WorldWideScience

Sample records for blood bdnf levels

  1. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A;

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been no...... studies directly comparing blood BDNF levels to brain BDNF levels in different species. We examined blood, serum, plasma and brain-tissue BDNF levels in three different mammalian species: rat, pig, and mouse, using an ELISA method. As a control, we included an analysis of blood and brain tissue from...... conditional BDNF knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Whereas BDNF could readily be measured in rat blood, plasma and brain tissue, it was undetectable in mouse blood. In pigs, whole-blood levels of BDNF could not be measured with a commercially available ELISA kit, but pig plasma BDNF levels (mean...

  2. Whole blood BDNF levels in healthy twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trajkovska, Viktorija; Vinberg, Maj; Aznar, Susana;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been associated with decreased blood BDNF concentrations; but it is unclear if low blood BDNF levels are a state or a trait marker of depression. METHODS: We investigated blood BDNF concentrations in a twin population including both subjects highly predisposed and prote...

  3. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A;

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been ...

  4. Cerebral 5-HT2A receptor and serotonin transporter binding in humans are not affected by the val66met BDNF polymorphism status or blood BDNF levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders Bue; Trajkovska, Viktorija; Erritzoe, David;

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have proposed an interrelation between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism and the serotonin system. In this study, we investigated whether the BDNF val66met polymorphism or blood BDNF levels are associated with cerebral 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT(2...

  5. Whole blood BDNF levels in healthy twins discordant for affective disorder: association to life events and neuroticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trajkovska, V.; Vinberg, M.; Aznar, S.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been associated with decreased blood BDNF concentrations; but it is unclear if low blood BDNF levels are a state or a trait marker of depression. METHODS: We investigated blood BDNF concentrations in a twin population including both subjects highly predisposed and prote...

  6. Cerebral 5-HT2A receptor and serotonin transporter binding in humans are not affected by the val66met BDNF polymorphism status or blood BDNF levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders Bue; Trajkovska, Viktorija; Erritzoe, David; Haugbol, Steven; Madsen, Jacob; Baaré, William; Aznar, Susana; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have proposed an interrelation between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism and the serotonin system. In this study, we investigated whether the BDNF val66met polymorphism or blood BDNF levels are associated with cerebral 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT(2A...... BDNF polymorphism status is not associated with changes in the serotonergic system. Moreover, BDNF levels in blood do not correlate with either 5-HT(2A) or SERT binding.......)) receptor or serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in healthy subjects. No statistically significant differences in 5-HT(2A) receptor or SERT binding were found between the val/val and met carriers, nor were blood BDNF values associated with SERT binding or 5-HT(2A) receptor binding. In conclusion, val66met...

  7. Are variations in whole blood BDNF level associated with the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in patients with first episode depression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann; Bennike, Bente;

    2013-01-01

    stressful life events (SLE) in a cohort of patients with a first depressive episode. 262 patients with first episode depression (females 174, males 88, age range 18-70, mean age 41) participated and control sample of 84 participants was included (females 52, males 32, age range 22-70, mean age 42......Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems to play an important role in the pathophysiology of affective disorders. The current study investigated whether blood level BDNF is correlated with the severity of depressive symptoms and recent (six months prior to onset of depression) experience of......). Symptomatology was rated using Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and Becks Depression Inventory (BDI 21). No differences in whole blood BDNF was seen in relation to the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and no significant correlations between whole blood BDNF and HAMD-17 or BDI 21 scores were found. No...

  8. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts BDNF level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep plays a pivotal role in normal biological functions. Sleep loss results in higher stress vulnerability and is often found in mental disorders. There is evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF could be a central player in this relationship. Recently, we could demonstrate that subjects suffering from current symptoms of insomnia exhibited significantly decreased serum BDNF levels compared with sleep-healthy controls. In accordance with the paradigm indicating a link between sleep and BDNF, we aimed to investigate if the stress system influences the association between sleep and BDNF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants with current symptoms of insomnia plus a former diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS and/or Periodic Limb Movement (PLM and sleep healthy controls were included in the study. They completed questionnaires on sleep (ISI, Insomnia Severity Index and stress (PSS, Perceived Stress Scale and provided a blood sample for determination of serum BDNF. We found a significant interaction between stress and insomnia with an impact on serum BDNF levels. Moreover, insomnia severity groups and score on the PSS each revealed a significant main effect on serum BDNF levels. Insomnia severity was associated with increased stress experience affecting serum BDNF levels. Of note, the association between stress and BDNF was only observed in subjects without insomnia. Using a mediation model, sleep was revealed as a mediator of the association between stress experience and serum BDNF levels. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show that the interplay between stress and sleep impacts BDNF levels, suggesting an important role of this relationship in the pathogenesis of stress-associated mental disorders. Hence, we suggest sleep as a key mediator at the connection between stress and BDNF. Whether sleep is maintained or disturbed might explain why some individuals are able to handle a certain stress load while

  9. Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Production of BDNF following Mitogen Stimulation in Early Onset and Regressive Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Enstrom

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is critical for neuronal differentiation and synaptic development. BDNF is also implicated in the development of psychological disorders including depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Previously, elevated BDNF levels were observed in neonatal blood samples from infants who were later diagnosed with autism when compared with children who developed normally, suggesting that BDNF may be involved in the development of autism. BDNF is produced by activated brain microglial cells, a cellular phenotype that shares several features with peripheral macrophages, suggesting an important role for the immune system in BDNF production. We hypothesized that under mitogenic stimulation, peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from children with autism may have altered BDNF production compared with age-matched typically developing control subjects. In addition, we examined the differences between the production of BDNF in classic/early-onset autism and children who had a regressive form of autism. We show here that plasma levels of BDNF levels are increased in children with autism, especially in early onset autism subjects. Furthermore, under mitogenic stimulation with PHA and LPS, BDNF production is significantly increased in children with autism compared with typically developing subjects. However, stimulation with tetanus toxoid results in a decreased response in children with autism. This data suggest that immune cell-derived production of BDNF could be an important source for the increased BDNF that is detected in some subjects with autism. As a neurotrophic factor produced by immune cells, BDNF could help elucidate the role of the immune system in neurodevelopment and neuronal maintenance, which may be dysregulated in autism.

  10. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism: relation to familiar risk of affective disorder, BDNF levels and salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Trajkovska, Viktorija; Bennike, Bente;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are considered to play an important role in the pathophysiology of affective disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with a...... polymorphism may present with an enhanced stress response. The presence of a specific genotype alone may not enhance the risk of developing an affective episode. Rather, the altered stress response may be expressed only in combination with other risk variants through interactions with the environment....... familiar risk of affective disorder and whether these genotypes affect whole blood BDNF level and salivary cortisol. METHOD: In a high-risk study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with and without a co-twin (high- and low-risk twins, respectively) history of affective disorder were identified...

  11. Increased BDNF levels in long-term bipolar disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Guimarães Barbosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder (BD is a prevalent, chronic and progressive illness. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plays an important role in the pathophysiology of BD. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate BDNF plasma levels in BD patients with long term illness in comparison with controls. METHODS: 87 BD type I patients and 58 controls matched by age, gender and education level were enrolled in this study. All subjects were assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the patients by the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The plasma levels of BDNF were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: On average, patients had suffered from BD for 23.4 years. In comparison with controls, BD patients with mania presented a 1.90-fold increase in BDNF plasma levels (p = .001, while BD patients in remission presented a 1.64-fold increase in BDNF plasma levels (p = .03. BDNF plasma levels were not influenced by age, length of illness or current medications. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that long-term BD patients exhibit increased circulating levels of BDNF.

  12. Levels of BDNF Impact Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cells Following a Cuprizone Lesion

    OpenAIRE

    VonDran, Melissa W.; Singh, Harmandeep; Honeywell, Jean Z.; Dreyfus, Cheryl F

    2011-01-01

    Previous work in culture has shown that basal forebrain (BF) oligodendrocyte (OLG) lineage cells respond to BDNF by increasing DNA synthesis and differentiation. Further, in the BF in vivo, reduced levels of BDNF as seen in BDNF +/− mice result in reduced numbers of NG2+ cells and deficits in myelin proteins throughout development and in the adult, suggesting that BDNF impacts the proliferating population of OLGs as well as differentiation in vivo. In this study, to investigate roles BDNF may...

  13. BDNF downregulates 5-HT(2A) receptor protein levels in hippocampal cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trajkovska, V; Santini, M A; Marcussen, Anders Bue;

    2009-01-01

    5-HT(2A) receptor protein levels in primary hippocampal neuronal and mature hippocampal organotypic cultures exposed to different BDNF concentrations for either 1, 3, 5 or 7 days. In vivo effects of BDNF on hippocampal 5-HT(2A) receptor levels were further corroborated in (BDNF +/-) mice with...... reduced BDNF levels. In primary neuronal cultures, 7 days exposure to 25 and 50ng/mL BDNF resulted in downregulation of 5-HT(2A), but not of 5-HT(1A), receptor protein levels. The BDNF-associated downregulation of 5-HT(2A) receptor levels was also observed in mature hippocampal organotypic cultures...

  14. Effects of phenytoin and lamotrigine treatment on serum BDNF levels in offsprings of epileptic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysal, Handan; Doğan, Zümrüt; Kamışlı, Özden

    2016-04-01

    The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is to promote and modulate neuronal responses across neurotransmitter systems in the brain. Therefore, abnormal BDNF signaling may be associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Low BDNF levels have been reported in brains and serums of patients with psychotic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of antiepileptic drugs on BDNF in developing rats. Pregnant rats were treated with phenytoin (PHT), lamotrigine (LTG) and folic acid for long-term, all through their gestational periods. Experimental epilepsy (EE) model was applied in pregnant rats. Epileptic seizures were determined with electroencephalography. After birth, serum BDNF levels were measured in 136 newborn rats on postnatal day (PND) 21 and postnatal day 38. In postnatal day 21, serum BDNF levels of experimental epilepsy group were significantly lower compared with PHT group. This decrease is statistically significant. Serum BDNF levels increased in the group LTG. This increase compared with LTG+EE group was statistically significant. In the folic acid (FA) group, levels of serum BDNF decreased statistically significantly compared to the PHT group. On postnatal day 38, no significant differences were found among the groups for serum BDNF levels. We concluded that, the passed seizures during pregnancy adversely affect fetal brain development, lowering of serum BDNF levels. PHT use during pregnancy prevents seizure-induced injury by increasing the levels of BDNF. About the increase level of BDNF, LTG is much less effective than PHT, the positive effect of folic acid on serum BDNF levels was not observed. LTG increase in BDNF is much less effective than PHT, folic acid did not show a positive effect on serum BDNF levels. Epilepsy affects fetal brain development during gestation in pregnant rats, therefore anti-epileptic therapy should be continued during pregnancy. PMID:26706181

  15. Depression, 5HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms, and plasma BDNF levels in hemodialysis patients with chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang LJ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Liang-Jen Wang,1,* Chih-Ken Chen,2,3,* Heng-Jung Hsu,3,4 I-Wen Wu,3,4 Chiao-Yin Sun,3,4 Chin-Chan Lee3,41Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan; 3Chang Gung University School of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan *LJW and CKC are joint first authors and contributed equally to this manuscriptObjective: Depression is the most prevalent comorbid psychiatric disease among hemodialysis patients with end-stage renal disease. This cross-sectional study investigated whether depression in hemodialysis patients is associated with the polymorphism of the 5' flanking transcriptional region (5-HTTLPR of the serotonin transporter gene, the valine (Val-to-methionine (Met substitution at codon 66 (Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene, or plasma BDNF levels.Methods: A total of 188 participants (mean age: 58.5±14.0 years; 89 men and 99 women receiving hemodialysis at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were recruited. The diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD was confirmed using the Chinese version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The genotypes of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met were conducted using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The plasma BDNF levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit.Results: Forty-five (23.9% patients fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV-TR criteria for a MDD. There were no significant effects of the 5-HTTLPR or BDNF Val66Met gene polymorphism on MDD among the hemodialysis patients. The plasma BDNF levels correlated significantly with age (P=0.003 and sex (P=0.047 but not with depression, the genotypes of 5

  16. Brain BDNF levels elevation induced by physical training is reduced after unilateral common carotid artery occlusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banoujaafar, Hayat; Van Hoecke, Jacques; Mossiat, Claude M; Marie, Christine

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the contribution of blood flow elevation in the cerebrovasculature to physical training-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels elevation in the brain. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein levels were measured in the motor cortex 24 h after the last session of a forced treadmill walking (30 minutes a day, 18 m/minute for 7 consecutive days). Unilateral common carotid artery occlusion and modulation of exercise intensity (0 versus -10% inclination of the treadmill) were used as strategies to reduce the (normal) elevation of flow in the cerebrovasculature occurring during exercise. Administration of N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 60 mg/kg before each exercise sessions) and genetic hypertension (spontaneously hypertensive rats) were used as approaches to reduce stimulation of nitric oxide production in response to shear stress elevation. Vascular occlusion totally and partially abolished the effect of physical training on BDNF levels in the hemisphere ipsilateral and contralateral to occlusion, respectively. BDNF levels were higher after high than low exercise intensity. In addition, both genetic hypertension and L-NAME treatment blunted the effects of physical training on BDNF. From these results, we propose that elevation of brain BDNF levels elicited by physical training involves changes in cerebral hemodynamics. PMID:25052557

  17. Peripheral vascular reactivity and serum BDNF responses to aerobic training are impaired by the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, José R; Alves, Cleber R; de Souza, Sílvia B C; Marsiglia, Julia D C; Silva, Michelle S M; Pereira, Alexandre C; Teixeira, Antônio L; Vieira, Erica L M; Krieger, José E; Negrão, Carlos E; Alves, Guilherme B; de Oliveira, Edilamar M; Bolani, Wladimir; Dias, Rodrigo G; Trombetta, Ivani C

    2016-02-01

    Besides neuronal plasticity, the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is also important in vascular function. The BDNF has been associated with angiogenesis through its specific receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB). Additionally, Val66Met polymorphism decreases activity-induced BDNF. Since BDNF and TrkB are expressed in vascular endothelial cells and aerobic exercise training can increase serum BDNF, this study aimed to test the hypotheses: 1) Serum BDNF levels modulate peripheral blood flow; 2) The Val66Met BDNF polymorphism impairs exercise training-induced vasodilation. We genotyped 304 healthy male volunteers (Val66Val, n = 221; Val66Met, n = 83) who underwent intense aerobic exercise training on a running track three times/wk for 4 mo. We evaluated pre- and post-exercise training serum BDNF and proBDNF concentration, heart rate (HR), mean blood pressure (MBP), forearm blood flow (FBF), and forearm vascular resistance (FVR). In the pre-exercise training, BDNF, proBDNF, BDNF/proBDNF ratio, FBF, and FVR were similar between genotypes. After exercise training, functional capacity (V̇o2 peak) increased and HR decreased similarly in both groups. Val66Val, but not Val66Met, increased BDNF (interaction, P = 0.04) and BDNF/proBDNF ratio (interaction, P < 0.001). Interestingly, FBF (interaction, P = 0.04) and the FVR (interaction, P = 0.01) responses during handgrip exercise (HG) improved in Val66Val compared with Val66Met, even with similar responses of HR and MBP. There were association between BDNF/proBDNF ratio and FBF (r = 0.64, P < 0.001) and FVR (r = -0.58, P < 0.001) during HG exercise. These results show that peripheral vascular reactivity and serum BDNF responses to exercise training are impaired by the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and such responsiveness is associated with serum BDNF concentrations in healthy subjects. PMID:26603150

  18. APATHY AND APOE4 ARE ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED BDNF LEVELS IN ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Antón; Aleixandre, Manuel; Linares, Carlos; Masliah, Eliezer; Moessler, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling is considered as a pathogenic event in early Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but the influence of apathy and apolipoprotein E epsilon-4 allele (APOE4) on serum BDNF values was not previously investigated in AD. We evaluated serum BDNF levels in AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and control subjects. Baseline BDNF levels were similar in AD, MCI and controls. AD patients having apathy showed lower BDNF values than patients without apathy (p<0.05). After correction for the influence of apathy, APOE4 carriers showed lower BDNF levels (p<0.01) and MMSE scores (p<0.01) than non-APOE4 carriers in the subgroup of AD females, but not in males. Significant (p<0.05) positive correlations between BDNF values and MMSE scores were only observed in subgroups of AD males and of AD patients without apathy. These results are showing the association of apathy and APOE4 with reduced serum BDNF levels in AD, and are suggesting that BDNF reductions might contribute to the worse cognitive performance exhibited by AD apathetic patients and female APOE4 carriers. PMID:25024337

  19. GABAA Receptor Blockade Enhances Memory Consolidation by Increasing Hippocampal BDNF Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dong hyun; Kim, Jong Min; Park, Se Jin; Cai, MuDan; Liu, Xiaotong; Lee, Seungheon; Shin, Chan Young; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Memory consolidation is the process by which acquired information is converted to something concrete to be retrieved later. Here we examined a potential role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mediating the enhanced memory consolidation induced by the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline methiodide. With the administration of an acquisition trial in naïve mice using a passive avoidance task, mature BDNF (mBDNF) levels were temporally changed in the hippocampal CA1 region, and t...

  20. Alterations of serum levels of BDNF-related miRNAs in patients with depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Jie Li

    Full Text Available Depression is a serious and potentially life-threatening mental disorder with unknown etiology. Emerging evidence shows that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and microRNAs (miRNAs play critical roles in the etiology of depression. Here this study was aimed to identify and characterize the roles of BDNF and its putative regulatory miRNAs in depression. First, we identified that miR-182 may be a putative miRNA that regulates BDNF levels by bioinformatic studies, and characterized the effects of miR-182 on the BDNF levels using cell-based studies, side by side with miR-132 (a known miRNA that regulates BDNF expression. We showed that treatment of miR-132 and miR-182 respectively decreased the BDNF protein levels in a human neuronal cell model, supporting the regulatory roles of miR-132 and miR-182 on the BDNF expression. Furthermore, we explored the roles of miR-132 and miR-182 on the BDNF levels in depression using human subjects by assessing their serum levels. Compared with the healthy controls, patients with depression showed lower serum BDNF levels (via the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and higher serum miR-132 and miR-182 levels (via the real-time PCR. Finally, the Pearson's (or Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to study whether there was a relationship among the Self-Rating Depression Scale score, the serum BDNF levels, and serum BDNF-related miRNA levels. Our results revealed that there was a significant negative correlation between the SDS scores and the serum BDNF levels, and a positive correlation between the SDS scores and miR-132 levels. In addition, we found a reverse relationship between the serum BDNF levels and the miR-132/miR-182 levels in depression. Collectively, we provided evidence supporting that miR-182 is a putative BDNF-regulatory miRNA, and suggested that the serum BDNF and its related miRNAs may be utilized as important biomarkers in the diagnosis or as therapeutic targets of depression.

  1. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and protein levels in Amniotic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calabrese Francesca

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF is a neurotrophin which plays survival- and growth-promoting activity in neuronal cells and it is involved in cellular plasticity mechanisms as it controls activity dependent synaptic transmission. A functional polymorphism (Val66Met in the pro-region of BDNF, which affects the intracellular trafficking of proBDNF has been associated with memory and cognitive deficits as well as to an increased susceptibility for several psychiatric disorders especially those with a neurodevelopmental origin. To date, no study has evaluated the influence of the Val66Met polymorphism on BDNF levels in a peripheral system that may reflect fetal neurodevelopment. Therefore we investigated in amniotic fluids (AF obtained from 139 healthy women during 15-17 week of pregnancy, BDNF protein levels in correlation with the Val66Met polymorphism. Results Interestingly we found a significant BDNF protein levels reduction in 55 Met carriers (Val/Met and Met/Met (p = 0.002 as compared to 84 non carriers (Val/Val, and no effect of fetus gender, maternal age or gestation week on BDNF levels has been observed. Conclusion These results, although explorative, indicate that during fetal life the Val66Met genotype might influences BDNF protein levels in AF supporting the involvement of this polymorphism in behavioral and functional brain individual differences in the adulthood.

  2. Brain BDNF levels are dependent on cerebrovascular endothelium-derived nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banoujaafar, Hayat; Monnier, Alice; Pernet, Nicolas; Quirié, Aurore; Garnier, Philippe; Prigent-Tessier, Anne; Marie, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Scientific evidence continues to demonstrate a link between endothelial function and cognition. Besides, several studies have identified a complex interplay between nitric oxide (NO) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin largely involved in cognition. Therefore, this study investigated the link between cerebral endothelium-derived NO and BDNF signaling. For this purpose, levels of BDNF and the phosphorylated form of endothelial NO synthase at serine 1177 (p-eNOS) were simultaneously measured in the cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to either bilateral common carotid occlusion (n = 6), physical exercise (n = 6) or a combination of both (n = 6) as experimental approaches to modulate flow-induced NO production by the cerebrovasculature. Tropomyosin-related kinase type B (TrkB) receptors and its phosphorylated form at tyrosine 816 (p-TrkB) were also measured. Moreover, we investigated BDNF synthesis in brain slices exposed to the NO donor glyceryl trinitrate. Our results showed increased p-eNOS and BDNF levels after exercise and decreased levels after vascular occlusion as compared to corresponding controls, with a positive correlation between changes in p-eNOS and BDNF (r = 0.679). Exercise after vascular occlusion did not change levels of these proteins. Gyceryl trinitrate increased proBDNF and BDNF levels in brain slices, thus suggesting a possible causal relationship between NO and BDNF. Moreover, vascular occlusion, like exercise, resulted in increased TrkB and p-TrkB levels, whereas no change was observed with the combination of both. These results suggest that brain BDNF signaling may be dependent on cerebral endothelium-derived NO production. PMID:27306299

  3. Histone deacetylase activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in a pharmacological model of mania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Stertz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of repeated D-amphetamine (AMPH exposure, a well-accepted animal model of acute mania in bipolar disorder (BD, and histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors on locomotor behavior and HDAC activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of rats. Moreover, we aimed to assess brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF protein and mRNA levels in these samples. Methods: We treated adult male Wistar rats with 2 mg/kg AMPH or saline intraperitoneally for 14 days. Between the 8th and 14th days, rats also received 47.5 mg/kg lithium (Li, 200 mg/kg sodium valproate (VPT, 2 mg/kg sodium butyrate (SB, or saline. We evaluated locomotor activity in the open-field task and assessed HDAC activity in the PFC and PBMCs, and BDNF levels in the PFC and plasma. Results: AMPH significantly increased locomotor activity, which was reversed by all drugs. This hyperactivity was associated with increased HDAC activity in the PFC, which was partially reversed by Li, VPT, and SB. No differences were found in BDNF levels. Conclusion: Repeated AMPH administration increases HDAC activity in the PFC without altering BDNF levels. The partial reversal of HDAC increase by Li, VPT, and SB may account for their ability to reverse AMPH-induced hyperactivity.

  4. Age-related differences in plasma BDNF levels after prolonged bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soavi, Cecilia; Marušič, Uroš; Sanz, Juana Maria; Morieri, Mario Luca; Dalla Nora, Edoardo; Šimunič, Bostjan; Pišot, Rado; Zuliani, Giovanni; Passaro, Angelina

    2016-05-15

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the family of neurotrophins and has been implicated in brain resistance to insults. Murine studies have demonstrated increased hippocampal concentration after acute immobilization and decreased concentration after chronic immobilization. In humans, chronic stress and sedentary lifestyle result in decreased plasma BDNF levels, but there no data exist regarding acute immobilization. The aim of our study was to evaluate age-related responses [comparing 7 younger subjects (age 23 ± 3 yr) and 8 older subjects (age 60 ± 4 yr)] of plasma BDNF before (baseline data collection, BDC) and after 14 days (BR14) of horizontal bed rest (BR). At BDC, BDNF levels were not different between the two groups (P = 0.101), although at BR14, BDNF levels were higher in older subjects (62.02 ± 18.31) than in younger subjects (34.36 ± 15.24 pg/ml) (P = 0.002). A general linear model for repeated measures showed a significant effect of BR on BDNF (P = 0.002). The BDC BDNF levels correlated with fat-free mass in both populations (ALL) (R = 0.628, P = 0.012), (older, R = 0.753, P = 0.031; younger, R = 0.772, P = 0.042), and with total cholesterol in ALL (R = 0.647, P = 0.009) and older study subjects (R = 0.805, P = 0.016). At BR14, BDNF correlated with total cholesterol (R = 0.579, P = 0.024) and age (R = 0.647, P = 0.009) in ALL. With an increase in age, the brain could become naturally less resistant to acute stressors, including the detrimental effects of prolonged bed rest, and thus the increase in BDNF in the older study group might reflect a protective overshooting of the brain to counteract the negative effects in such conditions. PMID:26940658

  5. Striatal dopamine transporter binding correlates with serum BDNF levels in patients with striatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebell, Morten; Khalid, Usman; Klein, Anders B;

    2012-01-01

    Compelling evidence has shown, that neurotrophins responsible for the regulation of neuronal growth, survival, and differentiation are involved in neurodegenerative diseases. Whereas lower serum levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been observed in patients with Parkinson's dis...

  6. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, K. S.; Nielsen, A. R.; Krogh-Madsen, R.;

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis  Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and depression. These disorders are associated with type 2 diabetes, and animal models suggest that BDNF plays a role in insulin resistance. We therefore...... and a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. Results  Plasma levels of BDNF in Study 1 were decreased in humans with type 2 diabetes independently of obesity. Plasma BDNF was inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose, but not with insulin. No association was found between the BDNF G196A (Val66Met) polymorphism...... and diabetes or obesity. In Study 2 an output of BDNF from the human brain was detected at basal conditions. This output was inhibited when blood glucose levels were elevated. In contrast, when plasma insulin was increased while maintaining normal blood glucose, the cerebral output of BDNF was not inhibited...

  7. Cysteamine-related agents could be potential antidepressants through increasing central BDNF levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2006-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mental disease, but with an unknown etiology. Antidepressants are the main biological treatment for MDD. However, current antidepressive agents have a slow onset of effect and a substantial proportion of MDD patients do not clinically improve, despite maximal medication. Thus, the exploration for new antidepressants with novel strategies may help to develop faster and more effective antidepressant agents. Studies in the recent decades have demonstrated that antidepressants increase central brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and activating the BDNF-signaling pathway may play an important role in their therapeutic mechanism. Cysteamine is a natural product of cells and constitutes the terminal region of the CoA molecule. Recent work has found that cysteamine and a related agent, cystamine, have neuroprotective effects in Huntington's disease (HD) mice, through enhancing central BDNF levels. Furthermore, cystamine or cysteamine injection could increase serum BDNF levels in wild-type mice as well as HD mice. Since activation of the BDNF-dependent pathway plays an important role in the mechanism of antidepressant therapeutic action, cystamine or its derivatives could have potential antidepressant therapeutic effects. Among these agents, pantethine may be one of the most promising agents. It is a naturally occurring compound which can be administered orally with negligible side effects, and is metabolized to cysteamine. Further evaluation of the therapeutic and toxic effects of these cysteamine-related antidepressant agents in MDD animal models is needed before any clinical application. PMID:16797865

  8. Potential antidepressant properties of cysteamine on hippocampal BDNF levels and behavioral despair in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Chu-Hsin; Hong, Chen-Jee; Huang, Yn-Ho; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2008-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that antidepressants increase central brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, suggesting that BDNF signaling is important for the therapeutic mechanism of antidepressants. Recent work has found that cysteamine and its related agent, cystamine, are neuroprotective in Huntington's disease mice, and act by enhancing the secretion of central BDNF. In the present study, the potential antidepressant effects of cysteamine were examined by behavioral paradigms and biochemical assay. Male BALB/CByJ mice were given a single dose of normal saline, 10 mg/kg of imipramine or either 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg of cysteamine (i.p.) 30 min before undergoing the forced-swimming test (FST) or the tail suspension test (TST). Other groups of mice treated with the same drugs and doses, without behavioral tests, were sacrificed for hippocampal BDNF measurements. We found that, compared with the control group, the cysteamine 200-mg/kg group showed a significant reduction in immobility time in the FST (Pcysteamine 200-mg/kg group (Pcysteamine may possess an antidepressant-like effect, which may be mediated by increasing central BDNF levels. PMID:18582526

  9. Low serum BDNF levels in depressed patients cannot be attributed to individual depressive symptoms or symptom cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, B. A. A.; Molendijk, M. L.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Prickaerts, J.; Elzinga, B. M.; Oude Voshaar, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Low serum BDNF levels have been found in depressed patients. No study has systematically investigated whether individual symptoms or symptom profiles within a depressed population contribute to low BDNF levels found in depressed subjects. METHODS: All 1070 patients with a past 6-month di

  10. Low serum BDNF levels in depressed patients cannot be attributed to individual depressive symptoms or symptom cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, B.A.; Molendijk, M.L.; Penninx, B.W.; Buitelaar, J.; Prickaerts, J.; Elzinga, B.M.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. Low serum BDNF levels have been found in depressed patients. No study has systematically investigated whether individual symptoms or symptom profiles within a depressed population contribute to low BDNF levels found in depressed subjects. Methods. All 1070 patients with a past 6

  11. Effects of Ethanol on the Expression Level of Various BDNF mRNA Isoforms and Their Encoded Protein in the Hippocampus of Adult and Embryonic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Shojaei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to compare the effects of oral ethanol (Eth alone or combined with the phytoestrogen resveratrol (Rsv on the expression of various brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF transcripts and the encoded protein pro-BDNF in the hippocampus of pregnant and embryonic rats. A low (0.25 g/kg body weight (BW/day dose of Eth produced an increase in the expression of BDNF exons I, III and IV and a decrease in that of the exon IX in embryos, but failed to affect BDNF transcript and pro-BDNF protein expression in adults. However, co-administration of Eth 0.25 g/kg·BW/day and Rsv led to increased expression of BDNF exons I, III and IV and to a small but significant increase in the level of pro-BDNF protein in maternal rats. A high (2.5 g/kg·BW/day dose of Eth increased the expression of BDNF exons III and IV in embryos, but it decreased the expression of exon IX containing BDNF mRNAs in the maternal rats. While the high dose of Eth alone reduced the level of pro-BDNF in adults, it failed to change the levels of pro-BDNF in embryos. Eth differentially affects the expression pattern of BDNF transcripts and levels of pro-BDNF in the hippocampus of both adult and embryonic rats.

  12. Down-regulation of BDNF in cell and animal models increases striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase 61 (STEP61 ) levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Kurup, Pradeep; Azkona, Garikoitz; Baguley, Tyler D; Saavedra, Ana; Nairn, Angus C; Ellman, Jonathan A; Pérez-Navarro, Esther; Lombroso, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates synaptic strengthening and memory consolidation, and altered BDNF expression is implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. BDNF potentiates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function through activation of Fyn and ERK1/2. STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP) is also implicated in many of the same disorders as BDNF but, in contrast to BDNF, STEP opposes the development of synaptic strengthening. STEP-mediated dephosphorylation of the NMDA receptor subunit GluN2B promotes internalization of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors, while dephosphorylation of the kinases Fyn, Pyk2, and ERK1/2 leads to their inactivation. Thus, STEP and BDNF have opposing functions. In this study, we demonstrate that manipulation of BDNF expression has a reciprocal effect on STEP61 levels. Reduced BDNF signaling leads to elevation of STEP61 both in BDNF(+/-) mice and after acute BDNF knockdown in cortical cultures. Moreover, a newly identified STEP inhibitor reverses the biochemical and motor abnormalities in BDNF(+/-) mice. In contrast, increased BDNF signaling upon treatment with a tropomyosin receptor kinase B agonist results in degradation of STEP61 and a subsequent increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of STEP substrates in cultured neurons and in mouse frontal cortex. These findings indicate that BDNF-tropomyosin receptor kinase B signaling leads to degradation of STEP61 , while decreased BDNF expression results in increased STEP61 activity. A better understanding of the opposing interaction between STEP and BDNF in normal cognitive functions and in neuropsychiatric disorders will hopefully lead to better therapeutic strategies. Altered expression of BDNF and STEP61 has been implicated in several neurological disorders. BDNF and STEP61 are known to regulate synaptic strengthening, but in opposite directions. Here, we report that reduced BDNF signaling leads to elevation of STEP61 both in

  13. Age-related changes in plasma levels of BDNF in Down syndrome patients

    OpenAIRE

    Licastro Federico; Galliera Emanuela; Dogliotti Giada; Corsi Massimiliano M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of coronary artery diseases is low among Down Syndrome (DS) patients and they rarely die of atherosclerotic complications. Histopathological investigations showed no increase in atherosclerosis, or even a total lack of atherosclerotic changes, in DS Aim The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship between age and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in Down Syndrome (DS). Subjects and methods Three groups of DS patients were studied: th...

  14. Antidepressant effects of crocin and its effects on transcript and protein levels of CREB, BDNF, and VGF in rat hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Vahdati Hassani, Faezeh; Naseri, Vahideh; Razavi, BiBi Marjan; Mehri, Soghra; Abnous, Khalil; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background Antidepressants have been shown to affect levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and VGF (non-acronymic) whose transcriptions are dependent on cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in long term treatment. The aim of this study was to verify the subacute antidepressant effects of crocin, an active constituent of saffron (Crocus sativus L.), and its effects on CREB, BDNF, and VGF proteins, transcript levels and amount of active, phosphorylated CREB (P-CREB) protein...

  15. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... is used to screen people at risk for lead poisoning. This may include industrial workers and children ... also used to measure how well treatment for lead poisoning is working. Lead is common in the ...

  16. Serum BDNF levels before and after the development of mood disorders: a case-control study in a population cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, K; Yoshida, H; Jones, P B; Hashizume, M; Suzuki, Y; Ishijima, H; Kim, H K; Suzuki, T; Hachisu, M

    2016-01-01

    Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are low in major depressive disorder (MDD), and were recently shown to decrease in chronic depression, but whether this is a trait or state marker of MDD remains unclear. We investigated whether serum BDNF levels decrease before or after the developments of MDD and other mood disorders through a case-control study nested in a cohort of 1276 women aged 75-84 years in 2008. Psychiatrists using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV identified incident cases of mood disorders at follow-up surveys in 2010 and 2012: 28 of MDDs, 39 of minor depressive disorders (minDDs) and 8 of minor depressive episodes with a history of major depressive episodes (minDEs with MDE history). A total of 106 representative non-depressed controls were also identified in the 2012 follow-up. We assayed BDNF levels in preserved sera of cases and controls at baseline and at follow-up. Serum BDNF levels at baseline in cases of MDD, minDD or minDE with MDE history were no lower than those in controls. The decrease in the serum BDNF level from baseline to follow-up was greater in cases of MDD or minDE with MDE history than in controls or cases of minDD. These results show that serum BDNF levels are not a trait marker of MDD in old women but appeared to be a state marker. The different changes in BDNF levels among diagnostic groups suggest that MDD has a pathophysiologic relation to minDE with MDE history, rather than to minDD. PMID:27070410

  17. Increased serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in patients with narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Jennum, Poul; Knudsen, Stine;

    2013-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, sudden loss of muscle tone (cataplexy), fragmentation of nocturnal sleep and sleep paralysis. The symptoms of the disease strongly correlate with a reduction in hypocretin levels in CSF and a reduction in...... hypocretin neurons in hypothalamus in post-mortem tissue. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are important for activity-dependent neuronal function and synaptic modulation and it is considered that these mechanisms are important in sleep regulation. We hypothesised that...

  18. Cystamine and cysteamine increase brain levels of BDNF in Huntington disease via HSJ1b and transglutaminase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell-Pagès, Maria; Canals, Josep M.; Cordelières, Fabrice P.; Parker, J. Alex; Pineda, José R.; Grange, Ghislaine; Bryson, Elzbieta A.; Guillermier, Martine; Hirsch, Etienne; Hantraye, Philippe; Cheetham, Michael E.; Néri, Christian; Alberch, Jordi; Brouillet, Emmanuel; Saudou, Frédéric; Humbert, Sandrine

    2006-01-01

    There is no treatment for the neurodegenerative disorder Huntington disease (HD). Cystamine is a candidate drug; however, the mechanisms by which it operates remain unclear. We show here that cystamine increases levels of the heat shock DnaJ-containing protein 1b (HSJ1b) that are low in HD patients. HSJ1b inhibits polyQ-huntingtin–induced death of striatal neurons and neuronal dysfunction in Caenorhabditis elegans. This neuroprotective effect involves stimulation of the secretory pathway through formation of clathrin-coated vesicles containing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Cystamine increases BDNF secretion from the Golgi region that is blocked by reducing HSJ1b levels or by overexpressing transglutaminase. We demonstrate that cysteamine, the FDA-approved reduced form of cystamine, is neuroprotective in HD mice by increasing BDNF levels in brain. Finally, cysteamine increases serum levels of BDNF in mouse and primate models of HD. Therefore, cysteamine is a potential treatment for HD, and serum BDNF levels can be used as a biomarker for drug efficacy. PMID:16604191

  19. A pilot study on the effect of cognitive training on BDNF serum levels in individuals with Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Angelucci

    2015-03-01

    Thus, in this pilot study we evaluated the effect of a cognitive rehabilitation protocol focused on the training of executive functioning and measured BDNF serum levels in a group of PD patients with mild cognitive impairment, as compared to the effect of a placebo treatment (n=7/8 group. The results showed that PD patients undergoing the cognitive rehabilitation, besides improving their cognitive performance as measured with the Zoo Map test, also displayed increased serum BDNF levels as compared to the placebo group. These findings suggest that BDNF serum levels may represent a biomarker of the effects of cognitive rehabilitation in PD patients affected by MCI. However, the functional significance of this increase in PD as well as other neuropathological conditions remains to be determined.

  20. Low-Level Stress Induces Production of Neuroprotective Factors in Wild-Type but Not BDNF+/- Mice: Interleukin-10 and Kynurenic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, Allison M.; Parrott, Jennifer M.; Redus, Laney; Hensler, Julie G.; O’Connor, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) deficiency confers vulnerability to stress, but the mechanisms are unclear. BDNF+/- mice exhibit behavioral, physiological, and neurochemical changes following low-level stress that are hallmarks of major depression. After immune challenge, neuroinflammation-induced changes in tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway mediate depressive-like behaviors. Methods: We hypothesized that BDNF+/- mice would be more susceptible to stress-i...

  1. Differential brain and spinal cord cytokine and BDNF levels in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis are modulated by prior and regular exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Danielle; Oliveira-Lima, Onésia Cristina; Silva, Thiago Vitarelli da; Faraco, Camila Cristina Fraga; Leite, Hércules Ribeiro; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Santos, Daniel Moreira dos; Bethea, John R; Brambilla, Roberta; Orian, Jacqueline M; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana

    2013-11-15

    The interactions between a prior program of regular exercise and the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)-mediated responses were evaluated. In the exercised EAE mice, although there was no effect on infiltrated cells, the cytokine and derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were altered, and the clinical score was attenuated. Although, the cytokine levels were decreased in the brain and increased in the spinal cord, BDNF was elevated in both compartments with a tendency of lesser demyelization volume in the spinal cord of the exercised EAE group compared with the unexercised. PMID:24054000

  2. Increased serum levels of sortilin are associated with depression and correlated with BDNF and VEGF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Demontis, Ditte; Ollendorff, Mathias Kaas;

    2015-01-01

    was influenced by several other factors. Alcohol intake and body mass index, as well as depression, serum BDNF and serum VEGF were identified as predictors of serum sortilin levels in our final multivariate model. In conclusion, the results suggest a role of circulating sortilin in depression which......Neurotrophic factors have been investigated in relation to depression. The aim of the present study was to widen this focus to sortilin, a receptor involved in neurotrophic signalling. The serum sortilin level was investigated in 152 individuals with depression and 216 control individuals, and...... eight genetic markers located within the SORT1 gene were successfully analysed for association with depression. Genotyping was performed using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. All the individuals returned a questionnaire and participated in a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Sortilin levels were...

  3. Aging and depression vulnerability interaction results in decreased serotonin innervation associated with reduced BDNF levels in hippocampus of rats bred for learned helplessness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders B; Santini, Martin A;

    2010-01-01

    density. Hippocampal BDNF protein levels were measured by ELISA. An exacerbated age-related loss of serotonin fiber density specific for the CA1 area was observed in the cLH animals, whereas reduced hippocampal BDNF levels were seen in young and old cLH when compared with age-matched cNLH controls...

  4. BDNF Val66met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms predict a human in vivo marker for brain serotonin levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Patrick M; Holst, Klaus K; Adamsen, Dea; Klein, Anders Bue; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Jensen, Peter S; Svarer, Claus; Gillings, Nic; Baare, William F C; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2015-01-01

    BDNF val66met significantly predicted a LV reflecting [(11) C]SB207145 binding across regions (P = 0.005). BDNF val66met met-carriers showed 2-9% higher binding relative to val/val homozygotes. In contrast, 5-HTTLPR did not predict the LV but S-carriers showed 7% lower neocortical binding relative to...... LL homozygotes (P = 7.3 × 10(-6) ). We observed no evidence for genetic interaction. Our findings indicate that BDNF val66met significantly predicts a common regulator of brain [(11) C]SB207145 binding, which we hypothesize reflects brain serotonin levels. In contrast, our data indicate that 5-HTTLPR...

  5. BDNF Methylation and Maternal Brain Activity in a Violence-Related Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Dominik A.; Ariane Paoloni-Giacobino; Ludwig Stenz; Wafae Adouan; Aurélia Manini; Francesca Suardi; Cordero, Maria I.; Marylene Vital; Ana Sancho Rossignol; Sandra Rusconi-Serpa; François Ansermet; Dayer, Alexandre G.; Schechter, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    It is known that increased circulating glucocorticoids in the wake of excessive, chronic, repetitive stress increases anxiety and impairs Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) signaling. Recent studies of BDNF gene methylation in relation to maternal care have linked high BDNF methylation levels in the blood of adults to lower quality of received maternal care measured via self-report. Yet the specific mechanisms by which these phenomena occur remain to be established. The present study ex...

  6. Music exposure improves spatial cognition by enhancing the BDNF level of dorsal hippocampal subregions in the developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yingshou; Chen, Wenxi; Wang, Yanran; Jing, Wei; Gao, Shan; Guo, Daqing; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-03-01

    Previous research has shown that dorsal hippocampus plays an important role in spatial memory process. Music exposure can enhance brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression level in dorsal hippocampus (DH) and thus enhance spatial cognition ability. But whether music experience may affect different subregions of DH in the same degree remains unclear. Here, we studied the effects of exposure to Mozart K.448 on learning behavior in developing rats using the classical Morris water maze task. The results showed that early music exposure could enhance significantly learning performance of the rats in the water maze test. Meanwhile, the BDNF/TrkB level of dorsal hippocampus CA3 (dCA3) and dentate gyrus (dDG) was significantly enhanced in rats exposed to Mozart music as compared to those without music exposure. In contrast, the BDNF/TrkB level of dorsal hippocampus CA1 (dCA1) was not affected. The results suggest that the spatial memory improvement by music exposure in rats may be associated with the enhanced BDNF/TrkB level of dCA3 and dDG. PMID:26802511

  7. BDNF Plasma Level als Marker für Alzheimer in der VITA Studie

    OpenAIRE

    Altides, Anastasia Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    HINTERGRUND: Der brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) reguliert die synaptische Plastizität und spielt somit eine wichtige Rolle in der Gedächtnisbildung und -erhaltung. Deswegen gibt es eingehende Untersuchungen dieses neurotrophischen Faktors in Bezug auf Demenzerkrankungen, vor allem der Alzheimer Demenz. In dieser Studie wurde nach einem Zusammenhang zwischen BDNF Blutplasmawerten und der Alzheimer Demenz in einer longitudinalen Kohortenstudie, der Vienna-Transdanube-Aging(VITA)-Studi...

  8. Aging and depression vulnerability interaction results in decreased serotonin innervation associated with reduced BDNF levels in hippocampus of rats bred for learned helplessness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders B; Santini, Martin A;

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed a strong genetic contribution to the risk for depression. Both reduced hippocampal serotonin neurotransmission and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels have been associated with increased depression vulnerability and are also regulated during aging...

  9. Consequences of changes in BDNF levels on serotonin neurotransmission, 5-HT transporter expression and function: studies in adult mice hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deltheil, Thierry; Guiard, Bruno P; Guilloux, Jean-Philippe; Nicolas, Lorelei; Deloménie, Claudine; Repérant, Christelle; Le Maitre, Erwan; Leroux-Nicollet, Isabelle; Benmansour, Saloua; Coudoré, François; David, Denis J; Gardier, Alain M

    2008-08-01

    In vivo intracerebral microdialysis is an important neurochemical technique that has been applied extensively in genetic and pharmacological studies aimed at investigating the relationship between neurotransmitters. Among the main interests of microdialysis application is the infusion of drugs through the microdialysis probe (reverse dialysis) in awake, freely moving animals. As an example of the relevance of intracerebral microdialysis, this review will focus on our recent neurochemical results showing the impact of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) on serotonergic neurotransmission in basal and stimulated conditions. Indeed, although the elevation of 5-HT outflow induced by chronic administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) causes an increase in BDNF protein levels and expression (mRNA) in the hippocampus of rodents, the reciprocal interaction has not been demonstrated yet. Thus, the neurochemical sight of this question will be addressed here by examining the consequences of either a constitutive decrease or increase in brain BDNF protein levels on hippocampal extracellular levels of 5-HT in conscious mice. PMID:17980409

  10. Abeta(1-42) injection causes memory impairment, lowered cortical and serum BDNF levels, and decreased hippocampal 5-HT(2A) levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, R; Marcussen, Anders Bue; Wörtwein, Gitta;

    2008-01-01

    Aggregation of the beta-amyloid protein (Abeta) is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is believed to be causally involved in a neurodegenerative cascade. In patients with AD, reduced levels of serum Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and cortical 5-HT(2A) receptor binding has recent...

  11. A longitudinal study of alterations of hippocampal volumes and serum BDNF levels in association to atypical antipsychotics in a sample of first-episode patients with schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Rizos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with structural and functional abnormalities of the hippocampus, which have been suggested to play an important role in the formation and emergence of schizophrenia syndrome. Patients with schizophrenia exhibit significant bilateral hippocampal volume reduction and progressive hippocampal volume decrease in first-episode patients with schizophrenia has been shown in many neuroimaging studies. Dysfunction of the neurotrophic system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The initiation of antipsychotic medication alters the levels of serum Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF levels. However it is unclear whether treatment with antipsychotics is associated with alterations of hippocampal volume and BDNF levels. METHODS: In the present longitudinal study we investigated the association between serum BDNF levels and hippocampal volumes in a sample of fourteen first-episode drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia (FEP. MRI scans, BDNF and clinical measurements were performed twice: at baseline before the initiation of antipsychotic treatment and 8 months later, while the patients were receiving monotherapy with second generation antipsychotics (SGAs. RESULTS: We found that left hippocampal volume was decreased (corrected left HV [t = 2.977, df = 13, p = .011] at follow-up; We also found that the higher the BDNF levels change the higher were the differences of corrected left hippocampus after 8 months of treatment with atypical antipsychotics (Pearson r = 0.597, p = 0.024. CONCLUSIONS: The association of BDNF with hippocampal volume alterations in schizophrenia merits further investigation and replication in larger longitudinal studies.

  12. Depression, the Val66Met polymorphism, age, and gender influence the serum BDNF level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elfving, Betina; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Foldager, Leslie;

    2012-01-01

    participated in a semi-structured diagnostic interview. The major contribution of the present study is the integration of clinical assessment of cases and control individuals, simultaneous analyses of several genetic variants, serum BDNF measurements, and information on socio-demographic variables, lifestyle...

  13. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar Print ... Other Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar ...

  14. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in patients with panic disorder: as a biological predictor of response to group cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keisuke; Shimizu, Eiji; Hashimoto, Kenji; Mitsumori, Makoto; Koike, Kaori; Okamura, Naoe; Koizumi, Hiroki; Ohgake, Shintaro; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Zhang, Lin; Nakazato, Michiko; Iyo, Masaomi

    2005-06-01

    Little is known about biological predictors of treatment response in panic disorder. Our previous studies show that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play a role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorders and eating disorders. Assuming that BDNF may be implicated in the putative common etiologies of depression and anxiety, the authors examined serum BDNF levels of the patients with panic disorder, and its correlation with therapeutic response to group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Group CBT (10 consecutive 1 h weekly sessions) was administered to the patients with panic disorder after consulting the panic outpatient special service. Before treatment, serum concentrations of BDNF and total cholesterol were measured. After treatment, we defined response to therapy as a 40% reduction from baseline on Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) score as described by [Barlow, D.H., Gorman, J.M., Shear, M.K., Woods, S.W., 2000. Cognitive-behavioral therapy, imipramine, or their combination for panic disorder: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 283, 2529-2536]. There were 26 good responders and 16 poor responders. 31 age- and sex-matched healthy normal control subjects were also recruited in this study. The serum BDNF levels of the patients with poor response (25.9 ng/ml [S.D. 8.7]) were significantly lower than those of the patients with good response (33.7 ng/ml [S.D. 7.5]). However, there were no significant differences in both groups of the patients, compared to the normal controls (29.1 ng/ml [S.D. 7.1]). No significant differences of other variables including total cholesterol levels before treatment were detected between good responders and poor responders. These results suggested that BDNF might contribute to therapeutic response of panic disorder. A potential link between an increased risk of secondary depression and BDNF remains to be investigated in the future. PMID:15905010

  15. Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Jacob; Knorr, U; Bennike, B;

    2012-01-01

    Decreased levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been associated with depression. It is uncertain whether abnormally low levels of BDNF in blood are present beyond the depressive state and whether levels of BDNF are associated with the course of clinical illness....

  16. Learning abilities, NGF and BDNF brain levels in two lines of TNF-alpha transgenic mice, one characterized by neurological disorders, the other phenotypically normal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloe, L; Properzi, F; Probert, L; Akassoglou, K; Kassiotis, G; Micera, A; Fiore, M

    1999-09-01

    In this study we used two lines of transgenic mice overexpressing tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the central nervous system (CNS), one characterized by reactive gliosis, inflammatory demyelination and neurological deficits (Tg6074) the other showing no neurological or phenotypical alterations (TgK3) to investigate the effect of TNF-alpha on brain nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and learning abilities. The results showed that the amount of NGF in the brain of Tg6074 and TgK3 transgenic mice is low in the hippocampus and in the spinal cord, increases in the hypothalamus of Tg6074 and showed no significant changes in the cortex. BDNF levels were low in the hippocampus and spinal cord of TgK3. BDNF increased in the hypothalamus of TgK3 and Tg6074 while in the cortex, BDNF increased only in Tg6074 mice. Transgenic mice also had memory impairments as revealed by the Morris Water Maze test. These findings indicate that TNF-alpha significantly influences BDNF and NGF synthesis, most probably in a dose-dependent manner. Learning abilities were also differently affected by overexpression of TNF-alpha, but were not associated with inflammatory activity. The possible functional implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:10517960

  17. Comparison of efficacy, safety and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in patients of major depressive disorder, treated with fluoxetine and desvenlafaxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, R; Gupta, R; Bhatia, M S; Tripathi, A K; Gupta, L K

    2015-12-01

    This randomized, open label, prospective, observational study compared clinical efficacy, safety alongwith plasma BDNF levels in outpatients of depression treated with fluoxetine and desvenlafaxine. Patients (aged 18-60 years) with moderate to severe major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) score ≥14, who were prescribed fluoxetine or desvenlafaxine were included (n=30 in each group). Patients were followed up for 12 weeks for evaluation of clinical efficacy, safety along with BDNF levels. In the fluoxetine group, HAM-D scores at the start of treatment was 19±4.09 which significantly (p<0.05) reduced to 9.24±3.98 at 12 weeks. In the desvenlafaxine group, HAM-D scores at the start of treatment was 18±3.75 which significantly (p<0.05) reduced to 10±3.75 at 12 weeks. The BDNF levels in the fluoxetine group were 775.32±30.38pg/ml at the start of treatment which significantly (p<0.05) increased to 850.3±24.92pg/ml at 12 weeks. The BDNF levels in the desvenlafaxine group were 760.5±28.53pg/ml at the start of treatment which significantly (p<0.05) increased to 845.8±32.82pg/ml at 12 weeks. Both the antidepressants were found to be safe and well tolerated. The efficacy and the safety profile of desvenlafaxine is comparable to fluoxetine in patients of MDD. BDNF levels were significantly increased post-treatment with both the antidepressive agents. Whether BDNF may have a prognostic value in predicting treatment response to antidepressant drugs needs to be investigated in a larger patient population. PMID:26514447

  18. Running throughout middle-age improves memory function, hippocampal neurogenesis and BDNF levels in female C57Bl/6J mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Marlatt; M.C. Potter; P.J. Lucassen; H. van Praag

    2012-01-01

    Age-related memory loss is considered to commence at middle-age and coincides with reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis and neurotrophin levels. Consistent physical activity at midlife may preserve brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, new cell genesis and learning. In the present study

  19. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its precursor (proBDNF) in genetically defined fear-induced aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilchibaeva, Tatiana V; Kondaurova, Elena M; Tsybko, Anton S; Kozhemyakina, Rimma V; Popova, Nina K; Naumenko, Vladimir S

    2015-09-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), its precursor (proBDNF) and BDNF mRNA levels were studied in the brain of wild rats selectively bred for more than 70 generations for either high level or for the lack of affective aggressiveness towards man. Significant increase of BDNF mRNA level in the frontal cortex and increase of BDNF level in the hippocampus of aggressive rats was revealed. In the midbrain and hippocampus of aggressive rats proBDNF level was increased, whereas BDNF/proBDNF ratio was reduced suggesting the prevalence and increased influence of proBDNF in highly aggressive rats. In the frontal cortex, proBDNF level in aggressive rats was decreased. Thus, considerable structure-specific differences in BDNF and proBDNF levels as well as in BDNF gene expression between highly aggressive and nonaggressive rats were shown. The data suggested the implication of BDNF and its precursor proBDNF in the mechanism of aggressiveness and in the creation of either aggressive or nonaggressive phenotype. PMID:25934485

  20. Exploring the Association between Serum BDNF and Attempted Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Rebecca B.; Perera, Stefan; Bawor, Monica; Dennis, Brittany B.; El-Sheikh, Wala; DeJesus, Jane; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Vair, Judith; Sholer, Heather; Hutchinson, Nicole; Iordan, Elizabeth; Mackie, Pam; Islam, Shofiqul; Dehghan, Mahshid; Brasch, Jennifer; Anglin, Rebecca; Minuzzi, Luciano; Thabane, Lehana; Samaan, Zainab

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death and a significant public health concern. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein important to nervous system function, has been implicated in psychiatric disorders and suicidal behaviour. We investigated the association between serum levels of BDNF and attempted suicide in a sample of 281 participants using a case-control study design. Participants were recruited from clinical and community settings between March 2011 and November 2014. Cases (individuals who had attempted suicide) (n = 84) were matched on sex and age (within five years) to both psychiatric controls (n = 104) and community controls (n = 93) with no history of suicide attempts. We collected fasting blood samples, socio-demographic information, physical measurements, and detailed descriptions of suicide attempts. We used linear regression analysis to determine the association between BDNF level (dependent variable) and attempted suicide (key exposure variable), adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, current smoking status, and antidepressant use. 250 participants were included in this analysis. In the linear regression model, attempted suicide was not significantly associated with BDNF level (β = 0.28, SE = 1.20, P = 0.82). Our findings suggest that no significant association exists between attempted suicide and BDNF level. However, the findings need to be replicated in a larger cohort study. PMID:27121496

  1. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase. PMID:26758201

  2. Maternal Exercise during Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation but Not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Gomes da Silva

    Full Text Available Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain development and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and absolute cell numbers in the hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex of rat pups born from mothers exercised during pregnancy. Additionally, we evaluated the cognitive abilities of adult offspring in different behavioral paradigms (exploratory activity and habituation in open field tests, spatial memory in a water maze test, and aversive memory in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Results showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy increased BDNF levels and absolute numbers of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the hippocampal formation of offspring. No differences in BDNF levels or cell numbers were detected in the cerebral cortex. It was also observed that offspring from exercised mothers exhibited better cognitive performance in nonassociative (habituation and associative (spatial learning mnemonic tasks than did offspring from sedentary mothers. Our findings indicate that maternal exercise during pregnancy enhances offspring cognitive function (habituation behavior and spatial learning and increases BDNF levels and cell numbers in the hippocampal formation of offspring.

  3. Maternal Exercise during Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation but Not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Fernandes, Jansen; Lopim, Glauber Menezes; Cabral, Francisco Romero; Scerni, Débora Amado; de Oliveira-Pinto, Ana Virgínia; Lent, Roberto; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2016-01-01

    Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain development and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and absolute cell…

  4. BDNF Methylation and Maternal Brain Activity in a Violence-Related Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik A Moser

    Full Text Available It is known that increased circulating glucocorticoids in the wake of excessive, chronic, repetitive stress increases anxiety and impairs Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF signaling. Recent studies of BDNF gene methylation in relation to maternal care have linked high BDNF methylation levels in the blood of adults to lower quality of received maternal care measured via self-report. Yet the specific mechanisms by which these phenomena occur remain to be established. The present study examines the link between methylation of the BDNF gene promoter region and patterns of neural activity that are associated with maternal response to stressful versus non-stressful child stimuli within a sample that includes mothers with interpersonal violence-related PTSD (IPV-PTSD. 46 mothers underwent fMRI. The contrast of neural activity when watching children-including their own-was then correlated to BDNF methylation. Consistent with the existing literature, the present study found that maternal BDNF methylation was associated with higher levels of maternal anxiety and greater childhood exposure to domestic violence. fMRI results showed a positive correlation of BDNF methylation with maternal brain activity in the anterior cingulate (ACC, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC, regions generally credited with a regulatory function toward brain areas that are generating emotions. Furthermore we found a negative correlation of BDNF methylation with the activity of the right hippocampus. Since our stimuli focus on stressful parenting conditions, these data suggest that the correlation between vmPFC/ACC activity and BDNF methylation may be linked to mothers who are at a disadvantage with respect to emotion regulation when facing stressful parenting situations. Overall, this study provides evidence that epigenetic signatures of stress-related genes can be linked to functional brain regions regulating parenting stress, thus advancing our understanding of

  5. Multiple faces of BDNF in cocaine addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xuan; Wolf, Marina E.

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been found to play roles in many types of plasticity including drug addiction. Here we focus on rodent studies over the past two decades that have demonstrated diverse roles of BDNF in models of cocaine addiction. First, we will provide an overview of studies showing that cocaine exposure alters (and generally increases) BDNF levels in reward-related regions including the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala. T...

  6. Diabetes: Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Web version Diabetes | Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level What tests can I use to check my blood sugar level? There are 2 blood tests that can help ... the past 2-3 months. Testing your A1C level every 3 months is the best way for ...

  7. Transcranial low-level laser therapy increases memory, learning, neuroprogenitor cells, BDNF and synaptogenesis in mice with traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Weijun; Huang, Liyi; Vatansever, Fatma; Agrawal, Tanupriya; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2015-03-01

    Increasing concern is evident over the epidemic of traumatic brain injury in both civilian and military medicine, and the lack of approved treatments. Transcranial low level laser therapy tLLLT) is a new approach in which near infrared laser is delivered to the head, penetrates the scalp and skull to reach the brain. We asked whether tLLLT at 810-nm could improve memory and learning in mice with controlled cortical impact traumatic brain injury. We investigated the mechanism of action by immunofluorescence studies in sections from brains of mice sacrificed at different times. Mice with TBI treated with 1 or 3 daily laser applications performed better on Morris Water Maze test at 28 days. Laser treated mice had increased BrdU incorporation into NeuN positive cells in the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone indicating formation of neuroprogenitor cells at 7 days and less at 28 days. Markers of neuron migration (DCX and Tuj1) were also increased, as was the neurotrophin, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) at 7 days. Markers of synaptogenesis (formation of new connections between existing neurons) were increased in the perilesional cortex at 28 days. tLLLT is proposed to be able to induce the brain to repair itself after injury. However its ability to induce neurogenesis and synaptogenesis suggests that tLLLT may have much wider applications to neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders.

