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Sample records for blood bdnf levels

  1. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

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    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    no studies directly comparing blood BDNF levels to brain BDNF levels in different species. We examined blood, serum, plasma and brain-tissue BDNF levels in three different mammalian species: rat, pig, and mouse, using an ELISA method. As a control, we included an analysis of blood and brain tissue from...... conditional BDNF knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Whereas BDNF could readily be measured in rat blood, plasma and brain tissue, it was undetectable in mouse blood. In pigs, whole-blood levels of BDNF could not be measured with a commercially available ELISA kit, but pig plasma BDNF levels (mean...... positive correlation between frontal cortex and hippocampal BDNF levels in mice (r2=0.81, p=0.0139). Our data support the view that measures of blood and plasma BDNF levels reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels....

  2. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been ...... positive correlation between frontal cortex and hippocampal BDNF levels in mice (r2=0.81, p=0.0139). Our data support the view that measures of blood and plasma BDNF levels reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels....

  3. Whole blood BDNF levels in healthy twins discordant for affective disorder

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    Trajkovska, Viktorija; Vinberg, Maj; Aznar, Susana

    2008-01-01

    and protected against affective disorder. Whole blood assessed for BDNF concentrations and correlated to risk status, neuroticism, and number of stressful life events. RESULTS: Between the groups, we found no significant difference in whole blood BDNF levels. Women at high-risk for depression who had......BACKGROUND: Depression has been associated with decreased blood BDNF concentrations; but it is unclear if low blood BDNF levels are a state or a trait marker of depression. METHODS: We investigated blood BDNF concentrations in a twin population including both subjects highly predisposed...... experienced three or more recent stressful events (n=26) had decreased whole blood BDNF levels compared to high-risk women with two or less recent stressful events (n=35), 21.6+/-7.0 vs. 18.5+/-4.1 ng/ml, respectively, (p

  4. Cerebral 5-HT2A receptor and serotonin transporter binding in humans are not affected by the val66met BDNF polymorphism status or blood BDNF levels

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    Klein, Anders Bue; Trajkovska, Viktorija; Erritzoe, David

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have proposed an interrelation between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism and the serotonin system. In this study, we investigated whether the BDNF val66met polymorphism or blood BDNF levels are associated with cerebral 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT(2A......)) receptor or serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in healthy subjects. No statistically significant differences in 5-HT(2A) receptor or SERT binding were found between the val/val and met carriers, nor were blood BDNF values associated with SERT binding or 5-HT(2A) receptor binding. In conclusion, val66met...... BDNF polymorphism status is not associated with changes in the serotonergic system. Moreover, BDNF levels in blood do not correlate with either 5-HT(2A) or SERT binding....

  5. Whole blood BDNF levels in healthy twins discordant for affective disorder: association to life events and neuroticism

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    Trajkovska, V.; Vinberg, M.; Aznar, S.

    2008-01-01

    and protected against affective disorder. Whole blood assessed for BDNF concentrations and correlated to risk status, neuroticism, and number of stressful life events. RESULTS: Between the groups, we found no significant difference in whole blood BDNF levels. Women at high-risk for depression who had......BACKGROUND: Depression has been associated with decreased blood BDNF concentrations; but it is unclear if low blood BDNF levels are a state or a trait marker of depression. METHODS: We investigated blood BDNF concentrations in a twin population including both subjects highly predisposed...... experienced three or more recent stressful events (n=26) had decreased whole blood BDNF levels compared to high-risk women with two or less recent stressful events (n=35), 21.6+/-7.0 vs. 18.5+/-4.1 ng/ml, respectively, (p

  6. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts BDNF level.

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    Maria Giese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep plays a pivotal role in normal biological functions. Sleep loss results in higher stress vulnerability and is often found in mental disorders. There is evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF could be a central player in this relationship. Recently, we could demonstrate that subjects suffering from current symptoms of insomnia exhibited significantly decreased serum BDNF levels compared with sleep-healthy controls. In accordance with the paradigm indicating a link between sleep and BDNF, we aimed to investigate if the stress system influences the association between sleep and BDNF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants with current symptoms of insomnia plus a former diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS and/or Periodic Limb Movement (PLM and sleep healthy controls were included in the study. They completed questionnaires on sleep (ISI, Insomnia Severity Index and stress (PSS, Perceived Stress Scale and provided a blood sample for determination of serum BDNF. We found a significant interaction between stress and insomnia with an impact on serum BDNF levels. Moreover, insomnia severity groups and score on the PSS each revealed a significant main effect on serum BDNF levels. Insomnia severity was associated with increased stress experience affecting serum BDNF levels. Of note, the association between stress and BDNF was only observed in subjects without insomnia. Using a mediation model, sleep was revealed as a mediator of the association between stress experience and serum BDNF levels. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show that the interplay between stress and sleep impacts BDNF levels, suggesting an important role of this relationship in the pathogenesis of stress-associated mental disorders. Hence, we suggest sleep as a key mediator at the connection between stress and BDNF. Whether sleep is maintained or disturbed might explain why some individuals are able to handle a certain stress load while

  7. Increased blood BDNF in healthy individuals with a family history of depression

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    Knorr, Ulla; Søndergaard, Mia H Greisen; Koefoed, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    The brain-derive neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play an important role in the course of depression. We aimed to study the associations between peripheral whole blood BDNF levels in healthy individuals with and without a family history of depression. BDNF levels were significantly increased...... in healthy individuals with (n = 76), compared with healthy individuals without (n = 39) a family history of depression and persisted after adjustment for age and gender differences. Higher BDNF levels were associated with increasing age and seasonality. A family history of depression may contribute...

  8. ProBDNF/p75NTR/sortilin pathway is activated in peripheral blood of patients with alcohol dependence.

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    Zhou, Li; Xiong, Jing; Ruan, Chun-Sheng; Ruan, Ye; Liu, Dennis; Bao, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Xin-Fu

    2018-03-09

    Alcohol dependence is a worldwide problem with a great social and economic burden in many countries. A number of studies have suggested that BDNF (mature BDNF) and its precursor (proBDNF) play important roles in the alcohol dependence. However, what roles of the mBDNF/proBDNF pathways play during the pathological process of alcohol dependence are not clearly understood. In our clinical study, peripheral blood was sampled from 30 male patients with alcohol dependence and 50 healthy males (as control). The protein levels of proBDNF, p75NTR, sortilin, mBDNF, TrkB and mRNA levels of BDNF, p75NTR, sortilin, and TrkB were detected in the peripheral blood in our study. We found that the protein levels of proBDNF and p75NTR were increased, but not the sortilin protein level; while the TrkB protein level was decreased in the alcohol dependence patients compared with healthy controls. Moreover, the mRNA levels of p75NTR and sortilin from the lymphocytes were slightly increased; while BDNF and TrkB were significantly decreased. The ELISA results of mBDNF and TrkB were declined in the alcohol dependence group. The levels of mBDNF and TrkB were negatively correlated with the average amount of daily ethanol consumption, and the levels of proBDNF, p75NTR and sortilin were positively correlated with the average amount of ethanol consumption per day. The ratio of proBDNF to mBDNF was altered in alcohol dependence patients. The balance between the proBDNF/p75NTR and mBDNF/TrkB signalling pathways appeared dysregulated in alcohol dependence. Our results suggested that both pathways may participate in the complex processes of alcohol dependence.

  9. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism: relation to familiar risk of affective disorder, BDNF levels and salivary cortisol

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    Vinberg, Maj; Trajkovska, Viktorija; Bennike, Bente

    2009-01-01

    with a familiar risk of affective disorder and whether these genotypes affect whole blood BDNF level and salivary cortisol. METHOD: In a high-risk study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with and without a co-twin (high- and low-risk twins, respectively) history of affective disorder were identified...... familiar risk of affective disorder and the met allele was associated with a higher whole blood BDNF (p=0.02) and a higher evening cortisol level (p=0.01), but not with awakening cortisol. CONCLUSION: Individuals at high risk of affective disorders and who are carriers of the met allele of the Val66Met...

  10. Increased BDNF levels in long-term bipolar disorder patients

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    Izabela Guimarães Barbosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder (BD is a prevalent, chronic and progressive illness. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plays an important role in the pathophysiology of BD. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate BDNF plasma levels in BD patients with long term illness in comparison with controls. METHODS: 87 BD type I patients and 58 controls matched by age, gender and education level were enrolled in this study. All subjects were assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the patients by the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The plasma levels of BDNF were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: On average, patients had suffered from BD for 23.4 years. In comparison with controls, BD patients with mania presented a 1.90-fold increase in BDNF plasma levels (p = .001, while BD patients in remission presented a 1.64-fold increase in BDNF plasma levels (p = .03. BDNF plasma levels were not influenced by age, length of illness or current medications. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that long-term BD patients exhibit increased circulating levels of BDNF.

  11. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels as a possible predictor of psychopathology in healthy twins at high and low risk for affective disorder

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    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a potential biomarker of affective disorder. However, longitudinal studies evaluating a potential predictive role of BDNF on subsequent psychopathology are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF alone or in interaction with the B......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a potential biomarker of affective disorder. However, longitudinal studies evaluating a potential predictive role of BDNF on subsequent psychopathology are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF alone or in interaction...... with the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism predict onset of affective disorder in healthy individuals at heritable risk for affective disorder. In a high-risk study, we assessed whole blood levels of BDNF in 234 healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with or without a co-twin history of affective disorder (high...

  12. BDNF downregulates 5-HT(2A) receptor protein levels in hippocampal cultures

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    Trajkovska, V; Santini, M A; Marcussen, Anders Bue

    2009-01-01

    Both brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the serotonin receptor 2A (5-HT(2A)) have been related to depression pathology. Specific 5-HT(2A) receptor changes seen in BDNF conditional mutant mice suggest that BDNF regulates the 5-HT(2A) receptor level. Here we show a direct effect of BDNF...... on 5-HT(2A) receptor protein levels in primary hippocampal neuronal and mature hippocampal organotypic cultures exposed to different BDNF concentrations for either 1, 3, 5 or 7 days. In vivo effects of BDNF on hippocampal 5-HT(2A) receptor levels were further corroborated in (BDNF +/-) mice...... with reduced BDNF levels. In primary neuronal cultures, 7 days exposure to 25 and 50ng/mL BDNF resulted in downregulation of 5-HT(2A), but not of 5-HT(1A), receptor protein levels. The BDNF-associated downregulation of 5-HT(2A) receptor levels was also observed in mature hippocampal organotypic cultures...

  13. Evidence of associations between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF serum levels and gene polymorphisms with tinnitus

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    Aysun Coskunoglu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene polymorphisms are associated with abnormalities in regulation of BDNF secretion. Studies also linked BDNF polymorphisms with changes in brainstem auditory-evoked response test results. Furthermore, BDNF levels are reduced in tinnitus, psychiatric disorders, depression, dysthymic disorder that may be associated with stress, conversion disorder, and suicide attempts due to crises of life. For this purpose, we investigated whether there is any role of BDNF changes in the pathophysiology of tinnitus. Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined the possible effects of BDNF variants in individuals diagnosed with tinnitus for more than 3 months. Fifty-two tinnitus subjects between the ages of 18 and 55, and 42 years healthy control subjects in the same age group, who were free of any otorhinolaryngology and systemic disease, were selected for examination. The intensity of tinnitus and depression was measured using the tinnitus handicap inventory, and the differential diagnosis of psychiatric diagnoses made using the Structured Clinical Interview for Fourth Edition of Mental Disorders. BDNF gene polymorphism was analyzed in the genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA samples extracted from the venous blood, and the serum levels of BDNF were measured. One-way analysis of variance and Chi-squared tests were applied. Results: Serum BDNF level was found lower in the tinnitus patients than controls, and it appeared that there is no correlation between BDNF gene polymorphism and tinnitus. Conclusions: This study suggests neurotrophic factors such as BDNF may have a role in tinnitus etiology. Future studies with larger sample size may be required to further confirm our results.

  14. Spontaneous sleep-wake cycle and sleep deprivation differently induce Bdnf1, Bdnf4 and Bdnf9a DNA methylation and transcripts levels in the basal forebrain and frontal cortex in rats.

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    Ventskovska, Olena; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Karpova, Nina N

    2015-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) regulates neuronal plasticity, slow wave activity and sleep homeostasis. Environmental stimuli control Bdnf expression through epigenetic mechanisms, but there are no data on epigenetic regulation of Bdnf by sleep or sleep deprivation. Here we investigated whether 5-methylcytosine (5mC) DNA modification at Bdnf promoters p1, p4 and p9 influences Bdnf1, Bdnf4 and Bdnf9a expression during the normal inactive phase or after sleep deprivation (SD) (3, 6 and 12 h, end-times being ZT3, ZT6 and ZT12) in rats in two brain areas involved in sleep regulation, the basal forebrain and cortex. We found a daytime variation in cortical Bdnf expression: Bdnf1 expression was highest at ZT6 and Bdnf4 lowest at ZT12. Such variation was not observed in the basal forebrain. Also Bdnf p1 and p9 methylation levels differed only in the cortex, while Bdnf p4 methylation did not vary in either area. Factorial analysis revealed that sleep deprivation significantly induced Bdnf1 and Bdnf4 with the similar pattern for Bdnf9a in both basal forebrain and cortex; 12 h of sleep deprivation decreased 5mC levels at the cortical Bdnf p4 and p9. Regression analysis between the 5mC promoter levels and the corresponding Bdnf transcript expression revealed significant negative correlations for the basal forebrain Bdnf1 and cortical Bdnf9a transcripts in only non-deprived rats, while these correlations were lost after sleep deprivation. Our results suggest that Bdnf transcription during the light phase of undisturbed sleep-wake cycle but not after SD is regulated at least partially by brain site-specific DNA methylation. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  15. BDNF Val66Met homozygosity does not influence plasma BDNF levels in healthy human subjects

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    Luykx, J.J.; Boks, M.P.M.; Breetvelt, E.J.; Aukes, M.F.; Strengman, E.; da Pozzo, E.; Dell'osso, L.; Marazziti, D.; van Leeuwen, A.; Vreeker, A.; Abramovic, L.; Martini, C.; Numans, M.E.; Kahn, R. S.; Ophoff, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    A putative pathway by which the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) leads to aberrant phenotypes is its influence on plasma BDNF. Research into the impact of rs6265 on plasma BDNF has given rise to conflicting results. Moreover, most such studies have compared Met-carriers with Val-homozygous

  16. Striatal dopamine transporter binding correlates with serum BDNF levels in patients with striatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration

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    Ziebell, Morten; Khalid, Usman; Klein, Anders B

    2012-01-01

    BDNF levels in patients with parkinsonism. Twenty-one patients with abnormal in vivo striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding as evidenced with [(123)I]PE2I SPECT brain scanning were included. Samples for serum BDNF levels were collected at the time of the SPECT scanning, and BDNF was measured...

  17. Effects of phenytoin and lamotrigine treatment on serum BDNF levels in offsprings of epileptic rats.

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    Soysal, Handan; Doğan, Zümrüt; Kamışlı, Özden

    2016-04-01

    The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is to promote and modulate neuronal responses across neurotransmitter systems in the brain. Therefore, abnormal BDNF signaling may be associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Low BDNF levels have been reported in brains and serums of patients with psychotic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of antiepileptic drugs on BDNF in developing rats. Pregnant rats were treated with phenytoin (PHT), lamotrigine (LTG) and folic acid for long-term, all through their gestational periods. Experimental epilepsy (EE) model was applied in pregnant rats. Epileptic seizures were determined with electroencephalography. After birth, serum BDNF levels were measured in 136 newborn rats on postnatal day (PND) 21 and postnatal day 38. In postnatal day 21, serum BDNF levels of experimental epilepsy group were significantly lower compared with PHT group. This decrease is statistically significant. Serum BDNF levels increased in the group LTG. This increase compared with LTG+EE group was statistically significant. In the folic acid (FA) group, levels of serum BDNF decreased statistically significantly compared to the PHT group. On postnatal day 38, no significant differences were found among the groups for serum BDNF levels. We concluded that, the passed seizures during pregnancy adversely affect fetal brain development, lowering of serum BDNF levels. PHT use during pregnancy prevents seizure-induced injury by increasing the levels of BDNF. About the increase level of BDNF, LTG is much less effective than PHT, the positive effect of folic acid on serum BDNF levels was not observed. LTG increase in BDNF is much less effective than PHT, folic acid did not show a positive effect on serum BDNF levels. Epilepsy affects fetal brain development during gestation in pregnant rats, therefore anti-epileptic therapy should be continued during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasticity after pediatric cochlear implantation: Implication from changes in peripheral plasma level of BDNF and auditory nerve responses.

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    Alemi, Razieh; Motassadi Zarandy, Masoud; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Eftekharian, Ali; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza; Vousooghi, Nasim

    2018-02-01

    Sensory neural hearing loss could lead to some structural and physiological changes in the auditory pathways, such as alteration in the expression of neurotrophins. These factors, especially Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), play an important role in synaptic functions and experience-related plasticity. Restoring cochlear function after hearing loss is possible through cochlear implantation (CI). Evaluation of the blood concentration changes of neurotrophins as prerequisites of plasticity could help scientists to determine the prognosis of CI as in the candidacy procedure or enhancing prosthesis function by adding the exact needed amount of BDNF to the electrode array. Here we have studied the plasma BDNF concentration before CI surgery and 6 months after using CI device in 15 pediatric CI recipients and compared this level with changes of BDNF concentration in 10 children who were using hearing aid (H.A). In addition, we searched for a possible correlation between post-surgery plasma BDNF concentration and electrical compound action potential (ECAP) and comfort-level (C-level) thresholds. Plasma BDNF concentration in children with CI increased significantly after CI surgery, while this difference in H.A group was not significant. Analysis of repeated measures of ECAP and C-level thresholds in CI group showed that there were some kinds of steadiness during follow- up sessions for ECAP thresholds in basal and E16 of middle electrodes, whereas C-level thresholds for all selected electrodes increased significantly up to six months follow-up. Interestingly, we did not find any significant correlation between post-surgery plasma BDNF concentration and ECAP or C-level threshold changes. It is concluded that changes in C-level threshold and steady state of ECAP thresholds and significant changes in BDNF concentration could be regarded as an indicator of experienced-related plasticity after CI stimulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Depression, 5HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms, and plasma BDNF levels in hemodialysis patients with chronic renal failure

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    Wang LJ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Liang-Jen Wang,1,* Chih-Ken Chen,2,3,* Heng-Jung Hsu,3,4 I-Wen Wu,3,4 Chiao-Yin Sun,3,4 Chin-Chan Lee3,41Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan; 3Chang Gung University School of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan *LJW and CKC are joint first authors and contributed equally to this manuscriptObjective: Depression is the most prevalent comorbid psychiatric disease among hemodialysis patients with end-stage renal disease. This cross-sectional study investigated whether depression in hemodialysis patients is associated with the polymorphism of the 5' flanking transcriptional region (5-HTTLPR of the serotonin transporter gene, the valine (Val-to-methionine (Met substitution at codon 66 (Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene, or plasma BDNF levels.Methods: A total of 188 participants (mean age: 58.5±14.0 years; 89 men and 99 women receiving hemodialysis at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were recruited. The diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD was confirmed using the Chinese version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The genotypes of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met were conducted using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The plasma BDNF levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit.Results: Forty-five (23.9% patients fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV-TR criteria for a MDD. There were no significant effects of the 5-HTTLPR or BDNF Val66Met gene polymorphism on MDD among the hemodialysis patients. The plasma BDNF levels correlated significantly with age (P=0.003 and sex (P=0.047 but not with depression, the genotypes of 5

  20. BDNF Val66Met homozygosity does not influence plasma BDNF levels in healthy human subjects.

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    Luykx, Jurjen J; Boks, Marco P M; Breetvelt, Elemi J; Aukes, Maartje F; Strengman, Eric; da Pozzo, Eleonora; Dell'osso, Liliana; Marazziti, Donatella; van Leeuwen, Annelies; Vreeker, Annabel; Abramovic, Lucija; Martini, Claudia; Numans, Mattijs E; Kahn, René S; Ophoff, Roel A

    2013-06-03

    A putative pathway by which the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) leads to aberrant phenotypes is its influence on plasma BDNF. Research into the impact of rs6265 on plasma BDNF has given rise to conflicting results. Moreover, most such studies have compared Met-carriers with Val-homozygous subjects. We therefore genotyped subjects from a population-based cohort (the Utrecht Health Project, N=2743) and assessed whether plasma BDNF differs between rs6265 homozygous groups. We maximized the number of Met-homozygous subjects in whom we measured plasma BDNF, resulting in plasma BDNF being available for 19 Met-homozygous and 42 matched Val-homozygous subjects. Mean concentrations (S.D.) were 1963.1 (750.1) and 2133.2 pg/ml (1164.3) for the Val/Val and Met/Met groups, respectively. Using ANOVA, no differences in plasma BDNF between the two groups were detected. In conclusion, these results add to a growing body of evidence indicating that allelic variation at rs6265 does not have medium to large effects on plasma BDNF concentrations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Obesity itself does not influence BDNF serum levels in adults.

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    Gajewska, E; Sobieska, M; Łojko, D; Wieczorowska-Tobis, K; Suwalska, A

    2014-01-01

    In European countries more than 50% of the population are overweight, 30% with obesity. In Poland overweight was present in 41% of men and 28.7% of women (obesity 15.7% and 19.9%). It was examined whether obesity affects serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which may lead to the consequences of obesity, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and finally the metabolic syndrome. We aimed to examine whether obesity affects the serum levels of BDNF and IL-6. The study involved 144 people aged 45 to 86 years, 80 subjects with diagnosed obesity and 64 with normal body weight, ≤ 65 years old (n = 45) and > 65 years old (n = 99). All patients underwent tests of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides levels, using routine laboratory methods. A test of the concentration of IL-6 and BDNF was carried out. The declared level of physical activity (gymnastics, cycling or walking) was considered. It was shown that in women ≤ 65 years old, obesity was associated with higher levels of interleukin-6. When the test group, divided into the above categories, was analyzed for the diagnosis of hypertension, heart failure or diabetes mellitus, no statistically significant differences in the investigated parameters were detected. The concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor did not differ in the investigated subjects, regardless of sex, age, obesity, or the declared physical activity. The concentration of interleukin-6 in younger people, including those with normal body weight, correlated with total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and it was significantly higher in obese women compared to those with normal body weight.

  2. TBARS and BDNF levels in newborns exposed to crack/cocaine during pregnancy: a comparative study

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    Victor Mardini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare levels of a marker of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in umbilical cord blood (UCB between newborns exposed to crack/cocaine in utero (exposed newborns [EN], n=57 and non-exposed newborns (NEN, n=99, as well as in maternal peripheral blood at delivery. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Potential confounders, including perinatal parameters, psychopathology, and use of other substances, were assessed. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, adjusted mean BDNF was significantly higher in EN (3.86 ng/mL, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 2.29-5.43 than in NEN (0.85 ng/mL, 95%CI 0.47-1.23; p < 0.001; Cohen effect size: 1.12, and significantly lower in crack/cocaine mothers than in control mothers (4.03 ng/mL, 95%CI 2.87-5.18 vs. 6.67 ng/mL, 95%CI 5.60-7.74; p = 0.006. The adjusted mean TBARS level was significantly lower in EN (63.97 µM MDA, 95%CI 39.43-88.50 than NEN (177.04 µM MDA, 95%CI 140.93-213.14; p < 0.001; effect size = 0.84, with no difference between mother groups (p = 0.86. Conclusions: The changes in TBARS levels observed in EN suggest that fetuses exposed to cocaine mobilize endogenous antioxidant routes since very early stages of development. The increase in BDNF levels in EN might indicate changes in fetal development, whereas the changes in BDNF levels in mothers provide evidence of the complex metabolic processes involved in drug use during pregnancy.

  3. Brain BDNF levels elevation induced by physical training is reduced after unilateral common carotid artery occlusion in rats.

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    Banoujaafar, Hayat; Van Hoecke, Jacques; Mossiat, Claude M; Marie, Christine

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the contribution of blood flow elevation in the cerebrovasculature to physical training-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels elevation in the brain. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein levels were measured in the motor cortex 24 h after the last session of a forced treadmill walking (30 minutes a day, 18 m/minute for 7 consecutive days). Unilateral common carotid artery occlusion and modulation of exercise intensity (0 versus -10% inclination of the treadmill) were used as strategies to reduce the (normal) elevation of flow in the cerebrovasculature occurring during exercise. Administration of N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 60 mg/kg before each exercise sessions) and genetic hypertension (spontaneously hypertensive rats) were used as approaches to reduce stimulation of nitric oxide production in response to shear stress elevation. Vascular occlusion totally and partially abolished the effect of physical training on BDNF levels in the hemisphere ipsilateral and contralateral to occlusion, respectively. BDNF levels were higher after high than low exercise intensity. In addition, both genetic hypertension and L-NAME treatment blunted the effects of physical training on BDNF. From these results, we propose that elevation of brain BDNF levels elicited by physical training involves changes in cerebral hemodynamics.

  4. BDNF levels are associated with autistic traits in the general population.

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    Brondino, Natascia; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Rocchetti, Matteo; Bertoglio, Federico; Bloise, Nora; Visai, Livia; Politi, Pierluigi

    2018-03-01

    Evidence supports the notion that autistic symptoms and behaviors should be regarded as dimensional traits. The present study aimed to investigate the role of vasopressin (AVP), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and oxytocin (OXT) as potential biochemical correlates of subclinical autistic traits in a cohort of healthy young adults. One hundred and fifty-three subjects (80 males, 73 females) were recruited. Participants completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), a widely used measure for the identification of autistic traits in the general population. Additionally, blood samples were obtained from all participants at the same time of the day to control for circadian variation. We conducted a multiple regression analysis using the AQ score as the dependent variable and age, sex, AVP, BDNF and OXT levels as the independent variables. The model explained approximately the 22% of the variance of the AQ score. Among the parameters included in the analysis, only BDNF levels were independent predictors of AQ score. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Alterations of serum levels of BDNF-related miRNAs in patients with depression.

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    You-Jie Li

    Full Text Available Depression is a serious and potentially life-threatening mental disorder with unknown etiology. Emerging evidence shows that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and microRNAs (miRNAs play critical roles in the etiology of depression. Here this study was aimed to identify and characterize the roles of BDNF and its putative regulatory miRNAs in depression. First, we identified that miR-182 may be a putative miRNA that regulates BDNF levels by bioinformatic studies, and characterized the effects of miR-182 on the BDNF levels using cell-based studies, side by side with miR-132 (a known miRNA that regulates BDNF expression. We showed that treatment of miR-132 and miR-182 respectively decreased the BDNF protein levels in a human neuronal cell model, supporting the regulatory roles of miR-132 and miR-182 on the BDNF expression. Furthermore, we explored the roles of miR-132 and miR-182 on the BDNF levels in depression using human subjects by assessing their serum levels. Compared with the healthy controls, patients with depression showed lower serum BDNF levels (via the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and higher serum miR-132 and miR-182 levels (via the real-time PCR. Finally, the Pearson's (or Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to study whether there was a relationship among the Self-Rating Depression Scale score, the serum BDNF levels, and serum BDNF-related miRNA levels. Our results revealed that there was a significant negative correlation between the SDS scores and the serum BDNF levels, and a positive correlation between the SDS scores and miR-132 levels. In addition, we found a reverse relationship between the serum BDNF levels and the miR-132/miR-182 levels in depression. Collectively, we provided evidence supporting that miR-182 is a putative BDNF-regulatory miRNA, and suggested that the serum BDNF and its related miRNAs may be utilized as important biomarkers in the diagnosis or as therapeutic targets of depression.

  6. Placental and cord blood brain derived neurotrophic factor levels are decreased in nondiabetic macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian-Ying; Zhang, Heng-Xin; Wang, Chen-Chen; Sun, Hao; Sun, Shu-Qiang; Wang, Yu-Huan; Yan, Hong-Tao; Yang, Xin-Jun

    2017-08-01

    To measure levels of placental brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression and umbilical cord blood BDNF in neonates with nondiabetic macrosomia and determine associations between these levels and macrosomia. This case-control study included 58 nondiabetic macrosomic and 59 normal birth weight mother-infant pairs. Data were collected from interviews and our hospital's database. BDNF gene expression was quantified in placental tissues using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (n = 117). Umbilical cord blood BDNF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (n = 90). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between BDNF levels and macrosomia. Placental BDNF gene expression (P = 0.026) and cord blood BDNF (P = 0.008) were lower in neonates with nondiabetic macrosomia than in normal birth weight controls. Cord blood BDNF was significantly lower in vaginally delivered macrosomic neonates than vaginally delivered controls (P = 0.014), but cord BDNF did not differ between vaginal and cesarean section delivery modes in macrosomic neonates. Cord blood BDNF was positively associated with gestational age in control neonates (r = 0.496, P macrosomia (adjusted odds ratio 0.992; 95% confidence interval 0.986-0.998). Both placental BDNF gene expression and cord blood BDNF were downregulated in neonates with nondiabetic macrosomia compared with normal birth weight neonates. Cord BDNF may partly derive from BDNF secreted by the placenta. Higher cord plasma BDNF levels protected against nondiabetic macrosomia.

  7. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and protein levels in Amniotic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calabrese Francesca

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF is a neurotrophin which plays survival- and growth-promoting activity in neuronal cells and it is involved in cellular plasticity mechanisms as it controls activity dependent synaptic transmission. A functional polymorphism (Val66Met in the pro-region of BDNF, which affects the intracellular trafficking of proBDNF has been associated with memory and cognitive deficits as well as to an increased susceptibility for several psychiatric disorders especially those with a neurodevelopmental origin. To date, no study has evaluated the influence of the Val66Met polymorphism on BDNF levels in a peripheral system that may reflect fetal neurodevelopment. Therefore we investigated in amniotic fluids (AF obtained from 139 healthy women during 15-17 week of pregnancy, BDNF protein levels in correlation with the Val66Met polymorphism. Results Interestingly we found a significant BDNF protein levels reduction in 55 Met carriers (Val/Met and Met/Met (p = 0.002 as compared to 84 non carriers (Val/Val, and no effect of fetus gender, maternal age or gestation week on BDNF levels has been observed. Conclusion These results, although explorative, indicate that during fetal life the Val66Met genotype might influences BDNF protein levels in AF supporting the involvement of this polymorphism in behavioral and functional brain individual differences in the adulthood.

  8. Histone deacetylase activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in a pharmacological model of mania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Stertz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of repeated D-amphetamine (AMPH exposure, a well-accepted animal model of acute mania in bipolar disorder (BD, and histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors on locomotor behavior and HDAC activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of rats. Moreover, we aimed to assess brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF protein and mRNA levels in these samples. Methods: We treated adult male Wistar rats with 2 mg/kg AMPH or saline intraperitoneally for 14 days. Between the 8th and 14th days, rats also received 47.5 mg/kg lithium (Li, 200 mg/kg sodium valproate (VPT, 2 mg/kg sodium butyrate (SB, or saline. We evaluated locomotor activity in the open-field task and assessed HDAC activity in the PFC and PBMCs, and BDNF levels in the PFC and plasma. Results: AMPH significantly increased locomotor activity, which was reversed by all drugs. This hyperactivity was associated with increased HDAC activity in the PFC, which was partially reversed by Li, VPT, and SB. No differences were found in BDNF levels. Conclusion: Repeated AMPH administration increases HDAC activity in the PFC without altering BDNF levels. The partial reversal of HDAC increase by Li, VPT, and SB may account for their ability to reverse AMPH-induced hyperactivity.

