and intrauterine metabolic programming and associated metabonome alteration that may be GC-mediated. However, whether maternal metabonomes would be altered and relevant metabolite variations might mediate the development of IUGR remained unknown. In the present studies, we examined the dose- and time-effects of caffeine on maternal metabonome, and tried to clarify the potential roles of maternal GCs and metabonome changes in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Pregnant rats were treated with caffeine (0, 20, 60 or 180 mg/kg · d) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20, or 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from GD9. Metabonomes of maternal plasma on GD20 in the dose–effect study and on GD11, 14 and 17 in the time–course study were analyzed by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Caffeine administration reduced maternal weight gains and elevated both maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels. A negative correlation between maternal/fetal CORT levels and fetal bodyweight was observed. The maternal metabonome alterations included attenuated metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced lipolysis and protein breakdown, and amino acid accumulation, suggesting GC-associated metabolic effects. GC-associated metabolite variations (α/β-glucoses, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate) were observed early following caffeine administration. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine exposure induced maternal GC elevation and metabonome alteration, and maternal GC and relevant discriminatory metabolites might be involved in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine exposure elevated maternal blood glucocorticoid levels. • Prenatal caffeine exposure altered maternal blood metabonomes. • Maternal metabonome

  3. Maternal glucocorticoid elevation and associated blood metabonome changes might be involved in metabolic programming of intrauterine growth retardation in rats exposed to caffeine prenatally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kou, Hao; Liu, Yansong; Liang, Gai; Huang, Jing; Hu, Jieqiong; Yan, You-e; Li, Xiaojun [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Yuanzhen [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Center for Reproductive Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Feng, Jianghua, E-mail: jianghua.feng@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetuses are over-exposed to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids (GC), and intrauterine metabolic programming and associated metabonome alteration that may be GC-mediated. However, whether maternal metabonomes would be altered and relevant metabolite variations might mediate the development of IUGR remained unknown. In the present studies, we examined the dose- and time-effects of caffeine on maternal metabonome, and tried to clarify the potential roles of maternal GCs and metabonome changes in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Pregnant rats were treated with caffeine (0, 20, 60 or 180 mg/kg · d) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20, or 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from GD9. Metabonomes of maternal plasma on GD20 in the dose–effect study and on GD11, 14 and 17 in the time–course study were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Caffeine administration reduced maternal weight gains and elevated both maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels. A negative correlation between maternal/fetal CORT levels and fetal bodyweight was observed. The maternal metabonome alterations included attenuated metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced lipolysis and protein breakdown, and amino acid accumulation, suggesting GC-associated metabolic effects. GC-associated metabolite variations (α/β-glucoses, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate) were observed early following caffeine administration. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine exposure induced maternal GC elevation and metabonome alteration, and maternal GC and relevant discriminatory metabolites might be involved in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine exposure elevated maternal blood glucocorticoid levels. • Prenatal caffeine exposure altered maternal blood metabonomes. • Maternal

  4. Asymptotic properties of blow-up solutions in reaction-diffusion equations with nonlocal boundary flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingchen; Dong, Mengzhen; Li, Fengjie

    2018-04-01

    This paper deals with a reaction-diffusion problem with coupled nonlinear inner sources and nonlocal boundary flux. Firstly, we propose the critical exponents on nonsimultaneous blow-up under some conditions on the initial data. Secondly, we combine the scaling technique and the Green's identity method to determine four kinds of simultaneous blow-up rates. Thirdly, the lower and the upper bounds of blow-up time are derived by using Sobolev-type differential inequalities.

  5. A One-Dimensional Global-Scaling Erosive Burning Model Informed by Blowing Wall Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbey, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    A derivation of turbulent flow parameters, combined with data from erosive burning test motors and blowing wall tests results in erosive burning model candidates useful in one-dimensional internal ballistics analysis capable of scaling across wide ranges of motor size. The real-time burn rate data comes from three test campaigns of subscale segmented solid rocket motors tested at two facilities. The flow theory admits the important effect of the blowing wall on the turbulent friction coefficient by using blowing wall data to determine the blowing wall friction coefficient. The erosive burning behavior of full-scale motors is now predicted more closely than with other recent models.

  6. Blow up of solutions to ordinary differential equations arising in nonlinear dispersive problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Dimova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We study a new class of ordinary differential equations with blow up solutions. Necessary and sufficient conditions for finite blow up time are proved. Based on the new differential equation, a revised version of the concavity method of Levine is proposed. As an application we investigate the non-existence of global solutions to the Cauchy problem of Klein-Gordon, and to the double dispersive equations. We obtain necessary and sufficient condition for finite time blow up with arbitrary positive energy. A very general sufficient condition for blow up is also given.

  7. The preliminary study of the blood perfusion and ammonia metabolism of pituitary using dynamic 13N-NH3 PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiangsong; Tang Anwu; Qiao Suixian; Chen Liguang; Luo Yaowu; Liu Bin; Xu Weiping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To preliminarily study the blood perfusion and ammonia metabolism of pituitary using dynamic 13 N-NH 3 PET imaging. Methods: 13 N-NH 3 PET imaging was performed on 21 subjects without pituitary diseases, 6 of them underwent dynamic PET imaging, and 8 of them underwent brain MRI in addition to PET. PET images were registered with MRI. Results: The pituitary could be clearly seen in 13 N-NH 3 PET images, and being confirmed by PET/MRI image fusion. The size of pituitary was (1.07 +- 0.17) cm x (1.09 +- 0.15) cm x (1.14 +- 0.17) cm, the standard uptake value (SUV) was 3.84 +- 1.75, and the radioactivity ratio of pituitary to thalamus was 1.35 +- 0.63. Pituitary image was seen at 10 s after the internal carotid was seen in dynamic 13 N-NH 3 PET imaging. 13 N-NH 3 was retained in pituitary, and was hardly cleaned out within 20 min. The radioactivity ratio of pituitary to internal carotid was 0.75 +- 0.13 when the radioactivity of internal carotid was at its highest level. Conclusions: The blood flow and ammonia metabolism of pituitary can be observed with dynamic 13 N-NH 3 PET imaging. Ammonia is highly extracted by pituitary, and metabolized in pituitary cells

  8. Interferometric measurement of film thickness during bubble blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Mandracchia, B.; Ferraro, V.; Tammaro, D.; Di Maio, E.; Maffettone, P. L.; Ferraro, P.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we propose digital holography in transmission configuration as an effective method to measure the time-dependent thickness of polymeric films during bubble blowing. We designed a complete set of experiments to measure bubble thickness, including the evaluation of the refractive index of the polymer solution. We report the measurement of thickness distribution along the film during the bubble formation process until the bubble`s rupture. Based on those data, the variation range and variation trend of bubble film thickness are clearly measured during the process of expansion to fracture is indicated.

  9. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in a patient with motor aphasia by positron emission tomography using 15O2 and C15O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Shin; Terashi, Akiro; Kato, Toshiaki; Soeda, Toshiyuki; Iio, Masaaki.

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow and metabolism, in a patient with motor aphasia due to cerebral infarction of the left basal ganglionic region, were studied by positron emission tomography (PET) using 15 O 2 and C 15 O 2 . A 62-year-old woman, right handed, was admitted with a complaint of right hemiparesis. Motor aphasia developed on the following day of hospitalization. CT scan showed low density area in the left caduate nucleus, putamen, internal capsule, and centrum semiovale, but the cortex was intact on the images of CT scan. PET studies were performed 22 days and 92 days after onset of stroke. The first PET study revealed marked reduction of CBF (cerebral blood flow) in the left cortex and subcortex, but CMRO 2 (cerebral oxygen consumption) was relatively preserved and OEF (oxygen extraction fraction) increased. The second PET study showed recovery of CBF in the left cortex and increase of OEF vanished. CMRO 2 decreased in the left posterior frontal region and subcortex. Motor aphasia still continued at the time of the second PET study. Therefore, the left posterior frontal cortex lesion as well as the left subcortex lesion might be related to the occurrence of motor aphasia in this case. The thresholds of CBF and CMRO 2 for developing clinical symptoms are higher than those for developing low density on the images of CT scan. These results suggest the importance of the study of cerebral blood flow and metabolism in the study of the responsible lesion for aphasia. (author)

  10. High intensity interval training (HIIT) improves resting blood pressure, metabolic (MET) capacity and heart rate reserve without compromising cardiac function in sedentary aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Fergal; Herbert, Peter; Elliott, Adrian D; Richards, Jo; Beaumont, Alexander; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F

    2017-05-13

    This study examined a programme of pre-conditioning exercise with subsequent high intensity interval training (HIIT) on blood pressure, echocardiography, cardiac strain mechanics and maximal metabolic (MET) capacity in sedentary (SED) aging men compared with age matched masters athletes (LEX). Using a STROBE compliant observational design, 39 aging male participants (SED; n=22, aged 62.7±5.2yrs) (LEX; n=17, aged=61.1±5.4yrs) were recruited to a study that necessitated three distinct assessment phases; enrolment (Phase A), following pre-conditioning exercise in SED (Phase B), then following 6weeks of HIIT performed once every five days by both groups before reassessment (Phase C). Hemodynamic, echocardiographic and cardiac strain mechanics were obtained at rest and maximal cardiorespiratory and chronotropic responses were obtained at each measurement phase. The training intervention improved systolic, mean arterial blood pressure, rate pressure product and heart rate reserve (each PHIIT. Echocardiography and cardiac strain measures were unremarkable apart from trivial increase to intra-ventricular septum diastole (IVSd) (PHIIT. A programme of preconditioning exercise with HIIT induces clinically relevant improvements in blood pressure, rate pressure product and encourages recovery of heart rate reserve in SED, while improving maximal MET capacity in both SED and LEX without inducing any pathological cardiovascular remodeling. These data add to the emerging repute of HIIT as a safe and promising exercise prescription to improve cardiovascular function and metabolic capacity in sedentary aging. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of symbiotic therapy on anthropometric measures, body composition and blood pressure in patient with metabolic syndrome: a triple blind RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Samira; Shakerhosseini, Rahebeh; Saadat, Navid

    2015-01-01

    Increase in prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes which are of the main risk factors of metabolic syndrome, is not only the result of changes in genetic, diet or physical activity, but also an imbalance of micro flora may play an important role. Therefore, alteration of micro flora using pre/probiotic is considered as a new strategy for treatment of metabolic disorders. The current study is a triple blind randomized controlled trial. 46 patients from both sexes, who fulfilled inclusion criteria, randomly categorized into intervention or placebo group. The intervention and placebo groups consumed 2 probiotic capsules or 2 placebo capsules during 3 months, respectively. Both groups received a weight loss diet, according to their adjusted ideal body weight. Anthropometric, body composition, blood pressure and nutritional measurements were done in the beginning, at 6th week, and at the end of the study. T-test and paired-t test were used for statistical analysis. 40 patients completed the study. BMI, WC, HC, fat mass, lean mass and blood pressure were reduced in all participants (psymbiotic group was less than placebo group, significantly (psymbiotic group continued at least for 12 weeks while it was stopped at week 6 in placebo group. Symbiotic supplement with the weight loss diet had synergistic effects on improvement in systolic blood pressure and anthropometric measurements. Based on our findings, symbiotic can postpone plateau phase of weight loss and it may prevent resistance to further weight loss.

  12. Effects of human immunodeficiency virus and metabolic complications on myocardial nutrient metabolism, blood flow, and oxygen consumption: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cade W Todd

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the general population, peripheral metabolic complications (MC increase the risk for left ventricular dysfunction. Human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV and combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART are associated with MC, left ventricular dysfunction, and a higher incidence of cardiovascular events than the general population. We examined whether myocardial nutrient metabolism and left ventricular dysfunction are related to one another and worse in HIV infected men treated with cART vs. HIV-negative men with or without MC. Methods Prospective, cross-sectional study of myocardial glucose and fatty acid metabolism and left ventricular function in HIV+ and HIV-negative men with and without MC. Myocardial glucose utilization (GLUT, and fatty acid oxidation and utilization rates were quantified using 11C-glucose and 11C-palmitate and myocardial positron emission tomography (PET imaging in four groups of men: 23 HIV+ men with MC+ (HIV+/MC+, 42 ± 6 yrs, 15 HIV+ men without MC (HIV+/MC-, 41 ± 6 yrs, 9 HIV-negative men with MC (HIV-/MC+, 33 ± 5 yrs, and 22 HIV-negative men without MC (HIV-/MC-, 25 ± 6 yrs. Left ventricular function parameters were quantified using echocardiography. Results Myocardial glucose utilization was similar among groups, however when normalized to fasting plasma insulin concentration (GLUT/INS was lower (p Conclusion Men with metabolic complications, irrespective of HIV infection, had lower basal myocardial glucose utilization rates per unit insulin that were related to left ventricular diastolic impairments, indicating that well-controlled HIV infection is not an independent risk factor for blunted myocardial glucose utilization per unit of insulin. Trial Registration NIH Clinical Trials NCT00656851

  13. Time-dependent correlation of cerebral blood flow with oxygen metabolism in activated human visual cortex as measured by fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Fox, Peter T; Yang, Yihong; Lu, Hanzhang; Tan, Li-Hai; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between relative cerebral blood flow (delta CBF) and relative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (delta CMRO(2)) during continuous visual stimulation (21 min at 8 Hz) with fMRI biophysical models by simultaneously measuring of BOLD, CBF and CBV fMRI signals. The delta CMRO(2) was determined by both a newly calibrated single-compartment model (SCM) and a multi-compartment model (MCM) and was in agreement between these two models (P>0.5). The duration-varying delta CBF and delta CMRO(2) showed a negative correlation with time (r=-0.97, PSCM, an incorrect and even an opposite appearance of the flow-metabolism relationship during prolonged visual stimulation (positively linear coupling) can result. The time-dependent negative correlation between flow and metabolism demonstrated in this fMRI study is consistent with a previous PET observation and further supports the view that the increase in CBF is driven by factors other than oxygen demand and the energy demands will eventually require increased aerobic metabolism as stimulation continues.

  14. Metabolomics reveals effects of maternal smoking on endogenous metabolites from lipid metabolism in cord blood of newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Rolle-Kampczyk, Ulrike E.; Krumsiek, Jan; Otto, Wolfgang; Röder, Stefan W; Kohajda, Tibor; Borte, Michael; Theis, Fabian; Lehmann, Irina; von Bergen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A general detrimental effect of smoking during pregnancy on the health of newborn children is well-documented, but the detailed mechanisms remain elusive. Objectives Beside the specific influence of environmental tobacco smoke derived toxicants on developmental regulation the impact on the metabolism of newborn children is of particular interest, first as a general marker of foetal development and second due to its potential predictive value for the later occurrence of metabolic ...

  15. Changes in various metabolic parameters in blood and milk during experimental Escherichia coli mastitis for primiparous Holstein dairy cows during early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey M; Larsen, Torben; Sørensen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundThe objective of this study was to characterize the changes in various metabolic parameters in blood and milk during IMI challenge with Escherichia coli (E. coli) for dairy cows during early lactation. Thirty, healthy primiparous Holstein cows were infused (h = 0) with ~20-40 cfu of live...... the effect of IMI challenge on metabolic responses of cows during early lactation.ResultsBy 12 h, E. coli was recovered from challenged quarters and shedding continued through 72 h. Rectal temperature peaked by 12 h post-challenge and returned to pre-challenge values by 36 h post-IMI challenge. Daily feed...... intake and milk yield decreased (P mastitis challenge. Plasma BHBA decreased (12 h; P

  16. Meta-analysis identifies common and rare variants influencing blood pressure and overlapping with metabolic trait loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, C. (Chunyu); A. Kraja (Aldi); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); J. Brody (Jennifer); N. Franceschini (Nora); J.C. Bis (Joshua); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); Y. Lu (Yingchang); Weiss, S. (Stefan); X. Guo (Xiuqing); W. Palmas (Walter); L.W. Martin (Lisa); Y.D. Chen (Y.); Surendran, P. (Praveen); F. Drenos (Fotios); Cook, J.P. (James P.); P. Auer (Paul); A.Y. Chu (Audrey); Giri, A. (Ayush); Zhao, W. (Wei); M. Jakobsdottir (Margret); Lin, L.-A. (Li-An); J.M. Stafford (Jeanette M.); N. Amin (Najaf); Mei, H. (Hao); J. Yao (Jiefen); J.M. Voorman (Jeanine); M.G. Larson (Martin); M.L. Grove (Megan); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); S.J. Hwang; H. Chen (Han); T. Huan (Tianxiao); Kosova, G. (Gulum); N.O. Stitziel (Nathan); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); H. Schunkert (Heribert); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); M. Li (Man); C. Fuchsberger (Christian); C. Pattaro (Cristian); M. Gorski (Mathias); C. Kooperberg (Charles); G. Papanicolaou (George); Rossouw, J.E. (Jacques E.); J.D. Faul (Jessica D.); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); C. Bouchard (Claude); L.J. Raffel (Leslie); Uitterlinden, A.G. (André G.); O.H. Franco (Oscar); R. Vasan (Ramachandran); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); K.D. Taylor (Kent); K.Y. Liu; E.P. Bottinger (Erwin); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); E.W. Daw (E. Warwick); F. Giulianini (Franco); S.K. Ganesh (Santhi); E. Salfati (Elias); T.B. Harris (Tamara); Launer, L.J. (Lenore J.); M. Dörr (Marcus); S.B. Felix (Stephan); R. Rettig (Rainer); H. Völzke (Henry); E. Kim (Eric); W.-J. Lee (Wen-Jane); I.T. Lee; Sheu, W.H.-H. (Wayne H.-H.); Tsosie, K.S. (Krystal S.); Edwards, D.R.V. (Digna R. Velez); Y. Liu (YongMei); Correa, A. (Adolfo); D.R. Weir (David); U. Völker (Uwe); P.M. Ridker (Paul); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Reiner (Alexander); Van Duijn, C.M. (Cornelia M.); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); T.L. Edwards (Todd L.); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); Rotter, J.I. (Jerome I.); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); M. Fornage (Myriam); G.B. Ehret (Georg); C. Newton-Cheh (Christopher); D. Levy (Daniel); D.I. Chasman (Daniel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMeta-analyses of association results for blood pressure using exome-centric single-variant and gene-based tests identified 31 new loci in a discovery stage among 146,562 individuals, with follow-up and meta-analysis in 180,726 additional individuals (total n = 327,288). These blood

  17. At the centennial of Michaelis and Menten, competing Michaelis-Menten steps explain effect of GLP-1 on blood-brain transfer and metabolism of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gejl, Michael; Rungby, Jørgen; Brock, Birgitte; Gjedde, Albert

    2014-08-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a potent insulinotropic incretin hormone with both pancreatic and extrapancreatic effects. Studies of GLP-1 reveal significant effects in regions of brain tissue that regulate appetite and satiety. GLP-1 mimetics are used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. GLP-1 interacts with peripheral functions in which the autonomic nervous system plays an important role, and emerging pre-clinical findings indicate a potential neuroprotective role of the peptide, for example in models of stroke and in neurodegenerative disorders. A century ago, Leonor Michaelis and Maud Menten described the steady-state enzyme kinetics that still apply to the multiple receptors, transporters and enzymes that define the biochemical reactions of the brain, including the glucose-dependent impact of GLP-1 on blood-brain glucose transfer and metabolism. This MiniReview examines the potential of GLP-1 as a molecule of interest for the understanding of brain energy metabolism and with reference to the impact on brain metabolism related to appetite and satiety regulation, stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. These effects can be understood only by reference to the original formulation of the Michaelis-Menten equation as applied to a chain of kinetically controlled steps. Indeed, the effects of GLP-1 receptor activation on blood-brain glucose transfer and brain metabolism of glucose depend on the glucose concentration and relative affinities of the steps both in vitro and in vivo, as in the pancreas. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  18. Differential effects of gaseous versus injectable anesthetics on changes in regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism induced by l-DOPA in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimpisidis, Zisis; Öberg, Carl M; Maslava, Natallia; Cenci, M Angela; Lundblad, Cornelia

    2017-06-01

    Preclinical imaging of brain activity requires the use of anesthesia. In this study, we have compared the effects of two widely used anesthetics, inhaled isoflurane and ketamine/xylazine cocktail, on cerebral blood flow and metabolism in a rat model of Parkinson's disease and l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Specific tracers were used to estimate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF - [ 14 C]-iodoantipyrine) and regional cerebral metabolic rate (rCMR - [ 14 C]-2-deoxyglucose) with a highly sensitive autoradiographic method. The two types of anesthetics had quite distinct effects on l-DOPA-induced changes in rCBF and rCMR. Isoflurane did not affect either the absolute rCBF values or the increases in rCBF in the basal ganglia after l-DOPA administration. On the contrary, rats anesthetized with ketamine/xylazine showed lower absolute rCBF values, and the rCBF increases induced by l-DOPA were masked. We developed a novel improved model to calculate rCMR, and found lower metabolic activities in rats anesthetized with isoflurane compared to animals anesthetized with ketamine/xylazine. Both anesthetics prevented changes in rCMR upon l-DOPA administration. Pharmacological challenges in isoflurane-anesthetized rats indicated that drugs mimicking the actions of ketamine/xylazine on adrenergic or glutamate receptors reproduced distinct effects of the injectable anesthetics on rCBF and rCMR. Our results highlight the importance of anesthesia in studies of cerebral flow and metabolism, and provide novel insights into mechanisms mediating abnormal neurovascular responses to l-DOPA in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Supplementation of corn dried distillers' grains plus solubles to gestating beef cows fed low-quality forage:II. Impacts on uterine blood flow, circulating estradiol-17beta and progesterone, and hepatic steriod metabolizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving uterine blood flow in nutrient restricted cows is vital to prevent under development of the fetus leading to decreased production characteristics of the offspring. This study examined uterine blood flow, steroid concentrations, and the activity of steroid metabolizing enzymes in pregnant b...

  20. Finite Element Modeling of Reheat Stretch Blow Molding of PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Dwarak; Dupaix, Rebecca B.

    2004-06-01

    Poly (ethylene terephthalate) or PET is a polymer used as a packaging material for consumer products such as beverages, food or other liquids, and in other applications including drawn fibers and stretched films. Key features that make it widely used are its transparency, dimensional stability, gas impermeability, impact resistance, and high stiffness and strength in certain preferential directions. These commercially useful properties arise from the fact that PET crystallizes upon deformation above the glass transition temperature. Additionally, this strain-induced crystallization causes the deformation behavior of PET to be highly sensitive to processing conditions. It is thus crucial for engineers to be able to predict its performance at various process temperatures, strain rates and strain states so as to optimize the manufacturing process. In addressing these issues; a finite element analysis of the reheat blow molding process with PET has been carried out using ABAQUS. The simulation employed a constitutive model for PET developed by Dupaix and Boyce et al.. The model includes the combined effects of molecular orientation and strain-induced crystallization on strain hardening when the material is deformed above the glass transition temperature. The simulated bottles were also compared with actual blow molded bottles to evaluate the validity of the simulation.

  1. Numerical Analysis of Film Cooling at High Blowing Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gabry, Lamyaa; Heidmann, James; Ameri, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics is used in the analysis of a film cooling jet in crossflow. Predictions of film effectiveness are compared with experimental results for a circular jet at blowing ratios ranging from 0.5 to 2.0. Film effectiveness is a surface quantity which alone is insufficient in understanding the source and finding a remedy for shortcomings of the numerical model. Therefore, in addition, comparisons are made to flow field measurements of temperature along the jet centerline. These comparisons show that the CFD model is accurately predicting the extent and trajectory of the film cooling jet; however, there is a lack of agreement in the near-wall region downstream of the film hole. The effects of main stream turbulence conditions, boundary layer thickness, turbulence modeling, and numerical artificial dissipation are evaluated and found to have an insufficient impact in the wake region of separated films (i.e. cannot account for the discrepancy between measured and predicted centerline fluid temperatures). Analyses of low and moderate blowing ratio cases are carried out and results are in good agreement with data.