  8. Multiple faces of BDNF in cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Wolf, Marina E

    2015-02-15

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been found to play roles in many types of plasticity including drug addiction. Here, we focus on rodent studies over the past two decades that have demonstrated diverse roles of BDNF in models of cocaine addiction. First, we will provide an overview of studies showing that cocaine exposure alters (and generally increases) BDNF levels in reward-related regions including the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala. Then we will review evidence that BDNF contributes to behavioral changes in animal models of cocaine addiction, focusing on conditioned place preference, behavioral sensitization, maintenance and reinstatement of self-administration, and incubation of cocaine craving. Last, we will review the role of BDNF in synaptic plasticity, particularly as it relates to plasticity of AMPA receptor transmission after cocaine exposure. We conclude that BDNF regulates cocaine-induced behaviors in a highly complex manner that varies depending on the brain region (and even among different cell types within the same brain region), the nature of cocaine exposure, and the "addiction phase" examined (e.g., acquisition vs maintenance; early vs late withdrawal). These complexities make BDNF a daunting therapeutic target for treating cocaine addiction. However, recent clinical evidence suggests that the serum BDNF level may serve as a biomarker in cocaine addicts to predict future relapse, providing an alternative direction for exploring BDNF's potential relevance to treating cocaine addiction. PMID:25449839

  9. Neonatal prebiotic (BGOS) supplementation increases the levels of synaptophysin, GluN2A-subunits and BDNF proteins in the adult rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sarah; Chen, Li; Savignac, Helene M; Tzortzis, George; Anthony, Daniel C; Burnet, Philip W J

    2016-03-01

    Compelling data suggest that perturbations in microbial colonization of the gut in early-life, influences neurodevelopment and adult brain function. If this is the case, then ensuring the growth of beneficial bacteria at an early age will lead to optimal brain development and maturation. We have tested whether feeding neonatal rats daily (from post-natal days 3-21) with a galacto-oligosaccharide prebiotic (Bimuno®, BGOS) or a control solution, alters the levels of hippocampal N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits (GluN1, GluN2A, GluN2B), synaptic proteins (synaptophysin, MAP2, and GAP43) and brain-derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF), at post-natal days 22 and 56. The administration of BGOS significantly elevated GluN2A subunits, synaptophysin and BDNF in the hippocampus of 22 day old rats. The effect was also observed on day 56 (26 days after the feeding ceased). The levels of all other proteins (GluN1, GluN2B, MAP2, GAP43) remained unaltered. Increased GluN2A, synaptophysin, BDNF, but not MAP2, may suggest that neonatal BGOS feeding alters neurotransmission rather than synaptic architecture. Although the functional consequences of our findings require further investigation, the current study confirms that the manipulation of gut bacteria in early-life, has central effects that persist until at least young adulthood. PMID:26682524

  10. Neuroticism, depressive symptoms, and serum BDNF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Lobina, Monia; Piras, Maria Grazia; Mulas, Antonella; Cannas, Alessandra; Meirelles, Osorio; Sutin, Angelina R.; Zonderman, Alan B; Uda, Manuela; Crisponi, Laura; Schlessinger, David

    2011-01-01

    Objective Animal models and clinical studies suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the pathophysiology of depression. We test whether serum and plasma levels of BDNF are associated with trait Neuroticism and its facets, and with state measure of depressive symptoms. Method In a community-based cohort (N = 2099) we measured serum and plasma BDNF concentration, administered the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Covariates included age, sex, cigarette smoking, obesity, and antidepressant use. Results Serum BDNF concentrations were inversely related to Neuroticism (r = −0.074, P < 0.001), in particular the Depression facet (r = −0.08, P < 0.001). Lower BDNF concentrations were also associated with severe depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 28; OR = 0.906; 95%CI = 0.851–0.965). The association of serum BDNF with Neuroticism was independent of depressive symptoms, indicating that serum BDNF might represent a biological correlate of Neuroticism and not just of transient depressive states. Plasma BDNF was not associated with measures of depression. Conclusions Our study suggests that lower serum BDNF is associated with both a dispositional vulnerability to depression and acute depressive states in the general population. PMID:21949427

  11. Recovery of low plasma BDNF over the course of treatment among patients with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hisashi; Yoshimura, Chiho; Nakajima, Takenori; Nagata, Toshihiko

    2012-08-15

    Recent studies have suggested that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with energy balance, eating behaviors, and psychological states such as depression. Although decreased BDNF levels in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) have been reported, the mechanism is still unclear. Few studies have investigated longitudinal changes of BDNF in BN patients. We investigated changes in the levels of plasma BDNF before and after inpatient treatment. Subjects were 16 female patients with BN and 10 control females. The levels of plasma BDNF were measured. In seven patients who completed a 4-week inpatient treatment program based on cognitive behavior therapy, levels of plasma BDNF were measured twice, before and after inpatient treatment. Plasma BDNF levels were significantly lower in BN subjects than in controls. BDNF levels were significantly higher following inpatient treatment. Increased plasma BDNF after inpatient treatment suggests that lower plasma BDNF levels in BN patients are associated with abnormal eating behaviors, especially binge eating. PMID:22425474

  12. Multiple faces of BDNF in cocaine addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Wolf, Marina E.

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been found to play roles in many types of plasticity including drug addiction. Here we focus on rodent studies over the past two decades that have demonstrated diverse roles of BDNF in models of cocaine addiction. First, we will provide an overview of studies showing that cocaine exposure alters (and generally increases) BDNF levels in reward-related regions including the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala. Then we will review evidence that BDNF contributes to behavioral changes in animal models of cocaine addiction, focusing on conditioned place preference, behavioral sensitization, maintenance and reinstatement of self-administration, and incubation of cocaine craving. Last, we will review the role of BDNF in synaptic plasticity, particularly as it relates to plasticity of AMPA receptor transmission after cocaine exposure. We conclude that BDNF regulates cocaine-induced behaviors in a highly complex manner that varies depending on the brain region (and even among different cell types within the same brain region), the nature of cocaine exposure, and the “addiction phase” examined (e.g., acquisition vs maintenance; early vs late withdrawal). These complexities make BDNF a daunting therapeutic target for treating cocaine addiction. However, recent clinical evidence suggests that the serum BDNF level may serve as a biomarker in cocaine addicts to predict future relapse, providing an alternative direction for exploring BDNF’s potential relevance to treating cocaine addiction. PMID:25449839

  13. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Upregulates BDNF-TrkB Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Andres; Bakshi, Kalindi P; Friedman, Eitan; Wang, Hoau-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure causes profound changes in neurobehavior as well as synaptic function and structure with compromised glutamatergic transmission. Since synaptic health and glutamatergic activity are tightly regulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through its cognate tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), we hypothesized that prenatal cocaine exposure alters BDNF-TrkB signaling during brain development. Here we show prenatal cocaine exposure enhances BDNF-TrkB signaling in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFCX) of 21-day-old rats without affecting the expression levels of TrkB, P75NTR, signaling molecules, NMDA receptor-NR1 subunit as well as proBDNF and BDNF. Prenatal cocaine exposure reduces activity-dependent proBDNF and BDNF release and elevates BDNF affinity for TrkB leading to increased tyrosine-phosphorylated TrkB, heightened Phospholipase C-γ1 and N-Shc/Shc recruitment and higher downstream PI3K and ERK activation in response to ex vivo BDNF. The augmented BDNF-TrkB signaling is accompanied by increases in association between activated TrkB and NMDARs. These data suggest that cocaine exposure during gestation upregulates BDNF-TrkB signaling and its interaction with NMDARs by increasing BDNF affinity, perhaps in an attempt to restore the diminished excitatory neurotransmission. PMID:27494324

  14. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Upregulates BDNF-TrkB Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Andres; Bakshi, Kalindi P.; Friedman, Eitan; Wang, Hoau-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure causes profound changes in neurobehavior as well as synaptic function and structure with compromised glutamatergic transmission. Since synaptic health and glutamatergic activity are tightly regulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through its cognate tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), we hypothesized that prenatal cocaine exposure alters BDNF-TrkB signaling during brain development. Here we show prenatal cocaine exposure enhances BDNF-TrkB signaling in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFCX) of 21-day-old rats without affecting the expression levels of TrkB, P75NTR, signaling molecules, NMDA receptor—NR1 subunit as well as proBDNF and BDNF. Prenatal cocaine exposure reduces activity-dependent proBDNF and BDNF release and elevates BDNF affinity for TrkB leading to increased tyrosine-phosphorylated TrkB, heightened Phospholipase C-γ1 and N-Shc/Shc recruitment and higher downstream PI3K and ERK activation in response to ex vivo BDNF. The augmented BDNF-TrkB signaling is accompanied by increases in association between activated TrkB and NMDARs. These data suggest that cocaine exposure during gestation upregulates BDNF-TrkB signaling and its interaction with NMDARs by increasing BDNF affinity, perhaps in an attempt to restore the diminished excitatory neurotransmission. PMID:27494324

  15. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels as a possible predictor of psychopathology in healthy twins at high and low risk for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a potential biomarker of affective disorder. However, longitudinal studies evaluating a potential predictive role of BDNF on subsequent psychopathology are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF alone or in interaction with the...

  16. Ethanol during adolescence decreased the BDNF levels in the hippocampus in adult male Wistar rats, but did not alter aggressive and anxiety-like behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Scheidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To investigate the effects of ethanol exposure in adolescent rats during adulthood by assesssing aggression and anxiety-like behaviors and measuring the levels of inflammatory markers.Methods:Groups of male Wistar rats (mean weight 81.4 g, n = 36 were housed in groups of four until postnatal day (PND 60. From PNDs 30 to 46, rats received one of three treatments: 3 g/kg of ethanol (15% w/v, orally, n = 16, 1.5 g/kg of ethanol (12.5% w/v, PO, n = 12, or water (n = 12 every 48 hours. Animals were assessed for aggressive behavior (resident x intruder test and anxiety-like behaviors (elevated plus maze during adulthood.Results:Animals that received low doses of alcohol showed reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampus as compared to the control group. No significant difference was found in prefrontal cortex.Conclusions:Intermittent exposure to alcohol during adolescence is associated with lower levels of BDNF in the hippocampus, probably due the episodic administration of alcohol, but alcohol use did not alter the level agression toward a male intruder or anxiety-like behaviors during the adult phase.

  17. Blood gene expression signatures predict exposure levels

    OpenAIRE

    P.R. Bushel; Heinloth, A. N.; Li, J.; Huang, L.; Chou, J. W.; Boorman, G A; Malarkey, D.E.; Houle, C. D.; S. M. Ward; Wilson, R. E.; Fannin, R. D.; Russo, M W; Watkins, P B; Tennant, R. W.; Paules, R S

    2007-01-01

    To respond to potential adverse exposures properly, health care providers need accurate indicators of exposure levels. The indicators are particularly important in the case of acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication, the leading cause of liver failure in the U.S. We hypothesized that gene expression patterns derived from blood cells would provide useful indicators of acute exposure levels. To test this hypothesis, we used a blood gene expression data set from rats exposed to APAP to train classifie...

  18. Propofol alleviates electroconvulsive shock-induced memory impairment by modulating proBDNF/mBDNF ratio in depressive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Luo, Jie; Min, Su; Ren, Li; Qin, Peipei

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of propofol and electroconvulsive shock (ECS), the analogue of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in animals, on tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and its inhibitor (PAI-1) as well as the precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF)/mature BDNF (mBDNF) ratio in depressive rats. ECT is an effective treatment for depression, but can cause cognitive deficit. Some studies have indicated that propofol can ameliorate cognitive decline induced by ECT, but the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. Recent evidence has found that mBDNF and its precursor proBDNF are related to depression and cognitive function; they elicit opposite effects on cellular functions. Chronic unpredicted mild stress is widely used to induce depressive behaviors in rodents. This study found that the depression resulted in an increased expression of PAI-1 and upregulation of the proBDNF/mBDNF ratio, together with a decreased level of tPA, long-term potentiation (LTP) impairment, and cognitive decline. The proBDNF/mBDNF ratio was further upregulated after the ECS treatment in depressive rats, resulting in the deterioration of cognitive function and hippocampal LTP. Propofol alone did not reverse the changes in depressive rats, but when co-administered with ECS, it improved the cognitive function, alleviated the impairment of LTP, downregulated the proBDNF/mBDNF ratio, and increased the tPA expression. The results of this study suggest that propofol ameliorates cognitive decline induced by ECT, which was partly by modulating the proBDNF/mBDNF ratio and reversing the excessive changes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, providing a new evidence for involving the proBDNF/mBDNF system in the progression and treatment of depression. PMID:27017958

  19. Blood lead levels in Jamaican school children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalor, G.; Rattray, R.; Vutchkov, M. [International Centre for Environmental and Nuclear Sciences, University of the West Indies, Mona, 7 Kingston (Jamaica); Campbell, B.; Lewis-Bell, K. [Epidemiology Unit, Ministry of Health, Kingston (Jamaica)

    2001-03-26

    Blood lead levels are reported for a total of 421 schoolchildren in 13 schools in rural and urban environments in Jamaica, including one highly contaminated community. In the rural areas blood lead levels ranged from 3 to 28.5 {mu}g dl{sup -1}, with a median of 9.2 {mu}g dl{sup -1}; the range and median in the urban schools were 4-34.7 and 16.6 {mu}g dl{sup -1}, respectively. Forty-two percent of the rural and 71% of the urban blood lead levels exceeded the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention intervention level of 10 {mu}g dl{sup -1}. Except in the contaminated area, the relationship between soil lead levels, which in Jamaica are in general typical of tropical lateritic soils, and blood lead levels is not clear-cut. Very high blood lead levels of 18 to >60 {mu}g dl{sup -1} with a median of 35 {mu}g dl{sup -1} were observed among children in the contaminated area, the site of a former lead ore processing plant. These high blood lead levels were significantly reduced, by the implementation of relatively simple mitigation strategies which involved isolation of the lead, education, and a food supplementation programme, to levels similar to those observed in the urban schools. These values, however, remain higher than are desirable and unfortunately, all the sources of lead are not yet identified. The recent discontinuation of the use of leaded petrol is expected to result in significant reductions in exposure to lead.

  20. Methylation of BDNF in women with bulimic eating syndromes: associations with childhood abuse and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Lea; Gauvin, Lise; Joober, Ridha; Groleau, Patricia; de Guzman, Rosherrie; Ambalavanan, Amirthagowri; Israel, Mimi; Wilson, Samantha; Steiger, Howard

    2014-10-01

    DNA methylation allows for the environmental regulation of gene expression and is believed to link environmental stressors to such mental-illness phenotypes as eating disorders. Numerous studies have shown an association between bulimia nervosa (BN) and variations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF has also been linked to borderline personality disorder (BPD) and to such traits as reward dependence. We examined the extent to which BDNF methylation corresponded to bulimic or normal-eater status, and also to the presence of comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) and childhood abuse. Our sample consisted of 64 women with BN and 32 normal-eater (NE) control women. Participants were assessed for eating-disorder symptoms, comorbid psychopathology, and childhood trauma, and then they were required to provide blood samples for methylation analyses. We observed a significant site×group (BN vs. NE) interaction indicating that women with BN showed increases in methylation at specific regions of the BDNF promoter. Furthermore, examining effects of childhood abuse and BPD, we observed significant site×group interactions such that groups composed of individuals with childhood abuse or BPD had particularly high levels of methylation at selected CpG sites. Our findings suggest that BN, especially when co-occurring with childhood abuse or BPD, is associated with a propensity towards elevated methylation at specific BDNF promoter region sites. These findings imply that hypermethylation of the BDNF gene may be related to eating disorder status, developmental stress exposure, and comorbid psychopathology. PMID:24801751

  1. Blood lead levels in incinerator workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, R; Brandt-Rauf, P; Graziano, J; Parides, M

    1992-10-01

    Questions have been raised concerning the safety of mass burn incineration and its role in solid waste management. In 1989, the New York City Office of Occupational Safety and Health examined air levels of metals in New York City incinerators and found that workers were exposed to air lead levels as high as 2500 micrograms/m3 while cleaning the electrostatic precipitators in the plant. In order to determine the biologic significance of these exposures to the workers, blood samples were taken from 56 incinerator workers and 25 controls and analyzed for lead and erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels. Incinerator workers were found to have a mean blood lead of 11.0 micrograms/dl as compared to the control group level of 7.4 micrograms/dl. Risk factors for increased blood lead levels were analyzed using multiple regression analyses. Wearing a personal protective device "always" or not and the interaction of smoking and cleaning the precipitator more than seven times in the past year were found to be significant predictors for blood lead. These results indicate that lead in municipal incinerator ash from electrostatic precipitators is bioavailable and that the effects of such exposure can be minimized by wearing personal protective devices, not smoking, and rotating the work force to minimize precipitator ash contact. PMID:1425516

  2. Working memory and blood lactate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perciavalle, Valentina; Maci, Tiziana; Perciavalle, Vincenzo; Massimino, Simona; Coco, Marinella

    2015-11-01

    The accumulation of lactate in the blood after a high-intensity exercise is associated with an increase of lactate extractions by the brain. Previously, a negative influence of blood lactate on attentional processes has been observed. The present study was carried out to examine the association of high blood lactate levels, induced with a maximal cycling, with another cognitive domain: working memory. For evaluation of working memory two different protocols were used: the first (Self-Ordered Pointing Task) capable of analyzing non-spatial working memory requiring the ability to generate and monitor a sequence of responses and the second for evaluating motor working memory necessary to perform a motor task. The study was carried out in 30 students (15 males and 15 females) who performed exhaustive exercise. In each subject, blood lactate was measured and motor as well as non-motor forms of working memory were evaluated before the exercise, at its end as well as 15 min after the exhaustion. It was observed that an increase of blood lactate levels is associated with a worsening of both types of working memory. PMID:26169760

  3. Influence of childhood abuse on BDNF levels in patients with depression%抑郁症患者儿童期受虐对BDNF水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋云川; 程祺; 汪卫华; 赵汉清; 蒋倩芸

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of childhood abuse on serum of BDNF level in pa‐tients with depression .Methods Totals of 98 patients with depression were included in this study .Using Child abuse Questionaire(CTQ) ,Hamilton Depression Scale(HAMD) ,Suicidal Ideation Scale(SIOSS) and Beck Hopelessness Scale(BHS) to assess the situation of childhood abuse ,severity of depression , suicidal ideation and severity of despair ;According to CTQ score ,the subjects were divided into abuse group (n= 32) and non-abused group (n= 66) .And selected 30 healthy people as the control group . The serum of BDNF levels were determined by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent .Results All 98 cases of patients enrolled in 32(32 .65% ) had a history of childhood abuse .There were significant differences be‐tween the abuse group and the non-abused group in the first onset age ,sex ratio ,the total score of the HAMD-24 ,the total score of BSH and the total score of SIOSS .BDNF levels of abuse group (627 ± 36)pg/ml were lower than those in non -abused group [(743 ± 28)pg/ml;P < 0 .01] and the control group [(1 320 ± 39)pg/ml;P< 0 .01)] .BDNF levels of non -abused group were lower than control group (P< 0 .01) .Conclusions Depression in patients with childhood abuse has obvious influence on BDNF levels ,childhood abuse led to the decrease of BDNF level may be a risk factor as an adult suffering from depression .%目的:探讨抑郁症患者儿童期受虐对血清脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)水平的影响。方法选取抑郁症患者98例,使用儿童受虐问卷(CTQ)、汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、自杀意念量表(SIOSS)及贝克绝望量表(BHS)评定儿童期受虐状况、抑郁严重程度、自杀意念强度和绝望严重程度;根据儿童受虐问卷评分将受试者分为受虐组(32例),无受虐组(66例)。并选择30名健康体检人群作为健康对照组。采用酶联免疫吸附法测定血清BDNF水平

  4. 抑郁症患者儿童期受虐对BDNF水平的影响%Influence of childhood abuse on BDNF levels in patients with depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋云川; 程祺; 汪卫华; 赵汉清; 蒋倩芸

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of childhood abuse on serum of BDNF level in pa‐tients with depression .Methods Totals of 98 patients with depression were included in this study .Using Child abuse Questionaire(CTQ) ,Hamilton Depression Scale(HAMD) ,Suicidal Ideation Scale(SIOSS) and Beck Hopelessness Scale(BHS) to assess the situation of childhood abuse ,severity of depression , suicidal ideation and severity of despair ;According to CTQ score ,the subjects were divided into abuse group (n= 32) and non-abused group (n= 66) .And selected 30 healthy people as the control group . The serum of BDNF levels were determined by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent .Results All 98 cases of patients enrolled in 32(32 .65% ) had a history of childhood abuse .There were significant differences be‐tween the abuse group and the non-abused group in the first onset age ,sex ratio ,the total score of the HAMD-24 ,the total score of BSH and the total score of SIOSS .BDNF levels of abuse group (627 ± 36)pg/ml were lower than those in non -abused group [(743 ± 28)pg/ml;P < 0 .01] and the control group [(1 320 ± 39)pg/ml;P< 0 .01)] .BDNF levels of non -abused group were lower than control group (P< 0 .01) .Conclusions Depression in patients with childhood abuse has obvious influence on BDNF levels ,childhood abuse led to the decrease of BDNF level may be a risk factor as an adult suffering from depression .%目的:探讨抑郁症患者儿童期受虐对血清脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)水平的影响。方法选取抑郁症患者98例,使用儿童受虐问卷(CTQ)、汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、自杀意念量表(SIOSS)及贝克绝望量表(BHS)评定儿童期受虐状况、抑郁严重程度、自杀意念强度和绝望严重程度;根据儿童受虐问卷评分将受试者分为受虐组(32例),无受虐组(66例)。并选择30名健康体检人群作为健康对照组。采用酶联免疫吸附法测定血清BDNF水平

  5. Umbilical cord blood mercury levels in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiqin Wu,; Chonghuai Yan; Jian Xu; Wei Wu; Hui Li; Xin Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a well-known neurotoxicant.Hg exposure at high levels can harm individuals of all ages.Even low level exposure to Hg can damage the brain of fetuses and young children,and affect their central nervous system and cognitive development.The aims of our study were to measure total Hg levels in infant umbilical cord blood and to investigate the risk factors associated with total Hg cord blood levels in various cities in China.Our goal was to provide clues for the prevention of Hg exposure in utero.The results indicated that the average cord blood mercury levels (CBMLs) were (1.81 ± 1.93) μg/L,which were lower than those found in most previous studies.The concentrations also differed according to geographic region.The CBMLs were not only associated with family economic and living conditions,but also with diet in pregnant women,especially the intake of marine fish,shellfish,poultry,formula milk and fruits.

  6. Plasma BDNF Concentration, Val66Met Genetic Variant, and Depression-Related Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Terracciano, Antonio; Martin, Bronwen; Ansari, David; Tanaka, Toshiko; Ferrucci, Luigi; Maudsley, Stuart; Mattson, Mark P; Costa, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis, and BDNF plasma and serum levels have been associated with depression, Alzheimer's disease, and other psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. In a relatively large community sample, drawn from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), we examine whether BDNF plasma concentration is associated with the Val66Met functional polymorphism of the BDNF gene (n = 335) and with depression-related pers...

  7. Stage-dependent association of BDNF and TGF-β1 with lung function in stable COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoll Paul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is characterised by complex inflammatory, neuronal and fibrotic changes. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF is a key regulator of neuronal plasticity, whereas Transforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGF-β1 plays a crucial role in tissue repair and emphysema pathogenesis. Both mediators are stored in platelets and released from platelets in inflammatory conditions and during serum preparation. In patients with asthma, it was previously shown that elevated serum BDNF concentrations correlate with disease severity, whereas TGF-β1 concentrations were normal. Methods In the present study, 63 patients with stable COPD (spirometric GOLD stages 2–4 and 17 age- and comorbidity-matched controls were studied. Lung function, smoking history, medication, platelet concentrations in peripheral blood and serum concentrations of BDNF, TGF-β1 and Serotonin (5-HT were assessed in all participants. Results Serum levels of both BDNF and TGF-β1 (but not concentrations of platelets in peripheral blood were significantly elevated in all stages of COPD as compared to controls. Highest BDNF concentrations were found in spirometric GOLD stage 3, whereas highest TGF-β1 serum levels were found in spirometric GOLD stage 4. There were specific, stage-dependent correlations of these mediators with lung function parameters of the patients. Conclusions Taken together, we show that, in contrast to asthma, COPD is characterised by elevated concentrations of both BDNF and TGF-β1 in serum. The stage-dependent association with lung function supports the hypothesis that these platelet mediators may play a role in the pathogenesis of COPD.

  8. Peripheral blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, K; Vinberg, M; Kessing, L V

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed as a potential biomarker related to disease activity and neuroprogression in bipolar disorder, speculated to mirror alterations in brain expression of BDNF. The research area is rapidly evolving; however, recent...... investigations have yielded conflicting results with substantial variation in outcomes, highlighting the need to critically assess the state of current evidence. The aims of the study were to investigate differences in peripheral blood BDNF concentrations between bipolar disorder patients and healthy control...... subjects and between affective states in bipolar disorder patients, including assessment of the effect of treatment of acute episodes on BDNF levels. A systematic review of English language studies without considering publication status was conducted in PubMed (January 1950-November 2014), Embase (1974...

  9. An Examination of Blood Lead Levels in Thai Nielloware Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Decharat, Somsiri; Kongtip, Pornpimol; Thampoophasiam, Prapin; Thetkathuek, Anamai

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the lead levels in blood samples from nielloware workers, to determine airborne lead levels, to describe the workers' hygiene behaviors, and to ascertain and describe any correlations between lead levels in blood samples and lead levels in airborne samples. Methods Blood samples and airborne samples from 45 nielloware workers were collected from nielloware workplaces in Nakhon Sri Thammarat Province, Thailand. Lead levels were determin...

  10. The low TSH level in blood serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low TSH level in blood serum (0.38 - 4,8 mμ/l) and the frequency of cross-reactions dictate the need for a sensitive and specific assay method. The IRMA (immunoradiometric assay) technique meets the requirements for high sensitivity and specificity. In the present study work was done to determine the characteristics of the IRMA-TSH (Netria-Batan) kit which makes use of the ''sandwich'' technique. Samples/standards were reacted with excess I-125 labelled monoclonal antibodies against TSH (Ab*), the free and the bound Ab* fraction were separated using solid phase antibody. The result showed that the IRMA-TSH (Netria-Batan) kit has abord working range (0.2 - 550 mμ/I) and a Low blank (Bo) value (0.8%-0.095%), high precision (with in assay CV less than 10%, and between assay CV less than 15%) high sensitivity (detection limit 0.04 mμ/l), and high accuracy (recovery 94,1%). High specificity of the kit was assured by the use of monoclonal anti-TSH with low cross reaction (0.008% against hCG, 0.7% against LH and 1.7% against FSH (1). (author). 7 figs.; 7 refs

  11. Cystamine and cysteamine increase brain levels of BDNF in Huntington disease via HSJ1b and transglutaminase

    OpenAIRE

    Borrell-Pagès, Maria; Canals, Josep M.; Cordelières, Fabrice P; Parker, J. Alex; Pineda, José R.; Grange, Ghislaine; Bryson, Elzbieta A.; Guillermier, Martine; Hirsch, Etienne; Hantraye, Philippe; Cheetham, Michael E.; Néri, Christian; Alberch, Jordi; Brouillet, Emmanuel; Saudou, Frédéric

    2006-01-01

    There is no treatment for the neurodegenerative disorder Huntington disease (HD). Cystamine is a candidate drug; however, the mechanisms by which it operates remain unclear. We show here that cystamine increases levels of the heat shock DnaJ-containing protein 1b (HSJ1b) that are low in HD patients. HSJ1b inhibits polyQ-huntingtin–induced death of striatal neurons and neuronal dysfunction in Caenorhabditis elegans. This neuroprotective effect involves stimulation of the secretory pathway thro...

  12. Diurnal pattern of serum BDNF before partial sleep deprivation in stress-related mood disorders – an association with therapy response in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giese

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : Depression is one of the most prevalent forms of mood disorders. Compelling evidence suggests that mood disorders are characterized by reduced neuronal plasticity, which can be brought about by exposure to stress. Furthermore, there is good agreement in considering key proteins such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, as a central player for the effects of stress on brain function and plasticity and psychopathological implications. Still, there is a high non-responder rate in antidepressant therapy, which explains the need to find reliable predictors for adequate treatment. Previous studies revealed that plasma and serum BDNF levels in depressed patients were significantly lower than in healthy controls. Since the protein can cross the blood brain-barrier serum content correspondingly correlates with cortical BDNF concentrations suggesting BDNF levels as a promising candidate biomarker for depression and antidepressant treatment response. Methods : To investigate the association between serum BDNF levels and treatment outcome, blood was drawn from 28 patients with a major depressive episode (DMS-IV, ICD-10 that participated in a double-blind placebo controlled treatment study. All patients were treated with a stable mirtazapine monotherapy. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD was performed after one week. Placebo controlled additional morning treatment with the stimulant modafinil to reduce microsleep throughout the day was started during PSD and maintained over two weeks. Serum concentrations of BDNF and cortisol were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA from day 1 (“before PSD” at 8 am, 2 pm, 8 pm and day 2 (“after PSD” at 8 am, 2 pm and 8 pm. Samples were appropriately diluted and detection of soluble BDNF or cortisol was carried out in an antibody sandwich format in duplicates and means were calculated for the corresponding group. Moreover, sleep EEG and microsleep episodes were

  13. The Effects of Oxytocin on Cognitive Defect Caused by Chronic Restraint Stress Applied to Adolescent Rats and on Hippocampal VEGF and BDNF Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Dayi, Ayfer; Cetin, Ferihan; Sisman, Ali Riza; Aksu, Ilkay; Tas, Aysegul; Gönenc, Sevil; Uysal, Nazan

    2015-01-01

    Background Because brain development continues during adolescence, the effects of chronic stress on hippocampal changes that occur during that period are permanent. Oxytocin, which is synthesized in the hypothalamus and has many receptors in brain regions, including the hippocampus, may affect learning-memory. This study aimed to investigate chronic restraint stress on hippocampal functions, and hippocampal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...

  14. Malondialdehyde Level in the Cord Blood of Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçil Arıca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:In this study, we aim to demonstrate that measurement of themalondialdehyde (MDA level in the umbilical cord blood of newborn infants born via cesarean section (C/S and normal vaginal delivery (NVD is indicative of oxidative stress during the perinatal period.Methods:The study was conducted at Bakirkoy Training and Research Hospital between January 2006 and April 2006 on 15 newborns born via elective C/S, 15 newborns born via emergency C/S, and 15 newborns born via normal vaginal delivery. Complete blood count, total bilirubin, glucose, creatinine phosphokinase (CPK, uric acid, iron, blood gas, and malondialdehyde levels were measured in the umbilical cord bloodFindings:Malondialdehyde levels in the umbilical cord blood in the emergency C/S and NVD groups were found to be statistically and significantly higher than those in the elective C/S group. In the emergency C/S group, it was determined that the malondialdehyde level increased as the oxygen saturation of the umbilical cord blood increased. In the NVD group, a positive correlation was detected between the total bilirubin and malondialdehyde levels in the umbilical cord blood. In the emergency C/S group, the malondialdehyde level was recorded to be high in the infants with high level of uric acid in the umbilical cord blood.Conclusion:We concluded that the malondialdehyde level in umbilical cord blood could serve as an indication of perinatal oxidative stress and that it could thus help in preventing permanent damage.

  15. Malondialdehyde Level in the Cord Blood of Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçil Arıca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:In this study, we aim to demonstrate that measurement of the malondialdehyde (MDA level in the umbilical cord blood of newborn infants born via cesarean section (C/S and normal vaginal delivery (NVD is indicative of oxidative stress during the perinatal period. Methods:The study was conducted at Bakirkoy Training and Research Hospital between January 2006 and April 2006 on 15 newborns born via elective C/S, 15 newborns born via emergency C/S, and 15 newborns born via normal vaginal delivery. Complete blood count, total bilirubin, glucose, creatinine phosphokinase (CPK, uric acid, iron, blood gas, and malondialdehyde levels were measured in the umbilical cord blood Findings:Malondialdehyde levels in the umbilical cord blood in the emergency C/S and NVD groups were found to be statistically and significantly higher than those in the elective C/S group. In the emergency C/S group, it was determined that the malondialdehyde level increased as the oxygen saturation of the umbilical cord blood increased. In the NVD group, a positive correlation was detected between the total bilirubin and malondialdehyde levels in the umbilical cord blood. In the emergency C/S group, the malondialdehyde level was recorded to be high in the infants with high level of uric acid in the umbilical cord blood. Conclusion:We concluded that the malondialdehyde level in umbilical cord blood could serve as an indication of perinatal oxidative stress and that it could thus help in preventing permanent damage.

  16. Whole blood viscosity issues VI: Association with blood salicylate level and gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel Uba Nwose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : This series on whole blood viscosity issues has been trying to elucidate the sensitivity, specificity and usefulness of the laboratory parameter in clinical practice. The postulation has been that since antiplatelet is used in the management of stasis, of which blood viscosity is an index, the latter would be useful laboratory indication and/or contraindication. Aim : The aim of this study was to observe whether blood level of acetylsalicylic acid differs with the level of whole blood viscosity. Patients and Methods : Out of the ten years database, 538 cases that were concomitantly tested for haematocrit, total proteins and blood level of salicylate were selected for this study. A separate nine cases of positive faecal occult blood tests were audited for blood viscosity and reviewed. Results : A statistically significant difference is observed with lower blood viscosity being associated with higher salicylate level in comparison of the former between the highest vs. lowest quartiles (p < 0.002. This observation demonstrates the effect of aspirin in lowering blood stasis. Reviewing the positive faecal occult blood cases indicate that gastrointestinal bleeding is characterized by relative hypoviscosity and that hyperviscosity is not present during bleeding complications. Conclusion : The findings affirm that whole blood viscosity is a valid clinical laboratory parameter for evidence-based contraindication, indication and monitoring of antiplatelet medication. It calls for better appreciation and clinical utility of whole blood viscosity, which (in the absence of viscometer can now be extrapolated from haematocrit and total proteins.

  17. Study of the profile of the neurotrophin BDNF in new leprosy cases before, during and after multidrug therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Dias Costa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a neurotrophin involved in the survival of neurons and growth and differentiation of dendrites and axons. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate plasma levels of BDNF of leprosy patients at different stages of multidrug therapy (MDT in comparison with non-infected individuals. Plasma levels of BDNF were measured by ELISA in 30 healthy controls and 37 leprosy patients at diagnosis, during and after MDT. Plasma levels of BDNF tended to be higher in control subjects in comparison with leprosy patients, but this difference does not reach statistical significance. Interestingly, BDNF levels changed following MDT, achieving statistical difference only at the 2nd dose of MDT. These results indicate that BDNF may not be a surrogate marker of leprosy infection and/or related neuropathy. Further research is needed to investigate the meaning of BDNF level changes following leprosy treatment.

  18. Effect of dietary fat and the circadian clock on the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzer, Yoni; Dadon, Maayan; Burg, Chen; Chapnik, Nava; Froy, Oren

    2016-07-15

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most abundant neurotrophin in the brain and its decreased levels are associated with the development of obesity and neurodegeneration. Our aim was to test the effect of dietary fat, its timing and the circadian clock on the expression of BDNF and associated signaling pathways in mouse brain and liver. Bdnf mRNA oscillated robustly in brain and liver, but with a 12-h shift between the tissues. Brain and liver Bdnf mRNA showed a 12-h phase shift when fed ketogenic diet (KD) compared with high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD). Brain or liver Bdnf mRNA did not show the typical phase advance usually seen under time-restricted feeding (RF). Clock knockdown in HT-4 hippocampal neurons led to 86% up-regulation of Bdnf mRNA, whereas it led to 60% down-regulation in AML-12 hepatocytes. Dietary fat in mice or cultured hepatocytes and hippocampal neurons led to increased Bdnf mRNA expression. At the protein level, HFD increased the ratio of the mature BDNF protein (mBDNF) to its precursor (proBDNF). In the liver, RF under LFD or HFD reduced the mBDNF/proBDNF ratio. In the brain, the two signaling pathways related to BDNF, mTOR and AMPK, showed reduced and increased levels, respectively, under timed HFD. In the liver, the reverse was achieved. In summary, Bdnf expression is mediated by the circadian clock and dietary fat. Although RF does not affect its expression phase, in the brain, when combined with high-fat diet, it leads to a unique metabolic state in which AMPK is activated, mTOR is down-regulated and the levels of mBDNF are high. PMID:27113028

  19. BDNF promoter methylation and genetic variation in late-life depression

    OpenAIRE

    Januar, V; Ancelin, M-L; Ritchie, K.; Saffery, R.; Ryan, J

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is important for depression pathophysiology and epigenetic regulation of the BDNF gene may be involved. This study investigated whether BDNF methylation is a marker of depression. One thousand and twenty-four participants were recruited as part of a longitudinal study of psychiatric disorders in general population elderly (age⩾65). Clinical levels of depression were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview ...

  20. Localization of BDNF mRNA with the Huntington's disease protein in rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Moses V; Tongiorgi Enrico; Baj Gabriele; Culver Brady P; Ma Bin; Tanese Naoko

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies have implicated reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease. Mutant huntingtin (Htt) protein was previously reported to decrease BDNF gene transcription and axonal transport of BDNF. We recently showed that wild-type Htt is associated with the Argonaute 2 microRNA-processing enzyme involved in gene silencing. In dendrites, Htt co-localizes with components of neuronal granules and mRNAs, indicating that it m...

  1. Association Between MKP-1, BDNF, and Gonadal Hormones with Depression on Perimenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Ling-Yun; Wang, Ya-Wen; Zhou, Fu-ling; Ma, Xian-cang; Yan, Run-zhi; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Quan-li; Yu, Xuewen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Studies suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exerts effects on the neuronal function of hippocampal neurons and increases hippocampal mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) expression, which causes depressive behaviors in rat or mouse. Here we focus on the change of serum MKP-1, BDNF, testosterone (T), and estradiol (E2) levels, in order to test the hypothesis that dysregulation of MKP-1, BDNF, T, and E2 are associated with depression in p...

  2. BDNF is Associated With Age-Related Decline in Hippocampal Volume

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Michelle W Voss; Chaddock, Laura; Heo, Susie; McLaren, Molly; Pence, Brandt D.; Martin, Stephen A.; Vieira, Victoria J.; Jeffrey A. Woods; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2010-01-01

    Hippocampal volume shrinks in late adulthood, but the neuromolecular factors that trigger hippocampal decay in aging humans remains a matter of speculation. In rodents, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes the growth and proliferation of cells in the hippocampus and is important in long-term potentiation and memory formation. In humans, circulating levels of BDNF decline with advancing age and a genetic polymorphism for BDNF has been related to gray matter volume loss in old age....

  3. Intracerebral Administration of BDNF Protects Rat Brain Against Oxidative Stress Induced by Ouabain in an Animal Model of Mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvassori, Samira S; Arent, Camila O; Steckert, Amanda V; Varela, Roger B; Jornada, Luciano K; Tonin, Paula T; Budni, Josiane; Mariot, Edemilson; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have suggested that alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and increased oxidative stress have a central role in bipolar disorder (BD). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of ouabain (OUA) in rats alters oxidative stress parameters and decreases BDNF levels in the brain. In this context, the present study aims to investigate the effects of BDNF ICV administration on BDNF levels and oxidative stress parameters in brains of rats submitted to animal model of mania induced by OUA. Wistar rats received an ICV injection of OUA, artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF), OUA plus BDNF, or ACSF plus BDNF. Locomotor activity and risk-taking behavior in the rats were measured using the open-field test. In addition, we analyzed the BDNF levels and oxidative stress parameters (TBARS, Carbonyl, CAT, SOD, GR, and GPx) in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats. The BDNF was unable to reverse the ouabain-induced hyperactivity and risk-taking behavior. Nevertheless, BDNF treatment increased BDNF levels, modulated the antioxidant enzymes, and protected the OUA-induced oxidative damage in the brain of rats. These results suggest that BDNF alteration observed in BD patients may be associated with oxidative damage, both seen in this disorder. PMID:25164569

  4. Functional interactions between steroid hormones and neurotrophin BDNF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tadahiro; Numakawa; Daisaku; Yokomaku; Misty; Richards; Hiroaki; Hori; Naoki; Adachi; Hiroshi; Kunugi

    2010-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF),a critical neurotrophin,regulates many neuronal aspects including cell differentiation,cell survival,neurotransmission,and synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system(CNS) .Though BDNF has two types of receptors,high affinity tropomyosin-related kinase(Trk) B and low affinity p75 receptors,BDNF positively exerts its biological effects on neurons via activation of TrkB and of resultant intracellular signaling cascades including mitogenactivated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase,phospholipase Cγ,and phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathways.Notably,it is possible that alteration in the expression and/or function of BDNF in the CNS is involved in the pathophysiology of various brain diseases such as stroke,Parkinson’s disease,Alzheimer’s disease,and mental disorders.On the other hand,glucocorticoids,stress-induced steroid hormones,also putatively contribute to the pathophysiology of depression.Interestingly,in addition to the reduction in BDNF levels due to increased glucocorticoid exposure,current reports demonstrate possible interactions between glucocorticoids and BDNF-mediated neuronal functions. Other steroid hormones,such as estrogen,are involved in not only sexual differentiation in the brain,but also numerous neuronal events including cell survival and synaptic plasticity.Furthermore,it is well known that estrogen plays a role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease,Alzheimer’s disease,and mental illness,while serving to regulate BDNF expression and/or function.Here,we present a broad overview of the current knowledge concerning the association between BDNF expression/function and steroid hormones(glucocorticoids and estrogen).

  5. BDNF DNA methylation changes as a biomarker of psychiatric disorders: literature review and open access database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheleznyakova, Galina Y; Cao, Hao; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in nervous system development and function and it is well established that BDNF is involved in the pathogenesis of a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Recently, numerous studies have associated the DNA methylation level of BDNF promoters with certain psychiatric phenotypes. In this review, we summarize data from current literature as well as from our own analysis with respect to the correlation of BDNF methylation changes with psychiatric disorders and address questions about whether DNA methylation related to the BDNF can be useful as biomarker for specific neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27267954

  6. Relationship between Levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Boyuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Studies have suggested that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plays a role in glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum BDNF levels and various metabolic parameters and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Materials and Methods. The study included 88 T2DM patients and 33 healthy controls. Fasting blood samples were obtained from the patients and the control group. The serum levels of BDNF were measured with an ELISA kit. The current paper introduces a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC generalization curve to identify cut-off for the BDNF values in type 2 diabetes patients. Results. The serum levels of BDNF were significantly higher in T2DM patients than in the healthy controls (206.81 ± 107.32 pg/mL versus 130.84 ± 59.81 pg/mL; P<0.001. They showed a positive correlation with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (r=0.28; P<0.05, the triglyceride level (r=0.265; P<0.05, and white blood cell (WBC count (r=0.35; P<0.001. In logistic regression analysis, age (P<0.05, body mass index (BMI (P<0.05, C-reactive protein (CRP (P<0.05, and BDNF (P<0.01 were independently associated with T2DM. In ROC curve analysis, BDNF cut-off was 137. Conclusion. The serum BDNF level was higher in patients with T2DM. The BDNF had a cut-off value of 137. The findings suggest that BDNF may contribute to glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation.

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Blood Levels Clinical Significance Update

    OpenAIRE

    Superko, H. Robert; Superko, Alex R.; Lundberg, Gina P.; Margolis, Basil; Garrett, Brenda C.; Nasir, Khurram; Agatston, Arthur S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The potential benefit of fish oil (omega-3 fatty acids) consumption to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk remains controversial. Some investigations report reduced CVD risk associated with fish or fish oil consumption while others report no benefit. This controversy is in part resolved when consideration is given to omega-3 blood levels in relation to CVD risk as well as blood levels achieved in clinical trials of omega-3 supplementation and CVD benefit. There is a wide variati...

  8. The effect of exercise training modality on serum brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon L Swift

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been implicated in memory, learning, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the relationship of BDNF with cardiometabolic risk factors is unclear, and the effect of exercise training on BDNF has not been previously explored in individuals with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Men and women (N = 150 with type 2 diabetes were randomized to an aerobic exercise (aerobic, resistance exercise (resistance, or a combination of both (combination for 9 months. Serum BDNF levels were evaluated at baseline and follow-up from archived blood samples. RESULTS: Baseline serum BDNF was not associated with fitness, body composition, anthropometry, glucose control, or strength measures (all, p>0.05. Similarly, no significant change in serum BDNF levels was observed following exercise training in the aerobic (-1649.4 pg/ml, CI: -4768.9 to 1470.2, resistance (-2351.2 pg/ml, CI:-5290.7 to 588.3, or combination groups (-827.4 pg/ml, CI: -3533.3 to 1878.5 compared to the control group (-2320.0 pg/ml, CI: -5750.8 to 1110.8. However, reductions in waist circumference were directly associated with changes in serum BDNF following training (r = 0.25, p = 0.005. CONCLUSIONS: Serum BDNF was not associated with fitness, body composition, anthropometry, glucose control, or strength measures at baseline. Likewise, serum BDNF measures were not altered by 9 months of aerobic, resistance, or combination training. However, reductions in waist circumference were associated with decreased serum BDNF levels. Future studies should investigate the relevance of BDNF with measures of cognitive function specifically in individuals with type-2 diabetes.

  9. A retrospective cohort study of blood hemoglobin levels in blood donors and competitive rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, P.I.; Ullum, H.; Jensen, K.; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    .3% of the females demonstrated values above the recommended limit for athletic competition. Thus, the prevalence of a high hemoglobin value was greater in the rowers, of both gender, than in the candidate blood donors (P<0.0001). The data demonstrate that high hemoglobin levels in blood are seen...... regularly in normal people and especially in competition athletes Udgivelsesdato: 2009/2...

  10. A retrospective cohort study of blood hemoglobin levels in blood donors and competitive rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, P. I.; Ullum, H.; Jensen, Kurt;

    2009-01-01

    .3% of the females demonstrated values above the recommended limit for athletic competition. Thus, the prevalence of a high hemoglobin value was greater in the rowers, of both gender, than in the candidate blood donors (P<0.0001). The data demonstrate that high hemoglobin levels in blood are seen...

  11. BDNF/TrkB signaling protects HT-29 human colon cancer cells from EGFR inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► BDNF protected HT-29 colorectal cancer cells from the antitumor effect of cetuximab. ► TrkB inhibition potentiated the antitumor effect of cetuximab. ► BDNF/TrkB signaling might be involved in resistance to anti-EGFR therapy. -- Abstract: The clinical success of targeted treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) is often limited by resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB have recently emerged as anticancer targets, and we have previously shown increased BDNF levels in CRC tumor samples. Here we report the findings from in vitro experiments suggesting that BDNF/TrkB signaling can protect CRC cells from the antitumor effects of EGFR blockade. The anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab reduced both cell proliferation and the mRNA expression of BDNF and TrkB in human HT-29 CRC cells. The inhibitory effect of cetuximab on cell proliferation and survival was counteracted by the addition of human recombinant BDNF. Finally, the Trk inhibitor K252a synergistically enhanced the effect of cetuximab on cell proliferation, and this effect was blocked by BDNF. These results provide the first evidence that increased BDNF/TrkB signaling might play a role in resistance to EGFR blockade. Moreover, it is possible that targeting TrkB could potentiate the anticancer effects of anti-EGFR therapy.

  12. BDNF/TrkB signaling protects HT-29 human colon cancer cells from EGFR inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetto de Farias, Caroline [Cancer Research Laboratory, University Hospital Research Center (CPE-HCPA), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Children' s Cancer Institute, 90420-140 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Laboratory of Neuropharmacology and Neural Tumor Biology, Department of Pharmacology, Institute for Basic Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90050-170 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); National Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM), 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Heinen, Tiago Elias; Pereira dos Santos, Rafael [Cancer Research Laboratory, University Hospital Research Center (CPE-HCPA), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Laboratory of Neuropharmacology and Neural Tumor Biology, Department of Pharmacology, Institute for Basic Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90050-170 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); National Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM), 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Abujamra, Ana Lucia [Cancer Research Laboratory, University Hospital Research Center (CPE-HCPA), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Children' s Cancer Institute, 90420-140 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); National Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM), 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Schwartsmann, Gilberto [Cancer Research Laboratory, University Hospital Research Center (CPE-HCPA), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); National Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM), 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); and others

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDNF protected HT-29 colorectal cancer cells from the antitumor effect of cetuximab. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TrkB inhibition potentiated the antitumor effect of cetuximab. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDNF/TrkB signaling might be involved in resistance to anti-EGFR therapy. -- Abstract: The clinical success of targeted treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) is often limited by resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB have recently emerged as anticancer targets, and we have previously shown increased BDNF levels in CRC tumor samples. Here we report the findings from in vitro experiments suggesting that BDNF/TrkB signaling can protect CRC cells from the antitumor effects of EGFR blockade. The anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab reduced both cell proliferation and the mRNA expression of BDNF and TrkB in human HT-29 CRC cells. The inhibitory effect of cetuximab on cell proliferation and survival was counteracted by the addition of human recombinant BDNF. Finally, the Trk inhibitor K252a synergistically enhanced the effect of cetuximab on cell proliferation, and this effect was blocked by BDNF. These results provide the first evidence that increased BDNF/TrkB signaling might play a role in resistance to EGFR blockade. Moreover, it is possible that targeting TrkB could potentiate the anticancer effects of anti-EGFR therapy.

  13. Peripheral leukocyte expression of the potential biomarker proteins Bdnf, Sirt1, and Psen1 is not regulated by promoter methylation in Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboni, Lucia; Lattanzio, Francesca; Candeletti, Sanzio; Porcellini, Elisa; Raschi, Elena; Licastro, Federico; Romualdi, Patrizia

    2015-09-25

    The identification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers is crucial to support drug discovery. Within putative biomarkers, peripheral Bdnf levels correlate with cognitive decline and AD, although conflicting findings are reported. Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) serum levels are lower in AD patients and Presenilin 1 (Psen1) is expressed by blood cells. DNA methylation is altered in AD patients, suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms play a role in AD pathophysiology. The objective of this study was to investigate promoter methylation levels of potential biomarkers in AD cases and controls. Peripheral blood DNA methylation levels were analysed by methylation-specific primer real-time PCR. Bdnf promoter methylation levels did not differ between AD patients and controls. Similarly, Sirt1 promoter revealed minimal levels of methylation which did not display significant differences between groups. No significant difference was revealed between AD patients and controls also in Psen1 methylation, showing a large variability of values among subjects. Although peripheral Bdnf expression is associated with differential promoter methylation in psychiatric and neurological disorders, our results suggest that different mechanisms take place in AD. The finding that the control of Sirt1 protein levels in blood is not exerted through the repression of mRNA expression by promoter hypermethylation is in agreement with previous data. In contrast, other studies reported that Psen1 methylation may be increased or decreased in AD patients, suggesting that additional studies are required. In conclusion, this study shows that peripheral levels of the potential AD biomarker proteins Bdnf, Sirt1, and Psen1 are not regulated by different promoter methylation. PMID:26275347

  14. Blood pressure response to low level static contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallentin, Nils; Jørgensen, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    The present study re-examines the 15% MVC concept, i.e. the existence of a circulatory steady-state in low intensity static contractions below 15% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Mean arterial blood pressure was studied during static endurance contractions of the elbow flexor and extensor...... 0.7) min for elbow extension]. Mean arterial blood pressure exhibited a continuous and progressive increase during the 10% MVC contractions indicating that the 15% MVC concept would not appear to be valid. The terminal blood pressure value recorded at the point of exhaustion in the 10% MVC elbow...... the circulation to the muscles was arrested just prior to the cessation of the contraction, blood pressure only partly recovered and remained elevated for as long as the occlusion persisted, indicating the level of pressure-raising muscle chemoreflexes. Based on blood pressure recordings obtained...

  15. A related study of the type A Behavior, the level of BDNF and hypersensitive C-reactive protein in patients with post stroke depression in acute ischemic stroke%缺血性脑卒中后抑郁患者A型行为、BDNF和超敏C反应蛋白的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游林林; 吴爱勤

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the type A behavior, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in serum in patients with post stroke depression (PSD) ,and explore the correlation between them.Methods The HAMD-17 was used to assess the severity of depressive symptoms in patients with stroke (n=116).TABP,Social Support Scale, MMSE, NIHSS,mRS and BI were measured in PSD group(n=36) and non PSD group(NPSD group, n=80);fast blooding samples were analyzed with BDNF and hs-CRP in patients with PSD group, NPSD group and healthy controls (NC group).Results (1) The incidence of acute PSD was 31.03%.(2)The constituent ratio of type A behavior(83.33% vs 57.50%), CH scores, TH +CH scores were significantly higher in PSD group than NPSD group(P<0.01).Social Support Scale scores,MMSE scores were significantly lower in PSD group than NPSD group(P<0.01, P<0.05).NIHSS scores,mRS scores were significantly higher in PSD group than NPSD group, BI scores were significantly lower(P<0.01).(3) The levels of serum BDNF,hs-CRP in the PSD group,the NPSD group and the normal control group were respectively (BDNF (617.24(274.98,976.22)) pg/ml, (938.19(615.88,1 714.76)) pg/ml, (4 149.46(1 658.83,7 583.34)) pg/ml);(hs-CRP(6.47(2.66,11.21)) mg/L, 1.77(0.74,6.51) mg/L, (0.86(0.47,1.59)) mg/L).The BDNF levels of PSD group were significantly lower and hs-CRP levels were significantly higher than NPSD group (P<0.01).(4) The severity of depression was positively correlated with CH,TH+CH scores(r=0.38, P<0.05;r=0.43, P<0.01).CH scores were negatively correlated with social support(r=-0.38, P<0.05),and were positively correlated with hs-CRP levels(r=0.34, P<0.05).Conclusion In patients with post stroke depression,the BDNF levels decrease and hs-CRP levels increase,but severity of depression and cognitive function are not correlated with BDNF levels.Hostility and competition(CH) are correlated with the increasing hs-CRP levels

  16. Relationship of blood lead levels to obstetric outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angell, N.F.; Lavery, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Lead represents a significant environmental hazard to pregnant women and their offspring. Exposure to high environmental levels of lead has been associated with spontaneous abortion, premature rupture of fetal membranes (PROM), and preterm delivery. The relationship between lower exposures and obstetric complications is unknown. The concentration of lead in the blood was measured in 635 specimens of umbilical cord blood collected at delivery. No relationship was found between concentrations of lead in cord blood and the incidence of PROM, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, or meconium staining. Maternal and infant capillary blood was collected 24 hours post partum from 154 of these deliveries. The concentrations of lead in the blood did not vary significantly among cord, infant, and maternal samples, and the three measurements were highly correlated. Levels of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnP) were increased in cord blood as compared with mothers' blood, but no concentration-response relationships between the ratio of cord ZnP to maternal ZnP and lead were found.

  17. Association of low-level blood lead and blood pressure in NHANES 1999–2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated whether low blood-lead levels (≤10 μg/dL) were associated with blood pressure (BP) outcomes. The authors analyzed data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2006 and participants aged 20 years or older. Outcome variables were systolic and diastolic BP measurements, pulse pressure, and hypertension status. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions stratified by race/ethnicity and gender were performed. Blood lead levels (BLL) were significantly correlated with higher systolic BP among black men and women, but not white or Mexican–American participants. BLLs were significantly associated with higher diastolic BPs among white men and women and black men, whereas, a negative association was observed in Mexican–American men that had, also, a wider pulse pressure. Black men in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL≥3.50 μg/dL) compared to black men in the 10th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL≤0.7 μg/dL) had a significant increase of risk of having hypertension (adjusted POR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.08–6.72). In addition, blood cadmium was significantly associated with hypertension and systolic and diastolic blood. This study found that, despite the continuous decline in blood lead in the U.S. population, lead exposure disparities among race and gender still exist.

  18. Redox balance and blood elemental levels in atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napoleao, P. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental and Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal) and Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. no 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: pnapoleao@itn.pt; Lopes, P.A. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental and Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Santos, M. [Centro de Quimica e Bioquimica and Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Steghens, J.-P. [Federation de Biochimie, Hopital Edouard Herriot, 3 Place d' Arsonval, 69437 03 Lyon (France); Viegas-Crespo, A.M. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental and Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Pinheiro, T. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. no 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz, 1700 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2006-08-15

    Oxidation of lipids and proteins represents a causative event for atherogenesis, which can be opposed by antioxidant activity. Elements, such as, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se can be involved in both mechanisms. Thus, evaluation of blood elemental levels, easily detected by PIXE, and of redox parameters may be useful in assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. A group of stable patients suffering from atherosclerosis, was matched with a cohort of normo-tensive and -lipidemic volunteers. Although no major discrepancies were observed for trace elemental levels in blood, increased concentrations of K and Ca were found in atherosclerotic group. Patients presented enhance levels of antioxidant ({alpha}-tocopherol) and decreased of protein oxidation (protein carbonyls), while for the lipid oxidation marker (malondialdehyde) no variation was observed. This study contributes to a better understanding of atherosclerosis development and its relationship with blood elemental levels, and set basis for further clinical trials with pathological groups in acute phase.

  19. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD). Renal imaging. Concepts and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many renal diseases as well as several pharmacons cause a change in renal blood flow and/or renal oxygenation. The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging takes advantage of local field inhomogeneities and is based on a T2*-weighted sequence. BOLD is a non-invasive method allowing an estimation of the renal, particularly the medullary oxygenation, and an indirect measurement of blood flow without administration of contrast agents. Thus, effects of different drugs on the kidney and various renal diseases can be controlled and observed. This work will provide an overview of the studies carried out so far and identify ways how BOLD can be used in clinical studies. (orig.)

  20. Maternal blood metal levels and fetal markers of metabolic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to metals commonly found in the environment has been hypothesized to be associated with measures of fetal growth but the epidemiological literature is limited. The Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study recruited 2001 women during the first trimester of pregnancy from 10 Canadian sites. Our objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to metals (lead, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury) and fetal metabolic function. Average maternal metal concentrations in 1st and 3rd trimester blood samples were used to represent prenatal metals exposure. Leptin and adiponectin were measured in 1363 cord blood samples and served as markers of fetal metabolic function. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between metals and both high (≥90%) and low (≤10%) fetal adiponectin and leptin levels. Leptin levels were significantly higher in female infants compared to males. A significant relationship between maternal blood cadmium and odds of high leptin was observed among males but not females in adjusted models. When adjusting for birth weight z-score, lead was associated with an increased odd of high leptin. No other significant associations were found at the top or bottom 10th percentile in either leptin or adiponectin models. This study supports the proposition that maternal levels of cadmium influence cord blood adipokine levels in a sex-dependent manner. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and to determine how such findings at birth will translate into childhood anthropometric measures. - Highlights: • We determined relationships between maternal metal levels and cord blood adipokines. • Cord blood leptin levels were higher among female than male infants. • Maternal cadmium was associated with elevated leptin in male, not female infants. • No significant associations were observed between metals and

  1. Maternal blood metal levels and fetal markers of metabolic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian [Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Dodds, Linda, E-mail: l.dodds@dal.ca [Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Arbuckle, Tye E. [Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Ettinger, Adrienne S. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Shapiro, Gabriel D. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Fisher, Mandy [Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Taback, Shayne [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Bouchard, Maryse F. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Monnier, Patricia [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Dallaire, Renee [Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Fraser, William D. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Exposure to metals commonly found in the environment has been hypothesized to be associated with measures of fetal growth but the epidemiological literature is limited. The Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study recruited 2001 women during the first trimester of pregnancy from 10 Canadian sites. Our objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to metals (lead, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury) and fetal metabolic function. Average maternal metal concentrations in 1st and 3rd trimester blood samples were used to represent prenatal metals exposure. Leptin and adiponectin were measured in 1363 cord blood samples and served as markers of fetal metabolic function. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between metals and both high (≥90%) and low (≤10%) fetal adiponectin and leptin levels. Leptin levels were significantly higher in female infants compared to males. A significant relationship between maternal blood cadmium and odds of high leptin was observed among males but not females in adjusted models. When adjusting for birth weight z-score, lead was associated with an increased odd of high leptin. No other significant associations were found at the top or bottom 10th percentile in either leptin or adiponectin models. This study supports the proposition that maternal levels of cadmium influence cord blood adipokine levels in a sex-dependent manner. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and to determine how such findings at birth will translate into childhood anthropometric measures. - Highlights: • We determined relationships between maternal metal levels and cord blood adipokines. • Cord blood leptin levels were higher among female than male infants. • Maternal cadmium was associated with elevated leptin in male, not female infants. • No significant associations were observed between metals and

  2. Systemic delivery of recombinant brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Giampà

    Full Text Available Loss of huntingtin-mediated BDNF gene transcription has been shown to occur in HD and thus contribute to the degeneration of the striatum. Several studies have indicated that an increase in BDNF levels is associated with neuroprotection and amelioration of neurological signs in animal models of HD. In a recent study, an increase in BDNF mRNA and protein levels was recorded in mice administered recombinant BDNF peripherally. Chronic, indwelling osmotic mini-pumps containing either recombinant BDNF or saline were surgically placed in R6/2 or wild-type mice from 4 weeks of age until euthanasia. Neurological evaluation (paw clasping, rotarod performance, locomotor activity in an open field was performed. After transcardial perfusion, histological and immunohistochemical studies were performed. We found that BDNF- treated R6/2 mice survived longer and displayed less severe signs of neurological dysfunction than the vehicle treated ones. Primary outcome measures such as brain volume, striatal atrophy, size and morphology of striatal neurons, neuronal intranuclear inclusions and microglial reaction confirmed a neuroprotective effect of the compound. BDNF was effective in increasing significantly the levels of activated CREB and of BDNF the striatal spiny neurons. Moreover, systemically administered BDNF increased the synthesis of BDNF as demonstrated by RT-PCR, and this might account for the beneficial effects observed in this model.