  9. Effects of crack cocaine addiction and stress-related genes on peripheral BDNF levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovaris, Diego L; Schuch, Jaqueline B; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Sanvicente-Vieira, Breno; da Silva, Bruna S; Walss-Bass, Consuelo; Müller, Diana; Stolf, Anderson R; von Diemen, Lisia; Ceresér, Keila M M; Pianca, Thiago G; Szobot, Claudia M; Kessler, Felix H P; Roman, Tatiana; Bau, Claiton H D

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the effects of glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genes on susceptibility to crack cocaine addiction and BDNF levels. Crack addicted patients who sought treatment (n = 280) and non-addicted individuals (n = 241) were assessed. Three SNPs in NR3C1 (rs6198, rs41423247, and rs10052957), three in CRHR1 (rs12944712, rs110402, and rs878886), and one in BDNF (rs6265) were genotyped. No significant effect was seen in the case-control analyses. Crack cocaine addicted patients showed significantly lower serum BDNF levels. Significant effects were observed for NR3C1 rs41423247 and rs10052957. These effects were restricted to non-addicted individuals and they were supported by significant gene-by-disease status interactions. For CRHR1, all SNPs were associated with BDNF levels. Although there were significant effects only in the analysis restricted to non-addicted individuals, the lack of significant results in the gene-by-disease status interaction analyses suggest a general effect on BDNF levels. The haplotype analyses presented the same effect seen in the single marker analyses. This study suggests that SNPs in the NR3C1 and CRHR1 genes may influence BDNF levels, but this effect is blunted in the context of crack cocaine addiction. Therefore, our data may be interpreted in light of several studies showing pronounced effects of crack cocaine on BDNF levels. Since peripheral BDNF is a biomarker for several psychiatric phenotypes, our results may be useful in interpreting previous associations between stress-related SNPs, drug addiction, and depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of hippotherapy on brain function, BDNF level, and physical fitness in children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Namju; Park, Sok; Kim, Jongkyu

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hippotherapy on brain function and levels of blood-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in children with attention deficit and/or hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The hippotherapy group (HRG) included twenty children with ADHD and the control group (CG) included 19 children. All participants' physical fitness, fMRI brain scans, and blood BDNF levels were measured at baseline and after 32 weeks of participating in hippotherapy. After 32 weeks of participating in hippotherapy, the body fat of the HRG was significantly decreased (-1.12 ± 4.20%) and the body fat of the CG was increased (2.38 ± 6.35%) (p=0.049). There was no significant difference of physical fitness in both groups (p>0.05). Although there was a higher decrease in the activated insular area in the HRG (-1.59 ± 0.99) than in the CG (-1.14 ± 1.41), there was no significant difference between the two groups (p>0.05) Also, there was a higher increase in the activated cerebellum area in the HRG (1.97 ± 1.45) than in the CG (1.92 ± 1.81). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups (p>0.05). BDNF levels showed an increased tendency in the HRG (166.29 ± 277.52pg) compared to the CG (21.13 ± 686.33pg); otherwise, there was not any significant difference in these blood levels between the two groups (p>0.05). It can be assumed that big individual differences in the level of ADHD in the study participants might not cause any significant results, although there might be positive changes in the brain function of children with ADHD. Therefore, this study suggests that hippotherapy training would need to be modified and developed to increase the efficacy of hippotherapy in children with ADHD.

  11. Decreased BDNF levels in amygdala and hippocampus after intracerebroventricular administration of ouabain

    OpenAIRE

    Jornada, Luciano K.; Valvassori, Samira S.; Resende, Wilson R.; Moretti, Morgana; Ferreira, Camila L.; Fries, Gabriel R.; Kapczinski, Flavio; Quevedo, João

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to investigate the effects of ouabain intracerebroventricular injection on BDNF levels in the amygdala and hippocampus of Wistar rats. METHODS: Animals received a single intracerebroventricular injection of ouabain (10-3 and 10-2 M) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid and immediately, 1h, 24h, or seven days after injection, BDNF levels were measured in the rat's amygdala and hippocampus by sandwich-ELISA (n = 8 animals per group). RESULTS: When evaluated immedi...

  12. Serum BDNF levels in relation to illness severity, suicide attempts, and central serotonin activity in patients with major depressive disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Min; Lee, Bun-Hee; Um, Tae Hyun; Kim, Sollip

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are correlated with the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP). The question of whether there is a difference in BDNF levels between depressive patients according to their illness severity, history of suicide attempts, and central serotonin activity was also addressed. A sample of 51 patients who met the criteria for major depressive disorder following diagnosis using axis I of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - text revision comprised the study subjects. The patients were stratified into two subgroups based on their illness severity, history of suicide attempts, and their LDAEP values. The LDAEP was evaluated by measuring the auditory event-related potentials, and serum BDNF was measured using blood sampling before beginning medication with serotonergic agents. There was no difference in serum BDNF levels between the two patient subgroups. The subgroup with moderate-to-severe depression (n = 16) was reanalyzed after stratifying it into two subgroups according to LDAEP and BDNF values (dichotomized at the medians into low and high). The high-LDAEP subgroup had higher serum BDNF levels and total Barratt Impulsiveness Scale score than the low-LDAEP subgroup (p = 0.03 and 0.036, respectively). Serum BDNF levels were positively correlated with LDAEP and total Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) score (r = 0.56, p = 0.025, and r = 0.59, p = 0.016, respectively). The high-BDNF subgroup had a higher LDAEP and total BHS score than the low-BDNF subgroup (p = 0.046 and p = 0.011, respectively). This is the first study to demonstrate a relationship between the BDNF level and LDAEP in Asian depressive patients. Intriguingly, the high-BDNF subgroup (divided according to illness severity) exhibited a more severe psychopathology on some psychometric rating scales, a finding that

  13. Adenovirus vector-mediated ex vivo gene transfer of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) tohuman umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) promotescrush-injured rat sciatic nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei, Wei-Hong; Almansoori, Akram A; Sung, Mi-Ae; Ju, Kyung-Won; Seo, Nari; Lee, Sung-Ho; Kim, Bong-Ju; Kim, Soung-Min; Jahng, Jeong Won; He, Hong; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2017-03-16

    This study was designed toinvestigate the efficacy of adenovirus vector-mediated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) ex vivo gene transfer to human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. BDNF protein and mRNA expression after infection was checked through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250g, 6 weeks old) were distributed into threegroups (n=20 each): the control group, UCB-MSC group, and BDNF-adenovirus infected UCB-MSC (BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSC) group. UCB-MSCs (1×10 6 cells/10μl/rat) or BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCs (1×10 6 cells/10μl/rat)were transplantedinto the rats at the crush site immediately after sciatic nerve injury. Cell tracking was done with PKH26-labeled UCB-MSCs and BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCs (1×10 6 cells/10μl/rat). The rats were monitored for 4 weeks post-surgery. Results showed that expression of BDNF at both the protein and mRNA levels was higher inthe BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSC group compared to theUCB-MSC group in vitro.Moreover, BDNF mRNA expression was higher in both UCB-MSC group and BDNF-Ad+ UCB-MSC group compared tothe control group, and BDNF mRNA expression in theBDNF-Ad+UCB-MSC group was higher than inboth other groups 5days after surgeryin vivo. Labeled neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), axon counts, axon density, and sciatic function index were significantly increased in the UCB-MSC and BDNF-Ad+ UCB-MSCgroupscompared to the controlgroup four weeksaftercell transplantation. Importantly,the BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCgroup exhibited more peripheral nerve regeneration than the other two groups.Our results indicate thatboth UCB-MSCs and BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCscan improve rat sciatic nerve regeneration, with BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSCsshowing a greater effectthan UCB-MSCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of BDNF Val66Met allele-specific mRNA levels in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Vincenzo; Strauss, John; Semeralul, Mawahib; Huang, Sheeda; Li, Peter P; Warsh, Jerry J; Kennedy, James L; Wong, Albert H C

    2008-08-22

    We have previously reported an association between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and bipolar disorder (BD). However, the possibility that genomic imprinting in BDNF gene affects risk for BD has not been investigated. To examine the possibility of genomic imprinting in the BDNF gene in BD, we analyzed the parent-of-origin effect (POE) and differential expression of the BDNF Val66Met alleles in BD. We performed a family-based association study and ETDT analyses of the Val66Met polymorphism in 312 BD nuclear families, and compared allele-specific mRNA levels in both post-mortem brain samples and B lymphoblasts from BD patients and controls. The BDNF Val66 allele was transmitted significantly more often to patients with BD (maternal transmissions: 46/22, p=0.003; paternal transmissions: 55/30, p=0.006). There was no significant difference between maternal and paternal transmission ratios. There was no significant difference in the ratio of Val/Met-specific mRNA expression between BD and controls, in either brain or B lymphoblasts. The Val/Met ratio was much lower in the brain vs. B lymphoblasts. These data do not support a role for genomic imprinting as a modifier of the contribution of BDNF gene to risk of susceptibility to BD.

  15. Decreased BDNF levels in amygdala and hippocampus after intracerebroventricular administration of ouabain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano K. Jornada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to investigate the effects of ouabain intracerebroventricular injection on BDNF levels in the amygdala and hippocampus of Wistar rats. METHODS: Animals received a single intracerebroventricular injection of ouabain (10-3 and 10-2 M or artificial cerebrospinal fluid and immediately, 1h, 24h, or seven days after injection, BDNF levels were measured in the rat's amygdala and hippocampus by sandwich-ELISA (n = 8 animals per group. RESULTS: When evaluated immediately, 3h, or 24h after injection, ouabain in doses of 10-2 and 10-3 M does not alter BDNF levels in the amygdala and hippocampus. However, when evaluated seven days after injection, ouabain in 10-2 and 10-3 M, showed a significant reduction in BDNF levels in both brain regions evaluated. DISCUSSION: In conclusion, we propose that the ouabain decreased BDNF levels in the hippocampus and amygdala when assessed seven days after administration, supporting the Na/K ATPase hypothesis for bipolar illness.

  16. The influence of BDNF on human umbilical cord blood stem/progenitor cells: implications for stem cell-based therapy of neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczkowska, Edyta; Łuczkowska, Karolina; Piecyk, Katarzyna; Rogińska, Dorota; Pius-Sadowska, Ewa; Ustianowski, Przemysław; Cecerska, Elżbieta; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Celewicz, Zbigniew; Machaliński, Bogusław

    2015-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived stem/progenitor cells (SPCs) have demonstrated the potential to improve neurologic function in different experimental models. SPCs can survive after transplantation in the neural microenvironment and indu ce neuroprotection, endogenous neurogenesis by secreting a broad repertoire of trophic and immunomodulatory cytokines. In this study, the influence of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pre-treatment was comprehensively evaluated in a UCB-derived lineage-negative (Lin-) SPC population. UCB-derived Lin- cells were evaluated with respect to the expression of (i) neuronal markers using immunofluorescence staining and (ii) specific (TrkB) receptors for BDNF using flow cytometry. Next, after BDNF pre-treatment, Lin- cells were extensively assessed with respect to apoptosis using Western blotting and proliferation via BrdU incorporation. Furthermore, NT-3 expression levels in Lin- cells using RQ PCR and antioxidative enzyme activities were assessed. We demonstrated neuronal markers as well as TrkB expression in Lin- cells and the activation of the TrkB receptor by BDNF. BDNF pre-treatment diminished apoptosis in Lin- cells and influenced the proliferation of these cells. We observed significant changes in antioxidants as well as in the increased expression of NT-3 in Lin- cells following BDNF exposure. Complex global miRNA and mRNA profiling analyses using microarray technology and GSEA revealed the differential regulation of genes involved in the proliferation, gene expression, biosynthetic processes, translation, and protein targeting. Our results support the hypothesis that pre-treatment of stem/progenitor cells could be beneficial and may be used as an auxiliary strategy for improving the properties of SPCs.

  17. Influence of BDNF Genotype and Exercise on BDNF Serum Levels and VO2 Max after Acute Exercise and Post Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-29

    across age and gender groups [12,13,14,15,16]. Exercise-based cognitive augmentation is thought to be mediated by BDNF [17,18]. BDNF is a...memory and decision- making) (termed FAC henceforth) to traditional AFPT (LC). The FAC training incorporated motions from real world actions (e.g...effectively discriminated since the results are consistent above the prior probabilities in a random guess. 17 Distribution A: Approved for public

  18. Depression, the Val66Met polymorphism, age, and gender influence the serum BDNF level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elfving, Betina; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Foldager, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    , and health indicators in a statistical model. In the present study the serum BDNF levels were increased in the depressive subjects compared to control individuals. Additionally, six SNPs were successfully analyzed, but did not associate with depression. Multiple linear regression models were applied and age...

  19. Age-related changes in plasma levels of BDNF in Down syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licastro Federico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of coronary artery diseases is low among Down Syndrome (DS patients and they rarely die of atherosclerotic complications. Histopathological investigations showed no increase in atherosclerosis, or even a total lack of atherosclerotic changes, in DS Aim The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship between age and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in Down Syndrome (DS. Subjects and methods Three groups of DS patients were studied: the first consisted of 23 children (age 2-14 years; the second of 14 adults (age 20-50 years, the third group of 13 elderly persons (>60 years and a controls group of 20 healthy patients (age 15-60 years. The analytes of interest were quantified using a biochip array analyzer (Evidence®, Randox Ltd., Crumlin, UK. Results Plasma BDNF was higher in DS patients than in controls and there was a significant age-related increase. Serum levels of IL-6 and MCP-1 were also higher in DS children and adults, but not in older patients, than in healthy control. High levels of circulating BDNF may protect DS patients from the clinical complications of atherosclerosis. However, the striking drop in peripheral BDNF levels with age might predispose these patients to clinical manifestations of dementia in later life.

  20. BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) serum levels in schizophrenic patients with cognitive deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, N.; Effendy, E.; Amin, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with cognitive impairment as the main part. BDNF regulates aspects of developmental plasticity in the brain and is involved in cognitive function. Cognitive functions include capabilities such as attention, executive functioning, assessing, monitoring and evaluating. The aim of the study was to know the BDNF levels in schizophrenic patients with cognitive deficits. The study was held in October 2016 - March 2017, and was the first in Indonesia, especially in North Sumatra. The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the University of North Sumatera. The study is descriptive based on a retrospective method with cross-sectional approach. The subject is 40 male schizophrenia. Cognitive deficits were assessed by MoCA-Ina. BDNF serum levels were analyzed using the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The average MoCA-Ina score is 21.03±5.21. This suggests that there is a cognitive function deficit in schizophrenic patients. The mean serum BDNF level was 26629±6762. MoCA-Ina scores in schizophrenic patients values ranging from 6.186 to 42.580pg/ml.

  1. Effects of Ethanol on the Expression Level of Various BDNF mRNA Isoforms and Their Encoded Protein in the Hippocampus of Adult and Embryonic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Shojaei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to compare the effects of oral ethanol (Eth alone or combined with the phytoestrogen resveratrol (Rsv on the expression of various brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF transcripts and the encoded protein pro-BDNF in the hippocampus of pregnant and embryonic rats. A low (0.25 g/kg body weight (BW/day dose of Eth produced an increase in the expression of BDNF exons I, III and IV and a decrease in that of the exon IX in embryos, but failed to affect BDNF transcript and pro-BDNF protein expression in adults. However, co-administration of Eth 0.25 g/kg·BW/day and Rsv led to increased expression of BDNF exons I, III and IV and to a small but significant increase in the level of pro-BDNF protein in maternal rats. A high (2.5 g/kg·BW/day dose of Eth increased the expression of BDNF exons III and IV in embryos, but it decreased the expression of exon IX containing BDNF mRNAs in the maternal rats. While the high dose of Eth alone reduced the level of pro-BDNF in adults, it failed to change the levels of pro-BDNF in embryos. Eth differentially affects the expression pattern of BDNF transcripts and levels of pro-BDNF in the hippocampus of both adult and embryonic rats.

  2. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum basal levels is not affected by power training in mobility-limited older adults - A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvid, L G; Nielsen, M K F; Simonsen, C; Andersen, M; Caserotti, P

    2017-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potential important factor involved in neuroplasticity, and may be a mediator for eliciting adaptations in neuromuscular function and physical function in older individuals following physical training. As power training taxes the neural system to a very high extent, it may be particularly effective in terms of eliciting increases in systemic BDNF levels. We examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on mature BDNF (mBDNF) and total BDNF (tBDNF) in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We included 47 older men and women: n=22 in the training group (TG: progressive high intensity power training, 2 sessions per week; age 82.7±5.4years, 55% women) and n=25 in the control group (CG: no interventions; age 82.2±4.5years, 76% women). Following overnight fasting, basal serum levels of mBDNF and tBDNF were assessed (human ELISA kits) at baseline and post-intervention. At baseline, mBDNF and tBDNF levels were comparable in the two groups, TG and CG. Post-intervention, no significant within-group or between-group changes were observed in mBDNF or tBDNF. Moreover, when divided into responder tertiles based upon changes in mBDNF and tBDNF (i.e. decliners, maintainers, improvers), respectively, comparable findings were observed for TG and CG. Altogether, basal systemic levels of serum mBDNF and tBDNF are not affected in mobility-limited older adults following 12-weeks of power training, and do not appear to be a major mechanistic factor mediating neuroplasticity in mobility-limited older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in patients with narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Jennum, Poul; Knudsen, Stine

    2013-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, sudden loss of muscle tone (cataplexy), fragmentation of nocturnal sleep and sleep paralysis. The symptoms of the disease strongly correlate with a reduction in hypocretin levels in CSF and a reduction in hypoc......Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, sudden loss of muscle tone (cataplexy), fragmentation of nocturnal sleep and sleep paralysis. The symptoms of the disease strongly correlate with a reduction in hypocretin levels in CSF and a reduction...... in hypocretin neurons in hypothalamus in post-mortem tissue. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are important for activity-dependent neuronal function and synaptic modulation and it is considered that these mechanisms are important in sleep regulation. We hypothesised...... that serum levels of these factors are altered in patients with narcolepsy compared to healthy controls without sleep disturbances. Polysomnography data was obtained and serum BDNF and NGF levels measured using ELISA, while hypocretin was measured using RIA. Serum BDNF levels were significantly higher...

  5. [Effects of nootropic drugs on hippocampal and cortical BDNF levels in mice with different exploratory behavior efficacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firstova, Iu Iu; Dolotov, O V; Kondrakhin, e A; Dubynina, E V; Grivennikov, I A; Kovalev, G I

    2009-01-01

    The influence of subchronic administration of nootropic drugs (piracetam, phenotropil, meclophenoxate, pantocalcine, semax, nooglutil) on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) content in hippocampal and cortical tissues in mice with different exploratory behavior--high efficacy (HE) against low efficacy (LE)--in cross-maze test has been studied. The initial BDNF concentration in hippocamp (but not in cortex) of control HE mice was higher than that in LE mice (LE, 0.091 +/- 0.005 pg/microg; HE, 0.177 +/- 0.005 pg/microg; p nootrope effects, at least partially, via increase in hippocampal BDNF level, which is achieved only under conditions of cognitive deficiency.

  6. Associations between parenting behavior and anxiety in a rodent model and a clinical sample: relationship to peripheral BDNF levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Molle, R; Portella, A K; Goldani, M Z; Kapczinski, F P; Leistner-Segala, S; Salum, G A; Manfro, G G; Silveira, P P

    2012-01-01

    Adverse early-life environment is associated with anxiety-like behaviors and disorders. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is sensitive to this environment and could be a marker of underlying brain changes. We aimed at evaluating the development of anxiety-like behaviors in a rat model of early adversity, as well as the possible association with BDNF levels. Similar associations were investigated in a sample of adolescent humans. For the rat study, Wistar rat litters were divided into: early-life stress (ELS, limited access to nesting material) and control groups. Maternal behavior was observed from days 1 to 9 of life and, as adults, rats were subjected to behavioral testing and BDNF measurements in plasma, hippocampus, amygdala and periaqueductal gray. For the human study, 129 adolescents were evaluated for anxiety symptoms and perceived parental care. Serum BDNF levels and the Val66Met polymorphism of the BDNF gene were investigated. We found that ELS dams showed more pure contact, that is, contact with low care and high control, toward pups, and their adult offspring demonstrated higher anxiety-like behaviors and plasma BDNF. Also the pure contact correlated positively with adult peripheral BDNF. Similarly in humans, there was a positive correlation between maternal overprotection and serum BDNF only in Met carriers. We also found negative correlations between maternal warmth and separation anxiety, social phobia and school phobia. Finally, our translational approach revealed that ELS, mediated through variations in maternal care, is associated with anxiety in both rats and humans and increased peripheral BDNF may be marking these phenomena. PMID:23168995

  7. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) protein levels in anxiety disorders: systematic review and meta-regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Sharain; Hemmings, Sian M. J.; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Background: Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that is involved in the synaptic plasticity and survival of neurons. BDNF is believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders. As findings of BDNF levels in anxiety disorders have been inconsistent, we undertook to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that assessed BDNF protein levels in these disorders. Methods: We conducted the review using electronic databases and searched reference lists of relevant articles for any further studies. Studies that measured BDNF protein levels in any anxiety disorder and compared these to a control group were included. Effect sizes of the differences in BDNF levels between anxiety disorder and control groups were calculated. Results: Eight studies with a total of 1179 participants were included. Initial findings suggested that BDNF levels were lower in individuals with any anxiety disorder compared to those without [Standard Mean Difference (SMD) = −0.94 (−1.75, −0.12), p ≤ 0.05]. This was, however, dependent on source of BDNF protein [plasma: SMD = −1.31 (−1.69, −0.92), p ≤ 0.01; serum: SMD = −1.06 (−2.27, 0.16), p ≥ 0.01] and type of anxiety disorder [PTSD: SMD = −0.05 (−1.66, 1.75), p ≥ 0.01; OCD: SMD = −2.33 (−4.21, −0.45), p ≤ 0.01]. Conclusion: Although BDNF levels appear to be reduced in individuals with an anxiety disorder, this is not consistent across the various anxiety disorders and may largely be explained by the significantly lowered BDNF levels found in OCD. Results further appear to be mediated by differences in sampling methods. Findings are, however, limited by the lack of research in this area, and given the potential for BDNF as a biomarker of anxiety disorders, it would be useful to clarify the relationship further. PMID:23908608

  8. Age-related changes in cardiovascular system, autonomic functions, and levels of BDNF of healthy active males: role of yogic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Rameswar; Singh, Som Nath; Chatterjee, Abhirup; Saha, Mantu

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with decline in cardiovascular, autonomic function, and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF). Reports are scanty regarding whether yoga can improve age-related degenerative changes in healthy active men. This study is designed to appraise the role of yoga in improving age-related degenerative changes in cardiometabolic risk profile, autonomic function, stress, and BDNF. Healthy active males of three age groups (20-29, 30-39, and 40-49 years) were randomly assigned to practice yoga daily 1 h for 3 months. Significantly higher values of heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), load in heart (DoP), myocardial oxygen consumption (RPP), and total cholesterol (TC) were noted in senior age group. HR, BP, DoP, RPP, and TC decreased significantly following yogic practice. High frequency (HF), total power (TP), all time domain variables of heart rate variability (HRV), and skin conductance (SC) were significantly decreased with advancement of age. HF, TP, and time domain parameters of HRV and SC increased significantly following yogic practice. Higher levels of catecholamines and low frequency (LF) power of HRV was noted with advancement of age. Levels of catecholamines and LF significantly decreased following yogic practice. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level raised in senior age group. BDNF, serotonin, and dopamine were low in higher age group. Significant decrement of cortisol; ACTH; and increment in serotonin, dopamine, and BDNF was noted following yogic practice. This study revealed that yogic practices might help in the prevention of age-related degeneration by changing cardiometabolic risk factors, autonomic function, and BDNF in healthy male.

  9. Relevance of Post-Stroke Circulating BDNF Levels as a Prognostic Biomarker of Stroke Outcome. Impact of rt-PA Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, Marion; Quirié, Aurore; Prigent-Tessier, Anne; Béjot, Yannick; Jacquin, Agnès; Mossiat, Claude; Marie, Christine; Garnier, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The recombinant form of tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is the only curative treatment for ischemic stroke. Recently, t-PA has been linked to the metabolism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a major neurotrophin involved in post-stroke neuroplasticity. Thus, the objective of our study was to investigate the impact of rt-PA treatment on post-stroke circulating BDNF levels in humans and in animals. Serum BDNF levels and t-PA/plasmin activity were measured at hospital admission and at up to 90 days in stroke patients receiving (n = 24) or not (n = 14) rt-PA perfusion. We investigated the relationships between serum BDNF with concurrent t-PA/plasmin activity, neurological outcomes and cardiovascular scores at admission. In parallel, serum BDNF levels and t-PA/plasmin activity were assessed before and after (1, 4 and 24h) the induction of ischemic stroke in rats. Our study revealed higher serum BDNF levels and better neurological outcome in rt-PA-treated than non-treated patients. However, serum BDNF levels did not predict stroke outcome when the whole cohort of stroke patients was analyzed. By contrast, serum BDNF levels when measured at admission and at day 90 correlated with cardiovascular scores, and those at day 1 correlated with serum t-PA/plasmin activity in the whole cohort of patients whereas no association could be found in the rt-PA-treated group. In rats devoid of cardiovascular risk, no difference in post-stroke serum BDNF levels was detected between rt-PA- and vehicle-treated animals and no correlation was found between serum BDNF levels and t-PA/plasmin activity. Overall, the data suggest that serum BDNF levels may not be useful as a prognostic biomarker of stroke outcome and that endothelial dysfunction could be a confounding factor when serum BDNF levels after stroke are used to reflect of brain BDNF levels.

  10. Prenatal auditory stimulation alters the levels of CREB mRNA, p-CREB and BDNF expression in chick hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sraboni; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2009-10-01

    Prenatal auditory stimulation influences the development of the chick auditory pathway and the hippocampus showing an increase in various morphological parameters as well as expression of calcium-binding proteins. Calcium regulates the activity of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-response element binding (CREB) protein. CREB is known to play a role in development, undergo phosphorylation with neural activity as well as regulate transcription of BDNF. BDNF is important for the survival of neurons and regulates synaptic strength. Hence in the present study, we have evaluated the levels of CREB mRNA and protein along with p-CREB protein as well as BDNF mRNA and protein levels in the chick hippocampus at embryonic days (E) 12, E16, E20 and post-hatch day (PH) 1 following activation by prenatal auditory stimulation. Fertilized eggs were exposed to species-specific sound or sitar music (frequency range: 100-6300Hz) at 65dB levels for 15min/h over 24h from E10 till hatching. The control chick hippocampus showed higher CREB mRNA and p-CREB protein in the early embryonic stages, which later decline whereas BDNF mRNA and BDNF protein levels increase until PH1. The CREB mRNA and p-CREB protein were significantly increased at E12, E16 and PH1 in the auditory stimulated groups as compared to control group. A significant increase in the level of BDNF mRNA was observed from E12 and the protein expression from E16 onwards in both auditory stimulated groups. Therefore, enhanced phosphorylation of CREB during development following prenatal sound stimulation may be responsible for cell survival. Increased levels of p-CREB again at PH1 may trigger synthesis of proteins necessary for synaptic plasticity. Further, the increased levels of BDNF may also help in regulating synaptic plasticity.

  11. Ketamine alters behavior and decreases BDNF levels in the rat brain as a function of time after drug administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane B. Fraga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate behavioral changes and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in rats subjected to ketamine administration (25 mg/kg for 7 days. Method: Behavioral evaluation was undertaken at 1 and 6 hours after the last injection. Results: We observed hyperlocomotion 1 hour after the last injection and a decrease in locomotion after 6 hours. Immobility time was decreased and climbing time was increased 6 hours after the last injection. BDNF levels were decreased in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala when rats were killed 6 hours after the last injection, compared to the saline group and to rats killed 1 hour after the last injection. BDNF levels in the striatum were decreased in rats killed 6 hours after the last ketamine injection, and BDNF levels in the hippocampus were decreased in the groups that were killed 1 and 6 hours after the last injection. Conclusion: These results suggest that the effects of ketamine on behavior and BDNF levels are related to the time at which they were evaluated after administration of the drug.

  12. Endurance training enhances BDNF release from the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Brassard, Patrice; Wissenberg, Mads

    2010-01-01

    The circulating level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is reduced in patients with major depression and type-2 diabetes. Because acute exercise increases BDNF production in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, we hypothesized that endurance training would enhance the release of BDNF from...... the human brain as detected from arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples. In a randomized controlled study, 12 healthy sedentary males carried out 3 mo of endurance training (n = 7) or served as controls (n = 5). Before and after the intervention, blood samples were obtained at rest and during...... exercise. At baseline, the training group (58 + or - 106 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1), means + or - SD) and the control group (12 + or - 17 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1)) had a similar release of BDNF from the brain at rest. Three months of endurance training enhanced the resting release of BDNF to 206 + or - 108...

  13. Increased serum levels of sortilin are associated with depression and correlated with BDNF and VEGF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttenschøn, H N; Demontis, D; Kaas, M

    2015-01-01

    was influenced by several other factors. Alcohol intake and body mass index, as well as depression, serum BDNF and serum VEGF were identified as predictors of serum sortilin levels in our final multivariate model. In conclusion, the results suggest a role of circulating sortilin in depression which may relate......Neurotrophic factors have been investigated in relation to depression. The aim of the present study was to widen this focus to sortilin, a receptor involved in neurotrophic signalling. The serum sortilin level was investigated in 152 individuals with depression and 216 control individuals......, and eight genetic markers located within the SORT1 gene were successfully analysed for association with depression. Genotyping was performed using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. All the individuals returned a questionnaire and participated in a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Sortilin levels were...

  14. BDNF serum levels are not related to cognitive functioning in older depressed patients and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dols, A.; Thesing, C.; Bouckaert, F.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Comijs, H.C.; Stek, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression and cognitive decline are highly prevalent in older persons and both are associated with low serum brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Mutual pathways of depression and cognitive decline in older persons may explain the overlap in symptoms and low serum BDNF. We

  15. BDNF serum levels are not related to cognitive functioning in older depressed patients and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dols, A.; Thesing, C.S.; Bouckaert, F.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Comijs, H.C.; Stek, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression and cognitive decline are highly prevalent in older persons and both are associated with low serum brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Mutual pathways of depression and cognitive decline in older persons may explain the overlap in symptoms and low serum BDNF. We

  16. BDNF serum levels are not related to cognitive functioning in older depressed patients and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dols, Annemiek; Thesing, Carisha S.; Bouckaert, Filip; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Comijs, Hannie C.; Stek, M. L.

    Background: Depression and cognitive decline are highly prevalent in older persons and both are associated with low serum brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Mutual pathways of depression and cognitive decline in older persons may explain the overlap in symptoms and low serum BDNF. We

  17. Music exposure improves spatial cognition by enhancing the BDNF level of dorsal hippocampal subregions in the developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yingshou; Chen, Wenxi; Wang, Yanran; Jing, Wei; Gao, Shan; Guo, Daqing; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-03-01

    Previous research has shown that dorsal hippocampus plays an important role in spatial memory process. Music exposure can enhance brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression level in dorsal hippocampus (DH) and thus enhance spatial cognition ability. But whether music experience may affect different subregions of DH in the same degree remains unclear. Here, we studied the effects of exposure to Mozart K.448 on learning behavior in developing rats using the classical Morris water maze task. The results showed that early music exposure could enhance significantly learning performance of the rats in the water maze test. Meanwhile, the BDNF/TrkB level of dorsal hippocampus CA3 (dCA3) and dentate gyrus (dDG) was significantly enhanced in rats exposed to Mozart music as compared to those without music exposure. In contrast, the BDNF/TrkB level of dorsal hippocampus CA1 (dCA1) was not affected. The results suggest that the spatial memory improvement by music exposure in rats may be associated with the enhanced BDNF/TrkB level of dCA3 and dDG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep deprivation prevents stimulation-induced increases of levels of P-CREB and BDNF: protection by caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaider, Ibrahim A; Aleisa, Abdulaziz M; Tran, Trinh T; Alkadhi, Karim A

    2011-04-01

    It is well known that caffeine and sleep deprivation have opposing effects on learning and memory; therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the effects of chronic (4wks) caffeine treatment (0.3g/l in drinking water) on long-term memory deficit associated with 24h sleep deprivation. Animals were sleep deprived using the modified multiple platform method. The results showed that chronic caffeine treatment prevented the impairment of long-term memory as measured by performance in the radial arm water maze task and normalized L-LTP in area CA1 of the hippocampi of sleep-deprived anesthetized rats. Sleep deprivation prevents the high frequency stimulation-induced increases in the levels of phosphorylated-cAMP response element binding protein (P-CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seen during the expression of late phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP). However, chronic caffeine treatment prevented the effect of sleep-deprivation on the stimulated levels of P-CREB and BDNF. The results suggest that chronic caffeine treatment may protect the sleep-deprived brain probably by preserving the levels of P-CREB and BDNF. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased BDNF levels after electroconvulsive therapy in patients with major depressive disorder: A meta-analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Renan Boeira; Dondossola, Eduardo Ronconi; Grande, Antônio José; Colonetti, Tamy; Ceretta, Luciane Bisognin; Passos, Ives C; Quevedo, Joao; da Rosa, Maria Inês

    2016-12-01

    We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). A comprehensive search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, LILACS, Grey literature, and EMBASE was performed for papers published from January 1990 to April 2016. The following key terms were searched: "major depressive disorder", "unipolar depression", "brain-derived neurotrophic factor", and "electroconvulsive therapy". A total of 252 citations were identified by the search strategy, and nine studies met the inclusion criteria of the meta-analysis. BDNF levels were increased among patients with MDD after ECT (P value = 0.006). The standardized mean difference was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.17-0.96). Additionally, we found significant heterogeneity between studies (I 2  = 73%). Our findings suggest a potential role of BDNF as a marker of treatment response after ECT in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Abeta(1-42) injection causes memory impairment, lowered cortical and serum BDNF levels, and decreased hippocampal 5-HT(2A) levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, R; Marcussen, Anders Bue; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2008-01-01

    been reported but it is unknown how these changes are related to beta-amyloid accumulation. In this study we examined in rats the effect of intrahippocampal injections of aggregated Abeta(1-42) (1 microg/microl) on serum and brain BDNF or 5-HT(2A) receptor levels. A social recognition test paradigm...... was used to monitor Abeta(1-42) induced memory impairment. Memory impairment was seen 22 days after injection of Abeta(1-42) in the experimental group and until termination of the experiments. In the Abeta(1-42) injected animals we saw an abolished increase in serum BDNF levels that was accompanied...... by significant lower BDNF levels in frontal cortex and by an 8.5% reduction in hippocampal 5-HT(2A) receptor levels. A tendency towards lowered cortical 5-HT(2A) was also observed. These results indicate that the Abeta(1-42) associated memory deficit is associated with an impaired BDNF regulation, which...