  2. Droplet-born air blowing: novel dissolving microneedle fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Dong; Kim, Miroo; Yang, Huisuk; Lee, Kwang; Jung, Hyungil

    2013-09-28

    The microneedle-mediated drug delivery system has been developed to provide painless self-administration of drugs in a patient-friendly manner. Current dissolving microneedle fabrication methods, however, require harsh conditions for biological drugs and also have problems standardizing the drug dose. Here, we suggested the droplet-born air blowing (DAB) method, which provides gentle (4-25 °C) and fast (≤10min) microneedle fabrication conditions without drug loss. The amount of drug in the microneedle can be controlled by the pressure and time of droplet dispenser and the air blowing shapes this droplet to the microneedle, providing a force sufficient to penetrate skin. Also, the introduction of a base structure of two layered DAB-microneedle could provide complete drug delivery without wasting of drug. The DAB-based insulin loaded microneedle shows similar bioavailability (96.6±2.4%) and down regulation of glucose level compared with subcutaneous injection. We anticipate that DAB described herein will be suitable to design dissolving microneedles for use in biological drug delivery to patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Protective effects of traditional Chinese medicine formula NaoShuanTong capsule on haemorheology and cerebral energy metabolism disorders in rats with blood stasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Peng, Yao-Yao; Liang, Feng-Yin; Chen, Si; Li, Pei-Bo; Peng, Wei; Liu, Zhong-Zheng; Xie, Cheng-Shi; Long, Chao-Feng; Su, Wei-Wei

    2014-01-02

    NaoShuanTong capsule (NSTC), an oral traditional Chinese medicine formula, is composed of Pollen Typhae , Radix Paeoniae Rubra , Rhizoma Gastrodiae , Radix Rhapontici and Radix Curcumae . It has been widely used to treat ischemic stroke in clinic for many years in China. In addition to neuronal apoptosis, haemorheology and cerebral energy metabolism disorders also play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of ischemic stroke. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vivo protective effects of NSTC on haemorheology and cerebral energy metabolism disorders in rats with blood stasis. Sixty specific pathogen-free sprague-dawley rats, male only, were randomly divided into six groups (control group, model group, aspirin (100 mg/kg/d) group, NSTC low-dose (400 mg/kg/d) group, NSTC intermediate-dose (800 mg/kg/d) group, NSTC high-dose (1600 mg/kg/d) group) with 10 animals in each. The rats except those in the control group were placed in ice-cold water (0-4 °C) for 5 min during the time interval (4 h) of two adrenaline hydrochloride injections (0.8 mg/kg) to induce blood stasis. After treatment, whole blood viscosity at three shear rates, plasma viscosity and erythrocyte sedimentation rate significantly decreased in NSTC intermediate- and high-dose groups; erythrocyte aggregation index and red corpuscle electrophoresis index significantly decreased in all the three dose NSTC groups. Moreover, treatment with high-dose NSTC could significantly improve Na + -K + adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and Ca 2+ ATPase activity, as well as lower lactic acid level in brain tissues. These results demonstrated the protective effects of NSTC on haemorheology and cerebral energy metabolism disorders, which may provide scientific information for the further understanding of mechanism(s) of NSTC as a clinical treatment for ischemic stroke. Furthermore, the protective effects of activating blood circulation as observed in this study might create valuable

  4. The Effects of an Olive Fruit Polyphenol-Enriched Yogurt on Body Composition, Blood Redox Status, Physiological and Metabolic Parameters and Yogurt Microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Mpesios, Anastasios; Kouretas, Demetrios; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Mitsagga, Chrysanthi; Giavasis, Ioannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2016-06-03

    In the present study we investigated the effects of an olive polyphenol-enriched yogurt on yogurt microflora, as well as hematological, physiological and metabolic parameters, blood redox status and body composition. In a randomized double-blind, crossover design, 16 (6 men, 10 women) nonsmoking volunteers with non-declared pathology consumed either 400 g of olive fruit polyphenol-enriched yogurt with 50 mg of encapsulated olive polyphenols (experimental condition-EC) or 400 g of plain yogurt (control condition-CC) every day for two weeks. Physiological measurements and blood collection were performed before and after two weeks of each condition. The results showed that body weight, body mass index, hip circumference and systolic blood pressure decreased significantly (p yogurt regardless of condition. A tendency towards significance for decreased levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (p = 0.06) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (p yogurt consumption was observed. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and production of lactate in yogurt were significantly enhanced after addition of olive polyphenols, contrary to the population of yeasts and molds. The results indicate that consumption of the polyphenol-enriched yogurt may help individuals with non-declared pathology reduce body weight, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation, and promote growth of beneficial LAB.

  5. Effects of low-fat high-fibre diet and mitratapide on body weight reduction, blood pressure and metabolic parameters in obese dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Cristina; Suarez, Lourdes; Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Juste, M Candelaria; Carretón, Elena; Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the impact on blood pressure and different metabolic parameters of a weight-loss program on obese dogs fed on a low-fat high-fibre diet and treated with and without mitratapide. The study sample consisted of 36 obese dogs, randomly assigned to a control group (n=17), which were fed on a low-fat high-fibre diet, and an intervention group (n=19), fed on the same diet and treated with mitratapide. Variables measured included body condition score, body weight, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures; total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels; alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity, measured both at baseline (day 0) and at the end of the weight loss program (day 85). All the studied parameters had decreased in both groups at the end of the study; these being diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and alanine aminotransferase, significantly lower in dogs treated with mitratapide. The use of mitrapide in addition to low-fat high-fibre diet does not seem to offer any further useful effect in the loss of weight during the treatment of canine obesity. On the other hand, mitratapide seems to present certain beneficial effects on pathologies associated with obesity, these being mainly related to blood pressure, lipids and hepatic parameters.

  6. The Effects of an Olive Fruit Polyphenol-Enriched Yogurt on Body Composition, Blood Redox Status, Physiological and Metabolic Parameters and Yogurt Microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi Georgakouli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the effects of an olive polyphenol-enriched yogurt on yogurt microflora, as well as hematological, physiological and metabolic parameters, blood redox status and body composition. In a randomized double-blind, crossover design, 16 (6 men, 10 women nonsmoking volunteers with non-declared pathology consumed either 400 g of olive fruit polyphenol-enriched yogurt with 50 mg of encapsulated olive polyphenols (experimental condition—EC or 400 g of plain yogurt (control condition—CC every day for two weeks. Physiological measurements and blood collection were performed before and after two weeks of each condition. The results showed that body weight, body mass index, hip circumference and systolic blood pressure decreased significantly (p < 0.05 following the two-week consumption of yogurt regardless of condition. A tendency towards significance for decreased levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol (p = 0.06 and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (p < 0.05 following two weeks of polyphenol-enriched yogurt consumption was observed. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB and production of lactate in yogurt were significantly enhanced after addition of olive polyphenols, contrary to the population of yeasts and molds. The results indicate that consumption of the polyphenol-enriched yogurt may help individuals with non-declared pathology reduce body weight, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation, and promote growth of beneficial LAB.

  7. BLOW.MOD2: program for a vessel depressurization calculation with the contribution of structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doval, A.

    1990-01-01

    The BLOW.MOD2 program developed to calculate pressure vessels' depressurization is presented, considering heat contribution of the structures. The results are opposite to those obtained from other more complex numerical models, being the comparison extremely satisfactory. BLOW.MOD2 is a software of the 'Systems Sub-Branch', INVAP S.E. (Author) [es

  8. Prevalence and virulence factors of Candida spp. associated with blow flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimonrat GunTang

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: The results indicate that blow flies could play an essential role in the transmission of potentially pathogenic and antifungal resistant C. albicans into the environment. Further investigation on other virulence factors and genetic relatedness among isolates from the blow flies, the environment and clinical specimens is required to confirm this role.

  9. Shooting method for solution of boundary-layer flows with massive blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.-M.; Nachtsheim, P. R.

    1973-01-01

    A modified, bidirectional shooting method is presented for solving boundary-layer equations under conditions of massive blowing. Unlike the conventional shooting method, which is unstable when the blowing rate increases, the proposed method avoids the unstable direction and is capable of solving complex boundary-layer problems involving mass and energy balance on the surface.

  10. Computation and measurement of air temperature distribution of an industrial melt blowing die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Li-Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The air flow field of the dual slot die on an HDF-6D melt blowing non-woven equipment is computed numerically. A temperature measurement system is built to measure air temperatures. The computation results tally with the measured results proving the correctness of the computation. The results have great valuable significance in the actual melt blowing production.

  11. Development and implementation of Intelligent Soot Blowing Optimization System for TNB Janamanjung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaram Taneshwaren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With an ever increasing demand for energy, Malaysia has become a nation that thrives on solid power generation sector to meet the energy demand and supply market. In a coal fired power plant, soot blowing operation is commonly used as a cleaning mechanism inside the boiler. There are many types of sequence available for this soot blowing operation. Hence, there is no efficient ways in utilizing the soot blowing operation to enhance the efficiency of boiler. Soot blowing optimization requires specific set of data preparation and simulation in order to achieve the best modal. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD is used to model a 700MW super-critical boiler, whereby parameters with effect to soot blowing operation is studied. Two different boiler condition is studied to analyze parameters in a clean and faulty boiler. Artificial Neural Network (ANN is used to train neural network modal with back propagation method to determine the best modal that will be used to predict soot blowing operation. Combination of neural network different number of neurons, hidden layers, training algorithm, and training functions is trained to find the modal with lowest error. By improving soot blowing sequence, efficiency of boiler can be improved by providing best parameter and model. This model is then used as a reference for advisory tool whereby a Neural Network Predictive Tool is suggested to the station to predict the soot blowing operation that occurs.

  12. Blow-up Mechanism of Classical Solutions to Quasilinear Hyperbolic Systems in the Critical Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the blow-up phenomenon, particularly, the geometric blow-up mechanism, of classical solutions to the Cauchy problem for quasilinear hyperbolic systems in the critical case. We prove that it is still the envelope of the same family of characteristics which yields the blowup of classical solutions to the Cauchy problem in the critical case.

  13. Blow-up, Global Existence and Persistence Properties for the Coupled Camassa–Holm equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mingxuan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the coupled Camassa–Holm equations. First, we present some new criteria on blow-up. Then global existence and blow-up rate of the solution are also established. Finally, we discuss persistence properties of this system.

  14. Influence of Polylactide Modification with Blowing Agents on Selected Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Tor-Świątek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Article presents research of modification of PLA with four types of chemical blowing agents with a different decomposition characteristic. The modification was done both cellular extrusion and injection molding processes. Obtained results shows that dosing blowing agents have the influence on mechanical properties and structure morphology of PLA. The differences in obtained results are also visible and significant between cellular processes.

  15. 'Whistle-blowing' and the quandary of policy implementation in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria as a country has undergone series of economic policies and Programs to bring her economy back on track. These policies range from National Development Plan to the present day whistle-blowing policy. The whistle blowing policy was introduced by the administration of President Buhari in December, 2016, with a ...

  16. Transition between extinction and blow-up in a generalized Fisher–KPP model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández-Bermejo, Benito, E-mail: benito.hernandez@urjc.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Calle Tulipán S/N, 28933, Móstoles, Madrid (Spain); Sánchez-Valdés, Ariel [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Calle Tulipán S/N, 28933, Móstoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-05-01

    Stationary solutions of the Fisher–KPP equation with general nonlinear diffusion and arbitrary reactional kinetic orders terms are characterized. Such stationary (separatrix-like) solutions disjoint the blow-up solutions from those showing extinction. In addition a criterion for general parameter values is presented, which allows determining the blow-up or vanishing character of the solutions.

  17. Transition between extinction and blow-up in a generalized Fisher–KPP model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Bermejo, Benito; Sánchez-Valdés, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    Stationary solutions of the Fisher–KPP equation with general nonlinear diffusion and arbitrary reactional kinetic orders terms are characterized. Such stationary (separatrix-like) solutions disjoint the blow-up solutions from those showing extinction. In addition a criterion for general parameter values is presented, which allows determining the blow-up or vanishing character of the solutions.

  18. Cpt1a gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as an early biomarker of diet-related metabolic alterations

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Rua, Ruben; Palou, Andreu; Oliver, Paula

    2016-01-01

    subjects at risk of developing diet-related diseases.Objective: We analysed PBMC expression of key energy homeostasis-related genes in a time-course analysis in order to find out early markers of metabolic alterations due to sustained intake of high-fat (HF) and highprotein (HP) diets.Design: We administered HF and HP diets (4 months) to adult Wistar rats in isocaloric conditions to a control diet, mainly to avoid overweight associated with the intake of hyperlipidic diets and, thus, to be able to characterise markers of metabolically obese normal-weight (MONW) syndrome. PBMC samples were collected at different time points of dietary treatment and expression of relevant energy homeostatic genes analysed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Serum parameters related with metabolic syndrome, as well as fat deposition in liver, were also analysed.Results: The most outstanding results were those obtained for the expression of the lipolytic gene carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a). Cpt1a expression in PBMC increased after only 1 month of exposure to both unbalanced diets, and this increased expression was maintained thereafter. Interestingly, in the case of the HF diet, Cpt1a expression was altered even in the absence of increased body weight but correlated with alterations such as higher insulin resistance, alteration of serum lipid profile and, particularly, increased fat deposition in liver, a feature characteristic of metabolic syndrome, which was even observed in animals fed with HP diet.Conclusions: We propose Cpt1a gene expression analysis in PBMC as an early biomarker of metabolic alterations associated with MONW phenotype due to the intake of isocaloric HF diets, as well as a marker of increased risk of metabolic diseases

  19. Arterial Blood Gases, Electrolytes and Metabolic Indices Associated with Hemorrhagic Shock: Inter-and Intrainbred Rat Strain Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    resulting in metabolic acidosis and reduced pH (69). Oxygen delivery (DO2) to tissues is deter- mined as the product of cardiac output and oxygen content...67–69). This decrease in PaCO2 is probably due to hyperventilation that occurs as a respiratory compensatory mechanism to neutralize metabolic... acidosis . The longest-lived strain, DA, with the least change in BE, also had the least change in PaCO2 and the highest final PaCO2 concentrations. Although

  20. Blow-up for a three dimensional Keller-Segel model with consumption of chemoattractant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jie; Wu, Hao; Zheng, Songmu

    2018-04-01

    We investigate blow-up properties for the initial-boundary value problem of a Keller-Segel model with consumption of chemoattractant when the spatial dimension is three. Through a kinetic reformulation of the Keller-Segel system, we first derive some higher-order estimates and obtain certain blow-up criteria for the local classical solutions. These blow-up criteria generalize the results in [4,5] from the whole space R3 to the case of bounded smooth domain Ω ⊂R3. Lower global blow-up estimate on ‖ n ‖ L∞ (Ω) is also obtained based on our higher-order estimates. Moreover, we prove local non-degeneracy for blow-up points.

  1. Some blow-up problems for a semilinear parabolic equation with a potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ting; Zheng, Gao-Feng

    The blow-up rate estimate for the solution to a semilinear parabolic equation u=Δu+V(x)|u in Ω×(0,T) with 0-Dirichlet boundary condition is obtained. As an application, it is shown that the asymptotic behavior of blow-up time and blow-up set of the problem with nonnegative initial data u(x,0)=Mφ(x) as M goes to infinity, which have been found in [C. Cortazar, M. Elgueta, J.D. Rossi, The blow-up problem for a semilinear parabolic equation with a potential, preprint, arXiv: math.AP/0607055, July 2006], is improved under some reasonable and weaker conditions compared with [C. Cortazar, M. Elgueta, J.D. Rossi, The blow-up problem for a semilinear parabolic equation with a potential, preprint, arXiv: math.AP/0607055, July 2006].

  2. A Basic Study on Countermeasure Against Aerodynamic Force Acting on Train Running Inside Tunnel Using Air Blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Nakade, Koji

    A basic study of flow controls using air blowing was conducted to reduce unsteady aerodynamic force acting on trains running in tunnels. An air blowing device is installed around a model car in a wind tunnel. Steady and periodic blowings are examined utilizing electromagnetic valves. Pressure fluctuations are measured and the aerodynamic force acting on the car is estimated. The results are as follows: a) The air blowing allows reducing the unsteady aerodynamic force. b) It is effective to blow air horizontally at the lower side of the car facing the tunnel wall. c) The reduction rate of the unsteady aerodynamic force relates to the rate of momentum of the blowing to that of the uniform flow. d) The periodic blowing with the same frequency as the unsteady aerodynamic force reduces the aerodynamic force in a manner similar to the steady blowing.

  3. Effect of insulin pump and continuous intravenous insulin on ketone body metabolism, blood gas indexes and stress state in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jin Shi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of insulin pump and continuous intravenous insulin on ketone body metabolism, blood gas indexes and stress state in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Methods: Patients with diabetic ketoacidosis who were treated in Meizhou Maternal and Child Heath Hospital between May 2014 and March 2017 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into the group A who received subcutaneous insulin infusion by insulin pump and the group B who received intravenous small-dose insulin injection by micropump. The indexes of ketone body, blood gas and stress were measured before and after treatment. Results: 12 h and 24 h after treatment, serum β-hydroxybutyrate, MDA, NE, ACTH and Cor contents of both groups of patients were significantly lower than those before treatment while pH, HCO3 - and base excess levels as well as serum SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and TAC contents were significantly higher than those before treatment, and serum β-hydroxybutyrate, MDA, NE, ACTH and Cor contents of group A were significantly lower than those of group B while pH, HCO3 - and base excess levels as well as serum SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and TAC contents were significantly higher than those of group B. Conclusion: Subcutaneous insulin infusion by insulin pump can improve ketone body metabolism, acidosis status and stress state in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis.

  4. Body mass index, blood pressure, and glucose and lipid metabolism among permanent and fixed-term workers in the manufacturing industry: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Mariko; Minami, Masahide; Yano, Eiji

    2014-02-27

    Temporary employment, a precarious form of employment, is recognized as social determinant of poor health. However, evidence supporting precarious employment as a risk factor for health is mainly obtained from subjective data. Studies using objective clinical measurement data in the assessment of health status are limited. This study compared body mass index (BMI), lipid and glucose metabolism, and health-related lifestyle factors between permanent workers and fixed-term workers employed in the manufacturing industry. Data of 1,701 male manufacturing industry workers triglyceride levels were determined. For glucose metabolism, fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were measured. Multiple regression analysis adjusted for age and lifestyle factors was performed. BMI was significantly higher in permanent workers (22.9 kg/m2) compared with fixed-term workers (22.4 kg/m2). The leaner population (BMI triglyceride (β = 11.147), fasting blood glucose (β = 2.218), and HbA1c (β = 0.107) compared with permanent workers (all p glucose metabolism, even when adjusted for age and lifestyle variables, although BMI of fixed-term workers were lower than permanent workers. Precarious work might contribute to a deteriorating health status even among less overweight populations.

  5. Distribution and Metabolism of Lipocurc™ (Liposomal Curcumin) in Dog and Human Blood Cells: Species Selectivity and Pharmacokinetic Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Gordon T; Licollari, Albert; Tan, Aimin; Greil, Richard; Vcelar, Brigitta; Majeed, Muhammad; Helson, Lawrence

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of curcumin (in the form of Lipocurc™) and its major metabolite tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) in Beagle dog and human red blood cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and hepatocytes. Lipocurc™ was used as the source of curcumin for the cell distribution assays. In vitro findings with red blood cells were also compared to in vivo pharmacokinetic data available from preclinical studies in dogs and phase I clinical studies in humans. High levels of curcumin were measured in PBMCs (625.5 ng/g w.w. cell pellet or 7,297 pg/10 6 cells in dog and 353.7 ng/g w.w. cell pellet or 6,809 pg/10 6 cells in human) and in hepatocytes (414.5 ng/g w.w. cell pellet or 14,005 pg/10 6 cells in dog and 813.5 ng/g w.w. cell pellet or 13,780 pg/10 6 cells in human). Lower curcumin levels were measured in red blood cells (dog: 78.4 ng/g w.w. cell pellet or 7.2 pg/10 6 cells, human: 201.5 ng/g w.w. cell pellet or 18.6 pg/10 6 cells). A decrease in the medium concentration of curcumin was observed in red blood cells and hepatocytes, but not in PBMCs. Red blood cell levels of THC were ~5-fold higher in dog compared to human and similar between dog and human for hepatocytes and PBMCs. The ratio of THC to curcumin found in the red blood cell medium following incubation was 6.3 for dog compared to 0.006 for human, while for PBMCs and hepatocytes the ratio of THC to curcumin in the medium did not display such marked species differences. There was an excellent correlation between the in vitro disposition of curcumin and THC following incubation with red blood cells and in vivo plasma levels of curcumin and THC in dog and human following intravenous infusion. The disposition of curcumin in blood cells is, therefore, species-dependent and of pharmacokinetic relevance. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  6. Whole Blood Reveals More Metabolic Detail of the Human Metabolome than Serum as Measured by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy: Implications for Sepsis Metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Kathleen A.; Younger, John G.; McHugh, Cora; Yeomans, Larisa; Finkel, Michael A.; Puskarich, Michael A.; Jones, Alan E.; Trexel, Julie; Karnovsky, Alla

    2015-01-01

    Serum is a common sample of convenience for metabolomics studies. Its processing time can be lengthy and may result in the loss of metabolites including those of red blood cells (RBC). Unlike serum, whole blood (WB) is quickly processed, minimizing the influence of variable hemolysis while including RBC metabolites. To determine differences between serum and WB metabolomes, both sample types, collected from healthy volunteers, were assayed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. A total of 34 and 50 aqueous metabolites were quantified from serum and WB, respectively. Free hemoglobin (Hgb) levels in serum were measured and the correlation between Hgb and metabolite concentrations was determined. All metabolites detected in serum were at higher concentrations in WB with the exception of acetoacetate and propylene glycol. The 18 unique metabolites of WB included adenosine, AMP, ADP and ATP, which are associated with RBC metabolism. The use of serum results in the underrepresentation of a number of metabolic pathways including branched chain amino acid degradation and glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. The range of free Hgb in serum was 0.03-0.01 g/dL and 8 metabolites were associated (p ≤ 0.05) with free Hgb. The range of free Hgb in serum samples from 18 sepsis patients was 0.02-0.46 g/dL. WB and serum have unique aqueous metabolite profiles but the use of serum may introduce potential pathway bias. Use of WB for metabolomics may be particularly important for studies in diseases like sepsis in which RBC metabolism is altered and mechanical and sepsis-induced hemolysis contributes to variance in the metabolome. PMID:26009817

  7. Blowing up solutions for a biharmonic equation with critical nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mehdi, K.; Hammami, M.

    2004-05-01

    In this paper we consider the following biharmonic equation with critical exponent (P ε ):Δ 2 u=Ku (n+4)/(n-4)-ε , u>0 in Ω and u=Δu=0 on ∂Ω, where Ω is a smooth bounded domain in R n , n≥5, ε is a small positive parameter, and K is a smooth positive function in Ω-bar. We construct solutions of (P ε ) which blow up and concentrate at strict local maximum of K either at the boundary or in the interior of Ω. We also construct solutions of (P ε ) concentrating at an interior strict local minimum point of K. Finally, we prove a nonexistence result for the supercritical problem which is in sharp contrast to what happened for (P ε ). (author)

  8. Improved Longitudinal Blow-up and Shaving in the Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, S

    2013-01-01

    The low-intensity proton beam for p-Pb collisions in the LHC did not come back in the Booster at the beginning of 2013 anything like it had been set up at the end of 2012. In particular there were unexplained intensity fluctuations of ±100%. Although the root cause of the drift in performance was never established, its investigation revealed long-standing issues in the longitudinal plane which, when corrected, allowed single-bunch beams to be delivered with unprecedented reproducibility and control of both intensity and longitudinal emittance. The new approach was adopted for the ion run and subsequently for MDs at higher intensities, where it made possible a robust control of intensity at constant 6D phase space volume. Post-LS1, it may even provide a platform upon which to build a more exotic controlled longitudinal blow-up to generate higher intensity bunches with a flattened line density.

  9. The Effects of Sodium Bicarbonate and Sodium Citrate on Blood pH, HCO3-, Lactate Metabolism and Time to Exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soetanto Hartono

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate in increasing lactate concentration, blood pH, HCO3-, and time to exhaustion. Increased time to exhaustion is an advantage since the athletes can do more anaerobic work. Exhaustion could be delayed by increasing HCO3- to catch H+ produced by lactate metabolism to form H2O and CO2. The design of this research was randomized pretest posttest control group design. Thirty badminton student players were randomly selected and randomly assigned to three groups. The first group (the control group was given placebo, NaCl .9 g/dl, the second group was given sodium bicarbonate 300 mg/kg in 500 ml aqua, and the third group was given sodium citrate 300 mg/kg in 500 ml aqua. Blood pH and bicarbonate ion (HCO3- were measured through Opti Medical Blood gas Analyzer. Lactate was measured by Cobas Roche lactate Analyzer. Data was analyzed using Manova with .05 significant level. Blood pH of the groups taking sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate were higher significantly against control group (p.05. Sodium bicarbonate is better than sodium citrate, although both were better than control (p<.05. Sodium bicarbonate is better than sodium citrate in increasing blood pH and time to exhaustion. The disadvantage of using sodium bicarbonate is that it can cause gastrointestinal problem and headache, so it is not advisable to be used by athletes who have the symptoms.