  3. BDNF mediates improvements in executive function following a 1-year exercise intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Lynn Leckie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Executive function declines with age, but engaging in aerobic exercise may attenuate decline. One mechanism by which aerobic exercise may preserve executive function is through the up-regulation of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF, which also declines with age. The present study examined BDNF as a mediator of the effects of a 1-year walking intervention on executive function in 90 older adults (mean age = 66.82. Participants were randomized to a stretching and toning control group or a moderate intensity walking intervention group. BDNF serum levels and performance on a task-switching paradigm were collected at baseline and follow-up. We found that age moderated the effect of intervention group on changes in BDNF levels, with those in the highest age quartile showing the greatest increase in BDNF after 1-year of moderate intensity walking exercise (p = .036. The mediation analyses revealed that BDNF mediated the effect of the intervention on task-switch accuracy, but did so as a function of age, such that exercise-induced changes in BDNF mediated the effect of exercise on task-switch performance only for individuals over the age of 71. These results demonstrate that both age and BDNF serum levels are important factors to consider when investigating the mechanisms by which exercise interventions influence cognitive outcomes, particularly in elderly populations.

  4. BDNF mediates improvements in executive function following a 1-year exercise intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckie, Regina L; Oberlin, Lauren E; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika S; Szabo-Reed, Amanda; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Phillips, Siobhan M; Gothe, Neha P; Mailey, Emily; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Martin, Stephen A; Pence, Brandt D; Lin, Mingkuan; Parasuraman, Raja; Greenwood, Pamela M; Fryxell, Karl J; Woods, Jeffrey A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F; Erickson, Kirk I

    2014-01-01

    Executive function declines with age, but engaging in aerobic exercise may attenuate decline. One mechanism by which aerobic exercise may preserve executive function is through the up-regulation of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), which also declines with age. The present study examined BDNF as a mediator of the effects of a 1-year walking intervention on executive function in 90 older adults (mean age = 66.82). Participants were randomized to a stretching and toning control group or a moderate intensity walking intervention group. BDNF serum levels and performance on a task-switching paradigm were collected at baseline and follow-up. We found that age moderated the effect of intervention group on changes in BDNF levels, with those in the highest age quartile showing the greatest increase in BDNF after 1-year of moderate intensity walking exercise (p = 0.036). The mediation analyses revealed that BDNF mediated the effect of the intervention on task-switch accuracy, but did so as a function of age, such that exercise-induced changes in BDNF mediated the effect of exercise on task-switch performance only for individuals over the age of 71. These results demonstrate that both age and BDNF serum levels are important factors to consider when investigating the mechanisms by which exercise interventions influence cognitive outcomes, particularly in elderly populations. PMID:25566019

  5. Benzonidazole levels in blood vary with age in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulffer, Romina Fernanda; Castro, José Alberto; Fanelli, Silvia Laura

    2011-05-01

    Benznidazole (Bz) exhibits toxic side effects in animal studies and clinical use. Reductive metabolism of Bz in liver microsomes modulates the duration of its chemotherapeutic effect and its toxicity. The rate of this metabolism depends on age and is less intense in newborns and youngsters than in adults. In the present study, we determined Bz blood levels in rats of different ages that received Bz intragastrically (100 mg/kg). We developed and validated a high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detector method for determination of Bz levels in whole blood. Bz levels were significantly higher and persisted for longer periods of time in the blood of young rats when compared to that of adult animals. PMID:21655830

  6. Benznidazole levels in blood vary with age in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Fernanda Bulffer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Benznidazole (Bz exhibits toxic side effects in animal studies and clinical use. Reductive metabolism of Bz in liver microsomes modulates the duration of its chemotherapeutic effect and its toxicity. The rate of this metabolism depends on age and is less intense in newborns and youngsters than in adults. In the present study, we determined Bz blood levels in rats of different ages that received Bz intragastrically (100 mg/kg. We developed and validated a high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detector method for determination of Bz levels in whole blood. Bz levels were significantly higher and persisted for longer periods of time in the blood of young rats when compared to that of adult animals.

  7. THE STUDY OF DEFERRED BLOOD DONORS AT TERTIARY LEVEL HOSPITAL BASED BLOOD BANK OF SOUTH GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pre - donation donor screening is must for the safety of the blood donor and recipient. Deferrals lead to loss of precious whole blood donors and blood units available for transfusion purposes. AIM: T o record and document the current rate and reasons for donor deferral in our tertiary care hospital based blood bank to modify recruitment strategy for blood donors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study was conducted by retrospective data analysis of whole blood donors ( V oluntary/ R eplacement , arrived for donating bloo d at blood bank and in outdoor camps , during the period 1 st July 2010 to 30 th June 2014. The donor selection was done by pre - donation screening tests like questionnaire followed by physical examination and haemoglobin estimation. National guidelines were used for selection and deferral of donors. The deferred donor’s data was analyzed statistically. RESULT: Out of 34380 blood donors who came to donate blood, 31049 (89 . 63 %, out of which 97 . 51 % voluntary donors were eligible for d onation and 3331 (10 . 37% blood donors were deferred. The deferral rate among male population 7 . 47% and female population 42 . 09% were observed. Odds ratio for deferral in female donors was 8 . 99, implying thereby that chance of deferral in females is nearly 9 times higher as compared to males. The five leading causes for male donor deferral were low haemoglobin, hypertension, medication, and malaria & alcohol intake in last 48 hours & for the female donor deferral were low haemoglobin, menstruation, medication, low weight & hypotension. CONCLUSIONS: Studying the frequency and the different causes of donor deferral will help to identify sections of the population which could be targeted for increasing and retaining of the existing pool of voluntary blood donors and also to guide and provide the necessary essential database for the policy design and programme implementation at local, regional, and national level.

  8. Regulation of BDNF Expression by Cocaine

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Deirdre M.; Brown, Amber N.; Bhide, Pradeep G.

    2012-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors. It is expressed throughout the nervous system. A unique feature of the BDNF gene is the existence of multiple mRNA transcripts, all of which are translated into BDNF protein, suggesting a multilevel regulation of expression. In particular, the BDNF exon IV promoter region is a preferential target for epigenetic alterations, as it contains binding sites for CREB and MeCP2, two transcriptional reg...

  9. Study of blood pressure and blood sugar levels in adolescence and comparison with body mass index

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin Borade; Gauri Shashank Kadam; Gayatri Bhide; Ram Dhongade

    2011-01-01

    Background: Worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and its consequences prompted the WHO to designate obesity as a global epidemic in 2002. Being overweight is a risk factor for significant illness, especially diabetes and hypertension in adult life. Objectives : To study the blood pressure and blood sugar levels and lifestyle parameters in adolescence and comparison with body mass index. Materials and Methods: In a prospective case control study, out of the 1000 screene...

  10. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is not regulated by testosterone in transmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Matthias K; Hellweg, Rainer; Briken, Peer; Stalla, Günter K; T'Sjoen, Guy; Fuss, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Brain morphology significantly differs between the sexes. It has been shown before that some of these differences are attributable to the sex-specific hormonal milieu. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in myriads of neuroplastic processes and shows a sexual dimorphism. Transsexual persons may serve as a model to study sex steroid-mediated effects on brain plasticity. We have recently demonstrated that serum levels of BDNF are reduced in transwomen following 12 months of cross-sex hormone treatment. We now wanted to look at the effects of testosterone treatment on BDNF in transmen. In contrast to our initial hypothesis, BDNF levels did not significantly change, despite dramatic changes in the sex-hormonal milieu. Our data indicate that testosterone does not seem to play a major role in the regulation of BDNF in females. PMID:26753091

  11. Selective DNA Methylation of BDNF Promoter in Bipolar Disorder: Differences Among Patients with BDI and BDII

    OpenAIRE

    D'Addario, Claudio; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Palazzo, Maria Carlotta; Benatti, Beatrice; Lietti, Licia; Cattaneo, Elisabetta; Galimberti, Daniela; Fenoglio, Chiara; Cortini, Francesca; Scarpini, Elio; Arosio, Beatrice; Di Francesco, Andrea; Di Benedetto, Manuela; Romualdi, Patrizia; Candeletti, Sanzio

    2012-01-01

    The etiology of bipolar disorder (BD) is still poorly understood, involving genetic and epigenetic mechanisms as well as environmental contributions. This study aimed to investigate the degree of DNA methylation at the promoter region of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, as one of the candidate genes associated with major psychoses, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from 94 patients with BD (BD I=49, BD II=45) and 52 healthy controls. A significant BDNF gene expr...

  12. Blood lipid levels and prostate cancer risk; a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Roermund, van J.G.H.; Aben, K.K.H.; Heijer, den M.; Swinkels, D.W.; Kampman, E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that blood lipid levels might be associated with prostate cancer risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and prost

  13. Blood and Brain Glutamate Levels in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Tamer H.; Abdelrahman, Hadeel M.; Fattah, Nelly R. Abdel; El-Masry, Nagda M.; Hashim, Haitham M.; El-Gerby, Khaled M.; Fattah, Nermin R. Abdel

    2013-01-01

    Despite of the great efforts that move forward to clarify the pathophysiologic mechanisms in autism, the cause of this disorder, however, remains largely unknown. There is an increasing body of literature concerning neurochemical contributions to the pathophysiology of autism. We aimed to determine blood and brain levels of glutamate in children…

  14. Chronic unpredictable stress decreases expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in mouse ovaries: relationship to oocytes developmental potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Min Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF was originally described in the nervous system but has been shown to be expressed in ovary tissues recently, acting as a paracrine/autocrine regulator required for developments of follicles and oocytes. Although it is generally accepted that chronic stress impairs female reproduction and decreases the expression of BDNF in limbic structures of central nervous system, which contributes to mood disorder. However, it is not known whether chronic stress affects oocytes developments, nor whether it affects expression of BDNF in ovary. METHODS: Mice were randomly assigned into control group, stressed group, BDNF-treated group and BDNF-treated stressed group. The chronic unpredictable mild stress model was used to produce psychosocial stress in mice, and the model was verified by open field test and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity. The methods of immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to detect BDNF protein level and distribution. The number of retrieved oocytes, oocyte maturation, embryo cleavage and the rates of blastocyst formation after parthenogenetic activation were evaluated. RESULTS: Chronic unpredictable stress decreased the BDNF expression in antral follicles, but didn't affect the BDNF expression in primordial, primary and secondary follicles. Chronic unpredictable stress also decreased the number of retrieved oocytes and the rate of blastocyst formation, which was rescued by exogenous BDNF treatment. CONCLUSION: BDNF in mouse ovaries may be related to the decreased number of retrieved oocytes and impaired oocytes developmental potential induced by chronic unpredictable stress.

  15. The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the development of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Bárbara; Santos, João; Morgado, Marlene; Sousa, Mónica Mendes; Gray, Susannah M Y; McCloskey, Karen D; Allen, Shelley; Cruz, Francisco; Cruz, Célia Duarte

    2015-02-01

    Neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) is a well known consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI), recognizable after spinal shock, during which the bladder is areflexic. NDO emergence and maintenance depend on profound plastic changes of the spinal neuronal pathways regulating bladder function. It is well known that neurotrophins (NTs) are major regulators of such changes. NGF is the best-studied NT in the bladder and its role in NDO has already been established. Another very abundant neurotrophin is BDNF. Despite being shown that, acting at the spinal cord level, BDNF is a key mediator of bladder dysfunction and pain during cystitis, it is presently unclear if it is also important for NDO. This study aimed to clarify this issue. Results obtained pinpoint BDNF as an important regulator of NDO appearance and maintenance. Spinal BDNF expression increased in a time-dependent manner together with NDO emergence. In chronic SCI rats, BDNF sequestration improved bladder function, indicating that, at later stages, BDNF contributes NDO maintenance. During spinal shock, BDNF sequestration resulted in early development of bladder hyperactivity, accompanied by increased axonal growth of calcitonin gene-related peptide-labeled fibers in the dorsal horn. Chronic BDNF administration inhibited the emergence of NDO, together with reduction of axonal growth, suggesting that BDNF may have a crucial role in bladder function after SCI via inhibition of neuronal sprouting. These findings highlight the role of BDNF in NDO and may provide a significant contribution to create more efficient therapies to manage SCI patients. PMID:25653370

  16. Blood hemoglobin level and treatment outcome of early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, M.; Sindlinger, F. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Radiological Univ. Clinic, Freiburg (Germany); Ikenberg, H. [Dept. of Gynecology and Obstretics, Gynecological Univ. Clinic, Freiburg (Germany); Gerds, T.; Schumacher, M. [Inst. for Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, Univ. Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: to determine whether the blood hemoglobin concentration correlates with the prognosis of patients with early breast cancer and, if so, whether this is restricted to treatment modality. Patients and methods: data were collected retrospectively from patients with early breast cancer (T1,2 NO-2 MO) who underwent either breast-conserving surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (BCS-RT; n = 96) or a modified radical mastectomy (MRM; n = 194). The effect of preoperative blood hemoglobin level, nodal status, histological grading and hormone receptor status on disease-free survival was determined for both treatment modalities using a cox regression model and visualized by kaplan-meier plots. Results: the blood hemoglobin concentration significantly correlated with disease-free survival of patients receiving BCS-RT (relative risk [RR]: 0.67 per g/dl; p = 0.007). This was independent of other known risk factors for breast cancer patients, as determined by multivariate analysis. By contrast, the blood hemoglobin level had no prognostic significance when patients were treated with MRM. Conclusion: blood hemoglobin concentration seems to affect the prognosis of patients with early breast cancer when a treatment schedule that includes radiotherapy is applied. Reduced radiosensitivity due to diminished tumor oxygenation may be the underlying cause. Confirmative trials and studies intended to elucidate the underlying mechanism are warranted. (orig.)

  17. Localization of BDNF mRNA with the Huntington's disease protein in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Moses V

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have implicated reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease. Mutant huntingtin (Htt protein was previously reported to decrease BDNF gene transcription and axonal transport of BDNF. We recently showed that wild-type Htt is associated with the Argonaute 2 microRNA-processing enzyme involved in gene silencing. In dendrites, Htt co-localizes with components of neuronal granules and mRNAs, indicating that it might play a role in post-transcriptional processing/transport of dendritic mRNAs. Results We conducted imaging experiments in cultured cortical neurons to demonstrate the co-localization of endogenous Htt and BDNF mRNA in fixed cells, and co-trafficking of BDNF 3'UTR mRNA with endogenous and fluorescently tagged Htt in live neurons. We used an enhanced technique that combines FISH and immunofluorescent staining to co-localize BDNF mRNA with Htt, Ago2, CPEB and dynein in thick vibratome sections of the rat cortex. Conclusions In cultured neurons and sections of the rat cortex, we found BDNF mRNA associated with Htt and components of neuronal RNA granules, which are centers for regulating RNA transport and local translation. Htt may play a role in post-transcriptional transport/targeting of mRNA for BDNF, thus contributing to neurotrophic support and neuron survival.

  18. Predicting Mortality of Critically Ill Patients by Blood Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Sam Park

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study is to observe the outcome of critically ill patients in relation to blood glucose level at admission and to determine the optimal range of blood glucose at admission predicting lower hospital mortality among critically ill patients.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective cohort study of a total 1,224 subjects (males, 798; females, 426 admitted to intensive care unit (ICU from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2010. Blood glucose levels at admission were categorized into four groups (group 1, <100 mg/dL; group 2, 100 to 199 mg/dL; group 3, 200 to 299 mg/dL; and group 4, ≥300 mg/dL.ResultsAmong 1,224 patients, 319 patients were already known diabetics, and 296 patients died in ICU. Five hundred fifty-seven subjects received insulin therapy, and 118 received oral hypoglycemic agents. The overall mortality rate was 24.2% (296 patients. The causes of death and mortality rates of diabetic patients were not different from nondiabetic subjects. The mortality curve showed J shape, and there were significant differences in mortality between the groups of blood glucose levels at admission. Group 2 had the lowest mortality rate (P<0.05.ConclusionThese results suggest that serum glucose levels upon admission into ICU is associated with clinical outcomes in ICU patients. Blood glucose level between 100 and 199 mg/dL at the time of ICU admission could predict lower hospital mortality among critically ill patients.

  19. Peripheral blood mRNA expressions of stress biomarkers in manic episode and subsequent remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse Çinar, Rugül; Sönmez, Mehmet Bülent; Görgülü, Yasemin

    2016-08-01

    Theoretical models of the neuroprogressive nature of bipolar disorder (BD) are based on the hypothesis that it is an accelerated aging disease, with the allostatic load playing a major role. Glucocorticoids, oxidative stress markers, inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophins play important roles in BD. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were examined in the peripheral blood of 20 adult male, drug-free BD patients during manic and remission periods and in 20 adult male, healthy controls. mRNA expression was measured using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Compared to the controls, the expressions of BDNF and tPA mRNA were down-regulated in mania. In remission, BNDF and tPA mRNA levels increased, but they were still lower than those of the controls. Between mania and remission periods, only the change in mRNA levels of BDNF reached statistical significance. The results suggest that BDNF and tPA may be biomarkers of BD and that proteolytic conversion of BDNF may be important in the pathophysiology of BD. The change in BDNF levels between mania and remission could be adaptive and used to follow the progression of BD. PMID:27138695

  20. Blood pressure load does not add to ambulatory blood pressure level for cardiovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José;

    2014-01-01

    Experts proposed blood pressure (BP) load derived from 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings as a more accurate predictor of outcome than level, in particular in normotensive people. We analyzed 8711 subjects (mean age, 54.8 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations. We expressed BP...

  1. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlstam Erika

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and a 3–4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1 the blood lactate levels of female dogs with pyometra by a hand-held analyser and 2 if these levels are related with the clinical status or other biochemical or hematological disorders. Methods In total 31 female dogs with pyometra admitted for surgical ovariohysterectomy and 16 healthy female control dogs were included in the present study. A complete physical examination including SIRS-status determination was performed. Blood samples for lactate concentrations, hematological and biochemical parameters, acid-base and blood gas analysis and other laboratory parameters were collected and subsequently analysed. The diagnosis pyometra was verified with histopathological examination of the uterus and ovaries. Increased hospitalisation length and presence of SIRS were used as indicators of outcome. Results In the pyometra group the median blood lactate level was 1,6 mmol l-1 (range -1. In the control group the median lactate level was 1,2 mmol l-1 (range -1. Of the 31 bitches 19 (61% fulfilled 2 or more criteria for SIRS at inclusion, 10 bitches (32% fulfilled 3 of the SIRS criteria whereas none accomplished more than 3 criteria. Lactate levels did not differ significantly between the pyometra and control group, or between the SIRS positive and SIRS negative dogs with pyometra. Increased lactate concentration (>2.5 mmol l-1 was demonstrated in one female dog with pyometra (3%, and was not associated with longer hospitalisation or presence of SIRS. Lactate

  2. Levels of chlordane, oxychlordane, and nonachlor in human blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, Yukio; Tomokuni, Katsumaro (Saga Medical School (Japan))

    1991-05-01

    In a previous study, the authors investigated the levels of chlordane, oxychlordane and nonachlor in human adipose tissues. Oxychlordane is one of the metabolites of chlordane in mammals. Nonachlor is one of major components of technical chlordane. They detected the three compounds in all of 24 subjects. Accumulation of nonachlor was higher than that of the other two compounds. In the present study, they investigated the levels of chlordane, oxychlordane and nonachlor in human blood. To elucidate, mainly, the relationships between the levels and age or sex, they randomly selected 240 subjects in consideration of age and sex. The results are described here.

  3. Correlation Between Blood Lead Level and Hemoglobin Level in Mitrovica Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kutllovci-Zogaj, Drita; Krasniqi, Selvete; Elezaj, Isa; Ramadani, Naser; Gjergji, Tahire; Zogaj, Dukagjin; Kutllovci, Arben; Jaka, Arbëresha; Ukëhaxhaj, Antigona; Gashi, Sanije; Bince, Ergyl

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Lead toxicity is a serious health threat, especially in developing countries due to environmental pollution. It was thus aimed to investigate correlation between blood lead level and concentration level of hemoglobin in the blood of children involved in research. Material and methods: The research included 250 children of which 31(12.4%) kindergarten children, 166 (66.4%) of primary school pupils in Mitrovica and 53(21.2%) of primary school pupils in Shtime as control g...

  4. Effects of nitrendipine on blood pressure and blood ciclosporin A level in patients with posttransplant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copur, M S; Tasdemir, I; Turgan, C; Yasavul, U; Caglar, S

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate the antihypertensive effectiveness and interaction with ciclosporin A (CS-A) nitrendipine, a dihydropyridine derivative calcium entry blocking agent, was used in 16 (13 men, 3 women) hypertensive renal posttransplant patients followed by the Nephrology Department of Hacettepe University Hospital. The patients did not receive any antihypertensive drug for a 7-day period. They were then given 20 mg/day nitrendipine for 3 weeks. At the end of this period, mean (+/- SE) supine blood pressure fell from 163/108 +/- 3.6/1.87 to 141/87 +/- 3.8/2.2 mm Hg (p less than 0.01), while the heart rate was unchanged. 14 of 16 patients achieved full control of blood pressure levels with 20 mg/day nitrendipine, and only 2 patients needed a higher dosage of 30 mg/day (20 + 10 mg). After 3 weeks of treatment no significant variations in blood chemistry or renal functional parameters were noticed. There was also no difference between blood CS-A levels before and after treatment with nitrendipine (218.06 +/- 33 vs. 222.68 +/- 26 ng/ml, p greater than 0.05). We conclude that short-term therapy with nitrendipine in renal post-transplant patients does not appear to be harmful and longer term studies are needed to fully evaluate safety and efficacy of this drug. Because it influences neither blood chemistry nor renal functional parameters and blood CS-A level, it may be preferable to other calcium channel blocking agents in this group of patients. PMID:2662047

  5. The Association of BDNF Gene Variants with Behaviour Traits in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon)

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wan-Hong; Guo Jun; Yang Yan; Lv Shen-Jin

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is involved in modulating behaviour performance induced by environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to study polymorphisms of the BDNF gene and their relationship with animal behaviour in sika deer (Cervus nippon). About 48 sika deer reared under Ping-Shan-Tang Farm (25 deers) and Zhu-Yu-Wan Park (23 deers), Yangzhou City, Jiangsu province, China were observed and blood samples taken to identify BDNF genotypes. Dat...

  6. Assessments of blood lead levels in children with febrile convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Khosravi, Nastaran; Izadi, Anahita; Noorbakhsh, Samileh; Javadinia, Shima; Tabatabaei, Azardokht; Ashouri, Sarvenaz; Asgarian, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lead elements have an adverse effect on human health. The most important complications of lead poisoning are disorders of nervous system particularly seizure .This study aimed to evaluate the blood lead levels and its association with convulsion in a group of hospitalized febrile children. Methods: In this analytic cross-sectional study, 60 hospitalized febrile children with 1- 60 month old participated in the study via non-probability convenience sampling method. All of the infor...

  7. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and blood glucose levels during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Candace A.; Peck, Jennifer D.; Stoner, Julie; Calafat, Antonia M.; Carabin, Hélène; Cowan, Linda; Goodman, Jean R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine associations between phthalate metabolite urinary concentrations during early pregnancy and blood glucose levels obtained at the time of screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Upon initiation of prenatal care, women with a mean gestational age of 12.8 weeks were recruited for a study of environmental chemical exposures (n = 110) and provided a spot urinary specimen. Blood glucose concentrations (mg/dl) were obtained from the electronic medical record for those patients who did not experience a pregnancy loss and did not transfer care to another facility prior to glucose screening (n = 72). Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites and creatinine were measured at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Associations between tertiles of phthalate metabolites concentrations and blood glucose levels were estimated using linear regression. Results Compared to pregnant women in the lowest concentration tertile, women with the highest urinary concentrations (≥3rd tertile) of mono-iso-butyl phthalate (tertile: ≥15.3 μg/l, β = −18.3, 95% CI: −35.4, −1.2) and monobenzyl phthalate (tertile: ≥30.3 μg/l, β = −17.3, 95% CI: −34.1, −0.4) had lower blood glucose levels at the time of GDM screening after adjustment for urinary creatinine and demographic covariates. Conclusion Because maternal glucose levels increase during pregnancy to provide adequate nutrition for fetal growth and development, these findings may have implications for fetal health. However, given the limitations of our study, findings should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:25726127

  8. Regular Breakfast and Blood Lead Levels among Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Needleman Herbert; Shen Xiaoming; Yan Chonghuai; Compher Charlene; McCauley Linda; Liu Jianghong; Pinto-Martin Jennifer A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that fasting increases lead absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of adults. Regular meals/snacks are recommended as a nutritional intervention for lead poisoning in children, but epidemiological evidence of links between fasting and blood lead levels (B-Pb) is rare. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between eating a regular breakfast and B-Pb among children using data from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study. Methods P...

  9. Using statistical quality control techniques to monitor blood glucose levels.

    OpenAIRE

    Oniki, T. A.; Clemmer, T. P.; Arthur, L. K.; Linford, L. H.

    1995-01-01

    Continuous Quality Improvement techniques developed in industry are increasingly being applied to the medical field. Statistical process control charts are a CQI technique aimed at monitoring a process and its variability. At our hospital, statistical quality control charts are being constructed from laboratory blood glucose measurements of patients receiving enteral or parenteral nutrition. The charts will be used to monitor glucose levels, reveal variations, and illustrate the effects of ne...

  10. Association between blood cadmium levels and malnutrition in peritoneal dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Ching-Wei; Lin, Ja-Liang; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Huang, Wen-Hung; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2014-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death and may cause protein-energy wasting in individuals with chronic kidney disease. A previous study demonstrated that blood cadmium levels (BCLs) were associated with malnutrition in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. However, the correlation between cadmium exposure and malnutrition remains unclear in chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) patients. This study examined the possible adverse effects of environm...

  11. Cognitive dysfunction and epigenetic alterations of the BDNF gene are induced by social isolation during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; Du, Wei; Shao, Feng; Wang, Weiwen

    2016-10-15

    Early life adversity, such as social isolation, causes a variety of changes to the development of cognitive abilities and the nervous system. Increasing evidence has shown that epigenetic modifications mediate gene-environment interactions throughout the lifespan. In this study, we investigated the effect of adolescent social isolation on cognitive behaviours and epigenetic alterations of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either group-reared or isolation-reared conditions during post-natal days (PNDs) 21-34. On PND 56, all rats underwent behavioural testing and were then sacrificed for biochemical testing. Adolescent social isolation induced impaired PPI. Regarding BDNF, the isolation-reared rats demonstrated increased BDNF mRNA levels, H3 acetylation at the BDNF gene and BDNF protein expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In contrast, the BDNF mRNA levels, H3 acetylation of the BDNF gene and BDNF protein expression were decreased in the hippocampus of the isolation-reared rats. The present study indicated that epigenetic regulation of BDNF may be one of the molecular mechanisms that mediated the cognitive dysfunction. Moreover, the interaction between the mPFC and hippocampus might play an important role in the regulation of cognitive behaviour. PMID:27435421

  12. Beta-endorphin levels in blood from selected Alaskan mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzmann, A W; Flynn, A; Schwartz, C C; Calkins, D G; Nichols, L

    1981-10-01

    Blood samples were analyzed for beta-endorphin from 43 non-torpid black bear (Ursus americanus), 8 torpid black bear, 3 non-torpid brown bear (Ursus arctos), 14 moose (Alces alces), 6 mountain goats (Oreamnus americanus) and 30 Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Beta-endorphin levels were detected in all species sampled and there were no significant differences in levels among non-torpid black bear, brown bear and sea lions. Also, no differences were detected between moose and mountain goats, but all other comparisons were significantly different (P less than 0.001). Torpid black bear had higher levels than all other groups. Moose and mountain goats had the lowest levels. The possibility of beta-endorphin influencing behavior and physiology of mammals is discussed. PMID:6279890

  13. Regulation of BDNF expression by cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Deirdre M; Brown, Amber N; Bhide, Pradeep G

    2012-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors. It is expressed throughout the nervous system. A unique feature of the BDNF gene is the existence of multiple mRNA transcripts, all of which are translated into BDNF protein, suggesting a multilevel regulation of expression. In particular, the BDNF exon IV promoter region is a preferential target for epigenetic alterations, as it contains binding sites for CREB and MeCP2, two transcriptional regulators known to mediate epigenetic changes. Exposure to drugs of abuse is known to modulate epigenetic regulation of BDNF gene expression. This review will discuss how exposure to cocaine, one of the most addictive drugs known to mankind, can produce alterations in BDNF gene expression, especially in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, which lead to alterations in the reward-mediated behaviors involved in addiction. PMID:23239946

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF as a potential mechanism of the effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron T. Piepmeier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature shows that improvements in cognitive performance may be observed following an acute bout of exercise. However, evidence in support of the biological mechanisms of this effect is still limited. Findings from both rodent and human studies suggest brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF as a potential mechanism of the effect of acute exercise on memory. The molecular properties of BDNF allow this protein to be assessed in the periphery (pBDNF (i.e., blood serum, blood plasma, making measurements of acute exercise-induced changes in BDNF concentration relatively accessible. Studies exploring the acute exercise–pBDNF–cognitive performance relationship have had mixed findings, but this may be more reflective of methodological differences between studies than it is a statement about the role of BDNF. For example, significant associations have been observed between acute exercise-induced changes in pBDNF concentration and cognitive performance in studies assessing memory, and non-significant associations have been found in studies assessing non-memory cognitive domains. Three suggestions are made for future research aimed at understanding the role of BDNF as a biological mechanism of this relationship: 1 Assessments of cognitive performance may benefit from a focus on various types of memory (e.g., relational, spatial, long-term; 2 More fine-grained measurements of pBDNF will allow for the assessment of concentrations of specific isoforms of the BDNF protein (i.e., immature, mature; 3 Statistical techniques designed to test the mediating role of pBDNF in the acute exercise-cognitive performance relationship should be utilized in order to make causal inferences.

  15. Correlation Between Blood Lead Level and Hemoglobin Level in Mitrovica Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutllovci-Zogaj, Drita; Krasniqi, Selvete; Elezaj, Isa; Ramadani, Naser; Gjergji, Tahire; Zogaj, Dukagjin; Kutllovci, Arben; Jaka, Arbëresha; Ukëhaxhaj, Antigona; Gashi, Sanije; Bince, Ergyl

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Lead toxicity is a serious health threat, especially in developing countries due to environmental pollution. It was thus aimed to investigate correlation between blood lead level and concentration level of hemoglobin in the blood of children involved in research. Material and methods: The research included 250 children of which 31(12.4%) kindergarten children, 166 (66.4%) of primary school pupils in Mitrovica and 53(21.2%) of primary school pupils in Shtime as control group. From the 250 children included in the survey 129 or 51.6% were female children and 48.4% male children. Children were selected randomly, while tests for concentration of Pb and blood hemoglobin were done at the National Institute of Public Health. Results: The average value of blood lead level of Mitrovica pupils was 2.4 µg/dL (SD±1.9µg/dL), range 0.5 to 16.3µg/dL. The average value of blood lead level of Shtime pupils was 2.3µg/dL (SD±0.7µg/dL), range 1.2 to 5.2 µg/dL with no statistical difference (P = 0.191). The average value of blood lead level in kindergarten children of Mitrovica was 3.8µg/dL (SD±1.3µg/dL), range 2.2 to 7.7µg/dL with significant difference between the average values of blood lead levels of pupils and kindergarten children of Mitrovica (P <0.0001). The average value of hemoglobin in the pupils of Mitrovica was 14.0g/dL(SD± 3.7g/dL), range 9.4 to 25.6 g/dL. The average value of hemoglobin to pupils of Shtime was 11.4g/dl(SD±0.8 g/dl), range 9.2 to 13.0 g/dl with significant difference between mean values of hemoglobin pupils of Mitrovica and Shtime (U ‘= 6440.0, P <0.0001). With Spearman correlation is found significant correlation of a medium scale (r = -0.305, df = 248, p <0.0001) between blood lead levels and hemoglobin level in the blood. PMID:25568564

  16. BDNF is a novel marker of cognitive function in ageing women: the DR's EXTRA Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komulainen, P.; Pedersen, Maria; Hanninen, T.;

    2008-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the key molecules modulating brain plasticity. While low circulating levels of BDNF have been suggested to predispose to Alzheimer's disease, very little data are available on its association with cognitive function in general population. We...... evaluated the association between plasma BDNF levels and cognition in a representative population sample of ageing men and women. The subjects (n=1389) were participants of the Dose-Responses to Exercise Training (DR's EXTRA) Study and represent a random sample of Eastern Finnish people (684 men and 705...... women), 57-79 years of age at baseline of the study. Plasma BDNF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cognitive function was evaluated using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological test battery. Women had a higher mean...

  17. Repeated exposure to sublethal doses of the organophosphorus compound VX activates BDNF expression in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Jose M; Chang, Wenling E; Bah, Mariama J; Wright, Linnzi K M; Saviolakis, George A; Alagappan, Arun; Robison, Christopher L; Shah, Jinesh D; Meyerhoff, James L; Cerasoli, Douglas M; Midboe, Eric G; Lumley, Lucille A

    2012-04-01

    The highly toxic organophosphorus compound VX [O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]methylphosphonate] is an irreversible inhibitor of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Prolonged inhibition of AChE increases endogenous levels of acetylcholine and is toxic at nerve synapses and neuromuscular junctions. We hypothesized that repeated exposure to sublethal doses of VX would affect genes associated with cell survival, neuronal plasticity, and neuronal remodeling, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We examined the time course of BDNF expression in C57BL/6 mouse brain following repeated exposure (1/day × 5 days/week × 2 weeks) to sublethal doses of VX (0.2 LD(50) and 0.4 LD(50)). BDNF messenger RNA expression was significantly (p LD(50) VX exposure. BDNF protein expression, however, was only increased in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. Whether increased BDNF in response to sublethal doses of VX exposure is an adaptive response to prevent cellular damage or a precursor to impending brain damage remains to be determined. If elevated BDNF is an adaptive response, exogenous BDNF may be a potential therapeutic target to reduce the toxic effects of nerve agent exposure. PMID:22240983

  18. Left ventricular dysfunction and blood glycohemoglobin levels in young diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Left ventricular function including regional wall motion (RWM) was evaluated by 99mTc first-pass and equilibrium gated blood pool ventriculography and glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) blood levels determined by a quantitative column technique in 25 young patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus without clinical evidence of heart diesease, and in healthy controls matched for age and sex. Phase analysis revealed abnormal RWM in 19 of 21 diabetic patients. The mean left ventricular global ejection fraction, the mean regional ejection fraction and the mean 1/3 filling fraction were lower and the time to peak ejection, the time to peak filling and the time to peak ejection/cardiac cycle were longer in diabetics than in controls. We found high HbA1c levels in all diabetics. There was no significant difference between patients with and without retinopathy and with and without peripheral neuropathy in terms of left ventricular function and HbA1c levels. (orig.)

  19. BDNF and its TrkB receptor in human fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, Olaf; Hartmann, Sonja; Dongowski, Nicole; Karnati, Srikanth; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline; Härtel, Frauke V; Noll, Thomas; Schnettler, Reinhard; Lips, Katrin Susanne

    2014-09-01

    Fracture healing is a physiological process of repair which proceeds in stages, each characterized by a different predominant tissue in the fracture gap. Matrix reorganization is regulated by cytokines and growth factors. Neurotrophins and their receptors might be of importance to osteoblasts and endothelial cells during fracture healing. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB) during human fracture healing. BDNF and TrkB were investigated in samples from human fracture gaps and cultured cells using RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Endothelial cells and osteoblastic cell lines demonstrated a cytoplasmic staining pattern of BDNF and TrkB in vitro. At the mRNA level, BDNF and TrkB were expressed in the initial and osteoid formation phase of human fracture healing. In the granulation tissue of fracture gap, both proteins--BDNF and TrkB--are concentrated in endothelial and osteoblastic cells at the margins of woven bone suggesting their involvement in the formation of new vessels. There was no evidence of BDNF or TrkB during fracture healing in chondrocytes of human enchondral tissue. Furthermore, BDNF is absent in mature bone. Taken together, BDNF and TrkB are involved in vessel formation and osteogenic processes during human fracture healing. The detection of BDNF and its TrkB receptor during various stages of the bone formation process in human fracture gap tissue were shown for the first time. The current study reveals that both proteins are up-regulated in human osteoblasts and endothelial cells in fracture healing. PMID:24984919

  20. Serum cortisol and BDNF in patients with major depression-effect of yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, G H; Varambally, Shivarama; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Rao, Mukund; Christopher, Rita; Gangadhar, B N

    2016-06-01

    Depression is associated with low serum Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and elevated levels of serum cortisol. Yoga practices have been associated with antidepressant effects, increase in serum BDNF, and reduction in serum cortisol. This study examined the association between serum BDNF and cortisol levels in drug-naïve patients with depression treated with antidepressants, yoga therapy, and both. Fifty-four drug-naïve consenting adult outpatients with Major Depression (32 males) received antidepressants only (n = 16), yoga therapy only (n = 19), or yoga with antidepressants (n = 19). Serum BDNF andcortisol levels were obtained before and after 3 months using a sandwich ELISA method. One-way ANOVA, Chi-square test, and Pearson's correlation tests were used for analysis. The groups were comparable at baseline on most parameters. Significant improvement in depression scores and serum BDNF levels, and reduction in serum cortisol in the yoga groups, have been described in previous reports. A significant negative correlation was observed between change in BDNF (pre-post) and cortisol (pre-post) levels in the yoga-only group (r = -0.59, p = 0.008). In conclusion, yoga may facilitate neuroplasticity through stress reduction in depressed patients. Further studies are needed to confirm the findings and delineate the pathways for these effects. PMID:27174729

  1. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, T; Skoog, [No Value; Oudkerk, M; de Leeuw, FE; de Groot, JC; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  2. Study of blood pressure and blood sugar levels in adolescence and comparison with body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Borade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and its consequences prompted the WHO to designate obesity as a global epidemic in 2002. Being overweight is a risk factor for significant illness, especially diabetes and hypertension in adult life. Objectives : To study the blood pressure and blood sugar levels and lifestyle parameters in adolescence and comparison with body mass index. Materials and Methods: In a prospective case control study, out of the 1000 screened, a total of 200 adolescents were considered out of which 100 were with high body mass index (BMI and the other 100 were with normal BMI. Height, weight, BMI, waist hip ratio (WHR, blood pressure (BP, BSL, and associated risk factors like physical activity, fast food consumption, and computer/television watching were measured and screened. Results and Observations: 109 (54.5% males and 91 (45.5% females were included. Maximum number [90 (45%] of adolescents screened were in the age group of 17-19 years, while 54 (27% and 56 (28% adolescents were in the age group of 10-13 years and 14-16 years, respectively. According to CDC charts 2000, prevalence of overweight was 24% which was double when compared to WHO charts 2007. There was significant difference in prevalence of obesity; according to CDC chart it was 26%, whereas according to WHO chart it was 39%. The difference in blood pressures between cases and controls as per both CDC and WHO charts was found to be statistically significant (P 0.05 with BMI. Conclusion: The adolescents seem to have become heavier owing to environmental influences on growth patterns. So, a consideration should be given to shift the cut-offs for overweight and obesity to higher BMI percentiles if recent growth charts are to be followed. Adolescents with a BMI above the 95 >th percentile (obese are most likely to have obesity-related health risks.

  3. The role of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) in stress-related brain disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Giese, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Evidence has been raised demonstrating the complex outcome of stress on the BDNF system and that the protein is a critical backbone in the functioning and well-being of the central nervous system. Several studies support the “neurotrophin hypothesis of depression”, which postulates that reduced brain levels of BDNF could contribute to atrophy and cell loss as observed in the hippocampus of depressed subjects. However, the precise mechanism underlying this down-regulation has not been fully un...

  4. Effect of voluntary exercise on BDNF/TrkB gene expression and alcohol intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Josefine

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary wheel running is rewarding and believed to activate the same brain reward system as in alcohol and drug addiction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a well-known growth factor widely expressed in the brain, is modulated by both voluntary exercise and alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate how voluntary exercise affects the expression levels of BDNF and its receptor TrkB in brain regions involved in positive and negative reinforcement. Additionally we want...

  5. Comparative Effect of Treadmill Exercise on Mature BDNF Production in Control versus Stroke Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Quirié, Aurore; Hervieu, Marie; Garnier, Philippe; Demougeot, Céline; Mossiat, Claude; Bertrand, Nathalie; Martin, Alain; Marie, Christine; Prigent-Tessier, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Physical exercise constitutes an innovative strategy to treat deficits associated with stroke through the promotion of BDNF-dependent neuroplasticity. However, there is no consensus on the optimal intensity/duration of exercise. In addition, whether previous stroke changes the effect of exercise on the brain is not known. Therefore, the present study compared the effects of a clinically-relevant form of exercise on cerebral BDNF levels and localization in control versus stroke rats. For this ...

  6. BDNF signaling and survival of striatal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoji Xu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The striatum, a major component of the basal ganglia, performs multiple functions including control of movement, reward, and addiction. Dysfunction and death of striatal neurons are the main causes for the motor disorders associated with Huntington’s disease (HD. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a member of the neurotrophin family, is among factors that promote survival and proper function of this neuronal population. Here, we review recent studies showing that BDNF determines the size of the striatum by supporting survival of the immature striatal neurons at their origin, promotes maturation of striatal neurons, and facilitates establishment of striatal connections during brain development. We also examine the role of BDNF in maintaining proper function of the striatum during adulthood, summarize the mechanisms that lead to a deficiency in BDNF signaling and subsequently striatal degeneration in HD, and highlight a potential role of BDNF as a therapeutic target for HD treatment.

  7. Why do premature newborn infants display elevated blood adenosine levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfoli, Isabella; Cassanello, Michela; Bruschettini, Matteo; Colella, Marina; Cerone, Roberto; Ravera, Silvia; Calzia, Daniela; Candiano, Giovanni; Ramenghi, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Our preliminary data show high levels of adenosine in the blood of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, positively correlating to their prematurity (i.e. body weight class). This prompted us to look for a mechanism promoting such impressive adenosine increase. We hypothesized a correlation with oxygen challenge. In fact, it is recognized that either oxygen lack or its excess contribute to the pathogenesis of the injuries of prematurity, such as retinopathy (ROP) and periventricular white matter lesions (PWMI). The optimal concentration of oxygen for resuscitation of VLBW infants is currently under revision. We propose that the elevated adenosine blood concentrations of VLBW infants recognizes two sources. The first could be its activity-dependent release from unmyelinated brain axons. Adenosine in this respect would be an end-product of the hypometabolic VLBW newborn unmyelinated axon intensely firing in response to the environmental stimuli consequent to premature birth. Adenosine would be eventually found in the blood due to blood-brain barrier immaturity. In fact, adenosine is the primary activity-dependent signal promoting differentiation of premyelinating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) into myelinating cells in the Central Nervous System, while inhibiting their proliferation and inhibiting synaptic function. The second, would be the ecto-cellular ATP synthesized by the endothelial cell plasmalemma exposed to ambient oxygen concentrations due to premature breathing, especially in lung. ATP would be rapidly transformed into adenosine by the ectonucleotidase activities such as NTPDase I (CD39), and NT5E (CD73). An ectopic extra-mitochondrial aerobic ATP synthetic ability was reported in many cell plasma-membranes, among which endothelial cells. The potential implications of the cited hypotheses for the neonatology area would be great. The amount of oxygen administration for reviving of newborns would find a molecular basis for its assessment. VLBW

  8. Below background levels of blood lead impact cytokine levels in male and female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of studies have documented that Pb exerts immunotoxic effects on T lymphocytes. In studies designed to explore this general response over a broad dose range, female Swiss mice were administered six different diets containing Pb acetate 1 day after mating. During lactation, the mothers received the same feed given during pregnancy, and the same diets were administered to the offspring for 9 months after weaning. At the end of exposure, blood Pb level in the offspring was determined, and possible changes in two type 1 cytokines (IL-2, INF-γ) and one type 2 cytokine (IL-4) in the serum were measured. At higher dietary Pb levels (40 and 400 ppm), a significant increase in IL-4 production was associated with a profound decrease in INF-γ and IL-2 production. At the lowest Pb diet level (0.02 ppm), which resulted in a blood lead level of (0.8 μg/dL), which is below background (2-3 μg/dL) values in humans, increases in INF-γ and IL-2 production along with a significant decrease in IL-4 production were observed. The findings provide evidence of a reversal of lead-induced cytokine skewing depending on the blood lead concentration. As blood lead concentration increases, there is a notable skewing toward Th2, while the pattern is reversed favoring Th1 development at lower blood lead values. The present findings are also notable since they indicate the potential for dietary Pb to have significant biological effects below normal background concentrations

  9. Amyloid β levels in human red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Kiko

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ is hypothesized to play a key role by oxidatively impairing the capacity of red blood cells (RBCs to deliver oxygen to the brain. These processes are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Although plasma Aβ has been investigated thoroughly, the presence and distribution of Aβ in human RBCs are still unclear. In this study, we quantitated Aβ40 and Aβ42 in human RBCs with ELISA assays, and provided evidence that significant amounts of Aβ could be detected in RBCs and that the RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. The RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. On the other hand, providing an antioxidant supplement (astaxanthin, a polar carotenoid to humans was found to decrease RBC Aβ as well as oxidative stress marker levels. These results suggest that plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 bind to RBCs (possibly with aging, implying a pathogenic role of RBC Aβ. Moreover, the data indicate that RBC Aβ40 and Aβ42 may constitute biomarkers of AD. As a preventive strategy, therapeutic application of astaxanthin as an Aβ-lowering agent in RBCs could be considered as a possible anti-dementia agent. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN42483402.

  10. Blood Lead Levels in Workers at Kooshk Lead and Zinc Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Hakimian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The extensive use of Lead has led to health problems including CNS, anemia and other occupational poisoning among workers. To determine the blood lead levels in relation to demographic factors, this study was carried out. Methods: In this cross sectional study, 490 workers at Kooshk Lead and Zinc mine were selected and blood samples were taken. The blood lead levels were assessed according to the NIOSH standard using atomic absorption. Results: The mean, minimum and maximum of blood lead levels were 49, 9 and 116 mg/dl, respectively. The blood lead levels in 45.7 percent of workers was more than permissible limit. The blood lead level was not significantly related to age and history of work. The lowest and highest levels of blood lead were 9 & 116 mg/dl, respectively. In contrast, significant relationship was seen between the location of work and blood lead level. The results showed that in the majority of workers with blood lead levels higher than standard limit, there was a significant relationship between the blood Lead levels and the hemoglobin concentration. The blood lead level in 45% of samples was more than Iranian standards. Conclusion: The work location was the main factor affecting the blood lead levels. Attention should therefore be focused on the alteration of RBC and Hemoglobin levels during periodic medical examination of workers

  11. BDNF and Exercise Enhance Neuronal DNA Repair by Stimulating CREB-Mediated Production of Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jenq-Lin; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chuang, Pei-Chin

    2013-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes the survival and growth of neurons during brain development and mediates activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and associated learning and memory in the adult. BDNF levels are reduced in brain regions affected in Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s diseases, and elevation of BDNF levels can ameliorate neuronal dysfunction and degeneration in experimental models of these diseases. Because neurons accumulate oxidative lesions in their DNA during normal activity and in neurodegenerative disorders, we determined whether and how BDNF affects the ability of neurons to cope with oxidative DNA damage. We found that BDNF protects cerebral cortical neurons against oxidative DNA damage-induced death by a mechanism involving enhanced DNA repair. BDNF stimulates DNA repair by activating cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), which, in turn, induces the expression of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), a key enzyme in the base excision DNA repair pathway. Suppression of either APE1 or TrkB by RNA interference abolishes the ability of BDNF to protect neurons against oxidized DNA damage-induced death. The ability of BDNF to activate CREB and upregulate APE1 expression is abolished by shRNA of TrkB as well as inhibitors of TrkB, PI3 kinase, and Akt kinase. Voluntary running wheel exercise significantly increases levels of BDNF, activates CREB, and upregulates APE1 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice, suggesting a novel mechanism whereby exercise may protect neurons from oxidative DNA damage. Our findings reveal a previously unknown ability of BDNF to enhance DNA repair by inducing the expression of the DNA repair enzyme APE1. PMID:24114393

  12. Disruption of the HPA-axis through corticosterone-release pellets induces robust depressive-like behavior and reduced BDNF levels in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuyser, Thomas; Bentea, Eduard; Deneyer, Lauren; Albertini, Giulia; Massie, Ann; Smolders, Ilse

    2016-07-28

    The corticosterone mouse model is widely used in preclinical research towards a better understanding of mechanisms of major depression. One particular administration procedure is the subcutaneous implantation of corticosterone slow-release pellets. In this report we want to provide basic evidence, regarding behavioral changes, neurotransmitter and -modulator levels and some other relevant biomolecules after hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis distortion. We show that three weeks of corticosterone pellet exposure robustly induces depressive-like but not anxiety-like behavior in mice, accompanied by a significant decrease in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, at five weeks after the start of treatment. Furthermore there is an overall decrease in plasma corticosterone levels after three weeks of treatment that lasts up until the five weeks' time point. On the other hand, no differences are observed in total monoamine, glutamate or d-serine levels, nor in glucocorticoid receptor expression, in various depression-related brain areas. Altogether this characterization delivers vital information, supplementary to existing literature, regarding the phenotyping of pellet-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis disruption in mice following three weeks of continuous corticosterone exposure. PMID:27208833

  13. Proteolytic Cleavage of ProBDNF into Mature BDNF in the Basolateral Amygdala Is Necessary for Defeat-Induced Social Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulka, Brooke N.; Ford, Ellen C.; Lee, Melissa A.; Donnell, Nathaniel J.; Goode, Travis D.; Prosser, Rebecca; Cooper, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for memory processes. The present study tested whether proteolytic cleavage of proBDNF into mature BDNF (mBDNF) within the basolateral amygdala (BLA) regulates the consolidation of defeat-related memories. We found that acute social defeat increases the expression of mBDNF, but not proBDNF, in…

  14. Blood lactate level in Wistar rats after four and twelve week intermittent aerobic training

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi N. Sari; Sutjahjo Endardjo; Dewi I.S. Santoso

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aerobic training can be done not only continuously, but also intermittently. Intermittent aerobic training aimed to get blood lactate level lower than continuous aerobic training. Blood lactate concentration in one of the various factors that determine training performance. However, until recently, little studies about intermittent aerobic training and blood lactate levels have been done. Therefore, this study aimed to measure blood lactate levels in Wistar rats after 4 and 12 wee...

  15. Demethylation regulation of BDNF gene expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons is implicated in opioid-induced pain hypersensitivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Chieh; Xie, Fang; Li, Xueyang; Guo, Ruijuan; Yang, Ning; Zhang, Chen; Shi, Rong; Guan, Yun; Yue, Yun; Wang, Yun

    2016-07-01

    Repeated administration of morphine may result in opioid-induced hypersensitivity (OIH), which involves altered expression of numerous genes, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Yet, it remains unclear how BDNF expression is increased in DRG neurons after repeated morphine treatment. DNA methylation is an important mechanism of epigenetic control of gene expression. In the current study, we hypothesized that the demethylation regulation of certain BDNF gene promoters in DRG neurons may contribute to the development of OIH. Real-time RT-PCR was used to assess changes in the mRNA transcription levels of major BDNF exons including exon I, II, IV, VI, as well as total BDNF mRNA in DRGs from rats after repeated morphine administration. The levels of exon IV and total BDNF mRNA were significantly upregulated by repeated morphine administration, as compared to that in saline control group. Further, ELISA array and immunocytochemistry study revealed a robust upregulation of BDNF protein expression in DRG neurons after repeated morphine exposure. Correspondingly, the methylation levels of BDNF exon IV promoter showed a significant downregulation by morphine treatment. Importantly, intrathecal administration of a BDNF antibody, but not control IgG, significantly inhibited mechanical hypersensitivity that developed in rats after repeated morphine treatment. Conversely, intrathecal administration of an inhibitor of DNA methylation, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) markedly upregulated the BDNF protein expression in DRG neurons and enhanced the mechanical allodynia after repeated morphine exposure. Together, our findings suggest that demethylation regulation of BDNF gene promoter may be implicated in the development of OIH through epigenetic control of BDNF expression in DRG neurons. PMID:26970395

  16. Impact of plasma transaminase levels on the peripheral blood glutamate levels and memory functions in healthy subjects ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Kamada, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Ryota; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Takehara, Tetsuo; Fujita, Yuko; Hashimoto, Kenji; Miyoshi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Background & aims Blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels are the most frequently reliable biomarkers of liver injury. Although AST and ALT play central roles in glutamate production as transaminases, peripheral blood levels of AST and ALT have been regarded only as liver injury biomarkers. Glutamate is a principal excitatory neurotransmitter, which affects memory functions in the brain. In this study, we investigated the impact of blood transaminase level...

  17. Activation of microglial cells triggers a release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF inducing their proliferation in an adenosine A2A receptor-dependent manner: A2A receptor blockade prevents BDNF release and proliferation of microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Catarina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been shown to control microglial responses in neuropathic pain. Since adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs control neuroinflammation, as well as the production and function of BDNF, we tested to see if A2AR controls the microglia-dependent secretion of BDNF and the proliferation of microglial cells, a crucial event in neuroinflammation. Methods Murine N9 microglial cells were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/mL in the absence or in the presence of the A2AR antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nM, as well as other modulators of A2AR signaling. The BDNF cellular content and secretion were quantified by Western blotting and ELISA, A2AR density was probed by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry and cell proliferation was assessed by BrdU incorporation. Additionally, the A2AR modulation of LPS-driven cell proliferation was also tested in primary cultures of mouse microglia. Results LPS induced time-dependent changes of the intra- and extracellular levels of BDNF and increased microglial proliferation. The maximal LPS-induced BDNF release was time-coincident with an LPS-induced increase of the A2AR density. Notably, removing endogenous extracellular adenosine or blocking A2AR prevented the LPS-mediated increase of both BDNF secretion and proliferation, as well as exogenous BDNF-induced proliferation. Conclusions We conclude that A2AR activation plays a mandatory role controlling the release of BDNF from activated microglia, as well as the autocrine/paracrine proliferative role of BDNF.

  18. BDNF and Huntingtin protein modifications by manganese: implications for striatal medium spiny neuron pathology in manganese neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Kirstie H; Bichell, Terry Jo; Bowman, Aaron B; Guilarte, Tomás R

    2014-12-01

    High levels of manganese (Mn) exposure decrease striatal medium spiny neuron (MSN) dendritic length and spine density, but the mechanism(s) are not known. The Huntingtin (HTT) gene has been functionally linked to cortical brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) support of striatal MSNs via phosphorylation at serine 421. In Huntington's disease, pathogenic CAG repeat expansions of HTT decrease synthesis and disrupt transport of cortical-striatal BDNF, which may contribute to disease, and Mn is a putative environmental modifier of Huntington's disease pathology. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that changes in MSN dendritic morphology Mn due to exposure are associated with decreased BDNF levels and alterations in Htt protein. We report that BDNF levels are decreased in the striatum of Mn-exposed non-human primates and in the cerebral cortex and striatum of mice exposed to Mn. Furthermore, proBDNF and mature BDNF concentrations in primary cortical and hippocampal neuron cultures were decreased by exposure to Mn confirming the in vivo findings. Mn exposure decreased serine 421 phosphorylation of Htt in cortical and hippocampal neurons and increased total Htt levels. These data strongly support the hypothesis that Mn-exposure-related MSN pathology is associated with decreased BDNF trophic support via alterations in Htt. PMID:25099302

  19. Dextrose in the banked blood products does not seem to affect the blood glucose levels in patients undergoing liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Kwok-Wai; Chen, Chao-Long; Cheng, Yu-Fan; Tseng, Chia-Chih; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Chen, Yaw-Sen; Wang, Chih-Chi; Huang, Tung-Liang; Eng, Hock-Liew; Chiu, King-Wah; Wang, Shih-Hor; Lin, Chih-Che; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Jawan, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Hyperglycemia commonly seen in liver transplantation (LT) has often been attributed to the dextrose in the storage solution of blood transfusion products. The purpose of the study is to compare the changes of the blood glucose levels in transfused and non-transfused patients during LT.

  20. ASPECTS OF CYCLON AND BDNF GENE EXPRESSION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo Shishkov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of the schizophrenic illness is still not fully elucidated. Many studies have been conducted revealing different aspects but may be the studies of greatest significance are studying the genetic aspects of expression of trophic factors and enzymes associated with nervous system development and plasticity. In this relation we aimed at measuring the Cyclon and BDNF genes expression in blood of patients suffering from schizophrenia and to test for correlation between them. Our result did not reveal correlation in spite of their connection with the disease

  1. Effect of Mozart Music on Hippocampal Content of BDNF in Postnatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Marzban

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has shown that listening to Mozart music can potentiate spatial tasks in human; and reduce seizure attacks in epileptic patients. A few studies have reported the effects of prenatal plus postpartum exposure of mice to the Mozart music on brain-drived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampus. Here we investigated the effect of postpartum exposure to The Mozart music on BDNF concentration in the hippocampus of rat.Methods: Thirty male one day old newborn Wistar rats divided randomly in two equal experimental and control groups. Experimental group exposed to slow rhythm Mozart music (Mozart Sonata for two pianos KV 448, 6 hour per day; sound pressure levels, between 80 and 100 dB for 60 successive days. The control group was kept in separate room with housing conditions like experimental group except music exposure. After 60 days the rats were euthanized and hippocampuses extracted; then the content of BDNF protein was measured using ELISA sandwich method. Results: Data analysis revealed that rats exposed to Mozart Sonata music had significantly increased BDNF content in the hippocampus as compared to control rats (P±0.01. The concentrations of BDNF were 86.30±2.26 and 94.60 ±6.22 ng/g wet weight in control and music exposure groups respectively.Discussion: Exposure to the Mozart music early in life can increase the BDNF concentration in the hippocampus in rats.