  1. Effects of long-term exercise and low-level inhibition of GABAergic synapses on motor control and the expression of BDNF in the motor related cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takahiro; Ninuma, Shuta; Hayashi, Masataka; Okuda, Akane; Asaka, Tadayoshi; Maejima, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays important roles in neuroplasticity in the brain. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of long-term exercise combined with low-level inhibition of GABAergic synapses on motor control and the expression of BDNF in the motor-related cortex. Methods ICR mice were divided into four groups based on the factors exercise and GABA A receptor inhibition. We administered the GABA A receptor antagonist bicuculline intraperitoneally (0.25 mg/kg). Mice exercised on a treadmill 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Following behavioral tests, BDNF expression in the motor cortex and cerebellar cortex was assayed using RT-PCR and ELISA. Results Exercise increased BDNF protein in the motor cortex and improved motor coordination in the rotarod test either in the presence or absence of bicuculline. BDNF mRNA expression in the motor cortex and muscle coordination in the wire hang test decreased after administration of bicuculline, whereas bicuculline administration increased mRNA and protein expression of BDNF in the cerebellum. Discussion The present study revealed that long-term exercise increased BDNF expression in the motor cortex and facilitated a transfer of motor learning from aerobic exercise to postural coordination. Thus, aerobic exercise is meaningful for conditioning motor learning to rehabilitate patients with central nervous system (CNS) disorders. However, long-term inhibition of GABA A receptors decreased the expression of cortical BDNF mRNA and decreased muscle coordination, despite the increase of BDNF in the cerebellum, suggesting that we have to consider the term of the inhibition of the GABAergic receptor for future clinical application to CNS patients.

  2. A longitudinal study of alterations of hippocampal volumes and serum BDNF levels in association to atypical antipsychotics in a sample of first-episode patients with schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Rizos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with structural and functional abnormalities of the hippocampus, which have been suggested to play an important role in the formation and emergence of schizophrenia syndrome. Patients with schizophrenia exhibit significant bilateral hippocampal volume reduction and progressive hippocampal volume decrease in first-episode patients with schizophrenia has been shown in many neuroimaging studies. Dysfunction of the neurotrophic system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The initiation of antipsychotic medication alters the levels of serum Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF levels. However it is unclear whether treatment with antipsychotics is associated with alterations of hippocampal volume and BDNF levels. METHODS: In the present longitudinal study we investigated the association between serum BDNF levels and hippocampal volumes in a sample of fourteen first-episode drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia (FEP. MRI scans, BDNF and clinical measurements were performed twice: at baseline before the initiation of antipsychotic treatment and 8 months later, while the patients were receiving monotherapy with second generation antipsychotics (SGAs. RESULTS: We found that left hippocampal volume was decreased (corrected left HV [t = 2.977, df = 13, p = .011] at follow-up; We also found that the higher the BDNF levels change the higher were the differences of corrected left hippocampus after 8 months of treatment with atypical antipsychotics (Pearson r = 0.597, p = 0.024. CONCLUSIONS: The association of BDNF with hippocampal volume alterations in schizophrenia merits further investigation and replication in larger longitudinal studies.

  3. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  4. Role of Adenosine A2A Receptors in Modulating Synaptic Functions and Brain Levels of BDNF: a Possible Key Mechanism in the Pathophysiology of Huntington's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Tebano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, accumulating evidence has shown the existence of an important cross-talk between adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. Not only are A2ARs involved in the mechanism of transactivation of BDNF receptor TrkB, they also modulate the effect of BDNF on synaptic transmission, playing a facilitatory and permissive role. The cAMP-PKA pathway, the main transduction system operated by A2ARs, is involved in such effects. Furthermore, a basal tonus of A2ARs is required to allow the regulation of BDNF physiological levels in the brain, as demonstrated by the reduced protein levels measured in A2ARs KO mice. The crucial role of adenosine A2ARs in the maintenance of synaptic functions and BDNF levels will be reviewed here and discussed in the light of possible implications for Huntington's disease therapy, in which a joint impairment of BDNF and A2ARs seems to play a pathogenetic role.

  5. The effect of 12-weeks concurent training on the serum levels NGF, BDNF, and VDBP in women with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Khademosharie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that patients with multiple sclerosis(MS have low levels of neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor(NGF, brain-derived neurothrophic factor(BDNF and the vitamin D-binding protein(VDBP, and exercise training may affects these factors in people with MS. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a combined exercise training programon the serum levels of neurotrophic factos in women with MS. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 24 volunteer MS patients(Expanded Disability Status Scale range of 1–5. Resting serum levels of BDNF, NGF, VDBP, body composition variables, and disability scale values were determined before and  after the intervention. The intervention consisted of  three sessions of combined training a week for 12 weeks(two sessions of aerobic and one session of resistance training, progressively. Aerobic training consisted of interval training with 4-13 repetition of aerobic activity at 40-55% of heart rate reserve; and resistance training consisted of 8-12 repetitions with 60-80% of 1RM for eight movements. The results showed a significant decrease in body fat percentage (p=0.003 and disability scale value(p=0.007 in the experimental group. no other significant changes was observed for other variables or in the control group. This study indicates that although the combined aerobic and resistance training in three non-consecutive days per week for 12 weeks has no effect on NGF, BDNF, and VDBP; however with positive effects on the body fat percentage and disability scale value can be for women with MS.

  6. Aging and depression vulnerability interaction results in decreased serotonin innervation associated with reduced BDNF levels in hippocampus of rats bred for learned helplessness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders B; Santini, Martin A

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed a strong genetic contribution to the risk for depression. Both reduced hippocampal serotonin neurotransmission and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels have been associated with increased depression vulnerability and are also regulated during aging....... Brains from young (5 months old) and old (13 months old) congenital Learned Helplessness rats (cLH), and congenital Non Learned Helplessness rats (cNLH) were immunohistochemically stained for the serotonin transporter and subsequently stereologically quantified for estimating hippocampal serotonin fiber...... density. Hippocampal BDNF protein levels were measured by ELISA. An exacerbated age-related loss of serotonin fiber density specific for the CA1 area was observed in the cLH animals, whereas reduced hippocampal BDNF levels were seen in young and old cLH when compared with age-matched cNLH controls...

  7. Running throughout middle-age improves memory function, hippocampal neurogenesis and BDNF levels in female C57Bl/6J mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marlatt, M.W.; Potter, M.C.; Lucassen, P.J.; van Praag, H.

    2012-01-01

    Age-related memory loss is considered to commence at middle-age and coincides with reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis and neurotrophin levels. Consistent physical activity at midlife may preserve brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, new cell genesis and learning. In the present

  8. Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Jacob; Knorr, U; Bennike, B

    2012-01-01

    Decreased levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been associated with depression. It is uncertain whether abnormally low levels of BDNF in blood are present beyond the depressive state and whether levels of BDNF are associated with the course of clinical illness....

  9. Association Between Smoking, Nicotine Dependence, and BDNF Val(66)Met Polymorphism with BDNF Concentrations in Serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamal, Mumtaz; Van der Does, Willem; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Molendijk, Marc L.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Introduction: Nicotine use is associated with the upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum. An association between smoking and the BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism has also been found. The aim of this study is to examine the levels of serum BDNF in never-smokers, former smokers,

  10. Prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons/aromatics, BDNF and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Frederica; Phillips, David H; Wang, Ya; Roen, Emily; Herbstman, Julie; Rauh, Virginia; Wang, Shuang; Tang, Deliang

    2015-10-01

    Within a New York City (NYC) birth cohort, we assessed the associations between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and other aromatic DNA adducts and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations in umbilical cord blood, and neurodevelopment at age 2 years and whether BDNF is a mediator of the associations between PAH/aromatic-DNA adducts and neurodevelopment. PAH/aromatic-DNA adduct concentrations in cord blood were measured in 505 children born to nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women residing in NYC, and a subset was assessed for neurodevelopment at 2 years using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development Mental Development Index (MDI). A spectrum of PAH/aromatic-DNA adducts was measured using the (32)P-postlabeling assay; DNA adducts formed by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a representative PAH, were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)/fluorescence. BDNF mature protein in cord blood plasma was quantified by an ELISA. Multivariate regression analysis, adjusting for potential confounders, was conducted. PAH/aromatic-DNA adduct concentration measured by postlabeling was inversely associated with BDNF concentration (p=0.02) and with MDI scores at 2 years (p=0.04). BDNF level was positively associated with MDI scores (p=0.003). Restricting to subjects having all three measures (PAH/aromatic-DNA adducts by postlabeling, MDI, and BDNF), results were similar but attenuated (p=0.13, p=0.05, p=0.01, respectively). Associations between B[a]P-DNA adducts and BDNF and B[a]P-DNA adducts and MDI at age 2 years were not significant. At age 3 years, the positive association of BDNF with MDI was not observed. The results at age 2 suggest that prenatal exposure to a spectrum of PAH/aromatic pollutants may adversely affect early neurodevelopment, in part by reducing BDNF levels during the fetal period. However, the same relationship was not seen at age 3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase.

  12. BDNF levels are increased by aminoindan and rasagiline in a double lesion model of Parkinson׳s disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledreux, Aurélie; Boger, Heather A; Hinson, Vanessa K; Cantwell, Kelsey; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte

    2016-01-15

    The anti-Parkinsonian drug rasagiline is a selective, irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase and is used in the treatment of Parkinson׳s disease (PD). Its postulated neuroprotective effects may be attributed to MAO inhibition, or to its propargylamine moiety. The major metabolite of rasagiline, aminoindan, has shown promising neuroprotective properties in vitro but there is a paucity of studies investigating in vivo effects of this compound. Therefore, we examined neuroprotective effects of rasagiline and its metabolite aminoindan in a double lesion model of PD. Male Fisher 344 rats received i.p. injections of the noradrenergic neurotoxin DSP-4 and intra-striatal stereotaxic microinjections of the dopamine neurotoxin 6-OHDA. Saline, rasagiline or aminoindan (3mg/kg/day s.c.) were delivered via Alzet minipumps for 4 weeks. Rats were then tested for spontaneous locomotion and a novel object recognition task. Following behavioral testing, brain tissue was processed for ELISA measurements of growth factors and immunohistochemistry. Double-lesioned rats treated with rasagiline or aminoindan had reduced behavioral deficits, both in motor and cognitive tasks compared to saline-treated double-lesioned rats. BDNF levels were significantly increased in the hippocampus and striatum of the rasagiline- and aminoindan-lesioned groups compared to the saline-treated lesioned group. Double-lesioned rats treated with rasagiline or aminoindan exhibited a sparing in the mitochondrial marker Hsp60, suggesting mitochondrial involvement in neuroprotection. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry revealed a sparing of TH-immunoreactive terminals in double-lesioned rats treated with rasagiline or aminoindan in the striatum, hippocampus, and substantia nigra. These data provide evidence of neuroprotection by aminoindan and rasagiline via their ability to enhance BDNF levels. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Ceruloplasmin deficiency reduces levels of iron and BDNF in the cortex and striatum of young mice and increases their vulnerability to stroke.

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    Sarah J Texel

    Full Text Available Ceruloplasmin (Cp is an essential ferroxidase that plays important roles in cellular iron trafficking. Previous findings suggest that the proper regulation and subcellular localization of iron are very important in brain cell function and viability. Brain iron dyshomeostasis is observed during normal aging, as well as in several neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, coincident with areas more susceptible to insults. Because of their high metabolic demand and electrical excitability, neurons are particularly vulnerable to ischemic injury and death. We therefore set out to look for abnormalities in the brain of young adult mice that lack Cp. We found that iron levels in the striatum and cerebral cortex of these young animals are significantly lower than wild-type (WT controls. Also mRNA levels of the neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, known for its role in maintenance of cell viability, were decreased in these brain areas. Chelator-mediated depletion of iron in cultured neural cells resulted in reduced BDNF expression by a posttranscriptional mechanism, suggesting a causal link between low brain iron levels and reduced BDNF expression. When the mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion, a model of focal ischemic stroke, we found increased brain damage in Cp-deficient mice compared to WT controls. Our data indicate that lack of Cp increases neuronal susceptibility to ischemic injury by a mechanism that may involve reduced levels of iron and BDNF.

  14. Maternal Exercise during Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation but Not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Fernandes, Jansen; Lopim, Glauber Menezes; Cabral, Francisco Romero; Scerni, Débora Amado; de Oliveira-Pinto, Ana Virgínia; Lent, Roberto; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2016-01-01

    Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain development and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and absolute cell…

  15. Maternal Exercise during Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation but Not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Gomes da Silva

    Full Text Available Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain development and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and absolute cell numbers in the hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex of rat pups born from mothers exercised during pregnancy. Additionally, we evaluated the cognitive abilities of adult offspring in different behavioral paradigms (exploratory activity and habituation in open field tests, spatial memory in a water maze test, and aversive memory in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Results showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy increased BDNF levels and absolute numbers of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the hippocampal formation of offspring. No differences in BDNF levels or cell numbers were detected in the cerebral cortex. It was also observed that offspring from exercised mothers exhibited better cognitive performance in nonassociative (habituation and associative (spatial learning mnemonic tasks than did offspring from sedentary mothers. Our findings indicate that maternal exercise during pregnancy enhances offspring cognitive function (habituation behavior and spatial learning and increases BDNF levels and cell numbers in the hippocampal formation of offspring.

  16. A meta-analysis of peripheral blood nerve growth factor levels in patients with schizophrenia.

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    Qin, X-Y; Wu, H-T; Cao, C; Loh, Y P; Cheng, Y

    2017-09-01

    Neurotrophins particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are crucial modulators in the neurodevelopment and maintenance of central and peripheral nervous systems. Neurotrophin hypothesis of schizophrenia (SCZ) postulated that the changes in the brains of SCZ patients are the result of disturbances of developing processes involving neurotrophic factors. This hypothesis was mainly supported by the abnormal regulation of BDNF in SCZ, especially the decreased peripheral blood BDNF levels in SCZ patients validated by several meta-analyses. However, the regulation of NGF in SCZ remains unclear because of the inconsistent findings from the clinical studies. Therefore, we undertook, to the best of our knowledge, the first systematic review with a meta-analysis to quantitatively summarize the peripheral blood NGF data in SCZ patients compared with healthy control (HC) subjects. A systematic search of Pubmed, PsycINFO and Web of Science identified 13 articles encompassing a sample of 1693 individuals for the meta-analysis. Random-effects meta-analysis showed that patients with SCZ had significantly decreased peripheral blood levels of NGF when compared with the HC subjects (Hedges's g=-0.633, 95% confidence interval (CI)=-0.948 to -0.318, Panalysis, whereas disease severity might be a confounding factor for the meta-analysis. These results demonstrated that patients with SCZ are accompanied by the decreased peripheral blood NGF levels, strengthening the clinical evidence of an abnormal neurotrophin profile in the patients with SCZ.

  17. Serum levels of soluble TNF-α receptors but not BDNF are associated with apathy symptoms in mild Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment

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    Henrique Cerqueira Guimarães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Apathy is intimately associated with dementia. Unfortunately, its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. The motivational impairment that characterizes this disorder might share the same inflammatory mechanisms, as suggested by the sickness behavior theory. Objective: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the association between apathy symptoms and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and its soluble receptors. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels were also analyzed since these have been associated with depression, a condition which shares abulic features with apathy. Methods: The sample consisted of 27 subjects with mild Alzheimer's disease or amnestic mild cognitive impairment, who were submitted to specific apathy evaluation using the Apathy Scale (AS and provided blood samples for biomarker analysis. Participants were categorized into two groups according to median AS scores (17 points. Results: Subjects with higher apathy symptoms (n=13 displayed higher levels of TNF-α soluble receptors (type 1: p=0.03; type 2: p=0.04. No other difference was found between groups. Conclusion: These findings point to the involvement of inflammatory mediators in the genesis of apathy symptoms, as suggested by the sickness behavior theory.

  18. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and serum concentrations of BDNF with smoking in Thai males.

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    Suriyaprom, K; Tungtrongchitr, R; Thawnashom, K; Pimainog, Y

    2013-10-24

    Many studies have suggested that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the reward system of addiction, and that nicotine may induce alterations in BDNF gene expression and its protein level within the mesocorticolimbic system. We investigated the BDNF levels and biochemical-hematological parameters of smoker and non-smoker groups, and examined the association of the Val66Met BDNF gene polymorphism with BDNF serum levels and cigarette smoking. The study sample comprised 311 Thai volunteers (200 smokers; 111 non-smokers). The levels of serum BDNF and biochemical-hematological parameters were determined. The Val66Met BDNF polymorphism was genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. The smoker group had significantly higher serum BDNF levels than the non-smoker group (8.3 vs 6.5 ng/mL, P smoked, and thiocyanate level (P smoking status of the Thai males in this study. Cigarette smoking may be one factor that determines the serum BDNF level, but the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism probably does not influence susceptibility to smoking among Thai males.

  19. Effect of Clotting Duration and Temperature on BDNF Measurement in Human Serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, Patrizia; Sandrini, Leonardo; Tremoli, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Brain-derived neurothrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin expressed in different tissues and cells, including neurons, endothelial cells, leukocytes, megakaryocytes and platelets. Modifications of BDNF in plasma and/or in serum are associated with neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and with mortality risk. Indeed, changes in blood levels of BDNF may reflect those of its tissue of origin and/or promote pathological dysfunctions. The measurement of BDNF amount in plasma or in serum has been characterized with particular attention in the impact of different anti-coagulants, clotting duration, temperature (≤21 °C) and delay in blood sample centrifugation as well as in stability of storage. However, the influences of normothermic conditions (37 °C) and of clotting duration on BDNF levels in human serum have not been investigated yet. Here, we showed that time and temperature during serum preparation could be taken into consideration to assess the association and/or impact of BDNF levels in the occurrence of pathological conditions. PMID:28914800

  20. BDNF Methylation and Maternal Brain Activity in a Violence-Related Sample.

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    Dominik A Moser

    Full Text Available It is known that increased circulating glucocorticoids in the wake of excessive, chronic, repetitive stress increases anxiety and impairs Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF signaling. Recent studies of BDNF gene methylation in relation to maternal care have linked high BDNF methylation levels in the blood of adults to lower quality of received maternal care measured via self-report. Yet the specific mechanisms by which these phenomena occur remain to be established. The present study examines the link between methylation of the BDNF gene promoter region and patterns of neural activity that are associated with maternal response to stressful versus non-stressful child stimuli within a sample that includes mothers with interpersonal violence-related PTSD (IPV-PTSD. 46 mothers underwent fMRI. The contrast of neural activity when watching children-including their own-was then correlated to BDNF methylation. Consistent with the existing literature, the present study found that maternal BDNF methylation was associated with higher levels of maternal anxiety and greater childhood exposure to domestic violence. fMRI results showed a positive correlation of BDNF methylation with maternal brain activity in the anterior cingulate (ACC, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC, regions generally credited with a regulatory function toward brain areas that are generating emotions. Furthermore we found a negative correlation of BDNF methylation with the activity of the right hippocampus. Since our stimuli focus on stressful parenting conditions, these data suggest that the correlation between vmPFC/ACC activity and BDNF methylation may be linked to mothers who are at a disadvantage with respect to emotion regulation when facing stressful parenting situations. Overall, this study provides evidence that epigenetic signatures of stress-related genes can be linked to functional brain regions regulating parenting stress, thus advancing our understanding of

  1. TNF-alpha inhibition prevents cognitive decline and maintains hippocampal BDNF levels in the unpredictable chronic mild stress rat model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Tuğçe Demirtaş; Karson, Ayşe; Balcı, Fuat; Yazır, Yusufhan; Bayramgürler, Dilek; Utkan, Tijen

    2015-10-01

    Previous findings have shown that patients with depression express higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6. We have recently found that Infliximab (a TNF-α inhibitor) decreased anhedonia and despair-like behavior in the rat unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) model of depression suggesting that inflammation might play an important role in depression. An increasing number of studies suggest that inflammation is also associated with cognitive impairments. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of UCMS on the cognitive performance of rats and their hippocampal BDNF levels and the effect of chronic Infliximab (5mg/kg/weekly, i.p.) treatment on these measures. Rats were subjected to different types of stressors daily for a period of 56 days to induce depression-like state. The UCMS resulted in impairments in spatial and emotional memory acquisition and retention with no effect on the level of locomotor activity. These behavioral effects of UCMS were accompanied by reduction in the level of BDNF in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. Chronic Infliximab treatment prevented the UCMS-induced cognitive impairments as well as the reduction in the levels of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These results suggest that Infliximab improves the spatial and emotional memory impairments induced by chronic stress in rats likely through its effects on hippocampal function by modulating inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of cigarette smoke on monocyte procoagulant activity: Focus on platelet-derived brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, Patrizia; Baldassarre, Damiano; Sandrini, Leonardo; Weksler, Babette B; Tremoli, Elena; Barbieri, Silvia S

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) activates platelets, promotes vascular dysfunction, and enhances Tissue Factor (TF) expression in blood monocytes favoring pro-thrombotic states. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the family of neurotrophins involved in survival, growth, and maturation of neurons, is released by activated platelets (APLTs) and plays a role in the cardiovascular system. The effect of CS on circulating levels of BDNF is controversial and the function of circulating BDNF in atherothrombosis is not fully understood. Here, we have shown that human platelets, treated with an aqueous extract of CS (CSE), released BDNF in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, incubation of human monocytes with BDNF or with the supernatant of platelets activated with CSE increased TF activity by a Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB)-dependent mechanism. Finally, comparing serum and plasma samples of 12 male never smokers (NS) and 29 male active smokers (AS) we observed a significant increase in microparticle-associated TF activity (MP-TF) as well as BDNF in AS, while in serum, BDNF behaved oppositely. Taken together these findings suggest that platelet-derived BDNF is involved in the regulation of TF activity and that CS plays a role in this pathway by favoring a pro-atherothrombotic state.

  3. Anxiolytic effects of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors agonist oxotremorine in chronically stressed rats and related changes in BDNF and FGF2 levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Liberto, Valentina; Frinchi, Monica; Verdi, Vincenzo; Vitale, Angela; Plescia, Fulvio; Cannizzaro, Carla; Massenti, Maria F; Belluardo, Natale; Mudò, Giuseppa

    2017-02-01

    In depressive disorders, one of the mechanisms proposed for antidepressant drugs is the enhancement of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Previously, we showed that the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist oxotremorine (Oxo) increases neuronal plasticity in hippocampal neurons via FGFR1 transactivation. Here, we aimed to explore (a) whether Oxo exerts anxiolytic effect in the rat model of anxiety-depression-like behavior induced by chronic restraint stress (CRS), and (b) if the anxiolytic effect of Oxo is associated with the modulation of neurotrophic factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), and phosphorylated Erk1/2 (p-Erk1/2) levels in the dorsal or ventral hippocampus and in the medial prefrontal cortex. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: control unstressed, CRS group, CRS group treated with 0.2 mg/kg Oxo, and unstressed group treated with Oxo. After 21 days of CRS, the groups were treated for 10 days with Oxo or saline. The anxiolytic role of Oxo was tested by using the following: forced swimming test, novelty suppressed feeding test, elevated plus maze test, and light/dark box test. The hippocampi and prefrontal cortex were used to evaluate BDNF and FGF2 protein levels and p-Erk1/2 levels. Oxo treatment significantly attenuated anxiety induced by CRS. Moreover, Oxo treatment counteracted the CRS-induced reduction of BDNF and FGF2 levels in the ventral hippocampus and medial prefrontal cerebral cortex CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that Oxo treatment ameliorates the stress-induced anxiety-like behavior and rescues FGF2 and BDNF levels in two brain regions involved in CRS-induced anxiety, ventral hippocampal formation, and medial prefrontal cortex.

  4. Multiple faces of BDNF in cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Wolf, Marina E

    2015-02-15

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been found to play roles in many types of plasticity including drug addiction. Here, we focus on rodent studies over the past two decades that have demonstrated diverse roles of BDNF in models of cocaine addiction. First, we will provide an overview of studies showing that cocaine exposure alters (and generally increases) BDNF levels in reward-related regions including the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala. Then we will review evidence that BDNF contributes to behavioral changes in animal models of cocaine addiction, focusing on conditioned place preference, behavioral sensitization, maintenance and reinstatement of self-administration, and incubation of cocaine craving. Last, we will review the role of BDNF in synaptic plasticity, particularly as it relates to plasticity of AMPA receptor transmission after cocaine exposure. We conclude that BDNF regulates cocaine-induced behaviors in a highly complex manner that varies depending on the brain region (and even among different cell types within the same brain region), the nature of cocaine exposure, and the "addiction phase" examined (e.g., acquisition vs maintenance; early vs late withdrawal). These complexities make BDNF a daunting therapeutic target for treating cocaine addiction. However, recent clinical evidence suggests that the serum BDNF level may serve as a biomarker in cocaine addicts to predict future relapse, providing an alternative direction for exploring BDNF's potential relevance to treating cocaine addiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Aging and depression vulnerability interaction results in decreased serotonin innervation associated with reduced BDNF levels in hippocampus of rats bred for learned helplessness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders B; Santini, Martin A

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed a strong genetic contribution to the risk for depression. Both reduced hippocampal serotonin neurotransmission and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels have been associated with increased depression vulnerability and are also regulated during aging....... These observations indicate that aging should be taken into account when studying the neurobiological factors behind the vulnerability for depression and that understanding the effect of aging on genetically predisposed individuals may contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology behind depression...

  6. Serum NGF, BDNF and IL-6 levels in postpartum mothers as predictors of infant development: the influence of affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Karen Amaral Tavares; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Coelho, Fábio Monteiro da Cunha; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Quevedo, Luciana Ávila; Schwanz, Cristina Carvalhal; Wiener, Carolina David; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Giovenardi, Márcia; Lucion, Aldo Bolten; de Souza, Diogo Onofre; Portela, Luis Valmor; Oses, Jean Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Early adverse experiences are associated with increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders, although little is known about the neurobiological mediators involved. The mechanisms by which early environmental influences may mediate vulnerability in the development of offspring await further investigation. The present study correlated the NGF, BDNF, IL-6 and cortisol levels of mothers with postpartum affective disorders (PPAD) with infant development. A longitudinal study was performed with 152 pregnant women and their infants. Between 60 and 120 days after delivery, women were interviewed and provided biological samples for biochemical analysis, and the infants were examined for neurobiological-motor development. Overall, the mothers' history of affective disorders, PPAD and anxiety disorder were associated with infant motor development. Using an adjusted linear regression analysis, PPAD (p = 0.049), maternal anxiety disorder (p = 0.043), NGF level (p = 0.034) and infant cortisol level (p = 0.013) were associated with infant motor development. Using a factorial analysis of primary components, two components were retained. The psychological factor was characterized by a positive loading of a history of affective disorder, PPAD and anxiety disorder. For the biological factor, infant cortisol adhered negatively with infant motor development, but NGF was positively associated. The psychological factor had a negative association, but the biological factor had a positive association with infant motor development. There are few studies that have focused on the relationship of biomarkers and infant neurodevelopment. Our study points that psychological and biological factors are associated with infant motor development, however the causal relationship between these factors is still to be defined.

  7. Blueberry-induced changes in spatial working memory correlate with changes in hippocampal CREB phosphorylation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Claire M; El Mohsen, Manal Abd; Vauzour, David; Rendeiro, Catarina; Butler, Laurie T; Ellis, Judi A; Whiteman, Matthew; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2008-08-01

    Phytochemical-rich foods have been shown to be effective at reversing age-related deficits in memory in both animals and humans. We show that a supplementation with a blueberry diet (2% w/w) for 12 weeks improves the performance of aged animals in spatial working memory tasks. This improvement emerged within 3 weeks and persisted for the remainder of the testing period. Memory performance correlated well with the activation of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) and increases in both pro- and mature levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus. Changes in CREB and BDNF in aged and blueberry-supplemented animals were accompanied by increases in the phosphorylation state of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2), rather than that of calcium calmodulin kinase (CaMKII and CaMKIV) or protein kinase A. Furthermore, age and blueberry supplementation were linked to changes in the activation state of Akt, mTOR, and the levels of Arc/Arg3.1 in the hippocampus, suggesting that pathways involved in de novo protein synthesis may be involved. Although causal relationships cannot be made among supplementation, behavior, and biochemical parameters, the measurement of anthocyanins and flavanols in the brain following blueberry supplementation may indicate that changes in spatial working memory in aged animals are linked to the effects of flavonoids on the ERK-CREB-BDNF pathway.

  8. Recurrent long-lasting tethering reduces BDNF protein levels in the dorsal hippocampus and frontal cortex in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vry, de J.; Prickaerts, J.; Jetten, M.; Hulst, M.M.; Steinbusch, H.W.M.; Hove, van den D.L.; Schuurman, T.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2012-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling has been implicated in the onset of depression and in antidepressant efficacy, although the exact role of this neurotrophin in the pathophysiology of depression remains to be elucidated. Also, the interaction between chronic stress, which may

  9. Why control blood glucose levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, A A

    1976-03-01

    The controversy as to the relationship between the degree of control of diabetes and the progression of the complications of the disease has not been solved. However, in this review, various studies suggesting a relationship between the metabolic abnormality and the diabetic complications are examined. The disadvantages of the uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can be divided into two major categories-short-term and long-term. The short-term disadvantages of controlled diabetes mellitus include the following: (1) ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma; (2) intracellular dehydration; (3) electrolyte imbalance; (4) decreased phagocytosis; (5) immunologic and lymphocyte activity; (6) impairment of wound healing; and (7) abnormality of lipids. The long-term disadvantages of uncontrolled diabetes melitus include the following: (1) nephropathy; (2) neuropathy; (3) retinopathy; (4) cataract formation; (5) effect on perinatal mortality; (6) complications of vascular disease; and (7) the evaluation of various clinical studies suggesting the relationship of elevated blood glucose levels and complications of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that until the question of control can absolutely be resolved, the recommendation is that the blood glucose levels should be controlled as close to the normal as possible.

  10. Comparison of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1 Responses to Different Endurance Training Intensities in Runner Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Habibian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Blood neurotrophins, such as Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1, mediate exercise- induced health benefits in humans. The purpose of this study was to compare the response of BDNF and IGF-1 to different endurance training intensities in runner men. Materials & Methods: In this semi-experimental study with pre-test-posttest design in 2015, 10 people of male runners from Gorgan were selected through purposeful and accessible sampling. The endurance training protocol was 6 km running with moderate (70-75% of heart rate reserve or severe (80-85% of heart rate reserve intensity, which was performed within a week's interval. Fasting blood samples were collected before and immediately after both acute training sessions and serum levels of BDNF and IGF-1 were measured by ELISA and radioimmunoassay enzyme. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20 software using independent t-test and paired t-test. Findings: Both acute endurance training significantly increased serum levels of BDNF and IGF-1 in runners, but high intensity endurance exercises increased BDNF levels in comparison with moderate intensity (p0.05. Conclusion: Serum BDNF response in endurance athletes is affected by the intensity of exercise, so that the effect of high intensity endurance training on BDNF levels is greater than moderate intensity exercise, but the response of IGF-1 to acute endurance training is independent of the intensity of exercise.