  10. Clinical features and MRI findings of blow-out fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanouchi, Yasuo; Yasuda, Takasumi; Kawamoto, Keiji; Inagaki, Takayuki; Someda, Kuniyuki.

    1996-01-01

    Precise anatomical understanding of orbital blow-out fracture lesions is necessary for the treatment of patients. Retrospectively, MRI findings were compared with the clinical features of pure type blow-out fractures and the efficacy of MRI in influencing a decision for surgical intervention was evaluated. Eighteen child (15 boys, 3 girls) cases were evaluated and compared with adult cases. The patients were classified into three categories (Fig.1) and two types (Fig.2) in accordance with the degree of protrusion of fat tissue. The degree of muscle protrusion also was divided into three categories (Fig. 3). Both muscle and fat tissue were protruding from the fracture site in 14 cases. Fat tissue protrusion alone was found in 3 cases. In contrast, no protrusion was seen in one case. The incarcerated type of fat prolapse was found in 40% of cases, while muscle tissue prolapse was found in 75% of patients. Marginal irregularity or swelling of muscle was observed in 11 patients. There was good correlation of ocular motor disturbance and MRI findings. Disturbance of eyeball movement was observed in all patients with either incarcerated fat tissue or marginal irregularity or swelling of muscle. In contrast, restriction of eyeball movement was rare in cases of no incarceration, even if the fracture was wide. Deformity or marginal irregularity of the ocular muscle demonstrated in MRI may suggest damage an adhesion to the muscle wall. When MRI reveals incarceration or severe prolapse of fat tissue, or deformity and marginal irregularity of the ocular muscle, surgical intervention should be considered. (author)

  11. Extraordinary blowing snow transport events in East Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarchilli, Claudio; Agnoletto, Lucia [ENEA, Rome (Italy); Universita di Siena, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Siena (Italy); Frezzotti, Massimo; Grigioni, Paolo; Silvestri, Lorenzo de [ENEA, Rome (Italy); Dolci, Stefano [CNR, Rome (Italy); Consorzio P.N.R.A. S.C.r.l., Rome (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    In the convergence slope/coastal areas of Antarctica, a large fraction of snow is continuously eroded and exported by wind to the atmosphere and into the ocean. Snow transport observations from instruments and satellite images were acquired at the wind convergence zone of Terra Nova Bay (East Antarctica) throughout 2006 and 2007. Snow transport features are well-distinguished in satellite images and can extend vertically up to 200 m as first-order quantitatively estimated by driftometer sensor FlowCapt trademark. Maximum snow transportation occurs in the fall and winter seasons. Snow transportation (drift/blowing) was recorded for {proportional_to}80% of the time, and 20% of time recorded, the flux is >10{sup -2} kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1} with particle density increasing with height. Cumulative snow transportation is {proportional_to}4 orders of magnitude higher than snow precipitation at the site. An increase in wind speed and transportation ({proportional_to}30%) was observed in 2007, which is in agreement with a reduction in observed snow accumulation. Extensive presence of ablation surface (blue ice and wind crust) upwind and downwind of the measurement site suggest that the combine processes of blowing snow sublimation and snow transport remove up to 50% of the precipitation in the coastal and slope convergence area. These phenomena represent a major negative effect on the snow accumulation, and they are not sufficiently taken into account in studies of surface mass balance. The observed wind-driven ablation explains the inconsistency between atmospheric model precipitation and measured snow accumulation value. (orig.)

  12. Clinical features and MRI findings of blow-out fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanouchi, Yasuo; Yasuda, Takasumi; Kawamoto, Keiji [Kansai Medical Univ., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan); Inagaki, Takayuki; Someda, Kuniyuki

    1996-06-01

    Precise anatomical understanding of orbital blow-out fracture lesions is necessary for the treatment of patients. Retrospectively, MRI findings were compared with the clinical features of pure type blow-out fractures and the efficacy of MRI in influencing a decision for surgical intervention was evaluated. Eighteen child (15 boys, 3 girls) cases were evaluated and compared with adult cases. The patients were classified into three categories (Fig.1) and two types (Fig.2) in accordance with the degree of protrusion of fat tissue. The degree of muscle protrusion also was divided into three categories (Fig. 3). Both muscle and fat tissue were protruding from the fracture site in 14 cases. Fat tissue protrusion alone was found in 3 cases. In contrast, no protrusion was seen in one case. The incarcerated type of fat prolapse was found in 40% of cases, while muscle tissue prolapse was found in 75% of patients. Marginal irregularity or swelling of muscle was observed in 11 patients. There was good correlation of ocular motor disturbance and MRI findings. Disturbance of eyeball movement was observed in all patients with either incarcerated fat tissue or marginal irregularity or swelling of muscle. In contrast, restriction of eyeball movement was rare in cases of no incarceration, even if the fracture was wide. Deformity or marginal irregularity of the ocular muscle demonstrated in MRI may suggest damage an adhesion to the muscle wall. When MRI reveals incarceration or severe prolapse of fat tissue, or deformity and marginal irregularity of the ocular muscle, surgical intervention should be considered. (author)

  13. Identified metabolic signature for assessing red blood cell unit quality is associated with endothelial damage markers and clinical outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordbar, Aarash; Johansson, Pär I.; Paglia, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    shown no difference of clinical outcome for patients receiving old or fresh RBCs. An overlooked but essential issue in assessing RBC unit quality and ultimately designing the necessary clinical trials is a metric for what constitutes an old or fresh RBC unit. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty RBC units...... years and endothelial damage markers in healthy volunteers undergoing autologous transfusions. CONCLUSION: The state of RBC metabolism may be a better indicator of cellular quality than traditional hematologic variables....

  14. Metabolism, Seizures, and Blood Flow in Brain Following Organophosphate Exposure: Mechanisms of Action and Possible Therapeutic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-31

    and energy metabolism changes in acute ammonia Intoxication in the lower primate Tupaia glus. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 106: 183-186. 63. G~foe, D. D. (1982...Relaxation to transmural nerve stimulation and exogenously added norepinephrine in porcine cerebral vessels. A study utilizing cerebro - vascular intrinsic... primates against soman poisoning by pretreatment with pyridostigmine. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 31:295-299. 174. Harris, L. W., Heyl, W. C., Stitcher, D. L., and

  15. Dehydration affects cerebral blood flow but not its metabolic rate for oxygen during maximal exercise in trained humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Stock, Christopher G

    2014-01-01

    Intense exercise is associated with a reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but regulation of CBF during strenuous exercise in the heat with dehydration is unclear. We assessed internal (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) haemodynamics (indicative of CBF and extra-cranial blood flow), middle...... cerebral artery velocity (MCA Vmean), arterial-venous differences and blood temperature in 10 trained males during incremental cycling to exhaustion in the heat (35°C) in control, dehydrated and rehydrated states. Dehydration reduced body mass (75.8 ± 3 vs. 78.2 ± 3 kg), increased internal temperature (38.......3 ± 0.1 vs. 36.8 ± 0.1°C), impaired exercise capacity (269 ± 11 vs. 336 ± 14 W), and lowered ICA and MCA Vmean by 12-23% without compromising CCA blood flow. During euhydrated incremental exercise on a separate day, however, exercise capacity and ICA, MCA Vmean and CCA dynamics were preserved. The fast...

  16. Role of Metabolic Genes in Blood Aluminum Concentrations of Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Rahbar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum is a neurotoxic metal with known health effects in animals and humans. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST genes and enzymes play a major role in detoxification of several heavy metals. Besides a direct relationship with oxidative stress; aluminum decreases GST enzyme activities. Using data from 116 Jamaican children; age 2–8 years; with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD and 116 sex- and age-matched typically developing (TD children; we investigated the association of polymorphisms in three GST genes (GSTP1; GSTM1; and GSTT1 with mean blood aluminum concentrations in children with and without ASD. Using log-transformed blood aluminum concentration as the dependent variable in a linear regression model; we assessed the additive and interactive effects of ASD status and polymorphisms in the three aforementioned GST genes in relation to blood aluminum concentrations. Although none of the additive effects were statistically significant (all p > 0.16; we observed a marginally significant interaction between GSTP1 Ile105Val (rs1695 and ASD status (p = 0.07; even after controlling for parental education level and consumption of avocado; root vegetables; and tuna (canned fish. Our findings indicate a significantly lower (p < 0.03 adjusted geometric mean blood aluminum concentration for TD children who had the Val/Val genotype (14.57 µg/L; compared with those with Ile/Ile or Ile/Val genotypes who had an adjusted geometric mean of 23.75 µg/L. However; this difference was not statistically significant among the ASD cases (p = 0.76. Our findings indicate that ASD status may be a potential effect modifier when assessing the association between GSTP1 rs1695 and blood aluminum concentrations among Jamaican children. These findings require replication in other populations.

  17. New Perspectives on Blowing Snow Transport, Sublimation, and Layer Thermodynamic Structure over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Steve; Kayetha, Vinay; Yang, Yuekui; Pauly, Rebecca M.

    2017-01-01

    Blowing snow over Antarctica is a widespread and frequent event. Satellite remote sensing using lidar has shown that blowing snow occurs over 70% of the time over large areas of Antarctica in winter. The transport and sublimation of blowing snow are important terms in the ice sheet mass balance equation and the latter is also an important part of the hydrological cycle. Until now the only way to estimate the magnitude of these processes was through model parameterization. We present a technique that uses direct satellite observations of blowing snow and model (MERRA-2) temperature and humidity fields to compute both transport and sublimation of blowing snow over Antarctica for the period 2006 to 2016. The results show a larger annual continent-wide integrated sublimation than current published estimates and a significant transport of snow from continent to ocean. The talk will also include the lidar backscatter structure of blowing snow layers that often reach heights of 200 to 300 m as well as the first dropsonde measurements of temperature, moisture and wind through blowing snow layers.

  18. Effects of cathode channel size and operating conditions on the performance of air-blowing PEMFCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bosung; Lee, Yongtaek; Woo, Ahyoung; Kim, Yongchan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of cathode channel size on the air-blowing PEMFC is analyzed. • Performance and EIS tests of air-blowing PEMFCs are conducted. • Test conditions include the operating temperature, fan voltage, and anode humidity. • Flooding is a limiting factor for decreasing channel size at low temperature. • Water management is investigated by analyzing ohmic resistance. - Abstract: Air-blowing proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have been developed as a potential new power source for portable electronic devices. However, air-blowing PEMFCs show lower performance than compressed-air PEMFCs because of their adverse operating conditions. In this study, the effects of the cathode channel size and operating conditions on the performance of the air-blowing PEMFC were analyzed. At the normal operating temperature, the performance of the air-blowing PEMFC improved with the decrease in the cathode channel size. However, at a low operating temperature and low fan voltage, massive flooding limits the decrease in the cathode channel size. In addition, water management in the air-blowing PEMFC was investigated by analyzing ohmic resistance. The transition current density between the humidification and the flooding region decreased with decreasing cathode channel size and operating temperature

  19. Self-sustained Oscillation Pulsed Air Blowing System for Energy Saving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Maolin; XU Weiqing

    2010-01-01

    Currently, many studies have been made for years on dimensions of pneumatic nozzle, which influence the flow characteristic of blowing system. For the purpose of outputting the same blowing force, the supply pressure could be reduced by decreasing the ratio of length to diameter of nozzle. The friction between high speed air and pipe wall would be reduced if the nozzle is designed to be converging shape comparing with straight shape. But the volume flow and pressure, discussed in these studies, do not describe energy loss of the blowing system directly. Pneumatic power is an innovative principle to estimate pneumatic system's energy consumption directly. Based on the above principle, a pulse blowing method is put forward for saving energy. A flow experiment is carried out, in which the high speed air flows from the pulse blowing system and continuous blowing system respectively to a plate with grease on top. Supply pressure and the volume of air used for removing the grease are measured to calculate energy consumption. From the experiment result, the pulse blowing system performs to conserve energy comparing with the continuous blowing system. The frequency and duty ratio of pulse flow influence the blowing characteristic. The pulse blowing system performs to be the most efficient at the specified frequency and duty ratio. Then a pneumatic self-oscillated method based on air operated valve is put forward to generate pulse flow. A simulation is made about dynamic modeling the air operated valve and calculating the motion of the valve core and output pressure. The simulation result verifies the system to be able to generate pulse flow, and predicts the key parameters of the frequency and duty ratio measured by experiment well. Finally, on the basis of simplifying and solution of the pulse blowing system's mathematic model, the relationship between system's frequency duty ratio and the dimensions of components is simply described with four algebraic equations. The

  20. Blowing snow detection in Antarctica, from space borne and ground-based remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossart, A.; Souverijns, N.; Lhermitte, S.; Lenaerts, J.; Gorodetskaya, I.; Schween, J. H.; Van Lipzig, N. P. M.

    2017-12-01

    Surface mass balance (SMB) strongly controls spatial and temporal variations in the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) mass balance and its contribution to sea level rise. Currently, the scarcity of observational data and the challenges of climate modelling over the ice sheet limit our understanding of the processes controlling AIS SMB. Particularly, the impact of blowing snow on local SMB is not yet constrained and is subject to large uncertainties. To assess the impact of blowing snow on local SMB, we investigate the attenuated backscatter profiles from ceilometers at two East Antarctic locations in Dronning Maud Land. Ceilometers are robust ground-based remote sensing instruments that yield information on cloud base height and vertical structure, but also provide information on the particles present in the boundary layer. We developed a new algorithm to detect blowing snow (snow particles lifted by the wind from the surface to substantial height) from the ceilometer attenuated backscatter. The algorithm successfully allows to detect strong blowing snow signal from layers thicker than 15 m at the Princess Elisabeth (PE, (72°S, 23°E)) and Neumayer (70°S, 8° W) stations. Applying the algorithm to PE, we retrieve the frequency and annual cycle of blowing snow as well as discriminate between clear sky and overcast conditions during blowing snow. We further apply the blowing snow algorithm at PE to evaluate the blowing snow events detection by satellite imagery (Palm et al., 2011): the near-surface blowing snow layers are apparent in lidar backscatter profiles and enable snowdrift events detection (spatial and temporal frequency, height and optical depth). These data are processed from CALIPSO, at a high resolution (1x1 km digital elevation model). However, the remote sensing detection of blowing snow events by satellite is limited to layers of a minimal thickness of 20-30 m. In addition, thick clouds, mostly occurring during winter storms, can impede drifting snow

  1. Local-in-space blow-up criteria for a class of nonlinear dispersive wave equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novruzov, Emil

    2017-11-01

    This paper is concerned with blow-up phenomena for the nonlinear dispersive wave equation on the real line, ut -uxxt +[ f (u) ] x -[ f (u) ] xxx +[ g (u) + f″/(u) 2 ux2 ] x = 0 that includes the Camassa-Holm equation as well as the hyperelastic-rod wave equation (f (u) = ku2 / 2 and g (u) = (3 - k) u2 / 2) as special cases. We establish some a local-in-space blow-up criterion (i.e., a criterion involving only the properties of the data u0 in a neighborhood of a single point) simplifying and precising earlier blow-up criteria for this equation.

  2. Sounds of Silence: Organisational trust and decisions to blow the whistle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elli Binikos

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Whistleblowing is a form of pro-social behaviour that occurs when an employee reports organisational wrongdoing to an authority able to implement corrective action. While a number of social factors may infuence an employee’s decision to blow the whistle, very little cognisance is given to the role of organisational trust. Since whistleblowing situations often pose problems for whistleblowers, organisational trust becomes an important facilitator for the decision to blow the whistle. Drawing on a case study, this paper shows that when trust exists, employees are more likely to blow the whistle and to do so internally rather than externally.

  3. Blow-up boundary regimes for general quasilinear parabolic equations in multidimensional domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkov, A E; Shchelkov, A G

    1999-01-01

    A new approach (not based on the techniques of barriers) to the study of asymptotic properties of the generalized solutions of parabolic initial boundary-value problems with finite-time blow-up of the boundary values is proposed. Precise conditions on the blow-up pattern are found that guarantee uniform localization of the solution for an arbitrary compactly supported initial function. The main result of the paper consists in obtaining precise sufficient conditions for the singular (or blow-up) set of an arbitrary solution to remain within the boundary of the domain

  4. [Influence of diets with a high content of qualitatively different carbohydrates on the metabolism of blood lipoproteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapkov, B G; Listratenkova, E F

    1977-01-01

    The feeding of rats for a space of 30 days on diets with elevated content of starch or saccharose (71 per cent of the total calorific value) was followed by an accelerated synthesis and secretion into the blood of pre-beta-lipoproteins. The ration with succharose, however, produced a much greater effect on the rate of synthesis of pre-beta-lipoproteins than did the one containing starch. The action of both carbohydrate-rich rations was noted to be attended by a growing rate of the apoproteids and glycerides exchange in the low-density lipoproteins. The feature distinguishing the effect produced by the ration with saccharose, as compared with that containing starch, was an accelerated etherification of cholesterol in the blood.

  5. Acute effects of nicotine and smoking on blood flow, tissue oxygen, and aerobe metabolism of the skin and subcutis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Stig; Petersen, Lars J

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nicotine released from tobacco smoke causing reduction in blood flow has been suggested as causative for postoperative wound complications in smokers, but the mechanism remains unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In eight healthy male smokers and eight ex-smokers, the cutaneous and subcut......BACKGROUND: Nicotine released from tobacco smoke causing reduction in blood flow has been suggested as causative for postoperative wound complications in smokers, but the mechanism remains unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In eight healthy male smokers and eight ex-smokers, the cutaneous...... and subcutaneous blood flow (QBF, SqBF) was assessed by Laser Doppler and 133Xe clearance. Tissue oxygen tension (TO(2)) was measured by a LICOX O(2)-electrode. Tissue glucose and lactate (Tgluc, Tlact) were assessed by microdialysis. The parameters were studied after intravenous infusion of 1.0 mg nicotine......, smoking of one cigarette, arterial occlusion, and reperfusion. RESULTS: Nicotine infusion decreased SqBF from 4.2 +/- 2.0 to 3.1 +/- 1.2 mL/100 g tissue/min (P

  6. Sex based levels of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in subjects with metabolic syndrome: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharipour, Mojgan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash; Sadeghi, Masuomeh; Khosravi, Alireza; Masjedi, Mohsen; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2013-06-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) are proinflammatory markers. They are major pathophysiological for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to address the independent associations between MetS and WBC counts and serum CRP levels and evaluation of their magnitude in relation to the MetS, based on the sex in the Iranian adults. In this cross-sectional study, subjects who met the MetS criteria, based on the Adult Treatment Panel III were selected from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program database. A questionnaire containing the demographic data, weight, height, waist, and hip circumference of the respondents was completed for each person. Blood pressure was measured and the anthropometric measurements were done, and fasting blood samples were taken for 2 h postload plasma glucose (2 hpp). Serum [total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein] levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and CRP as well as WBC counts were determined. The univariate analyses were carried out to assess the relation between the CRP levels, WBC counts with the MetS in both sexes the. In men with the abdominal obesity, the higher levels of WBC count, high serum triglyceride and blood glucose levels, a low serum HDL level, and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. However, the higher serum CRP levels were only observed in those with the low serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean values of the WBC counts were statistically different between the men with and without MetS, but the mean values of the CRP levels were similar between the two groups. In women, the mean values of WBC count and CRP levels were statistically different in the subjects with and without a MetS components (except for the low serum HDL levels and high diastolic blood pressure for the WBC measures and abdominal obesity for the CRP measures) and for those with and without MetS. The age and smoking adjusted changes in the CRP levels and WBC counts

  7. Novel effects of a single administration of ferulic acid on the regulation of blood pressure and the hepatic lipid metabolic profile in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiansyah; Ohsaki, Yusuke; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Koseki, Takuya; Komai, Michio

    2008-04-23

    We studied the effects of a single oral administration of ferulic acid (FA) on the blood pressure (BP) and lipid profile in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Male 12-week-old SHRSP were administered FA (9.5 mg/kg of body weight) and distilled water as the control (C) (1 mL) via a gastric tube. The hypotensive effect of FA was observed at the lowest value after 2 h administration. A decrease in the angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in the plasma corresponded well with the reduction of BP. Plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were lower after 2 h administration. The mRNA expression of genes involved in lipid and drug metabolism was downregulated in the FA group. These results suggest that oral administration of FA appears beneficial in improving hypertension and hyperlipidemia.

  8. Regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism in patients with transient global amnesia. A study using SPECT and {sup 1}H-MRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Tetsuya; Hirata, Koichi; Tatsumoto, Muneto; Yamazaki, Kaoru [Dokkyo Univ., Tochigi (Japan). School of Medicine; Sato, Toshihiko

    1997-06-01

    In 13 patients with transient global amnesia (TGA), we studied the clinical course and changes over time by means of imaging techniques such as SPECT. MRI, and proton MR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS). In the case of SPECT, a cerebral blood flow decrease at the time center of the temporal lobe persisted at least for more than one month. In many patients, no abnormal signs were found on MRI. Despite the presence of intracranial impairment of energy metabolism, no evidence of cerebral ischemia was obtained using {sup 1}H-MRS at the acute and subacute stages. There were thus discrepancies between the symptoms and the findings of SPECT as well as the findings of {sup 1}H-MRS. These data suggest that TGA may not necessarily be caused by cerebra1 ischemia. (author)

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism in patients with transient global amnesia. A study using SPECT and 1H-MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Tetsuya; Hirata, Koichi; Tatsumoto, Muneto; Yamazaki, Kaoru; Sato, Toshihiko.

    1997-01-01

    In 13 patients with transient global amnesia (TGA), we studied the clinical course and changes over time by means of imaging techniques such as SPECT. MRI, and proton MR spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). In the case of SPECT, a cerebral blood flow decrease at the time center of the temporal lobe persisted at least for more than one month. In many patients, no abnormal signs were found on MRI. Despite the presence of intracranial impairment of energy metabolism, no evidence of cerebral ischemia was obtained using 1 H-MRS at the acute and subacute stages. There were thus discrepancies between the symptoms and the findings of SPECT as well as the findings of 1 H-MRS. These data suggest that TGA may not necessarily be caused by cerebra1 ischemia. (author)

  10. Impact of intermittent hypoxia and exercise on blood pressure and metabolic features from obese subjects suffering sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muniesa, P; Lopez-Pascual, A; de Andrés, J; Lasa, A; Portillo, M P; Arós, F; Durán, J; Egea, C J; Martinez, J A

    2015-09-01

    Strategies designed to reduce adiposity and cardiovascular-accompanying manifestations have been based on nutritional interventions conjointly with physical activity programs. The aim of this 13-week study was to investigate the putative benefits associated to hypoxia plus exercise on weight loss and relevant metabolic and cardiorespiratory variables, when prescribed to obese subjects with sleep apnea syndrome following dietary advice. The participants were randomly distributed in the following three groups: control, normoxia, and hypoxia. All the subjects received dietary advice while, additionally, normoxia group was trained under normal oxygen concentration and Hypoxia group under hypoxic conditions. There was a statistically significant decrease in fat-free mass (Kg) and water (%) on the control compared to normoxia group (p hypoxia compared to control group (p hypoxia group showed some specific benefits concerning appetite and cardiometabolic-related measurements as exertion time and diastolic blood pressure, with a therapeutical potential.

  11. [The effect of exogenous antioxidants on the antioxidant status of erythrocytes and hepcidin content in blood of patients with disorders of iron metabolism regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbinina, S P; Levina, A A; Lisovskaia, I L; Ataullakhanov, F I

    2013-01-01

    In many diseases associated with impairments in iron metabolism, erythrocytes exhibit an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress induced in vitro. In this study, we have examined the antioxidant status of erythrocytes from healthy donors and from 12 patients with disorders of iron homeostasis by measuring the extent of t-BHP-induced hemolysis in vitro. The extent of hemolysis observed with patient erythrocytes was significantly higher than that observed in experiment with normal cells. After therapeutic infusions of the antioxidants mexidol or emoxypin, oxidative hemolysis in patients was restored to normal values and blood hepcidin content increased significantly. A significant correlation was observed between hepcidin concentration after treatment and t-BHP-induced hemolysis before treatment. These data suggest that antioxidants may exert a favorable effect under pathological conditions associated with iron overload disease.