  2. A significant association between BDNF promoter methylation and the risk of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuting; Ji, Huihui; Liu, Guili; Wang, Qinwen; Liu, Huifen; Shen, Wenwen; Li, Longhui; Xie, Xiaohu; Zhou, Wenhua; Duan, Shiwei

    2016-06-10

    As a member of the neurotrophic factor family, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the survival and differentiation of neurons. The aim of our work was to evaluate the role of BDNF promoter methylation in drug addiction. A total of 60 drug abusers (30 heroin and 30 methylamphetamine addicts) and 52 healthy age- and gender-matched controls were recruited for the current case control study. Bisulfite pyrosequencing technology was used to determine the methylation levels of five CpGs (CpG1-5) on the BDNF promoter. Among the five CpGs, CpG5 methylation was significantly lower in drug abusers than controls. Moreover, significant associations were found between CpG5 methylation and addictive phenotypes including tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, fatigue-inertia, and depression-dejection. In addition, luciferase assay showed that the DNA fragment of BDNF promoter played a key role in the regulation of gene expression. Our results suggest that BDNF promoter methylation is associated with drug addiction, although further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which BDNF promoter methylation contributes to the pathophysiology of drug addiction. PMID:26976342

  3. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  4. Effect of thallium-201 blood levels on reversible myocardial defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine if 201Tl plasma blood levels correlate with the presence of reversible myocardial defects during exercise testing, 14 patients with stable coronary artery disease underwent two separate exercise 201Tl stress tests. Between initial and delayed imaging, on one test the patients drank an instant breakfast drink (eating) and on the other they drank an equivalent volume of water as a control (H2O). Thallium-201 imaging was performed immediately postexercise, immediately after eating/H2O and 210 min after eating/H2O. Between initial and immediate post eating/H2O images 201Tl reversible defects occurred in 27/38 regions in the H2O test versus 15/38 regions in the eating test (p = 0.02). Over this early time period, plasma 201Tl activity was significantly higher in the H2O test than eating test (p less than 0.05). In conclusion, early reversal of 201Tl defects may, in part, be the result of higher plasma 201Tl activity early after initial postexercise 201Tl imaging

  5. Association Between Blood Cadmium Levels and Mortality in Peritoneal Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Chia; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Huang, Wen-Hung; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin, Ja-Liang; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Hsu, Ching-Wei

    2016-05-01

    The negative impact of environmental exposure of cadmium has been well established in the general population. However, the effect of cadmium exposure in chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients remains uncertain.A total of 306 chronic PD patients were included in this 36-month observational study. Patients were stratified into 3 groups by the tertile of baseline blood cadmium levels (BCLs): high (>0.244 μg/L, n = 101), middle (0.130-0.244 μg/L, n = 102), and low (death were recorded for longitudinal analyses.Patients in the high-BCL group were older, more likely to have diabetes mellitus, had lower levels of serum albumin and lower percentage of lean body mass than patients in the low-BCL group. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that logarithmic transformed BCL was independently associated with a higher risk of low turnover bone disease (odds ratio = 3.8, P = 0.005). At the end of the 36-month follow-up, 66 (21.6%) patients died. Mortality rates increased with higher BCLs (P for trend = 0.005). A Cox multivariate analysis showed that, using the low-BCL group as the reference, the high-BCL group had increased hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality in chronic PD patients after adjusting for related variables (HR = 2.469, 95% confidence interval = 1.078-5.650, P = 0.043).In conclusion, BCL showed significant association with malnutrition and low turnover bone disease in chronic PD patients. Furthermore, BCL is an important determinant of mortality. Our findings suggest that avoiding environmental exposure to cadmium as much as possible is warranted in chronic PD patients. PMID:27175714

  6. Expression and Role of the BDNF Receptor-TrkB in Rat Adrenal Gland under Acute Immobilization Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reported that plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was maximally elevated following a 60-min period of acute immobilization stress and that salivary glands were the main source of plasma BDNF under this stress condition. However, the expression pattern of the BDNF receptor, Tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), under this condition has yet to be determined. We therefore investigated the effect of this stress on the expression level of TrkB in various rat organs using real-time PCR. No significant differences were found between controls and 60 min-stressed rats with respect to TrkB level in various organs. Only adrenal glands showed significantly increased TrkB mRNA levels after 60 min of stress. TrkB mRNA and protein were observed to localize in chromaffin cells. In addition, we investigated whether BDNF-TrkB interaction influences the release of stress hormones from PC12 cells, derived from chromaffin cells. Truncated receptor, TrkB-T1, was identified in PC12 cells using RT-PCR. Exposure of PC12 cells to BDNF induced the release of catecholamine. This BDNF-evoked release was totally blocked by administration of the K252a in which an inhibitor of Trk receptors. Thus, BDNF-TrkB interactions may modulate catecholamine release from adrenal chromaffin cells under acute stress conditions

  7. Mercury levels in cord blood and meconium of healthy newborns and venous blood of their mothers: Clinical, prospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the chronic mercury intoxication in pregnant women and newborns living in Istanbul, Turkey. Methods: The research was carried out as a prospective with 143 pregnant women and their newborns. Venous blood from the mother, cord blood from the neonate, and meconium were collected for mercury analysis. Frequency of fish and vegetable-eating and the number of teeth filled were investigated. Analyses were made in cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, μg/L). Results: Mercury levels were 0.38 ± 0.5 μg/L (0-2.34) in venous blood of pregnant women, 0.50 ± 0.64 μg/L (0-2.36) in umbilical cord blood and 9.45 ± 13.8 μg/g (0-66.5) in meconium. Maternal blood mercury level was lower than the known toxic limit for humans (EPA, 5 μg/L). Mercury levels of the maternal venous blood were significantly correlated with umbilical cord blood. The primary risk factors affecting mercury levels were eating fishmeals more than twice a week and having filled teeth more than five. The fact that the mother had a regular vegetable diet everyday reduced the mercury levels. Increased levels of mercury in the mother and umbilical cord blood could lead to retarded newborns' weight and height. Conclusion: Pregnant women living in Istanbul may be not under the risk of chronic mercury intoxication. Fish consumption more than twice per week and tooth-filling of mother more than five may increase mercury level. On the contrary, regular diet rich in vegetable decreases the mercury level

  8. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (208Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb and 206Pb/204Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10 µg/dL. • High precision lead isotopic ratios in blood, house dust wipes, soil, water, paint. • Associations for isotopic measures of blood and dust, blood and soil, blood

  9. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10

  10. Influence of nutrient intake on blood lead levels of young children at risk for lead poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Gallicchio, Lisa; Scherer, Roberta W.; Sexton, Mary

    2002-01-01

    Although removal of lead paint hazards from at-risk houses remains the primary means of preventing elevated blood lead among young children, reduction of risk through nutritional factors has also been of interest. In this study we evaluated the effect of nutrient intake on blood lead levels by analyzing whether the intakes of certain dietary components a) were associated with blood lead levels independent of lead exposure or b) modified the effect of lead exposure on blood lead. Subjects were...

  11. Effects of BDNF Polymorphisms on Antidepressant Action

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Shih-Jen; Hong, Chen-Jee; Liou, Ying-Jay

    2010-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the down-regulation of the signaling pathway involving brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a molecular element known to regulate neuronal plasticity and survival, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of major depression. The restoration of BDNF activity induced by antidepressant treatment has been implicated in the antidepressant therapeutic mechanism. Because there is variability among patients with major depressive disorder in terms of response to antidep...

  12. Relationship between leptin levels in maternal blood,amniotic fluid,arterial and venous cord blood and fetal growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽莎; 薛昭卿; 宋岩峰; 何晓宇

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship between leptin concentration and fetal growth.Methods: Levels of leptin in maternal serum, amniotic fluid, arterial and venouscord blood of 65 normal parturients (gestational age 37-42weeks) were measured by ra-dioimmunoassay (RIA) method. At the same time, maternal blood lipids were detected.Neonates were divided into three groups: small for gestational age (SGA) group (n=10), appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group (n=45), large for gestational age(LGA) group (n= 10). Statistical analysis was performed by t test, variance analysisand correlation analysis.Results: (1) There was no obvious correlation between leptin concentrations in ma-ternal serum and arterial/ venous cord blood, amniotic fluid, and also no correlationwith birth weight and placental weight (P>0.05). Maternal body mass index signifi-cantly correlated with birth weight and neonatal length and leptin levels in arterial andvenous cord blood (P<0.01). Leptin levels in arterial and venous cord blood positivelycorrelated significantly with placental and neonatal weight and body length (P<0.01)and negatively correlated with high density lipoprotein (P<0. 01). There was no obvi-ous correlation between fetal gender and leptin concentrations in maternal serum, arteri-al and venous cord blood and amniotic fluid; (2) Leptin levels in arterial and venouscord blood , placental weight in LGA group were significantly higher than those in SGAand AGA group (P<0.05). Among three groups, leptin concentrations in maternalblood were significantly higher than those in arterial and venous cord blood (P<0.05).Conclusions: (1)Fetal leptin is synthesized in uterus, born of itself and placenta.Leptin levels in arterial and venous cord blood are related to the intrauterine growthpattern. It might positively regulate birth weight and body fat content. (2)Either mater-nal or fetal leptin was not correlated with fetal gender. There is no gender difference infetal leptin

  13. Relationship of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism with blood pressure,lipid profile and blood glucose level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship of the polymorphism of endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS)gene and blood pressure,lipid profiles and blood glucose level.By using PCR-RFLP,the eNOS Glu298Asp gene polymorphism was detected in 184 patients with essential hypertension and 196 matched healthy individuals with normal blood pressure.Taking into account eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphisms,the relationship of blood pressure with triglycerides(TG),total cholesterol(TC),high density lipoprotein(HDL),low density lipoprotein(LDL)and blood glucose level was analyzed.The distribution of eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism had no significant difference between different blood pressure groups and gender groups,but there was a significant difference between different age groups,diastolic blood pressure groups or BMI groups(P<0.05).Asp/Asp genotype significantly increased the risk of hypertension in individuals with serum TC above 5.4 mmol/L(P=0.03,OR=2.65).eNOSGlu298Asp polymorphism and serum lipid could synergistically modulate the blood pressure,eNOS Asp/Asp genotype could significantly increase the risk of hypertension in individuals with serum TC over 5.4 mmol/L,eNOS Glu298Asp in combination with serum TC could be used to predict the risk of hypertension.

  14. Surfactant protein D levels in umbilical cord blood and capillary blood of premature infants. The influence of perinatal factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Marianne; Holmskov, Uffe; Husby, Steffen;

    2006-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a collectin that plays an important role in the innate immune system and takes part in the surfactant homeostasis by regulating the surfactant pool size. The aims of this study were to investigate the values of SP-D in umbilical cord blood and capillary blood of...... premature infants and to relate the levels to perinatal conditions. A total of 254 premature infants were enrolled in the present study. Umbilical cord blood was drawn at the time of birth and capillary blood at regular intervals throughout the admission. The concentration of SP-D in umbilical cord blood...... concentration of SP-D in capillary blood day 1 was 1,466 ng/mL (range 410-5,051 ng/mL), with lowest values in infants born with ROM and delivered vaginally. High SP-D levels in umbilical cord blood and capillary blood on day 1 were found to be more likely in infants in need for respiratory support or surfactant...

  15. Development of automatic blood extraction device with a micro-needle for blood-sugar level measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanaka, Kaichiro; Uetsuji, Yasutomo; Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2008-12-01

    In this study, a portable type HMS (Health Monitoring System) device is newly developed. It has features 1) puncturing a blood vessel by using a minimally invasive micro-needle, 2) extracting and transferring human blood and 3) measuring blood glucose level. This miniature SMBG (Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose) device employs a syringe reciprocal blood extraction system equipped with an electro-mechanical control unit for accurate and steady operations. The device consists of a) a disposable syringe unit, b) a non-disposable body unit, and c) a glucose enzyme sensor. The syringe unit consists of a syringe itself, its cover, a piston and a titanium alloy micro-needle, whose inner diameter is about 100µm. The body unit consists of a linear driven-type stepping motor, a piston jig, which connects directly to the shaft of the stepping motor, and a syringe jig, which is driven by combining with the piston jig and slider, which fixes the syringe jig. The required thrust to drive the slider is designed to be greater than the value of the blood extraction force. Because of this driving mechanism, the automatic blood extraction and discharging processes are completed by only one linear driven-type stepping motor. The experimental results using our miniature SMBG device was confirmed to output more than 90% volumetric efficiency under the driving speed of the piston, 1.0mm/s. Further, the blood sugar level was measured successfully by using the glucose enzyme sensor.

  16. Detectable Blood Lead Level and Body Size in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Havstad, Suzanne; Basu, Niladri; Ownby, David R; Park, Sung Kyun; Ownby, Dennis R; Johnson, Christine Cole; Wegienka, Ganesa

    2016-05-01

    Rates of childhood obesity have risen at the same time rates of high blood lead levels (BLLs) have fallen. Recent studies suggest that higher BLL is inversely associated with body size in older children (ages 3-19 years). No contemporaneous studies have examined if having a detectable BLL is associated with body size in very early childhood. We examined if detectable BLL is associated with body size in early childhood. A total of 299 birth cohort participants completed a study visit at ages 2-3 years with weight and height measurements; prior to this clinic visit, a BLL was drawn as part of routine clinical care. Body mass index (BMI) percentile and Z-score were calculated; children with BMI ≥85th percentile were considered overweight/obese at age of 2 years. Detectable BLL was defined as BLL ≥1 μg/dL. A total of 131 (43.8 %) children had a detectable BLL measured at mean aged 15.4 ± 5.5 months. Mean age at body size assessment was 2.2 ± 0.3 years (53.2 % male, 68.6 % African-American). After adjusting for race, sex, and birth weight, children with a detectable BLL had a 43 % lower risk of BMI ≥85th percentile (P = 0.041) and a 0.35-unit lower BMI Z-score (P = 0.008) compared to children without a detectable BLL. Neither race nor sex modified this association (all interactions P > 0.21). Consistent with recent studies in older children, having a detectable BLL was associated with smaller body size at ages 2-3 years. Additional research on the mechanism of this association is needed but may include mechanisms of appetite suppression via lead. PMID:26358768

  17. Differential Expression and Regulation of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) mRNA Isoforms in Brain Cells from Mecp2(308/y) Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaud, Audrey; Delépine, Chloé; Nectoux, Juliette; Billuart, Pierre; Bienvenu, Thierry

    2015-08-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disease caused by mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2), which encodes a transcriptional modulator of many genes including BDNF. BDNF comprises nine distinct promoter regions, each triggering the expression of a specific transcript. The role of this diversity of transcripts remains unknown. MeCP2 being highly expressed in neurons, RTT was initially considered as a neuronal disease. However, recent studies have shown that MeCP2 was also expressed in astrocytes. Though several studies explored Bdnf IV expression in Mecp2-deficient mice, the differential expression of Bdnf isoforms in Mecp2-deficient neurons and astrocytes was never studied. By using TaqMan technology and a mouse model expressing a truncated Mecp2 (Mecp2(308/y)), we firstly showed in neurons that Bdnf transcripts containing exon I, IIb, IIc, IV, and VI are prominently expressed, whereas in astrocytes, Bdnf transcript containing exon VI is preferentially expressed, suggesting a specific regulation of Bdnf expression at the cellular level. Secondly, we confirmed the repressive role of Mecp2 only on the expression of Bdnf VI in neurons. Our data suggested that the truncated Mecp2 protein maintains its function on Bdnf expression regulation in neurons and in astrocytes. Interestingly, we observed that Bdnf transcripts (I and IXA), regulated by neural activity induced by bicuculline in Mecp2(308/y) neurons, were not affected by histone deacetylase inhibition. In contrast, Bdnf transcripts (IIb, IIc, and VI), regulated by histone deacetylation, were not affected by bicuculline treatment in wild-type and Mecp2(308/y) neurons. All these results reflect the complexity of regulation of Bdnf gene. PMID:25634725

  18. Arterial blood gas levels in high altitude Kashmiri population, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Imran Sayeed

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: The present study might provide useful base line normal values of Arterial Blood Gases for the local population and will be beneficial to the clinicians. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3283-3287

  19. Potentiation of Methylmercury-Induced Death in Rat Cerebellar Granular Neurons Occurs by Further Decrease of Total Intracellular GSH with BDNF via TrkB in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, Motoharu; Maki, Takehiro; Kaneko, Takuya; Hemmi, Natsuko; Sekiguchi, Hitomi; Horio, Tomoyo; Kadowaki, Erina; Ozawa, Aisa; Yamamoto, Masako

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a principal factor for neurogenesis, neurodevelopment and neural survival through a BDNF receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) B, while BDNF can also cause a decrease in the intracellular glutathione (GSH) level. We investigated the exacerbation of methylmercury-induced death of rat cerebellar granular neurons (CGNs) by BDNF in vitro. Since methylmercury can decrease intracellular GSH levels, we hypothesized that a further decrease of the intracellular GSH level is involved in the process of the exacerbation of neuronal cell death. In the present study, we established that in CGN culture, a decrease of the intracellular GSH level was further potentiated with BDNF in the process of the methylmercury-induced neuronal death and also in GSH reducer-induced neuronal death. BDNF treatment promoted the decrease in GSH levels induced by methylmercury and also by L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) and diethyl maleate (DEM). The promoting effect of BDNF was observed in a TrkB-vector transformant of the rat neuroblastoma B35 cell line but not in the mock-vector transformant. These results indicate that the exacerbating effect of BDNF on methylmercury-induced neuronal death in cultures of CGNs includes a further decrease of intracellular GSH levels, for which TrkB is essential. PMID:27251509

  20. Blood Pressure Level Amongst Lactovegetarian And Non-Vegetarian Males

    OpenAIRE

    Jain B K; Jain S C

    1999-01-01

    Research Question: Is the relative risk for the development of hypertension more among non vegetarians than lacto vegetarians? Objectives: To compare the arterial blood pressure between lacto vegetarian and non-vegetarian males of 30 years and above. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In two different areas of walled city of Delhi. Study Variables: Blood pressure. Statistical analysis: Quetelet Index, t-test, z-test, x2-test, Relative risk

  1. Blood Pressure Level Amongst Lactovegetarian And Non-Vegetarian Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain B K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Is the relative risk for the development of hypertension more among non vegetarians than lacto vegetarians? Objectives: To compare the arterial blood pressure between lacto vegetarian and non-vegetarian males of 30 years and above. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In two different areas of walled city of Delhi. Study Variables: Blood pressure. Statistical analysis: Quetelet Index, t-test, z-test, x2-test, Relative risk

  2. A selective histone deacetylase-6 inhibitor improves BDNF trafficking in hippocampal neurons from Mecp2 knockout mice:implications for Rett syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eXu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2. One of the most prominent gene targets of MeCP2 is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf, a potent modulator of activity-dependent synaptic development, function and plasticity. Dysfunctional BDNF signaling has been demonstrated in several pathophysiological mechanisms of RTT disease progression. To evaluate whether the dynamics of BDNF trafficking is affected by Mecp2 deletion, we analyzed movements of BDNF tagged with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP in cultured hippocampal neurons by time-lapse fluorescence imaging. We found that both anterograde and retrograde vesicular trafficking of BDNF-YFP are significantly impaired in Mecp2 knockout hippocampal neurons. Selective inhibitors of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6 show neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative diseases and stimulate microtubule-dependent vesicular trafficking of BDNF-containing dense core vesicles. Here, we show that the selective HDAC6 inhibitor Tubastatin-A increased the velocity of BDNF-YFP vesicles in Mecp2 knockout neurons in both directions by increasing αtubulin acetylation. Tubastatin-A also restored activity-dependent BDNF release from Mecp2 knockout neurons to levels comparable to those shown by wildtype neurons. These findings demonstrate that a selective HDAC6 inhibitor is a potential pharmacological strategy to reverse cellular and synaptic impairments in RTT resulting from impaired BDNF signaling.

  3. Blood lead levels of traffic- and gasoline-exposed professionals in the city of Athens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past 10 y, blood lead levels in the population of Athens, Greece, have decreased steadily. This decrease has paralleled the reduction of tetraethyl lead in gasoline and the introduction of unleaded fuel. Blood lead levels and other parameters were studied in 42 gas-station employees, 47 taxi drivers, 47 bus drivers, and 36 controls, all of whom worked in Athens. The blood lead levels did not differ significantly among the four groups. Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase were elevated in gas-station employees, and the former was elevated in taxi drivers. Gas-station employees who smoked had higher blood lead levels than their nonsmoking counterparts. The absence of any difference in the blood lead levels of individuals for whom physical examinations were either normal or abnormal suggests that either lead was not the cause of increased blood lead levels or that its contribution may have been important in the past

  4. Evaluation of the appropriateness of using glucometers for measuring the blood glucose levels in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Yu; Shirakawa, Jun; Okuyama, Tomoko; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Kyohara, Mayu; Miyazawa, Ayumi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Hamada, Mari; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Glucometers are also widely used in diabetes research conducted using animal models. However, the appropriateness of measuring blood glucose levels using glucometers in animal models remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the consistency between the blood glucose levels measured by 11 models of glucometers and plasma glucose levels measured by a laboratory biochemical test in blood samples collected by retro-orbital sinus puncture or tail-tip amputation. In both blood samples obtained by retro-orbital sinus puncture and those obtained by tail-tip amputation, 10 of the 11 models of glucometers yielded higher glucose values, while 1 yielded lower glucose values, than the plasma glucose values yielded by the laboratory test, the differences being in direct proportion to the plasma glucose values. Most glucometers recorded higher blood glucose levels after glucose loading and lower blood glucose levels after insulin loading in retro-orbital sinus blood as compared to tail vein blood. Our data suggest that the blood glucose levels measured by glucometers in mice tended to be higher than the plasma glucose levels yielded by the biochemical test under the hyperglycemic state, and that differences in the measured levels were observed according to the blood collection method depending on the glycemia status. PMID:27151424

  5. Epigenetic regulation of BDNF in the learned helplessness-induced animal model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chun-Lin; Su, Chun-Wei; Hsiao, Ya-Hsin; Gean, Po-Wu

    2016-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), one of the most common mental disorders, is a significant risk factor for suicide and causes a low quality of life for many people. However, the causes and underlying mechanism of depression remain elusive. In the current work, we investigated epigenetic regulation of BDNF in the learned helplessness-induced animal model of depression. Mice were exposed to inescapable stress and divided into learned helplessness (LH) and resilient (LH-R) groups depending on the number they failed to escape. We found that the LH group had longer immobility duration in the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension tests (TST), which is consistent with a depression-related phenotype. Western blotting analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that the LH group had lower BDNF expression than that of the LH-R group. The LH group consistently had lower BDNF mRNA levels, as detected by qPCR assay. In addition, we found BDNF exon IV was down-regulated in the LH group. Intraperitoneal injection of imipramine or histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) to the LH mice for 14 consecutive days ameliorated depression-like behaviors and reversed the decrease in BDNF. The expression of HDAC5 was up-regulated in the LH mice, and a ChIP assay revealed that the level of HDAC5 binding to the promoter region of BDNF exon IV was higher than that seen in other groups. Knockdown of HDAC5 reduced depression-like behaviors in the LH mice. Taken together, these results suggest that epigenetic regulation of BDNF by HDAC5 plays an important role in the learned helplessness model of depression. PMID:26921875

  6. Dextrose in the banked blood products does not seem to affect the blood glucose levels in patients undergoing liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwok-Wai Cheng; King-Wah Chiu; Shih-Hor Wang; Chih-Che Lin; Tsan-Shiun Lin; Yueh-Wei Liu; Bruno Jawan; Chao-Long Chen; Yu-Fan Cheng; Chia-chih Tseng; Chih-Hsien Wang; Yaw-Sen Chen; Chih-Chi Wang; Tung Liang Huang; Hock-Liew Eng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Hyperglycemia commonly seen in liver transplantation (LT) has often been attributed to the dextrose in the storage solution of blood transfusion products. The purpose of the study is to compare the changes of the blood glucose levels in transfused and non-transfused patients during LT. METHODS: A retrospective study on 60 biliary pediatric patients and 16 adult patients undergoing LT was carried out. Transfused pediatric patients were included in Group Ⅰ (GI), those not transfused in Group Ⅱ (GⅡ). Twelve adult patients were not given transfusion and assigned to Group Ⅲ (GⅢ); whereas, four adult patients who received massive transfusion were assigned to Group Ⅳ (GⅣ). The blood glucose levels, volume of blood transfused, and the volume of crystalloid infused were recorded, compared and analyzed. RESULTS: Results showed that the changes in bloodglucose levels during LT for both non-transfused and minimally transfused pediatric groups and non-transfused and massively-transfused adult groups were almost the same. CONCLUSION: We conclude that blood transfusion does not cause significant changes in the blood glucose levels inthis study.

  7. Attention and blood lactate levels in equestrians performing show jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perciavalle, Valentina; Di Corrado, Donatella; Scuto, Claudia; Perciavalle, Vincenzo; Coco, Marinella

    2014-06-01

    In equestrian show jumping, attention is particularly important to ensure maximum accuracy. Due to the anaerobic nature of the jumping and its requirement for precision coordination between human and horse, there may be a relation between the onset of lactic threshold and decrease in attention. In 12 healthy and injury-free equestrians (6 men, 6 women), the effects (blood lactate and glucose) of a show jumping course (250 m long with eight vertical obstacles with a height of 1.15 m height) on capacity and selectivity of attention was assessed. A typical reaction time paradigm and test of divided attention were administered. At the end of the course a significant increase of blood lactate was observed, whereas blood glucose did not significantly change. A deterioration of attention (intensity and selectivity) and a worsening of performance with increasing of blood lactate were observed. The present results led to the conclusion that the increase in blood lactate that occurs in riders executing a show jumping course is associated with worsening of both attentive capabilities and performance. PMID:25068743

  8. Whole blood is the sample matrix of choice for monitoring systemic triclocarban levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebb, Nils Helge; Ahn, Ki Chang; Dong, Hua; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2012-05-01

    The antibacterial triclocarban (TCC) concentrates in the cellular fraction of blood. Consequently, plasma levels are at least two-fold lower than the TCC amount present in blood. Utilizing whole blood sampling, a low but significant absorption of TCC from soap during showering is demonstrated for a small group of human subjects. PMID:22273184

  9. Whole blood is the sample matrix of choice for monitoring systemic triclocarban levels

    OpenAIRE

    Schebb, Nils Helge; Ahn, Ki Chang; Dong, Hua; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial triclocarban (TCC) concentrates in the cellular fraction of blood. Consequently, plasma levels are at least two-fold lower than the TCC amount present in blood. Utilizing whole blood sampling, a low but significant absorption of TCC from soap during showering is demonstrated for a small group of human subjects.

  10. Comparison of the Adulthood Chronic Stress Effect on Hippocampal BDNF Signaling in Male and Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknazar, Somayeh; Nahavandi, Arezo; Peyvandi, Ali Asghar; Peyvandi, Hassan; Akhtari, Amin Shams; Karimi, Mohsen

    2016-08-01

    Studies show that gender plays an important role in stress-related disorders, and women are more vulnerable to its effect. The present study was undertaken to investigate differences in the change in expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and its tyrosine intracellular kinase-activating receptor (TrkB) genes in the male and female rats' hippocampus (HPC) under chronic mild repeated stress (CMRS) conditions. In this experiment, male and female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: the CMRS and the control group. To induce stress, a repeated forced swimming paradigm was employed daily for adult male and female rats for 21 days. At the end of the stress phase, elevated plus maze (EPM) was used for measuring the stress behavioral effects. Serum corticosterone level was measured by ELISA. BDNF and TrkB gene methylation and protein expression in the HPC were detected using real-time PCR and Western blotting. Chronic stress in the adolescence had more effects on anxiety-like behavior and serum corticosterone concentration in female rats than males. Furthermore, stressed female rats had higher methylation levels and following reduced protein expression of BDNF but not TrkB compared to stressed male rats. These findings suggest that in exposure to a stressor, sex differences in BDNF methylation may be root cause of decreased BDNF levels in females and may underlie susceptibility to pathology development. PMID:26189832

  11. Association between iron deficiency anemia and blood level in egyptian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between iron deficiency and blood lead levels was investigated in a cross-sectional study of 200 children of both sexes, aged 6-12 years with mean of 7.8 +- 2.6 years. They were randomly selected from governmental primary school located near a highly contaminated industrial area. Blood samples were collected for measuring blood lead levels, serum iron serum ferritin, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and other hematological indices. According to iron status, children were classified into non-anemic healthy controls(n=37),iron depleted children(n=58)and children with iron deficiency anemia (n=105).Iron deficiency is defined when MCV 10 / dl were significantly lower than those for children with blood lead levels < 10 /dl. Comparison of blood lead concentrations between boys and girls revealed highly significant increase in blood lead level in boys than girls. A strong negative correlation was detected between blood lead levels and serum iron in all subjects. However, such correlation vanished between blood lead concentration and serum ferritin,so, it could be concluded from the present study that the blood lead levels were changed according to changes in iron status. Improving iron status, along with reducing exposure to environmental contamination with lead, may help in reducing blood lead levels among most children especially those living in contaminated environment

  12. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long-Lian, E-mail: Longlian57@163.com [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Lu, Ling [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Xu, Da-Yong [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  13. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established

  14. Sensitivity and specificity of fluid-blood levels for coagulopathy in acute intracerebral hematomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, M.J.; Hardee, E.P.; Hayman, L.A.; Contant, C.F. Jr. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-02-01

    To characterize the imaging features of intracerebral hemorrhages in patients with coagulopathies that alter prothrombin time or partial thromboplastin time. A fluid-blood level was defined as a horizontal interface between hypodense bloody serum layered above hyperdense settled blood. The prevalence of fluid-blood levels in acute intracerebral hemorrhages was determined on third-generation CT scans in 32 patients with elevation in prothrombin time or partial thromboplastin time. This was compared with the frequency of fluid-blood levels in 185 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage in which there was no laboratory evidence of coagulopathy. The probability of finding a fluid-blood level in an intracerebral hemorrhage of a patient with abnormal prothrombin time or partial thromboplastin time was 59% (sensitivity). The probability that there will be no fluid-blood level in a patient with a normal prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time was 98% (specificity). Fluid-blood levels in acute intracerebral hemorrhage are moderately sensitive to the presence of coagulopathy (i.e., abnormal prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time) and highly specific for this condition. Thus, an intracerebral hemorrhage with a fluid-blood level should prompt a thorough search for coagulopathy because early treatment of this condition may improve the 40% mortality in these patients. Caution should be used to distinguish the horizontal interface of a fluid-blood level from a clot with a flat top. A decubitus CT is useful in these rare instances. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. BDNF over-expression increases olfactory bulb granule cell dendritic spine density in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDole, B; Isgor, C; Pare, C; Guthrie, K

    2015-09-24

    Olfactory bulb granule cells (GCs) are axon-less, inhibitory interneurons that regulate the activity of the excitatory output neurons, the mitral and tufted cells, through reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses located on GC spines. These contacts are established in the distal apical dendritic compartment, while GC basal dendrites and more proximal apical segments bear spines that receive glutamatergic inputs from the olfactory cortices. This synaptic connectivity is vital to olfactory circuit function and is remodeled during development, and in response to changes in sensory activity and lifelong GC neurogenesis. Manipulations that alter levels of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in vivo have significant effects on dendritic spine morphology, maintenance and activity-dependent plasticity for a variety of CNS neurons, yet little is known regarding BDNF effects on bulb GC spine maturation or maintenance. Here we show that, in vivo, sustained bulbar over-expression of BDNF in transgenic mice produces a marked increase in GC spine density that includes an increase in mature spines on their apical dendrites. Morphometric analysis demonstrated that changes in spine density were most notable in the distal and proximal apical domains, indicating that multiple excitatory inputs are potentially modified by BDNF. Our results indicate that increased levels of endogenous BDNF can promote the maturation and/or maintenance of dendritic spines on GCs, suggesting a role for this factor in modulating GC functional connectivity within adult olfactory circuitry. PMID:26211445

  16. Influence of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on serotonin neurotransmission in the hippocampus of adult rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmansour, Saloua; Deltheil, Thierry; Piotrowski, Jonathan; Nicolas, Lorelei; Reperant, Christelle; Gardier, Alain M; Frazer, Alan; David, Denis J

    2008-06-10

    Whereas SSRIs produce rapid blockade of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in vitro and in vivo, the onset of an observable clinical effect takes longer to occur and a variety of pharmacological effects caused by antidepressants have been speculated to be involved either in initiating antidepressant effects and/or enhancing their effects on serotonergic transmission so as to cause clinical improvement. Among such secondary factors is increased activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which requires the Tropomyosine-related kinase B receptor (TrkB) for its effects. To begin an analysis of the influence of BDNF on serotonergic activity, we studied the acute effects of BDNF on SERT activity. A single BDNF injection (either intracerebroventricularly or directly into the CA3 region of hippocampus) decreased the signal amplitude and clearance rate produced by exogenously applied 5-HT compared to what was measured in control rats, shown using in vivo chronoamperometry. It also reduced the ability of a locally applied SSRI to block the clearance of 5-HT. In awake freely moving mice, acute intrahippocampal injection of BDNF decreased extracellular levels of 5-HT in the hippocampus, as measured using microdialysis. In addition, perfusion with BDNF decreased KCl-evoked elevations of 5-HT. These effects of BDNF were blocked by the non-selective antagonist of TrkB receptors, K252a. Overall, it may be inferred that in the hippocampus, through TrkB activation, a single injection of BDNF enhances SERT function. Such acute effects of BDNF would be expected to counter early effects of SSRIs, which might, in part, account for some delay in therapeutic effect. PMID:18474368

  17. Effect of pertussis toxin pretreated centrally on blood glucose level induced by stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hong-Won; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Im, Hyun-Ju; Hong, Jae-Seung

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) administered centrally in a variety of stress-induced blood glucose level. Mice were exposed to stress after the pretreatment of PTX (0.05 or 0.1 µg) i.c.v. or i.t. once for 6 days. Blood glucose level was measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after stress stimulation. The blood glucose level was increased in all stress groups. The blood glucose level reached at maximum level after 30 min of stress stimulation and returned to a normal level after 2 h of stress stimulation in restraint stress, physical, and emotional stress groups. The blood glucose level induced by cold-water swimming stress was gradually increased up to 1 h and returned to the normal level. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with PTX, a Gi inhibitor, alone produced a hypoglycemia and almost abolished the elevation of the blood level induced by stress stimulation. The central pretreatment with PTX caused a reduction of plasma insulin level, whereas plasma corticosterone level was further up-regulated in all stress models. Our results suggest that the hyperglycemia produced by physical stress, emotional stress, restraint stress, and the cold-water swimming stress appear to be mediated by activation of centrally located PTX-sensitive G proteins. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX appears to due to the reduction of plasma insulin level. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX was accompanied by the reduction of plasma insulin level. Plasma corticosterone level up-regulation by PTX in stress models may be due to a blood glucose homeostatic mechanism. PMID:27610033

  18. EFFECT OF FIBER SUPPLEMENT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL OF NIDDM SUBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Seema V Medhe* and Mangal V Medhe

    2013-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to assess effect of fiber rich supplement on blood glucose level of type 2 diabetic patients. Fiber rich supplement was tested on eleven type 2 diabetic subjects for blood glucose lowering effect by undertaking an intervention of two months feeding trials. Results with respect to two months supplementation indicated that the fiber rich supplement was helpful in significantly reducing the fasting and postprandial blood glucose level of subjects. The reduction in...

  19. Parsimonious model for blood glucose level monitoring in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Ma, Yan Fen; Wen, Jing Xiao; DU, Yan Fang; Li, Chun Lin; Li, Guang Wei

    2014-07-01

    To establish the parsimonious model for blood glucose monitoring in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving oral hypoglycemic agent treatment. One hundred and fifty-nine adult Chinese type 2 diabetes patients were randomized to receive rapid-acting or sustained-release gliclazide therapy for 12 weeks. Their blood glucose levels were measured at 10 time points in a 24 h period before and after treatment, and the 24 h mean blood glucose levels were measured. Contribution of blood glucose levels to the mean blood glucose level and HbA1c was assessed by multiple regression analysis. The correlation coefficients of blood glucose level measured at 10 time points to the daily MBG were 0.58-0.74 and 0.59-0.79, respectively, before and after treatment (P<0.0001). The multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that the blood glucose levels measured at 6 of the 10 time points could explain 95% and 97% of the changes in MBG before and after treatment. The three blood glucose levels, which were measured at fasting, 2 h after breakfast and before dinner, of the 10 time points could explain 84% and 86% of the changes in MBG before and after treatment, but could only explain 36% and 26% of the changes in HbA1c before and after treatment, and they had a poorer correlation with the HbA1c than with the 24 h MBG. The blood glucose levels measured at fasting, 2 h after breakfast and before dinner truly reflected the change 24 h blood glucose level, suggesting that they are appropriate for the self-monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetes patients receiving oral anti-diabetes therapy. PMID:25073916

  20. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Karlstam Erika; Bergström Ledin Hanna; Reezigt Bert Jan; Hagman Ragnvi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and a 3–4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1)...

  1. Perioperative control of blood glucose level in cardiac surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Minakata, Kenji; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that poor perioperative blood glucose (BG) control can increase the risk of infection, cardiovascular accidents, and even death in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Since it has been reported that tight BG control (80-110 mg/dL) yields better outcomes in critically ill patients, it became a standard of care to control BG using intravenous insulin infusion in ICU. However, it has been debated in terms of the optimal target range whether a strict control with intensive ...

  2. BDNF Genotype Modulates Resting Functional Connectivity in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Thomason, Moriah E.; Daniel J Yoo; Glover, Gary H.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    A specific polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene is associated with alterations in brain anatomy and memory; its relevance to the functional connectivity of brain networks, however, is unclear. Given that altered hippocampal function and structure has been found in adults who carry the methionine (met) allele of the BDNF gene and the molecular studies elucidating the role of BDNF in neurogenesis and synapse formation, we examined the association between BDNF gene v...

  3. BDNF genotype modulates resting functional connectivity in children

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel J Yoo; Glover, Gary H.

    2009-01-01

    A specific polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene is associated with alterations in brain anatomy and memory; its relevance to the functional connectivity of brain networks, however, is unclear. Given that altered hippocampal function and structure has been found in adults who carry the methionine (met) allele of the BDNF gene and the molecular studies elucidating the role of BDNF in neurogenesis and synapse formation, we examined in the association between BDNF gen...

  4. Changes in spatial memory and BDNF expression to simultaneous dietary restriction and forced exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabour, Omar F; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alomari, Mahmoud A; Alzubi, Mohammad A

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that learning and memory formation can be influenced by diet and exercise. In the current study, we investigated the combined effects of forced swimming exercise (FSE) and every other day fasting (EODF) on spatial memory formation and on the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of Wistar male rats. The radial arm water maze (RAWM) paradigm was used to assess changes in learning and memory formation, whereas ELISA assay was used to measure BDNF protein levels. The FSE and/or EODF were simultaneously instituted for 6 weeks. Results show that FSE improved learning, short-term as well as long-term memory formation, and significantly increased BDNF protein in the hippocampus (p0.05). In addition, EODF did not modulate beneficial effect of swimming exercise on cognitive function (p>0.05). Thus exercise enhanced, while EODF did not affect spatial learning and memory formation. PMID:23000024

  5. Analysis of relationship between blood lipid metabolism levels and hs-CRP levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the relationship between blood lipid metabolism levels and hs-CRP levels in the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: The levels of plasma blood lipid (with biochemistry) and serum hs-CRP(with high-sensitive immuno turbidimetry) were determined in 96 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as well as 68 normal controls. Results: The plasma blood lipid levels in 96 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were significantly lower than those in 68 controls, plasma TC and LDL-C levels were not much difference (P>0.05), plasma HDL-C level was significantly difference (P<0.05), but TG and Lp (a) levels were very prominently difference (P<0.01). And the plasma hs-CRP level was significantly increased also (P<0.01). The close relationship was between blood lipid and hs-CRP levels. Conclusion: The study of relationship between blood lipid levels and hs-CRP levels in patients with COPD was helpful for understand the disease process as well as possible mechanisms. (authors)

  6. Neurosteroids reduce social isolation-induced behavioral deficits: a proposed link with neurosteroid-mediated upregulation of BDNF expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Schüler Nin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological action of SSRI antidepressants may include a normalization of the decreased brain levels of neurosteroids such as that of the progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone and that of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, which are decreased in patients with depression and PTSD. Allopregnanolone and BDNF decrease in these patients is associated with behavioral symptom severity. Antidepressant treatment upregulates both allopregnanolone levels and the expression of BDNF in a manner that significantly correlates with improved symptomatology, which suggests that neurosteroid biosynthesis and BDNF expression may be interrelated. Preclinical studies using the socially isolated mouse as an animal model of behavioral deficits that resemble some of the symptoms observed in PTSD patients have shown that fluoxetine and derivatives improve anxiety-like behavior, fear responses, and aggressive behavior by elevating the corticolimbic levels of allopregnanolone and BDNF mRNA expression. These actions appeared to be independent and more selective from the action of these drugs on 5-HT reuptake inhibition.Hence, this review addresses the hypothesis that in PTSD or depressed patients brain allopregnanolone levels and BDNF expression upregulation may be part of the mechanisms involved in the beneficial actions of antidepressants or other selective brain steroidogenic stimulant (SBSS molecules.

  7. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. 95.025 Section 95.025 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies...

  8. Effect of a whole-body gamma irradiation on glycemia and ATP blood level in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt was made to establish possible correlations, during gamma irradiation, between glucose and ATP. The variations in their blood levels were studied, using specific enzymatic methods. The results obtained after a low dose irradiation (150 roentgens) demonstrated an increase of glycemia during the hours following the irradiation and a parallel decrease of ATP blood level

  9. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 and corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor-1 gene expression is differently regulated by BDNF in rat primary cortical neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christinna V; Klein, Anders B; El-Sayed, Mona;

    2013-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is important for neuronal survival and plasticity. Incorporation of matured receptor proteins is an integral part of synapse formation. However, whether BDNF increases synthesis and integration of receptors in functional synapses directly is unclear. We are...... after neuronal depolarization produced by high potassium. This study emphasizes the role of BDNF as an important regulator of receptor compositions in the synapse and provides further evidence that BDNF directly regulates important drug targets involved in cognition and mood. Synapse 67:794-800, 2013...... expression for all these receptors, as well as a number of immediate-early genes, was pharmacologically characterized in primary neurons from rat frontal cortex. BDNF increased CRF-R1 mRNA levels up to fivefold, whereas mGluR2 mRNA levels were proportionally downregulated. No effect on 5-HT2A R mRNA was seen...

  10. BDNF and Huntingtin protein modifications by Manganese: Implications for striatal medium spiny neuron pathology in manganese neurotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Stansfield, Kirstie H.; Bichell, Terry Jo; Bowman, Aaron B.; Guilarte, Tomás R.

    2014-01-01

    High levels of manganese (Mn) exposure decreases striatal medium spiny neuron (MSN) dendritic length and spine density, but the mechanism(s) are not known. The Huntingtin (HTT) gene has been functionally linked to cortical brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) support of striatal MSNs via phosphorylation at serine 421 (S421). In Huntington's disease, pathogenic CAG-repeat expansions of HTT decrease synthesis and disrupt transport of cortical-striatal BDNF contributing to disease, and Mn is...

  11. Association of decreased serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations in early pregnancy with antepartum depression

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, Jenny; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Rondon, Marta B; Sanchez, Sixto E; Barrios, Yasmin V; Hevner, Karin; Qiu, Chunfang; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Antepartum depression is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality in the prenatal period. There is accumulating evidence for the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathophysiology of depression. The present study examines the extent to which maternal early pregnancy serum BDNF levels are associated with antepartum depression. Method A total of 968 women were recruited and interviewed in early pregnancy. Antepartum depression prevalence and ...

  12. Association of decreased serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations in early pregnancy with antepartum depression

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, Jenny; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Rondon, Marta B; Sanchez, Sixto E; Barrios, Yasmin V; Hevner, Karin; Qiu, Chunfang; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antepartum depression is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality in the prenatal period. There is accumulating evidence for the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathophysiology of depression. The present study examines the extent to which maternal early pregnancy serum BDNF levels are associated with antepartum depression. Method A total of 968 women were recruited and interviewed in early pregnancy. Antepartum depression prevalence and...

  13. Effects of BDNF polymorphism and physical activity on episodic memory in the elderly: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Canivet, Anne; Albinet, Cédric T.; André, Nathalie; Pylouster, Jean; Rodríguez-Ballesteros, Montserrat; Kitzis, Alain; Audiffren, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration is highest in the hippocampus compared with that in other brain structures and affects episodic memory, a cognitive function that is impaired in older adults. According to the neurotrophic hypothesis, BDNF released during physical activity enhances brain plasticity and consequently brain health. However, even if the physical activity level is involved in the secretion of neurotrophin, this protein is also under the control ...

  14. BDNF Val66Met genotype modulates the effect of childhood adversity on subgenual anterior cingulate cortex volume in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Gerritsen, Lotte; Tendolkar, Indira; Franke, Barbara; Arias Vasquez, Alejandro; Kooijman, Sabine; Buitelaar, Jan; Fernández, Guillén; Rijpkema, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Abstract According to the neurotrophic hypothesis of depression, stress can lead to brain atrophy by modifying brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. Given that BDNF secretion is affected by a common polymorphism (rs6265, Val66Met), which also is associated with depression, we investigated whether this polymorphism modifies the effect of childhood adversity (CA) on local gray matter volume in depression-relevant brain regions using data from two large cohorts of healthy s...

  15. Interrelations of lead levels in bone, venous blood, and umbilical cord blood with exogenous lead exposure through maternal plasma lead in peripartum women.

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, H. Y.; Schwartz, J; Gonzales-Cossio, T; Lugo, M C; Palazuelos, E; Aro, A; Hu, H; Hernandez-Avila, M

    2001-01-01

    Recent research has raised the possibility that fetal lead exposure is not estimated adequately by measuring lead content in maternal whole blood lead because of the variable partitioning of lead in whole blood between plasma and red blood cells. Lead in maternal plasma may derive in large part from maternal bone lead stores. In this study we aimed to estimate the contribution of maternal whole blood lead, maternal bone lead levels, and environmental lead to umbilical cord blood lead levels (...

  16. Decoding BDNF-LTP coupling in cocaine addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Li-Min; Fibuch, Eugene E.; WANG, John Q.

    2010-01-01

    BDNF is a neurotrophic peptide that regulates synaptic plasticity. New work by Lu and coworkers in this issue of Neuron now identifies BDNF as a gatekeeper of synaptic and behavioral plasticity in cocaine sensitization. In the medial prefrontal cortex, upregulated BDNF facilitates LTP and contributes to neurobehavioral adaptations to psychostimulants.

  17. Decoding BDNF-LTP coupling in cocaine addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Li-Min; Fibuch, Eugene E; Wang, John Q.

    2010-01-01

    BDNF is a neurotrophic peptide that regulates synaptic plasticity. New work by Lu and coworkers in this issue of Neuron now identifies BDNF as a gatekeeper of synaptic and behavioral plasticity in cocaine sensitization. In the medial prefrontal cortex, upregulated BDNF facilitates LTP and contributes to neurobehavioral adaptations to psychostimulants. PMID:20890399

  18. Study on umbilical venous blood serum leptin and plasma neuropeptide Y levels in full term newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the levels and clinical significance of umbilical venous blood serum leptin and plasma neuropeptide Y(NPY) in full term newborns. Methods: Umbilical venous blood serum leptin and plasma NPY levels were measured with radioimmunoassay. Results: The mean level of umbilical venous blood serum leptin was 7.15 +- 3.72 μg/L, the mean level of plasma NPY was 112.07 +- 42.36 ng/L. Levels in female fetal cord blood were significantly higher than those in males (p < 0.01). There were significantly positive correlations between cord venous blood serum leptin and birth weight of newborn and maternal body mass index (BMI) before delivery (r = 0.647, r = 0.547, p < 0.05); the same was true for plasma NPY ( r = 0.584, r = 0.705. p < 0.05). Conclusion: Leptin and NPY produced from fetus and placenta may regulate the fetal weight growth

  19. Improvements Over Drug Blood Levels: Implications from Computerized Math Models

    OpenAIRE

    Swartz, Conrad M.

    1985-01-01

    The clinical use of the 24-hour average serum lithium level does not have the inconsistencies inherent in using the morning serum lithium level as a measure of body exposure to lithium. On a group of 32 inpatients the morning serum lithium level was seen to overlap just 37.2% with the 24-hour body exposure to lithium. This 24-hour average lithium level was found by computerized pharmacokinetic simulation implemented on a microcomputer. This simulation also yielded the renal lithium clearance ...

  20. Correlation between hedgehog (hh) protein family and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) in autism spectrum disorder (asd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the correlation of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Indian Hedgehog (IHH), and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Study Design: An observational, comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Autism Research and Treatment Center, Al-Amodi Autism Research Chair, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2011 to May 2012. Methodology: Serum levels of SHH, IHH and BDNF were determined in recently diagnosed autistic patients and age matched healthy children (n=25), using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) was used for the assessment of autistic severity. Spearman correlation co-efficient-r was determined. Results: The serum levels of IHH and SHH were significantly higher in autistic subjects than those of control subjects. There was significant correlation between age and IHH (r = 0.176, p = 0.03), BDNF and severe IHH (r = 0.1763, p = 0.003), and severe BDNF and severe SHH (r = 0.143, p < 0.001). However, there were no significant relationships among the serum levels of SHH, IHH and BDNF and the CARS score, age or gender. Conclusion: The findings support a correlation between SHH, IHH and BDNF in autistic children, suggesting their pathological role in autism. (author)

  1. [Blood somatomedin levels in neonates with congenital hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hníková, O; Hejcmanová, L; Marek, J; Schreiberová, O

    1991-12-01

    A biological method was employed for assessing the somatomedin activity (SM)-IGF I-somatomedin C: 1) in 13 10 to 23-day old children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) before starting substitution therapy with L-thyroxine and after one month lasting therapy. SM levels were significantly lower prior to the onset of therapy than in a control group (for p less than 0.01 on 1% level). The SM levels in treated children did not differ from controls. 2) 16 children with classic phenylketonuria (PKU) were also examined of the age of 12-23 days before starting dietary treatment with restricted phenylalanine (Phe). When compared with a control group SM levels were significantly lower in the PKU group (p = 0.01 on 5% level). When stable serum Phe concentrations had been obtained, following restricted Phe intake, SM levels no longer differed from the control. However statistical correlation of Phe and SM levels was not attained. PMID:1806267

  2. Non-viral liposome-mediated transfer of brain-derived neurotrophic factor across the blood-brain barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Xing; Chun-yan Wen; Song-tao Li; Zong-xin Xia

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the repair of central nervous system injury, but cannot directly tra-verse the blood-brain barrier. Liposomes are a new type of non-viral vector, able to carry macromolecules across the blood-brain barrier and into the brain. Here, we investigate whether BDNF could be transported across the blood-brain barrier by tail-vein injection of lipo-somes conjugated to transferrin (Tf) and polyethylene glycol (PEG), and carrying BDNF modiifed with cytomegalovirus promoter (pCMV) or glial ifbrillary acidic protein promoter (pGFAP) (Tf-pCMV-BDNF-PEG and Tf-pGFAP-BDNF-PEG, respectively). Both liposomes were able to traverse the blood-brain barrier, and BDNF was mainly expressed in the cerebral cortex. BDNF expression in the cerebral cortex was higher in the Tf-pGFAP-BDNF-PEG group than in the Tf-pCMV-BDNF-PEG group. This study demonstrates the successful construction of a non-virus targeted liposome, Tf-pGFAP-BDNF-PEG, which crosses the blood-brain barrier and is distributed in the cerebral cortex. Our work provides an experimental basis for BDNF-related targeted drug delivery in the brain.

  3. [Comparative analysis of dependence of saliva sorbitol and fructosamine levels on blood glucose level in patients with diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morenkova, S A

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of determination of sorbitol and fructosamine in saliva has been studied in healthy volunteers and patients with diabetes. The dependence of these metabolites levels in saliva on blood glucose level was demonstrated. It is concluded that saliva sorbitol and fructosamine levels measurements may be used as diagnostic tests in diabetes and serve as indicators of efficacy of therapy in diabetes. PMID:15707277

  4. The Effects of Blood Glucose Levels on Cognitive Performance: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jolene; Barshi, Immanuel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to discuss the research literature on the effects of blood glucose levels on executive and non-executive functions in humans. The review begins with a brief description of blood glucose, how it has been studied, previous syntheses of prior studies, and basic results regarding the role of blood glucose on cognitive functioning. The following sections describe work that investigated the effect of blood glucose on both non-executive and executive functions (e.g., sensory processing, psychomotor functioning, attention, vigilance, memory, language and communication, judgement and decision-making, and complex task performance). Within each section, summaries of the findings and challenges to the literature are included. Measurement conversions of blood glucose levels, blood glucose values, and associated symptoms are depicted. References to the types of tests used to investigate blood glucose and cognitive performance are provided. For more detailed descriptions of references within (and in addition to) this paper, an annotated bibliography is also provided. Several moderator variables including individual differences and contextual variables related to the effects of blood glucose levels on performance (e.g., age, gender, time of day, familiarity with the task and symptom awareness, expectancy effects, dose dependent effects, time dependent effects, task specific effects, rising and falling blood glucose levels, and speed and/or accuracy trade-offs) are addressed later in the paper. Some suggestions for future experimental methodologies are also made.

  5. An oat bran meal influences blood insulin levels and related gene sets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Ulmius, Matilda; Johansson-Persson, Anna; Krogh, Morten; Olsson, Peter; Önning, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of how fibre-rich meals regulate molecular events at a gene level is limited. This pilot study aimed to investigate changes in gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy subjects after consumption of an oat bran-rich meal. Fifteen subjects (8 men and 7 women, aged 20–28 years) ingested meals with oat bran or a control meal after an overnight fast. Blood samples for analysis of postprandial glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations were ...

  6. Association of food consumption during pregnancy with mercury and lead levels in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Su Young; Choi, Gyuyeon; Lee, Jeong Jae; Kim, Hai-Joong; Kim, Sungjoo; Park, Jeongim; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Soo Ran

    2016-09-01

    In utero exposure to mercury and lead has been linked to various adverse health effects related to growth and development. However, there was no evidence on the relationship between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood. Therefore we measured mercury and lead levels in bloods, urines, and cord bloods obtained from 302 pregnant women and estimated relationships between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood to identify perinatal mercury and lead exposures originated from foods during pregnancy. Relationship between food consumption and mercury or lead level was estimated using a generalized linear model after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), delivery experience, income, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for mercury and age, BMI, cesarean section, delivery experience, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for lead. Fish consumption was positively associated with mercury level in cord blood (p=0.0135), while cereal and vegetable consumptions were positively associated with lead level in cord blood (p=0.0517 for cereal and p=0.0504 for vegetable). Furthermore, tea consumption restrained increase of lead level in cord blood (p=0.0014). Our findings support that mercury or lead exposure in Korean pregnant women may come from frequent fish and cereal or vegetable consumption while tea consumption may decrease lead exposure in pregnant women. Therefore, careful intervention through food consumption should be considered. PMID:27135573

  7. Community Characteristics are Associated with Blood Pressure Levels in a Racially Integrated Community

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, L. J.; Thorpe, R. J.; Bower, K. M.; LaVeist, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Community problems have been associated with higher, and community resources and social cohesion with lower, blood pressure. However, prior studies have not accounted for potential confounding by residential racial segregation. This study tested associations between community characteristics and blood pressure levels and prevalent hypertension in a racially integrated community. The Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study measured blood pressure in residents of two contig...

  8. Prevalence and consequences of positive blood alcohol levels among patients injured at work

    OpenAIRE

    Caitlin A Foster; Dissanaike, Sharmila D.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to characterize positive blood alcohol among patients injured at work, and to compare the severity of injury and outcome of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) positive and negative patients. Settings and Design: A retrospective cohort study was performed at a Level 1 academic trauma center. Patients injured at work between 01/01/07 and 01/01/12 and admitted with positive (BAC+) vs negative (BAC-) blood alcohol were compared using bivariate analysis. Results: Out...

  9. The effects of residual pump blood on patient plasma free haemoglobin levels post cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H, Schotola; Aj, Wetz; Af, Popov; I, Bergmann; Bc, Danner; Fa, Schöndube; M, Bauer; A, Bräuer

    2016-09-01

    At the end of cardiopulmonary bypass, there are invariably several hundred millilitres of residual pump blood in the reservoir, which can either be re-transfused or discarded. The objective of this prospective observational study was to investigate the quality of the residual pump blood, focusing on plasma free haemoglobin (pfHb) and blood cell counts. Fifty-one consecutive patients were included in the study. Forty-nine units of residual pump blood and 58 units of transfused red blood cell (RBC) concentrates were analysed. The mean preoperative pfHb of the patients was 0.057 ± 0.062 g/l, which increased gradually to 0.55 ± 0.36 g/l on arrival in the intensive care unit postoperatively. On the first postoperative day, the mean pfHb had returned to within the normal range. Our data showed that haemoglobin, haematocrit, and erythrocyte counts of residual pump blood were approximately 40% of the values in standardised RBC concentrates. Plasma free haemoglobin was significantly higher in residual pump blood compared to RBC concentrates, and nearly twice as high as the pfHb in patient blood samples taken contemporaneously. Our findings indicate that residual pump blood pfHb levels are markedly higher compared to patients' blood and RBC concentrates, but that its administration does not significantly increase patients' pfHb levels. PMID:27608341

  10. Alterations in blood glucose levels under hyperinsulinemia affect accumbens dopamine

    OpenAIRE

    Bello, Nicholas T.; Hajnal, Andras

    2006-01-01

    Dopaminergic systems have been implicated in diabetes and obesity. Notwithstanding, the most basic relationship between dopamine and plasma insulin as well as glucose levels yet remains unknown. The present experiments were designed to investigate the effects of acute hyperinsulinemia on basal dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens of the rat under chloral hydrate anesthesia using acute microdialysis in combination with the hyperinsulinemic-glycemic clamping procedure. In Experiment 1, each...

  11. Low blood glutathione levels in acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharb Simmi

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although experimental studies have demonstrated that reduced glutathione (GSH is involved in cellular protection from deleterious effects of oxygen free radicals in ischaemia and reperfusion, there are controversial data on the correlation between levels of GSH and the ischaemic process. AIM: The present study was planned to evaluate erythrocyte GSH levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. SETTING & DESIGN: Erythrocyte GSH levels were determined in 22 patients with AMI and 15 age matched healthy volunteers served as control. MATERIAL & METHODS: Erythrocyte GSH levels were measured by using Bentler in AMI and control patients. Also lipid profile was analyzed enzymatically in these subject. STATISTICS: The values were expressed as means +/- standard deviation (SD and data from patients and controls was compared using student′s ′t′-test. Results and CONCLUSION: GSH levels were significantly decreased in AMI as compared to control (p<0.001. Also, total cholesterol and triglycerides were higher is AMI subjects (p<0.05. These finding suggest that depressed GSH levels may be associated with enhanced protective mechanism to oxidative stress in AMI.

  12. Analysis of Time Dependent Low Level Exposure to Gallium Arsenide on Blood ALAD activity, Glutathione and Lipid per oxidation levels in Rat Blood, Liver and Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braham Deo Gupta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gallium arsenide (GaAs, an intermetallic semiconductor has widespread applications in the electronic industry. GaAs has the ability to dissociate into its constitutive moieties, arsenic and gallium which might be responsible for the oxidative stress. The present study was aimed at evaluating, effect of gallium arsenide on blood ALAD activity, glutathione and lipid per oxidation levels in rat blood, liver and kidney on exposure of 1, 2 and 6 months. Result indicated that arsenic moiety in GaAs was mainly responsible for causing oxidative stress via increased TBARS levels, decreased glutathione levels in blood and tissues. We also noted the decreased activity of ALAD in rat blood on exposure to gallium arsenide. The study demonstrates that the time dependent exposure to low level gallium arsenide led to increased in lipid per oxidation, decrease glutathione level and ALAD activity which concludes that the slow release of arsenic moiety from GaAs is mainly responsible for oxidative stress in rats and exerts its toxicity in time dependent manner related to its dissolution and maximum toxicity by increasing the time period of exposure.

  13. Juvenile methylphenidate reduces prefrontal cortex plasticity via D3 receptor and BDNF in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L Andersen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early drug intervention in childhood disorders aims to maximize individual potential in the short- and long-term. Consistently, juvenile exposure to psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate (MPH, reduces risk for substance use in animals and sub-populations of individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. We investigated the effects of MPH on brain plasticity via dopamine receptor D3 (D3R and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in developing rats. Methods: Between postnatal days 20-35, rat pups were administered saline vehicle (Veh or MPH (2 mg/kg, the D3R-preferring agonist ± 7-OHDPAT, or the antagonist nafadotride (0.05 mg/kg alone, or in combination with MPH twice a day. In adulthood, subjects were challenged to Veh or cocaine (10 mg/kg for two days. The prefrontal cortex was analyzed for protein and mRNA levels of total BDNF, its splice variants I, IIc, III/IV, and IV/VI, and D3 receptors. A separate group of subjects was assessed for splice variants at 20, 35, 40 and 60 days. Results: Across age strong correlations were evident between Drd3 and Bdnf mRNA levels (r=0.65 and a negative relationship between Drd3 and exon IIc after MPH exposure (r=-0.73. BDNF protein levels did not differ between Veh- and MPH subjects at baseline, but were significantly lower in MPH-treated and cocaine challenged subjects (30.3 ± 9.7%. Bdnf mRNA was significantly higher in MPH subjects, and reversed upon exposure to cocaine. This effect was blocked by nafadotride. Furthermore, Bdnftotal and Bdnf splice variants I, IIc, III/IV, and IV/VI changed across the transitions between juvenility and late adolescence. Conclusions: These data suggest a sensitive window of vulnerability to modulations of BDNF expression around adolescence, and that compared to normal animals, juvenile exposure to MPH permanently reduces prefrontal BDNF transcription and translation upon cocaine exposure in adulthood by a D3R

  14. Blood leptin levels and erythropoietin requirement in Iranian hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Anemia is a common complication accompanied by high morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Considering the fact that the reduction of erythropoietin (EPO synthesis is the main cause of uremic anemia, receiving recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO can improve the condition in these patients. Some of these hemodialysis patients, however, have acceptable hemoglobin levels without any need to EPO. Higher BMI, higher albumin and leptin plasma levels and longer durations of hemodialysis are possible factors contributing to the reduced need for rHuEPO in these patients. The present study is designed to asses the relationship between the plasma levels of leptin and the reduced EPO need. "nMethods: Fifty eligible hemodialysis patients with hemoglobin levels higher than 11 mg/dl were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. The information on age, sex, hemodialysis duration and the cause of renal dysfunction were extracted from the files. The baseline plasma levels of Leptin and albumin were measured. The patients BMI and the weekly need for rHuEPO were also calculated. "nResults: There was no correlation between the weekly need for rHuEPO and sex, BMI, the cause of renal dysfunction and the plasma levels of albumin and leptin; it, however, was related with age and the duration of dialysis. While age negatively influences the weekly need, the duration of dialysis has a positive effect on the need. "nConclusion: The plasma levels of leptin are not directly correlated with the required amounts of rHuEPO, indicating that leptin is not an effective factor in erythropoiesis. Conversely, older age and shorter hemodialysis durations are accompanied by reduced need for rHuEPO.