  11. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Upregulates BDNF-TrkB Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Andres; Bakshi, Kalindi P.; Friedman, Eitan; Wang, Hoau-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure causes profound changes in neurobehavior as well as synaptic function and structure with compromised glutamatergic transmission. Since synaptic health and glutamatergic activity are tightly regulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through its cognate tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), we hypothesized that prenatal cocaine exposure alters BDNF-TrkB signaling during brain development. Here we show prenatal cocaine exposure enhances BDNF-TrkB signaling in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFCX) of 21-day-old rats without affecting the expression levels of TrkB, P75NTR, signaling molecules, NMDA receptor—NR1 subunit as well as proBDNF and BDNF. Prenatal cocaine exposure reduces activity-dependent proBDNF and BDNF release and elevates BDNF affinity for TrkB leading to increased tyrosine-phosphorylated TrkB, heightened Phospholipase C-γ1 and N-Shc/Shc recruitment and higher downstream PI3K and ERK activation in response to ex vivo BDNF. The augmented BDNF-TrkB signaling is accompanied by increases in association between activated TrkB and NMDARs. These data suggest that cocaine exposure during gestation upregulates BDNF-TrkB signaling and its interaction with NMDARs by increasing BDNF affinity, perhaps in an attempt to restore the diminished excitatory neurotransmission. PMID:27494324

  12. Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a viable option. These systems use a sensor placed beneath the skin that measures blood sugar ... have diabetes are more likely to get heart disease. Blood sugar that is too high can damage… ...

  13. The Pilot Study of the Effect of Meditation to the Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) of Medical Students, Srinakharinvirot University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turakitwanakan, Wanpen; Mekseepralard, Chantana; Busarakumtragul, Panaree

    2015-11-01

    Mindfulness meditation is a method to decrease stress and increase memory. So, mindfulness meditation should increase serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). To study the effect of mindfulness meditation on the serum BDNF of medical students. The study group consisted of 30 male and female second-year medical students that volunteered to participate in the study, aged 19.1 ± 0.55 year olds (range 18-20) from Srinakharinwirot University. Their blood was drawn to measure BDNF before and after a four-day mindfulness meditation programme. The comparison of serum BDNF levels before and after meditation were analysed by paired t-test. The subjects were 66.77%female and 33.33% male. The average serum BDNF level before the meditation was 17.67 ng/ml (SD 3.58). After meditation, there was a decrease in serum BDNF to 17.34 ng/ml, which was however not statistically significant (SD 4.04, p > 0.05). The levels of blood BDNF decreases slightly after practising meditation. We plan to investigate the reason in the future.

  14. Ethanol during adolescence decreased the BDNF levels in the hippocampus in adult male Wistar rats, but did not alter aggressive and anxiety-like behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Scheidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To investigate the effects of ethanol exposure in adolescent rats during adulthood by assesssing aggression and anxiety-like behaviors and measuring the levels of inflammatory markers.Methods:Groups of male Wistar rats (mean weight 81.4 g, n = 36 were housed in groups of four until postnatal day (PND 60. From PNDs 30 to 46, rats received one of three treatments: 3 g/kg of ethanol (15% w/v, orally, n = 16, 1.5 g/kg of ethanol (12.5% w/v, PO, n = 12, or water (n = 12 every 48 hours. Animals were assessed for aggressive behavior (resident x intruder test and anxiety-like behaviors (elevated plus maze during adulthood.Results:Animals that received low doses of alcohol showed reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampus as compared to the control group. No significant difference was found in prefrontal cortex.Conclusions:Intermittent exposure to alcohol during adolescence is associated with lower levels of BDNF in the hippocampus, probably due the episodic administration of alcohol, but alcohol use did not alter the level agression toward a male intruder or anxiety-like behaviors during the adult phase.

  15. Melatonin Promotes Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Expression and Anti-Apoptotic Effects in Neonatal Hemolytic Hyperbilirubinemia via a Phospholipase (PLC)-Mediated Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong; Peng, Mei; Wei, Hong

    2017-12-16

    BACKGROUND Melatonin therapy shows positive effects on neuroprotective factor brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and neuronal apoptosis in neonatal hemolytic hyperbilirubinemia. We hypothesized that melatonin promotes BDNF expression and anti-apoptotic effects in neonatal hemolytic hyperbilirubinemia through a phospholipase (PLC)-mediated mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS A phenylhydrazine hydrochloride (PHZ)-induced neonatal hemolytic hyperbilirubinemia model was constructed in neonatal rats. Four experimental groups - a control group (n=30), a PHZ group (n=30), a PHZ + melatonin group (n=30), and a PHZ + melatonin+U73122 (a PLC inhibitor) group (n=30) - were constructed. Trunk blood was assayed for serum hemoglobin, hematocrit, total and direct bilirubin, BDNF, S100B, and tau protein levels. Brain tissue levels of neuronal apoptosis, BDNF expression, PLC activity, IP3 content, phospho- and total Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV (CaMKIV) expression, and phospho- and total cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) expression were also assayed. RESULTS PHZ-induced hemolytic hyperbilirubinemia was validated by significantly decreased serum hemoglobin and hematocrit as well as significantly increased total and direct serum bilirubin (p<0.05). Neonatal bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity was validated by significantly decreased serum BDNF, brain BDNF, and serum S100B, along with significantly increased serum tau protein (p<0.05). PHZ-induced hemolytic hyperbilirubinemia significantly decreased serum BDNF, brain BDNF, and PLC/IP3/Ca2+ pathway activation while increasing neuronal apoptosis levels (p<0.05), all of which were partially rescued by melatonin therapy (p<0.05). Pre-treatment with the PLC inhibitor U73122 largely abolished the positive effects of melatonin on PLC/IP3/Ca2+ pathway activation, downstream BDNF levels, and neuronal apoptosis (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Promotion of BDNF expression and anti-apoptotic effects in neonatal

  16. Neurotrophin levels in different regions of the placenta and their association with birth outcome and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, A S; Sundrani, D P; Wagh, G N; Mehendale, S S; Joshi, S R

    2015-08-01

    Our recent study in preeclampsia indicates differential oxidative stress in various regions of the placenta. Oxidative stress is known to influence neurotrophin levels. We therefore hypothesize that placental regional differences in oxidative stress will also lead to differences in neurotrophin levels. The current study examines the levels of neurotrophins, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in different regions of the placenta in 50 normotensive control women and 47 women with preeclampsia (21 delivering at term and 26 delivering preterm). Placentae were collected from four different regions: central maternal (CM), central fetal (CF), peripheral maternal (PM) and peripheral fetal (PF). BDNF levels were higher in CF region as compared to CM (p placenta in the control group. There was no regional change in NGF levels in any of the groups. Analysis between groups indicated higher NGF levels in CM (p < 0.01), PM (p < 0.05) and PF (p < 0.01) regions of preterm preeclampsia group as compared to control. Negative association of NGF levels in CM, CF and PM regions with baby weight and in CF, PM and PF regions with baby length was observed. NGF levels in all four regions were positively associated with systolic blood pressure. Our data indicates regional differences in levels of BDNF only in normotensive control but not in preeclampsia group. Higher NGF levels in preterm preeclampsia may be a response to increased oxidative stress. This may have implications for altered placental development in preeclampsia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. BDNF Val66met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms predict a human in vivo marker for brain serotonin levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Patrick M; Holst, Klaus K; Adamsen, Dea

    2015-01-01

    ) polymorphism. We applied a linear latent variable model (LVM) using regional 5-HT4 binding values (neocortex, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, and putamen) from 68 healthy humans, allowing us to explicitly model brain-wide and region-specific genotype effects on 5-HT4 binding. Our data supported an LVM wherein...... specifically affects 5-HT4 binding in the neocortex. These findings implicate serotonin signaling as an important molecular mediator underlying the effects of BDNF val66met and 5-HTTLPR on behavior and related risk for neuropsychiatric illness in humans. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  18. Propofol alleviates electroconvulsive shock-induced memory impairment by modulating proBDNF/mBDNF ratio in depressive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Luo, Jie; Min, Su; Ren, Li; Qin, Peipei

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of propofol and electroconvulsive shock (ECS), the analogue of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in animals, on tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and its inhibitor (PAI-1) as well as the precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF)/mature BDNF (mBDNF) ratio in depressive rats. ECT is an effective treatment for depression, but can cause cognitive deficit. Some studies have indicated that propofol can ameliorate cognitive decline induced by ECT, but the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. Recent evidence has found that mBDNF and its precursor proBDNF are related to depression and cognitive function; they elicit opposite effects on cellular functions. Chronic unpredicted mild stress is widely used to induce depressive behaviors in rodents. This study found that the depression resulted in an increased expression of PAI-1 and upregulation of the proBDNF/mBDNF ratio, together with a decreased level of tPA, long-term potentiation (LTP) impairment, and cognitive decline. The proBDNF/mBDNF ratio was further upregulated after the ECS treatment in depressive rats, resulting in the deterioration of cognitive function and hippocampal LTP. Propofol alone did not reverse the changes in depressive rats, but when co-administered with ECS, it improved the cognitive function, alleviated the impairment of LTP, downregulated the proBDNF/mBDNF ratio, and increased the tPA expression. The results of this study suggest that propofol ameliorates cognitive decline induced by ECT, which was partly by modulating the proBDNF/mBDNF ratio and reversing the excessive changes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, providing a new evidence for involving the proBDNF/mBDNF system in the progression and treatment of depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of antiepileptic drugs on mRNA levels of BDNF and NT-3 and cell neogenesis in the developing rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiu-Yu; Wang, Ji-Wen; Cui, Hong; Li, Bao-Min; Lei, Ge-Fei; Sun, Ruo-Peng

    2010-03-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that occurs more frequently in childhood than in adulthood. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) which are used to treat seizures in pregnant women, infants, and young children may cause cognitive impairment or other uncertain injury. However, the exact mechanisms responsible for adverse effects of AEDs in the developing brain are still not clear. In the present study, we investigate the effects of AEDs on mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), cell neogenesis and mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) in the developing rat brain. Long-term treatment with Phenobarbital (40mg/kg), valproate (100mg/kg) and topiramate (40mg/kg) reduces BDNF and NT-3 mRNA expression in the developing brain, while lamotrigine reduces mRNA expression only at high dose level (80mg/kg). Cell neogenesis only increases in the rats treated with valproate and lamotrigine. And no differences are observed between the control group and the AEDs-treated groups in the Timm scores of the CA3 region and supragranular region. Our findings present some possible mechanisms to explain why different AEDs cause different cognitive impairment.

  20. Brain derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) is associated with childhood abuse but not cognitive domains in first episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theleritis, Christos; Fisher, Helen L; Shäfer, Ingo; Winters, Laura; Stahl, Daniel; Morgan, Craig; Dazzan, Paola; Breedvelt, Josefien; Sambath, Irene; Vitoratou, Silia; Russo, Manuela; Reichenberg, Abraham; Falcone, M Aurora; Mondelli, Valeria; O'Connor, Jennifer; David, Anthony; McGuire, Philip; Pariante, Carmine; Di Forti, Marta; Murray, Robin M; Bonaccorso, Stefania

    2014-10-01

    The Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) modulates cognitive processes and is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. Childhood trauma (CT) is frequent in patients with psychosis and severely affects course and outcome. We investigated the hypothesis that BDNF is associated with both CT and cognitive deficits in a sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) cases and unaffected controls. Participants with FEP and healthy controls were recruited between August 2008 and July 2011 from South London, UK. Childhood traumatic events were detected using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA-Q). Neuropsychological data were also collected. BDNF plasma levels were measured from fasting blood samples. Data were available on 87 FEP patients and 152 controls. Our results showed a significant effect of separation (F=5.5; df=1,115; p=.02), physical (F=4.7; df=1, 118; p=.03) and sexual abuse (F=5.4; df=1,117; p=.02) on BDNF levels with lower levels among those who experienced the traumatic event compared to those who did not. Physical abuse predicted lower plasma levels of BDNF (β=-.30; p=.03) whereas sexual and/or physical abuse showed a trend (β=-.26; p=.06) in FEP patients but not in unaffected controls. No association between BDNF plasma levels and cognitive functions was found among patients with FEP and controls. Our findings suggest the possible involvement of BDNF in the onset of first-episode psychosis in individuals exposed to early trauma and propose BDNF as a potential clinical biomarker to detect the detrimental effects of CT on human brain plasticity. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Are BDNF and glucocorticoid activities calibrated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanneteau, Freddy; Chao, Moses V.

    2012-01-01

    One hypothesis to account for the onset and severity of neurological disorders is the loss of trophic support. Indeed, changes in the levels and activities of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) occur in numerous neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. A deficit promotes vulnerability whereas a gain of function facilitates recovery by enhancing survival, synapse formation and synaptic plasticity. Implementation of ‘BDNF therapies’, however, faces numerous methodological and pharmacokinetic issues. Identifying BDNF mimetics that activate the BDNF receptor or downstream targets of BDNF signaling represent an alternative approach. One mechanism that shows great promise is to study the interplay of BDNF and glucocorticoid hormones, a major class of natural steroid secreted during stress reactions and in synchrony with circadian rhythms. While small amounts of glucocorticoids support normal brain function, excess stimulation by these steroid hormones precipitate stress-related affective disorders. To date, however, because of the paucity of knowledge of underlying cellular mechanisms, deleterious effects of glucocorticoids are not prevented following extreme stress. In the present review, we will discuss the complementary roles share by BDNF and glucocorticoids in synaptic plasticity, and delineate possible signaling mechanisms mediating these effects. PMID:23022538

  2. Synergistic Effects of Social Isolation and Morphine Addiction on Reduced Neurogenesis and BDNF Levels and the Resultant Deficits in Cognition and Emotional State in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famitafreshi, Hamidreza; Karimian, Morteza; Fatima, Sulail

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to drugs of abuse is a devastating condition which results in deterioration of brain function. On the other hand, social isolation also produces cognitive deficits such as learning and memory impairment. This study was designed to evaluate the potential negative synergistic effects of social isolation and morphine addiction on brain functions. One hundred and two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups for assessing neurogenesis and behaviour: group-housed, isolated, morphine-treated group-housed and morphine-treated isolated groups. Morphine- treated animals received BrdU (50 mg/kg; i.p.) and Morphine (0.75 mg/rat; i.p.) for 14 consecutive days, whereas, control rats received BrdU (50 mg/kg; i.p.) only. At the end of the study, Morris water maze and elevated plus maze tasks were performed to assess spatial working memory and anxiety levels, respectively. Furthermore, neurogenesis and BDNF levels were studied. Reference and working memory was markedly impaired in isolated and morphine-treated isolated rats as compared to group-housed rats and morphine-treated group-housed rats, respectively. Neurogenesis and BDNF levels were reduced in isolated and morphine-treated isolated rats as compared to group-housed rats and morphine-treated group-housed rats, respectively. Furthermore, rats in both isolated groups demonstrated low anxiety levels when compared to group housed groups. Isolation during addiction imparts devastating effects on brain. Thus, socialization of addicts can minimize addiction - induce cognitive deficits and improve neurogenesis.

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, K. S.; Nielsen, A. R.; Krogh-Madsen, R.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis  Decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and depression. These disorders are associated with type 2 diabetes, and animal models suggest that BDNF plays a role in insulin resistance. We therefore...... explored whether BDNF plays a role in human glucose metabolism. Subjects and methods  We included (Study 1) 233 humans divided into four groups depending on presence or absence of type 2 diabetes and presence or absence of obesity; and (Study 2) seven healthy volunteers who underwent both a hyperglycaemic...... and a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. Results  Plasma levels of BDNF in Study 1 were decreased in humans with type 2 diabetes independently of obesity. Plasma BDNF was inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose, but not with insulin. No association was found between the BDNF G196A (Val66Met) polymorphism...

  4. The Antidepressant Agomelatine Improves Memory Deterioration and Upregulates CREB and BDNF Gene Expression Levels in Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress (UCMS-Exposed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esen Gumuslu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Agomelatine, a novel antidepressant with established clinical efficacy, acts as an agonist of melatonergic MT 1 and MT 2 receptors and as an antagonist of 5-HT 2C receptors. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether chronic treatment with agomelatine would block unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS-induced cognitive deterioration in mice in passive avoidance (PA, modified elevated plus maze (mEPM, novel object recognition (NOR, and Morris water maze (MWM tests. Moreover, the effects of stress and agomelatine on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP response element binding protein (CREB messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA levels in the hippocampus was also determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Male inbred BALB/c mice were treated with agomelatine (10 mg/kg, i.p., melatonin (10 mg/kg, or vehicle daily for five weeks. The results of this study revealed that UCMS-exposed animals exhibited memory deterioration in the PA, mEPM, NOR, and MWM tests. The chronic administration of melatonin had a positive effect in the PA and +mEPM tests, whereas agomelatine had a partial effect. Both agomelatine and melatonin blocked stress-induced impairment in visual memory in the NOR test and reversed spatial learning and memory impairment in the stressed group in the MWM test. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that CREB and BDNF gene expression levels were downregulated in UCMS-exposed mice, and these alterations were reversed by chronic agomelatine or melatonin treatment. Thus, agomelatine plays an important role in blocking stress-induced hippocampal memory deterioration and activates molecular mechanisms of memory storage in response to a learning experience.

  5. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor in maternal plasma and umbilical cord blood from pre-eclamptic and physiological pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienertova-Vasku, J; Bienert, P; Zlamal, F; Splichal, Z; Tomandl, J; Tomandlova, M; Hodicka, Z; Ventruba, P; Vasku, A

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the circulating levels of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in maternal serum and umbilical cord blood from respective pregnancies in pre-eclampsia (PE) cases and a control cohort. A total of 12 pre-eclampsia cases and 34 healthy controls were enrolled and the maternal peripheral blood - umbilical cord blood duos, were examined for BDNF and CNTF levels. BNDF levels were significantly higher in umbilical cord blood from pre-eclamptic pregnancies; there was also significant difference between maternal plasma and umbilical cord blood levels of BDNF (p CNTF levels in umbilical cord blood (CNTF-UCB) were significantly higher in PE cases than in the controls (p = 0.03). Significant differences were observed in expression of BDNF and CNTF proteins in maternal peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood between pre-eclampsia cases and healthy controls.

  6. ROLE OF BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR (BDNF IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF COGNTIVE DYSFUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Vladimirovna Gatskikh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the heavy progressive vascular complications of type 2 diabetes is a central nervous system, manifesting cognitive dysfunction due to metabolic changes. Goal. Defining the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and methods. The study involved 83 patients with type 2 diabetes at the age of 40 - 70 years. Complex examination included clinical and laboratory examination, neuropsychological testing. To screen for cognitive impairment used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MOS test. To identify early markers of cognitive impairment was determined the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. Results. The study found a negative correlation between the level of BDNF and the HbA1c (r = - 0,494, p = 0.01, fasting glucose (r = - 0,499, p = 0.01, and a positive relationship between the level of BDNF and cognitive function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Conclusion. In patients with type 2 diabetes revealed cognitive dysfunction in the form of reduced memory, attention, optical-dimensional activity that correlated with chronic hyperglycemia. The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the complex diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. With an increase in HbA1c in patients with type 2 diabetes reduces the level of BDNF in the blood plasma, and a decline in cognitive function. Recommended use of BDNF as an additional marker of cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  7. Relationship Between Brain-Derived Neurotrofic Factor (Bdnf) and Sleep on Depression: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Bárbara C.; Monteiro, Suzana; Candida, Maristela; Adler, Nathalia; Paes, Flavia; Rocha, Nuno; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Murillo-Rodriguez, Eric; Machado, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The Brain-Derived Neurotrofic Factor (BDNF) is one of the most important neurotrophins in the brain and it is suggested influences the activity of the serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic pathways. In the last few years, it has been hypothesized that BDNF level is related with depression and sleep. Several studies show that depressive subjects present low levels of BDNF in the brain. Poor sleep quality is also related with alterations in the BDNF concentration. Some authors argue that...

  8. Effects of single-dose neuropeptide Y on levels of hippocampal BDNF, MDA, GSH, and NO in a rat model of pentylenetetrazole-induced epileptic seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Maral Kir

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders, characterized by recurrent seizures, which may increase the content of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Th e objective of this study was to investigate the eff ects of Neuropeptide Y on oxidative and nitrosative balance and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels induced by pentylenetetrazole (a standard convulsant drug in the hippocampus of Wistar rats. Th ree groups of seven rats were treated intraperitoneally as follows: group  (saline + saline  ml saline, group  (salin + Pentylenetetrazole  ml saline  min before Pentylenetetrazole; and group  (Neuropeptide Y + Pentylenetetrazole  μg/kg Neuropeptide Y  min before  mg/kg Pentylenetetrazole. After  h, the animals were euthanized by decapitation. Hippocampus were isolated to evaluate the malondialdehyde, glutathione, nitric oxide, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in three rat groups. Th e results of this study demonstrated that while intraperitoneally administered neuropeptide Y did not result in a statistically signifi cant diff erence in BDNF levels, its administration caused a statistically signifi cant decrease in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels and an increase in glutathione levels in rats with pentylenetetrazole-induced epileptic seizure. Neuropeptide Y were able to reduce nitroxidative damage induced by pentylenetetrazole in the hippocampus of Wistar rats.

  9. Effects of aquatic exercise and CES treatment on the changes of cognitive function, BDNF, IGF-1, and VEGF of persons with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In Ho; Seo, Eun Jung; Lim, In Soo

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aquatic exercise and CES treatment on the cognitive function by using K-WAB and BDNF, IGF-1, and VEGF of persons with intellectual disabilities. All subjects were 15 male with intellectual disabilities who were participating in the aquatic training program and CES treatment during 12 weeks at rehabilitation center. The subjects were divided into control group, exercise group, and exercise+CES group. Blood samples for BDNF, IGF-1, and VEGF were taken from brachial vein at rest between before and after treatment. The results are summarized as follows: Cognitive function level increased significantly in the exercise+CES group compared to those in the exercise and control group. The changes of blood IGF-1 concentration were no significant difference among groups. The changes of blood BDNF and VEGF concentration were significantly increased in exercise group and exercise+CES group than control group. However, blood BDNF and VEGF concentration were significantly difference between exercise group and exercise+CES group. In conclusion, it can be concluded that CES treatment with exercise can amend cognitive function of persons with intellectual disabilities more effectively and increase of BDNF and VEGF by exercise can explain the cognitive function improvement of persons with intellectual disabilities.

  10. Social instigation and repeated aggressive confrontations in male Swiss mice: analysis of plasma corticosterone, CRF and BDNF levels in limbic brain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Madeira Fortes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Agonistic behaviors help to ensure survival, provide advantage in competition, and communicate social status. The resident-intruder paradigm, an animal model based on male intraspecific confrontations, can be an ethologically relevant tool to investigate the neurobiology of aggressive behavior. Objectives: To examine behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behavior in male Swiss mice exposed to repeated confrontations in the resident intruder paradigm. Methods: Behavioral analysis was performed in association with measurements of plasma corticosterone of mice repeatedly exposed to a potential rival nearby, but inaccessible (social instigation, or to 10 sessions of social instigation followed by direct aggressive encounters. Moreover, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF were measured in the brain of these animals. Control mice were exposed to neither social instigation nor aggressive confrontations. Results: Mice exposed to aggressive confrontations exhibited a similar pattern of species-typical aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors on the first and the last session. Moreover, in contrast to social instigation only, repeated aggressive confrontations promoted an increase in plasma corticosterone. After 10 aggressive confrontation sessions, mice presented a non-significant trend toward reducing hippocampal levels of CRF, which inversely correlated with plasma corticosterone levels. Conversely, repeated sessions of social instigation or aggressive confrontation did not alter BDNF concentrations at the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Conclusion: Exposure to repeated episodes of aggressive encounters did not promote habituation over time. Additionally, CRF seems to be involved in physiological responses to social stressors.

  11. Relationship Between Brain-Derived Neurotrofic Factor (Bdnf) and Sleep on Depression: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Bárbara C.; Monteiro, Suzana; Candida, Maristela; Adler, Nathalia; Paes, Flavia; Rocha, Nuno; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Murillo-Rodriguez, Eric; Machado, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The Brain-Derived Neurotrofic Factor (BDNF) is one of the most important neurotrophins in the brain and it is suggested influences the activity of the serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic pathways. In the last few years, it has been hypothesized that BDNF level is related with depression and sleep. Several studies show that depressive subjects present low levels of BDNF in the brain. Poor sleep quality is also related with alterations in the BDNF concentration. Some authors argue that most of the cases show that impaired sleep quality increases the stress and, consequently, the vulnerability to depressive disorders, suggesting that there is a relationship between sleep, depression and BDNF levels. PMID:29299044

  12. Umbilical cord blood lead levels in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satin, K.P.; Neutra, R.R.; Guirguis, G.; Flessel, P. (California Department of Health Services, Berkeley (USA))

    1991-05-01

    During the fall of 1984, we conducted a survey of umbilical cord blood lead levels of 723 live births that occurred at 5 hospitals located in 5 cities in California. Historical ambient air lead levels were used as a qualitative surrogate of air and dust exposure. The area-specific cord blood means (all means {approximately} 5 micrograms/dl), medians, deciles, and distributions did not vary among locations. The California distributions included means that were lower than the 6.6 micrograms/dl reported in Needleman et al.'s Boston study in 1979. Indeed, the entire California distribution was shifted to the left of the Boston study distribution, even though 3% of the California cord lead levels exceeded 10 micrograms/dl--the level above which Needleman et al. have documented psychoneurological effects in children during the first few years of life. Fourteen percent of premature babies had cord blood lead levels above 10 micrograms/dl. The association between prematurity (i.e., less than 260 d gestation) and elevated (greater than 5 micrograms/dl) cord blood lead was observed in all hospitals and yielded a relative risk of 2.9 (95% CI: .9, 9.2) and a population attributable risk of 47%. Further research is needed to confirm this association and to explore the roles of endogenous and exogenous sources of lead exposure to the mothers who give birth to premature infants.

  13. Effectiveness of memantine on depression-like behavior, memory deficits and brain mRNA levels of BDNF and TrkB in rats subjected to repeated unpredictable stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amidfar, Meysam; Kim, Yong-Ku; Wiborg, Ove

    2018-01-01

    downregulation. Administration of memantine reversed depression-like behavior and memory impairment and significantly increased BDNF and TrkB mRNA levels in both prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of stress exposed rats. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports the hypothesis that drugs with antagonistic properties...... administration in rats subjected to the repeated unpredictable stress (RUS) paradigm. METHODS: Rats were split into four groups at random including control + saline, control + memantine, stressed + saline and stressed + memantine. After 10 days of exposure to the RUS paradigm, rats were administered memantine...... (20 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (ip) for 14 days. Depression-like behavior and memory performance were assessed by measuring immobility time in the forced swim test and passive avoidance test, respectively. The mRNA levels of BDNF and TrkB in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were measured by real...

  14. Conjunctivally Applied BDNF Protects Photoreceptors from Light-Induced Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Elisa; Origlia, Nicola; Falsini, Benedetto; Barloscio, Davide; Fabiani, Carlotta; Sansò, Marco; Ottino, Sara; Giovannini, Luca; Domenici, Luciano

    2015-11-01

    To test whether the topical eye treatment with BDNF prevents the effects of continuous light exposure (LE) in the albino rat retina. Two groups of albino rats were used. The first group of rats received an intraocular injection of BDNF (2 μL, 1 μg/μL) before LE, while the second group was treated with one single drop of BDNF (10 μL, 12 μg/μL) dissolved in different types of solutions (physiological solution, the polysaccharide fraction of Tamarind gum, TSP, and sodium carboxy methyl cellulose), at the level of conjunctival fornix before LE. The level of BDNF in the retina and optic nerve was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We recorded the flash electroretinogram (fERG) in dark adapted rats 1 week after LE. At the end of the recording session, the retinas were removed and labeled so that the number of photoreceptors nuclear rows and thickness of the outer nuclear layer was analyzed. Intravitreal injection of BDNF before LE prevented fERG impairment. Different ophthalmic preparations were used for topical eye application; the TSP resulted the most suitable vehicle to increase BDNF level in the retina and optic nerve. Topical eye application with BDNF/TSP before LE partially preserved both fERG response and photoreceptors. Topical eye treatment with BDNF represents a suitable, noninvasive tool to increase the retinal content of BDNF up to a level capable of exerting neuroprotection toward photoreceptors injured by prolonged LE. A collyrium containing BDNF may serve as an effective, clinically translational treatment against retinal degeneration.

  15. Blood lactate level and meconium aspiration syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabayir, Nalan; Demirel, Ali; Bayramoglu, Elvan

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 5% of infants born with a meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) develop meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Early recognition of infants at highest risk for the development of MAS and the prediction of disease severity are important for optimizing the clinical strategies for prevention and treatment. The aim of the present study was to identify the risk factors for MAS and to investigate the effect of blood lactate level on the development of MAS. Between January 2011 and January 2012, data were recorded with regard to gender, mode of delivery, gestational week, birth weight, 5-min Apgar score, and need for resuscitation of the meconium-stained depressed infants who underwent tracheal aspiration. Moreover, the number of cases developing MAS, blood pH value, and lactate level in capillary blood gases obtained during the first hour after delivery, duration of oxygen supplementation, the number of cases receiving mechanical ventilation and surfactant therapy, duration of hospital stay, and outcomes of the infants were recorded. The number of live births during the study period was 17,202, and of them, 1,341 (7.8%) infants were born through MSAF. Of 195 infants who were meconium-stained depressed, 90 were girls and 105 were boys. Their mean gestational week was 39.37 ± 0.89 weeks and mean birth weight was 3,426 ± 634 g. Eighty-four of them were born through cesarean section (C/S), and 111 were born via normal spontaneous labor. For 40 infants, Apgar score at fifth minute was less than 6. In total, resuscitation was performed on 43 (22.9%) infants. Of the infants, 141 did not develop MAS and 54 developed MAS. While there were no significant differences between infants with and without MAS with regard to gender, delivery route, gestational week, and birth weight, a significant difference was observed regarding the Apgar score (p = 0.0001). The blood pH value in capillary blood gas analysis was less than 7.25 in 18 (28.5%) cases with MAS and four (3

  16. BDNF control of adult SVZ neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Kevin G; Akins, Michael R; Lee, Francis S

    2012-09-01

    The sensory processing of odorants is a dynamic process that requires plasticity at multiple levels. In the olfactory bulb (OB), inhibitory interneurons undergo lifelong replacement through a process known as adult neurogenesis. These newly born cells are incorporated in a learning-dependent fashion, a process which has led some to suggest this as a primary mechanism through which the OB retains a high degree of plasticity throughout life. A continued focus of researchers in this field has been to understand the molecular mechanisms controlling adult subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenesis and the innate functional role of these cells. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been identified as a strong candidate molecule regulating adult OB neurogenesis. We review what is known regarding the functional role of newly born cells, highlight the role of BDNF in this process, and describe preliminary findings from our lab implicating BDNF in the process of selecting of newly born cells for survival. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT3) levels in post-mortem brain tissue from patients with depression compared to healthy individuals 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldrick, A; Camara, S; Ilieva, M

    2017-01-01

    treatment and overall age 84.3±5 years versus 14 unaffected subjects at age 70.3±13.8. We detected significant elevation of BDNF (parietal cortex) and NT3 (parietal, temporal and occipital cortex, cingulate gyrus, thalamus, putamen and nucleus caudatus regions) in MDD patients who received antidepressant...... suggests that antidepressant treatment may improve or normalise cerebral concentrations of neurotrophic factors. Therefore, we examined the concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT3) in different brain regions (cortex, cingulate gyrus, thalamus, hippocampus, putamen...

  18. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum basal levels is not affected by power training in mobility-limited older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, L. G.; Nielsen, M. K.F.; Simonsen, C.

    2017-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potential important factor involved in neuroplasticity, and may be a mediator for eliciting adaptations in neuromuscular function and physical function in older individuals following physical training. As power training taxes the neural system to a very...... not appear to be a major mechanistic factor mediating neuroplasticity in mobility-limited older adults....

  19. Decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor plasma levels in psoriasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Brunoni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is associated with neuroplasticity and synaptic strength, and is decreased in conditions associated with chronic stress. Nevertheless, BDNF has not yet been investigated in psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory systemic disease that is exacerbated by stress. Therefore, our aim was to determine BDNF plasma levels in psoriasis patients and healthy controls. Adult patients (n=94 presenting with psoriasis for at least 1 year were enrolled, and age- and gender-matched with healthy controls (n=307 from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil. Participants had neither a previous history of coronary artery disease nor current episode of major depression. BDNF plasma levels were determined using the Promega ELISA kit. A general linear model was used to compare BDNF levels in psoriasis patients and controls, with age, gender, systolic blood pressure, serum fasting glucose, blood lipid levels, triglycerides, smoking status, and body mass index examined. After adjusting for clinical and demographic variables, significantly decreased BNDF plasma levels were observed in psoriasis patients (P=0.01 (estimated marginal means of 3922 pg/mL; 95%CI=2660-5135 compared with controls (5788 pg/mL; 95%CI=5185-6442. Similar BDNF levels were found in both mild and severe cases of psoriasis. Our finding, that BDNF is decreased in psoriasis, supports the concept of a brain-skin connection in psoriasis. Further studies should determine if BDNF is increased after specific psoriasis treatments, and associated with different disease stages.