  12. Effects of diets with increasing levels of citrus pulp on the blood parameters linked to energy metabolism in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Lima Menezes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the use of alternative energy ingredients for horses has increased because these foods contain "superfibers", making safer diet for these animals. To study the influence of diets containing increasing levels of citrus pulp on albumin, triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, insulin and short chain fatty acid (SCFA concentrations in the blood, five animals were used, with an average age of 3.5 years and a live weight of 460.66±76.86 kg, they were fed twice a day, at 7:00 am and 4:00 pm. The diets were formulated to meet the requirements of the animals at maintenance. 60% of the energy was obtained from forage, and 40% from concentrate, containing the following inclusion levels of citrus pulp (0, 7, 14, 21 and 28%. The area under the curve (AUC and the glucose and insulin peaks were calculated, and no differences were observed between the treatments. There was no effect of diet on the blood concentrations of the evaluated parameters tested, and there was no effect of the time of collection on the following variables: SCFAs, cholesterol, triglycerides and albumin. However, the diet did have quadratic effect on the glucose (Ŷ =-0.5327X²+4.2130X+84.5276 and insulin (Ŷ=-0.1002X² +0.8233X + 1.6336 concentrations. Up to 28% of the concentrate can be composed of citrus pulp in horse diets without causing any alterations on the concentrations of the parameters analyzed in the blood. High-fiber diets with easily fermentable fibers are beneficial because they maintain the glucose and insulin curves close to the baseline levels.

  13. The responsible region and the symptomatic threshold of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism for Broca's aphasia using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshiaki; Ujike, Takashi; Kitamura, Shin; Soeda, Toshiyuki; Terashi, Akiro

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the responsible region and the symptomatic flow and metabolism threshold for Broca's aphasia. Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen metabolism (CMRO 2 ) were measured by positron emission tomography (PET) using 15 O steady state method in eight patients with Broca's aphasia due to cerebral infarction and thirty patients without aphasia. During scanning, patients closed their eyes and were kept free from any stimuration. X-CT scan revealed abnormal low density in Broca's area which includes cortex and subcortex in the anterior region to Sylvian fissure in three patients with aphasia. In the other five patients with aphasia X-CT scan showed no abnormal low density in Broca's area, showed it in basal ganglionic region and subcortex. PET study revealed reduction of CBF and CMRO 2 in Broca's area in all cases with Broca's aphasia. CBF and CMRO 2 of Broca's area of aphasic patients were compared to those of non aphasic patients to obtain the symptomatic threshold in CBF and CMRO 2 . The values of symptomatic threshold were 20 - 27 ml/100 g/min in CBF and 2.0 ml/100 g/min in CMRO 2 . The symptomatic threshold differed from the threshold for development of abnormal low density on X-CT, therefore the measurement of CBF and CMRO 2 were useful in studying the responsible region for aphasia. (author)

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patients with ischemic stroke studied with high resolution pet and the O-15 labelled gas steady-state method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, K.; Shishido, F.; Inugami, A.; Yamaguchi, T.; Ogawa, T.; Murakami, M.; Kanno, I.; Tagawa, K.; Yasui, N.

    1986-01-01

    Although regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies have considerably increased pathophysiological knowledge in ischemic cerebrovascular disease, sometimes the results of such studies do not correlate with neurological abnormalities observed in the subjects being examined. Because regional neuronal activities always couple to the regional energy metabolism of brain tissue, simultaneous observation of rCBF and regional energy metabolism, such as regional oxygen consumption (rCMRO/sub 2/) and regional glucose consumption (rCMRG1), will provide greater understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease than rCBF study alone. Positron emission tomography (PET) using the 0-15 labelled gas steady-state method offers simultaneous measurement of rCBF and rCMRO/sub 2/ in vivo, and demonstrates imbalance between rCBF and rCMRO/sub 2/ in an ischemic lesion in a human brain. However, clinical PET studies in ischemic cerebrovascular disease reported previously, have been carried out using low resolution (more than 15 mm in the full width at half maximum; FWHM) PET. This report presents preliminary results using a high resolution tomograph; Headtome III and 0-15 labelled gas steady state method to investigate ischemic cerebrovascular disease

  15. Influence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate metabolism on sodium-potassium permeability in human red blood cells: studies with bisulfite and other redox agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John C.

    1969-01-01

    It is known that bisulfite ions can selectively deplete red blood cells of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). Studies of the effects of bisulfite on sodium-potassium permeability and metabolism were undertaken to clarify the physiologic role of the abundant quantities of 2,3-DPG in human erythrocytes. Treatment of cells with bisulfite results in a reversible increase in the passive permeability to Na and K ions. Metabolism of glucose to lactate is increased, with a rise in the intracellular ratio of fructose diphosphate to hexose monophosphate. Cell 2,3-DPG is quantitatively converted to pyruvate and inorganic phosphate. The permeability effects of bisulfite are countered by ethacrynic acid and by such oxidizing agents as pyruvate and methylene blue. Taken together, the results suggest that the effects on Na-K flux of bisulfite are related more to the reducing potential of this anion than to its capacity to deplete cells of 2,3-DPG. PMID:5765015

  16. Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to an oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leder, Lena; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Narverud, Ingunn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diet has a great impact on the risk of developing features of metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We evaluated whether a long-term healthy Nordic diet (ND) can modify the expression of inflammation and lipid metabolism......-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in individuals with MetS. METHODS: A Nordic multicenter randomized dietary study included subjects (n = 213) with MetS, randomized to a ND group or a control diet (CD) group applying an isocaloric study......, and the mRNA gene expression analysis was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We analyzed the mRNA expression changes of 44 genes before and after a 2hOGTT at the beginning and the end of the intervention. RESULTS: The healthy ND significantly down-regulated the expression...

  17. Origins of transverse emittance blow-up during the LHC energy tramp

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhn, M; Arduini, G; Kain, V; Schaumann, M; Tomas, R

    2014-01-01

    During LHC Run 1 about 30 % of the potential peak performance was lost due to transverse emittance blow-up through the LHC cycle. Measurements indicated that the majority of the blow-up occurred during the energy ramp. Until the end of LHC Run 1 this emittance blow-up could not be eliminated. In this paper the measurements and observations of emittance growth through the ramp are summarized. Simulation results for growth due to Intra Beam Scattering will be shown and compared to measurements. A summary of investigations of other possible sources will be given and backed up with simulations where possible. Requirements for commissioning the LHC with beam in 2015 after Long Shutdown 1 to understand and control emittance blow-up will be listed.

  18. Numerical and experimental study of blowing jet on a high lift airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobonea, A.; Pricop, M. V.

    2013-10-01

    Active manipulation of separated flows over airfoils at moderate and high angles of attack in order to improve efficiency or performance has been the focus of a number of numerical and experimental investigations for many years. One of the main methods used in active flow control is the usage of blowing devices with constant and pulsed blowing. Through CFD simulation over a 2D high-lift airfoil, this study is trying to highlight the impact of pulsed blowing over its aerodynamic characteristics. The available wind tunnel data from INCAS low speed facility are also beneficial for the validation of the numerical analysis. This study intends to analyze the impact of the blowing jet velocity and slot geometry on the efficiency of an active flow control.

  19. Employees’ intention to blow the whistle: The role of fairness and moral identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Proost, Adríana Pavlinská, Elfi Baillien, Lieven Brebels, Anja Van den Broeck

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we focused on key concepts – moral identity and fairness – in order to explain whistleblowingintention. We examined the relationship between intention to blow the whistle and moral identity, and exploredthe moderating effect of perceived supervisor procedural fairness in this relationship. Our results showed thatemployees (N = 278 with a strong moral identity were more likely to blow the whistle on wrongdoing of whichthey had become aware of, and employees who were low in moral identity were less likely to blow the whistle.Furthermore, we found that the impact of moral identity on the intention to blow the whistle is increased by highprocedural fairness, and that low procedural fairness leaves this relationship insignificant. These findingsrepresent new insights into the study of whistleblowing.

  20. Oscillation of Vortex Breakdown Location and Blowing Control of Time-Averaged Location

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this research is the control of leading-edge vortex breakdown location utilizing along-the-core blowing near the apex on the leeward surface of sharp-edged, slender, delta wings at high angles of attack...

  1. Clinical investigation of CT-guided ozone-blowing and fumigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical investigation of CT-guided ozone-blowing and fumigation therapy for the chronic ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... In control group, seven patients were completely cured in 45 days after being treated by traditional surgery.

  2. The blow-off mechanism of a bluff-body stabilized laminar premixed flame

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2015-01-01

    the end of the recirculation zone. Blow-off started by flame pinching separating the flame into an upstream moving (carried within the recirculation zone) and a downstream convecting (detached from the recirculation zone) flame piece. Within the range

  3. Generating Soap Bubbles by Blowing on Soap Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkin, Louis; Schmit, Alexandre; Panizza, Pascal; Courbin, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    Making soap bubbles by blowing air on a soap film is an enjoyable activity, yet a poorly understood phenomenon. Working either with circular bubble wands or long-lived vertical soap films having an adjustable steady state thickness, we investigate the formation of such bubbles when a gas is blown through a nozzle onto a film. We vary film size, nozzle radius, space between the film and nozzle, and gas density, and we measure the gas velocity threshold above which bubbles are formed. The response is sensitive to containment, i.e., the ratio between film and jet sizes, and dissipation in the turbulent gas jet, which is a function of the distance from the film to the nozzle. We rationalize the observed four different regimes by comparing the dynamic pressure exerted by the jet on the film and the Laplace pressure needed to create the curved surface of a bubble. This simple model allows us to account for the interplay between hydrodynamic, physicochemical, and geometrical factors.

  4. Improvement of blow down model for LEAP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itooka, Satoshi; Fujimata, Kazuhiro

    2003-03-01

    In Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, the improvement of analysis method for overheating tube rapture was studied for the accident of sodium-water reactions in the steam generator of a fast breeder reactor and the evaluation of heat transfer condition in the tube were carried out based on study of critical heat flux (CHF) and post-CHF heat transfer equation in Light Water Reactors. In this study, the improvement of blow down model for the LEAP code was carried out taking into consideration the above-mentioned evaluation of heat transfer condition. Improvements of the LEAP code were following items. Calculations and verification were performed with the improved LEAP code in order to confirm the code functions. The addition of critical heat flux (CHF) by the formula of Katto and the formula of Tong. The addition of post-CHF heat transfer equation by the formula of Condie-BengstonIV and the formula of Groeneveld 5.9. The physical properties of the water and steam are expanded to the critical conditions of the water. The expansion of the total number of section and the improvement of the input form. The addition of the function to control the valve setting by the PID control model. (author)

  5. Improvement of Blood Pressure, Glucose Metabolism, and Lipid Profile by the Intake of Powdered Asparagus (蘆筍 Lú Sǔn Bottom-stems and Cladophylls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Nishimura

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus (蘆筍 Lú Sǔn; Asparagus officinalis L. is a common vegetable, long used as an herbal medicine. The cladophylls and bottom-stems of asparagus have various pharmacological effects, but they are generally discarded at harvesting. The present open clinical trial was performed to examine the effects of the intake of cladophylls and bottom-stems on the improvement of metabolic syndrome characterized by hypertension, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers ingested either cladophyll or bottom-stem powder (6 g/day daily for 10 weeks. The cladophyll intake resulted in significant reduction in the subjects’ diastolic blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose (FPG, and decreased both the left cardio-ankle vascular index score and the total cholesterol level (T-CHO. The bottom-stem intake significantly reduced the subjects’ systolic and diastolic blood pressure and FPG as well as T-CHO. These results suggest the possibility that asparagus cladophylls and bottom-stems differentially improve hypertension, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia.

  6. On lower bounds for possible blow-up solutions to the periodic Navier-Stokes equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortissoz, Jean C.; Montero, Julio A.; Pinilla, Carlos E.

    2014-01-01

    We show a new lower bound on the H .3/2 (T 3 ) norm of a possible blow-up solution to the Navier-Stokes equation, and also comment on the extension of this result to the whole space. This estimate can be seen as a natural limiting result for Leray's blow-up estimates in L p (R 3 ), 3 .5/2 (T 3 ), and give the corresponding extension to the case of the whole space

  7. Description of regional blow-up in a porous-medium equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cortazar

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the (finite-time blow-up phenomenon for a non-negative solution of a porous medium equation of the form $$ u_t = Delta u^m + u^m $$ in the entire space. Here $m>1$ and the initial condition is assumed compactly supported. Blow-up takes place exactly inside a finite number of balls with same radii and exhibiting the same self-similar profile.

  8. A Mathematical Model for Reactions During Top-Blowing in the AOD Process: Validation and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visuri, Ville-Valtteri; Järvinen, Mika; Kärnä, Aki; Sulasalmi, Petri; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Kupari, Pentti; Fabritius, Timo

    2017-06-01

    In earlier work, a fundamental mathematical model was proposed for side-blowing operation in the argon oxygen decarburization (AOD) process. In the preceding part "Derivation of the Model," a new mathematical model was proposed for reactions during top-blowing in the AOD process. In this model it was assumed that reactions occur simultaneously at the surface of the cavity caused by the gas jet and at the surface of the metal droplets ejected from the metal bath. This paper presents validation and preliminary results with twelve industrial heats. In the studied heats, the last combined-blowing stage was altered so that oxygen was introduced from the top lance only. Four heats were conducted using an oxygen-nitrogen mixture (1:1), while eight heats were conducted with pure oxygen. Simultaneously, nitrogen or argon gas was blown via tuyères in order to provide mixing that is comparable to regular practice. The measured carbon content varied from 0.4 to 0.5 wt pct before the studied stage to 0.1 to 0.2 wt pct after the studied stage. The results suggest that the model is capable of predicting changes in metal bath composition and temperature with a reasonably high degree of accuracy. The calculations indicate that the top slag may supply oxygen for decarburization during top-blowing. Furthermore, it is postulated that the metal droplets generated by the shear stress of top-blowing create a large mass exchange area, which plays an important role in enabling the high decarburization rates observed during top-blowing in the AOD process. The overall rate of decarburization attributable to top-blowing in the last combined-blowing stage was found to be limited by the mass transfer of dissolved carbon.

  9. How does nose blowing effect the computed tomography of paranasal sinuses in chronic sinusitis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savranlar, Ahmet; Uzun, Lokman; Ugur, Mehmet Birol; Mahmutyazicioglu, Kamran; Ozer, Tulay; Gundogdu, Sadi

    2005-02-01

    Objective: Our aim was to determine whether inward or outward movement of the secretions in the paranasal sinuses due to nose blowing after nasal decongestion has any effect on the paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT) images in patients with sinusitis and to asses whether nose blowing may result in misdiagnosis or overdiagnosis in radiological evaluation of sinusitis. Materials and methods: Twenty-four patients with chronic sinusitis were evaluated in an academic tertiary care hospital and data were collected prospectively. After coronal sinus computed tomography scans were performed at 100 mA setting which was half the value of the standard radiation dose suggested by the manufacturer, topical decongestion was applied to each nostril followed by nose blowing 10 min later. Sinus CT scans were then repeated at the same setting. We evaluated the mucosal thickness of medial, lateral, superior and inferior maxillary and frontal sinus walls and the maximal thickness in anterior ethmoidal cells. The measurements prior to and following nose blowing were compared with Wilcoxon signed ranks test. The obtained images were also staged using Lund-McKay staging system separately and the scores were compared with Student's t-test. Results: We observed a tendency towards reduction in mucosal thickness after nose blowing. There were statistically significant differences between maxillary sinus inferior wall and frontal sinus inferior wall mucosal thickness values prior to and after nose blowing. The difference however was very small, about 0.5 mm in magnitude and Lund-McKay score did not change in any of the patients after nose blowing. Conclusion: Nose blowing and topical nasal decongestion does not have any effect on the diagnostic accuracy of sinus CT in chronic sinusitis patients.

  10. How does nose blowing effect the computed tomography of paranasal sinuses in chronic sinusitis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savranlar, Ahmet; Uzun, Lokman; Ugur, Mehmet Birol; Mahmutyazicioglu, Kamran; Ozer, Tulay; Gundogdu, Sadi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to determine whether inward or outward movement of the secretions in the paranasal sinuses due to nose blowing after nasal decongestion has any effect on the paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT) images in patients with sinusitis and to asses whether nose blowing may result in misdiagnosis or overdiagnosis in radiological evaluation of sinusitis. Materials and methods: Twenty-four patients with chronic sinusitis were evaluated in an academic tertiary care hospital and data were collected prospectively. After coronal sinus computed tomography scans were performed at 100 mA setting which was half the value of the standard radiation dose suggested by the manufacturer, topical decongestion was applied to each nostril followed by nose blowing 10 min later. Sinus CT scans were then repeated at the same setting. We evaluated the mucosal thickness of medial, lateral, superior and inferior maxillary and frontal sinus walls and the maximal thickness in anterior ethmoidal cells. The measurements prior to and following nose blowing were compared with Wilcoxon signed ranks test. The obtained images were also staged using Lund-McKay staging system separately and the scores were compared with Student's t-test. Results: We observed a tendency towards reduction in mucosal thickness after nose blowing. There were statistically significant differences between maxillary sinus inferior wall and frontal sinus inferior wall mucosal thickness values prior to and after nose blowing. The difference however was very small, about 0.5 mm in magnitude and Lund-McKay score did not change in any of the patients after nose blowing. Conclusion: Nose blowing and topical nasal decongestion does not have any effect on the diagnostic accuracy of sinus CT in chronic sinusitis patients

  11. Effect of cerebral blood flow on consciousness and outcome after head injury. Assessment by jugular bulb venous metabolism and IMP-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaizumi, Shigeki; Onuma, Takehide; Motohashi, Osamu; Kameyama, Motonobu; Ishii, Kiyoshi [Sendai City Hospital (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    This study was performed to elucidate the therapeutical value of arteriojugularvenous oxygen difference (AVDO{sub 2}) in the ultra-emergent period after head injury. Rational therapeutic strategy after severe head injury needs information concerning the dynamical change of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism. We monitored the cerebral venous metabolism within 6 hours after head injury until the day IMP-SPECT was performed. Whole brain cerebral blood flow detected by IMP-SPECT and AVDO{sub 2} at the same day was compared, which restored to the period within 6 hours after head injury. From this procedure, we could outline cerebral blood flow conditions by only AVDO{sub 2} without IMP-SPECT in the ultra-emergent period. Eighty-six patients with head injury who were carried to our emergency center in the period of recent 2 years aged ranging from 15 to 94 years were the subjects. They all performed jugular bulb cannulation within 6 hours after the accident (Martin's phase I: day 0) to know saturation of jugular vein (SjO{sub 2}), AVDO{sub 2} and AVL. They were monitored until the day IMP-SPECT was performed (Martin's phase II; day 1-3 or phase III; day 4-15). The correlation between CBF and AVDO{sub 2}. The effect of CBF and cerebral venous metabolism on consciousness and outcome was also analyzed. CBF and AVDO{sub 2} in phase II and III were reversely correlated (p<0.0001). Normal CBF corresponded with 5.0 vol% in AVDO{sub 2}. AVDO{sub 2} in all cases changed 6.2 vol% at phase I, 4.5 vol% at phase II and 5.1 vol% at phase III. Glasgow comascale (GCS) on admission under 8 (n=47) and over 9 (n=39) significantly differed in AVDO{sub 2} and CBF in the period of II and III. The patients with favorable consciousness showed low AVDO{sub 2} and hyperemia afterwards. Dead cases in phase I (n=19) showed high AVDO{sub 2} and low SjO{sub 2}. The patients with severe disability (SD) (n=13) showed high AVDO{sub 2} and low CBF and the patients with good recovery (GR

  12. Elevated global cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction and unchanged metabolic rate of oxygen in young adults with end-stage renal disease: an MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Gang; Lou, Yaxian; Pan, Zhiying; Liu, Ya [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, College of Aivil Aviation, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Wen, Jiqiu; Li, Xue; Zhang, Zhe [Medical School of Nanjing University, National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Diseases, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Lu, Hanzhang [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Advanced Imaging Research Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Liu, Wei [Siemens Shenzhen Magnetic Resonance Ltd., Shenzhen, Guangdong (China); Liu, Hui [Siemens MR NEA Collaboration, Siemens Ltd., Shanghai (China); Chen, Huijuan; Kong, Xiang; Luo, Song; Jiang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Zongjun; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-06-15

    To noninvasively assess global cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) in young adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Thirty-six patients and 38 healthy volunteers were included and took part in MR examinations, blood and neuropsychological tests. CBF and OEF were measured by phase-contrast and T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging MRI techniques, respectively. CMRO{sub 2} was computed from CBF, OEF and hematocrit according to Fick's principle. Correlations were performed between MR measurements, blood biochemistry measurements and neuropsychological test scores. Compared with controls, ESRD patients had elevated CBF (72.9 ± 12.5 vs. 63.8 ± 8.5 ml min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1}, P < 0.001), elevated OEF (47.2 ± 10.2 vs. 35.8 ± 5.4 %, P < 0.001), but unaffected CMRO{sub 2} (199.5 ± 36.4 vs. 193.8 ± 28.6 μmol O{sub 2} min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1}, P = 0.879). Hematocrit negatively correlated with CBF (r = -0.640, P < 0.001) and OEF (r = -0.701, P < 0.001), but not with CMRO{sub 2}. Altered neuropsychological test scores of ESRD patients were associated with OEF and CBF, but not with CMRO{sub 2}. There were weak relationships between eGFR and hematocrit (r = 0.308, P = 0.068) or CBF (r = 0.318, P = 0.059). Our findings suggested that anaemic young adults with ESRD may afford higher CBF and OEF to maintain a normal CMRO{sub 2}. Despite this compensatory process, however, cognitive function was still impaired and its severity was correlated with their CBF and OEF abnormality. (orig.)

  13. The Effect of Blood Loss in the Presence and Absence of Severe Soft Tissue Injury on Hemodynamic and Metabolic Parameters; an Experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Moradi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of severe soft tissue injury on the severity of hemorrhagic shock is still unknown. Therefore, the present study was aimed to determine hemodynamic and metabolic changes in traumatic/hemorrhagic shock in an animal model. Methods: Forty male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups including sham, hemorrhagic shock, soft tissue injury, and hemorrhagic shock + soft tissue injury groups. The changes in blood pressure, central venous pressure (CVP level, acidity (pH, and base excess were dynamically monitored and comparedsented. Results: Mean arterial blood pressure decreased significantly in hemorrhagic shock (df: 12; F=10.9; p<0.001 and severe soft tissue injury + hemorrhagic shock (df: 12; F=11.7; p<0.001 groups 15 minutes and 5 minutes after injury, respectively. A similar trend was observed in CVP in severe soft tissue injury + hemorrhagic shock group (df: 12; F=8.9; p<0.001. After 40 minutes, pH was significantly lower in hemorrhagic shock (df: 12; F=6.8; p=0.009 and severe soft tissue injury + hemorrhagic shock (df: 12; F=7.9; p=0.003 groups. Base excess changes during follow ups have a similar trend. (df: 12; F=11.3; p<0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that the effect of hemorrhage on the decrease of mean arterial blood pressure, CVP, pH, and base excess is the same in the presence or absence of soft tissue injury.

  14. Elevated global cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction and unchanged metabolic rate of oxygen in young adults with end-stage renal disease: an MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Gang; Lou, Yaxian; Pan, Zhiying; Liu, Ya; Wen, Jiqiu; Li, Xue; Zhang, Zhe; Lu, Hanzhang; Liu, Wei; Liu, Hui; Chen, Huijuan; Kong, Xiang; Luo, Song; Jiang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Zongjun; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2016-01-01

    To noninvasively assess global cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) in young adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Thirty-six patients and 38 healthy volunteers were included and took part in MR examinations, blood and neuropsychological tests. CBF and OEF were measured by phase-contrast and T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging MRI techniques, respectively. CMRO 2 was computed from CBF, OEF and hematocrit according to Fick's principle. Correlations were performed between MR measurements, blood biochemistry measurements and neuropsychological test scores. Compared with controls, ESRD patients had elevated CBF (72.9 ± 12.5 vs. 63.8 ± 8.5 ml min -1 100 g -1 , P < 0.001), elevated OEF (47.2 ± 10.2 vs. 35.8 ± 5.4 %, P < 0.001), but unaffected CMRO 2 (199.5 ± 36.4 vs. 193.8 ± 28.6 μmol O 2 min -1 100 g -1 , P = 0.879). Hematocrit negatively correlated with CBF (r = -0.640, P < 0.001) and OEF (r = -0.701, P < 0.001), but not with CMRO 2 . Altered neuropsychological test scores of ESRD patients were associated with OEF and CBF, but not with CMRO 2 . There were weak relationships between eGFR and hematocrit (r = 0.308, P = 0.068) or CBF (r = 0.318, P = 0.059). Our findings suggested that anaemic young adults with ESRD may afford higher CBF and OEF to maintain a normal CMRO 2 . Despite this compensatory process, however, cognitive function was still impaired and its severity was correlated with their CBF and OEF abnormality. (orig.)