  15. CYTOKINE LEVELS IN MATERNAL BLOOD AND UMBICAL CORD SERA FROM WOMEN WITH SYMPTOMS OF INTRAUTERINE INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Botvin’eva; L. V. Renge; V. N. Zorina; R. M. Zorina; A. N. Polukarov; L. G. Bazhenova

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We had investigated serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ra and TNFα in peripheral blood of pregnant women at the terms of 38 to 40 weeks with polyhydramnios and serum IgG antibodies specific for Chlamydia trachomatis (titers of 1:20 to 1:40). Same parameters were tested in umbilical cord blood sera, obtained at delivery. We had found high levels of TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 in sera from umbilical cord blood, and increased levels of TNFα in maternal sera before delivery in a group o...

  16. A study on dietary habits, health related lifestyle, blood cadmium and lead levels of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Nari; Hyun, Whajin; Lee, Hongmie; Ro, Mansoo; Song, Kyunghee

    2012-08-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate dietary habits, health related lifestyle and blood cadmium and lead levels in female college students. 80 college students (43 males and 37 females) participated in the survey questionnaires. Body weight and height, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. The systolic blood pressure of male and female students were 128.9 ± 13.9 and 109.8 ± 12.0, respectively. The diastolic blood pressure of male and female students were 77.1 ± 10.3 and 66.0 ± 6.9, respectively, showing that male students had significantly higher blood pressure than female students (P cadmium level of male and female students were 0.54 ± 0.23 and 0.52 ± 0.36, respectively. There was no significant difference between male and female students. The blood lead level of male and female students were 1.09 ± 0.49 and 0.59 ± 0.45, respectively. The blood lead level of male students was significantly higher than that of female students (P cadmium level of smokers and nonsmokers were 0.69 ± 0.29 and 0.49 ± 0.29 respectively (P cadmium level of smokers was significantly higher than that of nonsmokers (P < 0.05). The blood lead level of smokers and nonsmokers were 1.09 ± 0.43 and 0.80 ± 0.54, respectively. The blood lead level of smokers was significantly higher than that of nonsmokers (P < 0.05). Therefore, proper nutritional education programs are required for college students in order to improve their dietary and health related living habits. PMID:22977689

  17. A genetic risk factor for low serum ferritin levels in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Erik; Grau, Katrine; Berg, Trine;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency is a frequent side effect of blood donation. In recent years, several studies have described genetic variants associated with iron concentrations. However, the impact of these variants on iron levels is unknown in blood donors. Knowledge of genetic variants that predis...

  18. Association between Blood Lead Levels and Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Sik Hwang

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between blood lead levels and prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD.A nationwide population-based cross-sectional study included 4,933 subjects aged over 40 years who participated in the 2008-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and for whom fundus photographs were available. All participants underwent a standardized interview, evaluation of blood lead concentration, and a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Digital fundus photographs (45° were taken of both eyes under physiological mydriasis. All fundus photographs were graded using an international classification and grading system.Mean blood lead levels were 3.15 μg/dL in men and 2.27 μg/dL in women (P < 0.001. After adjusting for potential confounders including age, gender, smoking status, total cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, heart problems and strokes, the adjusted odds ratio (OR in women for any AMD was 1.86 (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.03-3.36 and for early AMD was 1.92 (95% CI, 1.06-3.48, for those in the highest quintile of lead level compared with the lowest quintile. In men, however, blood lead level was not significantly associated with AMD.Blood lead levels were higher in men, but were only associated with AMD in women. Increased levels of blood lead may be involved in the pathogenesis of AMD development in women.

  19. Monocyte and Blood Interleukin-12 Levels Patients with Obstructive Jaundice

    OpenAIRE

    W. G. Jiang; Puntis, M. C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Patients with obstructive jaundice have an increased incidence of peri-operative complications and immune dysfunction. This study was to investigate interleukin (IL)-12 (a cellular immunity stimulant), levels in jaundiced patients. 23 jaundiced patients and 17 controls were studied. There was significantly increased monocyte IL-12 production in jaundice, as measured by an ELISA, compared with that in controls (p

  20. A study on dietary habits, health related lifestyle, blood cadmium and lead levels of college students

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Nari; Hyun, Whajin; Lee, Hongmie; Ro, Mansoo; Song, Kyunghee

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate dietary habits, health related lifestyle and blood cadmium and lead levels in female college students. 80 college students (43 males and 37 females) participated in the survey questionnaires. Body weight and height, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. The systolic blood pressure of male and female students were 128.9 ± 13.9 and 109.8 ± 12.0, respectively. The diastolic blood pressure of male and female students were 77.1 ± 10.3 ...

  1. Postnatal BDNF Expression Profiles in Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus of a Rat Schizophrenia Model Induced by MK-801 Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei Guo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptors represents one of experimental animal models for schizophrenia. This study is to investigate the long-term brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression profiles in different regions and correlation with “schizophrenia-like” behaviors in the adolescence and adult of this rat model. The NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 was administered to female Sprague-Dawley rats on postnatal days (PND 5 through 14. Open-field test was performed on PND 42, and PND 77 to examine the validity of the current model. BDNF protein levels in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC were analyzed on PND 15, PND 42, and PND 77. Results showed that neonatal challenge with MK-801 persistently elevated locomotor activity as well as BDNF expression; the alterations in BDNF expression varied at different developing stages and among brain regions. However, these findings provide neurochemical evidence that the blockade of NMDA receptors during brain development results in long-lasting alterations in BDNF expression and might contribute to neurobehavioral pathology of the present animal model for schizophrenia. Further study in the mechanisms and roles of the BDNF may lead to better understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  2. High dose zinc supplementation induces hippocampal zinc deficiency and memory impairment with inhibition of BDNF signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available Zinc ions highly concentrate in hippocampus and play a key role in modulating spatial learning and memory. At a time when dietary fortification and supplementation of zinc have increased the zinc consuming level especially in the youth, the toxicity of zinc overdose on brain function was underestimated. In the present study, weaning ICR mice were given water supplemented with 15 ppm Zn (low dose, 60 ppm Zn (high dose or normal lab water for 3 months, the behavior and brain zinc homeostasis were tested. Mice fed high dose of zinc showed hippocampus-dependent memory impairment. Unexpectedly, zinc deficiency, but not zinc overload was observed in hippocampus, especially in the mossy fiber-CA3 pyramid synapse. The expression levels of learning and memory related receptors and synaptic proteins such as NMDA-NR2A, NR2B, AMPA-GluR1, PSD-93 and PSD-95 were significantly decreased in hippocampus, with significant loss of dendritic spines. In keeping with these findings, high dose intake of zinc resulted in decreased hippocampal BDNF level and TrkB neurotrophic signaling. At last, increasing the brain zinc level directly by brain zinc injection induced BDNF expression, which was reversed by zinc chelating in vivo. These results indicate that zinc plays an important role in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory and BDNF expression, high dose supplementation of zinc induces specific zinc deficiency in hippocampus, which further impair learning and memory due to decreased availability of synaptic zinc and BDNF deficit.

  3. Relationship of blood folate, vitamin B12 levels with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the relationship of blood folate, vitamin B12 (Vit. B12) with coronary artery disease and the mechanism, whole blood folate, plasma folate and Vit. B12 in 94 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) were measured and compared with normal controls. The relationship of folate, Vit. B12 levels with the number of coronary vessel stenosis was also studied. Homocysteine(Hcy) and lipid levels in 57 subjects randomly selected were measured and the correlation of whole blood folate, plasma folate and Vit. B12 with Hcy and lipid levels was analyzed. The results showed that whole blood folate, plasma folate and Vit. B12 concentrations in CHD patients were significantly lower than those in normal controls. There were no significant differences in whole blood folate, plasma folate and Vit. B12 levels between patients with different number of coronary vessel stenosis. There was negative correlation of whole blood folate, plasma folate and Vit. B12 with Hcy, but no significant correlation was found with lipid. The results demonstrated that low blood folate and Vit. B12 levels were associated with the coronary heart disease, and that high plasma Hcy caused by deficiency of folate and Vit. B12 may be an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. (authors)

  4. Magnesium blood levels and preterm labor: a prospective clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hantoushzadeh S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past two decades we have seen a marked increase in the survival of very low birth weight infants. This increase in survival has been attributed to increased use of corticosteroids, regionalization of perinatal care, improved methods of mechanical ventilation, availability of exogenous surfactant, and improved nutritional therapy. However, the reduction in mortality has not been accompanied by a reduction in neonatal morbidity or long-term handicaps. Preterm labor is a major issue in Iran. Besides various etiologies, preterm labor may be due to a biochemical alteration, such as magnesium. It is known that magnesium plasma levels fall during pregnancy. Since magnesium has an inhibitory role on myometrial contractions attention has been paid to the role of magnesium deficiency in preterm labor. Hypomagnesemia leads to neuromuscular hyperexcitability resulting in muscle cramps and uterine hyperactivity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between serum magnesium levels and preterm delivery in order to circumvent the high morbidity of preterm delivery by early diagnosis of this deficiency.Methods: Serum magnesium was measured in 42 cases of preterm labor of idiopathic etiology (28-37 weeks and 42 normal pregnancies at the same gestational age.Results: Hypomagnesemia was variable in preterm labor cases, with only slightly low values in normal pregnant women.Conclusion: Our study indicates that serum magnesium levels during pregnancy can be a valuable predictive tool for preterm labor. Hypomagnesemia must be considered in all pregnant women with preterm labor and supplementation must be provided effectively.

  5. Impact of plasma transaminase levels on the peripheral blood glutamate levels and memory functions in healthy subjects☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Ryota; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Takehara, Tetsuo; Fujita, Yuko; Hashimoto, Kenji; Miyoshi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Background & aims Blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels are the most frequently reliable biomarkers of liver injury. Although AST and ALT play central roles in glutamate production as transaminases, peripheral blood levels of AST and ALT have been regarded only as liver injury biomarkers. Glutamate is a principal excitatory neurotransmitter, which affects memory functions in the brain. In this study, we investigated the impact of blood transaminase levels on blood glutamate concentration and memory. Methods Psychiatrically, medically, and neurologically healthy subjects (n = 514, female/male: 268/246) were enrolled in this study through local advertisements. Plasma amino acids (glutamate, glutamine, glycine, d-serine, and l-serine) were measured using a high performance liquid chromatography system. The five indices, verbal memory, visual memory, general memory, attention/concentration, and delayed recall of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised were used to measure memory functions. Results Both plasma AST and ALT had a significant positive correlation with plasma glutamate levels. Plasma AST and ALT levels were significantly negatively correlated with four of five memory functions, and plasma glutamate was significantly negatively correlated with three of five memory functions. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that plasma AST, ALT, and glutamate levels were significantly correlated with memory functions even after adjustment for gender and education. Conclusions As far as we know, this is the first report which could demonstrate the impact of blood transaminase levels on blood glutamate concentration and memory functions in human. These findings are important for the interpretation of obesity-induced metabolic syndrome with elevated transaminases and cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27051595

  6. Effect of Collaborative Care System (CCS) on Blood Glucose Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Outpatient

    OpenAIRE

    Nuryati Kuman; Bangunawati Rahajeng

    2016-01-01

    Some health system in various countries in the world is highly fragmented and is unable to resolve health problems. With collaborative care system, it is expected that DM patients can be managed well. We conducted a study to determine the effect of collaborative care system on blood glucose levels of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study uses a quasi-experimental design. Data was obtained by measuring random blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The samp...

  7. A comparison before and after lamotrigine use in long term continuation treatment: effect of blood level

    OpenAIRE

    Kesebir, Sermin; Akdeniz, Fisun; Demir, Aysun; Bilici, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The hypothesis of this study is that the efficacy of lamotrigine is related with blood level in bipolar disorder. Our aim is to compare the periods before and after lamotrigine use in cases with bipolar disorder and to investigate whether there has been any relation between lamotrigine blood level and clinical progress or not. Method: For this aim, 40 consecutive cases diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I according to DSM-IV criteria, using lamotrigine for at least two years i...

  8. Blood CEA levels for detecting recurrent colorectal cancer: A Diagnostic Test Accuracy Review.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, BD; Shinkins, B.; Pathiraja, I; Roberts, NW; James, T; Mallett, S.; Perera, R; Primrose, JN; Mant, D

    2015-01-01

    Background Testing for carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) in the blood is a recommended part of follow-up to detect recurrence of colorectal cancer following primary curative treatment. There is substantial clinical variation in the cut-off level applied to trigger further investigation. Objectives To determine the diagnostic performance of different blood CEA levels in identifying people with colorectal cancer recurrence in order to inform clinical practice. Search methods W...

  9. Blood lead level and dental caries in school-age children.

    OpenAIRE

    Gemmel, Allison; Tavares, Mary; Alperin, Susan; Soncini, Jennifer; Daniel, David; Dunn, Julie; Crawford, Sybil; Braveman, Norman; Clarkson, Thomas W.; McKinlay, Sonja; Bellinger, David C.

    2002-01-01

    The association between blood lead level and dental caries was evaluated in cross-sectional analyses of baseline data for 543 children 6-10 years old screened for enrollment in the Children's Amalgam Trial, a study designed to assess potential health effects of mercury in silver fillings. Approximately half of the children were recruited from an urban setting (Boston/Cambridge, MA, USA) and approximately half from a rural setting (Farmington, ME, USA). Mean blood lead level was significantly ...

  10. Effect of Sulfonylureas Administered Centrally on the Blood Glucose Level in Immobilization Stress Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Naveen; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-hyun; Lim, Su-Min; Kim, Sung-Su; Jung, Jun-Sub; Hong, Jae-Seung; Suh, Hong-Won

    2015-01-01

    Sulfonylureas are widely used as an antidiabetic drug. In the present study, the effects of sulfonylurea administered supraspinally on immobilization stress-induced blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. Mice were once enforced into immobilization stress for 30 min and returned to the cage. The blood glucose level was measured 30, 60, and 120 min after immobilization stress initiation. We found that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection with 30 µg of glyburide, glipizide, glimepir...

  11. A probable role of blood lead levels on some haematological parameters in traffic police, Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shafaat Yar; Arshad, Muhammad; Arshad, Najma; Shafaat, Shazia; Tahir, Hafiz Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    The impact of elevated blood lead level on some haematological parameters was studied in the field force of Lahore traffic police, in Pakistan. The blood samples were tested for total leucocytes count (TLC) and differential leucocytes count in the persons with high and low blood lead levels. The TLC and percentage of neutrophils and eosinophils were observed as being significantly elevated in the policemen. No significant change was observed in the percentage of lymphocytes, while the percentage of monocytes was observed as being significantly less in the field force of traffic police. PMID:24311624

  12. Maternal and cord blood levels of aldrin and dieldrin in Delhi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Md; Pathak, Rahul; Tripathi, A K; Ahmed, Rafat S; Guleria, Kiran; Banerjee, B D

    2010-12-01

    Aldrin and dieldrin, structurally similar organochlorine pesticides belong to cyclodiene family and were widely used for agriculture and public health program in India. Although the manufacturing, use and import of aldrin and dieldrin have been banned in India since 2003, these pesticides are still persistent in environment and may be associated with adverse neurological and reproductive effects. The aim of this study is to assess the recent exposure level of aldrin and dieldrin and their placental transfer to fetus in normal healthy full-term pregnant women belonging to north Indian population undergoing normal delivery at Obstetrics and Gynecology department of UCMS and GTB hospital, Delhi. Quantitative analysis of aldrin and dieldrin residues in maternal and cord blood samples were carried out by gas chromatography system equipped with electron capture detector. The results of our study clearly revealed that maternal and cord blood levels of aldrin and dieldrin of pregnant women are age and dietary habit dependent. The aldrin level in maternal blood and dieldrin level in cord blood are higher in women in the age group 25-30 years than in women in age group of 19-24 years. Similarly, aldrin level in maternal blood is significantly higher in women with non-vegetarian dietary habit than in women with vegetarian dietary habit. No significant association is found for maternal and cord blood level. The results of the present study clearly demonstrate prenatal uptake of aldrin and dieldrin and provide recent information on the subsequent transplacental transfer. PMID:20195752

  13. Estimation of postmortem interval using the data of insulin level in the cadaver׳s blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachil Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Insulin levels in cadaver blood are correlated significantly with PMI with a p value of <0.001. When insulin level increases by 1 unit the duration decreases by 0.93 units. The least square regression line is: [Duration(Y=22.71−0.93 Insulin level (X

  14. High levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor are associated with treatment adherence among crack-cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Juliana N; Schuch, Silvia; Ornell, Felipe; Sordi, Anne O; Bristot, Giovana; Pfaffenseller, Bianca; Kapczinski, Flávio; Kessler, Felix H P; Fumagalli, Fabio; Pechansky, Flavio; von Diemen, Lisia

    2016-09-01

    Due to the complexity of crack -cocaine addiction treatment, the identification of biological markers that could help determining the impact or outcome of drug use has become a major subject of study. Therefore, we aim to evaluate the association of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) levels in crack -cocaine users with treatment adherence and with drug addiction severity. A sample of 47 male inpatient crack- cocaine users were recruited in a treatment unit, and blood samples were collected at admission and discharge in order to measure BDNF and TBARS serum levels. Subjects were split into 2 groups: treatment non-completers (n=23) and treatment completers (n=24). The completer group had a tendency of higher levels of BDNF than non-completers at admission (16.85±3.24 vs. 14.65±5.45, p=0.10), and significant higher levels at discharge (18.10±4.88 vs. 13.91±4.77, p=0.001). A negative correlation between BDNF levels at admission and years of crack use was observed. We did not find significant changes in TBARS levels during inpatient treatment, although the completer group tended to decrease these levels while non-completers tend to increase it. These findings suggest an association between higher levels of BDNF and better clinical outcomes in crack- cocaine users after detoxification. We believe that the variation in BDNF and TBARS found here add evidence to literature data that propose that such biomarkers could be used to better understand the physiopathology of crack- cocaine addiction. PMID:27473943

  15. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD). Renal imaging. Concepts and applications; Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD). Bildgebung der Nieren. Konzepte und Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissen, Johanna C.; Haneder, Stefan; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Michaely, Henrik J. [Heidelberg Univ. Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; Mie, Moritz B.; Zoellner, Frank G. [Heidelberg Univ. Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim (DE). Inst. fuer Computerunterstuetzte Klinische Medizin (CKM)

    2010-07-01

    Many renal diseases as well as several pharmacons cause a change in renal blood flow and/or renal oxygenation. The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging takes advantage of local field inhomogeneities and is based on a T2{sup *}-weighted sequence. BOLD is a non-invasive method allowing an estimation of the renal, particularly the medullary oxygenation, and an indirect measurement of blood flow without administration of contrast agents. Thus, effects of different drugs on the kidney and various renal diseases can be controlled and observed. This work will provide an overview of the studies carried out so far and identify ways how BOLD can be used in clinical studies. (orig.)

  16. Comparison of high-intensity vs. high-volume resistance training on the BDNF response to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, David D; Hoffman, Jay R; Mangine, Gerald T; Jajtner, Adam R; Townsend, Jeremy R; Beyer, Kyle S; Wang, Ran; La Monica, Michael B; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2016-07-01

    This study compared the acute and chronic response of circulating plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to high-intensity low-volume (HI) and low-intensity high volume (HV) resistance training. Twenty experienced resistance-trained men (23.5 ± 2.6 y, 1.79 ± 0.05 m, 75.7 ± 13.8 kg) volunteered for this study. Before the resistance training program (PRE), participants performed an acute bout of exercise using either the HI [3-5 reps; 90% of one repetition maximum (1RM)] or HV (10-12 reps; 70% 1RM) training paradigm. The acute exercise protocol was repeated after 7 wk of training (POST). Blood samples were obtained at rest (BL), immediately (IP), 30 min (30P), and 60 min (60P) post exercise at PRE and POST. A three-way repeated measure ANOVA was used to analyze acute changes in BDNF concentrations during HI and HV resistance exercise and the effect of 7 wk of training. No training × time × group interaction in BDNF was noted (P = 0.994). Significant main effects for training (P = 0.050) and time (P effect were noted in the BDNF area under the curve response. Results indicate that BDNF concentrations are increased after an acute bout of resistance exercise, regardless of training paradigm, and are further increased during a 7-wk training program in experienced lifters. PMID:27231312

  17. Incense burning at home and the blood lead level of preschoolers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lin, Yi-Shuan; Lin, Chia-Yu; Wang, I-Jen

    2014-12-01

    The growth and intellectual development of children less than 6 years old may be affected by exposure to low levels of lead. To further reduce environmental lead exposure, this study examined possible household-related factors that affect the blood lead levels of Taiwanese children. In total, based on a stratified random sampling strategy, 934 kindergarten students were recruited throughout Taiwan from April to October 2011 after their parents signed a statement of consent. A venous blood sample was drawn from each participant and analyzed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Information on the demographics and household environment of the study subjects was collected by administering a questionnaire (Table 1). The geometric mean lead level in the blood samples of the study subjects was 1.84 μg/dL with a geometric standard deviation of 1.55. The blood lead level was negatively correlated with household income and parental educational levels (p Study subjects with more siblings also tended to have higher blood lead levels (p home, an ethnic tradition, was also identified as a significant factor for increased blood lead levels (p home (p = 0.0022). Because the health effects of low levels of lead exposure have been reported in recent years and because no consensus has been reached regarding a safety threshold for blood lead level in children, any trivial factor is worth investigating to further prevent lead exposure in children. Incense burning at home is a common traditional religious activity in Taiwan; therefore, more study is warranted to further eliminate the lead content in incense and reduce lead exposure for the families who practice this activity. PMID:25015713

  18. The effects of food deprivation and incentive motivation on blood glucose levels and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M W; Elliman, N A; Rogers, P J

    1997-11-01

    The current study investigated the relationships between blood glucose levels, mild food deprivation, sympathetic arousal, and cognitive processing efficiency. Subjects (n = 82) were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, comprising combined manipulations of food deprivation and incentive motivation. Baseline and mid-session measurements of blood glucose, blood pressure and pulse rate were taken. Subjects completed a number of measures of cognitive processing efficiency and self report measures of affective and somatic state. Although glucose levels were lowered following food deprivation, there was no significant detrimental effect of food deprivation on task performance. However, improved recognition memory processing times were associated with deprivation. Incentive motivation was associated with faster simple reaction times and higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant relationships between glucose levels and task performance, further supporting the hypothesis that the brain is relatively invulnerable to short food deprivation. PMID:9399371

  19. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  20. Positive Association between Blood 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Pterygium after Control for Sunlight Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Donghyun; Kim, Eun Chul; Cho, Eunyoung; Arroyo, Jorge G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and pterygium. Methods Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011 were used for the present epidemiologic study. A total of 19,178 participants aged ≥ 30 years were evaluated for blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and performed ophthalmic slit lamp examinations. Pterygium was considered as a growth of fibrovascular tissue over the cornea. Results The average blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were 18.6 ng/mL, and prevalence of pterygium was 6.5%. The odds of pterygium significantly increased across blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D quintiles after controlling sun exposure time as well as other confounders such as sex, age, smoking, diabetes, hypertension (P vitamin D quintile. Stratified analysis by sex showed a positive association between blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and pterygium in both men (quintile 5 versus 1, OR; 1.68, 95%CI; 1.19–2.37) and women (quintile 5 versus 1, OR; 1.37, 95% CI; 1.00–1.88). Conclusions Even after controlling sun light exposure time, we found a positive association between blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and pterygium in a representative Korean population. The mechanism underlying this association is unknown. PMID:27286036

  1. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); Carlos III Health Institute (ISCIII), 20220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Public Health Laboratory of Alava, Direccion de Salud Publica, Gobierno Vasco, Santiago 11, 01002, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country (Spain); Vioque, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Av de Alicante KM 87, 03550, Sant Joan d' Alacant (Spain); Ibarluzea, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Departamento de Sanidad Gobierno Vasco, Subdireccion de Salud Publica de Gipuzkoa, Avenida de Navarra 4, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Biodonostia, Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica, San Sebastian (Spain); Guxens, Monica [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Casas, Maribel [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Murcia, Mario [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Maria [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2011-05-01

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. {>=} vs < 2 {mu}g/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 {mu}g/dL and 19 {mu}g/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: {yields} Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. {yields} Cord blood Pb levels in

  2. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. ≥ vs < 2 μg/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 μg/dL and 19 μg/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: → Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. → Cord blood Pb levels in Spanish newborn are low in

  3. Impaired TrkB Signaling Underlies Reduced BDNF-Mediated Trophic Support of Striatal Neurons in the R6/2 Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khanh Q; Rymar, Vladimir V; Sadikot, Abbas F

    2016-01-01

    The principal projection neurons of the striatum are critically dependent on an afferent supply of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for neurotrophic support. These neurons express TrkB, the cognate receptor for BDNF, which activates signaling pathways associated with neuronal survival and phenotypic maintenance. Impairment of the BDNF-TrkB pathway is suspected to underlie the early dysfunction and prominent degeneration of striatal neurons in Huntington disease (HD). Some studies in HD models indicate that BDNF supply is reduced, while others suggest that TrkB signaling is impaired earlier in disease progression. It remains important to determine whether a primary defect in TrkB signaling underlies reduced neurotrophic support and the early vulnerability of striatal neurons in HD. Using the transgenic R6/2 mouse model of HD we found that prior to striatal degeneration there are early deficits in striatal protein levels of activated phospho-TrkB and the downstream-regulated protein DARPP-32. In contrast, total-TrkB and BDNF protein levels remained normal. Primary neurons cultured from R6/2 striatum exhibited reduced survival in response to exogenous BDNF applications. Moreover, BDNF activation of phospho-TrkB and downstream signal transduction was attenuated in R6/2 striatal cultures. These results suggest that neurotrophic support of striatal neurons is attenuated early in disease progression due to defects in TrkB signal transduction in the R6/2 model of HD. PMID:27013968

  4. Occupational lead poisoning in the United States: Clinical and biochemical findings related to blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.L.; Landrigan, P.J.; Barbour, A.G.; Cox, D.H.; Folland, D.S.

    1977-01-01

    A study was made of 160 lead exposed workers at a secondary lead smelter, a small scrap smelter, and a lead chemicals facility to investigate dose response relationships between blood lead levels and toxic effects. The levels of blood lead ranged from 0.77 to 13.51 micromoles/liter (micromol/l). In 70 workers, 44 percent of the total number, clinical evidence of toxic exposure was detected including colic in 33, wrist or ankle extensor muscle weakness in 12, anemia in 27, elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in 28, and possible encephalopathy in two. At blood lead levels below 1.93 micromol/l no toxicity was detected. However, 13 percent of those workers with blood lead levels of 1.93 to 3.81 micromol/l had extensor muscle weakness or gastrointestinal symptoms. In 5 percent of the workers with lead levels of 1.93 to 2.85 micromol/l, anemia was noted. Anemia was also noted in 14 percent with levels between 2.90 and 3.81 micromol/l and in 36 percent with levels over 3.86 micromol/l. In long term lead workers elevated BUN occurred. All but three workers with elevated BUN had at least 4 years of occupational lead exposure, and nine had received oral chelation therapy. Eight of this group had reduced creatinine clearance and eight had decreased renal concentrating ability.

  5. Gastric Bypass Surgery Reverses Diabetic Phenotypes in Bdnf-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shujun; Wang, Qinghua; Huang, Zan; Song, Anying; Peng, Yu; Hou, Siyuan; Guo, Shiying; Zhu, Weiyun; Yan, Sheng; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Duodenum-jejunum gastric bypass (DJB) has been used to treat morbid diabetic patients. However, neither the suitability among patients nor the mechanisms of this surgical treatment is clear. Previously, we reported a new mouse strain named Timo as type 2 diabetes model caused by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) deficiency. In this study, we found that DJB on Timo mice reversed their metabolic abnormalities without altering the expression of Bdnf. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were improved greatly, along with reduction of fat accumulation in liver and white adipose tissue. The gut flora population was altered by DJB with increased proportion of Firmicutes and decreased Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in the ileum after surgery. Systemic inflammation in Timo mice was greatly suppressed with less macrophage infiltration and lower tumor necrosis factor-α levels in liver and white adipose tissue after surgery. Interestingly, the alteration of gut microflora abundance and improved metabolism preceded the inflammation alleviation after DJB surgery. These results suggested that DJB can reverse Bdnf deficiency-associated metabolic abnormality. In addition, the reduced inflammation may not be the initial cause for the DJB-associated metabolic and microbiota alterations. The increased BDNF protein levels in hypothalamus and hippocampus may result from microbiota change after DJB surgery. PMID:27418549

  6. Early life stress increases stress vulnerability through BDNF gene epigenetic changes in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mi Kyoung; Ly, Nguyen Ngoc; Lee, Chan Hong; Cho, Hye Yeon; Choi, Cheol Min; Nhu, Le Hoa; Lee, Jung Goo; Lee, Bong Ju; Kim, Gyung-Mee; Yoon, Bong June; Park, Sung Woo; Kim, Young Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Early life stress (ELS) exerts long-lasting epigenetic influences on the brain and makes an individual susceptible to later depression. It is poorly understood whether ELS and subsequent adult chronic stress modulate epigenetic mechanisms. We examined the epigenetic mechanisms of the BDNF gene in the hippocampus, which may underlie stress vulnerability to postnatal maternal separation (MS) and adult restraint stress (RS). Rat pups were separated from their dams (3 h/day from P1-P21). When the pups reached adulthood (8 weeks old), we introduced RS (2 h/day for 3 weeks) followed by escitalopram treatment. We showed that both the MS and RS groups expressed reduced levels of total and exon IV BDNF mRNA. Furthermore, RS potentiated MS-induced decreases in these expression levels. Similarly, both the MS and RS groups showed decreased levels of acetylated histone H3 and H4 at BDNF promoter IV, and RS exacerbated MS-induced decreases of H3 and H4 acetylation. Both the MS and RS groups had increased MeCP2 levels at BDNF promoter IV, as well as increased HDAC5 mRNA, and the combination of MS and RS exerted a greater effect on these parameters than did RS alone. In the forced swimming test, the immobility time of the MS + RS group was significantly higher than that of the RS group. Additionally, chronic escitalopram treatment recovered these alterations. Our results suggest that postnatal MS and subsequent adult RS modulate epigenetic changes in the BDNF gene, and that these changes may be related to behavioral phenotype. These epigenetic mechanisms are involved in escitalopram action. PMID:26877199

  7. Glycyrrhiza uralensis flavonoids inhibit brain microglial cell TNF-α secretion, p-IκB expression, and increase brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita P. Patil

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: ASHMI and its effective flavonoid, isoliquiritigenin, inhibited TNF-α production by LPS stimulated microglial cells and elevated BDNF levels, which may prove to have anti-CNS inflammatory and anti-anxiety effects.

  8. Effects of Different Exercise Intensities with Isoenergetic Expenditures on C-Reactive Protein and Blood Lipid Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Te Hung; Yang, Chang Bin; Hsu, Chin Hsing

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different exercise intensities on C-reactive protein (CRP), and whether changes in CRP levels correlated with blood lipid levels. Ten men exercised at 25%, 65%, and 85% of their maximum oxygen consumption rates. Participants' blood was analyzed for CRP and blood lipid levels before and after the exercise sessions.…

  9. Intraoperative blood glucose levels in neurosurgical patients : an evaluation of two fluid regimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swamy M

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the evidence that hyperglycaemia aggravates ischaemic cerebral injury, it has been suggested that blood glucose levels be kept within 200 mg/dL during intracranial neurosurgery. Hypoglycaemia, however, can be a serious problem if glucose-containing solutions are avoided during the first four hours, as suggested in some studies. In order to explore the possibility of administering glucose in moderation so that the blood glucose levels are within acceptable limits, but at the same time the risk of hyoglycaemia is eliminated, we compared two intraoperative fluid regimens. Of the 52 neurosurgical patients studied, 32 patients received alternately 500 ml of 5% dextrose in normal saline and Ringer′s lactate (DNS/RL Group and 18 patients received alternately 500 ml of Ringer′s lactate and normal saline (RL/NS Group. Blood glucose concentrations were determined at the end of each unit of fluid, until the patient received 4 units of fluid. In the DNS/RL group, blood glucose values peaked with the administration of each unit of DNS and tended to return towards the baseline with the subsequent RL, but remained higher than the previous control value. In the RL/NS group, there was a progressive increase in blood glucose values throughout the study period, but the increase was not statistically significant. The blood glucose levels were significantly different between the two groups after each unit of fluid except at the end of the fourth unit. Two patients in the RL/NS group had hypoglycaemia. In conclusion, the DNS/RL regimen maintains blood glucose levels within acceptable limits while avoiding the risk of hyperglycaemia. Withholding glucose completely, lowers blood glucose levels, but carries a risk of hypoglycaemia in some patients.

  10. Anthropometric, environmental, and dietary predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels in Ukrainian children: Ukraine ELSPAC group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No comprehensive data on sources or risk factors of cadmium exposure in Ukrainian children are available. In this we measured the blood levels of cadmium among 80 Ukrainian children and evaluated sources of exposure. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood cadmium using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic data, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, body-mass index, and diet. Dietary habits were evaluated using the 1992 Block-NCI-HHHQ Dietary Food Frequency survey. Elevated cadmium was defined as blood levels in the upper quartile (>=0.25μg/L). The mean age for all 80 children was 36.6 months. Geometric mean cadmium level was 0.21μg/L (range=0.11-0.42μg/L; SD=0.05). Blood cadmium levels were higher among children taking zinc supplements (0.25 vs 0.21μg/L; P=0.032), children who ate sausage more than once per week (0.23 vs 0.20; P=0.007) and children whose fathers worked in a by-product coking industry (0.25 vs 0.21; P=0.056). In the multivariable model, predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels included zinc supplementation (adjusted OR=14.16; P<0.01), father working in a by-product coking industry (adjusted OR=8.50; P=0.03), and low body mass index (<14.5; adjusted OR=5.67; P=0.03). This is the first study to indicate a strong association between elevated blood cadmium levels and zinc supplementation in young children. Whole-blood cadmium levels observed in this group of Ukrainian children appear to be similar to those reported in other Eastern European countries

  11. Comparison of Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood Selenium Levels in Low and Normal Birth Weight Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyly Nazemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare the maternal and umbilical cord serum selenium concentrations in Low and normal birth weight neonates.Materials and methods:A case-control study was carried out in Vali-Asr and Akbarabadi Hospitals (Jan. to Dec. 2013. Two groups; case group; 91 mothers who delivered a low birth weight (LBW neonate and control group; 86 subjects who delivered a normal birth weight neonate were selected. Immediately after birth, 5 ml of maternal blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, and sent to laboratory to assay Se concentrations. To compare both groups' blood Se concentration, data were analyzed in SPSS 16.0.Results:Eighty six (48.6% mothers with normal birth weight neonates and 91 (51.4% mothers with low birth weight infants entered the study. Mean maternal mothers' age and mean maternal blood Se were 28.55+5.90 years and 79.3756+26.46915. A significant association was seen between maternal blood and cord blood Se level in control and case group (P value<0.0001, r = 0.69 and(P value<0.001, r = 0.79. On the other hand no differences were seen between 2 groups' maternal blood Se level (P Value = 0.65. Umbilical Cord blood Se concentration was not also different between case and control group (P value = 0.46.Conclusion:We found that maternal and umbilical cord blood Se concentrations were not different in low and adequate birth weight infants, however; umbilical cord Se concentrations were positively correlated with maternal blood Se concentrations.

  12. Investigation and Evaluation of Children's Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-01-01

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents' occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant. PMID:27240393

  13. Association between calcium intake, parathormone levels and blood pressure during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Nieto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the association between calcium intake from diet, calciotropic hormones (PTH, PTH-rp, vasoactive regulators (endothelin, nitric oxide and blood pressure levels during pregnancy, birth and puerperium.Method: In a prospective study 149 healthy normotensive primigravidas were followed-up from 15 weeks of gestation to puerperium. Daily calcium intake, calciuria, PTH, PTH-rp, endothelin, nitrite-nitrate, and Holter Test were assessed. Linear regression models were performed to evaluate the association between calcium intake, blood pressure levels and the laboratory tests. Multivariate regression models were performed to control potential confounders.Results: A significant increase of calcium intake during pregnancy was observed (931±301 mg/day to 1,195±467 mg/day, p<0.001. Plasma PTH-rp, endothelin, and nitrite-nitrate levels did not change during pregnancy. Among the women 38 (25.4% had low calcium intake (<800 mg/day with a larger increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure during pregnancy (p=0.04 birth (p=0.006 and puerperium (p=0.01. After adjusting for other factors the multivariate analyses showed statistical association between low calcium intake, high parathormone levels and high systolic blood pressure levels during pregnancy (p=0.002.Conclusion: Low calcium intake during pregnancy is associated with a larger increase of systolic blood pressure and high parathormone levels.

  14. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Alvarez, Violeta; Mireku, Michael Osei; Ayotte, Pierre; Cot, Michel; Bodeau-Livinec, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elevated blood lead levels (BLL) and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far. Materials and Methods Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed. Results At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83), and 128 infants (63%) had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%). Twenty-five infants (12.5%) had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobinprotect the population in West Africa. PMID:26866471

  15. Reduced cocaine-seeking behavior in heterozygous BDNF knockout rats

    OpenAIRE

    St. Laurent, Robyn; Helm, Samuel R.; Glenn, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine generates drug-seeking behavior by creating long-lasting changes in the reward pathway. The role of the growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in facilitating these changes was investigated in the present report with a genetic rat model. Using conditioned place preference, the current study investigated the hypothesis that a partial knockout of the BDNF gene in rats (BDNF+/−) would attenuate the rewarding effects of cocaine. Wildtype rats exposed to cocaine exhibited ...

  16. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, C. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: LY@sinap.ac.cn; Li, Y.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zou, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, G.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Normura, M. [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK, Oho, Tsukuba 305 (Japan); Zhu, G.Y. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 A and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N{sub {epsilon}} bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO{sub 2} decreases.

  17. Relationship between blood calcium level and ST peak interval of electrocardiographic variables in peripartum Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Megumi; Sakurai, Yoshie; Nakajima, Yasuhiro; Kawamoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The association between blood calcium levels and electrocardiographic variables was compared in 137 normal parturient and 36 peripartum recumbent Holstein cows to determine whether hypocalcemia in peripartum dairy cows can be rapidly diagnosed using electrocardiograph. Inverse of STc (ST peak interval/SS interval(0.5)) and blood ionized calcium or serum calcium concentrations were strongly correlated, and both correlation coefficients were 0.81 (Pcows with STc >0.385 ± 0.001 sec are very likely to be hypocalcemic (blood ionized or serum calcium concentrations of hypocalcemia in parturient cows can be non-invasively estimated using the STc. PMID:26118411

  18. Proteolytic cleavage of proBDNF into mature BDNF in the basolateral amygdala is necessary for defeat-induced social avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulka, Brooke N; Ford, Ellen C; Lee, Melissa A; Donnell, Nathaniel J; Goode, Travis D; Prosser, Rebecca; Cooper, Matthew A

    2016-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for memory processes. The present study tested whether proteolytic cleavage of proBDNF into mature BDNF (mBDNF) within the basolateral amygdala (BLA) regulates the consolidation of defeat-related memories. We found that acute social defeat increases the expression of mBDNF, but not proBDNF, in the BLA/central amygdala. We also showed that blocking plasmin in the BLA with microinjection of α2-antiplasmin immediately following social defeat decreases social avoidance 24 h later. These data suggest the proteolytic cleavage of BDNF in the BLA is necessary for defeat-induced social avoidance. PMID:26980783

  19. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Florence Bodeau-Livinec; Philippe Glorennec; Michel Cot; Pierre Dumas; Séverine Durand; Achille Massougbodji; Pierre Ayotte; Barbara Le Bot

    2016-01-01

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ra...

  20. Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: The Relationship between Preprocedural Blood Glucose Levels and Periprocedural Myocardial Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Madani, Mohsen; Alizadeh, Keivan; Ghazaee, Sepideh Parchami; Zavarehee, Abbas; Abdi, Seifollah; Shakerian, Farshad; salehi, Negar; Firouzi, Ata

    2013-01-01

    Regardless of the diabetic status of patients with coronary artery disease, hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia are adversely associated with cardiovascular events. The relationship between glucose levels and increased mortality risk in acute myocardial infarction has been shown through various glucose metrics; however, there is a dearth of multivariate analysis of the relationship between elective coronary angioplasty and preprocedural blood glucose levels.

  1. Epidemiology of high-level parvovirus B19 viraemia among Dutch blood donors, 2003-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Kooistra; H.J. Mesman; M. de Waal; M.H.G.M. Koppelman; H.L. Zaaijer

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Plasma derivatives and blood components with low levels of parvovirus B19 (B19) seem not infectious, but recently infected, highly viraemic donors may transmit B19. We studied the incidence of high-level B19 viraemia (B19 DNA > 106 IU/ml) in 6 center dot 5 million Dutch blo

  2. Effect of blood glucose levels on image quality in 18F fluorodeoxyglucose scanning - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In December last year, a 71-year-old gentleman presented to the Nuclear Medicine Department at St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney for an FDG coincidence detection positron emission scan. The patient had cancer of the lung with a large lesion in the left upper lobe and a small lesion in the right middle lobe. On initial investigation, this patient had a blood sugar level of 17mmol/L which was eventually reduced to 6.7mmol/L just prior to scanning. The patient was then asked to return to be rescanned without his blood sugar levels being adjusted. Just prior to his second scan, his blood sugar level was 15.4mmollL. The aim of the initial scan being repeated was to see just how important a role blood sugar levels play in the quality of a Co Pet scan. The first scan showed excellent image quality while the repeated scan showed markedly inferior image quality due to unwanted soft tissue FDG uptake. In conclusion, blood sugar levels play a significant role in output image quality in FDG coincidence detection positron emission scanning. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  3. [Corrrelation between blood pressure levels in patients with glaucoma (Literature review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Yu V; Kuroedov, A V; Baranova, N A; Ibragimova, F M

    2016-01-01

    The problem of correlation between blood pressure levels and intraocular pressure is one of the most talked about. Both, Russian and foreign literature, reflects the heterogeneity of views on the impact of blood pressure changes into the level of intraocular. pressure. At the same time it underestimated the role of systemic cardiovascular changes in the deterioration of visual function in case of primary open-angle glaucoma. Numerous data demonstrate the role of additional factors than average blood pressure levels in advance of glaucoma. More and more researchers tend to assess not only intraocular pressure, but also perfusion pressure as a risk predictor of advance of glaucoma. Correlation between blood pressure level and intraocular pressure has a particular relevance due to the significant improvement of the range of cardiovascular drugs that can affect on intraocular pressure indictors. A number of literature data confirm the need to research variations in blood pressure levels during the day and types of therapy that patients receive. PMID:27120953

  4. CYTOKINE LEVELS IN MATERNAL BLOOD AND UMBICAL CORD SERA FROM WOMEN WITH SYMPTOMS OF INTRAUTERINE INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Botvin’eva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We had investigated serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ra and TNFα in peripheral blood of pregnant women at the terms of 38 to 40 weeks with polyhydramnios and serum IgG antibodies specific for Chlamydia trachomatis (titers of 1:20 to 1:40. Same parameters were tested in umbilical cord blood sera, obtained at delivery. We had found high levels of TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 in sera from umbilical cord blood, and increased levels of TNFα in maternal sera before delivery in a group of women with high Apgar scores of their children (≥ 8 points, in comparison with control group. High levels of TNFα, IL-6, IL-10 in sera from umbical cord and increased serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ra and TNFα before delivery were evaluated in group of women with circulating antibodies against C. trachomatis during pregnancy and with low degrees of newborn children (< 7 by Apgar score. We suggest that high cytokine levels in maternal blood and in sera of umbilical cord blood from women with polyhydramnios and circulating antibodies against C. trachomatis sufficiently correlate with high clinical risk of intrauterine infection in newborns. However, high inter-individual variability of the cytokine parameters does not permit their usage as independent diagnostic criteria.

  5. How Effective is Swedish Massage on Blood Glucose Level in Children with Diabetes Mellitus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Sajedi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available "nThis study was conducted to determine the effect of Swedish massage on blood glucose level in children with diabetes mellitus (DM. It was prospective randomized controlled trial study that conducted on 36 children, 6-12 years old with DM, recruited from a hospital in Qom City, Iran. The children were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Swedish massage was performed 15 minutes, 3 times a week, for 3 months in intervention group. The blood glucose levels were evaluated immediately after every session of massage in two groups. The mean ages of children in the intervention (n=18 and control (n=18 groups were 9.05 ± 1.55 and 9.83 ±2.03 years respectively. There was statistically no significant difference in blood glucose levels before intervention between two groups (P=0.586, but the blood glucose levels were lower significantly in intervention group in comparison with control group after intervention (P<0.0001. Addition of Swedish massage to daily routines; exercise, diet and medication regimens, is an effective intervention to reduce blood glucose level in diabetic children.

  6. Advances in the research of BDNF with cerebral ischemia%脑源性神经营养因子与脑缺血的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付美红; 李海涛

    2012-01-01

    脑源性神经营养因子(brain derived neurotrophic factor,BDNF)是在脑内形成的一类神经营养因子.BDNF通过作用于其特异性受体TrkB、P75促进神经元的生长发育同时修复受损的神经元.BDNF对缺血性脑损伤的保护机制是通过下调钙离子浓度,减小Bax/Bcl-2比值,对抗NO毒性等途径实现的.该文介绍了BDNF的基本作用及其与脑缺血的相关作用研究,综述了BDNF的应用方法研究.%Brain derived neurotrophic factor ( BDNF ) is a class of neurotrophic factor formed within the brain. BDNF promotes the growth and development of the neurons and repair the damaged neurons acting on its specific receptors TrkB and P75. BDNF plays a key role in ischemic damage protection mainly by eliminating oxygen-derived free radicals, reducing Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, regulating the low levels of ca2 + and against NO toxicity as well. This paper introduces the basic function of BDNF and the related research of BDNF on ischemic damage. The article reviews the research of the application methods of BDNF.

  7. The efficacy of karkadeh tea in controlling post-prandial blood glucose levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Cooper, Ross Gordon; Suliman, Moustafa Ahmed;

    2009-01-01

    obesity. Approach: In order to investigate the efficacy of "karkadeh" Roselle-Hibiscus sabdariffa tea as a means of reducing post-prandial blood glucose levels in human subjects, 10g of dried karkadeh was brewed in 500ml of water, allowed to infuse for 60 min and imbibed along with a high glycemic index...... food. Results: Data show that in one individual, karkadeh tea taken in connection with a carbohydrate based breakfast meal resulted in a significant increase (17%; p<0.01) in blood glucose level cf. an ordinary breakfast tea 60 min after ingestion. Moreover, in a study involving eight individuals, a...... slower rise to maximum levels and a greater Area Under the Curve (AUC) in terms of blood glucose was noted for the karkadeh tea plus a high glycemic index food cf. that of water imbibition with an identical high glycemic food. Conclusions/Recommendations: Karkadeh tea appears to have an efffect in terms...

  8. Lead levels in the workers blood at the Toluca bus terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out in order to detect the levels of lead in blood in exposed workers to the lead in their place of work, in the Toluca bus terminal. The measurement of the levels of lead in blood was carried out in a sample of 31 people of 60 workers for atomic absorption spectrometry. The lead is a general protoplasmic poison that is accumulative and produce great variety of symptoms, the lead could be absorbed inside the body for ingestion, inhalation and through the skin. Organic compounds of the lead as tetraethyl lead, penetrate the cutaneous barrier quickly. From the beginning the personal habits were evaluated, hygienic, nutritious and the environmental conditions by means of a questionnaire. The levels of lead in opposing blood, they were below them you limit permissible for personal exposed, published by the WHO. (Author)

  9. Synergistic effects of elevated homocysteine level and abnormal blood lipids on the onset of stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Hao; Zhenzhen Cheng; Qiang Wu; Shuzhang Li; Liming Chen; Xiaoyong Sai; Zhefeng Liu; Guang Yang; Rongzeng Yan; Lili Wang; Caiyun Fu; Xuan Xu

    2013-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia and abnormal blood lipids are independent risk factors for stroke. However, whether both factors exert a synergistic effect in the onset of stroke remains unclear. The present study is a retrospective analysis of 2 089 cases of stroke and 2 089 control cases of simple inter-vertebral disk protrusion using a paired multivariate logistic regression method. Adjusting for known confounding variables including the patients’ age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumption status, patient and family medical history, and clinical biochemical indices, elevated homocysteine level was related to the onset of stroke. Patients with elevated homocysteine levels and abnormal blood lipids showed a 40.9%increase in the risk for stroke compared to patients with normal ho-mocysteine levels and blood lipids (odds ratio 1.409;95%confidence interval 1.127-1.761). These results indicate that elevated homocysteine and abnormal blood lipids exert synergistic effects in the onset of stroke. Patients with elevated homocysteine levels and abnormal blood lipids are predis-posed to stroke.

  10. [Effects of various food products on blood sugar level in patients with diabetes mellitus and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanov, S K; Khasaev, A Sh; Gapparov, M M

    1991-01-01

    The blood sugar level was evaluated in patients with insulin-independent diabetes mellitus and obesity, and in normal volunteers, during 3 h with a 30-min interval before and after food loading containing 50 g of carbohydrates. It has been found that 17 food products studied produce varying effects on the blood glucose level regardless of the content of starch and sugars in them. Pure glucose, boiled rice, potatoe, white bread, boiled bean, pastry, honey and sugar produce the highest glycemic effect. Milk, ice cream, boiled lens and noodles produce a moderate effect on the blood sugar level both in normal subjects and in patients with diabetes mellitus and obesity. The increase of the glucose blood level after intake of food products was significantly higher in patients with diabetes mellitus as compared to those with obesity and normal volunteers. Milk products, lens, macaroni and millet are most promising for patients with diabetes mellitus due to their moderate influence on the blood glucose content. PMID:2042318

  11. Determinants of maternal and umbilical blood lead levels: a cross-sectional study, Mosul, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jomard Raghad A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The populations who are most sensitive to lead exposure from various sources are pregnant women and their newborns. Aiming to explore the presence of correlation between maternal and cord blood lead levels and to identify potential predictors that may influence both levels, the present study has been conducted. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted covering 350 full terms maternal-newborns pairs from Mosul maternity hospitals. Data were obtained directly from women just before delivery by the use of a detailed questionnaire form. Maternal and umbilical blood lead levels were estimated using LEADCARE® Blood Lead Testing System and Kits. Results A positive significant correlation was found between maternal and cord blood lead values (r = 0.856, p = 0.001. By backward stepwise logistic regression analysis the followings emerged as significant potential predictors of high maternal blood lead: low parity, smoking and Hb level Conclusion Study results have provided baseline data needed to be transformed to decision makers to implement measures to eliminate lead from the environment and protect future generation from its deleterious effects.

  12. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE ON BLOOD OXYGEN FREE RADICAL AND NO LEVELS IN TREATMENT OF APOPLECTIC SEQUELAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁青; 马瑞玲; 靳瑞

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of acupuncture on blood oxygen free radical (OFR) and nitric oxide(NO) levels in the treatment of apoplectic sequelae. Methods: A total of 61 cases of apoplectic patients were subject-ed into this study and randomly divided into "JIN San Zhen" group (n=30) and control group (n=31). Blood lipid per-oxidase (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px) and nitric oxide (NO) contents beforeand after acupuncture treatment were determined with radioimmunoassay. In both groups, acupuncture was given oncedaily, six times a week, with 4 weeks being a therapeutic course and with the interval between two weeks being aweek, 3 courses all together. In "JIN San Zhen" group, acupoints of "JIN San Zhen" were used predominately, whilein control group, scalp-point Motor Sensory Area (MS 8) was used as the main point. Results: Self-comparison showedthat after 3 courses of treatment, in both groups, LPO and NO levels decreased significantly ( P < 0.05 - 0.01 ), SODand GST-Px values increased considerably ( P< 0.05 - 0.01 ). Comparison between two groups indicated that the ef-fects of "JIN San Zhen" group are significantly superior to those of control group in raising blood SOD and GST-Px lev-els ( P< 0.05- 0.01 ) and in lowering blood NO content ( P< 0.01 ). Analysis on the correlation between the restora-tion of neural function and the changes of LPO, SOD and GST-Px levels suggested that the effect of acupuncture in im-proving neural function may be related to changes of the aforementioned indexes. Conclusion: Acupuncture therapy cansignificantly lower blood LPO and NO levels and evidently raise blood SOD and GST-Px levels in stroke patients.

  13. Blood cadmium levels are associated with a decline in lung function in males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Cadmium exposure was found to cause a decline in lung function among the general population, but these findings were limited to smokers and gender differences were not explored. Objectives: To examine the relationship between cadmium and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) according to gender and smoking status in Korea. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011 were analyzed. COPD was defined by a pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s divided by forced vital capacity of <0.70. A logistic regression model was used to elucidate the association between blood cadmium levels and COPD according to gender and smoking status. Results: Among 3861 eligible participants, 3622 were included in the analysis. The prevalence of COPD demonstrated an increasing trend in males (P for trend<0.001), but not in females (P for trend=0.67). After adjusting for covariates, a higher blood cadmium level, but within the normal range, was associated with COPD in males, including those who had never-smoked (P for trend <0.001 and P for trend=0.008). However, a higher blood cadmium level was not significantly associated with COPD in females, including those who had never smoked (P for trend=0.39 and P for trend=0.43). Conclusions: A higher blood cadmium level, within the normal range, was associated with COPD in males, including those who had never smoked. However, there was no significant association between blood cadmium levels and COPD in females. - Highlights: • Elevated blood cadmium level is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in male. • This association can be seen even in never smoked male. • However, this association is present only in male, but not in female

  14. Blood cadmium levels are associated with a decline in lung function in males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Chang-Mo [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); The Korea Central Cancer Registry, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Oh, In-Hwan; Lee, Jong-Keun [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yoon Hyung [Departments of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Bong-Keun; Yoon, Tai-Young [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Joong-Myung, E-mail: jmchoi@khu.ac.kr [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Background: Cadmium exposure was found to cause a decline in lung function among the general population, but these findings were limited to smokers and gender differences were not explored. Objectives: To examine the relationship between cadmium and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) according to gender and smoking status in Korea. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011 were analyzed. COPD was defined by a pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s divided by forced vital capacity of <0.70. A logistic regression model was used to elucidate the association between blood cadmium levels and COPD according to gender and smoking status. Results: Among 3861 eligible participants, 3622 were included in the analysis. The prevalence of COPD demonstrated an increasing trend in males (P for trend<0.001), but not in females (P for trend=0.67). After adjusting for covariates, a higher blood cadmium level, but within the normal range, was associated with COPD in males, including those who had never-smoked (P for trend <0.001 and P for trend=0.008). However, a higher blood cadmium level was not significantly associated with COPD in females, including those who had never smoked (P for trend=0.39 and P for trend=0.43). Conclusions: A higher blood cadmium level, within the normal range, was associated with COPD in males, including those who had never smoked. However, there was no significant association between blood cadmium levels and COPD in females. - Highlights: • Elevated blood cadmium level is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in male. • This association can be seen even in never smoked male. • However, this association is present only in male, but not in female.

  15. Standardization of Blood Growth Hormone Levels Measured by Different Kits Using a Linear Structural Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Tomohiro; Tachibana, Katsuhiko; Shimatsu, Akira; Katsumata, Noriyuki; HIZUKA, Naomi; Fujieda, Kenji; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    2006-01-01

    Accurate and reliable determination of blood growth hormone level is essential in the diagnosis and treatment of short stature children. However, measured levels differed considerably among measurement kits available in Japan until 2003. Therefore, standardization of the measured values was attempted by measuring growth hormone levels in a sample of healthy adult individuals every year using the different kits. A standardization equation was developed for each kit through linear structural re...

  16. Effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose level and lipid profile in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Cinnamon has been shown to potentiate the hypoglycaemic effect of insulin through up regulation of the glucose uptake in cultured adipocytes of rats. This study tried to find out the effect of Cinnamon alone or in combination with Insulin in diabetic albino rats. Methods: Thirty rats were divided into three groups, A and B. Group A were given cinnamon extract 200 mg/Kg body weight daily orally and group B rats were given cinnamon extract 400 mg/Kg body weight daily. After six weeks blood glucose and lipid profile levels were evaluated in all the groups. Results: Group of rats given 200 mg cinnamon extract showed significant decrease of blood glucose concentration but there was slight or no change in the level of lipid parameters including serum cholesterol, triglyceride and lipoproteins (HDL, LDL-chol). On the other hand group of rats given 400 mg extract of cinnamon showed a better but non significant change in level of lipid related parameter while blood glucose level was significantly decreased. Conclusion: The cinnamon at a dose of 400 mg showed same effects on blood glucose level but better effects on lipid profiles especially of serum cholesterol level of group of rats compared to 200 mg of cinnamon extract. Cinnamon may be recommended as hypoglycaemic herb but not as hypolipidaemic herb. (author)

  17. Effect of whole-body irradiation on the level of blood clotting factors in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats were irradiated with 6.0, 7.0 or 9.5 Gy of X-rays. Blood was collected on the 1,3,7,14 or 30th day after exposure. Fibrinogen, thrombin, prothrombin, factor X and antithrombin 3 levels were determined in blood plasma. In irradiated rats the level of these factors underwent a change which depended to some extent on the radiation dose absorbed. In general, there was a temporary elevation of all factors, lasting longer when the dose applied was higher. 24 refs., 6 tabs. (author)

  18. Radiation-induced bilateral cystic frontal lobe necroses demonstrating a fluid-blood level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 41-year-old male developed radiation-induced bilateral cystic frontal lobe necroses after irradiation for an olfactory neuroblastoma. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed the lesions, one containing a fluid-blood level on CT scans and niveau formation on MR images. It was proved to be a coagulated hematoma within the cyst at surgery. Such a fluid-blood level in a radiation-induced cyst has never been reported, although hemorrhage frequently accompanies delayed radiation necrosis. Positron emission tomography with multiple tracers may be useful in differentiating cerebral radiation necrosis from tumor recurrence, because of absence of abnormal tracer accumulation. (author)

  19. Correlation of blood lead level with iron, zinc and calcium as well as neonatal neurobehavioral development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiguang Li; Guoping Wang; Shenghui Li; Xianguo Wu; Chunru Qi; Yingyi Liang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endothelial cell in brain of undeveloped fetus cannot inhibit entrance of lead so as to cause toxic effect. Over-accumulation of lead can cause toxic effect on children's growth and development, especially on development of nervous system. Lead in fetus body is mainly derived from its mother's; therefore, blood lead reflects the level of mother's lead.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlations among blood lead level, trace elements, mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) of 3-month-old children. DESIGN: Contrast observation. SETTING: Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Shanxi Provincial Children Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 128 neonates with spontaneous delivery were provided by Shanxi Maternity and Child Care Hospital and Jiexiu Municipal Maternity and Child Care Hospital from September 2004 to January 2005. There were 76 boys and 52 girls. All subjects did not have history of ischemia and hypoxia during perinatal period and umbilical blood was accepted to be used in experiments. METHODS: ① Levels of iron, calcium and zinc in umbilical blood: 0.5 mL umbilical blood and 2 mL blood samples were selected from neonates to measure lead content with graphite-oven atom absorption spectrum and contents of iron, calcium and zinc in umbilical blood with atom absorption spectrum. ② Grouping: According to level of blood lead, neonates were divided into high-dosage lead group (blood lead ≥ 0.24 μmol/L) and low-dosage lead group (blood lead < 0.24 μmol/L). ③ Evaluation of neurobehavioral development: Neurobehavioral development of 3-month-old neonates was evaluated with Bayley scale, which was consisted of intelligence scale, motor scale and behavioral scale. Intelligence scale, which was expressed as intelligence development index, contained 163 items, such as adaptability, behavior, language, pilot activities, etc. Motor scale, which was expressed as mental motor development index, contained 81 items, such as vulgar

  20. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. Design: The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16–20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Results: Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90–208; nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P = 0.002 and r=0.22; P = 0.04, respectively while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. Conclusion: In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium.