  20. Decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor plasma levels in psoriasis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunoni, A R; Lotufo, P A; Sabbag, C; Goulart, A C; Santos, I S; Benseñor, I M

    2015-08-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with neuroplasticity and synaptic strength, and is decreased in conditions associated with chronic stress. Nevertheless, BDNF has not yet been investigated in psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory systemic disease that is exacerbated by stress. Therefore, our aim was to determine BDNF plasma levels in psoriasis patients and healthy controls. Adult patients (n=94) presenting with psoriasis for at least 1 year were enrolled, and age- and gender-matched with healthy controls (n=307) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Participants had neither a previous history of coronary artery disease nor current episode of major depression. BDNF plasma levels were determined using the Promega ELISA kit. A general linear model was used to compare BDNF levels in psoriasis patients and controls, with age, gender, systolic blood pressure, serum fasting glucose, blood lipid levels, triglycerides, smoking status, and body mass index examined. After adjusting for clinical and demographic variables, significantly decreased BNDF plasma levels were observed in psoriasis patients (P=0.01) (estimated marginal means of 3922 pg/mL; 95%CI=2660-5135) compared with controls (5788 pg/mL; 95%CI=5185-6442). Similar BDNF levels were found in both mild and severe cases of psoriasis. Our finding, that BDNF is decreased in psoriasis, supports the concept of a brain-skin connection in psoriasis. Further studies should determine if BDNF is increased after specific psoriasis treatments, and associated with different disease stages.

  1. BDNF-induced local protein synthesis and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Graciano; Comprido, Diogo; Duarte, Carlos B

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important regulator of synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus and in other brain regions, playing a role in the formation of certain forms of memory. The effects of BDNF in LTP are mediated by TrkB (tropomyosin-related kinase B) receptors, which are known to be coupled to the activation of the Ras/ERK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ) pathways. The role of BDNF in LTP is best studied in the hippocampus, where the neurotrophin acts at pre- and post-synaptic levels. Recent studies have shown that BDNF regulates the transport of mRNAs along dendrites and their translation at the synapse, by modulating the initiation and elongation phases of protein synthesis, and by acting on specific miRNAs. Furthermore, the effect of BDNF on transcription regulation may further contribute to long-term changes in the synaptic proteome. In this review we discuss the recent progress in understanding the mechanisms contributing to the short- and long-term regulation of the synaptic proteome by BDNF, and the role in synaptic plasticity, which is likely to influence learning and memory formation. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'BDNF Regulation of Synaptic Structure, Function, and Plasticity'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation effectively facilitates spatial cognition and synaptic plasticity associated with increasing the levels of BDNF and synaptic proteins in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yingchun; Wang, Xin; Shang, Xueliang; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Zhipeng; Yin, Tao; Zhang, Tao

    2016-10-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive technique, by which cognitive deficits can be alleviated. Furthermore, rTMS may facilitate learning and memory. However, its underlying mechanism is still little known. The aim of this study was to investigate if the facilitation of spatial cognition and synaptic plasticity, induced by rTMS, is regulated by enhancing pre- and postsynaptic proteins in normal rats. Morris water maze (MWM) test was performed to examine the spatial cognition. The synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP) and depotentiation (DEP), presynaptic plasticity paired-pulse facilitation (PPF), from the hippocampal Schaffer collaterals to CA1 region was subsequently measured using in vivo electrophysiological techniques. The expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), presynaptic protein synaptophysin (SYP) and postsynaptic protein NR2B were measured by Western blot. Our data show that the spatial learning/memory and reversal learning/memory in rTMS rats were remarkably enhanced compared to that in the Sham group. Furthermore, LTP and DEP as well as PPF were effectively facilitated by 5Hz-rTMS. Additionally, the expressions of BDNF, SYP and NR2B were significantly increased via magnetic stimulation. The results suggest that rTMS considerably increases the expressions of BDNF, postsynaptic protein NR2B and presynaptic protein SYP, and thereby significantly enhances the synaptic plasticity and spatial cognition in normal animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Peripheral blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, K; Vinberg, M; Kessing, L V

    2016-01-01

    subjects and between affective states in bipolar disorder patients, including assessment of the effect of treatment of acute episodes on BDNF levels. A systematic review of English language studies without considering publication status was conducted in PubMed (January 1950-November 2014), Embase (1974......Peripheral blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed as a potential biomarker related to disease activity and neuroprogression in bipolar disorder, speculated to mirror alterations in brain expression of BDNF. The research area is rapidly evolving; however, recent...... investigations have yielded conflicting results with substantial variation in outcomes, highlighting the need to critically assess the state of current evidence. The aims of the study were to investigate differences in peripheral blood BDNF concentrations between bipolar disorder patients and healthy control...

  4. Diurnal pattern of serum BDNF before partial sleep deprivation in stress-related mood disorders – an association with therapy response in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giese

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : Depression is one of the most prevalent forms of mood disorders. Compelling evidence suggests that mood disorders are characterized by reduced neuronal plasticity, which can be brought about by exposure to stress. Furthermore, there is good agreement in considering key proteins such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, as a central player for the effects of stress on brain function and plasticity and psychopathological implications. Still, there is a high non-responder rate in antidepressant therapy, which explains the need to find reliable predictors for adequate treatment. Previous studies revealed that plasma and serum BDNF levels in depressed patients were significantly lower than in healthy controls. Since the protein can cross the blood brain-barrier serum content correspondingly correlates with cortical BDNF concentrations suggesting BDNF levels as a promising candidate biomarker for depression and antidepressant treatment response. Methods : To investigate the association between serum BDNF levels and treatment outcome, blood was drawn from 28 patients with a major depressive episode (DMS-IV, ICD-10 that participated in a double-blind placebo controlled treatment study. All patients were treated with a stable mirtazapine monotherapy. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD was performed after one week. Placebo controlled additional morning treatment with the stimulant modafinil to reduce microsleep throughout the day was started during PSD and maintained over two weeks. Serum concentrations of BDNF and cortisol were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA from day 1 (“before PSD” at 8 am, 2 pm, 8 pm and day 2 (“after PSD” at 8 am, 2 pm and 8 pm. Samples were appropriately diluted and detection of soluble BDNF or cortisol was carried out in an antibody sandwich format in duplicates and means were calculated for the corresponding group. Moreover, sleep EEG and microsleep episodes were

  5. Combined cisplatin and aurora inhibitor treatment increase neuroblastoma cell death but surviving cells overproduce BDNF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Polacchini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug-resistance to chemotherapics in aggressive neuroblastoma (NB is characterized by enhanced cell survival mediated by TrkB and its ligand, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; thus reduction in BDNF levels represent a promising strategy to overcome drug-resistance, but how chemotherapics regulate BDNF is unknown. Here, cisplatin treatment in SK-N-BE neuroblastoma upregulated multiple BDNF transcripts, except exons 5 and 8 variants. Cisplatin increased BDNF mRNA and protein, and enhanced translation of a firefly reporter gene flanked by BDNF 5′UTR exons 1, 2c, 4 or 6 and 3′UTR-long. To block BDNF translation we focused on aurora kinases inhibitors which are proposed as new chemotherapeutics. NB cell survival after 24 h treatment was 43% with cisplatin, and 22% by cisplatin+aurora kinase inhibitor PHA-680632, while the aurora kinases inhibitor alone was less effective; however the combined treatment induced a paradoxical increase of BDNF in surviving cells with strong translational activation of exon6-3′UTR-long transcript, while translation of BDNF transcripts 1, 2C and 4 was suppressed. In conclusion, combined cisplatin and aurora kinase inhibitor treatment increases cell death, but induces BDNF overproduction in surviving cells through an aurora kinase-independent mechanism.

  6. BDNF genotype modulates resting functional connectivity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriah E Thomason

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A specific polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene is associated with alterations in brain anatomy and memory; its relevance to the functional connectivity of brain networks, however, is unclear. Given that altered hippocampal function and structure has been found in adults who carry the methionine (met allele of the BDNF gene and the molecular studies elucidating the role of BDNF in neurogenesis and synapse formation, we examined in the association between BDNF gene variants and neural resting connectivity in children and adolescents. We observed a reduction in hippocampal and parahippocampal to cortical connectivity in met-allele carriers within each of three resting networks: the default-mode, executive, and paralimbic networks. In contrast, we observed increased connectivity to amygdala, insula and striatal regions in met-carriers, within the paralimbic network. Because the BDNF met-allele has been linked to increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders, this latter finding of greater connectivity in circuits important for emotion processing may indicate a new neural mechanism through which these gene-related psychiatric differences are manifest. Here we show that the BDNF gene, known to regulate synaptic plasticity and connectivity in the brain, affects functional connectivity at the neural systems level. Additionally, we provide the first demonstration that the spatial topography of multiple high-level resting state networks in healthy children and adolescents is similar to that observed in adults.

  7. Antidepressant-Like Effects of Central BDNF Administration in Mice of Antidepressant Sensitive Catalepsy (ASC) Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonova, Maria; Kulikov, Alexander V

    2012-08-31

    Although numerous data evidence the implication of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathophysiology of depression, the potential for BDNF to correct genetically defined depressive-like states is poorly studied. This study was aimed to reveal antidepressant-like effects of BDNF (300 ng, 2×, i.c.v.) on behavior and mRNA expression of genes associated with depression-like state in the brain in mice of antidepressant sensitive catalepsy (ASC) strain characterized by high hereditary predisposition to catalepsy and depressive-like features. Behavioral tests were held on the 7th-16th days after the first (4th-13th after the second) BDNF injection. Results showed that BDNF normalized impaired sexual motivation in the ASC males, and this BDNF effect differed, with advantageous effects, from that of widely used antidepressants. The anticataleptic effect of two BDNF injections was enhanced compared with a single administration. A tendency to decrease the immobility duration in tail-suspension test was observed in BDNF-treated ASC mice. The effects on catalepsy and sexual motivation were specific since BDNF did not alter locomotor and exploratory activity or social interest in the ASC mice. Along with behavioral antidepressant-like effects on the ASC mice, BDNF increased hippocampal mRNA levels of Bdnf and Creb1 (cAMP response element-binding protein gene). BDNF also augmented mRNA levels of Arc gene encoding Arc (Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated) protein involved in BDNF-induced processes of neuronal and synaptic plasticity in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. The data suggest that: [1] BDNF is effective in the treatment of some genetically defined behavioral disturbances; [2] BDNF influences sexually-motivated behavior; [3] Arc mRNA levels may serve as a molecular marker of BDNF physiological activity associated with its long-lasting behavioral effects; [4] ASC mouse strain can be used as a suitable model to study mechanisms of BDNF effects on

  8. On the quest for a biomechanism of transsexualism: is there a role for BDNF?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Johannes; Biedermann, Sarah V; Stalla, Günter K; Auer, Matthias K

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies hypothesized a neurobiological mechanism for gender identity disorder (GID). Recently a possible role for serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was suggested on the basis of reduced serum BDNF levels in male-to-female individuals. Here we review the question whether there is indeed a role of BDNF in the development of transsexualism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Autism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghazadeh, Amene; Rezaei, Nima

    2017-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Altered blood BDNF levels have been frequently identified in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There are however wide discrepancies in the evidence. Therefore, we performed the present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at qualitative and quantitative synthesis of studies that measured blood BDNF levels in ASD and control subjects. Observational studies were identified through electronic database searching and also hand-searching of reference lists of relevant articles. A total of 183 papers were initially identified for review and eventually twenty studies were included in the meta-analysis. A meta-analysis of blood BDNF in 887 patients with ASD and 901 control subjects demonstrated significantly higher BDNF levels in ASD compared to controls with the SMD of 0.47 (95% CI 0.07-0.86, p = 0.02). In addition subgroup meta-analyses were performed based on the BDNF specimen. The present meta-analysis study led to conclusion that BDNF might play role in autism initiation/ propagation and therefore it can be considered as a possible biomarker of ASD.

  10. The effects of aerobic exercise intensity and duration on levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmolesky, Matthew T; Webb, David L; Hansen, Rodney A

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the combined effects of aerobic exercise intensity and duration on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (sBDNF) levels in healthy human adult males aged 18-25 years. Forty five participants were randomly assigned to one of six exercise conditions based on varying intensity (80% or 60% of heart rate reserve, or control) and duration (20 or 40 min). Vigorous (80% heart rate reserve, "Vig") and moderate (60% heart rate reserve, "Mod") exercise was carried out on cycle ergometers. Control subjects remained seated and at rest during the exercise period. Pre- and post-exercise blood draws were conducted and sBDNF measured. Physical exercise caused an average ~ 32% increase in sBDNF levels relative to baseline that resulted in concentrations that were 45% higher than control conditions. Comparing the six conditions, sBDNF levels rose consistently among the four exercise conditions (Vig20 = 26.38 ± 34.89%, Vig40 = 28.48 ± 19.11%, Mod20 = 41.23 ± 59.65%, Mod40 = 30.16 ± 72.11%) and decreased consistently among the controls (Con20 = -14.48 ± 16.50, Con40 = -10.51 ± 26.78). Vig conditions had the highest proportion of subjects that experienced a significant (? 10%) increase in sBDNF levels, followed by Mod and control conditions. An analysis of modeled sBDNF integrals (area under the curve) demonstrated substantially greater values for Vig40 and Mod40 conditions compared to Vig20 and Mod20 conditions. Collectively, these results demonstrate that neither duration (20 vs. 40 min) nor intensity (60 vs. 80% HR reserve) significantly affects the benefits of exercise if only the sBDNF increase at a single post-exercise time point is considered. However, when comparing either the probability of achieving a significant BDNF gain or the integral (i.e. the volume of circulating BDNF over time) the Vig40 condition offers maximal benefits. Thus, we conclude that the future study of aerobic exercise effects on BDNF-mediated neuroprotection should take the

  11. Ex vivo changes in blood glucose levels seldom change blood glucose control algorithm recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groene, L.; Harmsen, R. E.; Binnekade, J. M.; Spronk, P. E.; Schultz, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Hyperglycemia and glycemic variabilities are associated with adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. Blood glucose control with insulin mandates an adequate and precise assessment of blood glucose levels. Blood glucose levels, however, can change ex vivo after sampling. The aim of

  12. fasting blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    Diabetes Study Group 33). Even though the achievement and maintenance of blood glucose concentrations as near normal as possible are major targets of modern diabetic care (UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group, 1988), this increases the frequency of hypoglycaemia (Amiel 1998). Hypoglycaemia, the most common ...

  13. BDNF val66met genotype and schizotypal personality traits interact to influence probabilistic association learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilleter, Ashley Jayne; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Moustafa, Ahmed Abdelhalim; Gendy, Rasha; Chan, Mico; Arifin, Nur; Mitchell, Philip Bowden; Weickert, Thomas Wesley

    2014-11-01

    The brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism rs6265 influences learning and may represent a risk factor for schizophrenia. Healthy people with high schizotypal personality traits display cognitive deficits that are similar to but not as severe as those observed in schizophrenia and they can be studied without confounds of antipsychotics or chronic illness. How genetic variation in BDNF may impact learning in individuals falling along the schizophrenia spectrum is unknown. We predicted that schizotypal personality traits would influence learning and that schizotypal personality-based differences in learning would vary depending on the BDNF val66met genotype. Eighty-nine healthy adults completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) and a probabilistic association learning test. Blood samples were genotyped for the BDNF val66met polymorphism. An ANOVA was performed with BDNF genotype (val homozygotes and met-carriers) and SPQ score (high/low) as grouping variables and probabilistic association learning as the dependent variable. Participants with low SPQ scores (fewer schizotypal personality traits) showed significantly better learning than those with high SPQ scores. BDNF met-carriers displaying few schizotypal personality traits performed best, whereas BDNF met-carriers displaying high schizotypal personality traits performed worst. Thus, the BDNF val66met polymorphism appears to influence probabilistic association learning differently depending on the extent of schizotypal personality traits displayed. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduced serum concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in transsexual Brazilian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Aguiar, Bianca; Tusset, Cíntia; Andreazza, Tahiana; Schneider, Maiko; da Rosa, Eduarda Dias; Soll, Bianca Machado Borba; Schwarz, Karine; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Borba, André Oliveira; Mueller, Andressa; Massuda, Raffael; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2016-09-06

    Serum BDNF levels are significantly decreased in transsexual Brazilian women when compared to cis-sexual men. Since transsexual men are also exposed to chronic social stress and have a high prevalence of associated psychopathologies, it is plausible to inquire if BDNF serum levels are altered in transsexual men as well. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate differences in BDNF serum level of transsexual men when compared to cis-sexual men and women. Our sample comprises 27 transsexual men, 31 cis-sexual women and 30 cis-sexual men recruited between 2011 and 2015. We observed that BDNF serum concentration is decreased in transsexual men comparing to cis-sexual men and women. Cross-sex hormone treatment, chronic social stress or long-term gender dysphoria (GD) could explain the variation found in BDNF serum levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between Levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Boyuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Studies have suggested that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plays a role in glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum BDNF levels and various metabolic parameters and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Materials and Methods. The study included 88 T2DM patients and 33 healthy controls. Fasting blood samples were obtained from the patients and the control group. The serum levels of BDNF were measured with an ELISA kit. The current paper introduces a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC generalization curve to identify cut-off for the BDNF values in type 2 diabetes patients. Results. The serum levels of BDNF were significantly higher in T2DM patients than in the healthy controls (206.81 ± 107.32 pg/mL versus 130.84 ± 59.81 pg/mL; P<0.001. They showed a positive correlation with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (r=0.28; P<0.05, the triglyceride level (r=0.265; P<0.05, and white blood cell (WBC count (r=0.35; P<0.001. In logistic regression analysis, age (P<0.05, body mass index (BMI (P<0.05, C-reactive protein (CRP (P<0.05, and BDNF (P<0.01 were independently associated with T2DM. In ROC curve analysis, BDNF cut-off was 137. Conclusion. The serum BDNF level was higher in patients with T2DM. The BDNF had a cut-off value of 137. The findings suggest that BDNF may contribute to glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation.

  16. Surfactant Protein D Levels in Umbilical Cord Blood and Capillary Blood of Premature Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Marianne; Holmskov, Uffe; Husby, Steffen

    2006-01-01

    and capillary blood was measured using ELISA technique. The median concentration of SP-D in umbilical cord blood was twice as high as in mature infants, 769 ng/mL (range 140-2,551), with lowest values in infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and rupture of membranes (ROM). The median concentration...... of premature infants and to relate the levels to perinatal conditions. A total of 254 premature infants were enrolled in the present study. Umbilical cord blood was drawn at the time of birth and capillary blood at regular intervals throughout the admission. The concentration of SP-D in umbilical cord blood...... treatment and susceptibility to infections. We conclude that SP-D concentrations in umbilical cord blood and capillary blood in premature infants are twice as high as in mature infants and depend on several perinatal conditions. High SP-D levels in umbilical cord blood and capillary blood on day 1 were...

  17. The effect of exercise training modality on serum brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon L Swift

    Full Text Available Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been implicated in memory, learning, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the relationship of BDNF with cardiometabolic risk factors is unclear, and the effect of exercise training on BDNF has not been previously explored in individuals with type 2 diabetes.Men and women (N = 150 with type 2 diabetes were randomized to an aerobic exercise (aerobic, resistance exercise (resistance, or a combination of both (combination for 9 months. Serum BDNF levels were evaluated at baseline and follow-up from archived blood samples.Baseline serum BDNF was not associated with fitness, body composition, anthropometry, glucose control, or strength measures (all, p>0.05. Similarly, no significant change in serum BDNF levels was observed following exercise training in the aerobic (-1649.4 pg/ml, CI: -4768.9 to 1470.2, resistance (-2351.2 pg/ml, CI:-5290.7 to 588.3, or combination groups (-827.4 pg/ml, CI: -3533.3 to 1878.5 compared to the control group (-2320.0 pg/ml, CI: -5750.8 to 1110.8. However, reductions in waist circumference were directly associated with changes in serum BDNF following training (r = 0.25, p = 0.005.Serum BDNF was not associated with fitness, body composition, anthropometry, glucose control, or strength measures at baseline. Likewise, serum BDNF measures were not altered by 9 months of aerobic, resistance, or combination training. However, reductions in waist circumference were associated with decreased serum BDNF levels. Future studies should investigate the relevance of BDNF with measures of cognitive function specifically in individuals with type-2 diabetes.

  18. BDNF in fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrén, Maija L; Castrén, Eero

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a monogenic disorder that is caused by the absence of FMR1 protein (FMRP). FXS serves as an excellent model disorder for studies investigating disturbed molecular mechanisms and synapse function underlying cognitive impairment, autism, and behavioral disturbance. Abnormalities in dendritic spines and synaptic transmission in the brain of FXS individuals and mouse models for FXS indicate perturbations in the development, maintenance, and plasticity of neuronal network connectivity. However, numerous alterations are found during the early development in FXS, including abnormal differentiation of neural progenitors and impaired migration of newly born neurons. Several aspects of FMRP function are modulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. Here, we review the evidence of the role for BDNF in the developing and adult FXS brain. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'BDNF Regulation of Synaptic Structure, Function, and Plasticity'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Systemic delivery of recombinant brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Giampà

    Full Text Available Loss of huntingtin-mediated BDNF gene transcription has been shown to occur in HD and thus contribute to the degeneration of the striatum. Several studies have indicated that an increase in BDNF levels is associated with neuroprotection and amelioration of neurological signs in animal models of HD. In a recent study, an increase in BDNF mRNA and protein levels was recorded in mice administered recombinant BDNF peripherally. Chronic, indwelling osmotic mini-pumps containing either recombinant BDNF or saline were surgically placed in R6/2 or wild-type mice from 4 weeks of age until euthanasia. Neurological evaluation (paw clasping, rotarod performance, locomotor activity in an open field was performed. After transcardial perfusion, histological and immunohistochemical studies were performed. We found that BDNF- treated R6/2 mice survived longer and displayed less severe signs of neurological dysfunction than the vehicle treated ones. Primary outcome measures such as brain volume, striatal atrophy, size and morphology of striatal neurons, neuronal intranuclear inclusions and microglial reaction confirmed a neuroprotective effect of the compound. BDNF was effective in increasing significantly the levels of activated CREB and of BDNF the striatal spiny neurons. Moreover, systemically administered BDNF increased the synthesis of BDNF as demonstrated by RT-PCR, and this might account for the beneficial effects observed in this model.

  20. BDNF mediates improvements in executive function following a 1-year exercise intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Lynn Leckie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Executive function declines with age, but engaging in aerobic exercise may attenuate decline. One mechanism by which aerobic exercise may preserve executive function is through the up-regulation of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF, which also declines with age. The present study examined BDNF as a mediator of the effects of a 1-year walking intervention on executive function in 90 older adults (mean age = 66.82. Participants were randomized to a stretching and toning control group or a moderate intensity walking intervention group. BDNF serum levels and performance on a task-switching paradigm were collected at baseline and follow-up. We found that age moderated the effect of intervention group on changes in BDNF levels, with those in the highest age quartile showing the greatest increase in BDNF after 1-year of moderate intensity walking exercise (p = .036. The mediation analyses revealed that BDNF mediated the effect of the intervention on task-switch accuracy, but did so as a function of age, such that exercise-induced changes in BDNF mediated the effect of exercise on task-switch performance only for individuals over the age of 71. These results demonstrate that both age and BDNF serum levels are important factors to consider when investigating the mechanisms by which exercise interventions influence cognitive outcomes, particularly in elderly populations.

  1. Cardio-respiratory fitness, habitual physical activity and serum brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, James; Ramsbottom, Roger; Ludlow, Helen; Nevill, Alan; Gilder, Michael

    2009-02-20

    Short episodes of high intensity exercise transiently increase serum levels of BDNF in humans, but serum levels of BDNF at rest appear to be lower in more physically active humans with greater levels of energy expenditure. The relationship between serum BDNF concentration, cardio-respiratory fitness (Astrand-Rhyming test estimated VO2 max) and volume of long-term, regular exercise and sporting activity (Baecke Habitual Physical Activity Index) was investigated in 44 men and women between the age range of 18-57 years. In this group an inverse relationship between resting serum BDNF concentration and measures of both estimated VO2 max (r=-0.352; Pcardio-respiratory fitness and habitual exercise are associated with lower resting levels of serum BDNF in healthy humans. This is the first study to demonstrate an inverse relationship between a physiological estimate of cardio-respiratory fitness and serum BDNF.

  2. Distribution of blood lead levels in schoolchildren in selected cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine blood lead levels among children attending schools in selected Cape Peninsula suburbs, and to assess the impact of a reduction in the lead content of petrol. Design. A cross-sectional analytical study of children's blood lead levels and associated risk factors. Setting. Selected inner city, suburban, ...

  3. Analysis of the Expression and Polymorphism of APOE, HSP, BDNF, and GRIN2B Genes Associated with the Neurodegeneration Process in the Pathogenesis of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Nowak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is characterized by optic neuropathy of the RGC or retinal nerve fiber. The aim of this study was to evaluate a relationship between the neurodegenerative genes’ polymorphisms of the APOE (rs449647, BDNF (rs2030324, GRIN2B (rs3764028, and HSP70-1 (rs1043618 and the occurrence risk of POAG and to investigate its effect on allele-specific gene expression. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood. Analysis of the genes’ polymorphisms was performed using PCR-RFLP. The level of mRNA expression was determined by QRT-PCR. We showed a statistically significant association of BDNF and APOE genes’ polymorphisms with a risk of POAG occurrence. There was a statistically significant association of the rs2030324 polymorphism with progression of POAG based on cup disc ratio value and rs1043618 polymorphism based on nerve fiber index and rim area. Furthermore, we found that mean HSP70-1 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the case of individuals with the G/G genotype than in the case of minor allele carriers, that is, G/C and C/C. We also found that BDNF and HSP70-1 expression level are associated with the progression of POAG based on rim area value. In conclusion, our results suggest that BDNF, APOE, and HSP70-1 genes might be associated with a risk of POAG occurrence in the Polish population.

  4. Blood Lead Levels in Captive Giant Pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintle, Nathan J P; Martin-Wintle, Meghan S; Zhou, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hemin

    2018-01-01

    Fifteen giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) from the Chinese Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda (CCRCGP) in Bifengxia, Sichuan, China were analyzed for blood lead concentrations (Pb-B) during the 2017 breeding season. Thirteen of the 15 bears showed Pb-B below the method detection limit (MDL) of 3.3 µg/dL. The two remaining bears, although above the MDL, contained very low concentrations of lead of 3.9 and 4.5 µg/dL. All 15 giant pandas in this analysis had Pb-B concentrations that were within normal background concentrations for mammals in uncontaminated environments. For a threatened species, whose native country is plagued by reports of extremely high air pollution, our findings suggest that giant pandas at the CCRCGP are not absorbing lead at concentrations that would adversely affect their health.

  5. Acute exercise has a general facilitative effect on cognitive function: A combined ERP temporal dynamics and BDNF study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Alderman, Brandon L; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Chen, Feng-Tzu

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether acute moderate intensity exercise results in a general or selective improvement in cognitive function. In addition, multiple stimulus-locked ERP components and serum BDNF levels were assessed to investigate potential neurobiological mechanisms underlying acute exercise effects on select aspects of cognitive performance. Thirty young adults were recruited and participated in exercise and reading control sessions in a counterbalanced order. Following treatments, the Stroop task was administrated, and N1, N2, P3, and N450 components of the ERP waveform were recorded and analyzed. Additionally, blood samples were withdrawn immediately following exercise or rest conditions prior to administration of the Stroop task. Acute exercise facilitated response times for both Stroop congruent and incongruent task conditions, with a similar magnitude of improvement. Larger P3 and reduced N450 amplitudes as well as decreased N450 latency were observed following exercise, but no effects on N1 and N2 components were found. This dose of exercise also did not influence serum BDNF levels. These findings suggest that moderate intensity acute exercise results in a generalized rather than selective improvement in cognition. The facilitation may be related to an increase in attentional or neural resource allocation and conflict detection processes reflected by longer latency endogenous components (P3, N450), but is not influenced by earlier sensory and monitoring processes revealed by earlier ERP components or by serum levels of BDNF. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Change in blood glucose level in rats after immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, R. D.; Baskakova, G. M.; Chepurnov, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on male white rats divided into four groups. In group one the blood glucose level was determined immediately after immobilization. In the other three groups, two hours following immobilization, the blood glucose level was determined every 20 minutes for 3 hours 40 minutes by the glucose oxidase method. Preliminary immobilization for 2 hours removed the increase in the blood glucose caused by the stress reaction. By the 2nd hour of immobilization in the presence of continuing stress, the blood glucose level stabilized and varied within 42 + or - 5.5 and 47 + or - 8.1 mg %. Within 2 hours after the immobilization, the differences in the blood glucose level of the rats from the control groups were statistically insignificant.

  7. A retrospective cohort study of blood hemoglobin levels in blood donors and competitive rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, P. I.; Ullum, H.; Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    (36 962 males), and 3.9% of the males had a blood hemoglobin above 10.5 mM, equalling a hematocrit of 51% and, 1.6% of the females had hemoglobin above 9.7 mM, corresponding to a hematocrit above 47%. One thousand four hundred and six rowers (1116 males) were investigated and 10.4% of the males and 8......To investigate the distribution of blood hemoglobin levels in healthy blood donors and elite athletes, a retrospective cohort study from 2001 to 2005 of candidate blood donors and elite rowers in Denmark was performed. Eighty-five thousand eight hundred and forty-six blood donors were identified.......3% of the females demonstrated values above the recommended limit for athletic competition. Thus, the prevalence of a high hemoglobin value was greater in the rowers, of both gender, than in the candidate blood donors (Phemoglobin levels in blood are seen regularly in normal...

  8. Short Communication - Blood Magnesium levels in migraineurs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Some probable mechanisms have been described to the relationship between magnesium (Mg) level and migraine headache attacks. In the study reported here, we sought to determine the total Mg serum status of patients with migraine within and between the headache attacks and compare it with ...

  9. Fasting Blood Glucose Levels in Different Haemoglobin Genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the different Hb genotypes (HBAA, HBAS, HBSC and HBSS) the following mean fasting blood glucose levels were obtained respectively: 71.9±8.Omg/dl 73.4±7.4mgldl, 94.7±6.Imgldl and 94.6±5.9mgldl. There was a significant difference between the mean fasting blood glucose concentrations of blood groups O,A,B and ...

  10. Efficient use of a translation start codon in BDNF exon I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Indrek; Tuvikene, Jürgen; Lekk, Ingrid; Timmusk, Tõnis

    2015-09-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene contains a number of 5' exons alternatively spliced with a common 3' exon. BDNF protein is synthesized from alternative transcripts as a prepro-precursor encoded by the common 3' exon IX, which has a translation start site 21 bp downstream of the splicing site. BDNF mRNAs containing exon I are an exception to this arrangement as the last three nucleotides of this exon constitute an in-frame AUG. Here, we show that this AUG is efficiently used for translation initiation in PC12 cells and cultured cortical neurons. Use of exon I-specific AUG produces higher levels of BDNF protein than use of the common translation start site, resulting from a higher translation rate. No differences in protein degradation, constitutive or regulated secretion were detected between BDNF isoforms with alternative 5' termini. As the BDNF promoter preceding exon I is known to be highly regulated by neuronal activity, our results suggest that the function of this translation start site may be efficient stimulus-dependent synthesis of BDNF protein. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene contains multiple untranslated 5' exons alternatively spliced to one common protein-coding 3' exon. However, exon I contains an in-frame ATG in a favorable translation context. Here, we show that use of this ATG is associated with more efficient protein synthesis than the commonly used ATG in exon IX. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  11. Localization of BDNF mRNA with the Huntington's disease protein in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Moses V

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have implicated reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease. Mutant huntingtin (Htt protein was previously reported to decrease BDNF gene transcription and axonal transport of BDNF. We recently showed that wild-type Htt is associated with the Argonaute 2 microRNA-processing enzyme involved in gene silencing. In dendrites, Htt co-localizes with components of neuronal granules and mRNAs, indicating that it might play a role in post-transcriptional processing/transport of dendritic mRNAs. Results We conducted imaging experiments in cultured cortical neurons to demonstrate the co-localization of endogenous Htt and BDNF mRNA in fixed cells, and co-trafficking of BDNF 3'UTR mRNA with endogenous and fluorescently tagged Htt in live neurons. We used an enhanced technique that combines FISH and immunofluorescent staining to co-localize BDNF mRNA with Htt, Ago2, CPEB and dynein in thick vibratome sections of the rat cortex. Conclusions In cultured neurons and sections of the rat cortex, we found BDNF mRNA associated with Htt and components of neuronal RNA granules, which are centers for regulating RNA transport and local translation. Htt may play a role in post-transcriptional transport/targeting of mRNA for BDNF, thus contributing to neurotrophic support and neuron survival.