  15. The Effects of Dark Chocolate Consumption on Oxidative Stress and Blood Pressure in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of dark chocolate has been often hypothesized to have a role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of consumption of dark chocolate (DC on serum oxidative stress and blood pressure (BP in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Methods: An 8-week parallel randomized clinical trial involving 114 patients with MetS was conducted on stable medication in 2014. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups: 1 consume 40 g/d DC (40G, 2 consume 20 g/d DC (20G, and 3 consume no DC as the control group (CG. BP, radical scavenging activity of 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and malondialdehyde (MDA were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention. Results: Mean age, weight, and body mass index (BMI of participants were 51.38 ± 6.95 y, 77.34 ± 12.86 kg, and 28.65 ± 4.4 kg/m2, respectively. No significant differences were found among the three groups in relation to these variables after the intervention. The mean change of systolic blood pressure in 40G, 20G, and CG were 0.31 ± 1.81, 0.37 ± 1.65, and 0.26 ± 1.56 mmHg (P = 0.3, respectively. These figures for diastolic blood pressure were obtained as 0.08 ± 1.03, -0.02 ± 1.12, and 0.22 ± 1.03 mmHg. No significant changes were observed in MDA and DPPH between three groups. Conclusion: Even daily intake of 40 g of DC with 76% purity for an 8-week period had no effect on body weight, BMI, BP, and oxidative stress in patients with MetS.

  16. Occurrence of blow fly species (Diptera: calliphoridae) in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunchu, Nophawan; Sukontason, Kom; Sanit, Sangob; Chidburee, Polprecha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2012-12-01

    Based on the current forensic importance of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), their biological aspects have been studied increasingly worldwide. The blow fly fauna in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand was studied from May 2009 to April 2010 in the residential, agricultural, mountainous and forested areas of Muang, Wat Bot, Nakhon Thai and Wang Thong districts, respectively, in order to know the occurrence of blow flies in this province. Collections were carried out monthly using commercial funnel fly traps and sweeping methods, with 1-day tainted pork viscera as bait. Identification of adult blow flies exhibited 14 634 specimens, comprising of 5 subfamilies, 14 genera and 36 species. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) and Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart, 1843) were the most and second most abundant species trapped, respectively. These two species of carrion flies prevailed in all the types of land investigated. We calculated and compared the diversity indices, species evenness and richness, and similarity coefficients of the blow fly species in various areas. The data from this study may be used to identify the potential of forensicallyimportant fly species within Phitsanulok Province and fulfill the information on blow fly fauna in Thailand.

  17. The performance of ethics course for increasing students intention to blow the whistle using information technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munandar, Agus

    2017-10-01

    The profession of accounting believes that ethics is very important in the workplace. For that, profession recommends that ethics course should be taught for accounting student. Unfornutaly, the impact of ethics courses on accounting students intention to blow the whistle on organizational wrongdoing using information technology have not been determined. For that, this paper attempts to measure the impact of ethics courses on accounting student intention to blow the whistle on organizational wrongdoing. The research using experimental design for investigate the impact of ethic course on students intention to blow the whistle using IT. The respondents for this study are 40 accountig students. The respondent were given the ethical scenarios and were measured their intention to blow the whistle using information technology. This result of study reports that 70% of accounting student who completed ethic course indicated high intention to blow the whistle on organizational wrongdoing using information technology. Hence, ethics course is beneficial for increasing accounting professionalism especially their intentio to blow the whistle wrongdoing using information technology.

  18. Thermal large Eddy simulations and experiments in the framework of non-isothermal blowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillant, G.

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this work is to study thermal large-eddy simulations and to determine the nonisothermal blowing impact on a turbulent boundary layer. An experimental study is also carried out in order to complete and validate simulation results. In a first time, we developed a turbulent inlet condition for the velocity and the temperature, which is necessary for the blowing simulations.We studied the asymptotic behavior of the velocity, the temperature and the thermal turbulent fluxes in a large-eddy simulation point of view. We then considered dynamics models for the eddy-diffusivity and we simulated a turbulent channel flow with imposed temperature, imposed flux and adiabatic walls. The numerical and experimental study of blowing permitted to obtain to the modifications of a thermal turbulent boundary layer with the blowing rate. We observed the consequences of the blowing on mean and rms profiles of velocity and temperature but also on velocity-velocity and velocity-temperature correlations. Moreover, we noticed an increase of the turbulent structures in the boundary layer with blowing. (author)

  19. First Satellite-detected Perturbations of Outgoing Longwave Radiation Associated with Blowing Snow Events over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuekui; Palm, Stephen P.; Marshak, Alexander; Wu, Dong L.; Yu, Hongbin; Fu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    We present the first satellite-detected perturbations of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) associated with blowing snow events over the Antarctic ice sheet using data from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System. Significant cloud-free OLR differences are observed between the clear and blowing snow sky, with the sign andmagnitude depending on season and time of the day. During nighttime, OLRs are usually larger when blowing snow is present; the average difference in OLRs between without and with blowing snow over the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is about 5.2 W/m2 for the winter months of 2009. During daytime, in contrast, the OLR perturbation is usually smaller or even has the opposite sign. The observed seasonal variations and day-night differences in the OLR perturbation are consistent with theoretical calculations of the influence of blowing snow on OLR. Detailed atmospheric profiles are needed to quantify the radiative effect of blowing snow from the satellite observations.

  20. Fledging success is a poor indicator of the effects of bird blow flies on ovenbird survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sean M.; Streby, Henry M.; Kapfer, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Infestations of bird blow flies (Protocalliphora spp. and Trypocalliphora braueri) have various negative effects on the condition of nestling birds. In the absence of other stressors such as inclement weather, however, infestation alone rarely reduces fledging success. Previous studies have documented effects of blow flies on nestling condition and fledging success. Without information regarding fledgling survival, the full effect of blow-fly infestation remains unclear. To fully investigate the effect of blow-fly infestation on reproductive success of the Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla), we monitored infested and non-infested nests and monitored fledglings from each by using radio telemetry. Blow flies did not affect birds during the nestling period, as brood size, mean nestling mass, fledging success, and time to fledging in infested and non-infested nests were no different. Fledgling survival and minimum distance traveled the first day after fledging, however, were significantly lower for infected fledglings than for those that were not infected. We conclude that the stress of the early fledgling period combined with recent or concurrent blow-fly infection increases mortality in young Oven-birds. Our results demonstrate the importance of including the post-fledging period in investigations of the effects of ectoparasitic infestations on birds.

  1. Simultaneous evaluation of brain tumour metabolism, structure and blood volume using [18F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto M.; Larsen, Vibeke A; Muhic, Aida

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Both [(18)F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET and blood volume (BV) MRI supplement routine T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI in gliomas, but whether the two modalities provide identical or complementary information is unresolved. The aims of the study were to investigate the feasibility...... of simultaneous structural MRI, BV MRI and FET PET of gliomas using an integrated PET/MRI scanner and to assess the spatial and quantitative agreement in tumour imaging between BV MRI and FET PET. METHODS: A total of 32 glioma patients underwent a 20-min static simultaneous PET/MRI acquisition on a Siemens m......MR system 20 min after injection of 200 MBq FET. The MRI protocol included standard structural MRI and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging for BV measurements. Maximal relative tumour FET uptake (TBRmax) and BV (rBVmax), and Dice coefficients were calculated to assess the quantitative and spatial...

  2. Cerebral blood flow and metabolic patterns as predictors of response to bilateral anterior capsulotomy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbely, K.; Babel, B.; Tron, L.; Nemeth, A.; Pataki, E.; Csigo, E.; Morocz, K.; Lukacs, E.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: Earlier Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies of patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) have demonstrated abnormal regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF) and Cerebral Glucose Metabolic (rCGlM) pattern in the orbitofrontal-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits (OBgThC). OCD is characterized by intrusive, repetitive thoughts and/or behaviors that cause marked distress. In case of a severe, and medically and/or psycho therapeutically intractable disease surgical therapy remains the only possible solution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate rCBF and rCGlM patterns as potential predictors of treatment response to bilateral anterior capsulotomy. We performed rCBF SPECT and rCGlM PET studies in 5 patients with severe, intractable OCD before and after (3, 6 and 12 months) surgical therapy. Methods: The assessment included neurological, psychiatrical examination, CT, MRI, and neuropsychological evaluation. 99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT and 18F-FDG-PET studies were carried out with a standard technique for each patient. The data were analyzed visually and by a special region of interests (ROIs) program. The rCBF SPECT and glucose metabolic PET results were compared to clinical and neuropsychological findings. Results: The SPECT and PET measurements showed significant (p<0.05) rCBF and metabolic abnormalities in caudate nuclei, thalamus, singular and orbitofrontal cortex. There was a marked, but individually variable rCBF and rCGlM pattern before and after surgery. Additionally, the preoperative and postoperative rCBF and rCGlM data proved to be concordant with clinical and neuropsychological findings. Conclusion: Both SPECT and PET (before and after surgery) proved to be concordant with clinical and neuropsychological findings. However, rCGlM PET measurements had a higher sensitivity. Patients with higher preoperative rCBF and rCGlM rates of OBgThC circuits were associated with a better postoperative outcome. RCBF

  3. Blood metabolomics analysis identifies abnormalities in the citric acid cycle, urea cycle, and amino acid metabolism in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, Noriko; Futamura, Takashi; Kakumoto, Keiji; Salehi, Alireza M; Sellgren, Carl M; Holmén-Larsson, Jessica; Jakobsson, Joel; Pålsson, Erik; Landén, Mikael; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe and debilitating psychiatric disorder. However, the precise biological basis remains unknown, hampering the search for novel biomarkers. We performed a metabolomics analysis to discover novel peripheral biomarkers for BD. We quantified serum levels of 116 metabolites in mood-stabilized male BD patients (n = 54) and age-matched male healthy controls (n = 39). After multivariate logistic regression, serum levels of pyruvate, N-acetylglutamic acid, α-ketoglutarate, and arginine were significantly higher in BD patients than in healthy controls. Conversely, serum levels of β-alanine, and serine were significantly lower in BD patients than in healthy controls. Chronic (4-weeks) administration of lithium or valproic acid to adult male rats did not alter serum levels of pyruvate, N-acetylglutamic acid, β-alanine, serine, or arginine, but lithium administration significantly increased serum levels of α-ketoglutarate. The metabolomics analysis demonstrated altered serum levels of pyruvate, N-acetylglutamic acid, β-alanine, serine, and arginine in BD patients. The present findings suggest that abnormalities in the citric acid cycle, urea cycle, and amino acid metabolism play a role in the pathogenesis of BD.

  4. METABOLIC PROFILE OF COW BLOOD UNDER THE TREATMENT OF OVARIES HYPOFUNCTION BY HORMONAL AND PHYTO-PREPARATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornyat S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available For the correction of reproductive function of cows with ovarian hypofunction practices use a number of hormones. Recently, to stimulate reproductive function using herbal medicines that have gonadotropic effect or stimulate secretion of steroid hormones who try to use to increase fertility. Therefore, we carried out an attempt to develop a method of regulation of reproductive function of the ovaries of cows using combination therapies that can provide effective treatment by studying the biochemical parameters of animals. The cows were divided depending on the treatment to control and two experimental groups of 5 animals in each group. Groups were formed by the following treatment regimens indicated pathology. Cows control group treated by next scheme: day 1 — intramuscular injection drug in vitro at a dose of 10 ml; day 2 —PMSG intramuscular administration of the drug at a dose of 500 IU; day 3 —intramuscular injection drug Surfahon at a dose of 50 mg. Cows from experimental group 1 was injected intramuscularly liposomal drug based on herbal (Rhodiola rosea, Salvia; Animals from second experimental group were injected intramuscularly liposomal drug based on phyto-substances (Rhodiola rosea, Salvia with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Surfahon. Analysis of biochemical parameters of blood serum of cows with ovarian hypofunction found low concentrations of estradiol-17-β and progesterone. Between the control and experimental groups concentration of progesterone and estradiol-17-β differ within 10%, which indicates the same level of disease in all animals selected. Level carotene, ascorbic acid and cholesterol in all groups was within the physiological norm and differed slightly. It was established that the treatment of cows with hypofunction ovaries in the experimental group 1 progesterone level 7 days after treatment was 11.5, and 2 - on 41,4% (p <0,01 higher than in the control group animals, indicating that the revitalization of the

  5. Blowing snow sublimation and transport over Antarctica from 11 years of CALIPSO observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Palm

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Blowing snow processes commonly occur over the earth's ice sheets when the 10 m wind speed exceeds a threshold value. These processes play a key role in the sublimation and redistribution of snow thereby influencing the surface mass balance. Prior field studies and modeling results have shown the importance of blowing snow sublimation and transport on the surface mass budget and hydrological cycle of high-latitude regions. For the first time, we present continent-wide estimates of blowing snow sublimation and transport over Antarctica for the period 2006–2016 based on direct observation of blowing snow events. We use an improved version of the blowing snow detection algorithm developed for previous work that uses atmospheric backscatter measurements obtained from the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization lidar aboard the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation satellite. The blowing snow events identified by CALIPSO and meteorological fields from MERRA-2 are used to compute the blowing snow sublimation and transport rates. Our results show that maximum sublimation occurs along and slightly inland of the coastline. This is contrary to the observed maximum blowing snow frequency which occurs over the interior. The associated temperature and moisture reanalysis fields likely contribute to the spatial distribution of the maximum sublimation values. However, the spatial pattern of the sublimation rate over Antarctica is consistent with modeling studies and precipitation estimates. Overall, our results show that the 2006–2016 Antarctica average integrated blowing snow sublimation is about 393 ± 196 Gt yr−1, which is considerably larger than previous model-derived estimates. We find maximum blowing snow transport amount of 5 Mt km−1 yr−1 over parts of East Antarctica and estimate that the average snow transport from continent to ocean is about 3.7 Gt yr−1. These

  6. Comprehensive Metabolomic Analysis in Blood, Urine, Fat, and Muscle in Men with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial on the Effects of Resveratrol after Four Months' Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsholm, Anne Sofie; Kjær, Thomas Nordstrøm; Ornstrup, Marie Juul; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke

    2017-03-04

    Resveratrol possesses several beneficial metabolic effects in rodents, while the effects of resveratrol in humans remain unclear. Therefore, we performed a non-targeted comprehensive metabolomic analysis on blood, urine, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle tissue in middle-aged men with metabolic syndrome randomized to either resveratrol or placebo treatment for four months. Changes in steroid hormones across all four matrices were the most pronounced changes observed. Resveratrol treatment reduced sulfated androgen precursors in blood, adipose tissue, and muscle tissue, and increased these metabolites in urine. Furthermore, markers of muscle turnover were increased and lipid metabolism was affected, with increased intracellular glycerol and accumulation of long-chain saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated (n3 and n6) free fatty acids in resveratrol-treated men. Finally, urinary derivatives of aromatic amino acids, which mainly reflect the composition of the gut microbiota, were altered upon resveratrol treatment. In conclusion, the non-targeted metabolomics approach applied to four different matrices provided evidence of subtle but robust effects on several metabolic pathways following resveratrol treatment for four months in men with metabolic syndrome-effects that, for the most part, would not have been detected by routine analyses. The affected pathways should be the focus of future clinical trials on resveratrol's effects, and perhaps particularly the areas of steroid metabolism and the gut microbiome.

  7. [99mTc]teboroxime and [99mTc]Cl(DMG)3B2MP: binding characteristics and metabolism of two [99mTc]BATOs in blood and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenspire, K.C.; Rumsey, W.L.; Jurisson, S.; Hirth, W.; Narra, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    Studies were performed in vitro and in vivo to evaluate the binding properties and metabolism of [ 99m Tc]Cl(CDO) 3 BMe (Teboroxime) and [ 99m Tc]Cl(DMG) 3 B2MP in blood and target issues of rats. Both radiopharmaceuticals displayed rapid binding (within 1-3 min) with high affinity to plasma proteins and blood cells. The amounts of radioactivity associated with blood components became progressively greater with time of exposure to either compound. There was a higher proportion of the radiopharmaceuticals associated with blood components during in vivo conditions, likely due, at least in part, to clearance of the free fraction from the plasma pool. Exposure of both compounds to blood results in axial ligand exchange of the chloro atom to a hydroxyl. The results suggest that it is the free species that is extracted primarily by tissues. (Author)

  8. [99mTc]teboroxime and [99mTc]Cl(DMG)3B2MP: binding characteristics and metabolism of two [99mTc]BATOs in blood and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenspire, K.C.; Rumsey, W.L.; Jurisson, S.; Hirth, W.; Narra, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    Studies were performed in vitro and in vivo to evaluate the binding properties and metabolism of [ 99m Tc]Cl(CDO) 3 BMe (Teboroxime) and [ 99m Tc]Cl(DMG) 3 B2MP in blood and target tissues of rats. Both radiopharmaceuticals displayed rapid binding (within 1-3 min) with high affinity to plasma proteins and blood cells. The amounts of radioactivity associated with blood components became progressively greater with time of exposure to either compound. There was a higher proportion of the radiopharmaceuticals associated with blood components during in vivo conditions, likely due, at least in part, to clearance of the free fraction from the plasma pool. Exposure of both compounds to blood results in axial ligand exchange of the chloro atom to a hydroxyl. The results suggest that it is the free species that is extracted primarily by tissues. (author)

  9. Quantification of serial changes in cerebral blood volume and metabolism in patients with recurrent glioblastoma undergoing antiangiogenic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadlbauer, Andreas, E-mail: andi@nmr.at [Institute of Medical Radiology, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Pölten (Austria); Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical University Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1097 Vienna (Austria); Pichler, Petra [First Department of Internal Medicine, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Poelten (Austria); Karl, Marianne [Institute of Medical Radiology, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Pölten (Austria); Brandner, Sebastian [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Lerch, Claudia [Institute of Medical Radiology, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Pölten (Austria); Renner, Bertold [Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Heinz, Gertraud [Institute of Medical Radiology, University Clinic of St. Pölten, Propst Führer-Straße 4, A-3100 St. Pölten (Austria)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Antiangiogenic therapy can lead to a decreased in CBV in normal brain tissue. • Responding and pseudoresponding lesions to AAT showed a similar CBV decrease. • Cho and NAA allowed for a distinction of responding and pseudoresponding lesions. • Cr ratios are not suited for evaluation of antiangiogenic therapy response. • Responders to AAT may have an increased risk for remote progression of the GBM. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the usefulness of quantitative advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods for assessment of antiangiogenic therapy (AAT) response in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Methods: Eighteen patients with recurrent GBM received bevacizumab and 18 patients served as control group. Baseline MRI and two follow-up examinations were acquired every 3–5 months using dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast (DSC) perfusion MRI and {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopic imaging ({sup 1}H-MRSI). Maps of absolute cerebral blood volume (aCBV) were coregistered with choline (Cho) and N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) concentrations and compared to usually used relative parameters as well as controls. Results: Perfusion significantly decreased in responding and pseudoresponding GBMs but also in normal appearing brain after AAT onset. Cho and NAA concentrations were superior to Cr-ratios in lesion differentiation and showed a clear gap between responding and pseudoresponding lesions. Responders to AAT exceptionally frequently (6 out of 8 patients) showed remote GBM progression. Conclusions: Quantification of CBV reveals changes in normal brain perfusion due to AAT, which were not described so far. DSC perfusion MRI seems not to be suitable for differentiation between response and pseudoresponse to AAT. However, absolute quantification of brain metabolites may allow for distinction due to a clear gap at 6–9 months after therapy onset.

  10. Effects of free-stream turbulence intensity and blowing ratio on film cooling of turbine blade leading edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. M.; Kim, Youn J.; Cho, H. H.

    2001-01-01

    We used a cylindrical model which simulates turbine blade leading edge to investigate the effects of free-stream turbulence intensity and blowing ratio on film cooling of turbine blade leading edge. Tests are carried out in a low-speed wind tunnel on a cylindrical model with three rows of injection holes. Mainstream Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter was 7.1x10 4 . Two types of turbulence grid are used to increase a free-stream turbulence intensity. The effect of coolant blowing ratio was studied for various blowing ratios. For each blowing ratios, wall temperatures around the surface of the test model are measured by thermocouples installed inside the model. Results show that blowing ratios have small effect on spanwise-averaged film effectiveness at high free-stream turbulence intensity. However, an increase in free-stream turbulence intensity enhances significantly spanwise-averaged film effectiveness at low blowing ratio

  11. The blow-off mechanism of a bluff-body stabilized laminar premixed flame

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.

    2015-04-01

    © 2014 The Combustion Institute. The objective of this work is to investigate the dynamics leading to blow-off of a laminar premixed flame stabilized on a confined bluff-body using high fidelity numerical simulations. We used unsteady, fully resolved, two-dimensional simulations with detailed chemical kinetics and species transport for methane-air combustion. The flame-wall interaction between the hot reactants and the heat conducting bluff-body was accurately captured by incorporating the conjugate heat exchange between them. Simulations showed a shear-layer stabilized flame just downstream of the bluff-body, with a recirculation zone formed by the products of combustion. The flame was negatively stretched along its entire length, primarily dominated by the normal component of the strain. Blow-off was approached by decreasing the mixture equivalence ratio, at a fixed Reynolds number, of the incoming flow. A flame is stable (does not undergo blow-off) when (1) flame displacement speed is equal to the flow speed and (2) the gradient of the flame displacement speed normal to its surface is higher than the gradient of the flow speed along the same direction. As the equivalence ratio is reduced, the difference between the former and the latter shrinks until the dynamic stability condition (2) is violated, leading to blow-off. Blow-off initiates at a location where this is first violated along the flame. Our results showed that this location was far downstream from the flame anchoring zone, near the end of the recirculation zone. Blow-off started by flame pinching separating the flame into an upstream moving (carried within the recirculation zone) and a downstream convecting (detached from the recirculation zone) flame piece. Within the range of operating conditions investigated, the conjugate heat exchange with the bluff-body had no impact on the flame blow-off.

  12. Comparative evaluation of SUV, tumor-to-blood standard uptake ratio (SUR), and dual time point measurements for assessment of the metabolic uptake rate in FDG PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofheinz, Frank; Hoff, Jörg van den; Steffen, Ingo G; Lougovski, Alexandr; Ego, Kilian; Amthauer, Holger; Apostolova, Ivayla

    2016-12-01

    We have demonstrated recently that the tumor-to-blood standard uptake ratio (SUR) is superior to tumor standardized uptake value (SUV) as a surrogate of the metabolic uptake rate K m of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), overcoming several of the known shortcomings of the SUV approach: excellent linear correlation of SUR and K m from Patlak analysis was found using dynamic imaging of liver metastases. However, due to the perfectly standardized uptake period used for SUR determination and the comparatively short uptake period, these results are not automatically valid and applicable for clinical whole-body examinations in which the uptake periods (T) are distinctly longer and can vary considerably. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the correlation between SUR derived from clinical static whole-body scans and K m-surrogate derived from dual time point (DTP) measurements. DTP (18)F-FDG PET/CT was performed in 90 consecutive patients with histologically proven non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the PET images, the primary tumor was delineated with an adaptive threshold method. For determination of the blood SUV, an aorta region of interest (ROI) was delineated manually in the attenuation CT and transferred to the PET image. Blood SUV was computed as the mean value of the aorta ROI. SUR values were computed as ratio of tumor SUV and blood SUV. SUR values from the early time point of each DTP measurement were scan time corrected to 75 min postinjection (SURtc). As surrogate of K m, we used the SUR(T) slope, K slope, derived from DTP measurements since it is proportional to the latter under the given circumstances. The correlation of SUV and SURtc with K slope was investigated. The prognostic value of SUV, SURtc, and K slope for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was investigated with univariate Cox regression in a homogeneous subgroup (N=31) treated with primary chemoradiation. Correlation analysis revealed for both, SUV and SURtc, a

  13. Effect of Functional Bread Rich in Potassium, γ-Aminobutyric Acid and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors on Blood Pressure, Glucose Metabolism and Endothelial Function

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    Becerra-Tomás, Nerea; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Quilez, Joan; Merino, Jordi; Ferré, Raimon; Díaz-López, Andrés; Bulló, Mònica; Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Palau-Galindo, Antoni; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Because it has been suggested that food rich in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) peptides have beneficial effects on blood pressure (BP) and other cardiovascular risk factors, we tested the effects of low-sodium bread, but rich in potassium, GABA, and ACEI peptides on 24-hour BP, glucose metabolism, and endothelial function. A randomized, double-blind, crossover trial was conducted in 30 patients with pre or mild-to-moderate hypertension, comparing three 4-week nutritional interventions separated by 2-week washout periods. Patients were randomly assigned to consume 120 g/day of 1 of the 3 types of bread for each nutritional intervention: conventional wheat bread (CB), low-sodium wheat bread enriched in potassium (LSB), and low-sodium wheat bread rich in potassium, GABA, and ACEI peptides (LSB + G). For each period, 24-hour BP measurements, in vivo endothelial function, and biochemical samples were obtained. After LSB + G consumption, 24-hour ambulatory BP underwent a nonsignificant greater reduction than after the consumption of CB and LSB (0.26 mm Hg in systolic BP and −0.63 mm Hg in diastolic BP for CB; −0.71 mm Hg in systolic BP and −1.08 mm Hg in diastolic BP for LSB; and −0.75 mm Hg in systolic BP and −2.12 mm Hg in diastolic BP for LSB + G, respectively). Diastolic BP at rest decreased significantly during the LSB + G intervention, although there were no significant differences in changes between interventions. There were no significant differences between interventions in terms of changes in in vivo endothelial function, glucose metabolism, and peripheral inflammatory parameters. Compared with the consumption of CB or LSB, no greater beneficial effects on 24-hour BP, endothelial function, or glucose metabolism were demonstrated after the consumption of LSB + G in a population with pre or mild-to-moderate hypertension. Further studies are warranted to clarify the

  14. Preclinical Metabolism, Pharmacokinetics and In Vivo Analysis of New Blood-Brain-Barrier Penetrant Fingolimod Analogues: FTY720-C2 and FTY720-Mitoxy.