  1. Community Characteristics are Associated with Blood Pressure Levels in a Racially Integrated Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, L J; Thorpe, R J; Bower, K M; LaVeist, T A

    2015-06-01

    Community problems have been associated with higher, and community resources and social cohesion with lower, blood pressure. However, prior studies have not accounted for potential confounding by residential racial segregation. This study tested associations between community characteristics and blood pressure levels and prevalent hypertension in a racially integrated community. The Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study measured blood pressure in residents of two contiguous racially integrated and low-income US Census Tracts. Community characteristics included a standardized community problem score and binary indicators for community social cohesion, having a community leader available, and having at least one community resource observed on the participant's block. In adjusted models, greater community problems and proximity to resources were associated with lower systolic (β = -2.020, p = 0.028; β = -4.132, p = 0.010) and diastolic (β = -1.261, p = 0.038; β = -2.290, 0.031) blood pressure, respectively, among whites (n = 548). Social cohesion was associated with higher systolic (β = 4.905, p = 0.009) and diastolic blood pressure (β = 3.379, p = 0.008) among African Americans (n = 777). In one racially integrated low-income community, community characteristics were associated with blood pressure levels, and associations differed by race. Directions of associations for two findings differed from prior studies; greater community problem was associated with lower blood pressure in whites and community social cohesion was associated with higher blood pressure in African Americans. These findings may be due to exposure to adverse environmental conditions and hypertensive risk factors in this low-income community. PMID:25665523

  2. Delicious Low GL space foods by using Low GI materials -Checked of blood sugar level-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Kuwayama, Akemi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Enough life-support systems are necessary to stay in space for a long term. The management of the meal for astronauts is in particular very important. When an astronaut gets sick in outer space, it means death. To astronauts, the delicious good balance space foods are essential for their work. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating space foods menu for the healthy space-life by measuring blood sugar level. We made space foods menu to referred to Japanese nutrition standard in 2010. We made space foods menu which are using "brown rice, wheat, soy bean, sweet potato and green-vegetable" and " loach and insects which are silkworm pupa, snail, mud snail, turmait, fly, grasshopper, bee". We use ten health adults as subjects. Ten subjects performed the sensory test of the questionnaire method. There was the sensuality examination in the item of "taste, a fragrance, color, the quantity" and acquired a mark at ten points of perfect scores. The blood sugar level was measured with peripheral blood, before and after a meal for each 15 minutesduring 120 minutes. Statistical analysis was analysed by Excel statistics. As a result of having measured blood sugar level, the space foods menu understood that hyperglycosemia value after a meal was hard to happen. As a result of sensuality exam-ination of the subject, ten points of evaluation of the taste exceeded eight points in a perfect score. The healthy space foods which were hard to go up of the blood sugar level were made deliciously. We can evaluate space foods leading to good health maintenance of the balance by measuring blood sugar level. An astronaut must be healthy to stay in the space for a long term. Therefore the development of the delicious space foods which increase of the health is essential. I devise a combination and the cooking method of the cooking ingredient and want to make healthier space foods menu.

  3. Sex steroids level in blood plasma and ovarian follicles of the chimeric chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechman, A; Lakota, P; Wojtysiak, D; Hrabia, A; Mika, M; Lisowski, M; Czekalski, P; Rzasa, J; Kapkowska, E; Bednarczyk, M

    2006-12-01

    The study was performed to determine the hormonal status of mature germline chimeras obtained by blastodermal cell transfer from chicken embryos of a donor breed [Green-legged Partridgelike breed (GP) x Araucana (AR)] to those of a recipient breed [White Leghorn (WL)] being at the same stage of embryonic development. The egg-laying chimeras and WL hens (control) of the same age were used in the experiment. At first, blood samples were taken from each bird at 0.5, 5, 12.5 and 18.5 h following oviposition. Subsequently, the chimeras and the WL hens were decapitated 1-2 h after ovulation. A stroma and the following follicles were isolated from the ovary: white normal (1-4, 4-6 and 6-8 mm), white atretic and yellow preovulatory follicles (F4-F1). Sex hormones, progesterone (P4), testosterone (T) and oestradiol (E2) in blood plasma and ovarian follicles were determined radioimmunologically. The activity of the 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) in the granulosa and theca layers of the follicles was analysed histochemically. In chimeric chickens, a higher level of T in blood plasma during the ovulatory cycle was noticed. However, in the stroma, white prehierarchical and medium-size preovulatory ovarian follicles the level of T was significantly lower. With respect to E2, its elevated levels were found both in blood and in the ovarian follicles. There were no significant differences in P4 concentrations in blood plasma while in ovarian follicles a higher level was observed only in white 6-8 mm follicles. 3beta-HSD activity in granulosa and theca layers of the ovarian follicles in chimeras was not different from that in the WL hens. In conclusion, the results obtained indicate that germline chimeras exhibit significant alterations in sex hormone levels in the ovary and blood plasma, which in turn may affect their reproductive abilities. PMID:17105570

  4. Sapropterin therapy increases stability of blood phenylalanine levels in patients with BH4-responsive phenylketonuria (PKU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Barbara K; Bausell, Heather; Katz, Rachel; Laduca, Holly; Sullivan, Christine

    2010-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that variability in blood phenylalanine levels is inversely correlated with IQ and is a better predictor of IQ in early and continuously treated patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) than mean blood phenylalanine levels. This suggests that stability of blood phenylalanine should be a therapeutic goal in patients with PKU. The purpose of this study was to determine if treatment with sapropterin in patients with BH4-responsive PKU would increase the stability of blood phenylalanine levels. The records of all patients treated with sapropterin in the PKU Clinic at Children's Memorial Hospital in Chicago were examined retrospectively. Patients were included in the study if they were responsive to sapropterin during a 2- to 4-week challenge (reduction of blood phenylalanine level of at least 25% after 2weeks of therapy or, in the case of patients with well-controlled blood phenylalanine at the time of testing, increased dietary phenylalanine tolerance by 4weeks of treatment). A total of 37 subjects were eligible for inclusion (16male; 21 female); the mean age was 12.6years (range, 1.5-32.0). The total number of observations (phenylalanine levels) for all subjects was 1391 with a mean of 39 per subject (range, 13-96). Linear mixed modeling was utilized to estimate variances of the blood phenylalanine before (pre) and after (post) starting sapropterin. Likelihood ratio test was performed using SAS 9.1. Means and standard deviations for phenylalanine as estimated by the model were 6.67mg/dl (4.20) and post 5.16 (3.78). The mean level post-sapropterin was significantly lower (p=.0002). The within-subject variances (mean and SD) of phenylalanine were: pre 6.897 (2.62) and post 4.799 (2.19). These two variances are significantly different with a p=.0017. We conclude that sapropterin therapy results in increased stability of blood phenylalanine levels. This effect is likely to improve cognitive outcome in BH4-responsive patients with PKU. PMID

  5. Using meta-differential evolution to enhance a calculation of a continuous blood glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutny, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    We developed a new model of glucose dynamics. The model calculates blood glucose level as a function of transcapillary glucose transport. In previous studies, we validated the model with animal experiments. We used analytical method to determine model parameters. In this study, we validate the model with subjects with type 1 diabetes. In addition, we combine the analytic method with meta-differential evolution. To validate the model with human patients, we obtained a data set of type 1 diabetes study that was coordinated by Jaeb Center for Health Research. We calculated a continuous blood glucose level from continuously measured interstitial fluid glucose level. We used 6 different scenarios to ensure robust validation of the calculation. Over 96% of calculated blood glucose levels fit A+B zones of the Clarke Error Grid. No data set required any correction of model parameters during the time course of measuring. We successfully verified the possibility of calculating a continuous blood glucose level of subjects with type 1 diabetes. This study signals a successful transition of our research from an animal experiment to a human patient. Researchers can test our model with their data on-line at https://diabetes.zcu.cz. PMID:27393799

  6. Hydrogen Sulfide Protects against Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Hippocampus by Upregulation of BDNF-TrkB Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Wang, Chun-Yan; Tan, Hui-Ying; Zeng, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Ping; Gu, Hong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induces hippocampal oxidative stress. H2S functions as a neuroprotectant against oxidative stress in brain. We have previously shown the upregulatory effect of H2S on BDNF protein expression in the hippocampus of rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that H2S prevents CUMS-generated oxidative stress by upregulation of BDNF-TrkB pathway. We showed that NaHS (0.03 or 0.1 mmol/kg/day) ameliorates the level of hippocampal oxidative stress, including reduced levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (4-HNE), as well as increased level of glutathione (GSH) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hippocampus of CUMS-treated rats. We also found that H2S upregulated the level of BDNF and p-TrkB protein in the hippocampus of CUMS rats. Furthermore, inhibition of BDNF signaling by K252a, an inhibitor of the BDNF receptor TrkB, blocked the antioxidant effects of H2S on CUMS-induced hippocampal oxidative stress. These results reveal the inhibitory role of H2S in CUMS-induced hippocampal oxidative stress, which is through upregulation of BDNF/TrkB pathway. PMID:27525050

  7. Endurance training enhances BDNF release from the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Brassard, Patrice; Wissenberg, Mads;

    2010-01-01

    + or - 108 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1) (P < 0.05), with no significant change in the control subjects, but there was no training-induced increase in the release of BDNF during exercise. Additionally, eight mice completed a 5-wk treadmill running training protocol that increased the BDNF mRNA expression in...

  8. A role for BDNF in cocaine reward and relapse

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenbaum, Geoffrey; Stalnaker, Thomas A; Shaham, Yavin

    2007-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is important in regulating synaptic plasticity in the brain areas that process reward information. A new study reports that BDNF in the nucleus accumbens, a brain area critical for the rewarding effects of cocaine, promotes persistent cocaine-seeking behaviors and heightens relapse vulnerability.

  9. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets....... The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg......, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver funtion were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended...

  10. Insoluble Fiber in Young Barley Leaf Suppresses the Increment of Postprandial Blood Glucose Level by Increasing the Digesta Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Takano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. is a well-known cereal plant. Young barley leaf is consumed as a popular green-colored drink, which is named “Aojiru” in Japan. We examined the effects of barley leaf powder (BLP and insoluble fibers derived from BLP on postprandial blood glucose in rats and healthy Japanese volunteers. BLP and insoluble fibers derived from BLP suppressed the increment of postprandial blood glucose levels in rats (, and increased the viscosity of their digesta. The insoluble fibers present in BLP might play a role in controlling blood glucose level by increasing digesta viscosity. In human, BLP suppressed the increment of postprandial blood glucose level only in those which exhibited higher blood glucose levels after meals (. BLP might suppress the increment of postprandial blood glucose level by increasing digesta viscosity in both of rats and humans who require blood glucose monitoring.

  11. Higher blood glucose level associated with body mass index and gut microbiota in elderly people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepp, Epp; Kolk, Helgi; Lõivukene, Krista; Mikelsaar, Marika

    2014-01-01

    Background Some dominant bacterial divisions of the intestines have been linked to metabolic diseases such as overweight and diabetes. Objective A pilot study aimed to evaluate the relations between the culturable intestinal bacteria with body mass index (BMI) and some principal cellular and metabolic markers of blood in people older than 65. Design Altogether 38 generally healthy elderly people were recruited: ambulatory (n=19) and orthopedic surgery (n=19). Questionnaires on general health, anthropometric measurements, routine clinical and laboratory data, and quantitative composition of cultivable gut microbiota were performed. Results Blood glucose level was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.402; p=0.014). Higher blood glucose level had negative correlation with relative share of intestinal anaerobic bacteria such as bacteroides (r=−0.434; p=0.0076) and gram-positive anaerobic cocci (r=−0.364; p=0.027). In contrast, the relative share of bifidobacteria (r=0.383; p=0.019) and staphylococci (r=0.433; p=0.008) was positively correlated to blood glucose level. In elderly people, a higher blood glucose concentration was predicted by the reduction of the anaerobes’ proportion (adj. sex, age, and BMI R2=0.192, p=0.028) and that of Bacteroides sp. (adj. R2=0.309, p=0.016). Conclusion A tight interplay between increased BMI, level of blood glucose, and the reduced proportion of cultivable bacteroides is taking place in the gut microbiota of elderly people. PMID:24936169

  12. Higher blood glucose level associated with body mass index and gut microbiota in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epp Sepp

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some dominant bacterial divisions of the intestines have been linked to metabolic diseases such as overweight and diabetes. Objective: A pilot study aimed to evaluate the relations between the culturable intestinal bacteria with body mass index (BMI and some principal cellular and metabolic markers of blood in people older than 65. Design: Altogether 38 generally healthy elderly people were recruited: ambulatory (n=19 and orthopedic surgery (n=19. Questionnaires on general health, anthropometric measurements, routine clinical and laboratory data, and quantitative composition of cultivable gut microbiota were performed. Results: Blood glucose level was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.402; p=0.014. Higher blood glucose level had negative correlation with relative share of intestinal anaerobic bacteria such as bacteroides (r=−0.434; p=0.0076 and gram-positive anaerobic cocci (r=−0.364; p=0.027. In contrast, the relative share of bifidobacteria (r=0.383; p=0.019 and staphylococci (r=0.433; p=0.008 was positively correlated to blood glucose level. In elderly people, a higher blood glucose concentration was predicted by the reduction of the anaerobes’ proportion (adj. sex, age, and BMI R2=0.192, p=0.028 and that of Bacteroides sp. (adj. R2=0.309, p=0.016. Conclusion: A tight interplay between increased BMI, level of blood glucose, and the reduced proportion of cultivable bacteroides is taking place in the gut microbiota of elderly people.

  13. Evaluation of whole blood zinc and copper levels in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crăciun, Elena Cristina; Bjørklund, Geir; Tinkov, Alexey A; Urbina, Mauricio A; Skalny, Anatoly V; Rad, Florina; Dronca, Eleonora

    2016-08-01

    Zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) are important trace elements for cognitive development and normal neurological functioning. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurological disorder, which has previously been associated with the levels of some trace elements in the blood. However, clinical data regarding the potential implication of Zn and Cu in patients with ASD are still insufficient. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the whole blood levels of Zn and Cu in a cohort of 28 children with ASD and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Whole blood Zn and Cu levels were assessed using inductively-coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry. Both in the control and in the ASD group, the values of whole blood Cu and Zn were characterized by a Gaussian distribution. The results indicate that the ASD children were characterized by ~10 % (p = 0.005) and ~12 % (p = 0.015) lower levels of whole blood Zn and Zn/Cu ratio, respectively, in comparison to controls. No significant difference in whole blood Cu was observed. However, Cu/Zn ratio was ~15 % (p = 0.008) higher in ASD children than that in the control ones. The results of the present study may be indicative of Zn deficiency in ASD children. Taking into account Zn-mediated up-regulation of metallothionein (MT) gene expression, these findings suggest a possible alteration in the functioning of the neuroprotective MT system. However, further investigations are required to test this hypothesis. PMID:27059237

  14. Systematic review and meta-analysis of circulating S100B blood levels in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katina Aleksovska

    Full Text Available S100B is a calcium-binding protein secreted in central nervous system from astrocytes and other glia cells. High blood S100B levels have been linked to brain damage and psychiatric disorders. S100B levels have been reported to be higher in schizophrenics than healthy controls. To quantify the relationship between S100B blood levels and schizophrenia a systematic literature review of case-control studies published on this topic within July 3rd 2014 was carried out using three bibliographic databases: Medline, Scopus and Web of Science. Studies reporting mean and standard deviation of S100B blood levels both in cases and controls were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-Mean Ratio (mMR of S100B blood levels in cases compared to controls was used as a measure of effect along with its 95% Confidence Intervals (CI. 20 studies were included totaling for 994 cases and 785 controls. Schizophrenia patients showed 76% higher S100B blood levels than controls with mMR = 1.76 95% CI: 1.44-2.15. No difference could be found between drug-free patients with mMR = 1.84 95%CI: 1.24-2.74 and patients on antipsychotic medication with mMR = 1.75 95% CI: 1.41-2.16. Similarly, ethnicity and stage of disease didn't affect results. Although S100B could be regarded as a possible biomarker of schizophrenia, limitations should be accounted when interpreting results, especially because of the high heterogeneity that remained >70%, even after carrying out subgroups analyses. These results point out that approaches based on traditional categorical diagnoses may be too restrictive and new approaches based on the characterization of new complex phenotypes should be considered.

  15. The effect of food with different glycaemic index on the blood glucose level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Kouřimská

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose levels are affected by many factors including the type of foods consumed, processing technology and cooking method. Hormone insulin lowers blood glucose to its constant level, while glucagon, growth hormone, adrenalin and glucocorticoids have the opposite effect. High steepness of the blood glucose level rise after meals may be unfavourable for the organism. Sugars are transferred into the blood at different speeds according to the type of food. Therefore the aim of this study was to confirm experimentally the effect of food on blood glucose levels in men and women of different ages. Two types of low, medium and high-glycaemic index (GI foods were given to 4 men and 4 women of different age (from 35 to 65 years. All volunteers were healthy, slightly overweight, and without any regular sporting activity. None of them had any idea about their daily carbohydrates consumption and what the term glycaemic index meant. The volunteers came to the GI determination fasted in the morning. Their rise in blood glucose level was monitored by glucometer before the meal and after 1 and 2 hours of the consumption of baked potatoes (GI 85, white bread bun (GI 70, boiled potatoes (GI 64, rye bread (GI 62, potato dumplings (GI 52 and white cooked spaghetti (GI 41. Fasting blood sugar levels of volunteers highly depended on their age (p <0.0001 and gender (p <0.0001. The blood glucose values increased with age and were higher in men than in women. Significant influence of food GI on blood glucose levels in both men and women in all the age categories was observed (p <0.0001. An interaction between age and gender was also statistically highly significant (p <0.0001. One hour after consuming food the blood glucose values were significantly different from the values of fasting (p = 0.0035. The differences of these values did not depend on the age (p = 0.0574 and sex (p = 0.8256 of volunteers, but there was a significant difference on the GI value of food

  16. Correlative study between neuron-specific enolase and blood sugar level in ischemic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Pandey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A study to investigate the level of the neurobiochemical marker, Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE, at the time of admission and its correlation with the blood sugar level in ischemic stroke patients. Patients and Methods: We investigated 90 patients with complete stroke who were admitted to the Stroke Unit of the Department of Neurology at Sri Aurobindo Institute of Medical Sciences. NSE was measured with commercially available quantitative ′sandwich′ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits obtained from R and D Systems. Hyperglycemia was defined as blood glucose concentration ≥ 7 mmol / L, and measured using the glucose oxidase method immediately. Results: Significantly increased NSE and lipid profile levels were found in ischemic stroke patients as compared to the control. Hyperglycemic ischemic stroke patients had increased levels of NSE, lipid profile, and National Institute of Health stroke scale scores (NIHSS score compared to normoglycemic ischemic stroke patients. In addition the serum NSE level of hyperglycemic stroke patients was also positively correlated with the blood sugar level (r = 0.734 P < 0.001. Conclusions: Hyperglycemia predicts an increased risk of poor outcome after ischemic stroke and it is reflected by a significantly increased level of Neuron-Specific Enolase.

  17. Blood and breath levels of selected volatile organic compounds in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Julian; Klieber, Martin; Unterkofler, Karl; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Baumann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS) was used to identify and quantify volatile organic compounds in the blood and breath of healthy individuals. Blood and breath volatiles were preconcentrated using headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and needle trap devices (NTDs), respectively. The study involved a group of 28 healthy test subjects and resulted in the quantification of a total of 74 compounds in both types of samples. The concentrations of the species under study varied between 0.01 and 6700 nmol L−1 in blood and between 0.02 and 2500 ppb in exhaled air. Limits of detection (LOD) ranged from 0.01 to 270 nmol L−1 for blood compounds and from 0.01 to 0.7 ppb for breath species. Relative standard deviations for both measurement regimes varied from 1.5 to 14%. The predominant chemical classes among the compounds quantified were hydrocarbons (24), ketones (10), terpenes (8), heterocyclic compounds (7) and aromatic compounds (7). Twelve analytes were found to be highly present in both blood and exhaled air (with incidence rates higher than 80%) and for 32 species significant differences (Wilcoxon signed-rank test) between room air and exhaled breath were observed. By comparing blood, room air and breath levels in parallel, a tentative classification of volatiles into endogenous and exogenous compounds can be achieved. PMID:23435188

  18. LEVELS OF SELECTED INDICATORS IN THE BLOOD SERUM OF HORSES AND THEIR CORRELATION DEPENDENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Čupka; Marek Halo; Peter Massányi; Anton Kováčik; Robert Stawarz; Formicki Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    In this study 26 sport horses (14 mares and 12 stallions) were included in the trial. The content of urea, total proteins (TP), glucose (GLU), cholesterol (CHOL), triglycerides (TG), bilirubin (BILI), AST, ALT, GGT and ALP was determined in the blood serum. Levels of monitoring indicators in stallions and mares were balanced. Significant difference (P

  19. Manganese superoxide dismutase level in blood cells of patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intracellular MnSOD levels were determined in peripheral blood cells obtained from two age groups of patients with breast cancer (BC): 30-45 year old patients (premenopausal, n=7, clinical stage 1 to 3) and 46-60 year old patients (peri- and postmenopausal women, n=12, clinical stage 3 or 4), at diagnosis, prior to any clinical treatment. The respective healthy women groups were used as controls. Blood cells were also irradiated in vitro with 2- and 9- Gy of gamma-ray radiation from 60Co source. The MnSOD levels were determined by the specific immunostaining and quantified by the laser densitometry. The MANOVA analysis and Tukey post-hoc test indicated significantly higher MnSOD levels in both groups of BC patients in relation to the respective controls ( F=25.166, p<0.001). The data indicated that the increased initial MnSOD levels in peripheral blood cells may be related to the presence of BC i.e. they may reflect the system response to the presence of malignant tumour. In addition to that, in vitro radiation challenge of blood cells indicate that MnSOD overexpression may be a good indicator for selection of BC patients that would express increased resistance to oxidative stress imposed by the clinical treatment. (author)

  20. The Persistence of Misconceptions about the Human Blood Circulatory System among Students in Different Grade Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Sami

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, it is aimed to investigate the persistence of misconceptions in the topic of the human blood circulatory system among students in different grade levels. For this reason, after discussions with biology educators, two tests consisting of open-ended questions were developed by the researcher and administered to students in four…

  1. The Effect of Abelmoschus Esculentus on Blood Levels of Glucose in Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrozadeh, Maryam; Heydari, Naval; Abootalebi, Malihe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia. According to the statistics of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), this problem has a fast growing prevalence and, unfortunately, leaves permanent complications on different body systems. For this reasons, nowadays attentions has been paid to the traditional medicine such as Okra (Abelmoscus esculentus). The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effect of Okra (Abelmoscus esculentus) on blood levels of glucose in diabetes. Methods: This is a review article, which was obtained by a search in databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and Magiran by using keywords such as diabetes, Okra, and hypoglycemic effect. Results: Various studies on Okra (Abelmoscus esculentus) showed that Abelmoscus esculentus (AE)/Okra extract has a hypoglycemic effect that helps decrease blood glucose level. Its properties can be a useful remedy to manage diabetes mellitus. In addition, it leads to inhibition of cholesterol absorption and subsequently decreases the level of lipid and fat in the blood. The results of an investigation on diabetic mice by using this material has shown the same effect and confirmed this conclusion. Conclusion: Based on the positive effects of Okra on reducing blood sugar level, the widespread use of this plant is recommended. Clearly, further research is required.

  2. Brief Report: Whole Blood Serotonin Levels and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Sarah; Ferguson, Bradley J.; Lee, Evon Batey; Peters, Brittany; Williams, Kent C.; McDonnell, Erin; Macklin, Eric A.; Levitt, Pat; Gillespie, Catherine Hagan; Anderson, George M.; Margolis, Kara Gross; Beversdorf, David Q.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Elevated whole blood serotonin levels are observed in more than 25% of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Co-occurring gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are also common in ASD but have not previously been examined in relationship with hyperserotonemia, despite the synthesis of serotonin in the gut. In 82 children and adolescents with ASD,…

  3. Brief Report: Whole Blood Serotonin Levels and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Sarah; Ferguson, Bradley J.; Lee, Evon Batey; Peters, Brittany; Williams, Kent C.; McDonnell, Erin; Macklin, Eric A.; Levitt, Pat; Gillespie, Catherine Hagan; Anderson, George M.; Margolis, Kara Gross; Beversdorf, David Q.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Elevated whole blood serotonin levels are observed in more than 25 % of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Co-occurring gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are also common in ASD but have not previously been examined in relationship with hyperserotonemia, despite the synthesis of serotonin in the gut. In 82 children and adolescents with ASD, we observed a correlation between a quantitative measure of lower GI symptoms and whole blood serotonin levels. No significant association was seen between functional constipation diagnosis and serotonin levels in the hyperserotonemia range, suggesting that this correlation is not driven by a single subgroup. More specific assessment of gut function, including the microbiome, will be necessary to evaluate the contribution of gut physiology to serotonin levels in ASD. PMID:26527110

  4. Environmental variation of arsenic levels in human blood determined by neutron activation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    1970-01-01

    Arsenic levels in blood plasma and red cells from patients with Blackfoot disease, a peripheral arteriosclerosis endemic to a small area in Taiwan, were studied in relation to healthy individuals from the same and other parts of Taiwan and compared with arsenic levels in a control group from Denm...... in Denmark, which geochemically belongs to a soil zone with less arsenic than Taiwan.......Arsenic levels in blood plasma and red cells from patients with Blackfoot disease, a peripheral arteriosclerosis endemic to a small area in Taiwan, were studied in relation to healthy individuals from the same and other parts of Taiwan and compared with arsenic levels in a control group from...... Denmark. Arsenic was determined by neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation and re-irradiation yield determination. The precision and accuracy of the results have been carefully evaluated in order to permit quantitative tests for the significance of the observed differences. The results...

  5. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Moya-Alvarez

    Full Text Available Elevated blood lead levels (BLL and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far.Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed.At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83, and 128 infants (63% had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%. Twenty-five infants (12.5% had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobin<110 g/L. Elevated blood lead levels were significantly associated with reduced risk of a positive blood smear (AOR = 0.38, P-value = 0.048 and P. falciparum parasite density (beta-estimate = -1.42, P-value = 0.03 in logistic and negative binomial regression multivariate models, respectively, adjusted on clinical and environmental indicators.Our study shows for the first time that BLL are negatively associated with malarial risk considering other risk factors. Malaria is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in infants under 5 years worldwide, and lead poisoning is the 6th most important contributor to the global burden of diseases measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs according to the Institute of Health Metrics. In conclusion, due

  6. Correlative study between neuron-specific enolase and blood sugar level in ischemic stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Aparna Pandey; Kiran Saxena; Meena Verma; Anuradha Bharosay

    2011-01-01

    Background: A study to investigate the level of the neurobiochemical marker, Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE), at the time of admission and its correlation with the blood sugar level in ischemic stroke patients. Patients and Methods: We investigated 90 patients with complete stroke who were admitted to the Stroke Unit of the Department of Neurology at Sri Aurobindo Institute of Medical Sciences. NSE was measured with commercially available quantitative ‘sandwich’ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assa...

  7. Lithium modulates the chronic stress-induced effect on blood glucose level of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Nataša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined gross changes in the mass of whole adrenal glands and that of the adrenal cortex, as well as the serum corticosterone and glucose level of mature male Wistar rats subjected to three different treatments: animals subjected to chronic restraint-stress, animals injected with lithium (Li and chronically stressed rats treated with Li. Under all three conditions we observed hypertrophy of whole adrenals, as well as the adrenal cortices. Chronic restraint stress, solely or in combination with Li treatment, significantly elevated the corticosterone level, but did not change the blood glucose level. Animals treated only with Li exhibited an elevated serum corticosterone level and blood glucose level. The aim of our study was to investigate the modulation of the chronic stress-induced effect on the blood glucose level by lithium, as a possible mechanism of avoiding the damage caused by chronic stress. Our results showed that lithium is an agent of choice which may help to reduce stress-elevated corticosterone and replenish exhausted glucose storages in an organism.

  8. Serum leptin levels correlation with high blood pressure in adult females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure serum leptin levels and compare them in lean and obese subjects and to identify correlation between serum leptin levels, heart rate and hypertension in lean and obese subjects among adult females. Seventy female subjects with different body mass indices were selected from OPD of Jinnah Medical and Dental College Hospital (OPD), Karachi. Heart rate was counted manually; blood pressure was measured by mercury sphygmomanometer while serum leptin was measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The outcomes hypertension and heart rate were correlated to risk factor leptin. Mean heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and serum leptin levels of obese people were 90+-1, 142+-2, 89+-1 and 24.13+-1.7 respectively, which were significantly higher as compared to lean subjects (p<0.05). All the parameters correlated positively and significantly with increasing BMI. There was a relationship of tachycardia and hypertension with high serum leptin levels in obesity. Serum leptin levels increase with the level of obesity. Hyper-leptinemia is associated with tachycardia and increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obesity via complex mechanisms. (author)

  9. Increased expression of BDNF transcript with exon VI in hippocampi of patients with pharmaco-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Levy, G A; Rocha, L; Lubin, F D; Alonso-Vanegas, M A; Nani, A; Buentello-García, R M; Pérez-Molina, R; Briones-Velasco, M; Recillas-Targa, F; Pérez-Molina, A; San-Juan, D; Cienfuegos, J; Cruz-Fuentes, C S

    2016-02-01

    A putative role of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in epilepsy has emerged from in vitro and animal models, but few studies have analyzed human samples. We assessed the BDNF expression of transcripts with exons I (BDNFI), II (BDNFII), IV (BDNFIV) and VI (BDNFVI) and methylation levels of promoters 4 and 6 in the hippocampi of patients with pharmaco-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) (n=24). Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and pre-surgical pharmacological treatment were considered as clinical independent variables. A statistical significant increase for the BDNFVI (pTPM) (N=3) was associated to a decrease in BDNFVI expression (pTPM. These results suggest an up-regulated expression of a specific BDNF transcript in patients with TLE, an effect that seems to be dependent on the use of specific drugs. PMID:26621122

  10. Efficient Quantitative Analysis of Carboxyalkylpyrrole Ethanolamine Phospholipids: Elevated Levels in Sickle Cell Disease Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junhong; Wang, Hua; Hrinczenko, Borys; Salomon, Robert G

    2016-07-18

    γ-Hydroxy-α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, generated by oxidative damage of polyunsaturated phospholipids, form pyrrole derivatives that incorporate the ethanolamine phospholipid (EP) amino group such as 2-pentylpyrrole (PP)-EP and 2-(ω-carboxyalkyl)pyrrole (CAP)-EP derivatives: 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP)-EP, 2-(ω-carboxypropyl)pyrrole (CPP)-EP, and 2-(ω-carboxyheptyl)pyrrole (CHP)-EP. Because EPs occur in vivo in various forms, a complex mixture of pyrrole-modified EPs with different molecular weights is expected to be generated. To provide a sensitive index of oxidative stress, all of the differences in mass related to the glycerophospholipid moieties were removed by releasing a single CAP-ethanolamine (ETN) or PP-ETN from each mixture by treatment with phospholipase D. Accurate quantization was achieved using the corresponding ethanolamine-d4 pyrroles as internal standards. The product mixture obtained by phospholipolysis of total blood phospholipids from sickle cell disease (SCD) patients was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The method was applied to measure CAP-EP and PP-EP levels in blood plasma from clinical monitoring of SCD patients. We found uniformly elevated blood levels of CEP-EP (63.9 ± 9.7 nM) similar to mean levels in blood from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients (56.3 ± 37.1 nM), and 2-fold lower levels (27.6 ± 3.6 nM, n = 5) were detected in plasma from SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis, although mean levels remain higher than those (12.1 ± 10.5 nM) detected in blood from healthy controls. Plasma levels of CPP-EPs from SCD clinic patients were 4-fold higher than those of SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis (45.1 ± 10.9 nM, n = 5 versus 10.9 ± 3.4 nM, n = 6; p < 0.002). PP-EP concentration in plasma from SCD clinic patients is nearly 4.8-fold higher than its level in plasma samples from SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis (7.06 ± 4.05 vs 1.48 ± 0.92 nM; p < 0.05). Because

  11. Working Memory Deficits, Increased Anxiety-Like Traits, and Seizure Susceptibility in BDNF Overexpressing Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo, Francesco; Silverman, Jill L.; Aney, Jordan; Tian, Qingjun; Barkan, Charlotte L.; Chadman, Kathryn K.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2011-01-01

    BDNF regulates components of cognitive processes and has been implicated in psychiatric disorders. Here we report that genetic overexpression of the BDNF mature isoform (BDNF-tg) in female mice impaired working memory functions while sparing components of fear conditioning. BDNF-tg mice also displayed reduced breeding efficiency, higher…

  12. Blood levels of propylene oxide in rats during inhalation of propylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a program to investigate toxic metabolites of inhaled gases, blood levels of propylene oxide formed during exposure of F344 rats to 6 or 600 ppm propylene were quantitated. Blood was treated with deuterated propylene oxide standard, cryogenically distilled in vacuo and the resulting fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. During the 600 ppm exposure, the propylene oxide level in the blood increased rapidly during the first 5 minutes, dropped to just above baseline by 10 minutes, and then climbed over the next 4 hours to a plateau higher than the initial spike. The liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 content of exposed rats was not significantly altered during the exposure. In contrast, the cytochrome P-450 content of the nasal ethmoturbinates and maxilloturbinates dropped significantly within twenty minutes of exposure, then rebounded to preexposure levels after 6 hours of exposure. We hypothesize that the early spike in propylene oxide formation was caused by isozymes of cytochrome P-450 that effectively metabolized propylene, yet were also susceptible to suicide inactivation. Initial results indicate exposure to 6 ppm propylene yields similar results. If generally true for inhaled alkenes, the occurrence of an early spike in blood reactive metabolite concentration may have important implications in the assessment of toxicology for these compounds

  13. Adhesion molecules levels in blood correlate with MRI activity and clinical activity in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research into pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has prompted efforts to identify immunological markers associated with disease activity. Adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are associated with inflammatory mediated blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. In this study investigates the correlation between blood level of circulating ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) activity in different clinical phases of patients with MS. We show that RRMS and SPMS patients in clinically active phase with Gd-enhancing lesions in CNS had higher blood levels of cICAM-1 and cVCAM-1 compared these parameters levers of RRMS patients in remission stage. These results suggest that cICAM-1 and cVCAM-1 is a sensitive indicator of disease activity associated with BBB inflammatory dysfunction. Elevated blood level of cICAM-1 more strongly correlated with clinical activity and BBB damage, than cVCAM-1 and that could be used as biological marker of disease activity. Circulating VCAM-1 as an early indicator of BBB disturbance, may also serve as marker of beneficial activity in relapses phase of MS course. (authors)

  14. Evaluation Of Some Blood Biochemical And Hormonal Levels During Different Ages Of Ostrich Embryonic Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighty ostrich eggs were collected from the breeding flock at the ostrich farm in the Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, during the period from March to May 2008 to evaluate some blood constituents during ostrich embryonic development. All adult birds were kept under the same managerial, hygienic and environmental conditions and had 2.1 kg palletized feed per bird per day. Eggs were collected at 15.00 pm each day. Eggs were washed and weighed on an electric balance(±)0.01 g.The eggs were placed in the setter for 39 days at 36.50C and 25 % relative humidity. After 39 days, eggs were transferred to hatcher machine at 35.50C and 40 - 45 % relative humidity until hatch. Blood samples were collected at days 21, 28, 35 and 39 of embryonic development and at one day age after 12 hours of hatch. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin, creatinine, urea and uric acid levels were determined. Serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase, total cholesterol, triglycerides and triiodothyronine levels were estimated. The results showed that chicks of one day old and older embryos of ostriches had significant higher values of serum blood components than younger embryos.On the other hand, blood serum cholesterol level was decreased significantly with age advancement during embryonic development and as well as chicks of one day old.

  15. Determinations of personal carbon monoxide exposure and blood carboxyhemoglobin levels in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y; Park, S E; Lee, K; Yanagisawa, Y; Spengler, J D

    1994-12-01

    Determinant factors for personal carbon monoxide (CO) exposures were sought in Korea, where CO poisoning has been a major public health problem due to coal briquette (Yeontan) combustion for space heating and cooking. Personal 24-hr CO exposures of 15 housewives were measured by CO passive samplers on 2 days of the week (Wednesday and Sunday). Blood samples were taken to measure carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) just after the exposure sampling. Average CO exposure and COHb level were 5.6 ppm and 2.4%, respectively. Personal CO exposures as well as COHb levels were significantly increased by the use of Yeontan, especially on a weekday. Carboxyhemoglobin levels were closely related to the time between blood collection and replacement of Yeontan: the closer the blood collection was to replace Yeontan, the higher the COHb levels were. Assuming a background COHb of 1.34%, COHb increased on average by 1.8% with a 24-hr personal CO exposure of 10 ppm. The relationship between CO exposure and COHb level was provided by simultaneous direct measurements in real environment, although a measurement of COHb at the end of exposure could not represent previous 24-hr exposure thoroughly. PMID:7871846

  16. Meta-analysis of peripheral blood apolipoprotein E levels in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peripheral blood Apolipoprotein E (ApoE levels have been proposed as biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD, but previous studies on levels of ApoE in blood remain inconsistent. This meta-analysis was designed to re-examine the potential role of peripheral ApoE in AD diagnosis and its potential value as a candidate biomarker. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, and BIOSIS previews for case-control studies measuring ApoE levels in serum or plasma from AD subjects and healthy controls. The pooled weighted mean difference (WMD and 95% confidence interval (CI were used to estimate the association between ApoE levels and AD risk. RESULTS: Eight studies with a total of 2250 controls and 1498 AD cases were identified and analyzed. The pooled WMD from a random-effect model of AD participants compared with the healthy controls was -5.59 mg/l (95% CI: [-8.12, -3.06]. The overall pattern in WMD was not varied by characteristics of study, including age, country, assay method, publication year, and sample type. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis supports a lowered level of blood ApoE in AD patients, and indicates its potential value as an important risk factor for AD. Further investigation employing standardized assay for ApoE measurement are still warranted to uncover the precise role of ApoE in the pathophysiology of AD.

  17. Determination of GHB levels in breast milk and correlation with blood concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Mannocchi, Giulio; Tittarelli, Roberta; Pantano, Flaminia; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Marinelli, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    The sodium salt of GHB or sodium oxybate is approved and registered in some countries as a therapeutic substance (Xyrem(®)) for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy. This study was designed to measure the GHB endogenous levels in blood and breast milk of 20 breastfeeding women. In addition, blood and breast milk samples of a 32-year-old narcoleptic nursing mother, who was on sodium oxybate treatment, were simultaneously collected at 0.5, 1, 3, 4 and 5h following a 4.5g GHB dose and analyzed, in order to establish the safety interval of time to breastfeed. A GC-MS method for the detection and quantification of GHB in blood and breast milk was developed and fully validated. The geometric mean of endogenous GHB levels in blood and breast milk detected at time 0 were 0.57mg/L; 95% Reference Interval (RI): 0.21-1.52mg/L and 0.36mg/L; 95% RI: 0.13-1.03mg/L, respectively. The geometric mean of the concentration of GHB in milk was 37% less (95% RI: from 14 to 53%) compared to that found in the blood. The analysis of blood and breast milk samples collected from the 32 years-old female showed the following results: GHB blood concentration 0.5h after medication intake was 80.10mg/L, reaching the peak 1h after the drug administration (108.34mg/L) and it steadily decreased to reach a level of 1.75mg/L, 5h after the medication intake. The GHB concentration found in breast milk followed the same pattern as for the blood, with the highest concentration being 23.19mg/L, 1h after sodium oxybate administration and the lowest 0.99mg/L, 5h after the medication's intake. The comparison between blood and breast milk GHB levels in the 32-year-old woman, showed significant lower GHB levels in milk at 0.5, 1 and 3h, ranging from 71 to 80% less. It is interesting to note that only at 4 and 5h the difference between blood and breast milk GHB levels fell within the 95% RI (14-53%) of endogenous levels. Taking into consideration the absence of reference values for endogenous GHB in

  18. Post Mortem Blood and Vitreous Humor Ethanol Levels Relation in Fars Legal Medicine Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aria Hejazi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The concentration of ethanol measured in postmortem blood needs to be interpreted as to whether the person who had consumed alcohol has exceeded some threshold limit. However, interpreting postmortem BAC (Blood Alcohol Concentration results and drawing correct conclusions about ante mortem levels is fraught with difficulties as under some circumstances alcohol might be produced after death by microbial activity.Subjects and Methods: In the case of ethanol, the blood samples should be taken from a femoral vein and whenever possible additional specimens, such as urine and vitreous humor (VH, should also be obtained and sent for analysis to be able to have the best interpretationResults: 167 Specimens of femoral vein blood and vitreous humor were analyzed. In this study, direct injection and gas-chromatographic techniques were employed to quantitate the ethanol concentrations. These two concentrations were then compared and the BAC/VHAC (Viterous Humor Alcohol Concentration ratio was evaluated.Among these specimens, there were 142 cases in which we have found ethanol in blood but not in vitreous humor. Also we have found 2 cases by positive VHAC but negative BAC. The average blood ethanol concentration was 61.5 mg/dLit while the average ethanol vitreous humor concentration was 127 mg/dLit. However, the ratio was measured as 0.7.Conclusion: The similarity in the results of the post mortem cases reinforces the assertion that co analysis of vitreous humor and blood is important to interpret post mortem results

  19. Interactions of Several Lipid-Related Gene Polymorphisms and Cigarette Smoking on Blood Pressure Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Xing Yin, Dong-Feng Wu, Jin-Zhen Wu, Xiao-Li Cao, Lynn Htet Htet Aung, Lin Miao, Xing-Jiang Long, Wan-Ying Liu, Lin Zhang, Meng Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and cigarette smoking on blood pressure levels are limited. The present study was undertaken to detect nine lipid-related SNPs and their interactions with cigarette smoking on blood pressure levels. Genotyping of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA-1 V825I, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1 rs1044925, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R AvaⅡ, hepatic lipase gene (LIPC -250G>A, endothelial lipase gene (LIPG 584C>T, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T, proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9 E670G, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD +294T>C, and Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1 rs5888 was performed in 935 nonsmokers and 845 smokers. The interactions were detected by factorial regression analysis. The frequencies of genotypes (ACAT-1 and LIPG, alleles (ABCA-1, and both genotypes and alleles (LDL-R, LIPC, PPARD and SCARB1 were different between nonsmokers and smokers (P < 0.05-0.001. The levels of pulse pressure (PP, ABCA-1, and systolic, diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP and PP (LIPC in nonsmokers were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001. The levels of SBP (ABCA-1, ACAT-1, LIPG and PCSK9, DBP (ACAT-1, LDL-R, LIPC, PCSK9 and PPARD, and PP (LIPC, LIPG, MTHFR and PCSK9 in smokers were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001. The SNPs of ABCA-1, ACAT-1 and PCSK9; ACAT-1, LDL-R, MTHFR and PCSK9; and ABCA-1, LIPC, PCSK9 and PPARD were shown interactions with cigarette smoking to influence SBP, DBP and PP levels (P < 0.05-0.001; respectively. The differences in blood pressure levels between the nonsmokers and smokers might partly result from different interactions of several SNPs and cigarette smoking.

  20. BDNF, produced by a TPO-stimulated megakaryocytic cell line, regulates autocrine proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Shogo [Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Nagasawa, Ayumi; Masuda, Yuya; Tsunematsu, Tetsuya [Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Hayasaka, Koji; Matsuno, Kazuhiko; Shimizu, Chikara [Division of Laboratory and Transfusion Medicine, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo (Japan); Ozaki, Yukio [Department of Clinical and Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi (Japan); Moriyama, Takanori, E-mail: moriyama@hs.hokuda.ac.jp [Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It has been thought that BDNF is not produced in the megakaryocytic lineage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MEG-01 produces BDNF upon TPO stimulation and regulates its proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDNF accelerates proliferation of MEG-01 in an autocrine manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDNF may be an autocrine MEG-CSF, which regulates megakaryopoiesis. -- Abstract: While human platelets release endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) upon activation, a previous report on MEG-01, a megakaryocytic cell line, found no trace of BDNF production, and the pathophysiological function of platelet BDNF has remained elusive. In the present study, we demonstrate that MEG-01 produces BDNF in the presence of TPO and that this serves to potentiate cell proliferation. Our in vitro findings suggest that BDNF regulates MEG-01 proliferation in an autocrine manner, and we suggest that BDNF may be a physiological autocrine regulator of megakaryocyte progenitors.

  1. BDNF, produced by a TPO-stimulated megakaryocytic cell line, regulates autocrine proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► It has been thought that BDNF is not produced in the megakaryocytic lineage. ► MEG-01 produces BDNF upon TPO stimulation and regulates its proliferation. ► BDNF accelerates proliferation of MEG-01 in an autocrine manner. ► BDNF may be an autocrine MEG-CSF, which regulates megakaryopoiesis. -- Abstract: While human platelets release endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) upon activation, a previous report on MEG-01, a megakaryocytic cell line, found no trace of BDNF production, and the pathophysiological function of platelet BDNF has remained elusive. In the present study, we demonstrate that MEG-01 produces BDNF in the presence of TPO and that this serves to potentiate cell proliferation. Our in vitro findings suggest that BDNF regulates MEG-01 proliferation in an autocrine manner, and we suggest that BDNF may be a physiological autocrine regulator of megakaryocyte progenitors.

  2. Correlation of atmospheric and inhaled blood cyanide levels in miniature pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemler, F.W.; Kaminskis, A.; Tezak-Reid, T.M.; Stotts, R.R.; Moran, T.S.

    1995-12-31

    The LCT5O (exposure time and atmospheric concentration needed to produce 50% lethality) has been commonly used to quantify the toxicity of a gas such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Few studies have been performed in which blood cyanide concentrations were measured simultaneously in animals at Imown exposure concentrations and time. This study was an attempt to correlate which blood cyanide levels would cause lethality in miniature pigs when exposed to hydrogen cyanide (HCN) for a fixed time. An automated microdistillation assay (1) was used to continuously monitor arterial blood cyanide before, during and after the exposures to a HCN/air mixture. Seven animals were exposed to a HCN/air mixture for two minutes each, four to 1176 + or - SD 70 mg/m3, and three animals to 2125 + or - SD 91 mg/m3. Two of the three animals exposed to the high HCN/air mixture died with a peak blood cyanide concentration of about 4.1 + or - SD 0.38 ug/mL. Four animals exposed to the low HCN/air mixture had a peak blood cyanide concentration of 2.94 i SD 0.71 ug/mL. All four survived for a 24-bour post-exposure observation period before they were sacrificed. Several physiological parameters were also monitored.

  3. Chronic lipopolysaccharide exposure induces cognitive dysfunction without affecting BDNF expression in the rat hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Bin; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Ding, Jie; Liu, Ning; WANG Da-ming; Ding, Liang-cai; YANG, CHUN

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has the potential to cause cognitive dysfunction. However, the underlying pathogenesis has yet to be fully elucidated. Increasing attention is being focused on infection in the central nervous system. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the behavioral performance of rats receiving intraperitoneal injections of LPS and to determine the expression levels of amyloid-β (Aβ), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and pro-in...

  4. Maternal peripheral blood level of IL-10 as a marker for inflammatory placental malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutabingwa Theonest K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Placental malaria (PM is an important cause of maternal and foetal mortality in tropical areas, and severe sequelae and mortality are related to inflammation in the placenta. Diagnosis is difficult because PM is often asymptomatic, peripheral blood smear examination detects parasitemia as few as half of PM cases, and no peripheral markers have been validated for placental inflammation. Methods In a cohort of Tanzanian parturients, PM was determined by placental blood smears and placental inflammation was assessed by histology and TNF mRNA levels. Maternal peripheral blood levels of several immune mediators previously implicated in PM pathogenesis, as well as ferritin and leptin were measured. The relationship between the levels of these soluble factors to PM and placental inflammation was examined. Results Peripheral levels of TNF, TNF-RI, TNF-RII, IL-1, IL-10, and ferritin were elevated during PM, whereas levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6 were unchanged and levels of leptin were decreased. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, IL-10 had the greatest area under the curve, and would provide a sensitivity of 60% with a false positive rate of 10%. At a cut off level of 15 pg/mL, IL-10 would detect PM with a sensitivity of 79.5% and a specificity of 84.3%. IL-10 levels correlated with placental inflammatory cells and placental TNF mRNA levels in first time mothers. Conclusion These data suggest that IL-10 may have utility as a biomarker for inflammatory PM in research studies, but that additional biomarkers may be required to improve clinical diagnosis and management of malaria during pregnancy.

  5. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with the functional connectivity dynamics of pain modulatory systems in primary dysmenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shyh-Yuh; Chao, Hsiang-Tai; Tu, Cheng-Hao; Lin, Ming-Wei; Li, Wei-Chi; Low, Intan; Shen, Horng-Der; Chen, Li-Fen; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen

    2016-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), menstrual pain without an organic cause, is a prevailing problem in women of reproductive age. We previously reported alterations of structure and functional connectivity (FC) in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) of PDM subjects. Given that the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) acts as a pain modulator within the PAG and the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism contributes towards susceptibility to PDM, the present study of imaging genetics set out to investigate the influence of, firstly, the BDNF Val66Met single nucleotide polymorphism and, secondly, the genotype-pain interplays on the descending pain modulatory systems in the context of PAG-seeded FC patterning. Fifty-six subjects with PDM and 60 controls participated in the current study of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the menstruation and peri-ovulatory phases; in parallel, blood samples were taken for genotyping. Our findings indicate that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with the diverse functional expressions of the descending pain modulatory systems. Furthermore, PAG FC patterns in pain-free controls are altered in women with PDM in a genotype-specific manner. Such resilient brain dynamics may underpin the individual differences and shed light on the vulnerability for chronic pain disorders of PDM subjects. PMID:27010666

  6. A tripeptide Diapin effectively lowers blood glucose levels in male type 2 diabetes mice by increasing blood levels of insulin and GLP-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Zhang

    Full Text Available The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D is rapidly increasing worldwide. Effective therapies, such as insulin and Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, require injections, which are costly and result in less patient compliance. Here, we report the identification of a tripeptide with significant potential to treat T2D. The peptide, referred to as Diapin, is comprised of three natural L-amino acids, GlyGlyLeu. Glucose tolerance tests showed that oral administration of Diapin effectively lowered blood glucose after oral glucose loading in both normal C57BL/6J mice and T2D mouse models, including KKay, db/db, ob/ob mice, and high fat diet-induced obesity/T2D mice. In addition, Diapin treatment significantly reduced casual blood glucose in KKay diabetic mice in a time-dependent manner without causing hypoglycemia. Furthermore, we found that plasma GLP-1 and insulin levels in diabetic models were significantly increased with Diapin treatment compared to that in the controls. In summary, our findings establish that a peptide with minimum of three amino acids can improve glucose homeostasis and Diapin shows promise as a novel pharmaceutical agent to treat patients with T2D through its dual effects on GLP-1 and insulin secretion.

  7. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauson Anne-Helene

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets. The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver function were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended to increase (P = 0.07 with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters.

  8. The relationship between serum lipid levels, high blood pressure and obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Kurtuncu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine serum lipid, cholesterol and obesity levels in healthy children, and then to explore the relationships between these factors. Methods: The sample group consisted of 103 students at Gelik Elementary School in Zonguldak, Turkey who was willing to participate in the study, had not been medically diagnosed with a chronic ailment, and were not taking regular medications. Results: When the students' mean BMI (Body Mass Index measurements were considered, it was found that mean BMI at 13 years of age (21.03 ± 0.23 was higher than at 14 years (20.05 ± 0.20 and that this difference was strongly significant (p=0.002. When the relationships between the students' height, weight, BMI, blood pressure, FBS (Fasting Blood Sugar, cholesterol, LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein, HDL (High Density Lipoprotein measurements were considered, it was seen that there was a positive significant relationship between height-weight (r=0.472; p<0.001, height-blood pressure (r=0.432; p<0.001, and height-FBS (r=0.332; p=0.001. Conclusions: The conclusion drawn was that monitoring blood pressure, cholesterol, LDL and HDL levels in childhood medical examinations is not only important in terms of identifying obesity, but also in identifying nutritional mistakes and deficiencies at an early stage.

  9. Blood glucose levels and cortical thinning in cognitively normal, middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, Alexandra M V; Spira, Adam P; Pettigrew, Corinne; Soldan, Anja; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Rebok, George W; Roses, Allen D; Lutz, Michael W; Miller, Michael M; Thambisetty, Madhav; Albert, Marilyn S

    2016-06-15

    Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) increases risk for cognitive decline and is associated with brain atrophy in older demented and non-demented individuals. We investigated (1) the cross-sectional association between fasting blood glucose level and cortical thickness in a sample of largely middle-aged, cognitively normal adults, and (2) whether these associations were modified by genes associated with both lipid processing and dementia. To explore possible modifications by genetic status, we investigated the interaction between blood glucose levels and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele and the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOMM) 40 '523 genotype on cortical thickness. Cortical thickness measures were based on mean thickness in a subset of a priori-selected brain regions hypothesized to be vulnerable to atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) (i.e., 'AD vulnerable regions'). Participants included 233 cognitively normal subjects in the BIOCARD study who had a measure of fasting blood glucose and cortical thickness measures, quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. After adjustment for age, sex, race, education, depression, and medical conditions, higher blood glucose was associated with thinner parahippocampal gyri (B=-0.002; 95% CI -0.004, -0.0004) and temporal pole (B=-0.002; 95% CI -0.004, -0.0001), as well as reduced average thickness over AD vulnerable regions (B=-0.001; 95% CI -0.002, -0.0001). There was no evidence for greater cortical thinning in ε4 carriers of the APOE gene or in APOE ε3/3 individuals carrying the TOMM40 VL/VL genotypes. When individuals with glucose levels in the diabetic range (≥126mg/dL), were excluded from the analysis, the associations between glucose levels and cortical thickness were no longer significant. These findings suggest that glucose levels in the diabetic range are associated with reduced cortical thickness in AD vulnerable regions as early as middle age. PMID:27206882

  10. Social defeat during adolescence and adulthood differentially induce BDNF-regulated immediate early genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Coppens

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Stressful life events generally enhance the vulnerability for the development of human psychopathologies such as anxiety disorders and depression. The incidence rates of adult mental disorders steeply rises during adolescence in parallel with a structural and functional reorganization of the neural circuitry underlying stress reactivity. However, the mechanisms underlying susceptibility to stress and manifestation of mental disorders during adolescence are little understood. We hypothesized that heightened sensitivity to stress during adolescence reflects age-dependent differences in the expression of activity-dependent genes involved in synaptic plasticity. Therefore, we compared the effect of social stress during adolescence with social stress in adulthood on the expression of a panel of genes linked to induction of long-term potentiation (LTP and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling. We show that social defeat during adolescence and adulthood differentially regulates expression of the immediate early genes BDNF, Arc, Carp, and Tieg1, as measured by qPCR in tissue lysates from prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus. In the hippocampus, mRNA levels for all four genes were robustly elevated following social defeat in adolescence, whereas none were induced by defeat in adulthood. The relationship to coping style was also examined using adult reactive and proactive coping rats. Gene expression levels of reactive and proactive animals were similar in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. However, a trend toward a differential expression of BDNF and Arc mRNA in the nucleus accumbens was detected. BDNF mRNA was increased in the nucleus accumbens of proactive defeated animals, whereas the expression level in reactive defeated animals was comparable to control animals. The results demonstrate striking differences in immediate early gene expression in response to social defeat in adolescent and adult rats.

  11. Curative efficacy of tetramethylpyrazine in combination with chemotherapy in treatment of medium and advanced liver cancer and its effects on level of BDNF%川芎嗪联合化疗治疗中晚期肝癌的疗效及对患者BDNF水平的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐世英; 曾敬怀; 蒋英蓝; 秦春宏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate curative efficacy of tetramethylpyrazine in combination with chemotherapy in treatment of medium and advanced liver cancer and its effects on level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( BDNF).Methods 90 patients of medium and advanced liver cancer who received therapy from January 2011 to June 2012 were selected as research objects.According to therapeutic schemes, those patients were divided into the control group (n=42) and the observation group (n=48).The control group was treated with transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization ( TACE) , while the observation group was treated with tetramethylpyrazine in combination with TACE.Then, the short-term curative efficacy, long-term curative efficacy, level of BDNF and adverse reactions were compared.Results The total short-term therapeutic efficacy ratio in the observation group was statistically higher than that in the control group ( 83.3% vs 64.3%, P <0.05 ).During the three-year follow-up, the one-year and two-year survival rate in the observation group was statistically same with that in the control group respectively (75.0% vs 66.7%, 66.7% vs 59.5%), while the three-year survival rate was statistically higher than that in the control group (52.1%vs 30.9%, P<0.05).After treatment, in comparison with the control group, level of BDNF in the observation group was statistically lower(P<0.05).During treatment, incidences of liver function deterioration, abdo minal pain and diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, fever and headache in two groups were statistically same.Conclusion Tetramethylpyrazine in combination with TACE is effective for medium and advanced liver cancer, which can increase short-term and survival rate to some extent, significantly reduce level of BDNF with not increasing incidence of adverse reactions.%目的:探讨川芎嗪联合化疗治疗中晚期肝癌的疗效及对患者脑源性神经营养因子( brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF)

  12. Increased Blood Lactate Level Deteriorates Running Economy in World Class Endurance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Jan; Støren, Øyvind; Finstad, Arnstein; Wang, Eivind; Helgerud, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Hoff, J, Støren, Ø, Finstad, A, Wang, E, and Helgerud, J. Increased blood lactate level deteriorates running economy in world class endurance athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1373-1378, 2016-Blood lactate accumulation is associated with development of muscle fatigue and negatively correlated to endurance performance. No research has quantified the effects of lactate presence at moderate levels of lactate accumulation. The purpose of this study was to test whether 2 moderate blood lactate concentration levels affect running economy (RE) when running at the individual lactate threshold (LT). Seven male world class endurance athletes with an average V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 80.7 ± 2.7 ml·kg·min or 5.8 ± 0.5 L·min participated in this study. After the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max test, the subjects were resting or walking and in a random order tested for RE at their LT velocity when the blood lactate level reached either 3 mmol·L or 5 mmol·L. After a new 5-minute exercising period at maximal aerobic velocity, the crossover lactate value RE testing was performed. Running economy was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) deteriorated from 0.668 ± 0.044 to 0.705 ± 0.056 ml·kg·m or 5.5% (p ≤ 0.05) for blood lactate level of 3 mmol·L compared with 5 mmol·L, respectively. Increased lactate level from 3 to 5 mmol·L is thus accompanied by deteriorated RE at LT running velocity. The deteriorated RE at moderate levels of lactate concentration emphasizes the importance of avoiding intensities above LT in the early parts of a dominantly aerobic endurance competition. It also emphasizes the importance of a high V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for aerobic endurance athletes and may partly explain the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component as impaired RE. PMID:26817745

  13. Baseline blood Pb levels of black-necked stilts on the upper Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, Thomas V.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.

    2015-01-01

    There are no known biological requirements for lead (Pb), and elevated Pb levels in birds can cause a variety of sub-lethal effects and mortality. Historic and current levels of Pb in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) suggest that environmental sources of Pb remain available on the upper Texas coast. Because of potential risks of Pb exposure among coexisting marsh birds, black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) blood Pb concentrations were measured during the breeding season. Almost 80 % (n = 120) of 152 sampled stilts exceeded the background threshold (>20 μg/dL) for Pb exposure. However, blood Pb concentrations did not vary by age or gender, and toxic or potentially lethal concentrations were rare (Pb concentrations of black-necked stilts in this study suggest the presence of readily bioavailable sources of Pb, although potential impacts on local stilt populations remain unclear.

  14. Vessel Segmentation and Blood Flow Simulation Using Level-Sets and Embedded Boundary Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschamps, T; Schwartz, P; Trebotich, D; Colella, P; Saloner, D; Malladi, R

    2004-12-09

    In this article we address the problem of blood flow simulation in realistic vascular objects. The anatomical surfaces are extracted by means of Level-Sets methods that accurately model the complex and varying surfaces of pathological objects such as aneurysms and stenoses. The surfaces obtained are defined at the sub-pixel level where they intersect the Cartesian grid of the image domain. It is therefore straightforward to construct embedded boundary representations of these objects on the same grid, for which recent work has enabled discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluids. While most classical techniques require construction of a structured mesh that approximates the surface in order to extrapolate a 3D finite-element gridding of the whole volume, our method directly simulates the blood-flow inside the extracted surface without losing any complicated details and without building additional grids.