  12. Blood Lead Levels in Young Children: US, 2009-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Leland F; Niles, Justin K; Kaufman, Harvey W

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate trends in blood lead levels in children age, this Quest Diagnostics Health Trends report builds on previously reported National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data with a much larger national group and adds more detail and novel assessments. This report describes the results from a 6-year retrospective study (May 2009-April 2015) based on >5 million blood lead level results (including >3.8 million venous results) from children income ratios (PIRs), Medicaid enrollment status, and geographic regions. Among children levels ≥5.0 μg/dL (high). There were significant differences in high blood lead levels based on sex, pre-1950s housing construction quintiles, and PIR 5 (all P levels and blood lead levels ≥10.0 μg/dL (very high). Generally, levels declined over time for all groups. Examination of more than 5 million venous blood lead level results in children younger than 6 years old allowed for a robust, detailed analysis of blood lead level group results by geography and other criteria that are prohibited with the narrower National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database. Progress in reducing the burden of lead toxicity is a public health success story that is incomplete with some identified factors posing larger, ongoing challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fluctuation of zonulin levels in blood vs stability of antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Vojdani, Aristo; Vojdani, Elroy; Kharrazian, Datis

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the measurement of zonulin level and antibodies of zonulin and other tight junction proteins in the blood of controls and celiac disease patients. METHODS This study was conducted to assess the variability or stability of zonulin levels vs IgA and IgG antibodies against zonulin in blood samples from 18 controls at 0, 6, 24 and 30 h after blood draw. We also measured zonulin level as well as zonulin, occludin, vinculin, aquaporin 4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein antibodies...

  14. Early raise of BDNF in hippocampus suggests induction of posttranscriptional mechanisms by antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barlati Sergio

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neurotrophin BDNF has been implicated in the regulation of neuroplasticity, gene expression, and synaptic function in the adult brain, as well as in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders and the mechanism of action of antidepressants. Antidepressant treatments have been shown to increase the expression of BDNF mRNA, although the changes measured were found to be different depending on various factors. A few studies only have measured levels of BDNF protein after antidepressant treatments, and poor correlation was found between mRNA and protein changes. We studied the time course of expression of BDNF mRNA and protein during drug treatments, in order to elucidate the temporal profile of regulation of this effector and whether mRNA and protein levels correlate. Rat groups were treated for 1, 2 or 3 weeks with fluoxetine or reboxetine; in additional groups drug treatment was followed by a washout week (3+1. Total BDNF mRNA was measured by Real Time PCR, pro- and mature BDNF proteins were measured by Western blot. Results We found that mature BDNF protein is induced more rapidly than mRNA, by both drugs in hippocampus (weeks 1–2 and by reboxetine in prefrontal/frontal cortex (week 1. The temporal profile of BDNF protein expression was largely inconsistent with that of mRNA, which followed the protein induction and reached a peak at week 3. Conclusion These results suggest that BDNF protein is rapidly elevated by antidepressant treatments by posttranscriptional mechanisms, and that induction of BDNF mRNA is a slower process.

  15. Correlation between Nerve Growth Factor (NGF with Brain Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF in Ischemic Stroke Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Widodo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a family of polypeptides that play critical role during neuronal development, appear to mediate protective role on neurorepair in ischemic stroke. Naturally in adult brain neurorepair process consist of: angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and neuronal plasticity, it can also be stimulated by endogenous neurorepair. In this study we observed correlation between NGF and BDNF ischemic stroke patient’s onset: 7-30 and over 30 days. Methods: This is cross sectional study on 46 subjects aged 38 – 74 years old with ischemic stroke from The Indonesian Central Hospital of Army Gatot Subroto Jakarta. Diagnosis of ischemic stroke was made using clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI by neurologist. Subjects were divided into 2 groups based on stroke onset: 7 – 30 days (Group A: 19 subjects and > 30 days (Group B: 27 Subjects. Serum NGF levels were measured with ELISA method and BDNF levels were measured using multiplex method with Luminex Magpix. Results: Levels of NGF and BDNF were significantly different between onset group A and B (NGF p= 0.022, and BDNF p=0.008, with mean levels NGF in group A higher than group B, indicating that BDNF levels is lower in group A than group B. There was no significant correlation between NGF and BDNF levels in all groups. Conclusion: The variations in neurotrophic factor levels reflect an endogenous attempt at neuroprotection against biochemical and molecular changes after ischemic stroke. NGF represents an early marker of brain injury while BDNF recovery is most prominent during the first 14 days after onsite but continuous for more than 30 days. There is no significant correlation between NGF and BDNF in each group.  

  16. Positive feedback loop of autocrine BDNF from microglia causes prolonged microglia activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Zeng, Lulu; Yu, Tingting; Xu, Yongming; Pu, Shaofeng; Du, Dongping; Jiang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Microglia, which represent the immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), have long been a subject of study in CNS disease research. Substantial evidence indicates that microglial activation functions as a strong neuro-inflammatory response in neuropathic pain, promoting the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. In addition, activated microglia release brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which acts as a powerful cytokine. In this study, we performed a series of in vitro experiments to examine whether a positive autocrine feedback loop existed between microglia-derived BDNF and subsequent microglial activation as well as the mechanisms underlying this positive feedback loop. Because ATP is a classic inducer of microglial activation, firstly, we examined ATP-activated microglia in the present study. Secondly, we used TrkB/Fc, the BDNF sequester, to eliminate the effects of endogenous BDNF. ATP-stimulated microglia without BDNF was examined. Finally, we used exogenous BDNF to further determine whether BDNF could directly activate BV2 microglia. In all experiments, to quantify BV2 microglia activation, the protein levels of CD11b, a microglial activation marker, were measured by western blot. A Transwell migration assay was used to examine microglial migration. To assess the synthesis and release of proinflammatory cytokines, western blot was used to measure BDNF synthesis, and ELISA was used to quantify TNF-α release. In our present research, we have observed that ATP dramatically activates microglia, enhancing microglial migration, increasing the synthesis of BDNF and up-regulating the release of TNF-α. Microglial activation is inhibited following the sequestration of endogenous BDNF, resulting in impaired microglial migration and decreased TNF-α release. Furthermore, exogenous BDNF can also activate microglia to subsequently enhance migration and increase TNF-α release. Therefore, we suggest that microglial

  17. Circadian variation in 5-hydroxytryptamine levels in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerbier, I; von Mayersbach, H

    1976-01-01

    This study investigates, on a circadian basis, the variation in blood serotonin for a group of 64 healthy persons (volunteers of a Bundeswehr-Ausbildungskompanie); a pronounced circadian rhythm of 5-HT has been found. The variation in daily absolute levels is influenced by novelty stress; by this we refer to the stress resulting from initial contact between the person sampling blood and the patient. Obviously this diminishes as blood is repeatedly withdrawn from the same individual. Exposure to this situation results in an overall decrease in serotonin levels and a modification of the circadian pattern.

  18. A Large, Cross-sectional Observational Study of Serum BDNF, Cognitive Function, and Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki eShimada

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The clinical relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and cognitive function or mild cognitive impairment (MCI is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between serum BDNF and cognitive function and MCI, and determine whether serum BDNF level might be a useful biomarker for assessing risk for MCI in older people.Materials and Methods: A total of 4463 individuals aged 65 years or older (mean age 72 years participating in the study. We measured performance in a battery of neuropsychological and cognitive function tests; serum BDNF concentration.Results: Eight hundred twenty-seven participants (18.8% had MCI. After adjustment for sex, age, education level, diabetes, and current smoking, serum BDNF was associated with poorer performance in the story memory, and digit symbol substitution task scores. Serum BDNF was marginally associated with the presence of MCI (OR, 95% CI: 1.41, 1.00–1.99 when BDNF was 1.5 SD lower than the mean value standardized for sex and age, education level, diabetes, and current smoking.Conclusion: Low serum BDNF was associated with lower cognitive test scores and MCI. Future prospective studies should establish the discriminative value of serum BDNF for the risk of MCI.

  19. Brachial blood flow under relative levels of blood flow restriction is decreased in a nonlinear fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, J Grant; Ade, Carl J; Black, Christopher D; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2018-05-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR), the application of external pressure to occlude venous return and restrict arterial inflow, has been shown to increase muscular size and strength when combined with low-load resistance exercise. BFR in the research setting uses a wide range of pressures, applying a pressure based upon an individual's systolic pressure or a percentage of occlusion pressure; not a directly determined reduction in blood flow. The relationship between relative pressure and blood flow has not been established. To measure blood flow in the arm under relative levels of BFR. Forty-five people (18-40 years old) participated. Arterial occlusion pressure in the right arm was measured using a 5-cm pneumatic cuff. Blood flow in the brachial artery was measured at rest and at pressures between 10% and 90% of occlusion using ultrasound. Blood flow decreased in a nonlinear, stepped fashion. Blood flow decreased at 10% of occlusion and remained constant until decreasing again at 40%, where it remained until 90% of occlusion. The decrease in brachial blood flow is not proportional to the applied relative pressure. The prescription of blood flow restriction should take into account the stimulus provided at each relative level of blood flow. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. BDNF Overexpression Exhibited Bilateral Effect on Neural Behavior in SCT Mice Associated with AKT Signal Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Rong; Dai, Ping; Wang, Shu-Fen; Song, Shu-Hua; Wang, Hang-Ping; Zhao, Ya; Wang, Ting-Hua; Liu, Jia

    2016-10-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI), a severe health problem in worldwide, was commonly associated with functional disability and reduced quality of life. As the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was substantial event in injured spinal cord, we hypothesized whether BDNF-overexpression could be in favor of the recovery of both sensory function and hindlimb function after SCI. By using BDNF-overexpression transgene mice [CMV-BDNF 26 (CB26) mice] we assessed the role of BDNF on the recovery of neurological behavior in spinal cord transection (SCT) model. BMS score and tail-flick test was performed to evaluate locomotor function and sensory function, respectively. Immunohistochemistry was employed to detect the location and the expression of BDNF, NeuN, 5-HT, GAP-43, GFAP as well as CGRP, and the level of p-AKT and AKT were examined through western blot analysis. BDNF overexpressing resulted in significant locomotor functional recovery from 21 to 28 days after SCT, compared with wild type (WT)+SCT group. Meanwhile, the NeuN, 5-HT and GAP-43 positive cells were markedly increased in ventral horn in BDNF overexpression animals, compared with WT mice with SCT. Moreover, the crucial molecular signal, p-AKT/AKT has been largely up-regulated, which is consistent with the improvement of locomotor function. However, in this study, thermal hyperpathia encountered in sham (CB26) group and WT+SCT mice and further aggravated in CB26 mice after SCT. Also, following SCT, the significant augment of positive-GFAP astrocytes and CGRP fibers were found in WT+SCT mice, and further increase was seen in BDNF over-expression transgene mice. BDNF-overexpression may not only facilitate the recovery of locomotor function via AKT pathway, but also contributed simultaneously to thermal hyperalgesia after SCT.

  1. Associations between cadmium levels in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension among Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Rochelle E; Levallois, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    Cadmium has been inconsistently related to blood pressure and hypertension. The present study seeks to clarify the relationship between cadmium levels found in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension in a large sample of adults. The study sample included participants ages 20 through 79 from multiple cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 through 2013) with measured blood cadmium (n=10,099) and urinary cadmium (n=6988). Linear regression models examined the association between natural logarithm transformed cadmium levels and blood pressure (separate models for systolic and diastolic blood pressure) after controlling for known covariates. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between cadmium and hypertension. Models were run separately by sex, smoking status, and body mass index category. Men had higher mean systolic (114.8 vs. 110.8mmHg, pcadmium levels (0.48 vs. 0.38µg/L, pcadmium were associated with increased systolic (0.70mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25-1.16, pcadmium, blood pressure and hypertension were not significant in overall models. Model stratification revealed significant and negative associations between urinary cadmium and hypertension among current smokers (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44-0.85, pcadmium levels, blood pressure and hypertension. However, the significance and direction of this association differs by sex, smoking status, and body mass index category. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Blood lead levels following consumption of game meat in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Sucato, Sabrina; Consonni, Dario; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Moretto, Angelo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to measure lead (Pb) levels in blood (Pb-blood) in consumers of game meat, taking into account other possible sources of lead exposure. A spot blood sample was obtained from 95 subjects, and a questionnaire was used to collect general information and data on game meat consumption, hunting, wine drinking and other possible sources of lead exposure. Pb-blood was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Pb-blood was not influenced by age, sex, residence in an urban or rural area, consumption of game meat, tobacco smoking or hobbies associated with potential exposure to lead, and median Pb-blood was 1.7 (5th-95th percentile 1.0-5.3)µg/dL and 3.4 (0.9-6.1)µg/dL for game meat non-eaters and eater, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis (containing the covariates sex, age, hunting, wine drinking, game meat consumption, tobacco smoking, shooting range, and occupational exposure) found an association with hunting (Pb-blood almost double in hunters) and wine drinking (40% higher in drinkers) but not with consumption of game meat or other parameters. Whether the higher Pb-blood level was due to inhalation of lead fumes while shooting with lead ammunition, to handling lead ammunition or both could not be ascertained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Trend of blood lactate level in acute aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfantalab, Peyman; Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Shadnia, Shahin; Zamani, Nasim; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Mahdavinejad, Arezou; Damaneh, Behrooz Hashemi

    2017-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning is common in the developing countries. There is no specific antidote for the treatment of acute AlP poisoning. Early diagnosis of poisoning and outcome predictors may facilitate treatment decisions. The objective of this study was to determine the trend of blood lactate level in acute AlP poisoning to evaluate its role as a prognostic factor. This was a prospective study on acute AlP intoxicated patients during one year. Demographic data, clinical and laboratory data on admission, and outcome were recorded in a self-made questionnaire. Blood lactate levels were analyzed every two hours for 24 hours. Thirty-nine (27 male, 12 female) patients were included in the study. The mortality rate was 38.5%. The mean blood pressure, pulse rate, blood pH and serum bicarbonate level were significantly different between the survivors and non-survivors groups. Blood lactate level was significantly higher in the non-survivors group during 8 to 16 hours post ingestion. Blood lactate level could be used as an index of severity of acute AlP poisoning.

  4. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and gray matter volume in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, S; Aggio, V; Hoogenboezem, T A; Ambrée, O; de Wit, H; Wijkhuijs, A J M; Locatelli, C; Colombo, C; Arolt, V; Drexhage, H A; Benedetti, F

    2017-02-01

    Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric condition characterized by grey matter (GM) volumes reduction. Neurotrophic factors have been suggested to play a role in the neuroprogressive changes during the illness course. In particular peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed as a potential biomarker related to disease activity and neuroprogression in BD. The aim of our study was to investigate if serum levels of BDNF are associated with GM volumes in BD patients and healthy controls (HC). We studied 36 inpatients affected by a major depressive episode in course of BD type I and 17 HC. Analysis of variance was performed to investigate the effect of diagnosis on GM volumes in the whole brain. Threshold for significance was Pbrain areas, encompassing the caudate head, superior temporal gyrus, insula, fusiform gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex. The interaction analysis between BDNF levels and diagnosis showed a significant effect in the middle frontal gyrus. HC reported higher BDNF levels associated with higher GM volumes, whereas no association between BDNF and GM volumes was observed in BD. Our study seems to suggest that although the production of BDNF is increased in BD possibly to prevent and repair neural damage, its effects could be hampered by underlying neuroinflammatory processes interfering with the neurodevelopmental role of BDNF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Associations between cadmium levels in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension among Canadian adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, Rochelle E.; Levallois, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cadmium has been inconsistently related to blood pressure and hypertension. The present study seeks to clarify the relationship between cadmium levels found in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension in a large sample of adults. Methods: The study sample included participants ages 20 through 79 from multiple cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 through 2013) with measured blood cadmium (n=10,099) and urinary cadmium (n=6988). Linear regression models examined the association between natural logarithm transformed cadmium levels and blood pressure (separate models for systolic and diastolic blood pressure) after controlling for known covariates. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between cadmium and hypertension. Models were run separately by sex, smoking status, and body mass index category. Results: Men had higher mean systolic (114.8 vs. 110.8 mmHg, p<0.01) and diastolic (74.0 vs. 69.6 mmHg, p<0.01) blood pressure compared to women. Although, geometric mean blood (0.46 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) and creatinine-adjusted standardized urinary cadmium levels (0.48 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) were higher among those with hypertension, these differences were no longer significant after adjustment for age, sex and smoking status. In overall regression models, increases in blood cadmium were associated with increased systolic (0.70 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25–1.16, p<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (0.74 mmHg, 95% CI=0.30–1.19, p<0.01). The associations between urinary cadmium, blood pressure and hypertension were not significant in overall models. Model stratification revealed significant and negative associations between urinary cadmium and hypertension among current smokers (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44–0.85, p<0.01), particularly female current smokers (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.32–0.85, p=0.01). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a significant association between cadmium levels, blood pressure

  6. Association between blood lead levels and blood pressures in a non-smoking healthy Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Rae; Ko, Ki Dong; Hwang, In Cheol; Suh, Heuy Sun; Kim, Kyoung Kon

    2017-09-01

    The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) has been performed every 3 years in Korea to help prevent cardiovascular mortality in the general population. Previous studies showed an association between blood lead levels and cardiovascular mortality. In order to assess the relationship between blood lead concentration and blood pressure in the healthy general population, we investigated whether blood lead levels were related to blood pressure in a non-smoking healthy population without any known medical diseases in the 2013 KNHANES. 896 (mean age 40.55±13.83 years; body mass index 23.06±3.33 kg/m 2 ) subjects who had no known diseases were included among 8018 subjects. Exclusion criteria were: hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, cerebrovascular events, renal insufficiency, liver cirrhosis, thyroid dysfunction, any cardiovascular or renal disease, and any malignancy. Blood pressures were measured three times by sphygmomanometers, 5 min apart. Blood pressures were then expressed as the average between the second and third values. Height, weight, waist circumferences and blood pressure, as well as total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), white blood cell count and blood lead levels were measured. In addition, dietary components were analysed by 24 hour recall. The association between log blood lead levels and systolic/diastolic pressure was stronger after it was controlled for age, sex, education, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (p=0.048, 0.002). Furthermore, the association between log blood lead levels and systolic pressure (p=0.048) and diastolic pressure (p=0.002) was more evident when controlled for age, sex, education, BMI, waist circumference, FPG, AST and ALT. Blood lead levels are significant determinants of systolic and diastolic blood pressure

  7. The effect of childhood trauma on serum BDNF in bipolar depression is modulated by the serotonin promoter genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Francesco; Ambrée, Oliver; Locatelli, Clara; Lorenzi, Cristina; Poletti, Sara; Colombo, Cristina; Arolt, Volker

    2017-08-24

    In healthy humans, both childhood trauma and the short form of the serotonin promoter transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR) are associated with lower levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In subjects with bipolar disorder (BD), lower levels of BDNF and a higher degree of childhood trauma were observed compared with healthy controls. However, is still unknown if the functional 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms exerts an effect on both abnormalities. In 40 inpatients affected by a major depressive episode in the course of BD, we genotyped 5-HTTLPR, measured serum BDNF with ELISA, and assessed early adversities by the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ). Data were analyzed in the context of the general linear model correcting for age, sex, ongoing lithium treatment, severity of current depression, and CTQ minimization/denial scores to investigate the effect of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and childhood trauma on BDNF levels. Early trauma were negatively associated with BDNF serum levels (higher CTQ scores, lower BDNF; p=0.0019). 5-HTTLPR l/l homozygotes showed significantly higher BDNF levels than 5-HTTLPR*s carriers (30.57±6.13 vs 26.82±6.41; p=0.0309). A separate-slopes analysis showed that 5-HTTLPR significantly influenced the relationship between early trauma and adult BDNF (interaction of 5-HTTLPR with CTQ scores: p=0.0023), due to a significant relationship between trauma and BDNF in 5-HTTLPR*s carriers, but not among l/l homozygotes. Putatively detrimental effects of childhood trauma exposure on adult BDNF serum levels are influenced by 5-HTTLPR genotype in patients affected by BD. Possible mechanisms include epigenetic modulation of BDNF gene expression, due to different reactivity to stressors in 5-HTTLPR genotype groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Postresuscitative Changes of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF Protein Expression: Association With Neuronal Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sh. Avrushchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: to evaluate expression level of BDNF and its association with the postresuscitative neuronal death in highly hypoxia-sensitive brain regions.Materials and methods. Cardiac arrest in adult albino male rats was evoked by intrathoracic clamping of supracardiac bundle of vessels for 10 min. Pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus and Purkinje cells of the cerebellum were analyzed at various time points after resuscitation (days 1, 4, 7, 14. Shame-operated rats served as controls. The expression of BDNF protein was immunohistochemically determined. The BDNF expression level was determined by evalution on the base of the average optical density. The number of neurons with different BDNF expression levels and the total number of neurons per 1 mm of the layer length were computed. Image analysis systems (Intel personal computer, Olympus BX-41 microscope, ImageScopeM, ImageJ 1,48v and MS Excel 2007 software packages were used in the study. Data statistical processing was performed with the aid of Statistica 7.0 program and Kolmogorov-Smirnov λ-test, Mann-Whitney U-test and Student's t-test.Results. The dynamics of postresuscitative shifts of BDNF immunoreactivity in neuronal populations of hippocampal pyramidal cells and cerebellar Purkinje cells was established. It was shown that the level of BDNF expression within the two neuronal populations decreased, that was accompanied by neuronal death. In the Purkinje cell population the neuronal death occurred by the 4th day after resuscitation, while in the hippocampus, it occurs only by the 7th day. Notably, only BDNF-negative neurons or neurons with low level of BDNF expression died in both neuronal populations.Conclusion. The results of the study indicate the existence of an interrelation between the shifts in BDNF expression and the postresuscitative neuronal death. It was shown that only the cells with none or poor BDNF expression underwent death in highly hypoxia-sensitive neuronal

  9. Increased oxidative stress as a mechanism for decreased BDNF levels in acute manic episodes Aumento do estresse oxidativo como um mecanismo para a diminuição dos níveis de BDNF em episódios maníacos agudos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Kapczinski

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: There is a growing amount of data indicating that alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and increased oxidative stress may play a role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. In light of recent evidence demonstrating that brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels are decreased in situations of increased oxidative stress, we have examined the correlation between serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, a measure of lipid peroxidation, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in bipolar disorder patients during acute mania and in healthy controls. RESULTS: Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were negatively correlated in bipolar disorder patients (r = -0.56; p = 0.001, whereas no significant correlation was observed in the control group.. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that alterations in oxidative status may be mechanistically associated with abnormal low levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor observed in individuals with bipolar disorder.OBJETIVO E MÉTODO: Existem crescentes evidências indicando que alterações no fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro e aumento do estresse oxidativo podem estar envolvidos na fisiopatologia do transtorno bipolar. Considerando os achados recentes de que os níveis de fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro estão diminuídos em situações de aumento de estresse oxidativo, nós testamos a correlação entre os níveis séricos de substâncias reativas do ácido tiobarbitúrico, um índice de peroxidação lipídica, e os níveis séricos de fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro em pacientes portadores de transtorno bipolar durante mania aguda e em controles saudáveis. RESULTADOS: Os níveis séricos de substâncias reativas do ácido tiobarbitúrico e fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro apresentaram uma correlação negativa em pacientes bipolares (r = -0,56; p = 0,001, enquanto n

  10. Redox balance and blood elemental levels in atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napoleao, P.; Lopes, P.A.; Santos, M.; Steghens, J.-P.; Viegas-Crespo, A.M.; Pinheiro, T.

    2006-01-01

    Oxidation of lipids and proteins represents a causative event for atherogenesis, which can be opposed by antioxidant activity. Elements, such as, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se can be involved in both mechanisms. Thus, evaluation of blood elemental levels, easily detected by PIXE, and of redox parameters may be useful in assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. A group of stable patients suffering from atherosclerosis, was matched with a cohort of normo-tensive and -lipidemic volunteers. Although no major discrepancies were observed for trace elemental levels in blood, increased concentrations of K and Ca were found in atherosclerotic group. Patients presented enhance levels of antioxidant (α-tocopherol) and decreased of protein oxidation (protein carbonyls), while for the lipid oxidation marker (malondialdehyde) no variation was observed. This study contributes to a better understanding of atherosclerosis development and its relationship with blood elemental levels, and set basis for further clinical trials with pathological groups in acute phase

  11. Redox balance and blood elemental levels in atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napoleao, P. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental and Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal) and Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. no 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: pnapoleao@itn.pt; Lopes, P.A. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental and Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Santos, M. [Centro de Quimica e Bioquimica and Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Steghens, J.-P. [Federation de Biochimie, Hopital Edouard Herriot, 3 Place d' Arsonval, 69437 03 Lyon (France); Viegas-Crespo, A.M. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental and Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Pinheiro, T. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. no 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz, 1700 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2006-08-15

    Oxidation of lipids and proteins represents a causative event for atherogenesis, which can be opposed by antioxidant activity. Elements, such as, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se can be involved in both mechanisms. Thus, evaluation of blood elemental levels, easily detected by PIXE, and of redox parameters may be useful in assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. A group of stable patients suffering from atherosclerosis, was matched with a cohort of normo-tensive and -lipidemic volunteers. Although no major discrepancies were observed for trace elemental levels in blood, increased concentrations of K and Ca were found in atherosclerotic group. Patients presented enhance levels of antioxidant ({alpha}-tocopherol) and decreased of protein oxidation (protein carbonyls), while for the lipid oxidation marker (malondialdehyde) no variation was observed. This study contributes to a better understanding of atherosclerosis development and its relationship with blood elemental levels, and set basis for further clinical trials with pathological groups in acute phase.

  12. Relationship of blood lead levels to obstetric outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angell, N.F.; Lavery, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Lead represents a significant environmental hazard to pregnant women and their offspring. Exposure to high environmental levels of lead has been associated with spontaneous abortion, premature rupture of fetal membranes (PROM), and preterm delivery. The relationship between lower exposures and obstetric complications is unknown. The concentration of lead in the blood was measured in 635 specimens of umbilical cord blood collected at delivery. No relationship was found between concentrations of lead in cord blood and the incidence of PROM, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, or meconium staining. Maternal and infant capillary blood was collected 24 hours post partum from 154 of these deliveries. The concentrations of lead in the blood did not vary significantly among cord, infant, and maternal samples, and the three measurements were highly correlated. Levels of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnP) were increased in cord blood as compared with mothers' blood, but no concentration-response relationships between the ratio of cord ZnP to maternal ZnP and lead were found.

  13. Maternal blood metal levels and fetal markers of metabolic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Shapiro, Gabriel D.; Fisher, Mandy; Taback, Shayne; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renee; Fraser, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to metals commonly found in the environment has been hypothesized to be associated with measures of fetal growth but the epidemiological literature is limited. The Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study recruited 2001 women during the first trimester of pregnancy from 10 Canadian sites. Our objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to metals (lead, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury) and fetal metabolic function. Average maternal metal concentrations in 1st and 3rd trimester blood samples were used to represent prenatal metals exposure. Leptin and adiponectin were measured in 1363 cord blood samples and served as markers of fetal metabolic function. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between metals and both high (≥90%) and low (≤10%) fetal adiponectin and leptin levels. Leptin levels were significantly higher in female infants compared to males. A significant relationship between maternal blood cadmium and odds of high leptin was observed among males but not females in adjusted models. When adjusting for birth weight z-score, lead was associated with an increased odd of high leptin. No other significant associations were found at the top or bottom 10th percentile in either leptin or adiponectin models. This study supports the proposition that maternal levels of cadmium influence cord blood adipokine levels in a sex-dependent manner. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and to determine how such findings at birth will translate into childhood anthropometric measures. - Highlights: • We determined relationships between maternal metal levels and cord blood adipokines. • Cord blood leptin levels were higher among female than male infants. • Maternal cadmium was associated with elevated leptin in male, not female infants. • No significant associations were observed between metals and

  14. Maternal blood metal levels and fetal markers of metabolic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian [Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Dodds, Linda, E-mail: l.dodds@dal.ca [Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Arbuckle, Tye E. [Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Ettinger, Adrienne S. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Shapiro, Gabriel D. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Fisher, Mandy [Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Taback, Shayne [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Bouchard, Maryse F. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Monnier, Patricia [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Dallaire, Renee [Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Fraser, William D. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Exposure to metals commonly found in the environment has been hypothesized to be associated with measures of fetal growth but the epidemiological literature is limited. The Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study recruited 2001 women during the first trimester of pregnancy from 10 Canadian sites. Our objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to metals (lead, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury) and fetal metabolic function. Average maternal metal concentrations in 1st and 3rd trimester blood samples were used to represent prenatal metals exposure. Leptin and adiponectin were measured in 1363 cord blood samples and served as markers of fetal metabolic function. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between metals and both high (≥90%) and low (≤10%) fetal adiponectin and leptin levels. Leptin levels were significantly higher in female infants compared to males. A significant relationship between maternal blood cadmium and odds of high leptin was observed among males but not females in adjusted models. When adjusting for birth weight z-score, lead was associated with an increased odd of high leptin. No other significant associations were found at the top or bottom 10th percentile in either leptin or adiponectin models. This study supports the proposition that maternal levels of cadmium influence cord blood adipokine levels in a sex-dependent manner. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and to determine how such findings at birth will translate into childhood anthropometric measures. - Highlights: • We determined relationships between maternal metal levels and cord blood adipokines. • Cord blood leptin levels were higher among female than male infants. • Maternal cadmium was associated with elevated leptin in male, not female infants. • No significant associations were observed between metals and

  15. AP-1 Transcription Factors Mediate BDNF-Positive Feedback Loop in Cortical Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvikene, Jürgen; Pruunsild, Priit; Orav, Ester; Esvald, Eli-Eelika; Timmusk, Tõnis

    2016-01-27

    obtaining sufficient BDNF levels necessary for various TrkB signaling-dependent physiological outcomes in neurons. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/361290-16$15.00/0.

  16. Demethylation of c-MYB binding site mediates upregulation of Bdnf IV in cocaine-conditioned place preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Weiping; Wang, Jiesi; Zhang, Ke; Teng, Huajing; Li, Chong; Szyf, Moshe; Sun, Zhong Sheng; Zhao, Mei

    2016-02-25

    Abnormal BDNF signaling contributes to the structural and behavioral plasticity induced by drugs of abuse. However, the mechanisms regulating expression of Bdnf in drug addiction remain elusive. In the present study, using the conditioned place preference (CPP) model, we showed that expression of Bdnf IV is upregulated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of conditioned animals while Bdnf I is upregulated in cocaine-treated mice irrespective of conditioning. The methylation level of a putative c-MYB binding site in the promoter region of Bdnf IV was significantly decreased in the NAc under cocaine CPP conditioning but remained unchanged without conditioning, concurrently with increased binding of c-MYB to this site. Exon IV promoter/luciferase reporter assays revealed that transactivation of Bdnf by c-MYB was blocked by methylation of this c-MYB binding site. Administration of methionine, a precursor of SAM, inhibited cocaine CPP, reversed demethylation of c-MYB binding site and induction of Bdnf IV expression by cocaine CPP. Our results imply that Bdnf IV demethylation at c-MYB binding site is involved in cocaine-triggered seeking behavior, whereas Bdnf I responds to the immediate pharmacological effects of cocaine.

  17. Effects of blood lead and cadmium levels on homocysteine level in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, R; Zheng, Y-F; Bu, J-G; Zhang, Y-Y; Fu, S-L; Wang, X-G; Guo, L-L; Zhang, J-R

    2017-01-01

    We studied the effect of non-occupational exposure to lead and cadmium on homocysteine level in plasma. Homocysteine is a marker for plasma folate folic acid metabolism in urban populations. 159 individuals from Beijing, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Shanghai with no history of close exposure to heavy metals and no history of metabolic diseases were enrolled to participate in this study. Blood lead and cadmium levels were detected using ICP-MS method and the level of homocysteine was also measured using enzyme method. Our results showed that blood lead and cadmium levels in males were significantly higher than those in females. Also, blood lead and cadmium levels in smokers were higher than those in non-smokers; homocysteine level was significantly higher in smokers as well. According to blood lead and cadmium levels, cases were divided into four groups. Our results showed that a surge in blood lead and cadmium levels could result in an increase in homocysteine level. We concluded that in the Chinese population, smoking and gender might be the risk factors for elevated levels of lead and cadmium. Meanwhile, blood lead and cadmium levels may influence the homocysteine levels in the body. It is possible to speculate that non-occupational exposure to lead and cadmium, by increasing the homocysteine levels, negatively affect the cardiovascular and nervous system.