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    Julius O Enoru

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a neurodegenerative aging disorder in which postmortem PD brain exhibits neuroinflammation, as well as synucleinopathy-associated protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A enzymatic activity loss. Based on our translational research, we began evaluating the PD-repurposing-potential of an anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and PP2A stimulatory oral drug that is FDA-approved for multiple sclerosis, FTY720 (fingolimod, Gilenya®. We also designed two new FTY720 analogues, FTY720-C2 and FTY720-Mitoxy, with modifications that affect drug potency and mitochondrial localization, respectively. Herein, we describe the metabolic stability and metabolic profiling of FTY720-C2 and FTY720-Mitoxy in liver microsomes and hepatocytes. Using mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human liver microsomes the intrinsic clearance of FTY720-C2 was 22.5, 79.5, 6.0, 20.2 and 18.3 μL/min/mg; and for FTY720-Mitoxy was 1.8, 7.8, 1.4, 135.0 and 17.5 μL/min/mg, respectively. In hepatocytes, both FTY720-C2 and FTY720-Mitoxy were metabolized from the octyl side chain, generating a series of carboxylic acids similar to the parent FTY720, but without phosphorylated metabolites. To assess absorption and distribution, we gave equivalent single intravenous (IV or oral doses of FTY720-C2 or FTY720-Mitoxy to C57BL/6 mice, with two mice per time point evaluated. After IV delivery, both FTY720-C2 and FTY720-Mitoxy were rapidly detected in plasma and brain; and reached peak concentrations at the first sampling time points. After oral dosing, FTY720-C2 was present in plasma and brain, although FTY720-Mitoxy was not orally bioavailable. Brain-to-plasma ratio of both compounds increased time-dependently, suggesting a preferential partitioning to the brain. PP2A activity in mouse adrenal gland increased ~2-fold after FTY720-C2 or FTY720-Mitoxy, as compared to untreated controls. In summary, FTY720-C2 and FTY720-Mitoxy both (i crossed the blood-brain-barrier; (ii produced metabolites

  15. Evaluation and benchmarking of an EC-QCL-based mid-infrared spectrometer for monitoring metabolic blood parameters in critical care units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, M.; Delbeck, S.; Busch, H.; Heise, H. M.; Ostendorf, A.

    2018-02-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopy hyphenated with micro-dialysis is an excellent method for monitoring metabolic blood parameters as it enables the concurrent, reagent-free and precise measurement of multiple clinically relevant substances such as glucose, lactate and urea in micro-dialysates of blood or interstitial fluid. For a marketable implementation, quantum cascade lasers (QCL) seem to represent a favourable technology due to their high degree of miniaturization and potentially low production costs. In this work, an external cavity (EC) - QCL-based spectrometer and two Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers were benchmarked with regard to the precision, accuracy and long-term stability needed for the monitoring of critically ill patients. For the tests, ternary aqueous solutions of glucose, lactate and mannitol (the latter for dialysis recovery determination) were measured in custom-made flow-through transmission cells of different pathlengths and analyzed by Partial Least Squares calibration models. It was revealed, that the wavenumber tuning speed of the QCL had a severe impact on the EC-mirror trajectory due to matching the digital-analog-converter step frequency with the mechanical resonance frequency of the mirror actuation. By selecting an appropriate tuning speed, the mirror oscillations acted as a hardware smoothing filter for the significant intensity variations caused by mode hopping. Besides the tuning speed, the effects of averaging over multiple spectra and software smoothing parameters (Savitzky-Golay-filters and FT-smoothing) were investigated. The final settings led to a performance of the QCL-system, which was comparable with a research FTIR-spectrometer and even surpassed the performance of a small FTIR-mini-spectrometer.

  16. Cord Blood CD8+ T Cells Have a Natural Propensity to Express IL-4 in a Fatty Acid Metabolism and Caspase Activation-Dependent Manner

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    Yuxia Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available How T cells differentiate in the neonate may critically determine the ability of the infant to cope with infections, respond to vaccines and avert allergies. Previously, we found that naïve cord blood CD4+ T cells differentiated toward an IL-4-expressing phenotype when activated in the presence of TGF-β and monocyte-derived inflammatory cytokines, the latter are more highly secreted by infants who developed food allergy. Here, we show that in the absence of IL-2 or IL-12, naïve cord blood CD8+ T cells have a natural propensity to differentiate into IL-4-producing non-classic TC2 cells when they are activated alone, or in the presence of TGF-β and/or inflammatory cytokines. Mechanistically, non-classic TC2 development is associated with decreased expression of IL-2 receptor alpha (CD25 and glycolysis, and increased fatty acid metabolism and caspase-dependent cell death. Consequently, the short chain fatty acid, sodium propionate (NaPo, enhanced IL-4 expression, but exogenous IL-2 or pan-caspase inhibition prevented IL-4 expression. In children with endoscopically and histologically confirmed non-inflammatory bowel disease and non-infectious pediatric idiopathic colitis, the presence of TGF-β, NaPo, and IL-1β or TNF-α promoted TC2 differentiation in vitro. In vivo, colonic mucosa of children with colitis had significantly increased expression of IL-4 in CD8+ T cells compared with controls. In addition, activated caspase-3 and IL-4 were co-expressed in CD8+ T cells in the colonic mucosa of children with colitis. Thus, in the context of colonic inflammation and limited IL-2 signaling, CD8+ T cells differentiate into non-classic TC2 that may contribute to the pathology of inflammatory/allergic diseases in children.

  17. Field observations of the electrostatic charges of blowing snow in Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiya, S.; Sato, A.

    2011-12-01

    An electrostatic charge of blowing snow may be a contributing factor in the formation of a snow drift and a snow cornice, and changing of the trajectory of own motion. However, detailed electrification characteristics of blowing snow are not known as there are few reports of charge measurements. We carried out field observations of the electrostatic charges of blowing snow in Tobetsu, Hokkaido, Japan in the mid winter of 2011. An anemovane and a thermohygrometer were used for the meteorological observation. Charge-to-mass ratios of blowing snow were obtained by a Faraday-cage, an electrometer and an electric balance. In this observation period, the air temperature during the blowing snow event was -6.5 to -0.5 degree Celsius. The measured charges in this observation were consistent with the previous studies in sign, which is negative, but they were smaller than the previous one. In most cases, the measured values increased with the temperature decrease, which corresponds with previous studies. However, some results contradicted the tendency, and the maximum value was obtained on the day of the highest air temperature of -0.5 degree Celsius. This discrepancy may be explained from the difference of the snow surface condition on observation day. The day when the maximum value was obtained, the snow surface was covered with old snow, and hard. On the other hand, in many other cases, the snow surface was covered with the fresh snow, and soft. Blowing snow particles on the hard surface can travel longer distance than on the soft one. Therefore, it can be surmised that the hard surface makes the blowing snow particles accumulate a lot of negative charges due to a large number of collisions to the surface. This can be supported by the results of the wind tunnel experiments by Omiya and Sato (2011). By this field observation, it was newly suggested that the electrostatic charge of blowing snow are influenced greatly by the difference of the snow surface condition. REFERENCE

  18. SIKAP, NORMA SUBJEKTIF, DAN INTENSI PEGAWAI NEGERI SIPIL UNTUK MENGADUKAN PELANGGARAN (WHISTLE-BLOWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Suryono

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate factors that influence civil servants to whistle-blow fraud. It also investigates the effect of government’s bureaucracy reforming program on the civil servants’ intention to whistle-blow fraud. By employing the theory of reasoned action, this study included variables of subjective norms, attitudes, and whistle-blowing intentions. This study used primary data gathered from questionnaires of 293 respondents. Respondents were civil servants in the ministries/agencies that have and have not implemented bureaucratic reforms. The findings of this study indicated that subjective norms positively affected the attitudes and intentions of civil servants to report the wrongdoings. However, the attitudes had no significant effect on civil servants’ whistle-blowing intentions. In addition, there are no significant differences on subjective norms, attitudes, and whistle-blowing intentions between civil servants in ministries/agencies that have implemented bureaucratic reforms and civil servants in ministries/agencies that have not implement bureaucratic reforms.

  19. Religiosity, Job Status and Whistle-Blowing: Evidence from Micro-Finance Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Selase Asamoah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of religiosity and job status on whistle-blowing among employees of micro finance companies in Ga-East district of Ghana. The intellectual dimension of religiosity informs and produces high sense of morality in an individual thus influencing whistle-blowing. Additionally, religion create the platform for building belief in certain rules and regulations as right or as wrong. Using quantitative approach for analyzing the effect between independent variables (job status and religiosity on the dependent variable (whistle-blowing, we show that though religiosity and job status can influence whistle-blowing, however in this study, the magnitude is negligible and perhaps other variables in concert with religiosity and job status may influence whistle-blowing activities in an organization. We conclude that that whistleblowing generally in the Ghanaian setting is yet to receive high prominence due to the general belief of lack of protection for persons who come out to expose wrongdoings and the general fear of harassment, victimization and loss of job by the whistle-blower.

  20. RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF BLOWING AGENT ON SELECTED PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED CELLULAR PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Garbacz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As a part of a more comprehensive research project, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of the type and content of blowing agents in the polymeric materials being processed on the structure and selected physical and mechanical properties of the obtained extrusion parts. In the experiment, the content of the blowing agent (0–2.0% by mass, fed into the processed polymer were adopted as a variable factor. In the studies presented in the article, the blowing agents of endothermic decomposition characteristics (Hydrocerol BIH 70, Hydrocerol BM 70 and the exothermic decomposition characteristics (PLC 751 occurring in the granulated form with a diameter of 1.2 to 1.8 mm were used. Based on the results of investigating porosity, porous structure image analysis as well as microscopic examination of the structure, it has been found that the favorable content of the blowing agent in the polymeric material should be of up to 0.8% by mass. With such a content of the blowing agent in the polymeric material, favorable strength properties are retained in porous parts, the pore distribution is uniform and the pores have similar sizes.

  1. On the effect of leading edge blowing on circulation control airfoil aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclachlan, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    In the present context the term circulation control is used to denote a method of lift generation that utilizes tangential jet blowing over the upper surface of a rounded trailing edge airfoil to determine the location of the boundary layer separation points, thus setting an effective Kutta condition. At present little information exists on the flow structure generated by circulation control airfoils under leading edge blowing. Consequently, no theoretical methods exist to predict airfoil performance under such conditions. An experimental study of the flow field generated by a two dimensional circulation control airfoil under steady leading and trailing edge blowing was undertaken. The objective was to fundamentally understand the overall flow structure generated and its relation to airfoil performance. Flow visualization was performed to define the overall flow field structure. Measurements of the airfoil forces were also made to provide a correlation of the observed flow field structure to airfoil performance. Preliminary results are presented, specifically on the effect on the flow field structure of leading edge blowing, alone and in conjunction with trailing edge blowing.

  2. Elevated global cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction and unchanged metabolic rate of oxygen in young adults with end-stage renal disease: an MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gang; Wen, Jiqiu; Lu, Hanzhang; Lou, Yaxian; Pan, Zhiying; Liu, Wei; Liu, Hui; Li, Xue; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Huijuan; Kong, Xiang; Luo, Song; Jiang, Xiaolu; Liu, Ya; Zhang, Zongjun; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2016-06-01

    To noninvasively assess global cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in young adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Thirty-six patients and 38 healthy volunteers were included and took part in MR examinations, blood and neuropsychological tests. CBF and OEF were measured by phase-contrast and T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging MRI techniques, respectively. CMRO2 was computed from CBF, OEF and hematocrit according to Fick's principle. Correlations were performed between MR measurements, blood biochemistry measurements and neuropsychological test scores. Compared with controls, ESRD patients had elevated CBF (72.9 ± 12.5 vs. 63.8 ± 8.5 ml min(-1) 100 g(-1), P < 0.001), elevated OEF (47.2 ± 10.2 vs. 35.8 ± 5.4 %, P < 0.001), but unaffected CMRO2 (199.5 ± 36.4 vs. 193.8 ± 28.6 μmol O2 min(-1) 100 g(-1), P = 0.879). Hematocrit negatively correlated with CBF (r = -0.640, P < 0.001) and OEF (r = -0.701, P < 0.001), but not with CMRO2. Altered neuropsychological test scores of ESRD patients were associated with OEF and CBF, but not with CMRO2. There were weak relationships between eGFR and hematocrit (r = 0.308, P = 0.068) or CBF (r = 0.318, P = 0.059). Our findings suggested that anaemic young adults with ESRD may afford higher CBF and OEF to maintain a normal CMRO2. Despite this compensatory process, however, cognitive function was still impaired and its severity was correlated with their CBF and OEF abnormality. • Anaemic young adults with ESRD may afford higher CBF and OEF. • Anaemic young adults with ESRD maintain a normal CMRO 2 . • Cognitive function was still impaired in young ESRD adults. • The severity of cognitive dysfunction correlated with CBF and OEF changes.

  3. Lack of association of apolipoprotein E (Apo E) polymorphism with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Family Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lana Y H; Petrone, Andrew B; Pankow, James S; Arnett, Donna K; North, Kari E; Ellison, R Curtis; Hunt, Steven C; Rosenzweig, James L; Djoussé, Luc

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized by abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, elevated blood pressure and insulin resistance, is a major public health concern in the United States. The effects of apolipoprotein E (Apo E) polymorphism on MetS are not well established. We conducted a cross-sectional study consisting of 1551 participants from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Family Heart Study to assess the relation of Apo E polymorphism with the prevalence of MetS. MetS was defined according to the American Heart Association-National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute-International Diabetes Federation-World Health Organization harmonized criteria. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for prevalent MetS and the Bonferroni correction to account for multiple testing in the secondary analysis. Our study population had a mean age (standard deviation) of 56.5 (11.0) years, and 49.7% had MetS. There was no association between the Apo E genotypes and the MetS. The multivariable adjusted ORs (95% confidence interval) were 1.00 (reference), 1.26 (0.31-5.21), 0.89 (0.62-1.29), 1.13 (0.61-2.10), 1.13 (0.88-1.47) and 1.87 (0.91-3.85) for the Ɛ3/Ɛ3, Ɛ2/Ɛ2, Ɛ2/Ɛ3, Ɛ2/Ɛ4, Ɛ3/Ɛ4 and Ɛ4/Ɛ4 genotypes, respectively. In a secondary analysis, Ɛ2/Ɛ3 genotype was associated with 41% lower prevalence odds of low high-density lipoprotein [multivariable adjusted ORs (95% confidence interval) = 0.59 (0.36-0.95)] compared with Ɛ3/Ɛ3 genotype. Our findings do not support an association between Apo E polymorphism and MetS in a multicentre population-based study of predominantly White US men and women. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Mapping of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen using dynamic susceptibility contrast and blood oxygen level dependent MR imaging in acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gersing, Alexandra S.; Schwaiger, Benedikt J. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); University of California, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ankenbrank, Monika; Toth, Vivien; Bauer, Jan S.; Zimmer, Claus [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Janssen, Insa [Technical University Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany); Kooijman, Hendrik [Philips Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Wunderlich, Silke [Technical University Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany); Preibisch, Christine [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Technical University Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    MR-derived cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen utilization (CMRO{sub 2}) has been suggested to be analogous to PET-derived CMRO{sub 2} and therefore may be used for detection of viable tissue at risk for infarction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate MR-derived CMRO{sub 2} mapping in acute ischemic stroke in relation to established diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging. In 23 patients (mean age 63 ± 18.7 years, 11 women) with imaging findings for acute ischemic stroke, relative oxygen extraction fraction was calculated from quantitative transverse relaxation times (T2, T2*) and relative cerebral blood volume using a quantitative blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) approach in order to detect a local increase of deoxyhemoglobin. Relative CMRO{sub 2} (rCMRO{sub 2}) maps were calculated by multiplying relative oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) by cerebral blood flow, derived from PWI. After co-registration, rCMRO{sub 2} maps were evaluated in comparison with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and time-to-peak (TTP) maps. Mean rCMRO{sub 2} values in areas with diffusion-restriction or TTP/ADC mismatch were compared with rCMRO{sub 2} values in the contralateral tissue. In tissue with diffusion restriction, mean rCMRO{sub 2} values were significantly decreased compared to perfusion-impaired (17.9 [95 % confidence interval 10.3, 25.0] vs. 58.1 [95 % confidence interval 50.1, 70.3]; P < 0.001) and tissue in the contralateral hemisphere (68.2 [95 % confidence interval 61.4, 75.0]; P < 0.001). rCMRO{sub 2} in perfusion-impaired tissue showed no significant change compared to tissue in the contralateral hemisphere (58.1 [95 % confidence interval 50.1, 70.3] vs. 66.7 [95 % confidence interval 53.4, 73.4]; P = 0.34). MR-derived CMRO{sub 2} was decreased within diffusion-restricted tissue and stable within perfusion-impaired tissue, suggesting that this technique may be adequate to reveal different pathophysiological stages in acute stroke. (orig.)

  5. A high-fat diet differentially affects the gut metabolism and blood lipids of rats depending on the type of dietary fat and carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2014-02-03

    The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  6. Metabolic dynamics in skeletal muscle during acute reduction in blood flow and oxygen supply to mitochondria: in-silico studies using a multi-scale, top-down integrated model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Ranjan K; Li, Yanjun; Kim, Jaeyeon; Beard, Daniel A; Saidel, Gerald M; Cabrera, Marco E

    2008-09-09

    Control mechanisms of cellular metabolism and energetics in skeletal muscle that may become evident in response to physiological stresses such as reduction in blood flow and oxygen supply to mitochondria can be quantitatively understood using a multi-scale computational model. The analysis of dynamic responses from such a model can provide insights into mechanisms of metabolic regulation that may not be evident from experimental studies. For the purpose, a physiologically-based, multi-scale computational model of skeletal muscle cellular metabolism and energetics was developed to describe dynamic responses of key chemical species and reaction fluxes to muscle ischemia. The model, which incorporates key transport and metabolic processes and subcellular compartmentalization, is based on dynamic mass balances of 30 chemical species in both capillary blood and tissue cells (cytosol and mitochondria) domains. The reaction fluxes in cytosol and mitochondria are expressed in terms of a general phenomenological Michaelis-Menten equation involving the compartmentalized energy controller ratios ATP/ADP and NADH/NAD(+). The unknown transport and reaction parameters in the model are estimated simultaneously by minimizing the differences between available in vivo experimental data on muscle ischemia and corresponding model outputs in coupled with the resting linear flux balance constraints using a robust, nonlinear, constrained-based, reduced gradient optimization algorithm. With the optimal parameter values, the model is able to simulate dynamic responses to reduced blood flow and oxygen supply to mitochondria associated with muscle ischemia of several key metabolite concentrations and metabolic fluxes in the subcellular cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments, some that can be measured and others that can not be measured with the current experimental techniques. The model can be applied to test complex hypotheses involving dynamic regulation of cellular metabolism and

  7. Importance of back blow maneuvers in a 6 month old patient with sudden upper airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Gencpinar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body aspiration in children under four years old is one of the most frequently observed reasons for accident related deaths. It is more common in this age group due to inadequate swallowing functions and exploration of objects with the mouth. The most frequently encountered foreign bodies are food and toy parts. Life threatening complete laryngeal obstruction is rarely observed. Dyspnea, hypersalivation, cough and cyanosis can be seen. The basic and life-saving treatment approach is complete removal of foreign body maneuvers in the sudden onset of total obstruction. Here we report a six-month old male, who ingested a foreign body and was treated with back blow maneuvers successfully. In this case we emphasized the importance of back blow maneuvers. Keywords: Upper airway obstruction, Child, Back blows maneuvers

  8. Molecular identification of blow flies recovered from human cadavers during crime scene investigations in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Rajagopal; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Tan, Tian Chye; Lee, Han Lim; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat; Azirun, Mohd Sofian

    2012-12-01

    Forensic entomology applies knowledge about insects associated with decedent in crime scene investigation. It is possible to calculate a minimum postmortem interval (PMI) by determining the age and species of the oldest blow fly larvae feeding on decedent. This study was conducted in Malaysia to identify maggot specimens collected during crime scene investigations. The usefulness of the molecular and morphological approach in species identifications was evaluated in 10 morphologically identified blow fly larvae sampled from 10 different crime scenes in Malaysia. The molecular identification method involved the sequencing of a total length of 2.2 kilo base pairs encompassing the 'barcode' fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), cytochrome oxidase II (COII) and t-RNA leucine genes. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the presence of Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya nigripes. In addition, one unidentified blow fly species was found based on phylogenetic tree analysis.

  9. Blow fly maggots (Diptera: Calliphoridae)from a human corpse in a vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Monum, Tawachai; Wannasan, Anchalee; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2014-09-01

    Correct species identification and development data of insects associated with a cadaver can help estimate the time of colonization which could be used to infer a minimal post-mortem interval (minPMI) for forensic investigations. Human remains are found in a variety of locations ranging from open fields to inside automobiles. We report the investigation of blow fly larvae collected from a decomposing body located in the trunk of a car. There were two blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species: Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Blow flies can enter the vehicle and colonize human remains. Based on age estimations of third stage larvae of A. rufifacies, the minPMI was estimated to be 4-5 days, which was within the range of 3-5 days estimated by other forensically relevant information.

  10. Quantitative orientational characterization if low - density polyethylene blow films by x-ray and birefringence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri Qazvini, N.; Mohammadi, N.; Ghaffarian, R.; Assempour, H.; Haghighatkish, M.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of two important parameters of film blowing processes, i.e., take-up ration and blow-up ratio, on the overall orientation of low-density blown films have been investigated using birefringence measurements. Furthermore, by combining x-ray diffraction pole figure analysis and birefringence, the White and Spruiell biaxial orientation functions have been determined for aforementioned sample. Within the range of processing condition studied, increasing take-up ratio, increases orientation in both machine and transverse direction. Upon increasing blow-up ratio, orientation in the transverse direction increases and the overall orientation state approaches to equal biaxial one. Characterization of the crystalline regions by pole figure analysis reveals that a and b crystallographic axes preferentially orientate in the film plane and the direction normal to it, respectively. The amorphous regions do not have any preferential orientation

  11. Controlled Transverse Blow-up of Highenergy Proton Beams for Aperture Measurements and Loss Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Hӧfle, W; Redaelli, S; Schmidt, R; Valuch, D; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M

    2012-01-01

    A technique was developed to blow-up transversely in a controlled way high energy proton beams in the LHC. The technique is based on band limited white noise excitation that is injected into the transverse damper feedback loop. The injected signal can be gated to selectively blow-up individual trains of bunches. The speed of transverse blow-up can be precisely controlled. This opens the possibility to perform safely and efficiently aperture measurements and loss maps with high intensity bunch trains well above stored beam energies that are considered to be safe. In particular, lengthy procedures for measurements at top energy, otherwise requiring multiple fills of individual bunches, can be avoided. In this paper, the method is presented and results from beam measurements are discussed and compared with alternative blowup methods.