  15. Progesterone levels in the ovarian, uterine, and systemic venous blood in alpacas with embryo mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embryo mortality was studied in a group of 20 pregnant alpacas. The reproductive organs of the females were monitored by ultrasound examination to determine signs of sustained pregnancy or embryo mortality. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein twice weekly from mating to determine progesterone levels through gestation or until the occurrence of embryo mortality. Ovarian hysterectomy was conducted in four animals at day nine post-mating, in three animals at the time of embryo mortality detection and in two others at day 73 of gestation. Blood samples from the ovarian and uterine veins were collected during the surgery and prior to hysterectomy for progesterone determination. The remnant of embryo membranes and the uterus and ovarian structures were macroscopically examined after surgery. The three cases of embryo mortality occurred at days 19, 40 and 69 of gestation. Progesterone levels were high during the process of embryo mortality. (author)

  16. Effect of gluraur (gamma-L-glutamyl-taurine) on trace element level of blood in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of natural (isolated from bovine parathyroid glands) and synthetized glutaur (gamma-L-glutamyl-taurine) on the trace element levels of rabbit whole blood was investigated by means of neutron activation analysis. Automated radiochemical separation procedure was developed and used to ensure good reproducibility, and to reduce the time of the analysis. In this way results could be obtained within 72 hours after sampling. A comprehensive discussion of the procedure (from the selection of the animal stock to the statistical interpretation of the final data) is given. According to the results after the per os treatment with glutaur for 40 days the copper-, manganese-, and zinc levels significantly increased in the whole blood whereas significant changes could not be observed on the concentration of bromine

  17. Paternal alcohol exposure in mice alters brain NGF and BDNF and increases ethanol-elicited preference in male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Coccurello, Roberto; Carito, Valentina; Ciafrè, Stefania; Ferraguti, Giampiero; Giacovazzo, Giacomo; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Tirassa, Paola; Chaldakov, George N; Pascale, Esterina; Ceccanti, Marco; Codazzo, Claudia; Fiore, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) exposure during pregnancy induces cognitive and physiological deficits in the offspring. However, the role of paternal alcohol exposure (PAE) on offspring EtOH sensitivity and neurotrophins has not received much attention. The present study examined whether PAE may disrupt nerve growth factor (NGF) and/or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and affect EtOH preference/rewarding properties in the male offspring. CD1 sire mice were chronically addicted for EtOH or administered with sucrose. Their male offsprings when adult were assessed for EtOH preference by a conditioned place preference paradigm. NGF and BDNF, their receptors (p75(NTR) , TrkA and TrkB), dopamine active transporter (DAT), dopamine receptors D1 and D2, pro-NGF and pro-BDNF were also evaluated in brain areas. PAE affected NGF levels in frontal cortex, striatum, olfactory lobes, hippocampus and hypothalamus. BDNF alterations in frontal cortex, striatum and olfactory lobes were found. PAE induced a higher susceptibility to the EtOH rewarding effects mostly evident at the lower concentration (0.5 g/kg) that was ineffective in non-PAE offsprings. Moreover, higher ethanol concentrations (1.5 g/kg) produced an aversive response in PAE animals and a significant preference in non-PAE offspring. PAE affected also TrkA in the hippocampus and p75(NTR) in the frontal cortex. DAT was affected in the olfactory lobes in PAE animals treated with 0.5 g/kg of ethanol while no differences were found on D1/D2 receptors and for pro-NGF or pro-BDNF. In conclusion, this study shows that: PAE affects NGF and BDNF expression in the mouse brain; PAE may induce ethanol intake preference in the male offspring. PMID:25940002

  18. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate of human blood exposed to low-level laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Musawi, Mustafa S; Jaafar, M S; Al-Gailani, B; Ahmed, Naser M; Suhaimi, Fatanah M; Bakhsh, Muhammad

    2016-08-01

    This study is designed to investigate in vitro low-level laser (LLL) effects on rheological parameter, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), of human blood. The interaction mechanism between LLL radiation and blood is unclear. Therefore, research addresses the effects of LLL irradiation on human blood and this is essential to understanding how laser radiation interacts with biological cells and tissues. The blood samples were collected through venipuncture into EDTA-containing tubes as an anticoagulant. Each sample was divided into two equal aliquots to be used as a non-irradiated sample (control) and an irradiated sample. The aliquot was subjected to doses of 36, 54, 72 and 90 J/cm(2) with wavelengths of 405, 589 and 780 nm, with a radiation source at a fixed power density of 30 mW/cm(2). The ESR and red blood cell count and volume are measured after laser irradiation and compared with the non-irradiated samples. The maximum reduction in ESR is observed with radiation dose 72 J/cm(2) delivered with a 405-nm wavelength laser beam. Moreover, no hemolysis is observed under these irradiation conditions. In a separate protocol, ESR of separated RBCs re-suspended in irradiated plasma (7.6 ± 2.3 mm/h) is found to be significantly lower (by 51 %) than their counterpart re-suspended in non-irradiated plasma (15.0 ± 3.7 mm/h). These results indicate that ESR reduction is mainly due to the effects of LLL on the plasma composition that ultimately affect whole blood ESR. PMID:27250712

  19. Effects of Phototherapy on Cytokines’ Levels and White Blood Cells in Term Neonate with Hyperbilirubinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanshahifard, Sedigheh; Ahmadpour-Kacho, Mousa; Pasha, Yadollah Zahed

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Phototherapy is the most common treatment used for severe jaundice. There is increasing evidence that phototherapy can directly affect the expression and function of cell surface receptors including adhesion molecules, cytokines, and growth factor receptors. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of phototherapy use on the levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α as cytokine expressions from keratinocytes, and also white blood cell counts i...

  20. Low perfusion index affects the difference in glucose level between capillary and venous blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acar N

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nurdan Acar,1 Hamit Ozcelik,1 Arif Alper Cevik,1 Engin Ozakin,1 Goknur Yorulmaz,2 Nur Kebapci,2 Ugur Bilge,3 Muzaffer Bilgin4 1Emergency Department, 2Endocrinology Department, 3Family Medicine Department, 4Biostatistics Department, Medical School, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey Aim: In emergency cases, finger stick testing is primarily used to check the blood glucose value of patients since it takes longer to obtain the venous value. In critical patients, under conditions that cause an increase in metabolic state and level of stress, there occurs considerable difference in glucose levels between capillary and venous measurements. This study aimed to investigate the comparability of capillary and venous glucose values, according to the perfusion index level obtained with the Masimo Radical-7® device, in critical patients aged 18 years and over.Method: We conducted this prospective and observational study in the emergency department of the Eskisehir Osmangazi University hospital between November 3, 2008 and February 2, 2009.Results: The blood glucose of 300 critical patients was checked by finger stick in the emergency unit. The participants with normal vital signs had perfusion index between 0 and 5; the results obtained by the two methods were more consistent for perfusion index values of 6 and over. The results were most consistent in aged participants with normal vital sign findings and low perfusion index and in young patients with high perfusion index. In the cases where at least one of the vital signs was abnormal, the glucose values obtained by the two methods were more consistent when the perfusion index was 6 or over. In this group, independently from the perfusion index value, the consistency was higher in younger patients compared with aged patients.Conclusion: In the emergency department, perfusion index value measured by Masimo Radical-7 and capillary blood glucose levels can serve in blood sugar management in

  1. The circulating PBEF/NAMPT/visfatin level is associated with a beneficial blood lipid profile

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, P.; Greevenbroek, van, M.M.J.; Bouwman, F.G. (F.G.); Brouwers, M.C.G.J.; Kallen, van der, B.F.; Smit, E.; Keijer, J.; Mariman, E C M

    2007-01-01

    Visfatin with the official gene name pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor 1 (PBEF) and the protein name nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a recently discovered adipocyte-secreted protein that was shown by some to be associated with visceral fat and insulin resistance. To explore the link between PBEF/NAMPT/visfatin and lipid metabolism, we analyzed the relation of its plasma level with several parameters of adiposity, insulin resistance and the circulating blood lipid profile in...

  2. Blood Mercury Level and Its Determinants among Dental Practitioners in Hamadan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Vahedi, M.; H. Mortazavi; Sh. Kasraei; Bakianian Vaziri, P.; Assary MJ.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to mercury can occur in occupational and environmental settings. During clinical work with dental amalgam, the dental personnel are exposed to both metallic mercury and mercury vapor. The aim of the present study was to investigate blood mercury level (BML) and its determinants among dentists practicing in Hamadan city, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was done on all dental practitioners of Hamadan (n=43). Dentists were asked to complete a questionn...

  3. Association of Blood Lead Levels with Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms among Chinese Pregnant Women in Wuhan City

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Shuyun; Wu, Hongling; Gu, Xue; Qin, Lingzhi; Tian, Ping; Zeng, Yun; Ye, Linxiang; Ni, Zemin; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy is an important stimulus of bone lead release. Elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers and harmful lead effects on fetuses. However, the reports about maternal BLL changes during pregnancy are conflicting to some extent. This article is to explore the variations in BLLs among pregnant women. The relationships of BLLs with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T, A1298C, and G1793A polymorphisms, which are associate...

  4. The Relationship between Levels of PCBs and Pesticides in Human Hair and Blood: Preliminary Results

    OpenAIRE

    Covaci, Adrian; Altshul, Larisa M.; Hauser, Russ B.

    2004-01-01

    Human hair as a biologic measure of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has some advantages over the more commonly used blood and adipose tissue samples. However, one of the primary limitations is the difficulty in distinguishing between exogenous and endogenous contamination. In addition, there are currently no standardized methods for hair sample collection, washing, and chemical analysis. There is also very limited information describing the correlation between levels of organ...

  5. Non-invasive detection of fasting blood glucose level via electrochemical measurement of saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Sarul; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Anand, Sneh; Gupta, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    Machine learning techniques such as logistic regression (LR), support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN) were used to detect fasting blood glucose levels (FBGL) in a mixed population of healthy and diseased individuals in an Indian population. The occurrence of elevated FBGL was estimated in a non-invasive manner from the status of an individual’s salivary electrochemical parameters such as pH, redox potential, conductivity and concentration of sodium, potassium and calc...

  6. Effects of Yogic Exercises on Life Stress and Blood Glucose Levels in Nursing Students

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Dol

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students. [Subjects and Methods] The study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven undergraduate nursing students were randomly selected, with 12 assigned to an exercise group and 15 assigned to a control group. The yogic exercises intervention was undertaken for 60 minutes one day a week for 12 weeks. It consisted of physical exercise (surya namaskara) c...

  7. THE IMPACT OF FAST FOOD CONSUMPTION ON THE LIPID PROFILE, BMI AND BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS

    OpenAIRE

    Afroz Afshan*, Veeresh B Salgar, Manjushree Sugoor and Anupriya Deshpande

    2014-01-01

    In India smoking, alcohol consumption, sedentary life style and junk foods are risk factors that has increased the burden of cardiovascular disease. To evaluate and compare the lipid profile, BMI and blood sugar levels in vegetarian home food eaters and fast food eaters. Apparently healthy 300 males aged between 15-35years were participants of our study. Out of them 150 vegetarian home food eaters formed control group, 150 fast food eaters formed study group. We observed over all highly signi...

  8. Impact of admission blood glucose level on outcomes in community-acquired pneumonia in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya RK; Mahnken JD; Rigler SK

    2013-01-01

    Rajib K Bhattacharya, Jonathan D Mahnken, Sally K RiglerUniversity of Kansas School of Medicine, Kansas City, KS, USABackground: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. Although diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for pneumonia, the clinical impact of blood glucose level at the time of admission is not clear. Our goal was to examine the association between admission hyperglycemia and subsequent mortality, length of stay, and readmission ...

  9. Blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI for assessment of renal oxygenation

    OpenAIRE

    Neugarten J; Golestaneh L

    2014-01-01

    Joel Neugarten, Ladan Golestaneh Renal Division, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA Abstract: Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) has recently emerged as an important noninvasive technique to assess intrarenal oxygenation under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions. Although this tool represents a major addition to our armamentarium of methodologies to investigate the role of hypoxia in the pathogenesis of acute...

  10. EFFECTS OF A PHYSICAL EXERCISE PROGRAM ON LEVEL OF BLOOD PRESSURE IN HYPERTENSES

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano; Afonso Henriques Bandeira Moniz de Aragão; Flávio Chame; José Silvio de Oliveira Barbosa; Luiz Alberto Batista

    2008-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. As treatment, physical exercise seem to be an important strategy to reduce tensional level among hypertensive individuals. The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of a physical exercise program, developed for hypertensive individuals, on blood pressure of controlled hypertensive individuals. Data was analyzed from exercise graded test at initial evaluation and revaluation of 66 individuals (58 women and ...

  11. The Association between Concentrations of Green Tea and Blood Glucose Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Koutatsu; ISO, Hiroyasu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Fukino, Yoko

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to examine whether habitual green tea consumption is associated with blood glucose levels and other biomarkers of glucose metabolism. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 35 male volunteers, 23–63 years old and residing in Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan. Biochemical data were measured and we conducted a questionnaire survey on health, lifestyle, and nutrition, as well as frequency of consumption and concentrations (1%, 2%, and 3%) of green tea. Men who consumed a 3% concent...

  12. Dioscorea alata L. Reduces Body Weight by Reducing Food Intake and Fasting Blood Glucose Level

    OpenAIRE

    Helen, Olubobokun Titilope; Olusola, Aluko Esther; Eghosa E, Iyare; Bond, Anyaehie Ugochukwu

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes may be most likely linked to obesity and its prevalence appears to have increased as the prevalence of obesity increased. Dioscorea alata L. has been observed to possess flavonoids which induce antidiabetic effect and phenolic compounds which could help in weight management. It has been postulated that any therapeutic regimes that can limit weight gain while simultaneously controlling blood glucose levels will be effective in managing diabetes. This stu...

  13. Low cortisol levels in blood from dairy cows with ketosis: a field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Bernt V

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An elevated plasma glucose concentration has been considered to be a potential risk factor in the pathogenesis of left-displaced abomasums (DA. Therefore the present study was performed to investigate if spontaneous disease (parturient paresis, metritis, ketosis etc in dairy cows results in elevated concentrations of glucose and cortisol in blood as cortisol is the major regulator of glucose in ruminants. Methods Cortisol, insulin, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA, non esterified fatty acids (NEFA, and serum calcium were analyzed in blood serum and glucose, in whole blood, from 57 spontaneously diseased cows collected at different farms. The cows were grouped according to the disease; parturient paresis, recumbent for other reasons, mastitis, metritis, ketosis, inappetance and others. Results No elevated concentrations of cortisol or glucose were found in cows with metritis and mastitis but both cortisol and glucose were elevated in cows stressed by recumbency. Cows with ketonemia (BHBA > 1.5 mmol/l did not have low concentration of glucose in blood but significantly low levels of cortisol. Some of these cows even had cortisol concentrations below the detection limit of the analysing method ( Conclusions The study gives patho-physiological support to the treatment strategies of ketosis, recommending glucocorticoids, insulin etc. However further studies of this problem are needed to understand why cows with ketosis have low levels of cortisol and normal levels of glucose. To what extent elevated cortisol and glucose levels in hypocalcemic and recumbent cows are involved in the ethiology and /or the pathogenesis of DA also will need further research.

  14. Effectiveness of Shelled Almonds in Decreasing Blood Lipid and Lipoprotein Levels of Hyperlipidemic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mozaffari

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Nuts such as almonds are high in unsaturated lipids and antioxidants. Some studies indicate that nuts have beneficial effects on cardiovascular system. Therefore, the aim of this study was evaluation of the effectiveness of shelled almonds on reduction of blood lipid and lipoprotein levels in hyperlipidemic patients. Methods: This study was a clinical trial (before and after and was done on 30 men volunteering for the study. They consumed 60 grams shelled almonds per day for four weeks. Their blood lipid, lipoprotein, apolipoprotein and lipoprotein (a levels were measured after and before almond consumption. Results: Shelled almond consumption caused significant decrease in serum cholesterol 36.1 mg/dl, triglyceride 45.94 mg/dl, LDL-cholesterol 28.68 mg/dl and increase in HDL-cholesterol 10.64 mg/dl(p<0.001. Shelled almond consumption decreased lipoprotein (a (2.11 mg/dl, apolipoprotein B100 (8.93 mg/dl and increased apolipoprotein A (1 1.74 mg/dl levels, but this effect was insignificant statistically. Conclusion: Continuous consumption of shelled almonds has beneficial effect on blood lipids and may play a preventive role in Atherosclerosis and coronary heart diseases. We therefore suggest that a daily intake of 60 grams of almonds can be used for treatment of hyprelipidemic patients.

  15. CSF and Blood Levels of GFAP in Alexander Disease1,2,3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jany, Paige L.; Agosta, Guillermo E.; Benko, William S.; Eickhoff, Jens C.; Keller, Stephanie R.; Köehler, Wolfgang; Mar, Soe; Naidu, Sakkubai; Marie Ness, Jayne; Renaud, Deborah L.; Salsano, Ettore; Schiffmann, Raphael; Simon, Julie; Vanderver, Adeline; Eichler, Florian; van der Knaap, Marjo S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Alexander disease is a rare, progressive, and generally fatal neurological disorder that results from dominant mutations affecting the coding region of GFAP, the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein, the major intermediate filament protein of astrocytes in the CNS. A key step in pathogenesis appears to be the accumulation of GFAP within astrocytes to excessive levels. Studies using mouse models indicate that the severity of the phenotype correlates with the level of expression, and suppression of GFAP expression and/or accumulation is one strategy that is being pursued as a potential treatment. With the goal of identifying biomarkers that indirectly reflect the levels of GFAP in brain parenchyma, we have assayed GFAP levels in two body fluids in humans that are readily accessible as biopsy sites: CSF and blood. We find that GFAP levels are consistently elevated in the CSF of patients with Alexander disease, but only occasionally and modestly elevated in blood. These results provide the foundation for future studies that will explore whether GFAP levels can serve as a convenient means to monitor the progression of disease and the response to treatment. PMID:26478912

  16. Estimation of postmortem interval using the data of insulin level in the cadaver׳s blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachil; Verma, Anoop K

    2016-06-01

    An assessment of levels of Insulin in cadaveric fluids, to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) was carried out. To profile postmortem changes of Insulin, it was extracted at different intervals i.e. (0, 3, 6, 12, 24 h), from the heart of 22 human cadavers. The cases included were the subjects of accidental deaths without any prior history of disease and their exact time of death was known. Immunoanalyzer Cobas e-411 instrument was used to detect the relationship between the amount of Insulin and PMI. Level of Insulin was measured in cardiac blood. Statically, significant correlations between levels of Insulin and PMI were studied and correlation coefficients were calculated. SPSS (version 12.0) was used for statistical analysis. Insulin levels in cadaver blood are correlated significantly with PMI with a p value of <0.001. When insulin level increases by 1 unit the duration decreases by 0.93 units. The least square regression line is: [Duration(Y)=22.71-0.93 Insulin level (X)]. PMID:26977436

  17. Modeling of Blood Lead Levels in Astronauts Exposed to Lead from Microgravity-Accelerated Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, H.; James, J.; Tsuji, J.

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to lead has been associated with toxicity to multiple organ systems. Studies of various population groups with relatively low blood lead concentrations (lead level with lower cognitive test scores in children, later onset of puberty in girls, and increased blood pressure and cardiovascular mortality rates in adults. Cognitive effects are considered by regulatory agencies to be the most sensitive endpoint at low doses. Although 95% of the body burden of lead is stored in the bones, the adverse effects of lead correlate with the concentration of lead in the blood better than with that in the bones. NASA has found that prolonged exposure to microgravity during spaceflight results in a significant loss of bone minerals, the extent of which varies from individual to individual and from bone to bone, but generally averages about 0.5% per month. During such bone loss, lead that had been stored in bones would be released along with calcium. The effects on the concentration of lead in the blood (PbB) of various concentrations of lead in drinking water (PbW) and of lead released from bones due to accelerated osteoporosis in microgravity, as well as changes in exposure to environmental lead before, during, and after spaceflight were evaluated using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that incorporated exposure to environmental lead both on earth and in flight and included temporarily increased rates of osteoporosis during spaceflight.

  18. Dietary Oily Fish Intake and Blood Pressure Levels: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Gillman, Jennifer; Castillo, Pablo R; Zambrano, Mauricio; Ha, Jung-Eun

    2016-04-01

    The effect of fish consumption on blood pressure is controversial. The authors measured blood pressure and calculated oily fish servings per week in 677 community-dwellers aged 40 years and older living in rural coastal Ecuador. Using regression models with linear splines, the authors evaluated whether dietary fish intake was related to blood pressure levels, after adjusting for relevant confounders. Mean oily fish consumption was 9.1±5.6 servings per week. There was a nonlinear relationship between systolic pressure and fish servings. In the group of individuals consuming up to five servings per week, each serving significantly reduced systolic pressure by 2.3 mm Hg (P=.020). Any extra serving provided no further effects. The study shows an inverse relationship between oily fish consumption and systolic pressure. Currently recommended amounts of dietary oily fish intake per week (1-2 servings) might be insufficient to exert beneficial effects of fish in the control of blood pressure. PMID:26395549

  19. Spatial relationships between lead sources and children's blood lead levels in the urban center of Indianapolis (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Deborah; Lin, Qing; Wiehe, Sarah; Liu, Gilbert; Rosenman, Marc; Fuller, Trevor; Wang, Jane; Filippelli, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Urban children remain disproportionately at risk of having higher blood lead levels than their suburban counterparts. The Westside Cooperative Organization (WESCO), located in Marion County, Indianapolis, Indiana, has a history of children with high blood lead levels as well as high soil lead (Pb) values. This study aims at determining the spatial relationship between soil Pb sources and children's blood lead levels. Soils have been identified as a source of chronic Pb exposure to children, but the spatial scale of the source-recipient relationship is not well characterized. Neighborhood-wide analysis of soil Pb distribution along with a furnace filter technique for sampling interior Pb accumulation for selected homes (n = 7) in the WESCO community was performed. Blood lead levels for children aged 0-5 years during the period 1999-2008 were collected. The study population's mean blood lead levels were higher than national averages across all ages, race, and gender. Non-Hispanic blacks and those individuals in the Wishard advantage program had the highest proportion of elevated blood lead levels. The results show that while there is not a direct relationship between soil Pb and children's blood lead levels at a spatial scale of ~100 m, resuspension of locally sourced soil is occurring based on the interior Pb accumulation. County-wide, the largest predictor of elevated blood lead levels is the location within the urban core. Variation in soil Pb and blood lead levels on the community level is high and not predicted by housing stock age or income. Race is a strong predictor for blood lead levels in the WESCO community. PMID:22782519

  20. Curcumin Improves Amyloid β-Peptide (1-42 Induced Spatial Memory Deficits through BDNF-ERK Signaling Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    Full Text Available Curcumin, the most active component of turmeric, has various beneficial properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor effects. Previous studies have suggested that curcumin reduces the levels of amyloid and oxidized proteins and prevents memory deficits and thus is beneficial to patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying curcumin's effect on cognitive functions are not well-understood. In the present study, we examined the working memory and spatial reference memory in rats that received a ventricular injection of amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42, representing a rodent model of Alzheimer's disease (AD. The rats treated with Aβ1-42 exhibited obvious cognitive deficits in behavioral tasks. Chronic (seven consecutive days, once per day but not acute (once a day curcumin treatments (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg improved the cognitive functions in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the beneficial effect of curcumin is accompanied by increased BDNF levels and elevated levels of phosphorylated ERK in the hippocampus. Furthermore, the cognition enhancement effect of curcumin could be mimicked by the overexpression of BDNF in the hippocampus and blocked by either bilateral hippocampal injections with lentiviruses that express BDNF shRNA or a microinjection of ERK inhibitor. These findings suggest that chronic curcumin ameliorates AD-related cognitive deficits and that upregulated BDNF-ERK signaling in the hippocampus may underlie the cognitive improvement produced by curcumin.

  1. Comparing clinical responses and the biomarkers of BDNF and cytokines between subthreshold bipolar disorder and bipolar II disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Yun; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Wang, Liang-Jen; Chen, Po See; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Li, Chia-Ling; Chung, Yi-Lun; Hsieh, Tsai-Hsin; Lee, I Hui; Chen, Kao Chin; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2016-01-01

    Patients with subthreshold hypomania (SBP; subthreshold bipolar disorder) were indistinguishable from those with bipolar disorder (BP)-II on clinical bipolar validators, but their analyses lacked biological and pharmacological treatment data. Because inflammation and neuroprogression underlies BP, we hypothesized that cytokines and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are biomarkers for BP. We enrolled 41 drug-naïve patients with SBP and 48 with BP-II undergoing 12 weeks of pharmacological treatment (valproic acid, fluoxetine, risperidone, lorazepam). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were used to evaluate clinical responses at baseline and at weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12. Inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor [TNF]-α, transforming growth factor [TGF]-β1, interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8 and IL-1β) and BDNF levels were also measured. Mixed models repeated measurement was used to examine the therapeutic effect and changes in BDNF and cytokine levels between the groups. HDRS and YMRS scores significantly (P < 0.001) declined in both groups, the SBP group had significantly lower levels of BDNF (P = 0.005) and TGF-β1 (P = 0.02). Patients with SBP and BP-II respond similarly to treatment, but SBP patients may have different neuroinflammation marker expression. PMID:27270858

  2. Blood levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in patients with neurological diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph A Mayer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The brain-specific astroglial protein GFAP is a blood biomarker candidate indicative of intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with symptoms suspicious of acute stroke. Comparably little, however, is known about GFAP release in other neurological disorders. In order to identify potential "specificity gaps" of a future GFAP test used to diagnose intracerebral hemorrhage, we measured GFAP in the blood of a large and rather unselected collective of patients with neurological diseases. METHODS: Within a one-year period, we randomly selected in-patients of our university hospital for study inclusion. Patients with ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack and intracerebral hemorrhage were excluded. Primary endpoint was the ICD-10 coded diagnosis reached at discharge. During hospital stay, blood was collected, and GFAP plasma levels were determined using an advanced prototype immunoassay at Roche Diagnostics. RESULTS: A total of 331 patients were included, covering a broad spectrum of neurological diseases. GFAP levels were low in the vast majority of patients, with 98.5% of cases lying below the cut-off that was previously defined for the differentiation of intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. No diagnosis or group of diagnoses was identified that showed consistently increased GFAP values. No association with age and sex was found. CONCLUSION: Most acute and chronic neurological diseases, including typical stroke mimics, are not associated with detectable GFAP levels in the bloodstream. Our findings underline the hypothesis that rapid astroglial destruction as in acute intracerebral hemorrhage is mandatory for GFAP increase. A future GFAP blood test applied to identify patients with intracerebral hemorrhage is likely to have a high specificity.

  3. Normal blood magnesium levels in volunteers of Rawalpindi by atomic absorption absorption technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnesium levels in whole blood samples of 67 healthy volunteers (mean 6.46 -+ 0.221; range 1.345 - 13.163 mg/dL) of Rawalpindi district have been determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. Magnesium levels of 41 male and 26 female subjects including doctors, nurses, patients attendees, medical students, sweepers and peons of Rawalpindi Medical College and Rawalpindi General Hospital revealed the normal mean blood levels of 6.088 - + 0.258 mg/dL (range 1.345 - 10.679 mg/dL)and 7.060 -+ 0.375 mg/dL (range 4.495 - 13.163 mg/dL),P<0.05 respectively. Only 10 male volunteers were smokers exhibiting 6.768 -+ 0.558 mg/dL (range 4.466 -10.679 mg/dL). Significant relationship was found in magnesium levels between males and females of poor socio-economic group (P<0.05). No relationship occurred between male smokers and non-smokers and magnesium levels in the age groups of males or females or both, when data was compared by 't' test. (author)

  4. Fatigue, serum cytokine levels, and blood cell counts during radiotherapy of patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the level of fatigue during the course of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of breast cancer patients and its relation to anxiety, depression, serum cytokines, and blood count levels. Methods and Materials: Forty-one patients who received adjuvant RT after breast-conserving surgery were prospectively studied. All patients underwent RT without concomitant chemotherapy. Patients rated their fatigue with two standardized self-assessment instruments, the Fatigue Assessment Questionnaire and a visual analog scale on fatigue intensity, before RT, during weeks 1-5 of RT, and 2 months after RT completion. In addition, the anxiety and depression levels were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A differential blood cell count and the serum levels of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were determined in parallel to the fatigue assessments. Results: Fatigue intensity as assessed with the visual analog scale increased (p<0.001) until treatment week 4 and remained elevated until week 5. Two months after RT, the values had fallen to the pretreatment levels. Fatigue measured with the Fatigue Assessment Questionnaire did not increase significantly during treatment, but the subscores on physical (p=0.035) and cognitive (p=0.015) fatigue were elevated during treatment weeks 4 and 5. Affective fatigue did not change significantly. Anxiety, as rated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, declined during RT (p=0.002), but the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score did not change significantly. IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels did not change during therapy and did not correlate with fatigue. Peripheral blood cell levels declined significantly during therapy and were still low 2 months after treatment. Until treatment week 5, lymphocytes were reduced to almost 50% of their initial values. Hemoglobin levels did not correlate with fatigue. Conclusions: We observed an increase in

  5. Evaluation of Lead, Cadmium, Zinc and Copper Levels in Blood, Hair and Teeth of Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a general agreement that children are a population that suffered increased risk of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) exposure with adverse health effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the environmental exposure to Pb and Cd in children living in Cairo since birth and their effects on other essential elements such as zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). The relationships between these indicators for exposure and children characteristics such as sex, weight, height, blood pressure and smoking habits of parents were also estimated. Forty children (23 males and 17 females) aged 5-7 years had been included in this study. Levels of elements in the samples were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The levels of Pb in blood (Pb-B), hair (Pb-H) and teeth (Pb-T) were 18.17 ± 5.35 fig/dl, 6.29 ± 2.07 fig/g and 8.07± 1.98 fig/g, respectively. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls as regards Pb-H (P<0.001)and Pb-T(P<0.05). The Cd levels were 0.603 ±0.08 μg/dl in blood (Cd-B), 0.933 ± 0.18 fig/g in hair (Cd-H) and 4.825± 0.57 μg/g in teeth (Cd-T). Boys showed higher significant increases in Cd-B than girls (P < 0.001). Concerning Zn, the levels were 57.43± 6.86 μg/dl,148.18± 11.76μg/g and 100.32± 20.28 μg/dl in blood (Zn-B), hair (Zn-H) and teeth(Zn-T),correspondingly Girls displayed significant higher levels of Zn-H than boys (P < 0.05). Regarding Cu in blood (Cu-B), in hair (Cu-H) and in teeth (Cu-T), they were 113.42± 9.89 μg/dl, 17.9±4.18 μg/g and 10.6± 3.04 μg/g, respectively. Girls showed significant higher levels of Cu-H than boys (P < 0.05). The passive smoking children exhibited significant increased levels of Pb, Cd and Cu in blood, hair and teeth when compared to the non-exposed children. On the other hand, passive smoking leads to decrease in Zn concentrations in the three studied samples. The proper mechanism of Zn affection was explained by interactions with Cd, Pb and Cu. Correlation between Pb and Cd with

  6. High blood cadmium levels are not associated with consumption of traditional food among the Inuit of Nunavik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, M. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Bogota (Colombia); Turcotte, F.; Lapointe, C. [Universite Laval, Quebec City (Canada)] [and others

    1997-09-01

    High levels of cadmium in the liver and kidneys of caribous and sea mammals of the Canadian Arctic have led to recommendations to remove such offal from the traditional diet. Blood cadmium levels have been found to be very high in samples of Inuit volunteers, hence the hypothesis that the Inuit might be exposed to cadmium through their diet. This survey of a population-based random sample of Nunavik residents (n = 518) confirms that blood cadmium of Inuit is indeed very high by comparison to published reports. Blood cadmium levels are closely associated with the current smoking status and are independent of dietary patterns among nonsmokers. Plasma omega-3 fatty acids concentrations have been used to assess the reliability of the dietary information collected by questionnaires and to test for any association of blood cadmium with the consumption of sea mammals. Blood cadmium levels are not related to the reported consumption of sea mammals. Blood cadmium levels are very high among smokers and are associated with levels of exposure to tobacco. Among nonsmoking Inuit, blood cadmium levels are comparable with those reported in nonsmokers elsewhere in the world. In reference to international standards, blood cadmium concentrations are high enough among the Inuit to warrant energetic public health interventions. 28 refs., 5 tabs.

  7. Association between blood lipid levels and personality traits in young Korean women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ju Roh

    blood lipid levels and personality traits may have a beneficial effect for the managing of dyslipidemia.

  8. Effects of anesthetic agents on brain blood oxygenation level revealed with ultra-high field MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Ciobanu

    Full Text Available During general anesthesia it is crucial to control systemic hemodynamics and oxygenation levels. However, anesthetic agents can affect cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in a drug-dependent manner, while systemic hemodynamics is stable. Brain-wide monitoring of this effect remains highly challenging. Because T(2*-weighted imaging at ultra-high magnetic field strengths benefits from a dramatic increase in contrast to noise ratio, we hypothesized that it could monitor anesthesia effects on brain blood oxygenation. We scanned rat brains at 7T and 17.2T under general anesthesia using different anesthetics (isoflurane, ketamine-xylazine, medetomidine. We showed that the brain/vessels contrast in T(2*-weighted images at 17.2T varied directly according to the applied pharmacological anesthetic agent, a phenomenon that was visible, but to a much smaller extent at 7T. This variation is in agreement with the mechanism of action of these agents. These data demonstrate that preclinical ultra-high field MRI can monitor the effects of a given drug on brain blood oxygenation level in the absence of systemic blood oxygenation changes and of any neural stimulation.

  9. Melatonin Signaling Controls the Daily Rhythm in Blood Glucose Levels Independent of Peripheral Clocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Owino

    Full Text Available Melatonin is rhythmically secreted by both the pineal gland and retina in a circadian fashion, with its peak synthesis occurring during the night. Once synthesized, melatonin exerts its effects by binding to two specific G-protein coupled receptors-melatonin receptor type 1(MT1 and melatonin receptor type 2(MT2. Recent studies suggest the involvement of MT1 and MT2 in the regulation of glucose homeostasis; however the ability of melatonin signaling to impart timing cues on glucose metabolism remains poorly understood. Here we report that the removal of MT1 or MT2 in mice abolishes the daily rhythm in blood glucose levels. Interestingly, removal of melatonin receptors produced small effects on the rhythmic expression patterns of clock genes within skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. Taken together, our data suggest that the loss of the daily rhythm in blood glucose observed in MT1(-/- and MT2(-/- mice does not occur as a consequence of 'disrupted' clocks within insulin sensitive tissues. Finally our results highlight a diurnal contribution of melatonin receptor signaling in the daily regulation of blood glucose levels.

  10. Blood levels of organochlorines before and after chemotherapy among non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris, D; Kwak, L W; Rothman, N; Wilson, W; Manns, A; Tarone, R E; Hartge, P

    2000-02-01

    Several small studies suggest a link between environmental exposure to organochlorine compounds and risk of non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Because NHL is uncommon, studies of the topic often use a population-based case-control design, in which cases generally are enrolled after treatment has begun. If chemotherapy affects blood levels of organochlorines, exposure will be misclassified and findings distorted. To determine whether chemotherapy alters serum levels of organochlorines in NHL cases, we compared serum samples before and after treatment in 22 cases diagnosed with NHL between March 1994 and August 1995 and enrolled in a clinical trial at the United States National Cancer Institute's Clinical Center. The time difference between pretreatment and posttreatment samples ranged from 15 to 27 months with an average of 20 months. Laboratory analyses were conducted in blinded pretreatment and posttreatment pairs of the subjects. Pretreatment and posttreatment organochlorine serum levels were compared using Pearson correlation coefficient (r) and paired t test. The pretreatment and posttreatment serum levels were highly correlated for 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) PCB-138, PCB-153, PCB-156, and total PCBs (ranging from 0.78 to 0.93). Serum levels of all of these organochlorines significantly decreased between initiation and completion of chemotherapy, 25% for total PCB (P = 0.0044), 28% for DDE (P = 0.0014), 25% for PCB-138 (P = 0.0053), 27% for PCB-153 (P = 0.0031), and 29% for PCB-156 (P = 0.045). Neither weight change nor lipid change was correlated with changes in chemical levels. There was no association between the length of time between blood draws and changes in chemical levels. Our data raise the possibility that lymphoma treatment depresses serum organochlorine levels. PMID:10698481

  11. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF contributes to the pain hypersensitivity following surgical incision in the rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jian-Yi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenic role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the incisional pain is poorly understood. The present study explores the role of the BDNF in the incision-induced pain hypersensitivity. Methods A longitudinal incision was made in one plantar hind paw of isoflurane-anesthetized rats. Dorsal root ganglias (DRG and spinal cords were removed at various postoperative times (1–72 h. Expression pattern of BDNF was determined by immunohistochemistry and double-labeling immunofluorescence. Lidocaine-induced blockade of sciatic nerve function was used to determine the importance of afferent nerve activity on BDNF expression in the DRG and spinal cord after incision. BDNF antibody was administered intrathecally (IT or intraperitoneal (IP to modulate the spinal BDNF or peripheral BDNF after incision. Results After hind-paw incision, the BDNF was upregulated in the ipsilateral lumbar DRG and spinal cord whereas thoracic BDNF remained unchanged in response to incision. The upregulated BDNF was mainly expressed in the large-sized neurons in DRG and the neurons and the primary nerve terminals in the spinal cord. Sciatic nerve blockade prevented the increase of BDNF in the DRG and spinal cord. IT injection of BDNF antibody greatly inhibited the mechanical allodynia induced by incision whereas IP administration had only marginal effect. Conclusion The present study showed that incision induced the segmental upregulation of BDNF in the DRG and spinal cord through somatic afferent nerve transmission, and the upregulated BDNF contributed to the pain hypersensitivity induced by surgical incision.

  12. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes. PMID:24924647

  13. THE IMPACT OF FAST FOOD CONSUMPTION ON THE LIPID PROFILE, BMI AND BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afroz Afshan*, Veeresh B Salgar, Manjushree Sugoor and Anupriya Deshpande

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In India smoking, alcohol consumption, sedentary life style and junk foods are risk factors that has increased the burden of cardiovascular disease. To evaluate and compare the lipid profile, BMI and blood sugar levels in vegetarian home food eaters and fast food eaters. Apparently healthy 300 males aged between 15-35years were participants of our study. Out of them 150 vegetarian home food eaters formed control group, 150 fast food eaters formed study group. We observed over all highly significant effect of fast food in study group compared to control group. In our study we found that BMI, RBS and lipid profile was significantly increased with p value <0.001 in the study group. With regular consumption of fast food there is a derangement of lipid function and increased blood sugar leading to early obesity and ill health. Hence the habit of fast food consumption should be curbed at the earliest.

  14. Variation of DNA damage levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated in different laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godschalk, Roger W L; Ersson, Clara; Stępnik, Maciej;

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the levels of DNA strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) sensitive sites, as assessed by the comet assay, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy women from five different countries in Europe. The laboratory in each country (referred to...... as 'centre') collected and cryopreserved PBMC samples from three donors, using a standardised cell isolation protocol. The samples were analysed in 13 different laboratories for DNA damage, which is measured by the comet assay. The study aim was to assess variation in DNA damage in PBMC samples that...... were collected in the same way and processed using the same blood isolation procedure. The inter-laboratory variation was the prominent contributor to the overall variation. The inter-laboratory coefficient of variation decreased for both DNA strand breaks (from 68 to 26%) and FPG sensitive sites (from...

  15. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Serum Levels and Genotype: Association with Depression during Interferon-α Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lotrich, Francis E.; Albusaysi, Salwa; Ferrell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Depression has been associated with inflammation, and inflammation may both influence and interact with growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Both the functional Val66Met BDNF polymorphism (rs6265) and BDNF levels have been associated with depression. It is thus plausible that decreased BDNF could mediate and/or moderate cytokine-induced depression. We therefore prospectively employed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Sca...

  16. Serum BDNF correlates with connectivity in the (pre)motor hub in the aging human brain--a resting-state fMRI pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Karsten; Arelin, Katrin; Möller, Harald E; Sacher, Julia; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Luck, Tobias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Villringer, Arno; Schroeter, Matthias L

    2016-02-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been discussed to be involved in plasticity processes in the human brain, in particular during aging. Recently, aging and its (neurodegenerative) diseases have increasingly been conceptualized as disconnection syndromes. Here, connectivity changes in neural networks (the connectome) are suggested to be the most relevant and characteristic features for such processes or diseases. To further elucidate the impact of aging on neural networks, we investigated the interaction between plasticity processes, brain connectivity, and healthy aging by measuring levels of serum BDNF and resting-state fMRI data in 25 young (mean age 24.8 ± 2.7 (SD) years) and 23 old healthy participants (mean age, 68.6 ± 4.1 years). To identify neural hubs most essentially related to serum BDNF, we applied graph theory approaches, namely the new data-driven and parameter-free approach eigenvector centrality (EC) mapping. The analysis revealed a positive correlation between serum BDNF and EC in the premotor and motor cortex in older participants in contrast to young volunteers, where we did not detect any association. This positive relationship between serum BDNF and EC appears to be specific for older adults. Our results might indicate that the amount of physical activity and learning capacities, leading to higher BDNF levels, increases brain connectivity in (pre)motor areas in healthy aging in agreement with rodent animal studies. Pilot results have to be replicated in a larger sample including behavioral data to disentangle the cause for the relationship between BDNF levels and connectivity. PMID:26827656

  17. Spike-timing-dependent BDNF secretion and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Park, Hyungju; Poo, Mu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In acute hippocampal slices, we found that the presence of extracellular brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for the induction of spike-timing-dependent long-term potentiation (tLTP). To determine whether BDNF could be secreted from postsynaptic dendrites in a spike-timing-dependent manner, we used a reduced system of dissociated hippocampal neurons in culture. Repetitive pairing of iontophoretically applied glutamate pulses at the dendrite with neuronal spikes could induce persistent alterations of glutamate-induced responses at the same dendritic site in a manner that mimics spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP)-the glutamate-induced responses were potentiated and depressed when the glutamate pulses were applied 20 ms before and after neuronal spiking, respectively. By monitoring changes in the green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence at the dendrite of hippocampal neurons expressing GFP-tagged BDNF, we found that pairing of iontophoretic glutamate pulses with neuronal spiking resulted in BDNF secretion from the dendrite at the iontophoretic site only when the glutamate pulses were applied within a time window of approximately 40 ms prior to neuronal spiking, consistent with the timing requirement of synaptic potentiation via STDP. Thus, BDNF is required for tLTP and BDNF secretion could be triggered in a spike-timing-dependent manner from the postsynaptic dendrite. PMID:24298135

  18. Chasing a ghost? - Issues with the determination of circulating levels of endotoxin in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnauck, Anne; Lentle, Roger Graham; Kruger, Marlena Cathorina

    2016-06-01

    Reliable quantification of bacterial products such as endotoxin is important for the diagnosis of Gram-negative infection and for the monitoring of its treatment. Further, it is important to identify patients with persistent subclinical level of bacterial products in their systemic circulation as data from animal studies also suggest this may be correlated with the onset of metabolic syndrome. In this review, we first aim to describe the principles of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test, an assay that is used to quantify endotoxin, and the various shortcomings that must be addressed before it can become a reliable means of quantifying endotoxin in samples derived from blood. We then review published data regarding endotoxin levels in healthy subjects and those with sepsis, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disorders and metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. We also review the evidence regarding influence of macronutrients in augmenting the levels of systemic endotoxin. The results of this review show that reported mean levels of endotoxin in the systemic circulation of healthy humans and of those with various clinical disorders vary over a wide range. Further, this review shows that a significant proportion of this variation can be related to the method that was used to prepare plasma and serum samples prior to assay and its ability to reduce the effect of various blood borne factors that interfere with the LAL assay. PMID:26732012

  19. HIGH BLOOD LEVELS PROCALCITONIN AS SYSTEMIC IMFLAMATORY RESPONSE SYNDROME PREDICTOR IN SEVERE AND MODERATE HEAD INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sinaga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNumerous studies have shown that procalcitonin (PCT was not related to degree of trauma. High PCT serum levels have been found in patients with bacterial or fungal infection and also in acute phase of trauma. Currently, there has been no research discussed about changes in serum levels of PCT in particular head injuries and severe head injuries. Moderate and severe head injuries were common trauma cases in Emergency Room (ER and had high mortality rate. Based on Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, moderate and severe head injuries were scored between 3 and 13. This research aim to determine whether high blood levels PCT can be used as a predictor of the occurrence of SIRS. Method: A cohort prospective study was applied in this research to determine high blood levels of PCT as a predictor for SIRS in moderate and severe head injury. This study was conducted from June 2013 - August 2013 at Sanglah General Hospital with 40 research subjects. Data was presented in tables and analyzed with Chi Square test at 95% CI and p <0.05% was considered significant. Results: From the 40 samples, there were 34 males (85% and 6 females (15%, 18 samples (45% had moderate head injury and 22 samples (65% had severe head injury. One sample (2.5 % was 0-10 years old, 15 samples (37.5% were 10-20 years old, 13 samples (32.5% were 20-40 years old, 7 samples (17.5% were 40-60 years old and 4 samples (10% were>60 years old. PCT levels in the blood obtained on day first were normal in 6 samples (15% and elevated in 34 samples (85%, SIRS (+ were found in 35 samples (87.5% and 5 samples (12.5% were SIRS (-. Using bivariate analysis between PCT levels and SIRS showed p = 0.000 (p < 0.05, and multivariate analysis of the control variables showed no significant correlation between variables with PCT levels. Conclusion: From 40 samples moderate head injury and severe head injury, there were 34 samples (85% with elevated PCT level on the first day, while 35 samples (87.5% had SIRS

  20. Blood ammonia levels in liver cirrhosis: a clue for the presence of portosystemic collateral veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripodi Francesca

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Portal hypertension leads to the formation of portosystemic collateral veins in liver cirrhosis. The resulting shunting is responsible for the development of portosystemic encephalopathy. Although ammonia plays a certain role in determining portosystemic encephalopathy, the venous ammonia level has not been found to correlate with the presence or severity of this entity. So, it has become partially obsolete. Realizing the need for non-invasive markers mirroring the presence of esophageal varices in order to reduce the number of endoscopy screening, we came back to determine whether there was a correlation between blood ammonia concentrations and the detection of portosystemic collateral veins, also evaluating splenomegaly, hypersplenism (thrombocytopenia and the severity of liver cirrhosis. Methods One hundred and fifty three consecutive patients with hepatic cirrhosis of various etiologies were recruited to participate in endoscopic and ultrasonography screening for the presence of portosystemic collaterals mostly esophageal varices, but also portal hypertensive gastropathy and large spontaneous shunts. Results Based on Child-Pugh classification, the median level of blood ammonia was 45 mcM/L in 64 patients belonging to class A, 66 mcM/L in 66 patients of class B and 108 mcM/L in 23 patients of class C respectively (p The grade of esophageal varices was concordant with venous ammonia levels (rho 0.43, p Conclusion Identifying cirrhotic patients with high blood ammonia concentrations could be clinically useful, as high levels would lead to suspicion of being in presence of collaterals, in clinical practice of esophageal varices, and pinpoint those patients requiring closer follow-up and endoscopic screening.

  1. Blood amyloid beta levels in healthy, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease individuals: replication of diastolic blood pressure correlations and analysis of critical covariates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Ruiz

    Full Text Available Plasma amyloid beta (Aβ levels are being investigated as potential biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. In AB128 cross-sectional study, a number of medical relevant correlates of blood Aβ40 or Aβ42 were analyzed in 140 subjects (51 Alzheimer's disease patients, 53 healthy controls and 36 individuals diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment. We determined the association between multiple variables with Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels measured in three different blood compartments called i Aβ directly accessible (DA in the plasma, ii Aβ recovered from the plasma matrix (RP after diluting the plasma sample in a formulated buffer, and iii associated with the remaining cellular pellet (CP. We confirmed that diastolic blood pressure (DBP is consistently correlated with blood DA Aβ40 levels (r=-0.19, P=0.032. These results were consistent in the three phenotypic groups studied. Importantly, the observation resisted covariation with age, gender or creatinine levels. Observed effect size and direction of Aβ40 levels/DBP correlation are in accordance with previous reports. Of note, DA Aβ40 and the RP Aβ40 were also strongly associated with creatinine levels (r=0.599, P<<0.001 and to a lesser extent to urea, age, hematocrit, uric acid and homocysteine (p<0.001. DBP and the rest of statistical significant correlates identified should be considered as potential confounder factors in studies investigating bloodlevels as potential AD biomarker. Remarkably, the factors affecting Aβ levels in plasma (DA, RP and blood cell compartments (CP seem completely different.

  2. Exposure to sub-chronic unpredictable stress accounts for antidepressant-like effects in hamsters treated with BDNF and CNQX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alò, Raffaella; Mele, Maria; Fazzari, Gilda; Avolio, Ennio; Canonaco, Marcello

    2015-09-01

    Recent evidences indicate that cerebral neurotrophic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor plus signaling pathways of the glutamatergic neuroreceptor system (L-Glu) are determinant modulators of depression-like states. In the present study, the type of interaction(s) exerted by the AMPAergic antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxalin-2,3-dione (CNQX) and the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on depression-like behaviors in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were investigated. Sub-chronic administration of BDNF in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of stressed hamsters was responsible for very evident (pdepression states, were reduced following treatment with both compounds. Contextually, marked mRNA expression levels of the BDNF receptor (tropomyosin-related kinase B; TrkB) were detected in DG and the oriens-pyramidalis of HIP (Or-Py) while a moderate (pcaused moderate increases of the major stress protein (Hsp70) in DG and Or-Py. Conversely, while CNQX induced similar TrkB expression levels, it instead accounted for a moderate reduction of Hsp70 mRNAs in the same brain areas. Overall these results support crucial roles played by BDNF and AMPAergic neurosignaling mechanisms during distinct adaptive responses of depression- and anxiety-like states in hamsters. PMID:26409118

  3. Chronic stress-induced memory deficits are reversed by regular exercise via AMPK-mediated BDNF induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D-M; Leem, Y-H

    2016-06-01

    Chronic stress has a detrimental effect on neurological insults, psychiatric deficits, and cognitive impairment. In the current study, chronic stress was shown to impair learning and memory functions, in addition to reducing in hippocampal Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. Similar reductions were also observed for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), synaptophysin, and post-synaptic density-95 (PSD-95) levels, all of which was counter-regulated by a regime of regular and prolonged exercise. A 21-day restraint stress regimen (6 h/day) produced learning and memory deficits, including reduced alternation in the Y-maze and decreased memory retention in the water maze test. These effects were reversed post-administration by a 3-week regime of treadmill running (19 m/min, 1 h/day, 6 days/week). In hippocampal primary culture, phosphorylated-AMPK (phospho-AMPK) and BDNF levels were enhanced in a dose-dependent manner by 5-amimoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) treatment, and AICAR-treated increase was blocked by Compound C. A 7-day period of AICAR intraperitoneal injections enhanced alternation in the Y-maze test and reduced escape latency in water maze test, along with enhanced phospho-AMPK and BDNF levels in the hippocampus. The intraperitoneal injection of Compound C every 4 days during exercise intervention diminished exercise-induced enhancement of memory improvement during the water maze test in chronically stressed mice. Also, chronic stress reduced hippocampal neurogenesis (lower Ki-67- and doublecortin-positive cells) and mRNA levels of BDNF, synaptophysin, and PSD-95. Our results suggest that regular and prolonged exercise can alleviate chronic stress-induced hippocampal-dependent memory deficits. Hippocampal AMPK-engaged BDNF induction is at least in part required for exercise-induced protection against chronic stress. PMID:26975895

  4. Exposure study by determination of blood lead levels using electro-thermal atomic absorption in correlation with basophilic stippling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood lead levels were determined in fifty traffic police personnel exposed to open traffic deputed at various crossings in Rawalpindi/Islamabad by electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique to monitor the levels. Blood comparison of lead concentration in the blood samples of policemen working at high density area versus those working at low density area was made. The range of the blood lead levels of subjects working in the high density traffic is 7.2 - 19.6 up/dl whereas the blood lead levels of subjects at lean traffic is 0.4 - 6.9 Mu g /dL. The accuracy of the method was checked by analyzing SRM wheat flour, rice flour and bovine liver. The results obtained were compared with reported values of other countries as well as with the exposure limits of WHO. (author)

  5. Prediction of Elevated Cord Blood IgE Levels by Maternal IgE Levels, and the Neonate's Gender and Gestational Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-An Liu

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevation of cord blood immunoglobulin E (IgE is used to predict childhoodatopy. In an effort to catch such problems at an earlier time, we sought toidentify the impact of parental atopy as well as gestational age, the baby'sgender, and the season of delivery on cord blood IgE levels.Methods: The allergic history of parents was collected during pregnancy. Blood samplesfrom parents were collected in the third trimester. Cord blood was collectedimmediately after birth. Total and specific IgE levels were determinedusing the Pharmacia CAP system.Results: In total, 437 core family blood samples were collected. Male babies had asignificantly higher IgE level (0.535

  6. Effect of immobilization stress on the level of macroergic phosphates in the blood of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudov, V. I.; Sosenkov, V. A.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of immobilization for 1, 2, and 24 hours, and of daily (for 2 hours for 7 days) immobilization on the blood nucleotide (ATP, ADP, AMP) level was studied on 79 male rats. A progressive reduction of the ATP content was most pronounced in immobilization for 24 hours. This was accompanied by an increase of lymphopenia and eosinopenia. A fall of the relative weight of the thymus and a weight gain of the adrenal glands was observed along with a reduction of ascorbic acid concentration in both of them. In case of daily immobilization for 2 hours, the ATP and ADP content on the 1st and 2nd day was below the normal level, and then showed a gradual increase, with complete normalization in 6-7 days, except for inorganic phosphorus the level of which remained lower than normal.

  7. Elevated levels of whole blood nickel in a group of Sri Lankan women with endometriosis: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Nalinda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometriosis is characterized by the persistence of endometrial tissue in ectopic sites outside the uterine cavity. Presence of nickel, cadmium and lead in ectopic endometrial tissue has been reported previously. While any association between blood levels of nickel and endometriosis is yet to be described in literature, conflicting reports are available with regards to cadmium and lead levels in blood and urine. Findings In fifty patients with endometriosis and fifty age-matched controls confirmed by laparoscopy or laparotomy, whole blood samples were collected and digested using supra pure 65% HNO3. Whole blood levels of nickel and lead were measured using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF while cadmium levels were evaluated using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFASS. Women with endometriosis had significantly higher (P=0.016 geometric mean (95% CI whole blood nickel levels [2.6(1.9-3.3 μg/L] as compared to women without endometriosis [0.8 (0.7-0.9 μg/L]. Whole blood levels of cadmium and lead were similar between the two groups. Conclusions Although women with endometriosis in this study population had higher levels of nickel in whole blood compared to controls, whether nickel could be considered as an aetiological factor in endometriosis remains inconclusive in view of the smaller sample that was evaluated.

  8. Study of the Effect of Garlic on Serum Lipids and Blood Glucose Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    M Afkhami - Ardekani; AR Kamali - Ardakani

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Hyperlipidemia and diabetes are common risk factors for ischemic heart disease, which is the main cause of mortality in diabetic patients. Strict control of blood glucose and other risk factors in diabetics has led to prevention of complications. Garlic has received particular attention for control of blood glucose and decrease in blood lipid levels. At present, several studies have been carried out in order to prove advantages of garlic. Methods: In this study, effects of garsi...

  9. Changes in peripheral blood levels and pulse frequencies of GnRH in patients with hypopituitarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, M; Takanashi, N; Yaoi, Y

    1998-09-01

    Pituitary dysfunction occasionally results from brain tumors or the surgical resection of brain tumors. The authors examined two patients with hypogonadotropic secondary amenorrhea, who had undergone surgical removal of brain tumors. Changes in immunoreactive gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion are of interest in patients with a gonadotropin and gonadal steroid deficit, because both steroid and pituitary feedback systems are altered by tumors or tumor resection. The authors thus measured GnRH, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels every 15 minutes for 4 hours by radioimmunoassay and investigated qualitative and quantitative changes in the pulsatile patterns of these hormones in two hypogonadotropic hypogonadism patients. They also performed similar multiple measurements of GnRH in two normal cycle women in follicular phase and two postmenopausal women. The concentration of plasma GnRH in two hypopituitarism patients was compared with that in two normal cycle women and two postmenopausal women. The study showed that the peripheral blood level of GnRH was significantly lower in two hypopituitarism patients than in both normal cycle and postmenopausal women, and that the pulsatile frequency was not different among these three groups. These findings suggest that alteration of feedback systems results in a decrease in the blood level of GnRH, and that pulses of GnRH maintain normal fluctuation despite the alteration of the hormonal circumstances in two hypogonadotropic hypogonadism patients. PMID:9749566

  10. Blood lead levels in pregnant women of high and low socioeconomic status in Mexico City.

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, P; Borja-Aburto, V H; Rios, C.(Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain); Hertz-Picciotto, I; Rojas-Lopez, M; Chavez-Ayala, R

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the determinants of blood lead (BPb) in 513 pregnant women in Mexico City: 311 from public hospital prenatal clinics, representing primarily women of low socioeconomic status (SES), and 202 from private hospitals, primarily women of high SES. Overall, BPb levels ranged from 1.38 to 29 micrograms/dl, with geometric means of 6.7 and 11.12 micrograms/dl for women from private and public hospitals, respectively. The crude geometric means difference obtained by t-test was 4.42 ...

  11. Metabolism of red blood cells in chronic renal failure. I. Glycolytic enzyme levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Commes, J L; Tabernero, J M; Martin-Vasallo, P; De Castro, S; Battaner, E

    1979-01-01

    This paper starts a series on red blood cell (RBC) metabolism in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). The glycolytic enzyme levels and in vitro half-lives of these patients' RBCs were determined. A number of enzymes (hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, fructose-6-phosphate kinase, aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase) showed higher activities than in normal control RBCs. Other enzyme activities were normal. These results were discussed and several possible mechanisms considered. We favour the point of view of a shortened life span of the RBCs in CRF, making the most unstable enzymes of the glycolytic sequence appear increase as compared with normal controls. PMID:226898

  12. Acu-TENS lowers blood lactate levels and enhances heart rate recovery after exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Alice Y. M. Jones; Shirley P. C. Ngai

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of this study is to investigate the effect of application of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation over acupuncture points (Acu-TENS) on post-exercise blood lactate level. The secondary aim is to explore the effect of Acu-TENS on heart rate recovery and its association with autonomic nervous system. Methods: Twenty healthy subjects (mean age 26.9 ± 1.3) acting as their own controls, were randomized to receive either Acu-TENS or Placebo-TENS as the first of ...

  13. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undarmaa Enkhbat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40–60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.–11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™ and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17–99 μg/m3, and 100 (95% CI: 67–187 μg/m3 in ger households (p < 0.001. The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39–297 μg/m3 and 127.8 (95% CI: 86–190 μg/m3 in ger households (p = 0.004. The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001. Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15. The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01 when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically

  14. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D'Ann L

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40-60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.-11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17-99) μg/m³, and 100 (95% CI: 67-187) μg/m³ in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39-297) μg/m³ and 127.8 (95% CI: 86-190) μg/m³ in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant difference

  15. Relationship between Plasma Ghrelin Levels and Insulin Resistance and Blood Pressure in Octogenarians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵荫涛; 邵莉; 滕丽莉; 张代富; 张华

    2010-01-01

    The association between fasting plasma ghrelin levels and insulin resistance and blood pressure(BP) in octogenarians was investigated in this study.A total of 487 unrelated octogenarians(including 203 men and 284 women) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study at the Healthy Care Center of Shanghai East Hospital,Tongji University,China,from October 2008 to April 2009.Plasma ghrelin was determined by using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA).Insulin sensitivity was assessed using the homeostasis ...

  16. Blood oxygenation level-dependent response to intragastric load of corn oil emulsion in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurugizawa, Tomokazu; Uematsu, Akira; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Torii, Kunio

    2009-12-01

    The postingestive actions after intragastric or oronasal stimulation of fat have been well investigated. The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes, however, after intragastric load of corn oil emulsion have yet to be elucidated. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the BOLD signal response to gut corn oil emulsion in nonanesthetized rats. Intragastrically infused 7% corn oil emulsion induced a BOLD signal increase in several brain regions, including the bilateral amygdala, hippocampus and the ventral tegmental area. These results indicate that the limbic system responds to gut corn oil emulsion and that activation of this system could promote the reinforcing action for food with high fat content. PMID:19918206

  17. Changes of blood Cys C, creatinine and hemoglobin levels in patients with different degrees of renal function impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the changes of blood cystatin C(Cys C),creatinine and hemoglobin levels in patients with different levels of GFR. Methods: GFR levels were examined with renal dynamic imaging(with 99mTc-DTPA) in 201 patients with various kinds of chronic renal diseases. Blood Cys C, creatinine and hemoglobin levels were determined with biochemistry in these patients.The patients were divided into 5 groups according to their GFR levels: Group A, GFR≥80 min/ml(renal function normal, n = 21), Group B, 60 ml/min≤GFR0.05). Anemia with significant decrease of hemoglobin levels developed in Group D and Group E patients. Blood levels of both Cys C and creatinine were significantly negatively correlated with GFR levels. However, in patients with mild renal function impairment, Cys C was a more sensitive indicator. In this study, among the 39 Group B patients, Cys C levels were increased in 32 cases (82.1%), but creatinine levels were increased in 14 cases (35.9%) only: the difference was significantly(χ2=17.168, P<0.01). Conclusion: Changes of blood Cys C levels could reflect renal function impairment better than changes of blood creatinine level did, especially at the initial stage. Anemia developed later in the course of chronic renal failure. (authors)

  18. Diabetes screening and the distribution of blood glucose levels in rural areas of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Genetics and environment have both been implicated in the exponential rise in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus that affects 65.1 million people, and leads to a mortality of 1 million people every year in India. This study was devised to obtain the trends of the distribution of blood glucose, and sociodemographic characteristics in rural areas of a North Indian state. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at eight centers in five districts. A camp-based approach was followed in the diabetes screening conducted in rural areas. Blood glucose measurements were obtained after informed consent by trained staff using a reflectance photometer instrument. Descriptive statistics, distribution curves, log transformations, and tests for bimodality were obtained. Results: 45,318 participants consisting of 44.4% males and 55.6% females were screened. Ages ranged from 18 to 98 years with the mean age of 39.9 ± 14.44 years. 86.5% were normal (random blood sugar [RBS] 200 mg/dl. The median blood glucose level steadily rose with increasing age. The prediabetic to diabetic ratio was 4:1. The distribution curve of RBS was right skewed. A log transformation was applied, and bimodality was tested using the Hartigan′s dip test. The dip statistic (D was 0.0162 with a simulated P < 0.001. Conclusion: Mass screening for diabetes provides benefits from a clinical standpoint by helping to estimate the prevalence (diabetes and the hidden burden of the disease (prediabetes. Screening programs can strengthen healthcare system initiatives and reduce the growing burden of diabetes in India.