  18. Sphingosine Kinase 2 Inhibition and Blood Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Emily A.; Congdon, Molly D.; Thorpe, Steven B.; Tomsig, Jose L.; Santos, Webster L.; Lynch, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) levels are significantly higher in blood and lymph than in tissues. This S1P concentration difference is necessary for proper lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid tissue and to maintain endothelial barrier integrity. Studies with mice lacking either sphingosine kinase (SphK) type 1 and 2 indicate that these enzymes are the sole biosynthetic source of S1P, but they play different roles in setting S1P blood levels. We have developed a set of drug-like SphK inhibitors, with differing selectivity for the two isoforms of this enzyme. Although all SphK inhibitors tested decrease S1P when applied to cultured U937 cells, only those inhibitors with a bias for SphK2 drove a substantial increase in blood S1P in mice and this rise was detectable within minutes of administration of the inhibitor. Blood S1P also increased in response to SphK2 inhibitors in rats. Mass-labeled S1P was cleared more slowly after intravenous injection into SphK2 inhibitor–treated mice or mice lacking a functional SphK2 gene; thus, the increased accumulation of S1P in the blood appears to result from the decreased clearance of S1P from the blood. Therefore, SphK2 appears to have a function independent of generating S1P in cells. Our results suggest that differential SphK inhibition with a drug might afford a method to manipulate blood S1P levels in either direction while lowering tissue S1P levels. PMID:26243740

  19. BDNF is a novel marker of cognitive function in ageing women: the DR's EXTRA Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komulainen, P.; Pedersen, Maria; Hanninen, T.

    2008-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the key molecules modulating brain plasticity. While low circulating levels of BDNF have been suggested to predispose to Alzheimer's disease, very little data are available on its association with cognitive function in general population. We...... evaluated the association between plasma BDNF levels and cognition in a representative population sample of ageing men and women. The subjects (n=1389) were participants of the Dose-Responses to Exercise Training (DR's EXTRA) Study and represent a random sample of Eastern Finnish people (684 men and 705...... women), 57-79 years of age at baseline of the study. Plasma BDNF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cognitive function was evaluated using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological test battery. Women had a higher mean...

  20. Association of dental caries and blood lead levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, M E; Lanphear, B P; Auinger, P

    Experiments show that dental caries rates are higher among lead-exposed animals, but this association has not been established in humans. To examine the relationship between blood lead levels and dental caries. Cross-sectional survey conducted from 1988 to 1994 that included a dental examination and venipuncture blood lead assay. A total of 24901 persons aged 2 years and older who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which assessed the health and nutritional status of children and adults in the United States. For children aged 2 to 11 years, the sum of decayed and filled deciduous or primary surfaces; for persons aged 6 years and older, the sum of decayed and filled permanent surfaces; for those 12 years and older, the sum of decayed, missing, and filled surfaces. The log of blood lead level was significantly associated with the number of affected surfaces for both deciduous and permanent teeth in all age groups, even after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, diet, and dental care. Among children aged 5 to 17 years, a 0.24-micromol/L (5-microg/dL) change in blood lead level was associated with an elevated risk of dental caries (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.5). Differences in blood lead level explained some of the differences in caries prevalence in different income levels and regions of the United States. We estimated the population attributable risk of lead exposure to be 13.5% and 9.6% of dental caries occurring in 5- to 17-year-olds exposed to the high and moderate levels, respectively. Environmental lead exposure is associated with an increased prevalence of dental caries in the US population. Findings may help explain the distribution of caries by income and region of the United States.

  1. Beneficial effect of fluoxetine treatment aganist psychological stress is mediated by increasing BDNF expression in selected brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gongying; Jing, Ping; Liu, Zhidong; Li, Zhiruo; Ma, Hongxia; Tu, Wenzhen; Zhang, Wei; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2017-09-19

    SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine is widely used to treat psychological stress related disorders, however the underlying working mechanisms is not fully understood, as SSRIs can rapidly increase the extracellular serotonin levels but it normally takes weeks to reveal their therapeutic effect in the stress-related psychological disorders. Our previous study demonstrated that purely psychological stress without any physic stimuli induces a biphasic change in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which immediately decrease and then gradually increase after the stress; and that the latter BDNF increase in response to the psychological stress involves the activation of serotonin system. To investigate the role of BDNF in the fluoxetine treatment for stress-related psychological disorders, we examined the mRNA and protein levels of BDNF in the brain of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, which were pretreated with fluoxetine at 10 mg/kg or vehicle solution for 14 days, over 24 hour after an acute psychological stress exposure. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect the expression of BDNF at different time points in various brain regions after the psychological stress. We found that fluoxetine treatment completely blocked the BDNF decrease induced by the psychological stress, and also enhanced the gradual increase in the expression of BDNF in most of the brain regions except VTA after the psychological stress. The results suggest that the enhancement in BDNF levels induced by chronic fluoxetine treatment mediates the therapeutic effect against psychological stress.

  2. Haematological Indices, Blood glucose levels and lipid profile of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was done as a part of safety assessment to determine the effects of Tartrazine E102 on some haematological indices, glucose levels and blood lipid profile in rats. An animal model was used as a basis for interpreting the situation in humans. Consequently, 40 albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 8 rats each.

  3. Changing levels of blood-constituents during growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijn, J.F. de

    1966-01-01

    From schoolage through adolescence the changing level of blood constituents is illustrated for hemoglobin, serum iron, serum protein and protein-fractions, alkaline phosphatase and inorganic phosphate. Data have been collected from cross-sectional and sernilongitudinal studies during the passed ro

  4. Blood and Brain Glutamate Levels in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Tamer H.; Abdelrahman, Hadeel M.; Fattah, Nelly R. Abdel; El-Masry, Nagda M.; Hashim, Haitham M.; El-Gerby, Khaled M.; Fattah, Nermin R. Abdel

    2013-01-01

    Despite of the great efforts that move forward to clarify the pathophysiologic mechanisms in autism, the cause of this disorder, however, remains largely unknown. There is an increasing body of literature concerning neurochemical contributions to the pathophysiology of autism. We aimed to determine blood and brain levels of glutamate in children…

  5. Fasting blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work involved the measurement of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of diabetes mellitus patients as an index of glycaemic control. It was a prospective case-finding study using laboratory and general practice records. The subjects were confirmed diabetic patients, attending a ...

  6. Blood lead level as biomarker of environmental lead pollution in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ideal blood lead level is now considered to be zero. Lead pollution of the study area has serious consequences on aquatic fauna and humans who consume such contaminated fish. It is therefore recommended that human and animal health surveillance and environmental monitoring of lead should be initiated.

  7. Anthropometric characteristics and blood pressure levels of spouses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of both hypertension and obesity have been observed to be on the increase worldwide and in Nigeria. Obesity has been identified as a major risk factor for Hypertension. The aim was to examine the anthropometric characteristics and blood pressure levels of spouses of people living with ...

  8. Blood hemoglobin level and treatment outcome of early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, M.; Sindlinger, F.; Ikenberg, H.; Gerds, T.; Schumacher, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: to determine whether the blood hemoglobin concentration correlates with the prognosis of patients with early breast cancer and, if so, whether this is restricted to treatment modality. Patients and methods: data were collected retrospectively from patients with early breast cancer (T1,2 NO-2 MO) who underwent either breast-conserving surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (BCS-RT; n = 96) or a modified radical mastectomy (MRM; n = 194). The effect of preoperative blood hemoglobin level, nodal status, histological grading and hormone receptor status on disease-free survival was determined for both treatment modalities using a cox regression model and visualized by kaplan-meier plots. Results: the blood hemoglobin concentration significantly correlated with disease-free survival of patients receiving BCS-RT (relative risk [RR]: 0.67 per g/dl; p = 0.007). This was independent of other known risk factors for breast cancer patients, as determined by multivariate analysis. By contrast, the blood hemoglobin level had no prognostic significance when patients were treated with MRM. Conclusion: blood hemoglobin concentration seems to affect the prognosis of patients with early breast cancer when a treatment schedule that includes radiotherapy is applied. Reduced radiosensitivity due to diminished tumor oxygenation may be the underlying cause. Confirmative trials and studies intended to elucidate the underlying mechanism are warranted. (orig.)

  9. Correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fildzah Rahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a syndrome in metabolism of carbohydrates which indicated by the increased level of blood glucose and also may increase salivary glucose levels. Oral ulcer has been frequently recognized in diabetic patients, which can be due to increased glucose in oral fluids and immune dysfunction. This study aimed to determine the correlation of blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients. Analytic observational study was carried out through the determination of blood glucose levels just by way of strip using a glucometer and salivary glucose levels with the method "GOD-PAP test enzymatic colorimetric". Oral ulcer was determined in presenting ulcer on 30 patients with DM. The results showed r = 0.228, which is higher salivary glucose levels followed by high levels of blood glucose, and intraoral examination of oral ulcer found in the whole sample and the most location commonly found in buccal mucosa and lingual. It was concluded that there is a correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels, and glucose levels affect the occurrence of oral ulcer in patients with DM

  10. Blood androgen levels in male baboons throughout the year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taranov, A.G.; Goncharov, N.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a study of possible dependence of the androgen level in male baboons on the time of year. Plasma was obtained by centrifugation of the blood at 3000 rpm and the following androgens were determined by radioimmunoassay, using chromatographic separation of the steroids on columns with celite: testosterone, 5s-dihydrotestosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone. Plasma steriod concentrations were calculated and the results were subjected to statistical analysis by Students test. Seasonal change in the concentration of steroids in the animals' blood plasma were discovered. The results of androgen assay throughout the year and determination of their mean annual concentrations are shown

  11. BDNF and BMI effects on brain structures of bipolar offspring: results from the global mood and brain science initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, R B; Brietzke, E; McIntyre, R S; Cao, B; Lee, Y; Japiassú, L; Chen, K; Lu, R; Lu, W; Li, T; Xu, G; Lin, K

    2017-12-01

    To compare brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels between offspring of individuals with bipolar disorders (BD) and healthy controls (HCs) and investigate the effects of BDNF levels and body mass index (BMI) on brain structures. Sixty-seven bipolar offspring and 45 HCs were included (ages 8-28). Structural images were acquired using 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Serum BDNF levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multivariate and univariate analyses of covariance were conducted. Significantly higher BDNF levels were observed among bipolar offspring, relative to HCs (P > 0.025). Offspring status moderated the association between BDNF and BMI (F 1 =4.636, P = 0.034). After adjustment for relevant covariates, there was a trend for a significant interaction of group and BDNF on neuroimaging parameters (Wilks'λ F 56,94 =1.463, P = 0.052), with significant effects on cerebellar white matter and superior and middle frontal regions. Brain volume and BDNF were positively correlated among HCs and negatively correlated among bipolar offspring. Interactions between BDNF and BMI on brain volumes were non-significant among HCs (Wilks'λ F 28,2 =2.229, P = 0.357), but significant among bipolar offspring (Wilks'λ F 28,12 =2.899, P = 0.028). Offspring status and BMI moderate the association between BDNF levels and brain structures among bipolar offspring, underscoring BDNF regulation and overweight/obesity as key moderators of BD pathogenesis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Both physiology and epidemiology support zero tolerable blood lead levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefa, Syeda T; Héroux, Paul

    2017-10-05

    Inorganic lead is one of the most common causes of environmental metal poisonings, and its adverse effects on multiple body systems are of great concern. The brain, along with the kidneys, are critically susceptible to lead toxicity for their hosting of high affinity lead binding proteins, and very sensitive physiology. Prolonged low-lead exposure frequently remains unrecognized, causes subtle changes in these organ systems, and manifests later at an irreversible stage. With the repeated documentation of "no safe blood lead level", the pernicious effects of lead at any measurable concentration need to be emphasized. In this review, we surveyed articles on chronic low-level lead exposures with a blood lead concentrations lead on both nervous and renal systems were obvious at a blood lead concentration of 2μg/dL, with the absence of any detectable threshold. The deleterious effect of lead on two different organ systems at such low concentrations drew our attention to the various extracellular and intracellular events that might be affected by minimal concentration of body lead, especially blood lead. Is there a true common ground between low-level lead toxicity in both the nervous system and the kidney? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning on Blood Cortisol Level

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    Fariba Farnaghi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute intoxication with ALP is extremely lethal. The present study was conducted to determine the range of serum cortisol levels in ALP poisoning and its correlation with patient outcome. Methods: This study was carried out on patients who were intoxicated with ALP. Their demographic data and pertinent findings in their history and physical examination were recorded at the time of arrival and also when shock and severe metabolic acidosis emerged. 5cc blood was taken from the patients to measure blood cortisol level, when shock and severe metabolic acidosis developed. Blood cortisol level analysis was performed using ELISA method. Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 16.0. Results: The average ingested dose was 1.98+1.79 tablets each containing 3 grams of ALP. Overall, 77% of the patients presented tachycardia and hypotension. Blood cortisol level less than 15 µg/dl, 15-33 µg/dl, and more than 34 µg/dl were regarded as adrenal insufficiency, critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency, and adequate adrenal response, respectively. Eventually, 3 patients fell within the first category, 24 patients matched with the second category, and 3 patients corresponded to the last category. Conclusion: Blood cortisol concentration is satisfactory only in 10% of the patients. In majority of the patients although it is not apparently low, it has not shown the expected rise comparable to the shock and stress state of such patients. It defines a role for corticosteroids therapy in management of ALP poisoning, particularly if it does not respond to conventional treatments.

  14. Elevated blood lead levels associated with illegally distilled alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegues, D A; Hughes, B J; Woernle, C H

    1993-06-28

    Whiskey produced in illegal stills (ie, "moonshine") remains an important and underappreciated source of lead toxicity in some rural counties of the Southeast. From March 5 through October 26, 1991, eight adult patients with elevated blood lead levels were identified at a rural county hospital in Alabama and were reported to the Alabama Department of Public Health notifiable disease surveillance system. A case-patient was defined as any person 17 years of age or more who presented to the hospital from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1991, and had a blood lead level of 0.72 mumol/L or more (15 micrograms/dL or more). To identify cases and potential sources of lead exposure, we reviewed medical and laboratory records from the hospital, interviewed patients with elevated blood lead levels, and determined the lead content of moonshine samples. Nine patients met the case definition, including one patient who was not reported to the state. Patients ranged in age from 28 to 62 years; blood lead values ranged from 0.77 to 12.50 mumol/L (16 to 259 micrograms/dL). The most frequent signs of possible lead toxicity included seizures (six), microcytic anemia (five), and encephalopathy (two); one patient died. The only identified source of lead exposure for the nine patients was moonshine ingestion. Moonshine samples available from local stills contained sufficient amounts of lead (340 to 4600 mumol/L) to result in the observed blood lead levels. This investigation emphasizes the adverse health effects and ongoing public health impact of moonshine ingestion.

  15. Blood lead levels, ALAD gene polymorphisms, and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bemmel, Dana M; Li, Yan; McLean, Jody; Chang, Man-Huei; Dowling, Nicole F; Graubard, Barry; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2011-03-01

    Previous analyses from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) have found that elevated blood lead levels may be associated with cardiovascular mortality, cancer mortality, and all-cause mortality. The 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) G177C genetic polymorphism (rs 1800435) affects lead toxicokinetics and may alter the adverse effects of lead exposure. We examined whether the ALAD G177C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) affects the relationship between lead and mortality. We analyzed a subset of 3349 genotyped NHANES III participants at least 40 years of age. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we estimated the relative risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality by ALAD genotype, and by blood lead levels (lead level and mortality. The adjusted overall relative risk for participants with the variant ALAD genotype was decreased for all-cause mortality (hazards ratio = 0.68; [95% confidence interval = 0.50-0.93]) compared with persons having the common GG genotype. There was some suggestion that higher lead levels were associated with cancer mortality (1.48 [0.92-2.38]). We observed no convincing interaction effect between ALAD genotype and blood lead level on mortality risk. The ALAD genotype may be associated with decreased mortality from all causes and from cancer. This association does not seem to be affected by lead exposure.

  16. Sulforaphane epigenetically enhances neuronal BDNF expression and TrkB signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jisung; Lee, Siyoung; Choi, Bo-Ryoung; Yang, Hee; Hwang, Youjin; Park, Jung Han Yoon; LaFerla, Frank M; Han, Jung-Soo; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Jiyoung

    2017-02-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that supports the survival of existing neurons and encourages the growth and differentiation of new neurons and synapses. We investigated the effect of sulforaphane, a hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin present in Brassica vegetables, on neuronal BDNF expression and its synaptic signaling pathways. Mouse primary cortical neurons and a triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (3 × Tg-AD) were used to study the effect of sulforaphane. Sulforaphane enhanced neuronal BDNF expression and increased levels of neuronal and synaptic molecules such as MAP2, synaptophysin, and PSD-95 in primary cortical neurons and 3 × Tg-AD mice. Sulforaphane elevated levels of synaptic TrkB signaling pathway components, including CREB, CaMKII, ERK, and Akt in both primary cortical neurons and 3 × Tg-AD mice. Sulforaphane increased global acetylation of histone 3 (H3) and H4, inhibited HDAC activity, and decreased the level of HDAC2 in primary cortical neurons. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that sulforaphane increased acetylated H3 and H4 at BDNF promoters, suggesting that sulforaphane regulates BDNF expression via HDAC inhibition. These findings suggest that sulforaphane has the potential to prevent neuronal disorders such as Alzheimer's disease by epigenetically enhancing neuronal BDNF expression and its TrkB signaling pathways. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effects of soft-diet feeding on BDNF expression in hippocampus of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsu; Hirayama, Akihiko; Hosoe, Nobuo; Furube, Masaru; Hirano, Shusuke

    2008-11-01

    Our previous study showed that mice fed a soft diet after weaning had reduced synaptic connections in the hippocampal formation and impaired spatial learning ability after 3 months of age. We hypothesized that soft-diet feeding during development reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein in the hippocampus, resulting in lower synaptic densities in this region. Male pups of C57BL/6 mice were fed either a solid (hard-diet group) or powdered diet (soft-diet group), starting at weaning. Expression of BDNF protein in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex was evaluated quantitatively with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 1, 3 and 6 months of age. Reduction in BDNF protein levels due to soft diet was detected markedly in the hippocampus of 3- and 6-month-old mice. On the other hand, a soft diet showed no significant effect on BDNF content in the cerebral cortex throughout the ages investigated. Immunohistochemistry of hippocampal formation in 3-month-old mice revealed that intensities of BDNF immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer and CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cell layers appeared diminished in mice fed the soft diet compared with mice fed the hard diet. These results indicate that insufficient mastication activity during development reduces BDNF protein levels in the hippocampus and influences synaptic plasticity in this region.

  18. The Neuroprotective Role of Acupuncture and Activation of the BDNF Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dong; De La Pena, Ike; Lin, Lili; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Borlongan, Cesar V.; Cao, Chuanhai

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have been conducted to examine the neuroprotective effects of acupuncture in many neurological disorders. Although the neuroprotective effects of acupuncture has been linked to changes in signaling pathways, accumulating evidence suggest the participation of endogenous biological mediators, such as the neurotrophin (NT) family of proteins, specifically, the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Accordingly, acupuncture can inhibit neurodegeneration via expression and activation of BDNF. Moreover, recent studies have reported that acupuncture can increase ATP levels at local stimulated points. We have also demonstrated that acupuncture could activate monocytes and increase the expression of BDNF via the stimulation of ATP. The purpose of this article is to review the recent findings and ongoing studies on the neuroprotective roles of acupuncture and therapeutic implications of acupuncture-induced activation of BDNF and its signaling pathway. PMID:24566146

  19. Association between Blood Mercury Level and Visceral Adiposity in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Suk Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFew studies have examined the association between mercury exposure and obesity. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between blood mercury concentrations and indices of obesity in adults.MethodsA total of 200 healthy subjects, aged 30 to 64 years, who had no history of cardiovascular or malignant disease, were examined. Anthropometric and various biochemical profiles were measured. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA.ResultsAll subjects were divided into three groups according to blood mercury concentrations. Compared with the subjects in the lowest tertile of mercury, those in the highest tertile were more likely to be male; were current alcohol drinkers and smokers; had a higher body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and VAT; had higher levels of blood pressure, fasting glucose, and insulin resistance; and consumed more fish. The blood mercury concentration was significantly associated with anthropometric parameters, showing relationships with BMI, WC, and VAT. After adjusting for multiple risk factors, the odds ratios (ORs for high mercury concentration was significantly higher in the highest VAT tertile than in the lowest VAT tertile (OR, 2.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 6.62; P<0.05.ConclusionThe blood mercury concentration was significantly associated with VAT in healthy adults. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

  20. The dopamine-related polymorphisms BDNF, COMT, DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4 are not linked with changes in CSF dopamine levels and frequency of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Anne; Scheller, C; du Plessis, S; Burger, R; Arendt, G; Joska, J; Sopper, S; Maschke, C M; Obermann, M; Husstedt, I W; Hain, J; Riederer, P; Koutsilieri, E

    2017-04-01

    We showed previously that higher levels in CSF dopamine in HIV patients are associated with the presence of the dopamine transporter (DAT) 10/10-repeat allele which was also detected more frequently in HIV-infected individuals compared to uninfected subjects. In the current study, we investigated further whether other genetic dopamine (DA)-related polymorphisms may be related with changes in CSF DA levels and frequency of HIV infection in HIV-infected subjects. Specifically, we studied genetic polymorphisms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, catechol-O-methyltransferase, and dopamine receptors DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4 genetic polymorphisms in uninfected and HIV-infected people in two different ethnical groups, a German cohort (Caucasian, 72 individuals with HIV infection and 22 individuals without HIV infection) and a South African cohort (Xhosan, 54 individuals with HIV infection and 19 individuals without HIV infection). We correlated the polymorphisms with CSF DA levels, HIV dementia score, CD4 + T cell counts, and HIV viral load. None of the investigated DA-related polymorphisms was associated with altered CSF DA levels, CD4 + T cell count, viral load, and HIV dementia score. The respective allele frequencies were equally distributed between HIV-infected patients and controls. Our findings do not show any influence of the studied genetic polymorphisms on CSF DA levels and HIV infection. This is in contrast to what we found previously for the DAT 3'UTR VNTR and highlights the specific role of the DAT VNTR in HIV infection and disease.

  1. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra

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    Karlstam Erika

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and a 3–4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1 the blood lactate levels of female dogs with pyometra by a hand-held analyser and 2 if these levels are related with the clinical status or other biochemical or hematological disorders. Methods In total 31 female dogs with pyometra admitted for surgical ovariohysterectomy and 16 healthy female control dogs were included in the present study. A complete physical examination including SIRS-status determination was performed. Blood samples for lactate concentrations, hematological and biochemical parameters, acid-base and blood gas analysis and other laboratory parameters were collected and subsequently analysed. The diagnosis pyometra was verified with histopathological examination of the uterus and ovaries. Increased hospitalisation length and presence of SIRS were used as indicators of outcome. Results In the pyometra group the median blood lactate level was 1,6 mmol l-1 (range -1. In the control group the median lactate level was 1,2 mmol l-1 (range -1. Of the 31 bitches 19 (61% fulfilled 2 or more criteria for SIRS at inclusion, 10 bitches (32% fulfilled 3 of the SIRS criteria whereas none accomplished more than 3 criteria. Lactate levels did not differ significantly between the pyometra and control group, or between the SIRS positive and SIRS negative dogs with pyometra. Increased lactate concentration (>2.5 mmol l-1 was demonstrated in one female dog with pyometra (3%, and was not associated with longer hospitalisation or presence of SIRS. Lactate

  2. Blood pressure load does not add to ambulatory blood pressure level for cardiovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José

    2014-01-01

    Experts proposed blood pressure (BP) load derived from 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings as a more accurate predictor of outcome than level, in particular in normotensive people. We analyzed 8711 subjects (mean age, 54.8 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations. We expressed BP...

  3. Fluctuation of zonulin levels in blood vs stability of antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Aristo; Vojdani, Elroy; Kharrazian, Datis

    2017-08-21

    To evaluate the measurement of zonulin level and antibodies of zonulin and other tight junction proteins in the blood of controls and celiac disease patients. This study was conducted to assess the variability or stability of zonulin levels vs IgA and IgG antibodies against zonulin in blood samples from 18 controls at 0, 6, 24 and 30 h after blood draw. We also measured zonulin level as well as zonulin, occludin, vinculin, aquaporin 4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein antibodies in the sera of 30 patients with celiac disease and 30 controls using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methodology. The serum zonulin level in 6 out of 18 subjects was low or zonulin levels of > 2.8 ng/mL and showed significant fluctuation from sample to sample. Comparatively, zonulin antibody measured in all samples was highly stable and reproducible from sample to sample. Celiac disease patients showed zonulin levels with a mean of 8.5 ng/mL compared to 3.7 ng/mL in controls ( P zonulin level at 2SD above the mean was demonstrated in 37% of celiac disease patients, while antibodies against zonulin, occludin and other tight junction proteins was detected in up to 86% of patients with celiac disease. Due to its fluctuation, a single measurement of zonulin level is not recommended for assessment of intestinal barrier integrity. Measurement of IgG and IgA antibodies against zonulin, occludin, and other tight junction proteins is proposed for the evaluation of the loss of intestinal barrier integrity.

  4. Stress-induced change in serum BDNF is related to quantitative family history of alcohol use disorder and age at first alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shobhit; Graham, Reiko; Rohde, Rodney; Ceballos, Natalie A

    2017-02-01

    Previous research in animal models suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in stress-modulated alcohol consumption. However, relatively few studies have investigated this issue in humans, and results of existing studies have been heterogeneous. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the within-subjects effect of acute stress (timed math plus cold pressor) on serum BDNF levelsBDNF: post- minus pre-stress) in healthy social drinkers (N=68, 20 male). A secondary aim was to explore which heritable and environmental factors in our limited sample might exert the greatest influences on ΔBDNF. Importantly, presence versus absence of the BDNF Val 66 Met polymorphism (rs6265), which has often been discounted in studies of human serum BDNF, was included as a between-subjects control variable in all statistical analyses. Our results indicated that acute stress decreased serum BDNF. Further, multiple regression analyses revealed that quantitative family history of alcohol use disorder (qFH) and age at first alcohol use together accounted for 15% of the variance in ΔBDNF. Thus, the influences of qFH and age at first alcohol use may explain some of the heterogeneity that exists in previous studies of human serum BDNF. These results parallel findings in animal models and suggest that stress-related changes in serum BDNF are influenced by both heritable (qFH) and environmental (early alcohol consumption) factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Proteolytic Cleavage of ProBDNF into Mature BDNF in the Basolateral Amygdala Is Necessary for Defeat-Induced Social Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulka, Brooke N.; Ford, Ellen C.; Lee, Melissa A.; Donnell, Nathaniel J.; Goode, Travis D.; Prosser, Rebecca; Cooper, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for memory processes. The present study tested whether proteolytic cleavage of proBDNF into mature BDNF (mBDNF) within the basolateral amygdala (BLA) regulates the consolidation of defeat-related memories. We found that acute social defeat increases the expression of mBDNF, but not proBDNF, in…

  6. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Reezigt, Bert Jan; Bergström Ledin, Hanna; Karlstam, Erika

    2009-01-09

    Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and a 3-4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1) the blood lactate levels of female dogs with pyometra by a hand-held analyser and 2) if these levels are related with the clinical status or other biochemical or hematological disorders. In total 31 female dogs with pyometra admitted for surgical ovariohysterectomy and 16 healthy female control dogs were included in the present study. A complete physical examination including SIRS-status determination was performed. Blood samples for lactate concentrations, hematological and biochemical parameters, acid-base and blood gas analysis and other laboratory parameters were collected and subsequently analysed. The diagnosis pyometra was verified with histopathological examination of the uterus and ovaries. Increased hospitalisation length and presence of SIRS were used as indicators of outcome. In the pyometra group the median blood lactate level was 1.6 mmol l(-1) (range pyometra and control group, or between the SIRS positive and SIRS negative dogs with pyometra. Increased lactate concentration (>2.5 mmol l(-1)) was demonstrated in one female dog with pyometra (3%), and was not associated with longer hospitalisation or presence of SIRS. Lactate measurement was not indicative of peritonitis. None of the bitches died during or within two months of the hospital stay. The measurements of temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, percentage bandforms of neutrophilic granulocytes, alpha2-globulins, creatinin, pvCO2, TCO2 and base excess showed significant differences between the SIRS positive and the SIRS

  7. Umbilical cord blood glucose levels in full-term newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Karpova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation was to determine the umbilical cord venous blood level of glucose in full-term newborns and its relationship to the mode of delivery. The investigation included 102 full-term newborn infants, including 33 and 69 babies born via cesar-ean and vaginal delivery, respectively. Umbilical cord serum glucose levels were determined by the glucose oxidase test using a Sap-phire-400 biochemical analyzer. In healthy full-term newborns, the mean umbilical cord blood glucose levels were 4,29±0,88 mmol/1 (minimum, 2,9 mmol/1 and maximum, 5,9 mmol/1. In the babies born via cesarean delivery, the umbilical cord blood concentration of glucose was ascertained to be significantly lower than in those born vaginally (3,84+0,71 mmol/1 versus 4,51+0,87 mmol/1; /><0,0001. Abdominal delivery can be apparently considered to be a risk factor for hypoglycemia in neonatal infants.

  8. Unsaturated fatty acids supplementation reduces blood lead level in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: "super lecithin" (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05).

  9. Effects of acute voluntary loaded wheel running on BDNF expression in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minchul; Soya, Hideaki

    2017-12-31

    Voluntary loaded wheel running involves the use of a load during a voluntary running activity. A muscle-strength or power-type activity performed at a relatively high intensity and a short duration may cause fewer apparent metabolic adaptations but may still elicit muscle fiber hypertrophy. This study aimed to determine the effects of acute voluntary wheel running with an additional load on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the rat hippocampus. Ten-week old male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to a (1) sedentary (Control) group; (2) voluntary exercise with no load (No-load) group; or (3) voluntary exercise with an additional load (Load) group for 1-week (acute period). The expression of BDNF genes was quantified by real-time PCR. The average distance levels were not significantly different in the No-load and Load groups. However, the average work levels significantly increased in the Load group. The relative soleus weights were greater in the No-load group. Furthermore, loaded wheel running up-regulated the BDNF mRNA level compared with that in the Control group. The BDNF mRNA levels showed a positive correlation with workload levels (r=0.75), suggesting that the availability of multiple workload levels contributes to the BDNF-related benefits of loaded wheel running noted in this study. This novel approach yielded the first set of findings showing that acute voluntary loaded wheel running, which causes muscular adaptation, enhanced BDNF expression, suggesting a possible role of high-intensity short-term exercise in hippocampal BDNF activity.

  10. Effect of Mozart Music on Hippocampal Content of BDNF in Postnatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Marzban

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has shown that listening to Mozart music can potentiate spatial tasks in human and reduce seizure attacks in epileptic patients. A few studies have reported the effects of prenatal plus postpartum exposure of mice to the Mozart music on brain-drived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampus. Here we investigated the effect of postpartum exposure to The Mozart music on BDNF concentration in the hippocampus of rat.Methods: Thirty male one day old newborn Wistar rats divided randomly in two equal experimental and control groups. Experimental group exposed to slow rhythm Mozart music (Mozart Sonata for two pianos KV 448, 6 hour per day sound pressure levels, between 80 and 100 dB for 60 successive days. The control group was kept in separate room with housing conditions like experimental group except music exposure. After 60 days the rats were euthanized and hippocampuses extracted then the content of BDNF protein was measured using ELISA sandwich method. Results: Data analysis revealed that rats exposed to Mozart Sonata music had significantly increased BDNF content in the hippocampus as compared to control rats (P±0.01. The concentrations of BDNF were 86.30±2.26 and 94.60 ±6.22 ng/g wet weight in control and music exposure groups respectively.Discussion: Exposure to the Mozart music early in life can increase the BDNF concentration in the hippocampus in rats.

  11. Effect of Mozart Music on Hippocampal Content of BDNF in Postnatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Marzban

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has shown that listening to Mozart music can potentiate spatial tasks in human; and reduce seizure attacks in epileptic patients. A few studies have reported the effects of prenatal plus postpartum exposure of mice to the Mozart music on brain-drived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampus. Here we investigated the effect of postpartum exposure to The Mozart music on BDNF concentration in the hippocampus of rat.Methods: Thirty male one day old newborn Wistar rats divided randomly in two equal experimental and control groups. Experimental group exposed to slow rhythm Mozart music (Mozart Sonata for two pianos KV 448, 6 hour per day; sound pressure levels, between 80 and 100 dB for 60 successive days. The control group was kept in separate room with housing conditions like experimental group except music exposure. After 60 days the rats were euthanized and hippocampuses extracted; then the content of BDNF protein was measured using ELISA sandwich method. Results: Data analysis revealed that rats exposed to Mozart Sonata music had significantly increased BDNF content in the hippocampus as compared to control rats (P±0.01. The concentrations of BDNF were 86.30±2.26 and 94.60 ±6.22 ng/g wet weight in control and music exposure groups respectively.Discussion: Exposure to the Mozart music early in life can increase the BDNF concentration in the hippocampus in rats.