  12. Both the frequency of HbA1c testing and the frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose predict metabolic control: A multicentre analysis of 15 199 adult type 1 diabetes patients from Germany and Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, A; Best, F; Biester, T; Grünerbel, A; Kopp, F; Krakow, D; Laimer, M; Wagner, C; Holl, R W

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between metabolic control and frequency of haemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) measurements and of self-monitoring of blood glucose, as well as the interaction of both. Data of 15 199 adult type 1 diabetes patients registered in a standardized electronic health record (DPV) were included. To model the association between metabolic control and frequency of HbA 1c testing or of self-monitoring of blood glucose, multiple hierarchic regression models with adjustment for confounders were fitted. Tukey-Kramer test was used to adjust P values for multiple comparisons. Vuong test was used to compare non-nested models. The baseline variables of the study population were median age 19.9 [Q1; Q3: 18.4; 32.2] years and diabetes duration 10.4 [6.8; 15.7] years. Haemoglobin A 1c was 60.4 [51.5; 72.5] mmol/mol. Frequency of HbA 1c testing was 8.0 [5.0; 9.0] within 2 years, and daily self-monitoring of blood glucose frequency was 5.0 [4.0; 6.0]. After adjustment, a U-shaped association between metabolic control and frequency of HbA 1c testing was observed with lowest HbA 1c levels in the 3-monthly HbA 1c testing group. There was an inverse relationship between self-monitoring of blood glucose and HbA 1c with lower HbA 1c associated with highest frequency of testing (>6 daily measurements). Quarterly HbA 1c testing and frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose were associated with best metabolic control. The adjusted Vuong Z statistic suggests that metabolic control might be better explained by HbA 1c testing compared to self-monitoring of blood glucose (P < .0001). This research reveals the importance of quarterly clinical HbA 1c monitoring together with frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes management to reach and maintain target HbA 1c . Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Developing and teaching the virtue-ethics foundations of healthcare whistle blowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas

    2004-10-01

    Healthcare whistle blowing, despite the benefits it has brought to healthcare systems in many developed countries, remains generally regarded as a pariah activity by many of the most influential healthcare professionals and regulatory institutions. Few if any medical schools or law department health law and bioethics classes, teach whistle blowing in a formal sense. Yet without exception, public inquiries initiated by healthcare whistle blowers have validated their central allegations and demonstrated that the whistle blowers themselves were sincere in their desire to implement the fundamental virtues and principles of medical ethics, bioethics and public health law. In many jurisdictions, the law, this time remarkably in advance of professional opinion, has offered legislative protection for reasonable allegations of whistleblowers made in good faith and in the public interest concerning a substantial and imminent threat to public safety. One reason for this paradoxical position, explored here, is that healthcare whistle blowing lacks a firm virtue-based theoretical bioethical and jurisprudential foundation. The hypothesis discussed is that the lack of this bioethical and jurisprudential substrate has contributed to a situation where healthcare whistle blowing suffers in terms of institutional support due to its lack of academic legitimacy. This article commences the process of redressing this imbalance by attempting to lay the theoretical foundations for healthcare whistle blowing. As a case study, this article concludes by discussing the Personal and Professional Development course at the ANU Medical School where healthcare whistle blowing is a formal part of a virtue-based curriculum that emphasises the foundational importance of conscience. Illustrative elements of that program are discussed.

  14. Metabolic Myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic myopathies are genetic disorders that impair intermediary metabolism in skeletal muscle. Impairments in glycolysis/glycogenolysis (glycogen-storage disease), fatty acid transport and oxidation (fatty acid oxidation defects), and the mitochondrial respiratory chain (mitochondrial myopathies) represent the majority of known defects. The purpose of this review is to develop a diagnostic and treatment algorithm for the metabolic myopathies. The metabolic myopathies can present in the neonatal and infant period as part of more systemic involvement with hypotonia, hypoglycemia, and encephalopathy; however, most cases present in childhood or in adulthood with exercise intolerance (often with rhabdomyolysis) and weakness. The glycogen-storage diseases present during brief bouts of high-intensity exercise, whereas fatty acid oxidation defects and mitochondrial myopathies present during a long-duration/low-intensity endurance-type activity or during fasting or another metabolically stressful event (eg, surgery, fever). The clinical examination is often normal between acute events, and evaluation involves exercise testing, blood testing (creatine kinase, acylcarnitine profile, lactate, amino acids), urine organic acids (ketones, dicarboxylic acids, 3-methylglutaconic acid), muscle biopsy (histology, ultrastructure, enzyme testing), MRI/spectroscopy, and targeted or untargeted genetic testing. Accurate and early identification of metabolic myopathies can lead to therapeutic interventions with lifestyle and nutritional modification, cofactor treatment, and rapid treatment of rhabdomyolysis.

  15. Asymptotic analysis of reaction-diffusion-advection problems: Fronts with periodic motion and blow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, Nikolay

    2017-02-01

    This is an extended variant of the paper presented at MURPHYS-HSFS 2016 conference in Barcelona. We discuss further development of the asymptotic method of differential inequalities to investigate existence and stability of sharp internal layers (fronts) for nonlinear singularly perturbed periodic parabolic problems and initial boundary value problems with blow-up of fronts for reaction-diffusion-advection equations. In particular, we consider periodic solutions with internal layer in the case of balanced reaction. For the initial boundary value problems we prove the existence of fronts and give their asymptotic approximation including the new case of blowing-up fronts. This case we illustrate by the generalised Burgers equation.

  16. The blow-up problem for a semilinear parabolic equation with a potential

    OpenAIRE

    Cortazar, C.; Elgueta, M.; Rossi, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    Let $\\Omega$ be a bounded smooth domain in $\\RR^N$. We consider the problem $u_t= \\Delta u + V(x) u^p$ in $\\Omega \\times [0,T)$, with Dirichlet boundary conditions $u=0$ on $\\partial \\Omega \\times [0,T)$ and initial datum $u(x,0)= M \\phi (x)$ where $M \\geq 0$, $\\phi$ is positive and compatible with the boundary condition. We give estimates for the blow up time of solutions for large values of $M$. As a consequence of these estimates we find that, for $M$ large, the blow up set concentrates ne...

  17. Blow-off of hydrogen using an optimized design of discharge jet-mixer arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristow, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is ignitable in air at volume concentrations between 4 % and 75 %. Therefore, in the case of an emergency evacuation of a hydrogen-cooled generator in nuclear power plants, the gas has to be safely blown-off above the turbine building. Especially, a leakage at the hydrogen containing piping system at the generator has gained more and more importance in the context of safety assessments. The design of a blow-off system respects two safety aspects: Firstly, a short blow-off time is necessary to reduce the hydrogen release inside the turbine building in case of a leakage. Secondly, for the postulated ignition of the released hydrogen on the roof of the building the resulting pressure load must remain below the maximum admissible one of the turbine building roof. In order to fulfill the first condition an appropriate fast evacuation piping system from the generator to the blow-off outlet is designed. Regarding the latter the blow-off system uses special discharge nozzles placed horizontally in a radial-symmetric configuration. In this respect, the influence of strong wind conditions during the evacuation process is also considered. The resulting ignitable volume of the overlapping H2-air clouds does not exceed the maximum allowed ignitable volume. In the following the underlying process of blow-off by a fast hydrogen evacuation system is discussed. First the transient general blow-off behavior in the dedicated piping system is analyzed with the fluid piping tool ROLAST. The results of these calculations are boundary conditions for the subsequent qualification of the blow-off jet-mixer. Here a proof of the general functionality is given (2D CFD). Subsequently the blow-off behavior of the H2-air mixture is discussed in independent 3D CFD calculations with and without wind. From these analyses the possible ignitable gas volumes are determined. Final step is a simplified semi-analytical assessment of the resulting possible deflagration loads on the civil structure

  18. Blow-Up Analysis for a Quasilinear Degenerate Parabolic Equation with Strongly Nonlinear Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the blow-up properties of the positive solution of the Cauchy problem for a quasilinear degenerate parabolic equation with strongly nonlinear source ut=div(|∇um|p−2∇ul+uq,  (x,t∈RN×(0,T, where N≥1, p>2 , and m, l,  q>1, and give a secondary critical exponent on the decay asymptotic behavior of an initial value at infinity for the existence and nonexistence of global solutions of the Cauchy problem. Moreover, under some suitable conditions we prove single-point blow-up for a large class of radial decreasing solutions.

  19. Blow-up of solutions to the rotation b-family system modeling equatorial water waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the blow-up mechanism to the periodic generalized rotation b-family system (R-b-family system. This model can be derived from the f-plane governing equations for the geographical water waves with a constant underlying current in the equatorial water waves with effect of the Coriolis force. When b=2, it is a rotation two-component Camassa-Holm (R2CH system. We consider the periodic R2CH system when linear dispersion is absent (which model is called r2CH system and derive two finite-time blow-up results.

  20. Fasting serum blood measures of bone and lipid metabolism in children with myelomeningocele for early detection of cardiovascular and bone fragility risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Speybroeck, Alexander; Mueske, Nicole M; Mittelman, Steven D; Kremer, Richard K; Ryan, Deirdre D; Wren, Tishya A L

    2017-03-01

    This study examined serum levels in children with myelomeningocele to identify the prevalence of pre-clinical signs of disease. A prospective, cross-sectional study. Patients were actively recruited from multidisciplinary care clinics at tertiary children's hospitals from 2010-2012. The control comparison group was recruited by word-of-mouth. Twenty-eight children with myelomeningocele (93% Hispanic; 17 males; 10.0 ± 2.1 years) and 58 controls (84% Hispanic; 30 males; 10.4 ± 2.4 years) provided ≥ 8-hour fasting blood samples with concomitant dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of body fat. Not applicable. The serum analysis included a lipid panel (cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein), insulin, glucose, leptin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, creatinine, calcium, phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D. Children with myelomeningocele had higher body fat (35.2% versus 29.9%, p=0.01) and altered lipid profiles (lower high-density lipoprotein levels, 43.9 mg/dL versus 51.6 mg/dL, P = 0.03) suggesting elevated risk of metabolic syndrome. They also had a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (43% versus 17%, p=0.02) and significantly lower levels of calcium (9.4 mg/dL versus 9.7 mg/dL, P = 0.003) and alkaline phosphatase (187.0 U/L versus 237.0 U/L, P = 0.003). Unexpectedly children with myelomeningocele had lower parathyroid hormone levels (14.5 pg/mL versus 18.4 pg/mL, P = 0.02) than controls despite lower calcium, vitamin D and alkaline phosphatase levels. This suggests an alteration in the sensing mechanism or response of the parathyroid gland to normal physiological stimuli in patients with myelomeningocele. Children with myelomeningocele have abnormal biochemical markers for cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and bone and mineral metabolism. Early recognition and monitoring of these risk factors in patients with

  1. Blood pressure normalization by fixed perindopril/indapamide combination in hypertensive patients with or without associate metabolic syndrome: results of the OPTIMAX 2 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Mourad

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Jacques Mourad1, Dulce Lameira1, Pierre-Jean Guillausseau21APHP, Service de Médecine interne, Hôpital Avicenne, Bobigny, France; 2APHP, Service de Médecine B, Hôpital Lariboisière, et Université Paris, Paris, FranceAbstract: The aim of the observational pharmaco-epidemiological study Optimax II was to seek whether the pre-existence of a metabolic syndrome (MS defi ned by the NCEP-ATP III criteria impacts blood pressure (BP control in hypertensive patients receiving a fixed perindopril/indapamide combination therapy. The primary objective of the study was to compare in patients with and without MS the rate of BP control defined as a systolic BP ≤140 mmHg and a diastolic BP ≤90 mmHg. Patients were prospectively included and the follow-up lasted 6 months. The study population consisted of 24,069 hypertensive patients (56% men; mean age 62 ± 11 years; 18% diabetics; mean BP at inclusion 162 ± 13/93 ± 9 mmHg. MS was found in 30.4% of the patients (n = 7322: 35.2% women and 20.1% men. Three therapeutic subgroups were constituted: Group A, previously untreated, received the combination therapy as initial treatment; Group B, previously treated but with unsatisfactory results and/or treatment intolerance, had its previous treatment switched to perindopril/indapamide; and Group C, previously treated, with good treatment tolerance but uncontrolled BP, received the study treatment in adjunction to the previous one. The normalization rate was 70.3% in group A, 68.4% in Group B, and 64.1% in Group C (p < 0.0001. The pre-existence of MS did not show any significant influence on these rates since BP lowering was –22.7 ± 13.7 (SBP and –12.0 ± 10.0 mmHg (DBP in patients without MS and –22.6 ± 13.3 (SBP and −12.1 ± 9.7 (DBP in those with MS. The results of this study show a significant effect of perindopril/indapamide treatment on systolic BP lowering, whatever the treatment status: initiation, switch, or adjunctive therapy, and

  2. Blood parameters of the wild chacma baboon, Papio ursinus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from August 1979 to March 1980 using a blow-dart system with the drug ketamine hydrochloride (Vetalar; ... to March 1980, in the Okavango Swamp, Botswana. Blood parameter. Haemoglobin (g/dl). PCV (lITo) ..... Porter & Rolls, Academic Press, London & New York. FOY, H., KONDI, A. & MBA YA, V. 1964. Effect of ...

  3. Comparison of the effects of flaxseed oil and sunflower seed oil consumption on serum glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, and lipid peroxidation in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Atefeh; Nikaein, Farzad; Babajafari, Siavash; Faghih, Shiva; Yarmohammadi, Hassan

    Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) increases the risk of type II diabetes and morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Flaxseed oil (FO), as a functional food, is one of the major vegetal sources of essential omega-3 fatty acids. This study aimed to compare the effects of consumption of FO and sunflower seed oil (SO) on lipid peroxidation and other symptoms of MetSyn. This randomized controlled interventional trial was conducted on 60 volunteers aged 30 to 60 years who were diagnosed with MetSyn in Shiraz, Iran. The participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to SO (n = 30, receiving 25 mL/d SO) and FO (n = 30, receiving 25 ml/d FO) groups using block randomization. The diets were identical for all the participants. Blood pressure (BP), serum lipid, fasting blood sugar, and malondialdehyde were measured at baseline and at the end of week 7. The results showed no significant difference between the 2 groups regarding blood lipid levels and fasting blood sugar at the end of the study. However, significant reductions in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (5.6% in FO and 10.8% in SO), and triglyceride levels were seen within each group after treatment with FO and SO (P < .05). Nonetheless, between-group changes were significant (<0.05) for systolic BP (mean [±standard deviation {SD}] changes were -14.0 ± 22.41 in the FO group [P = .004] and 0.92 ± 8.70 in the SO group [P = .594]) and diastolic BP (mean [±SD] changes were -4.26 ± 7.44 in the FO group [P = .007] and 1.30 ± 6.91 in the SO group [P = .344]), but marginally significant (P = .053) for malondialdehyde level (mean [±SD] changes were -1.29 ± 1.48 in the FO group [P < .001] and -0.52 ± 1.34 in the SO group [P = .52]). A significant decrease in weight was also found in both groups. However, waist circumference decreased significantly only in the FO group at the end of the study (P < .05). Our results indicated

  4. Blood Glucose Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Cadamuro, Janne

    2018-01-01

    The measurement of fasting plasma glucose may be biased by a time-dependent decrease of glucose in blood tubes, mainly attributable to blood cell metabolism when glycolysis is not rapidly inhibited or blood cells cannot be rapidly separated from plasma. Although glycolysis inhibitors such as sodium...

  5. Cerebral Metabolic Rate of Oxygen (CMRO2 ) Mapping by Combining Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) and Quantitative Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent Imaging (qBOLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junghun; Kee, Youngwook; Spincemaille, Pascal; Nguyen, Thanh D; Zhang, Jingwei; Gupta, Ajay; Zhang, Shun; Wang, Yi

    2018-03-07

    To map the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) by estimating the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) from gradient echo imaging (GRE) using phase and magnitude of the GRE data. 3D multi-echo gradient echo imaging and perfusion imaging with arterial spin labeling were performed in 11 healthy subjects. CMRO 2 and OEF maps were reconstructed by joint quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) to process GRE phases and quantitative blood oxygen level-dependent (qBOLD) modeling to process GRE magnitudes. Comparisons with QSM and qBOLD alone were performed using ROI analysis, paired t-tests, and Bland-Altman plot. The average CMRO 2 value in cortical gray matter across subjects were 140.4 ± 14.9, 134.1 ± 12.5, and 184.6 ± 17.9 μmol/100 g/min, with corresponding OEFs of 30.9 ± 3.4%, 30.0 ± 1.8%, and 40.9 ± 2.4% for methods based on QSM, qBOLD, and QSM+qBOLD, respectively. QSM+qBOLD provided the highest CMRO 2 contrast between gray and white matter, more uniform OEF than QSM, and less noisy OEF than qBOLD. Quantitative CMRO 2 mapping that fits the entire complex GRE data is feasible by combining QSM analysis of phase and qBOLD analysis of magnitude. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Orange juice consumption and its effect on blood lipid profile and indices of the metabolic syndrome; a randomised, controlled trial in an at-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, E J; Mendis, B; Macdonald, I A

    2016-04-01

    Data from epidemiological and in vitro studies suggest that orange juice (OJ) may have a positive impact on lipid metabolism. However, there have been reports in the media claiming detrimental consequences of 100% juice consumption, including weight-gain and adverse effects on insulin sensitivity and blood lipid profile. The effect of daily OJ consumption was assessed using a randomised, placebo-controlled, single-blinded, parallel group design. Thirty-six overweight, but otherwise healthy men (40-60 years; 27-35 kg m(-2)) with elevated fasting serum cholesterol (5-7 mmol l(-1)), were recruited from the general UK population. None were using nutritional strategies or medication to lower their cholesterol, nor were regular consumers of citrus products. Assessment of BMI, HOMA-IR, and circulating lipid (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, non-esterified fatty acids, triacylglycerol, apolipoprotein-A1 and apolipoprotein-B) concentrations, was made when fasted before (V1) and after a 12-week intervention (V2), during which participants consumed 250 ml per d of OJ or an energy and sugars-matched orange-flavoured drink (control). The two groups were matched at V1 with respect to all parameters described above. Although triacylglycerol concentration was similar between the groups at both visits, a trend for the change in this variable to differ between groups was observed (P = 0.060), with those in control exhibiting a significant increase in triacylglycerol at V2, compared with V1. In OJ, those with the highest initial triacylglycerol concentration showed the greatest reduction at V2 (R(2) = 0.579; P consumption of 250 ml per d of OJ did not adversely affect insulin sensitivity, circulating lipids or body weight.

  7. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jurgoński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex. The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  8. Studies of cerebral blood flow and metabolism in patients with senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type and diagnostic evaluation of the dementing illnesses by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Shizuki

    1990-01-01

    This study was designed to determine cerebral dysfunction in senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type (SDAT). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), oxygen extraction fraction and cerebral oxygen consumption (rCMRO 2 ) were studied in SDAT patients (n=16) and age-matched normal elderly people (n=5) by positron emission tomography (PET) using the O-15 labeled CO 2 and O 2 inhalation technique. The SDAT group had a significantly lower values in both rCBF and rCMRO 2 than the normal control. During the early stage of SDAT, rCMRO 2 was restricted to the temporal cortex; and it extended to the parietal and frontal cortices associated with a decreased rCBF as the disease progressed. Posterior temporal and posterior parietal association cortices were considered to be the most damageable part during the early stage. Bilateral differences in oxygen metabolism of the temporal and parietal cortices tended to be in accordance with clinical symptoms for disturbed speech and visuospatial function, suggesting the correlation between rCMRO 2 and rCBF in SDAT. Findings of PET in SDAT differed from those obtained in each patient with multi-infarct dementia or Pick disease, in that both rCBF and rCMRO 2 were inhomogeneously decreased over the whole cerebral cortex for multi-infarct dementia and in that homogeneously decreased rCBF and rCMRO 2 were restricted to the frontal and temporal cortices for Pick disease. PET may have a potential for differentiating various types of dementia. (N.K.)

  9. The effects of anticholinergic drugs on regional cerebral blood flow, and oxygen metabolism in previously untreated patients with Parkinson`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Satoko; Takahashi, Satoshi; Yonezawa, Hisashi; Sato, Yoshitomo [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-12-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and oxygen metabolism (rCMRO{sub 2}) were measured using the steady-state {sup 15}O technique and positron emission tomography (PET) in six previously untreated patients with Parkinson`s disease before and after trihexyphenidyl (THP) treatment. The patients comprised of 4 men and 2 women with Hoehn-Yahr stage II-III. Their ages at the onset of the study ranged from 46 to 57 years (mean{+-}SD, 51.8{+-}3.7) and the duration of the illness ranged from 10 to 48 months (mean{+-}SD, 28.8{+-}15.5). The PET study, assessments of the disability and cognitive function were undergone twice. The first time assessments were done was when the patients were not receiving any drugs, and the second time was one to three months after administration of 6 mg THP. All patients showed clinical improvement after THP treatment. The mean disability score of Unified Parkinson`s Disease Rating Scale decreased from 35.1 (SD{+-}11.3) to 25.7 (SD{+-}11.6). The cognitive function assessed by Hasegawa`s dementia rating scale-revised, Mini-Mental State Examination, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, were not significantly different before and after the THP treatment. After the THP treatment, rCBF and rCMRO{sub 2} decreased significantly in the striatum (about 15%) and all cerebral cortices (about 10%) on both sides contralateral and ipsilateral to the predominantly symptomatic limbs. We conclude that an anticholinergic THP decreases the rCBF and rCMRO{sub 2} significantly in the cerebral cortices without cognitive impairment in early untreated patients with Parkinson`s disease. (author)

  10. Modeling of Mixing Behavior in a Combined Blowing Steelmaking Converter with a Filter-Based Euler-Lagrange Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingming; Li, Lin; Li, Qiang; Zou, Zongshu

    2018-05-01

    A filter-based Euler-Lagrange multiphase flow model is used to study the mixing behavior in a combined blowing steelmaking converter. The Euler-based volume of fluid approach is employed to simulate the top blowing, while the Lagrange-based discrete phase model that embeds the local volume change of rising bubbles for the bottom blowing. A filter-based turbulence method based on the local meshing resolution is proposed aiming to improve the modeling of turbulent eddy viscosities. The model validity is verified through comparison with physical experiments in terms of mixing curves and mixing times. The effects of the bottom gas flow rate on bath flow and mixing behavior are investigated and the inherent reasons for the mixing result are clarified in terms of the characteristics of bottom-blowing plumes, the interaction between plumes and top-blowing jets, and the change of bath flow structure.

  11. miR-758-3p: a blood-based biomarker that's influence on the expression of CERP/ABCA1 may contribute to the progression of obesity to metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Sadhbh; Larsen, Mette Bohl; Gregersen, Søren; Hermansen, Kjeld; O'Driscoll, Lorraine

    2018-02-06

    Due to increasing prevalence of obesity, a simple method or methods for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome are urgently required to reduce the risk of associated cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. This study aimed to identify a miRNA biomarker that may distinguish metabolic syndrome from obesity and to investigate if such a miRNA may have functional relevance for metabolic syndrome. 52 adults with clinical obesity (n=26) or metabolic syndrome (n=26) were recruited. Plasma specimens were procured from all and were randomly designated to discovery and validation cohorts. miRNA discovery profiling was performed, using array technology, on plasma RNA. Validation was performed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The functional effect of miR-758-3p on its predicted target, cholesterol efflux regulatory protein/ATP-binding cassette transporter, was investigated using HepG2 liver cells. Custom miRNA profiling of 25 miRNAs in the discovery cohort found miR-758-3p to be detected in the obese cohort but undetected in the metabolic syndrome cohort. miR-758-3p was subsequently validated as a potential biomarker for metabolic syndrome by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Bioinformatics analysis identified cholesterol efflux regulatory protein/ATP-binding cassette transporter as miR-758-3p's predicted target. Specifically, mimicking miR-758-3p in HepG2 cells suppressed cholesterol efflux regulatory protein/ATP-binding cassette transporter protein expression; conversely, inhibiting miR-758-3p increased cholesterol efflux regulatory protein/ATP-binding cassette transporter protein expression. miR-758-3p holds potential as a blood-based biomarker for distinguishing progression from obesity to metabolic syndrome and as a driver in controlling cholesterol efflux regulatory protein/ATP-binding cassette transporter expression, indicating it potential role in cholesterol control in metabolic syndrome.