  19. Serum cortisol level and its correlation to serum insulin and fasting blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the change of serum cortisol levels and its correlation to blood sugar and serum insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Blood sugar with oxidase method and serum cortisol insulin levels with RIA (8 AM fasting specimen) were measured in 26 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 30 controls. Results: The serum cortisol levels in the diabetic patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). The cortisol levels were positively correlated to the blood sugar levels (r=0.32, p<0.01), but not correlated to insulin levels. Conclusion: There were cortisol secretion disturbances in patients with type 2 diabetes

  20. Decreased blood riboflavin levels are correlated with defective expression of RFT2 gene in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maynur Eli; De-Sheng Li; Wei-Wei Zhang; Bing Kong; Chen-Song Du; Maimaitiaili Wumar; Batur Mamtimin; Ilyar Sheyhidin; Ayshamgul Hasim

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the relationship between blood riboflavin levels and riboflavin transporter 2 (RFT2) gene expression in gastric carcinoma (GC) development.METHODS:High-performance liquid chromatography was used to detect blood riboflavin levels in patients with GC.Real-time fluorogenic quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expression of RFT2 mRNA and protein in samples from 60 GC patients consisting of both tumor and normal tissue.RESULTS:A significant decrease in the RFT2 mRNA levels was detected in GC samples compared with those in the normal mucous membrane (0.398 ± 0.149 vs 1.479 ± 0.587; P =0.040).Tumors exhibited low RFT2 protein expression (75%,16.7%,8.3% and 0%for no RFT2 staining,weak staining,medium staining and strong staining,respectively),which was significantly lower than that in the normal mucous membrane (10%,16.7%,26.7% and 46.7% for no RFT2 staining,weak staining,medium staining and strong staining,respectively; P < 0.05).Tumors with low RFT2 expression were significantly associated with tumor stage and histological grade.Moreover,a significantly decrease in Uyghur patients was observed compared with Han patients.However,other parameters-gender,tumor location and lymph node metastasis-showed no significant relationship with RFT2 expression.Blood riboflavin levels were reverse correlated with development of GC (1.2000 ± 0.97 569 ng/mL in high tumor stage patients vs 2.5980 ± 1.31 129 ng/mL in low tumor stage patients; P < 0.05).A positive correlation of plasma riboflavin levels with defective expression of RFT2 protein was found in GC patients (x2 =2.619; P =0.019).CONCLUSION:Defective expression of RFT2 is associated with the development of GC and this may represent a mechanism underlying the decreased plasma riboflavin levels in GC.

  1. Spirulina non-protein components induce BDNF gene transcription via HO-1 activity in C6 glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kyoji; Itoh, Mari; Nishibori, Naoyoshi; Her, Song; Lee, Mi-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Blue-green algae are known to contain biologically active proteins and non-protein substances and considered as useful materials for manufacturing the nutritional supplements. Particularly, Spirulina has been reported to contain a variety of antioxidants, such as flavonoids, carotenoids, and vitamin C, thereby exerting their protective effects against the oxidative damage to the cells. In addition to their antioxidant actions, polyphenolic compounds have been speculated to cause the protection of neuronal cells and the recovery of neurologic function in the brain through the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in glial cells. Then, the protein-deprived extract was prepared by removing the most part of protein components from aqueous extract of Spirulina platensis, and the effect of this extract on BDNF gene transcription was examined in C6 glioma cells. Consequently, the protein-deprived extract was shown to cause the elevation of BDNF mRNA levels following the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the glioma cells. Therefore, the non-protein components of S. platensis are considered to stimulate BDNF gene transcription through the HO-1 induction in glial cells, thus proposing a potential ability of the algae to indirectly modulate the brain function through the glial cell activity. PMID:25349086

  2. Involvement of BDNF/ERK signaling in spontaneous recovery from trimethyltin-induced hippocampal neurotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sueun; Yang, Miyoung; Kim, Juhwan; Son, Yeonghoon; Kim, Jinwook; Kang, Sohi; Ahn, Wooseok; Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jong-Choon; Shin, Taekyun; Wang, Hongbing; Moon, Changjong

    2016-03-01

    Trimethyltin (TMT) toxicity causes histopathological damage in the hippocampus and induces seizure behaviors in mice. The lesions and symptoms recover spontaneously over time; however, little is known about the precise mechanisms underlying this recovery from TMT toxicity. We investigated changes in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (BDNF/ERK) signaling pathways in the mouse hippocampus following TMT toxicity. Mice (7 weeks old, C57BL/6) administered TMT (2.6mg/kg intraperitoneally) showed acute and severe neurodegeneration with increased TUNEL-positive cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. The mRNA and protein levels of BDNF in the hippocampus were elevated by TMT treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that TMT treatment markedly increased phosphorylated ERK1/2 expression in the mouse hippocampus 1-4 days after TMT treatment, although the intensity of ERK immunoreactivity in mossy fiber decreased at 1-8 days post-treatment. In addition, ERK-immunopositive cells were localized predominantly in doublecortin-positive immature progenitor neurons in the DG. In primary cultured immature hippocampal neurons (4 days in vitro), BDNF treatment alleviated TMT-induced neurotoxicity, via activation of the ERK signaling pathway. Thus, we suggest that BDNF/ERK signaling pathways may be associated with cell differentiation and survival of immature progenitor neurons, and will eventually lead to spontaneous recovery in TMT-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration. PMID:26772626

  3. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged water lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged water.(¶) To assess the impact on BLLs of consuming contaminated drinking water, CDC examined the distribution of BLLs ≥5 µg/dL among children aged water source. This analysis enabled determination of whether the odds of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL before the switch differed from the odds during the switch to FWS (before and after the January 2, 2015, water advisory was issued), and after the switch back to DWA. Overall, among 9,422 blood lead tests in children aged water advisory) than during the period before the water switch to FWS. Although unrelated to lead in the water, the water advisory likely reduced tap water consumption and increased consumption of bottled water. Characterizing exposure to lead contaminated drinking water among children aged <6 years living in Flint can help guide appropriate interventions. PMID:27359350

  4. Activity-dependent BDNF release via endocytic pathways is regulated by synaptotagmin-6 and complexin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yu-Hui; Lee, Chia-Ming; Xie, Wenjun; Cui, Bianxiao; Poo, Mu-ming

    2015-08-11

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to modulate synapse development and plasticity, but the source of synaptic BDNF and molecular mechanisms regulating BDNF release remain unclear. Using exogenous BDNF tagged with quantum dots (BDNF-QDs), we found that endocytosed BDNF-QDs were preferentially localized to postsynaptic sites in the dendrite of cultured hippocampal neurons. Repetitive neuronal spiking induced the release of BDNF-QDs at these sites, and this process required activation of glutamate receptors. Down-regulating complexin 1/2 (Cpx1/2) expression eliminated activity-induced BDNF-QD secretion, although the overall activity-independent secretion was elevated. Among eight synaptotagmin (Syt) isoforms examined, down-regulation of only Syt6 impaired activity-induced BDNF-QD secretion. In contrast, activity-induced release of endogenously synthesized BDNF did not depend on Syt6. Thus, neuronal activity could trigger the release of endosomal BDNF from postsynaptic dendrites in a Cpx- and Syt6-dependent manner, and endosomes containing BDNF may serve as a source of BDNF for activity-dependent synaptic modulation. PMID:26216953

  5. The investigation of cytokine level in peripheral blood of patients with thyroid eye disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To detect the level of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and insulin-lide growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in patients with thyroid eye disease and to seek the relationship between serum level and the outbreak as well as the condition variety. Methods: To measure the level of serum IL-6 and IGF-1 by radioimmunoassay in 30 patients with thyroid eye disease after their clinical expression and activity score have been assessed, 30 patients with hyperthyroidism but without ophthalmopathy, 30 healthy subjects. Results: The level of serum IL-6 and IGF-1 in patients with thyroid eye disease were higher than that of patients with hyperthyroidism but without ophthalmopathy (t=4.20, t=4.00, P<0.01) and healthy subjects (t=4.20, t=4.05, P<0.01). IL-6 and IGF-1 levels tend to elevate with the increase of severity of eye disease. There were significant differences among them. Conclusion: The leve of IL-6, IGF-1 and the cause of thyroid eye disease are closely related, and IL-6 and IGF-1 levels in peripheral blood might reflect the severity of eye disease. (authors)

  6. STUDIES ON BLOOD GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE PROTEIN LEVEL OF CHILDREN IN KESHAN DISEASE AND KASHIN-BECK DISEASE AREAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭武红; 种晓红; 杨占田; 翟连榜; 王立新; 徐光禄

    2002-01-01

    Objective To oberve the change in blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) protein levels of residents in the low-selenium (Se) area by contrasting the blood GSH-Px protein level of the children in the Keshan disease area with those in the Kashin-Beck disease and non-endemic areas. Methods GSH-Px protein levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The Se content and GSH-Px activity were assayed by the 2,3-diaminonaphthalene spectrofluorimetric method and glutathione reductase-coupled method respectively. Results ①The blood Se content and GSH-Px protein level of children in Keshan disease area (Moding) were significantly lower than those in Xi'an non-endemic area, however, there was no significant difference when compared with the low-Se non-endemic area; ②The blood Se content, GSH-Px activity and GSH-Px protein level of children in the Kashin-Beck disease area (Yulin) were significantly lower than those of children in two non-endemic areas and in the Keshan disease area; ③The blood Se content and GSH-Px activity were positively correlated to the GSH-Px protein level respectively. Conclusion These results indicate that the blood GSH-Px protein level is decreased in the low-Se residents. The Se status not only affects the GSH-Px activity but also regulate the GSH-Px protein level.

  7. Is there a stimulation of blood microcirculation at low level laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogatkin, Dmitry; Dunaev, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    In 1980-2000 besides the laser surgery an intensive evolution of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) had started in medicine, especially in Russia as well as in several other East-European countries. At the same time the biophysical mechanisms of LLLT are still the subject of disputes. One of the most popular clinical effects at Low Level Laser Irradiation (LLLI) being mentioned in medical publications for justification of the LLLT healing outcome is a stimulation of blood microcirculation in irradiated area. It was declared a priori at a dawn of LLLT and is now a basis of medical interpretation of healing mechanisms of LLLT at least in Russia. But in past 20 years a lot of investigation was carried out on optical registration of microhaemodynamic parameters in vivo as well as a number of noninvasive diagnostic tools was created for that. So, today it is possible to experimentally check the blood microcirculation stimulation hypothesis. Our study was aimed on that during the past 10 years. The most precision and accurate experiments we have carried out recently using simultaneously three different noninvasive diagnostic techniques: Laser Doppler Flowmetry, Tissue Reflectance Oximetry and Infrared Thermography. All these methods didn't confirm the effect on the blood microcirculation stimulation in skin or mucosa at irradiation with the power density below 50 mW/cm2 and irradiation time up to 5-6 minutes. Above this threshold the heating on 0,8…1 °C of tissue in the field of irradiation and the corresponding synchronous increase of all parameters of microhemodynamics were observed.

  8. Blood lead levels among children aged 0 to 6 years in 16 cities of China, 2004-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-hua; TAN Zang-wen; JIA Ni; FAN Zhao-yang; ZHANG Shuai-ming; L(U) Yan-yu; CHEN Li

    2013-01-01

    Background The adverse health effects of lead for children under 6 years are well known.Studies to assess the lead exposure among children in China are small in sample size and lack of national representative data.The aim of this study therefore was to describe blood lead levels and identify risk factors for lead exposure among children aged 0 to 6 years living in 16 cities in China.Methods We analyzed data from blood lead levels surveillance in China carried out in 16 large cities between 2004 and 2008.A stratified clustered random sampling strategy was used.A total of 69 968 children aged 0 to 6 years were included.We conducted multiple Logistic regression analyses to explore risk factors to high blood lead level.Results The geometric mean blood lead level of the children was 4.50 μg/dl (median:4.90 μg/dl; IQR:3.20-7.00 μg/dl).Overall prevalence of blood lead level ≥10.00 μg/dl among 0-to 6-year-old children was 7.57%.But the proportion of blood lead level ≥5.00 but <10.00 μg/dl was 42.12%.Blood lead levels were significantly higher in boys (4.63 μg/dl) than in girls (4.35 μg/dl) (P <0.0001).The geometric mean blood lead levels and prevalence of blood lead level ≥10.00 μg/dl increased with age (P <0.0001 for the two trends).After controlling for sociodemographic,dietary and behavior factors,multivariable analysis indicated that lower maternal education,male gender,younger age,often biting pencil or/and toys,walking or playing for long time on the street,not washing hands before eating are major risk factors for higher lead levels.Conclusions The blood lead levels among Chinese children in urban areas are lower than previous studies but close to those of developed countries.However,children with low lead exposure account for almost half and the sociodemographic factors (age,male sex,and low mother education level) continue to be associated with higher blood lead levels.

  9. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val⁶⁶Met polymorphism affects resting regional cerebral blood flow and functional connectivity differentially in women versus men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shau-Ming; Eisenberg, Daniel P; Kohn, Philip D; Kippenhan, Jonathan S; Kolachana, Bhaskar S; Weinberger, Daniel R; Berman, Karen F

    2012-05-16

    The human Val⁶⁶Met single nucleotide polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene impacts BDNF signaling at the cellular level. At the neural-systems level, it is associated with differences in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampal function during performance of cognitive and affective tasks. Because the impact of this variant on basal prefrontal and hippocampal activity is not known but may be relevant to understanding the function of this gene in health and disease, we studied 94 healthy individuals with H₂ ¹⁵O PET to assess regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during rest and tested for between-genotype differences. Because BDNF and gonadal steroid hormones conjointly influence neuronal growth, survival, and plasticity in hippocampus and PFC, we also tested for sex × genotype interactions. Finally, in light of the known impact of BDNF on plasticity and dendritic arborization, we complimented direct rCBF comparisons with connectivity analyses to determine how activity in hippocampal and prefrontal regions showing between-genotype group differences covaries with rCBF in other nodes throughout the brain in a genotype- or sex-dependent manner. Compared with Val homozygotes, Met carriers had higher rCBF in prefrontal (BA25 extending into BA10) and hippocampal/parahippocampal regions. Moreover, there were significant sex × genotype interactions in regions (including frontal, parahippocampal, and lateral temporal cortex) in which Val homozygotes showed higher rCBF in females than males, but Met carriers showed the opposite relationship. Functional connectivity analysis demonstrated that correlations of BA25, hippocampus, and parahippocampus with frontal and temporal networks were positive for Val homozygotes and negative for Met carriers. In addition, sex × genotype analysis of functional connectivity revealed that genotype affected directionality of the inter-regional correlations differentially in men versus women. Our data indicate

  10. Levels of PCBs, DDT, DDE and DDD in Italian human blood samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocca, C. La; Abate, V.; Alivernini, S.; Iacovella, N.; Mantovani, A.; Turrio-Baldassarri, L. [Ist. Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Silvestroni, L.; Spera, G. [Dept. of Medical Pathophysiology, Univ. (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    The environmental contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is effecting the exposure of the general population in a direct way through air inhalation, ingestion of particulate matter and dermal absorption and, most of all, in an indirect way through diet. Diet represents, in fact, the main way of human exposure to PCBs. PCBs have potential teratogenic, carcinogenic, hormonal and immunological effects. An association between endometriosis and high levels of PCB in plasma has also been reported3. Moreover, some congeners (PCB 105, PCB 118, PCB 153) have effects on thyroid hormones in animal models, although the PCB dose used in these experiments was an order of magnitude higher than the estimated human exposure. Humans are, however, exposed to a complex mixtures of PCB congeners. In this study identification and quantification of 60 PCB congeners and 3 chlorinated pesticides in human whole blood samples are presented. The subjects examined in this pilot study were a small group of patients with possible endocrine-related problems and unknown specific exposure. The aim of this study was to increase the present understanding about the distribution of the PCBs in human whole blood. The levels of DDT and metabolites were measured as well, since these compounds are consistently reported to contribute to the whole body burden of persistent chlorinated compounds, together with PCBs.

  11. Low blood glucose levels and other complications during growth hormone supplementation in sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faintuch Joel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose levels in the high normal range or even moderate hyperglycemia is the expected profile in septic postoperative patients receiving high-calorie enteral alimentation. The addition of growth hormone as an anabolic agent should additionally reinforce this tendency. In a cancer patient undergoing partial gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy and suffering from postoperative subphrenic abscess and prolonged sepsis, tube feeding (38.3 kcal/kg/day and growth hormone (0.17 IU/kg/day were simultaneously administered for 25 days. Blood glucose levels were in the lower limits of the normal range before growth hormone introduction, and continued with a similar tendency during most of the therapeutic period. Two additional complications, namely heart arrest and peripheral edema, were documented during the same period. It is concluded that sepsis was the most likely mechanism for low glucose values, and that high-calorie enteral diet and growth hormone supplementation did not prevent that result. It is uncertain whether heart arrest was due to the drug, but its association with peripheral edema is well documented in clinical series.

  12. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population. PMID:26466436

  13. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2-85.0) and 46.6 (36.5-60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring's consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children's BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children's BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure. PMID:26978384

  14. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Bodeau-Livinec

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2–85.0 and 46.6 (36.5–60.1 µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring’s consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children’s BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children’s BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure.

  15. Effect of Fasting Blood Glucose Level on Heart Rate Variability of Healthy Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Faisal Lutfi

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported increased risk of cardiac events in subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG levels lower than the diagnostic threshold of diabetes mellitus. However, whether increased cardiac events in those with upper normal FBG is secondary to the shift of their cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance is unknown.To assess the association between FBG levels and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM in euglycaemic healthy subjects based on heart rate variability (HRV derived indices.The study enrolled 42 healthy young adults. Following sociodemographic and clinical assessment, blood samples were collected to measure FBG levels. Five minutes ECG recordings were performed to all participants to obtain frequency domain HRV measurements, namely the natural logarithm (Ln of total power (LnTP, very low frequency (LnVLF, low frequency (LnLF and high frequency (LnHF, low frequency/ high frequency ratio (LnLF/HF, normalized low frequency (LF Norm and high frequency (HF Norm.FBG levels correlated positively with LnHF (r = 0.33, P = 0.031 and HF Norm (r = 0.35, P = 0.025 and negatively with LF Norm (r = -0.35, P = 0.025 and LnLF/HF (r = -0.33, P = 0.035. LnHF and HF Norm were significantly decreased in subjects with the lower (4.00 (1.34 ms2/Hz and 33.12 (11.94 n.u compared to those with the upper FBG quartile (5.64 (1.63 ms2/Hz and 49.43 (17.73 n.u, P = 0.013 and 0.032 respectively. LF Norm and LnLF/HF were significantly increased in subjects with the lower (66.88 (11.94 n.u and 0.73 (0.53 compared to those with the higher FBG quartile (50.58 (17.83 n.u and 0.03 (0.79, P = 0.032 and 0.038 respectively.The present study is the first to demonstrate that rise of blood glucose concentration, within physiological range, is associated with higher parasympathetic, but lower sympathetic CAM. Further researches are needed to set out the glycemic threshold beyond which further increase in glucose level readjusts sympathovagal balance

  16. Effect of Fasting Blood Glucose Level on Heart Rate Variability of Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfi, Mohamed Faisal; Elhakeem, Ramaze Farouke

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies reported increased risk of cardiac events in subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels lower than the diagnostic threshold of diabetes mellitus. However, whether increased cardiac events in those with upper normal FBG is secondary to the shift of their cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance is unknown. Aims To assess the association between FBG levels and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM) in euglycaemic healthy subjects based on heart rate variability (HRV) derived indices. Subjects and Methods The study enrolled 42 healthy young adults. Following sociodemographic and clinical assessment, blood samples were collected to measure FBG levels. Five minutes ECG recordings were performed to all participants to obtain frequency domain HRV measurements, namely the natural logarithm (Ln) of total power (LnTP), very low frequency (LnVLF), low frequency (LnLF) and high frequency (LnHF), low frequency/ high frequency ratio (LnLF/HF), normalized low frequency (LF Norm) and high frequency (HF Norm). Results FBG levels correlated positively with LnHF (r = 0.33, P = 0.031) and HF Norm (r = 0.35, P = 0.025) and negatively with LF Norm (r = -0.35, P = 0.025) and LnLF/HF (r = -0.33, P = 0.035). LnHF and HF Norm were significantly decreased in subjects with the lower (4.00 (1.34) ms2/Hz and 33.12 (11.94) n.u) compared to those with the upper FBG quartile (5.64 (1.63) ms2/Hz and 49.43 (17.73) n.u, P = 0.013 and 0.032 respectively). LF Norm and LnLF/HF were significantly increased in subjects with the lower (66.88 (11.94) n.u and 0.73 (0.53)) compared to those with the higher FBG quartile (50.58 (17.83) n.u and 0.03 (0.79), P = 0.032 and 0.038 respectively). Conclusion The present study is the first to demonstrate that rise of blood glucose concentration, within physiological range, is associated with higher parasympathetic, but lower sympathetic CAM. Further researches are needed to set out the glycemic threshold beyond which

  17. The relation of consciousness level and cerebral blood flow in glioma and meningioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relation between the consciousness level and cerebral blood flow (CBF) was analyzed in 17 cases of glioma and 6 cases of meningioma. CBF was in normal range in the alert groups of patients with glioma and meningioma. By contrast, CBF decreased generally not only in the affected side, but also in the non-affected side in the drowsy patient group with glioma. Widespread infiltration of glioma was seen in 4 cases of 6 drowsy cases. CBF increased after the partial resection of the tumor in 2 cases of glioma. Thus the disturbance of consciousness level was attributable to diffuse hypofunction accompanying the diffuse infiltration of glioma and the decrease of cerebral perfusion pressure caused by the increased intracranial pressure. (author)

  18. Study of AFP level in the blood serum of the 2223 normal pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have reported AFP level in the blood serum of 2223 normal pregnant women in different semesters by RIA method. All the data were made by statistical analysis. The result shows that the AFP level is normal during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Then, it gradually increases from the 13th week and reaches its maximum (184.6 +- 74.6 μg/l) at 32nd week. Later on it tends to decrease slowly, but still remains over 100 μg/l in parturition period. Therefore, it is suggested that AFP in pregnant women has substantial difference and regularity between different semesters but without any significant correlation with their ages

  19. Human and great ape red blood cells differ in plasmalogen levels and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely John J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmalogens are ether phospholipids required for normal mammalian developmental, physiological, and cognitive functions. They have been proposed to act as membrane antioxidants and reservoirs of polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as influence intracellular signaling and membrane dynamics. Plasmalogens are particularly enriched in cells and tissues of the human nervous, immune, and cardiovascular systems. Humans with severely reduced plasmalogen levels have reduced life spans, abnormal neurological development, skeletal dysplasia, impaired respiration, and cataracts. Plasmalogen deficiency is also found in the brain tissue of individuals with Alzheimer disease. Results In a human and great ape cohort, we measured the red blood cell (RBC levels of the most abundant types of plasmalogens. Total RBC plasmalogen levels were lower in humans than bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas, but higher than orangutans. There were especially pronounced cross-species differences in the levels of plasmalogens with a C16:0 moiety at the sn-1 position. Humans on Western or vegan diets had comparable total RBC plasmalogen levels, but the latter group showed moderately higher levels of plasmalogens with a C18:1 moiety at the sn-1 position. We did not find robust sex-specific differences in human or chimpanzee RBC plasmalogen levels or composition. Furthermore, human and great ape skin fibroblasts showed only modest differences in peroxisomal plasmalogen biosynthetic activity. Human and chimpanzee microarray data indicated that genes involved in plasmalogen biosynthesis show cross-species differential expression in multiple tissues. Conclusion We propose that the observed differences in human and great ape RBC plasmalogens are primarily caused by their rates of biosynthesis and/or turnover. Gene expression data raise the possibility that other human and great ape cells and tissues differ in plasmalogen levels. Based on the phenotypes of humans and

  20. Changes in expression of BDNF and its receptors TrkB and p75NTR in the hippocampus of a dog model of chronic alcoholism and abstinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic ethanol consumption can produce learning and memory deficits. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptors affect the pathogenesis of alcoholism. In this study, we examined the expression of BDNF, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) in the hippocampus of a dog model of chronic alcoholism and abstinence. Twenty domestic dogs (9-10 months old, 15-20 kg; 10 males and 10 females) were obtained from Harbin Medical University. A stable alcoholism model was established through ad libitum feeding, and anti-alcohol drug treatment (Zhong Yao Jie Jiu Ling, the main ingredient was the stems of watermelon; developed in our laboratory), at low- and high-doses, was carried out. The Zhong Yao Jie Jiu Ling was effective for the alcoholism in dogs. The morphology of hippocampal neurons was evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The number and morphological features of BDNF, TrkB and p75NTR-positive neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG), and the CA1, CA3 and CA4 regions of the hippocampus were observed using immunohistochemistry. One-way ANOVA was used to determine differences in BDNF, TrkB and p75NTR expression. BDNF, TrkB and p75NTR-positive cells were mainly localized in the granular cell layer of the DG and in the pyramidal cell layer of the CA1, CA3 and CA4 regions (DG>CA1>CA3>CA4). Expression levels of both BDNF and TrkB were decreased in chronic alcoholism, and increased after abstinence. The CA4 region appeared to show the greatest differences. Changes in p75NTR expression were the opposite of those of BDNF and TrkB, with the greatest differences observed in the DG and CA4 regions

  1. Changes in expression of BDNF and its receptors TrkB and p75NTR in the hippocampus of a dog model of chronic alcoholism and abstinence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, R.; Duan, S.R.; Zhao, J.W.; Wang, C.Y. [Neurology Ward of Internal Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province (China)

    2015-06-23

    Chronic ethanol consumption can produce learning and memory deficits. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptors affect the pathogenesis of alcoholism. In this study, we examined the expression of BDNF, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) in the hippocampus of a dog model of chronic alcoholism and abstinence. Twenty domestic dogs (9-10 months old, 15-20 kg; 10 males and 10 females) were obtained from Harbin Medical University. A stable alcoholism model was established through ad libitum feeding, and anti-alcohol drug treatment (Zhong Yao Jie Jiu Ling, the main ingredient was the stems of watermelon; developed in our laboratory), at low- and high-doses, was carried out. The Zhong Yao Jie Jiu Ling was effective for the alcoholism in dogs. The morphology of hippocampal neurons was evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The number and morphological features of BDNF, TrkB and p75NTR-positive neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG), and the CA1, CA3 and CA4 regions of the hippocampus were observed using immunohistochemistry. One-way ANOVA was used to determine differences in BDNF, TrkB and p75NTR expression. BDNF, TrkB and p75NTR-positive cells were mainly localized in the granular cell layer of the DG and in the pyramidal cell layer of the CA1, CA3 and CA4 regions (DG>CA1>CA3>CA4). Expression levels of both BDNF and TrkB were decreased in chronic alcoholism, and increased after abstinence. The CA4 region appeared to show the greatest differences. Changes in p75NTR expression were the opposite of those of BDNF and TrkB, with the greatest differences observed in the DG and CA4 regions.

  2. Association between maternal diet factors and hemoglobin levels, glucose tolerance, blood pressure and gestational age in a Hispanic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Roxana; Guilloty, Natacha; Anzalota, Liza; Rosario, Zaira; Cordero, José F; Palacios, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the dietary patterns of pregnant women in northern Puerto Rico and explore associations between diet factors with pregnancy related measurements. This analysis is based on the Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats (PROTECT), a prospective cohort that is studying environmental risk factors for preterm births in PR. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) around 20-28 weeks of gestation. The following pregnancy related measures were collected from the medical records: hemoglobin, blood glucose, blood pressure and gestational age. Potential associations between diet factors and pregnancy measures were assessed using chi square analysis with SPSS. A total of 180 participants completed the FFQ; low hemoglobin levels was found in 19.2%, high blood glucose levels was found in 21.1% by fasting blood glucose test and 24.6%by 1-hour 50 g oral glucose screening test, high blood pressure was found in 2.9% (systolic) and 6.5% (diastolic), and pre-term birth was found in 10.4% of the participants. High consumption of rice, desserts and sweets was associated with higher levels of fasting blood glucose levels (p desserts, can lead to high levels of blood glucose and can be a potential predictor of other pregnancy complications during pregnancy in these study participants, such as gestational diabetes. PMID:26817380

  3. Evaluation of Blood Pressure Control Levels and Treatment Compliances of Hypertensive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Aypak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study is to evaluate the knowledge of patients about hypertension (HT, compliance with lifestyle changes and to determine their blood pressure levels under antihypertensive therapy. Method: Hypertensive patients that applied to Family medicine outpatient clinics of Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital for the first time, in 2012 (between February 1 to April 30, were included in our cross-sectional study. Patients are evaluated primarily for the control and the factors that can affect high blood pressure and the rate on achieving treatment goals. Results: Three hundred and forty patients were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 60.5±10.7 years and 222 of them (65.3% were female. The blood pressure was not under control in 108 (31.8% patients. The mean body weight of male patients was statistically higher than females (p=0.015. The number of the patients that knew the normal blood pressure value was 249 (73.2%. Among those 155 (62.2% were women and 179 (71.9% were younger than 65 years of age (p=0.0001. Forty one patients (12.1% were still smoking, 46 (13.5% patients were exercising regularly and 32 (9.4% were consuming regular diet. Blood pressure was better controlled in the group that was exercising regularly (p=0.001. The rate of male patients that were on regular exercise and diet, were higher than females (p=0.09. Only 86 patients (25.3% knew the name of their antihypertensive medication and 65 of patients (19.1% knew the dose of their medication. Female patients knew the name of their medication better than males (p=0.002. 156 patients (45.9% were using two kinds of antihypertensive medication. 58 patients (17.1% were skipping doses a few times a week. Conclusion: The knowledge of hypertensive patients on their illness and their compliance on non-drug treatments were inadequate. The compliance of patients should be improved by development of patient-doctor should be improved

  4. Global brain blood-oxygen level responses to autonomic challenges in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is accompanied by brain injury, perhaps resulting from apnea-related hypoxia or periods of impaired cerebral perfusion. Perfusion changes can be determined indirectly by evaluation of cerebral blood volume and oxygenation alterations, which can be measured rapidly and non-invasively with the global blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal, a magnetic resonance imaging procedure. We assessed acute BOLD responses in OSA subjects to pressor challenges that elicit cerebral blood flow changes, using a two-group comparative design with healthy subjects as a reference. We separately assessed female and male patterns, since OSA characteristics and brain injury differ between sexes. We studied 94 subjects, 37 with newly-diagnosed, untreated OSA (6 female (age mean ± std: 52.1±8.1 yrs; apnea/hypopnea index [AHI]: 27.7±15.6 events/hr and 31 male 54.3±8.4 yrs; AHI: 37.4±19.6 events/hr, and 20 female (age 50.5±8.1 yrs and 37 male (age 45.6±9.2 yrs healthy control subjects. We measured brain BOLD responses every 2 s while subjects underwent cold pressor, hand grip, and Valsalva maneuver challenges. The global BOLD signal rapidly changed after the first 2 s of each challenge, and differed in magnitude between groups to two challenges (cold pressor, hand grip, but not to the Valsalva maneuver (repeated measures ANOVA, p<0.05. OSA females showed greater differences from males in response magnitude and pattern, relative to healthy counterparts. Cold pressor BOLD signal increases (mean ± adjusted standard error at the 8 s peak were: OSA 0.14±0.08% vs. Control 0.31±0.06%, and hand grip at 6 s were: OSA 0.08±0.03% vs. Control at 0.30±0.02%. These findings, indicative of reduced cerebral blood flow changes to autonomic challenges in OSA, complement earlier reports of altered resting blood flow and reduced cerebral artery responsiveness. Females are more affected than males, an outcome which may contribute to the sex

  5. Trace element levels in whole blood of riparian villagers of the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring the nutritional status of essential elements is of critical importance in human health. However, trace element concentrations in biological fluids are affected by environmental and physiological parameters, and therefore considerable variations can occur between specific population subgroups. Brazil is a large country with much food diversity. Moreover, dietary habits differ from north to south. As an example, the traditional populations of the Brazilian Amazon basin are heavily dependent on fish, fruits, vegetables and manioc for their daily sustenance. However, very few studies have examined to what extent these diets reflect adequate nutritional status for essential elements. Then, in the present study we have evaluated the levels of some trace elements (Cu, Co, Zn Sr, and Rb) in the whole blood of a riparian Brazilian Amazonian population and estimated the influence of age and gender on levels and inter-element interactions in the same population. For this, 253 subjects, aged 15 to 87, from 13 communities situated on the banks of the Tapajos, one of the major tributaries of the Amazon, were randomly selected. The values found for cobalt, copper and strontium in whole blood are in the same range as in other populations. On the other hand, the levels of rubidium and zinc may be considered higher. Moreover, gender was shown to influence Zn and Cu levels while age influenced the concentrations of Sr and Rb in men and Cu in women. Given the scarcity of studies examining nutritional status in traditional communities of the Amazon, our study is the first to provide relevant insight into trace element values in this region and inter-element interactions. This paper is also of particular importance for future studies looking at the possible protective effects of traditional Amazon riparian diets against mercury intake from fish consumption.

  6. Reversal of corticosterone-induced BDNF alterations by the natural antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid alone and combined with desvenlafaxine: Emphasis on the neurotrophic hypothesis of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Caren Nádia Soares; Meneses, Lucas Nascimento; Vasconcelos, Germana Silva; Silva, Márcia Calheiros Chaves; da Silva, Jéssica Calheiros; Macêdo, Danielle; de Lucena, David Freitas; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes

    2015-12-15

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is linked to the pathophysiology of depression. We hypothesized that BDNF is one of the neurobiological pathways related to the augmentation effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) when associated with antidepressants. Female mice were administered vehicle or CORT 20mg/kg during 14 days. From the 15th to 21st days the animals were divided in groups that were further administered: vehicle, desvenlafaxine (DVS) 10 or 20mg/kg, ALA 100 or 200mg/kg or the combinations of DVS10+ALA100, DVS20+ALA100, DVS10+ALA200 or DVS20+ALA200. ALA or DVS alone or in combination reversed CORT-induced increase in immobility time in the forced swimming test and decrease in sucrose preference, presenting, thus, an antidepressant-like effect. DVS10 alone reversed CORT-induced decrease in BDNF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HC) and striatum (ST). The same was observed in the HC and ST of ALA200 treated animals. The combination of DVS and ALA200 reversed CORT-induced alterations in BDNF and even, in some cases, increased the levels of this neurotrophin when compared to vehicle-treated animals in HC and ST. Taken together, these results suggest that the combination of the DVS+ALA may be valuable for treating conditions in which BDNF levels are decreased, such as depression. PMID:26350703

  7. Blood mercury levels among Ontario anglers and sport-fish eaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted two surveys of Ontario (Canada) fishers: a stratified sample of licensed anglers in two Lake Ontario communities (anglers, n=232) and a shore and community-based sample in five Great Lakes' Areas of Concern (AOC eaters, n=86). Among the 176 anglers consuming their catch, the median number of sport-fish meals/year was 34.2 meals and 10.9, respectively, in two communities, with a mean blood total mercury level among these sport-fish consumers of 2.8 μg/L. The vast majority of fish eaten by AOC eaters was from Ontario waters (74%). For AOC eaters, two broad country-of-origin groups were assembled: Euro-Canadians (EC) and Asian-Canadians (AC). EC consumed a median of 174 total fish meals/year and had a geometric mean total mercury level of 2.0 μg/L. Corresponding AC figures were 325 total fish meals/year and 7.9 μg/L. Overall, mercury levels among AOC eaters were higher than in many other Great Lakes populations but lower than in populations frequently consuming seafood. In multivariate models, mercury levels were significantly associated with levels of fish consumption among both anglers and EC AOC eaters. Given the nutritional and social benefits of fish consumption, prudent species and location choices should continue

  8. Genetic Variation in the Natriuretic Peptide System, Circulating Natriuretic Peptide Levels, and Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jørgen L; Nielsen, Søren J; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hansen, Tine W; Olsen, Michael H; Linneberg, Allan; Madsbad, Sten; Fenger, Mogens; Berg, Nikolaj D

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundIn a large collaborative study (n > 50,000), common variants in the natriuretic peptide (NP) genes were found to be associated with circulating NP levels and also with blood pressure (BP) levels based on office BP measurements (OBPMs). It is unknown if determining an individual's BP by 24......-h ambulatory BP measurements (ABPMs) will influence the effect of NP gene variations on BP levels.MethodsWe used rs632793 at the NPPB (NP precursor B) locus to investigate the relationship between genetically determined serum N-terminal pro-brain NP (NT-proBNP) concentrations and BP levels...... participants with the G:G genotype (geometric mean (95% confidence interval (CI)): 34.8 (31.5-38.4) pg/ml vs. 48.1 (41.9-55.3) pg/ml, P = 0.0002), but higher 24-h ambulatory BP levels (mean difference (95% CI): 2.0 (0.1-4.1) mm Hg, P = 0.043, for systolic BP and 1.7 (0.4-3.1) mm Hg, P = 0.011, for diastolic BP...

  9. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on postirradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Pautler, E.L.; Carraway, R.E.; Cochrane, D.E.; Hampton, J.D.

    1988-02-01

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10 min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10 min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Animals given the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels. However, the postirradiation plasma histamine levels in both irradiated groups showed an increase of approximately 1600% above the preirradiation levels and the postirradiation control levels.

  10. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on postirradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10 min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10 min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Animals given the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels. However, the postirradiation plasma histamine levels in both irradiated groups showed an increase of approximately 1600% above the preirradiation levels and the postirradiation control levels

  11. Bi-level CPAP does not change central blood flow in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Aquilano, Giulia; Galletti, Silvia; Aceti, Arianna; Vitali, Francesca; Faldella, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Background Current literature provides limited data on the hemodynamic changes that may occur during bi-level continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) support in preterm infants. However, the application of a positive end-expiratory pressure may be transmitted to the heart and the great vessels resulting in changes of central blood flow. Objective To assess changes in central blood flow in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) during bi-level CPAP support. Design A prospective st...

  12. The Effect of Trans-Chalcone on Amylase Activity, Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in Diabetic and Non Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Najafian, M.; Ebrahim-Habibi, A.; P Yaghmaei; Parivar, K.; Larijani, B.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Alpha amylase is the most important decomposing enzyme in starch. Digestion and absorption of starch in the intestine can be prevented and also the blood sugar levels can be controlled by restrain and control of alpha amylase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of trans-chalcone on amylase activity, blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic and non diabetic rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 1388 at Tehran Universit...

  13. Effects of Mad Honey on Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in Rats With Streptozocin-Induced Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTAŞAN, Nuray

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated whether mad honey affects blood glucose and lipid levels in experimental animals. It was found that mad honey caused significant decreases in blood glucose and lipid levels in animals with streptozocin-induced diabetes mellitus (n = 10) and controls (n = 10). These decreases may be due to grayanotoxins in the mad honey causing the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas to secrete insulin by stimulating the parasympathetic nervous system or M2-muscarinic receptors.

  14. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  15. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijal, Renee S., E-mail: rmijal@epi.msu.edu; Holzman, Claudia B. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, B601 W. Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  16. HYGIENE-AND FOOD-RELATED BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH BLOOD LEAD LEVELS OF YOUNG CHILDREN FROM LEAD-CONTAMINATED HOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposures associated with blood lead levels greater than 40 ug/dl in young children who live in lead-contaminated homes have been well documented. As the action level for lead is reduced, activities that contribute to lower levels of lead exposure must be identified. A child's ea...

  17. Evaluation of low level laser therapy irradiation parameters on rat muscle inflammation through systemic blood cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantineo, Matias; Pinheiro, João. P.; Morgado, António M.

    2014-02-01

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used for inflammation treatment. Here, we evaluate the effect of different doses, using continuous (830 and 980 nm) and pulsed illumination (830 nm), in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats, through cytokines concentration in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. Animals were randomly divided into five groups per wavelength (5 animals per group: 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mW) plus a control group. LLLT was applied during five days, with constant exposure time and irradiated area (3 minutes; 0.5026 cm2). Blood was collected on days 0, 3 and 6. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6 cytokines were quantified by ELISA. Rats were killed on day 6. Muscle inflammatory cells were counted using optical microscopy. Treatment effects occurred for all applied doses (largest effect at 40 mW: 7.2 J, 14 J/cm2 per irradiation), with reduction of proinflammatory TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 cytokines and lower number of inflammatory cells. Results were better for 830 nm. Identical methodology was used with pulsed illumination. Average power (40 mW) and duty cycle were kept constant (80%) at five frequencies (5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 Hz). Treatment effects were observed at higher frequencies, with no significant differences between them. However, the treatment effect was lower than for continuous illumination. LLLT effect on inflammation treatment can be monitored by measuring systemic blood cytokines. A larger treatment effect was observed with continuous illumination, where results seem to be compatible with a biphasic dose response.

  18. Baclofen prevents the elevated plus maze behavior and BDNF expression during naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrón, Valeria T; Varani, André P; Balerio, Graciela N

    2016-05-01

    In previous studies we have shown that baclofen, a selective GABAB receptor agonist, prevents the somatic expression and reestablishes the dopamine and μ-opioid receptors levels, modified during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome in male and female mice. There are no previous reports regarding sex differences in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the expression of BDNF in morphine-withdrawn mice. The present study analyses the behavioral and biochemical variations during morphine withdrawal in mice of both sexes, and whether these variations are prevented with baclofen. Swiss-Webster albino prepubertal mice received morphine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) twice daily, for 9 consecutive days. On the 10th day, one group of morphine-treated mice received naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist; 6 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of morphine to precipitate withdrawal. A second group received baclofen (2 mg/kg, i.p.) before naloxone administration. The EPM behavior was measured during 15 min after naloxone injection. The expression of BDNF-positive cells was determined by immunohistochemistry. Withdrawn male mice showed a higher percentage of time spent and number of entries to the open arms compared to withdrawn female mice. Baclofen prevented this behavior in both sexes. BDNF expression decreased in the AcbC, BNST, CeC, and CA3 of the hippocampus while increased in the BLA of morphine withdrawn male. Baclofen pretreatment prevented the BDNF expression observed in morphine withdrawn male mice in all the brain areas studied except in the CeC. Baclofen prevention of the EPM behavior associated to morphine withdrawal could be partially related to changes in BDNF expression. PMID:26789010

  19. Investigation on the correlationship between plasma homocysteine and blood glucose, insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the correlationship between plasma homocysteine and blood glucose, insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Plasma homocysteine (with ELISA), blood glucose (with hexokinase method) and insulin (with RIA) levels were measured in 66 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as in 35 controls. Results: Plasma homocysteine levels in the diabetic patients (n=66) were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), especially in those patients complicated with nephropathy (n=32). The homocysteine levels were positively correlated with those of blood glucose and insulin (r=0.3515, r=0.3486, both P<0.01). Conclusion: Plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor for vascular diseases. The levels of plasma cysteine are significantly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially in those complicated with nephropathy. Therefore, monitoring of plasma homocysteine level changes is clinically useful. (authors)

  20. Comparison of p53 levels in lymphocytes and in blood plasma of nuclear power plant workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    p53 levels were assessed in lymphocytes and in blood plasma of workers from two Czech nuclear power plants (NPP): 114 subjects working in Temelin and 108 subjects working in Dukovany. Ionizing radiation (IR) exposure data were available for 64 and 59 subjects working in the monitored zones from the NPP in Temelin and Dukovany, respectively. The short-term doses of IR for these subjects were 0.01 and 0.12 mSv, and the long-term doses were 0.46 and 5.68 mSv, in the Temelin and Dukovany NPP, respectively. As a control group, 46 subjects living in Ceske Budejovice, a city nearby the Temelin NPP, were analyzed. The concentration of p53 in lymphocytes was significantly higher in workers from the monitored zone in the Dukovany NPP (median value 6.4 pg/μg protein, P < 0.001) than in workers from the Temelin NPP (3.2 pg/μg) as well as in the control group (3.5 pg/μg). In contrast, plasma levels of p53 were comparable in the control group (median value 116 pg/ml plasma) and workers from the monitored zone of Dukovany NPP (102 pg/ml), but lower in workers from Temelin NPP (5 pg/ml). Other factors affecting p53 levels were studied. Smoking resulted in increased p53 lymphocyte levels. The effect of polymorphisms in metabolic and DNA repair genes on p53 levels was analyzed. The correlation was found between p53 levels in lymphocytes and p53 codon 72 polymorphism in subjects working in NPPs, but not in the control group. The results of measurement p53 levels in lymphocytes suggest that this biomarker could reflect the short-term as well as long-term effects of low doses IR. Its impact on human health should be further explored

  1. Progesterone levels in the ovarian uterine and systematic venous blood in alpacas with embryo mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South American camelids is one the limited options that Peruvian Highland people, has to get economic incomes. It is possible to get fibre, meat, and animals as product from this animal production system; however, reproductive efficiency is not good because birth rate and embryo mortality are around 45-55% and 50%, respectively (Fernandez Baca, 1970). There is not so much information about between age, pathogen agents, and genital tract alterations in relation to embryo mortality. This means that improving genetic programmes or breeding systems cannot fulfil the goals of an efficient production system. New Zealand reports 24% embryo mortality between 21-30 days of gestation (Ridland et al., 1993). According to Boland (2000), there is no relation between peripheral serum levels and ovaryuterus circulation levels of progesterone; so embryo survival would be relational to progesterone levels in the ovarian and uterine veins. In this study we have considered serum progesterone levels, in uterus-ovarian circulation in luteal phase animals compared with early pregnancy and embryo mortality process. Twenty open female alpacas with recorded previous parturitions were used. They were breed with a male when they showed sexual receptivity and was found an 8 mm follicle in any of the ovaries (Bravo, 1999). Ovario-hysterectomy was performed in four animals nine days after breeding to use their serum samples as diestrus references, and the rest (16 animals), ovario-hysterectomy was performed after positive pregnancy diagnosis, that was monitored every other day by ultrasound during gestation or until embryo mortality occurred. There was an ultrasound evaluation of ovaries and uterus from day 15 post breeding until day 90 or when embryo mortality evidences was found. This was considered to have occurred when embryo cardiac beat decreased, embryo motility lost, or suspended particles in foetal fluids apparition. (Adams, 1989; Parraguez,1997). Blood samples were taken from jugular

  2. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV1/FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV1/FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R2=0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV1/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV1/FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV1/FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV1/FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations

  3. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hye Kyung [Severance Institute for Vascular and Metabolic Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon Soo, E-mail: yschang@yuhs.ac [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Chul Woo [Severance Institute for Vascular and Metabolic Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R{sup 2}=0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV{sub 1}/FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations.

  4. The effect of varying protein levels on blood chemistry, food consumption, and behavior of captive seaducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Perry, M.C.; Olsen, G.H.

    2005-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is a primary wintering area for scoters and the long-tailed ducks (Clangia hyemalis) that migrate along the Atlantic Flyway. Recently, the Chesapeake Bay had undergone an ecosystem shift and little is known about how this is affecting the seaduck populations. We are determining what are the preferred food sources of the seaducks wintering on the Bay and analyzing the factors influencing prey selection whether it is prey composition, energy assimilated, prey availability, or a combination of any or all of these factors. We have established a captive colony of surf (Melanitta perspicillata) and white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca) as well as long-tailed ducks at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to allow us to examine these factors in a more controlled environment. This project contains a multitude of experiments and the resultant data will be compiled into a compartmental model on the feeding ecology of seaducks wintering on the Bay. The first experiment entailed feeding groups of each species (four ducks per pen of equal sex ratio, if possible, and four pens per species) three diets varying in percent protein levels from November to February. Each diet was randomly assigned to each pen and the amount of food consumed was recorded each day. New feed was given when all existing food was consumed. Behavioral trials and blood profiles were completed on all study birds to determine the effects of the varying diets. There were no significant differences in food consumption, blood chemistry, and behavior detected at the 5% level among the diets for all three species of interest. There was a seasonal effect determined based on the food consumption data for white-winged scoters, but not for surf scoters or long-tailed ducks. The blood profiles of the surf scoters were compared to blood profiles of wild surf scoters and a there was no difference detected at the 5% level. As a health check of the ducks an aspergillosis test was run on the blood obtained

  5. Elevated blood lead levels in a riverside population in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Fernando; Fillion, Myriam; Lemire, Mélanie; Passos, Carlos José Sousa; Rodrigues, Jairo Lisboa; Philibert, Aline; Guimarães, Jean-Rémy; Mergler, Donna

    2009-07-01

    Lead (Pb) is recognized as one of the most toxic metals. Sources of Pb exposure have been widely documented in North America, and the removal of Pb additives from gasoline was reflected in a dramatic lowering of blood Pb concentration. In Latin America, the removal of Pb from gasoline resulted in decreased exposure, but Pb levels in many areas remain high due to occupational and environmental sources of exposure. While many of the Pb sources have been identified (mining, industries, battery recycling, lead-based paint, ceramics), new ones occasionally crop up. Here we report on blood Pb (B-Pb) levels in remote riverside communities of the Brazilian Amazon. Blood Pb (B-Pb) levels were determined in 448 persons from 12 villages of the Lower Tapajós River Basin, Pará, Brazil. Socio-demographic and dietary information, as well as occupational, residential and medical history was collected using an interview-administered questionnaire. B-Pb, measured by ICP-MS, showed elevated concentrations. Mean B-Pb was 13.1 microg/dL +/- 8.5, median B-Pb was 11.2 microg/dL and ranged from 0.59 to 48.3 microg/dL. Men had higher B-Pb compared to women (median: 15.3 microg/dL vs 7.9 microg/dL respectively). B-Pb increased with age for women, while it decreased for men. For both genders, B-Pb decreased with education. There were significant differences between villages. Exploratory analyses, using linear partition models, showed that for men B-Pb was lower among those who were involved in cattle-raising, and higher among those who hunted, farmed and fished. The distribution profile of B-Pb directed us towards artisanal transformation of manioc to flour (farinha), which requires heating in a large metal pan, with stirring primarily done by young men. In the village with the highest B-Pb, analysis of Pb concentrations (dry weight) of manioc (prior to transformation) and farinha (following transformation) from 6 houses showed a tenfold increase in Pb concentration (mean: 0.017 +/- 0

  6. Blood lead levels and risk factors for lead poisoning among children in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albalak, Rachel; Noonan, Gary; Buchanan, Sharunda; Flanders, W. Dana; Gotway-Crawford, Carol; Blumenthal, Wendy; Curtis, Gerald; McGeehin, Michael A. [Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop E-19, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Kim, Dennis; Tan, Regina [Epidemic Intelligence Service, Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop D-18, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Jones, Robert L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop F-18, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Sulaiman, Rini [Swisscontact, Jl. Wijaya XII No. 44, Jakarta (Indonesia) 12160

    2003-01-01

    The phase-out of leaded gasoline began in Jakarta, Indonesia on July 1, 2001. We evaluated mean blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated BLLs of Jakarta school children and assessed risk factors for lead exposure in these children before the beginning of the phase-out activities. The study involved a population-based, cross-sectional blood lead survey that included capillary blood lead sampling and a brief questionnaire on risk factors for lead poisoning. A cluster survey design was used. Forty clusters, defined as primary schools in Jakarta, and 15 2nd- and 3rd-grade children in each cluster were randomly selected for participation in the study. The average age of children in this study was 8.6 years (range 6-12) and the geometric mean BLL of the children was 8.6 {mu}g/dl (median: 8.6 {mu}g/dl; range: 2.6-24.1 {mu}g/dl) (n=397). Thirty-five percent of children had BLLs {>=}10 {mu}g/dl and 2.4% had BLLs {>=}20 {mu}g/dl. Approximately one-fourth of children had BLLs 10-14.9 {mu}g/dl. In multivariate models, level of education of the child's primary caregiver, water collection method, home varnishing and occupational recycling of metals, other than lead, by a family member were predictors of log BLLs after adjustment for age and sex. BLLs of children who lived near a highway or major intersection were significantly higher than those of children who lived near a street with little or no traffic when level of education was not included in the model. Water collection method was a significant predictor of BLLs {>=}10 {mu}g/dl after adjustment for age and sex. BLLs in children in this study were moderately high and consistent with BLLs of children in other countries where leaded gasoline is used. With the phase-out of leaded gasoline, BLLs of children in Jakarta are expected to rapidly decline as they have in other countries that have phased lead out of gasoline.

  7. Maternal Voluntary Exercise during Pregnancy Enhances the Spatial Learning Acquisition but not the Retention of Memory in Rat Pups via a TrkB-mediated Mechanism: The Role of Hippocampal BDNF Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Maziar M Akhavan; Hossein Miladi-Gorji; Mitra Emami-Abarghoie; Manouchehr Safari; Bizhan Sadighi-Moghaddam; Abbas A. Vafaei; Ali Rashidy-Pour

    2013-01-01

      Objective(s): The effect of maternal voluntary exercise on hippocampal BDNF level in rat offspring was studied. In addition, the possible role of hippocampal BDNF receptors in maternal exercise induced enhancement of learning in the rat pups was investigated.   Materials and Methods: Pregnant rats have been randomly assigned to sedentary control or voluntary exercise groups. Each of the exercising pregnant rats was given access to a cage that was equipped with a running wheel until the end ...

  8. Restraint stress and repeated CRF receptor activation in the amygdala both increase amyloid β precursor protein (APP) and amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide but have divergent effects on BDNF and pre-synaptic proteins in the prefrontal cortex of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Balmiki; Gaskins, Denise L.; Sajdyk, Tammy J.; Spence, John P.; Fitz, Stephanie D.; Shekhar, Anantha; Lahiri, Debomoy K.

    2011-01-01

    Both environmental stress and anxiety may represent important risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Previous studies demonstrate that restraint stress is associated with increased amyloid beta (Aβ) and decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the brain. Aβ deposition, synaptic loss, and neurodegeneration define major hallmarks of AD, and BDNF is responsible for the maintenance of neurons. In contrast to restraint stress, repeated injections of sub-anxioge...

  9. Effects of MDMA on blood glucose levels and brain glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto-Montenegro, M.L.; Vaquero, J.J.; Garcia-Barreno, P.; Desco, M. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Laboratorio de Imagen, Medicina Experimental, Madrid (Spain); Arango, C. [Hospital General Gregorio Maranon, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Madrid (Spain); Ricaurte, G. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This study was designed to assess changes in glucose metabolism in rats administered single or repeated doses of MDMA. Two different experiments were performed: (1) A single-dose study with four groups receiving 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, saline or heat, and (2) a repeated-dose study with two groups receiving three doses, at intervals of 2 h, of 5 mg/kg or saline. Rats were imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET scanner 1 h after single-dose administration or 7 days after repeated doses. Glucose metabolism was measured in 12 cerebral regions of interest. Rectal temperature and blood glucose were monitored. Peak body temperature was reached 1 h after MDMA administration. Blood glucose levels decreased significantly after MDMA administration. In the single-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism showed hyperactivation in cerebellum and hypo-activation in the hippocampus, amygdala and auditory cortex. In the repeated-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism did not show any significant change at day 7. These results are the first to indicate that MDMA has the potential to produce significant hypoglycaemia. In addition, they show that MDMA alters glucose metabolism in components of the motor, limbic and somatosensory systems acutely but not on a long-term basis. (orig.)

  10. Coenzyme Q10 in human blood: native levels and determinants of oxidation during processing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Adrian A; Morrison, Cynthia M; Bakke, Jesse L; Custer, Laurie J; Li, Xingnan; Cooney, Robert V

    2010-06-15

    Coenzyme Q10 (Q10) is present in the circulation mainly in its reduced form (ubiquinol-10; UL10), but oxidizes quickly ex vivo to ubiquinone-10 (UN10). Therefore, native UL10:UN10 ratios, used as markers of redox status and disease risk, are difficult to measure. We established an RP-(U)HPLC method with coulometric detection to measure natively circulating UL10 and UN10 concentrations by adding a ubiquinol/ubiquinone mixture as an internal standard immediately after plasma preparation. This allowed adjustment for unavoidable artificial UL10 oxidation as well as for total losses (or gains) of analytes during sample storage, processing, and analysis because the internal standards exactly paralleled the chemical behavior of Q10. This technique applied to blood (n = 13) revealed Q10 levels of 680-3300 nM with a mean UL10:UN10 ratio of 95:5, which was inversely associated with total Q10 (r=-0.69; p=0.004). The oxidation of UL10 to UN10 was equimolar, increased by O(2), and decreased by lower temperatures or various degassing methods. Although UL10 was stable in blood or when pure in organic solvents at 22 degrees C, its oxidation was catalyzed dose dependently by alpha-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene, particularly when present in combination. Key structural features for the catalytic pro-oxidant properties of phenolic antioxidants included two substituents vicinal to the phenolic hydroxyl group. PMID:20226852

  11. DSA Image Blood Vessel Skeleton Extraction Based on Anti-concentration Diffusion and Level Set Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Wu, Jian; Feng, Daming; Cui, Zhiming

    Serious types of vascular diseases such as carotid stenosis, aneurysm and vascular malformation may lead to brain stroke, which are the third leading cause of death and the number one cause of disability. In the clinical practice of diagnosis and treatment of cerebral vascular diseases, how to do effective detection and description of the vascular structure of two-dimensional angiography sequence image that is blood vessel skeleton extraction has been a difficult study for a long time. This paper mainly discussed two-dimensional image of blood vessel skeleton extraction based on the level set method, first do the preprocessing to the DSA image, namely uses anti-concentration diffusion model for the effective enhancement and uses improved Otsu local threshold segmentation technology based on regional division for the image binarization, then vascular skeleton extraction based on GMM (Group marching method) with fast sweeping theory was actualized. Experiments show that our approach not only improved the time complexity, but also make a good extraction results.

  12. Effects of MDMA on blood glucose levels and brain glucose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to assess changes in glucose metabolism in rats administered single or repeated doses of MDMA. Two different experiments were performed: (1) A single-dose study with four groups receiving 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, saline or heat, and (2) a repeated-dose study with two groups receiving three doses, at intervals of 2 h, of 5 mg/kg or saline. Rats were imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET scanner 1 h after single-dose administration or 7 days after repeated doses. Glucose metabolism was measured in 12 cerebral regions of interest. Rectal temperature and blood glucose were monitored. Peak body temperature was reached 1 h after MDMA administration. Blood glucose levels decreased significantly after MDMA administration. In the single-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism showed hyperactivation in cerebellum and hypo-activation in the hippocampus, amygdala and auditory cortex. In the repeated-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism did not show any significant change at day 7. These results are the first to indicate that MDMA has the potential to produce significant hypoglycaemia. In addition, they show that MDMA alters glucose metabolism in components of the motor, limbic and somatosensory systems acutely but not on a long-term basis. (orig.)

  13. Blood metal levels and third trimester maternal plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Felicia; Bielecki, Agnieszka; Blais, Erica; Fisher, Mandy; Cakmak, Sabit; Basak, Ajoy; Gomes, James; Arbuckle, Tye E; Fraser, William D; Vincent, Renaud; Kumarathasan, Prem

    2016-09-01

    While it is known that in utero exposure to environmental toxicants, namely heavy metals, can adversely affect the neonate, there remains a significant paucity of information on maternal biological changes specific to metal exposures during pregnancy. This study aims at identifying associations between maternal metal exposures and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that are known to be engaged in pregnancy process. Third trimester maternal plasma (n = 1533) from a pregnancy cohort (Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals Study, MIREC) were analyzed for MMP-1,-2,-7,-9 and -