  12. miR-758-3p: a blood-based biomarker that’s influence on the expression of CERP/ABCA1 may contribute to the progression of obesity to metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neill, Sadhbh; Larsen, Mette Bohl; Gregersen, Søren; Hermansen, Kjeld; O’Driscoll, Lorraine

    2018-01-01

    Due to increasing prevalence of obesity, a simple method or methods for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome are urgently required to reduce the risk of associated cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. This study aimed to identify a miRNA biomarker that may distinguish metabolic syndrome from obesity and to investigate if such a miRNA may have functional relevance for metabolic syndrome. 52 adults with clinical obesity (n=26) or metabolic syndrome (n=26) were recruited. Plasma specimens were procured from all and were randomly designated to discovery and validation cohorts. miRNA discovery profiling was performed, using array technology, on plasma RNA. Validation was performed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The functional effect of miR-758-3p on its predicted target, cholesterol efflux regulatory protein/ATP-binding cassette transporter, was investigated using HepG2 liver cells. Custom miRNA profiling of 25 miRNAs in the discovery cohort found miR-758-3p to be detected in the obese cohort but undetected in the metabolic syndrome cohort. miR-758-3p was subsequently validated as a potential biomarker for metabolic syndrome by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Bioinformatics analysis identified cholesterol efflux regulatory protein/ATP-binding cassette transporter as miR-758-3p’s predicted target. Specifically, mimicking miR-758-3p in HepG2 cells suppressed cholesterol efflux regulatory protein/ATP-binding cassette transporter protein expression; conversely, inhibiting miR-758-3p increased cholesterol efflux regulatory protein/ATP-binding cassette transporter protein expression. miR-758-3p holds potential as a blood-based biomarker for distinguishing progression from obesity to metabolic syndrome and as a driver in controlling cholesterol efflux regulatory protein/ATP-binding cassette transporter expression, indicating it potential role in cholesterol control in metabolic syndrome. PMID:29507696

  13. Blow-out of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames at sub-atmospheric pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiang; Hu, Longhua; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in quiescent air at sub-atmospheric pressures (50–100 kPa) were studied experimentally using propane fuel with nozzle diameters ranging 0.8–4 mm. Results showed that the fuel jet velocity at blow-out limit increased with increasing ambient pressure and nozzle diameter. A Damköhler (Da) number based model was adopted, defined as the ratio of characteristic mixing time and characteristic reaction time, to include the effect of pressure considering the variations in laminar burning velocity and thermal diffusivity with pressure. The critical lift-off height at blow-out, representing a characteristic length scale for mixing, had a linear relationship with the theoretically predicted stoichiometric location along the jet axis, which had a weak dependence on ambient pressure. The characteristic mixing time (critical lift-off height divided by jet velocity) adjusted to the characteristic reaction time such that the critical Damköhler at blow-out conditions maintained a constant value when varying the ambient pressure.

  14. On wake response to asymmetric blowing in spurts from a blunt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion and generation of noise continue to attract the attention of researchers .... the crest width was maintained as one-fifth of the full cycle, thereby making the blowing .... result in any discernible change in the velocity profile far from the base region, x/h = 5, .... Proceedings of the 44th IEEE Conf. on Decision and Control, and.

  15. What Actions Can Be Taken to Increase Whistle-Blowing in the Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Richard A.; Landry, Alexandra C.; Landry, Erynne E.; Buonafede, Mitchell R.; Berardi, Marissa E.

    2016-01-01

    This study surveyed undergraduate business students on various issues concerning the potential of students whistle-blowing when they observe other students cheating. Developing the courage of one's conviction in our accounting students is important to accounting educators as we are also emphasizing traits such as integrity, skepticism, and…

  16. Resection and primary anastomosis with or without modified blow-hole colostomy for sigmoid volvulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Sacid; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Terzi, Alpaslan; Yildiz, Fahrettin; Ozgor, Dincer; Ara, Cengiz; Yologlu, Saim; Kirimlioglu, Vedat

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of resection and primary anastomosis (RPA) and RPA with modified blow-hole colostomy for sigmoid volvulus. METHODS: From March 2000 to September 2007, 77 patients with acute sigmoid volvulus were treated. A total of 47 patients underwent RPA or RPA with modified blow-hole colostomy. Twenty-five patients received RPA (Group A), and the remaining 22 patients had RPA with modified blow-hole colostomy (Group B). The clinical course and postoperative complications of the two groups were compared. RESULTS: The mean hospital stay, wound infection and mortality did not differ significantly between the groups. Superficial wound infection rate was higher in group A (32% vs 9.1%). Anastomotic leakage was observed only in group A, with a rate of 6.3%. The difference was numerically impressive but was statistically not significant. CONCLUSION: RPA with modified blow-hole colostomy provides satisfactory results. It is easy to perform and may become a method of choice in patients with sigmoid volvulus. Further studies are required to further establish its role in the treatment of sigmoid volvulus. PMID:18810779

  17. Self-contained anti-static adapter for compressed gas dust blowing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.H.; Miller, S.W.; Severud, C.N. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An anti-static adapter which enhances the operation of compressed gas dust blowing devices by allowing the safe use of a radioactive source to ionize a gas stream. The adapter may be used and handled safely without special precautions on the part of the operator

  18. Assessing the stretch-blow moulding FE simulation of PET over a large process window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J.; Menary, G. H.; Yan, S.

    2017-10-01

    Injection stretch blow moulding has been extensively researched for numerous years and is a well-established method of forming thin-walled containers. This paper is concerned with validating the finite element analysis of the stretch-blow-moulding (SBM) process in an effort to progress the development of injection stretch blow moulding of poly(ethylene terephthalate). Extensive data was obtained experimentally over a wide process window accounting for material temperature, air flow rate and stretch-rod speed while capturing cavity pressure, stretch-rod reaction force, in-mould contact timing and material thickness distribution. This data was then used to assess the accuracy of the correlating FE simulation constructed using ABAQUS/Explicit solver and an appropriate user-defined viscoelastic material subroutine. Results reveal that the simulation was able to pick up the general trends of how the pressure, reaction force and in-mould contact timings vary with the variation in preform temperature and air flow rate. Trends in material thickness were also accurately predicted over the length of the bottle relative to the process conditions. The knowledge gained from these analyses provides insight into the mechanisms of bottle formation, subsequently improving the blow moulding simulation and potentially providing a reduction in production costs.

  19. Mathematical model of whole-process calculation for bottom-blowing copper smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-zhou; Zhou, Jie-min; Tong, Chang-ren; Zhang, Wen-hai; Li, He-song

    2017-11-01

    The distribution law of materials in smelting products is key to cost accounting and contaminant control. Regardless, the distribution law is difficult to determine quickly and accurately by mere sampling and analysis. Mathematical models for material and heat balance in bottom-blowing smelting, converting, anode furnace refining, and electrolytic refining were established based on the principles of material (element) conservation, energy conservation, and control index constraint in copper bottom-blowing smelting. Simulation of the entire process of bottom-blowing copper smelting was established using a self-developed MetCal software platform. A whole-process simulation for an enterprise in China was then conducted. Results indicated that the quantity and composition information of unknown materials, as well as heat balance information, can be quickly calculated using the model. Comparison of production data revealed that the model can basically reflect the distribution law of the materials in bottom-blowing copper smelting. This finding provides theoretical guidance for mastering the performance of the entire process.

  20. Solution blow spun Poly(lactic acid)/Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose nanofibers with antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanofibers containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and tetracycline hydrochloride (THC) were solution blow spun from two different solvents, chloroform/acetone (CA, 80:20 v/v) and 2,2,2-triflouroethanol (TFE). The diameter distribution, chemical, thermal, thermal stab...

  1. Humidification of Blow-By Oxygen During Recovery of Postoperative Pediatric Patients: One Unit's Journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Suzanne; DiBlasi, Robert M; Thomas, Karen

    2018-02-02

    To examine the practice of nebulizer cool mist blow-by oxygen administered to spontaneously breathing postanesthesia care unit (PACU) pediatric patients during Phase one recovery. Existing evidence was evaluated. Informal benchmarking documented practices in peer organizations. An in vitro study was then conducted to simulate clinical practice and determine depth and amount of airway humidity delivery with blow-by oxygen. Informal benchmarking information was obtained by telephone interview. Using a three-dimensional printed simulation model of the head connected to a breathing lung simulator, depth and amount of moisture delivery in the respiratory tree were measured. Evidence specific to PACU administration of cool mist blow-by oxygen was limited. Informal benchmarking revealed that routine cool mist oxygenated blow-by administration was not widely practiced. The laboratory experiment revealed minimal moisture reaching the mid-tracheal area of the simulated airway model. Routine use of oxygenated cool mist in spontaneously breathing pediatric PACU patients is not supported. Copyright © 2017 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Paradigm for Operant Conditioning in Blow Flies ("Phormia Terrae Novae" Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Michel B. C.; Disma, Gerald; Abramson, Charles I.

    2010-01-01

    An operant conditioning situation for the blow fly ("Protophormia terrae novae") is described. Individual flies are trained to enter and reenter a hole as the operant response. Only a few sessions of contingent reinforcement are required to increase response rates. When the response is no longer followed by food, the rate of entering the hole…

  3. A review of bacterial interactions with blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) of medical, veterinary, and forensic importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow flies are commonly associated with decomposing material. In most cases, the larvae are found feeding on decomposing vertebrate remains. However, some species have specialized to feed on living tissue or can survive on other alternate resources like feces. Because of their affiliation with su...

  4. Severe diffuse axon injury in chronic alcoholic rat medulla oblongata following a concussion blow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianming; Chen, Guang; Wei, Lai; Qian, Hong; Lai, Xiaoping; Wang, Dian; Lv, Junyao; Yu, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the axonal morphological changes and expression of both tau protein and β-APP following concussion to the medulla oblongata, in a rat model of chronic alcoholism. Fifty-nine male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into EtOH, EtOH-TBI and control groups (water group, water-TBI group). To establish chronic alcoholic rats, rats were intragastrically given edible spirituous liquor twice daily. Rats also received a blow on the occipital tuberosity with an iron pendulum. Morphological changes and expression of tau and β-APP proteins in the medulla oblongata were examined. (a) Nerve fibre thickening and twisting were observed in alcoholic rats, with nerve fibre changes becoming more significant following a concussion blow, which leads to some nerve fibres fracturing. (b) Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the nerve fibre myelin became loosened and displayed lamellar separation, which became more significant following concussion. (c) The integral optical density (IOD) sum value of β-APP of the EtOH-TBI group was lower than that in the EtOH group (P Chronic alcoholism caused nerve fibre and neuronal morphology damage in the rat medulla oblongata, with structural damage becoming more significant following concussion. (b) Concussion changed the expression of β-APP and tau protein in chronic alcoholic rat medulla oblongata, suggesting that chronic alcoholism can lead to severe axonal injury following a concussion blow. (c) The effect of chronic alcoholism may be synergistic the concussion blow to promote animal injury and death.

  5. Blow-out of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames at sub-atmospheric pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiang

    2016-12-09

    Blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in quiescent air at sub-atmospheric pressures (50–100 kPa) were studied experimentally using propane fuel with nozzle diameters ranging 0.8–4 mm. Results showed that the fuel jet velocity at blow-out limit increased with increasing ambient pressure and nozzle diameter. A Damköhler (Da) number based model was adopted, defined as the ratio of characteristic mixing time and characteristic reaction time, to include the effect of pressure considering the variations in laminar burning velocity and thermal diffusivity with pressure. The critical lift-off height at blow-out, representing a characteristic length scale for mixing, had a linear relationship with the theoretically predicted stoichiometric location along the jet axis, which had a weak dependence on ambient pressure. The characteristic mixing time (critical lift-off height divided by jet velocity) adjusted to the characteristic reaction time such that the critical Damköhler at blow-out conditions maintained a constant value when varying the ambient pressure.

  6. [Metabolic myopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazian, Óscar; Rivas-Chacón, Rafael

    2013-09-06

    To review the metabolic myopathies manifested only by crisis of myalgias, cramps and rigidity of the muscles with decreased voluntary contractions and normal inter crisis neurologic examination in children and adolescents. These metabolic myopathies are autosomic recessive inherited enzymatic deficiencies of the carbohydrates and lipids metabolisms. The end result is a reduction of intra muscle adenosine triphosphate, mainly through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, with decrease of available energy for muscle contraction. The one secondary to carbohydrates intra muscle metabolism disorders are triggered by high intensity brief (fatty acids metabolism disorders are triggered by low intensity prolonged (> 10 min) exercises. The conditions in the first group in order of decreasing frequency are the deficiencies of myophosforilase (GSD V), muscle phosphofructokinase (GSD VII), phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (GSD X) and beta enolase (GSD XIII). The conditions in the second group in order of decreasing frequency are the deficiencies of carnitine palmitoyl transferase II and very long chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase. The differential characteristics of patients in each group and within each group will allow to make the initial presumptive clinical diagnosis in the majority and then to order only the necessary tests to achieve the final diagnosis. Treatment during the crisis includes hydration, glucose and alkalinization of urine if myoglobin in blood and urine are elevated. Prevention includes avoiding exercise which may induce the crisis and fasting. The prognosis is good with the exception of rare cases of acute renal failure due to hipermyoglobinemia because of severe rabdomyolisis.

  7. Cycle Time Optimization of Chamomile Package 120 MI Product at Blow Molding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Hermawan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Chamomile is a package which is applied for cosmetic. In industry this package is being processed by blow molding. Thereare many parameters that influence cycle time during production; in this project only three of them were varied, i.e. blowingpressure, blowing time and stopping time. Each parameter is determined three chosen level. Middle level is taken fromstandard setting of machining which is being used by industry. Top and bottom level is randomized. Three stopping time are0.1, 0.55, and 1.0 second. Blowing time are 10.5, 11.5 and 12.5 second. Where as, blowing pressures is 4, 5 and 6 bar.Combination of among levels is based on Box Behnken design. Those three parameters are called variable process. In theother hand, variable responses are cycle time and net weight. Each combination is replicated 5 times and then averaged. Thedata then is processed by using Minitab version 14th. Square regression of the model for cycle time is ?CT = 21,1300 - 0,0912X1 + 0,2000 X2 + 0,6313 X3 + 0,6100 X12 + 0,6975 X22 – 0,1000 X1 X2 – 0,1725 X1 X3 + 0,1100 X2 X3 and Net = 19,2933 –0,0088 X1 + 0,0175 X2 + 0,0712 X3 + 0,0133 X 21 + 0.0158 X22- 0.0217 X 23 + 0.0125 X1X2 - 0,0150 X1 X3 for product netweight. Where X1 is blowing pressure, X2 is blowing time and X3 is stopping time.The model developed then tested by lack offit testing, variance by ANOVA and R square. Second stage of model testing is residual test. Three tests are carry out, i.e.identically test and independency test and normality. Optimization of both values, cycle time and net weight, are searched byResponse Surface Method. By the method it is found that the optimum condition of cycle time is 20.5 seconds and net weightis 19.19 grams. The optimum condition is achieved when stopping is 0.1 second, blowing time 11.35 second and blowingpressure 5.1 bars.

  8. Extensive Core Microbiome in Drone-Captured Whale Blow Supports a Framework for Health Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apprill, Amy; Miller, Carolyn A; Moore, Michael J; Durban, John W; Fearnbach, Holly; Barrett-Lennard, Lance G

    2017-01-01

    The pulmonary system is a common site for bacterial infections in cetaceans, but very little is known about their respiratory microbiome. We used a small, unmanned hexacopter to collect exhaled breath condensate (blow) from two geographically distinct populations of apparently healthy humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae ), sampled in the Massachusetts coastal waters off Cape Cod ( n = 17) and coastal waters around Vancouver Island ( n = 9). Bacterial and archaeal small-subunit rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced from blow samples, including many of sparse volume, as well as seawater and other controls, to characterize the associated microbial community. The blow microbiomes were distinct from the seawater microbiomes and included 25 phylogenetically diverse bacteria common to all sampled whales. This core assemblage comprised on average 36% of the microbiome, making it one of the more consistent animal microbiomes studied to date. The closest phylogenetic relatives of 20 of these core microbes were previously detected in marine mammals, suggesting that this core microbiome assemblage is specialized for marine mammals and may indicate a healthy, noninfected pulmonary system. Pathogen screening was conducted on the microbiomes at the genus level, which showed that all blow and few seawater microbiomes contained relatives of bacterial pathogens; no known cetacean respiratory pathogens were detected in the blow. Overall, the discovery of a shared large core microbiome in humpback whales is an important advancement for health and disease monitoring of this species and of other large whales. IMPORTANCE The conservation and management of large whales rely in part upon health monitoring of individuals and populations, and methods generally necessitate invasive sampling. Here, we used a small, unmanned hexacopter drone to noninvasively fly above humpback whales from two populations, capture their exhaled breath (blow), and examine the associated microbiome. In the

  9. Blow-up criteria for the 3D cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmer, Justin; Platte, Rodrigo; Roudenko, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    We consider solutions u to the 3D nonlinear Schrödinger equation i∂ t u + Δu + |u| 2 u = 0. In particular, we are interested in finding criteria on the initial data u 0 that predict the asymptotic behaviour of u(t), e.g., whether u(t) blows up in finite time, exists globally in time but behaves like a linear solution for large times (scatters), or exists globally in time but does not scatter. This question has been resolved (at least for H 1 data) (Duyckaerts–Holmer–Roudenko) if M[u]E[u] ≤ M[Q]E[Q], where M[u] and E[u] denote the mass and energy of u and Q denotes the ground state solution to −Q + ΔQ + |Q| 2 Q = 0. Here we consider the complementary case M[u]E[u] > M[Q]E[Q]. In the first (analytical) part of the paper, we present a result due to Lushnikov, based on the virial identity and the generalized uncertainty principle, giving a sufficient condition for blow-up. By replacing the uncertainty principle in his argument with an interpolation-type inequality, we obtain a new blow-up condition that in some cases improves upon Lushnikov's condition. Our approach also allows for an adaptation to radial infinite-variance initial data that has a conceptual interpretation: for real-valued initial data, if a certain fraction of the mass is contained within the ball of radius M[u], then blow up occurs. We also show analytically (if one takes the numerically computed value of ||Q|| .H 1/2 ) that there exist Gaussian initial data u 0 with negative quadratic phase such that ||u 0 || .H 1/2 .H 1/2 but the solution u(t) blows up. In the second (numerical) part of the paper, we examine several different classes of initial data—Gaussian, super Gaussian, off-centred Gaussian, and oscillatory Gaussian—and for each class give the theoretical predictions for scattering or blow-up provided by the above theorems as well as the results of numerical simulation. We find that depending upon the form of the initial conditions, any of the three analytical criteria for blow

  10. Opioid Analgesics and Nicotine: More Than Blowing Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin H; Lane, Scott D; Weaver, Michael F

    2015-09-01

    Practitioners are highly likely to encounter patients with concurrent use of nicotine products and opioid analgesics. Smokers present with more severe and extended chronic pain outcomes and have a higher frequency of prescription opioid use. Current tobacco smoking is a strong predictor of risk for nonmedical use of prescription opioids. Opioid and nicotinic-cholinergic neurotransmitter systems interact in important ways to modulate opioid and nicotine effects: dopamine release induced by nicotine is dependent on facilitation by the opioid system, and the nicotinic-acetylcholine system modulates self-administration of several classes of abused drugs-including opioids. Nicotine can serve as a prime for the use of other drugs, which in the case of the opioid system may be bidirectional. Opioids and compounds in tobacco, including nicotine, are metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system, but the metabolism of opioids and tobacco products can be complicated. Accordingly, drug interactions are possible but not always clear. Because of these issues, asking about nicotine use in patients taking opioids for pain is recommended. When assessing patient tobacco use, practitioners should also obtain information on products other than cigarettes, such as cigars, pipes, smokeless tobacco, and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, or e-cigarettes). There are multiple forms of behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy available to assist patients with smoking cessation, and opioid agonist maintenance and pain clinics represent underutilized opportunities for nicotine intervention programs.

  11. Simultaneous evaluation of brain tumour metabolism, structure and blood volume using [{sup 18}F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET/MRI: feasibility, agreement and initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, Otto M.; Hansen, Adam E.; Law, Ian [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Blegdamsvej, Department of Clinical Physiology Nuclear Medicine and PET, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsen, Vibeke A. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Blegdamsvej, Department of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Muhic, Aida; Poulsen, Hans S. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Blegdamsvej, Department of Oncology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsson, Henrik B.W. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Glostrup, Functional Imaging Unit, Department of Clinical Physiology Nuclear Medicine and PET, Glostrup (Denmark)

    2016-01-15

    Both [{sup 18}F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET and blood volume (BV) MRI supplement routine T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI in gliomas, but whether the two modalities provide identical or complementary information is unresolved. The aims of the study were to investigate the feasibility of simultaneous structural MRI, BV MRI and FET PET of gliomas using an integrated PET/MRI scanner and to assess the spatial and quantitative agreement in tumour imaging between BV MRI and FET PET. A total of 32 glioma patients underwent a 20-min static simultaneous PET/MRI acquisition on a Siemens mMR system 20 min after injection of 200 MBq FET. The MRI protocol included standard structural MRI and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging for BV measurements. Maximal relative tumour FET uptake (TBR{sub max}) and BV (rBV{sub max}), and Dice coefficients were calculated to assess the quantitative and spatial congruence in the tumour volumes determined by FET PET, BV MRI and contrast-enhanced MRI. FET volume and TBR{sub max} were higher in BV-positive than in BV-negative scans, and both VOL{sub BV} and rBV{sub max} were higher in FET-positive than in FET-negative scans. TBR{sub max} and rBV{sub max} were positively correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.59, p < 0.001). FET and BV positivity were in agreement in only 26 of the 32 patients and in 42 of 63 lesions, and spatial congruence in the tumour volumes as assessed by the Dice coefficients was generally poor with median Dice coefficients exceeding 0.1 in less than half the patients positive on at least one modality for any pair of modalities. In 56 % of the patients susceptibility artefacts in DSC BV maps overlapped the tumour on MRI. The study demonstrated that although tumour volumes determined by BV MRI and FET PET were quantitatively correlated, their spatial congruence in a mixed population of treated glioma patients was generally poor, and the modalities did not provide the same information in this population of patients. Combined

  12. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney disease, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome Read less Unhealthy lifestyle habits Unhealthy lifestyle habits can increase the risk of high blood pressure. These habits include: Unhealthy eating patterns, such as eating too much sodium ...

  13. Determination of the fraction of blowing agent released from refrigerator/freezer foam after decommissioning the product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    Several halocarbons having very high global warming potential have been used as blowing agent for insulation foam in refrigerators and freezers. Many appliances are shredded after the end of their useful life. Release experiments carried out in the laboratory on insulation foam revealed that most...... of the blowing agent is not released to the atmosphere during a six-week period following the shredding process. The fraction which is released in the six-week period, is highly dependent on how fine the foam is shredded. The residual blowing agent remaining after the six-week period may be very slowly released...

  14. Frequency Response of Near-Wall Coherent Structures to Localized Periodic Blowing and Suction in Turbulent Boundary Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian-Hua, Liu; Nan, Jiang

    2008-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the frequency response of near-wall coherent structures to localized periodic blowing and suction through a spanwise slot in a turbulent boundary layer by changing the frequency of periodic disturbance at similar velocities of free stream. The effects of blowing and suction disturbance on energy redistribution, turbulent intensity u' rms + , over y + and waveforms of phase-averaged velocity during sweeping process are respectively discussed under three frequencies of periodic blowing and suction in near-wall region of turbulent boundary layer, compared with those in a standard turbulent boundary layer. The most effective disturbance frequency is figured out in this system. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  15. The association between Western and Prudent dietary patterns and fasting blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes and normal glucose metabolism in older Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Erin I; Jacka, Felice N; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J; Cherbuin, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    High blood glucose and type 2 diabetes are associated with a range of adverse health and cognitive outcomes. One factor that contributes to high blood glucose and type 2 diabetes is dietary intake. This study investigated the relationship between dietary patterns, fasting blood glucose and diabetes status in a sample of 209 participants aged 60-65. Blood plasma glucose was measured from venous blood samples. Individual Prudent and Western dietary patterns were estimated from a self-completed food frequency questionnaire. The relationship between dietary patterns, diabetes, and blood glucose was assessed via general linear model analyses controlling for age, sex, height, and total caloric intake. Results indicated that there was no association between Prudent diet and fasting blood glucose levels, or type 2 diabetes. In contrast, an individual in the upper tertile for Western dietary score had a significantly higher risk of having diabetes than an individual in the lower tertile for Western dietary score. However, there was no significant association between Western diet and fasting blood glucose. Western diet may be associated with type 2 diabetes through mechanisms beyond impacting blood plasma glucose directly. The fact that the association between Western diet and type 2 diabetes remained even when total caloric intake was controlled for highlights the need for policy and population health interventions targeting the reduction of unhealthy food consumption.