  12. Hypothalamic gene transfer of BDNF inhibits breast cancer progression and metastasis in middle age obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianglan; McMurphy, Travis; Xiao, Run; Slater, Andrew; Huang, Wei; Cao, Lei

    2014-07-01

    Activation of the hypothalamus-adipocyte axis is associated with an antiobesity and anticancer phenotype in animal models of melanoma and colon cancer. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key mediator in the hypothalamus leading to preferential sympathoneural activation of adipose tissue and the ensuing resistance to obesity and cancer. Here, we generated middle age obese mice by high fat diet feeding for a year and investigated the effects of hypothalamic gene transfer of BDNF on a hormone receptor-positive mammary tumor model. The recombinant adeno-associated viral vector-mediated overexpression of BDNF led to marked weight loss and decrease of adiposity without change of food intake. BDNF gene therapy improved glucose tolerance, alleviated steatosis, reduced leptin level, inhibited mouse breast cancer EO771 growth, and prevented the metastasis. The reduced tumor growth in BDNF-treated mice was associated with reduced angiogenesis, decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and reduced adipocyte recruitment and lipid accumulation. Moreover, BDNF gene therapy reduced inflammation markers in the hypothalamus, the mammary gland, the subcutaneous fat, and the mammary tumor. Our results suggest that manipulating a single gene in the brain may influence multiple mechanisms implicated in obesity-cancer association and provide a target for the prevention and treatment of both obesity and cancer.

  13. Effects of therapeutic touch on blood hemoglobin and hematocrit level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movaffaghi, Zahra; Hasanpoor, Morteza; Farsi, Mohammad; Hooshmand, Poory; Abrishami, Fatemeh

    2006-03-01

    Therapeutic Touch (TT) is a widely used complementary therapy. This study investigated the effects of TT on hemoglobin and hematocrit level in students who were basically healthy. The volunteers with a hemoglobin level less than 12 grams per deciliter (g/dl) were randomly assigned to three groups of TT, mimic therapeutic touch (MT), and control. Blood samples were collected before the first treatment and again a week after the last one and measurements were taken. TT increased the level of hemoglobin (.99 .13 g/dl) and hematocrit (2.82 .43%) significantly. MT also increased the level of hemoglobin (.55 .11 g/dl) and hematocrit (2.75 .44%) significantly. No significant changes were found in the control group. TT increased hemoglobin more effectively than MT (p< .05). Significant changes of both variables in TT and MTgroups suggest that more careful precision might be needed while selecting individuals as sham therapists in further experiments.

  14. Blood pressure response to low level static contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallentin, Nils; Jørgensen, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    muscles at forces corresponding to 10% and 40% MVC. Mean value for endurance time at 10% MVC was significantly longer for flexion [111.3 (SD 56.1) min] than for extension [18.1 (SD 7.5) min;n = 7]. At 40% MVC the difference in mean endurance time disappeared [2.3 (SD 0.7) min for elbow flexion and 2.3 (SD...... the circulation to the muscles was arrested just prior to the cessation of the contraction, blood pressure only partly recovered and remained elevated for as long as the occlusion persisted, indicating the level of pressure-raising muscle chemoreflexes. Based on blood pressure recordings obtained during...

  15. Radioimmunoassay of atrial peptide blood and tissue levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michener, M.L.; Schwartz, D.; Currie, M.G.; Geller, D.M.; Needleman, P.

    1987-01-01

    AP has now been established as an important hormone for the regulation of vascular fluid volume and blood pressure. AP release in response to atrial stretchy provides an ideal means of responding to changes in vascular volume. This response is composed of actions on the kidneys and vascular smooth muscle, and an integrated endocrine response through the inhibition of aldosterone and vasopressin secretion. The detection of AP in the cardiovascular control centers of the brain by both RIA and immunohistochemical staining suggests that AP may also play a role in the central regulation of cardiovascular system. The development of RIAs for AP make it possible to measure stored and secreted AP and to begin to understand how changes in AP levels relate to physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions such as high blood pressure and congestive heart failure

  16. Correlation between blood lead level and hemoglobin level in mitrovica children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutllovci-Zogaj, Drita; Krasniqi, Selvete; Elezaj, Isa; Ramadani, Naser; Gjergji, Tahire; Zogaj, Dukagjin; Kutllovci, Arben; Jaka, Arbëresha; Ukëhaxhaj, Antigona; Gashi, Sanije; Bince, Ergyl

    2014-10-01

    Lead toxicity is a serious health threat, especially in developing countries due to environmental pollution. It was thus aimed to investigate correlation between blood lead level and concentration level of hemoglobin in the blood of children involved in research. The research included 250 children of which 31(12.4%) kindergarten children, 166 (66.4%) of primary school pupils in Mitrovica and 53(21.2%) of primary school pupils in Shtime as control group. From the 250 children included in the survey 129 or 51.6% were female children and 48.4% male children. Children were selected randomly, while tests for concentration of Pb and blood hemoglobin were done at the National Institute of Public Health. The average value of blood lead level of Mitrovica pupils was 2.4 µg/dL (SD±1.9µg/dL), range 0.5 to 16.3µg/dL. The average value of blood lead level of Shtime pupils was 2.3µg/dL (SD±0.7µg/dL), range 1.2 to 5.2 µg/dL with no statistical difference (P = 0.191). The average value of blood lead level in kindergarten children of Mitrovica was 3.8µg/dL (SD±1.3µg/dL), range 2.2 to 7.7µg/dL with significant difference between the average values of blood lead levels of pupils and kindergarten children of Mitrovica (P <0.0001). The average value of hemoglobin in the pupils of Mitrovica was 14.0g/dL(SD± 3.7g/dL), range 9.4 to 25.6 g/dL. The average value of hemoglobin to pupils of Shtime was 11.4g/dl(SD±0.8 g/dl), range 9.2 to 13.0 g/dl with significant difference between mean values of hemoglobin pupils of Mitrovica and Shtime (U '= 6440.0, P <0.0001). With Spearman correlation is found significant correlation of a medium scale (r = -0.305, df = 248, p <0.0001) between blood lead levels and hemoglobin level in the blood.

  17. Left ventricular dysfunction and blood glycohemoglobin levels in young diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydiner, A.; Oto, A.; Oram, E.; Oram, A.; Ugurlu, S.; Karamehmetoglu, A.; Aras, T.; Bekdik, C.F.; Gedik, O.

    1991-01-01

    Left ventricular function including regional wall motion (RWM) was evaluated by 99m Tc first-pass and equilibrium gated blood pool ventriculography and glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) blood levels determined by a quantitative column technique in 25 young patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus without clinical evidence of heart diesease, and in healthy controls matched for age and sex. Phase analysis revealed abnormal RWM in 19 of 21 diabetic patients. The mean left ventricular global ejection fraction, the mean regional ejection fraction and the mean 1/3 filling fraction were lower and the time to peak ejection, the time to peak filling and the time to peak ejection/cardiac cycle were longer in diabetics than in controls. We found high HbA1c levels in all diabetics. There was no significant difference between patients with and without retinopathy and with and without peripheral neuropathy in terms of left ventricular function and HbA1c levels. (orig.) [de

  18. Regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the chronic unpredictable stress rat model and the effects of chronic antidepressant treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marianne H; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2010-01-01

    mRNA expression in both the dentate gyrus of the dorsal hippocampus and the CA3 region of the ventral hippocampus indicating that there is no simple link between depression-like behaviors per se and brain BDNF levels in rats. However, a significant increase in BDNF mRNA levels in the dentate gyrus...

  19. The Gut-Brain Axis, BDNF, NMDA and CNS Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Raeesah; Stone, Trevor W

    2016-11-01

    Gastro-intestinal (GI) microbiota and the 'gut-brain axis' are proving to be increasingly relevant to early brain development and the emergence of psychiatric disorders. This review focuses on the influence of the GI tract on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and its relationship with receptors for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDAR), as these are believed to be involved in synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. NMDAR may be associated with the development of schizophrenia and a range of other psychopathologies including neurodegenerative disorders, depression and dementias. An analysis of the routes and mechanisms by which the GI microbiota contribute to the pathophysiology of BDNF-induced NMDAR dysfunction could yield new insights relevant to developing novel therapeutics for schizophrenia and related disorders. In the absence of GI microbes, central BDNF levels are reduced and this inhibits the maintenance of NMDAR production. A reduction of NMDAR input onto GABA inhibitory interneurons causes disinhibition of glutamatergic output which disrupts the central signal-to-noise ratio and leads to aberrant synaptic behaviour and cognitive deficits. Gut microbiota can modulate BDNF function in the CNS, via changes in neurotransmitter function by affecting modulatory mechanisms such as the kynurenine pathway, or by changes in the availability and actions of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the brain. Interrupting these cycles by inducing changes in the gut microbiota using probiotics, prebiotics or antimicrobial drugs has been found promising as a preventative or therapeutic measure to counteract behavioural deficits and these may be useful to supplement the actions of drugs in the treatment of CNS disorders.

  20. Tackling Glaucoma from within the Brain: An Unfortunate Interplay of BDNF and TrkB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Dekeyster

    Full Text Available According to the neurotrophin deprivation hypothesis, diminished retrograde delivery of neurotrophic support during an early stage of glaucoma pathogenesis is one of the main triggers that induce retinal ganglion cell (RGC degeneration. Therefore, interfering with neurotrophic signaling seems an attractive strategy to achieve neuroprotection. Indeed, exogenous neurotrophin administration to the eye has been shown to reduce loss of RGCs in animal models of glaucoma; however, the neuroprotective effect was mostly insufficient for sustained RGC survival. We hypothesized that treatment at the level of neurotrophin-releasing brain areas might be beneficial, as signaling pathways activated by target-derived neurotrophins are suggested to differ from pathways that are initiated at the soma membrane. In our study, first, the spatiotemporal course of RGC degeneration was characterized in mice subjected to optic nerve crush (ONC or laser induced ocular hypertension (OHT. Subsequently, the well-known neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF was chosen as the lead molecule, and the levels of BDNF and its high-affinity receptor, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB, were examined in the mouse retina and superior colliculus (SC upon ONC and OHT. Both models differentially influenced BDNF and TrkB levels. Next, we aimed for RGC protection through viral vector-mediated upregulation of collicular BDNF, thought to boost the retrograde neurotrophin delivery. Although the previously reported temporary neuroprotective effect of intravitreally delivered recombinant BDNF was confirmed, viral vector-induced BDNF overexpression in the SC did not result in protection of the RGCs in the glaucoma models used. These findings most likely relate to decreased neurotrophin responsiveness upon vector-mediated BDNF overexpression. Our results highlight important insights concerning the complexity of neurotrophic factor treatments that should surely be considered in

  1. Environmental factors associated with blood lead levels in Venezuelan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, M; Squillante, G; Medina, E; de Rojas, O; Sarmiento, A

    2000-06-01

    A preliminary study explored the relative contribution of residential sources of lead exposure on mentally challenged children who attend "special education" institutions (GI) compared to a group of age and sex matched school children (G2). We captured descriptive information and analyzed demographic variables, personal and household information, medical effects, environmental exposure factors, and children habits. Home paint, dust, soil, and water sampling was conducted and blood lead (BPb) levels determined. Eighteen G1 and 20 G2 children were studied. The mean G1 BPb was 16.9 +/- 7.9 microg/dl and was significantly higher than that in G2. Fifty percent of G1 children had PbB >20 microg/dl and 72.2% were >10 microg/dl. Low muscular strength, decreased osteotendinose reflexes, fine and gross motricity, deficient equilibrium, and hipotonic muscular tone coincided with >18 microg/dl BPb levels. In 61.1% of G1 homes paint lead levels were higher than permissible levels and 33.3% had dust lead exceeding that level. The high BPb levels in G1 probably resulted from ingestion of household paint, dust, and soil via "hand-to-mouth" activity. Environmental exposure to lead can be an important source of lead intake by infants and children and could affect neurological development. This study provides new insights currently unavailable for these children in Venezuela.

  2. The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in comorbid depression: possible linkage with steroid hormones, cytokines, and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro eNumakawa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence demonstrates a connection between growth factor function (including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF, glucocorticoid levels (one of the steroid hormones, and the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. Because both BDNF and glucocorticoids regulate synaptic function in the central nervous system, their functional interaction is of major concern. Interestingly, alterations in levels of estrogen, another steroid hormone, may play a role in depressive-like behavior in postpartum females with fluctuations of BDNF-related molecules in the brain. BDNF and cytokines, which are protein regulators of inflammation, stimulate multiple intracellular signaling cascades involved in neuropsychiatric illness. Pro-inflammatory cytokines may increase vulnerability to depressive symptoms, such as the increased risk observed in patients with cancer and/or autoimmune diseases. In this review, we discuss the possible relationship between inflammation and depression, in addition to the crosstalk among cytokines, BDNF and steroids. Further, since nutritional status has been shown to affect critical pathways involved in depression through both BDNF function and the monoamine system, we also review current evidence surrounding diet and supplementation (e.g., flavonoids on BDNF-mediated brain functions.

  3. Blood lactate levels as a biomarker for angling-induced stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced stress in African gamefish. Blood lactate levels were used as a biomarker for angling-induced metabolic stress in tigerfish caught by angling in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Blood was drawn and analysed for blood lactate from 66 ...

  4. Regular Breakfast and Blood Lead Levels among Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Needleman Herbert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that fasting increases lead absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of adults. Regular meals/snacks are recommended as a nutritional intervention for lead poisoning in children, but epidemiological evidence of links between fasting and blood lead levels (B-Pb is rare. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between eating a regular breakfast and B-Pb among children using data from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study. Methods Parents completed a questionnaire regarding children's breakfast-eating habit (regular or not, demographics, and food frequency. Whole blood samples were collected from 1,344 children for the measurements of B-Pb and micronutrients (iron, copper, zinc, calcium, and magnesium. B-Pb and other measures were compared between children with and without regular breakfast. Linear regression modeling was used to evaluate the association between regular breakfast and log-transformed B-Pb. The association between regular breakfast and risk of lead poisoning (B-Pb≥10 μg/dL was examined using logistic regression modeling. Results Median B-Pb among children who ate breakfast regularly and those who did not eat breakfast regularly were 6.1 μg/dL and 7.2 μg/dL, respectively. Eating breakfast was also associated with greater zinc blood levels. Adjusting for other relevant factors, the linear regression model revealed that eating breakfast regularly was significantly associated with lower B-Pb (beta = -0.10 units of log-transformed B-Pb compared with children who did not eat breakfast regularly, p = 0.02. Conclusion The present study provides some initial human data supporting the notion that eating a regular breakfast might reduce B-Pb in young children. To our knowledge, this is the first human study exploring the association between breakfast frequency and B-Pb in young children.

  5. [Effect of amino acid solutions on the blood ammonia level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjo, K; Harihara, Y; Kawasaki, S; Umekita, N; Idezuki, Y

    1985-09-01

    We have carried out several basic experiments on artificial liver support and found that the plasma free amino acid balance was lost after treatment according to this procedure. Application of fluid therapy--Using conventional amino acid preparations available on the market--Is not adequate during and after the treatment with artificial liver. Fluid therapy using mainly special amino acid preparations should have been established; preparations, named Todai Hospital fluid (THF), are intended to correct the deranged aminogram, supply nutrition and promote the improvement in symptoms. Furthermore, experimental animals with acute hepatic insufficiency of diverse severity were prepared and basic experiments were performed which these animals to see how the efficacy of THF developed. In the basic experiments, psychoneurotic symptoms and the electroencephalogram were improved with the lowering of the blood ammonia level. Clinically, THF was not only used as a therapeutic agent after treatment by artificial liver support in patients with fulminant hepatitis, but is also served as a further indication in hepatic encephalopathy accompanying chronic liver diseases in late stages. Improvement in encephalopathy was observed immediately after the administration of THF and persisted while the aminogram pattern returned to the premedication representation. There was more improvement in patients in whom ammonemia was complicated, and the blood ammonia level was reduced markedly.

  6. A selective histone deacetylase-6 inhibitor improves BDNF trafficking in hippocampal neurons from Mecp2 knockout mice:implications for Rett syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eXu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2. One of the most prominent gene targets of MeCP2 is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf, a potent modulator of activity-dependent synaptic development, function and plasticity. Dysfunctional BDNF signaling has been demonstrated in several pathophysiological mechanisms of RTT disease progression. To evaluate whether the dynamics of BDNF trafficking is affected by Mecp2 deletion, we analyzed movements of BDNF tagged with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP in cultured hippocampal neurons by time-lapse fluorescence imaging. We found that both anterograde and retrograde vesicular trafficking of BDNF-YFP are significantly impaired in Mecp2 knockout hippocampal neurons. Selective inhibitors of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6 show neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative diseases and stimulate microtubule-dependent vesicular trafficking of BDNF-containing dense core vesicles. Here, we show that the selective HDAC6 inhibitor Tubastatin-A increased the velocity of BDNF-YFP vesicles in Mecp2 knockout neurons in both directions by increasing αtubulin acetylation. Tubastatin-A also restored activity-dependent BDNF release from Mecp2 knockout neurons to levels comparable to those shown by wildtype neurons. These findings demonstrate that a selective HDAC6 inhibitor is a potential pharmacological strategy to reverse cellular and synaptic impairments in RTT resulting from impaired BDNF signaling.

  7. IL-1β and BDNF are associated with improvement in hypersomnia but not insomnia following exercise in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethorst, C D; Greer, T L; Toups, M S P; Bernstein, I; Carmody, T J; Trivedi, M H

    2015-08-04

    Given the role of sleep in the development and treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), it is becoming increasingly clear that elucidation of the biological mechanisms underlying sleep disturbances in MDD is crucial to improve treatment outcomes. Sleep disturbances are varied and can present as insomnia and/or hypersomnia. Though research has examined the biological underpinnings of insomnia in MDD, little is known about the role of biomarkers in hypersomnia associated with MDD. This paper examines biomarkers associated with changes in hypersomnia and insomnia and as predictors of improvements in sleep quality following exercise augmentation in persons with MDD. Subjects with non-remitted MDD were randomized to augmentation with one of two doses of aerobic exercise: 16 kilocalories per kilogram of body weight per week (KKW) or 4 KKW for 12 weeks. The four sleep-related items on the clinician-rated Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (sleep onset insomnia, mid-nocturnal insomnia, early morning insomnia and hypersomnia) assessed self-reported sleep quality. Inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were assessed in blood samples collected before and following the 12-week intervention. Reduction in hypersomnia was correlated with reductions in BDNF (ρ = 0.26, P = 0.029) and IL-1β (ρ = 0.37, P = 0.002). Changes in these biomarkers were not associated with changes in insomnia; however, lower baseline levels of IL-1β were predictive of greater improvements in insomnia (F = 3.87, P = 0.050). In conclusion, improvement in hypersomnia is related to reductions in inflammatory markers and BDNF in persons with non-remitted MDD. Distinct biological mechanisms may explain reductions in insomnia.

  8. BDNF Responses in Healthy Older Persons to 35 Minutes of Physical Exercise, Cognitive Training, and Mindfulness: Associations with Working Memory Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Krister; Ledreux, Aurélie; Daffner, Kirk; Terjestam, Yvonne; Bergman, Patrick; Carlsson, Roger; Kivipelto, Miia; Winblad, Bengt; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Mohammed, Abdul Kadir H

    2017-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a central role in brain plasticity by mediating changes in cortical thickness and synaptic density in response to physical activity and environmental enrichment. Previous studies suggest that physical exercise can augment BDNF levels, both in serum and the brain, but no other study has examined how different types of activities compare with physical exercise in their ability to affect BDNF levels. By using a balanced cross over experimental design, we exposed nineteen healthy older adults to 35-minute sessions of physical exercise, cognitive training, and mindfulness practice, and compared the resulting changes in mature BDNF levels between the three activities. We show that a single bout of physical exercise has significantly larger impact on serum BDNF levels than either cognitive training or mindfulness practice in the same persons. This is the first study on immediate BDNF effects of physical activity in older healthy humans and also the first study to demonstrate an association between serum BDNF responsivity to acute physical exercise and working memory function. We conclude that the BDNF increase we found after physical exercise more probably has a peripheral than a central origin, but that the association between post-intervention BDNF levels and cognitive function could have implications for BDNF responsivity in serum as a potential marker of cognitive health.

  9. The Effect of Exercise Training on Resting Concentrations of Peripheral Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Dinoff

    Full Text Available The mechanisms through which physical activity supports healthy brain function remain to be elucidated. One hypothesis suggests that increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF mediates some cognitive and mood benefits. This meta-analysis sought to determine the effect of exercise training on resting concentrations of BDNF in peripheral blood.MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, Rehabilitation & Sports Medicine Source, and CINAHL databases were searched for original, peer-reviewed reports of peripheral blood BDNF concentrations before and after exercise interventions ≥ 2 weeks. Risk of bias was assessed using standardized criteria. Standardized mean differences (SMDs were generated from random effects models. Risk of publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger's test. Potential sources of heterogeneity were explored in subgroup analyses.In 29 studies that met inclusion criteria, resting concentrations of peripheral blood BDNF were higher after intervention (SMD = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17-0.60, p < 0.001. Subgroup analyses suggested a significant effect in aerobic (SMD = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.33-0.99, p < 0.001 but not resistance training (SMD = 0.07, 95% CI: -0.15-0.30, p = 0.52 interventions. No significant difference in effect was observed between males and females, nor in serum vs plasma.Aerobic but not resistance training interventions increased resting BDNF concentrations in peripheral blood.

  10. High plasma corticosterone levels persist during frequent automatic blood sampling in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Adem, Bashir; Royo, Felix

    2005-01-01

    the importance of considering the frequency of blood withdrawal during automated blood sampling. This parameter may have an impact on the experimental results when using blood corticosterone levels as a stress marker, but also during any in vivo study where blood is collected, since high corticosterone levels...

  11. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, T; Skoog, [No Value; Oudkerk, M; de Leeuw, FE; de Groot, JC; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  12. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, T.; Skoog, I.; Oudkerk, M.; Leeuw, H.F. de; Groot, J.C. de; Hofman, A.W.I.M.; Breteler, M.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  13. Study of blood pressure and blood sugar levels in adolescence and comparison with body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borade, Ashwin; Kadam, Gauri Shashank; Bhide, Gayatri; Dhongade, Ram

    2011-07-01

    Worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and its consequences prompted the WHO to designate obesity as a global epidemic in 2002. Being overweight is a risk factor for significant illness, especially diabetes and hypertension in adult life. To study the blood pressure and blood sugar levels and lifestyle parameters in adolescence and comparison with body mass index. In a prospective case control study, out of the 1000 screened, a total of 200 adolescents were considered out of which 100 were with high body mass index (BMI) and the other 100 were with normal BMI. Height, weight, BMI, waist hip ratio (WHR), blood pressure (BP), BSL, and associated risk factors like physical activity, fast food consumption, and computer/television watching were measured and screened. 109 (54.5%) males and 91 (45.5%) females were included. Maximum number [90 (45%)] of adolescents screened were in the age group of 17-19 years, while 54 (27%) and 56 (28%) adolescents were in the age group of 10-13 years and 14-16 years, respectively. According to CDC charts 2000, prevalence of overweight was 24% which was double when compared to WHO charts 2007. There was significant difference in prevalence of obesity; according to CDC chart it was 26%, whereas according to WHO chart it was 39%. The difference in blood pressures between cases and controls as per both CDC and WHO charts was found to be statistically significant (P 0.05) with BMI. The adolescents seem to have become heavier owing to environmental influences on growth patterns. So, a consideration should be given to shift the cut-offs for overweight and obesity to higher BMI percentiles if recent growth charts are to be followed. Adolescents with a BMI above the 95 th percentile (obese) are most likely to have obesity-related health risks.

  14. Below background levels of blood lead impact cytokine levels in male and female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iavicoli, I.; Carelli, G.; Stanek, E.J.; Castellino, N.; Calabrese, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    A number of studies have documented that Pb exerts immunotoxic effects on T lymphocytes. In studies designed to explore this general response over a broad dose range, female Swiss mice were administered six different diets containing Pb acetate 1 day after mating. During lactation, the mothers received the same feed given during pregnancy, and the same diets were administered to the offspring for 9 months after weaning. At the end of exposure, blood Pb level in the offspring was determined, and possible changes in two type 1 cytokines (IL-2, INF-γ) and one type 2 cytokine (IL-4) in the serum were measured. At higher dietary Pb levels (40 and 400 ppm), a significant increase in IL-4 production was associated with a profound decrease in INF-γ and IL-2 production. At the lowest Pb diet level (0.02 ppm), which resulted in a blood lead level of (0.8 μg/dL), which is below background (2-3 μg/dL) values in humans, increases in INF-γ and IL-2 production along with a significant decrease in IL-4 production were observed. The findings provide evidence of a reversal of lead-induced cytokine skewing depending on the blood lead concentration. As blood lead concentration increases, there is a notable skewing toward Th2, while the pattern is reversed favoring Th1 development at lower blood lead values. The present findings are also notable since they indicate the potential for dietary Pb to have significant biological effects below normal background concentrations

  15. BDNF genotype interacts with motor-function to influence rehabilitation responsiveness post-stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine T Shiner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Persistent motor impairment is common but highly heterogeneous post-stroke. Genetic polymorphisms, including those identified on the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and apolipoprotein E (APOE genes, may contribute to this variability by limiting the capacity for use-dependent neuroplasticity, and hence rehabilitation responsiveness.Objective. To determine whether BDNF and APOE genotypes influence motor improvement facilitated by post-stroke upper-limb rehabilitation. Methods. BDNF Val66Met and APOE isoform genotypes were determined using leukocyte DNA for 55 community-dwelling patients 2-123 months post-stroke. All patients completed a dose-matched upper-limb rehabilitation program of either Wii-based Movement Therapy or Constraint-induced Movement Therapy. Upper-limb motor-function was assessed pre- and post-therapy using a suite of functional measures. Results. Motor-function improved for all patients post-therapy, with no difference between therapy groups. In the pooled data, there was no significant effect of BDNF or APOE genotype on motor-function at baseline, or following the intervention. However, a significant interaction between the level of residual motor-function and BDNF genotype was identified (p=0.029, whereby post-therapy improvement was significantly less for Met allele carriers with moderate and high, but not low motor-function. There was no significant association between APOE genotype and therapy outcomes. Conclusions. This study identified a novel interaction between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, motor-function status and the magnitude of improvement with rehabilitation in chronic stroke. This polymorphism does not preclude, but may reduce, the magnitude of motor improvement with therapy, particularly for patients with higher but not lower residual motor-function. BDNF genotype should be considered in the design and interpretation of clinical trials.

  16. Genetic Polymorphisms are Associated with Hair, Blood, and Urine Mercury Levels in the American Dental Association (ADA) Study Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Rajendra Prasad; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Chou, Hwai-Nan; Gruninger, Stephen E.; Dolinoy, Dana C.; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Mercury (Hg) is a potent toxicant of concern to the general public. Recent studies suggest that several genes that mediate Hg metabolism are polymorphic. We hypothesize that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in such genes may underline inter-individual differences in exposure biomarker concentrations. Methods Dental professionals were recruited during the American Dental Association (ADA) 2012 Annual Meeting. Samples of hair, blood, and urine were collected for quantifying Hg levels and genotyping (88 SNPs in classes relevant to Hg toxicokinetics including glutathione metabolism, selenoproteins, metallothioneins, and xenobiotic transporters). Questionnaires were administrated to obtain information on demographics and sources of Hg exposure (e.g., fish consumption and use of dental amalgam). Here, we report results for 380 participants with complete genotype and Hg biomarker datasets. ANOVA and linear regressions were used for statistical analysis. Results Mean (geometric) Hg levels in hair (hHg), blood (bHg), urine (uHg), and the average estimated Hg intake from fish were 0.62μg/g, 3.75μg/L, 1.32μg/L, and 0.12μg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Out of 88 SNPs successfully genotyped, Hg biomarker levels differed by genotype for 25 SNPs, one of which remained significant following Bonferroni correction in ANOVA. When the associations between sources of Hg exposure and SNPs were analyzed with respect to Hg biomarker concentrations, 38 SNPs had significant main effects and/or gene-Hg exposure source interactions. Twenty-five, 23, and four SNPs showed significant main effects and/or interactions for hHg, bHg, and uHg levels, respectively (p<0.05), and six SNPs (in GCLC, MT1M, MT4, ATP7B, and BDNF) remained significant following Bonferroni correction. Conclusion The findings suggest that polymorphisms in environmentally-responsive genes can influence Hg biomarker levels. Hence, consideration of such gene-environment factors may improve the

  17. Low level dose induced chromosome aberrations in human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl-Rueling, J.

    1992-01-01

    Unstable structural aberrations in chromosomes of human blood lymphocytes cannot be used as biological dosemeters in the low dose range, when extrapolating from high doses using a linear dose response, as required by the original formula of the dual radiation action theory. A survey is given of experimental dose-response curves of chromosome aberrations, obtained in investigations not only by this institute, in cooperation with many other laboratories, but also by various authors in different areas of the world. The results are not compatible with the predicted linear dose relationships at in vivo dose ranges up to 30 mGy.y -1 . The aberration frequencies rise sharply with dose within the normal environmental exposure up to about twice that level. At higher doses, aberration frequencies increase less rapidly and reach a plateau. Some in vitro experiments of various authors with higher doses of low LET radiations, up to about 400 mGy have found dose responses with steps. (author)

  18. Early Blood Lead Levels and Sleep Disturbance in Preadolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Liu, Xianchen; Pak, Victoria; Wang, Yingjie; Yan, Chonghuai; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Dinges, David

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Little is known about the effect of lead exposure on children's sleep. This study examined the association between blood lead levels (BLL) and sleep problems in a longitudinal study of children. Setting: Four community-based elementary schools in Jintan City, China. Participants: 1,419 Chinese children. Measurement and Results: BLL were measured when children were aged 3–5 y, and sleep was assessed at ages 9–13 y. Sleep was assessed by both parents' report, using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and children's report, using an adolescent sleep questionnaire. A total of 665 children with complete data on BLL and sleep at both ages were included in the current study. Mean age of the sample at BLL assessment was 4.74 y (standard deviation [SD] = 0.89) and at sleep assessment was 11.05 y (SD = 0.88). Mean BLL was 6.26 μg/dL (SD = 2.54). There were significant positive correlations between BLL and 3 CSHQ subscales: Sleep onset delay (r = 0.113, P sleep duration (r = 0.139, P sleeping pills (6.5% versus 1.8%, P = 0.03) were more prevalent in children BLL ≥ 10.0 μg/dL than in those children BLL sleep problems and excessive daytime sleepiness in later childhood. Citation: Liu J, Liu X, Pak V, Wang Y, Yan C, Pinto-Martin J, Dinges D. Early blood lead levels and sleep disturbance in preadolescence. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1869–1874. PMID:26194570

  19. Interaction of BDNF rs6265 variants and energy and protein intake in the risk for glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, James W; Park, Sunmin

    2017-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with the risk for Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the association of BDNF variants with type 2 diabetes and the interactions of different BDNF genotypes with dietary habits and food and nutrient intakes in middle-aged adults. The study population included 8840 adults ages 40 to 65 y from the Ansan and Asung areas in the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study, a cross-sectional study of Korean adults, conducted from 2001 to 2002. Adjusted odd ratios for the prevalence of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes according to BDNF genotypes were calculated after adjusting for age, sex, residence area, body mass index, physical activity, and smoking and stress status. Nutrient intake was calculated from usual food intake determined by semiquantitative food frequencies using the nutrient assessment software. BDNF rs6265 Val/Met and Met/Met variants were negatively associated with the risk for type 2 diabetes after adjusting for covariates. Serum glucose levels after glucose loading and hemoglobin A1c, but not serum insulin levels, also were negatively associated with BDNF Val/Met and Met/Met. In subgroup analysis, sex and stress levels had an interaction with BDNF Val/Met in the risk for type 2 diabetes. Glucose-intolerant and diabetic, but not nondiabetic, patients with BDNF Met/Met had nominally, but significantly higher intakes of energy than those with BDNF Val/Val. BDNF rs6265 had consistent gene-diet interactions with energy and protein intake. With low-energy, low-protein, and high-carbohydrate intake, BDNF Val/Met lowered the risk for type 2 diabetes after adjusting for confounding factors. BDNF Val/Met did not compensate for developing type 2 diabetes with high-energy intake. Additionally, indexes of insulin resistance and insulin secretion showed the same gene-energy interaction as type 2 diabetes. BDNF Val/Met and Met/Met variants (rs6265) decreases the risk for

  20. Parent of origin effect and differential allelic expression of BDNF Val66Met in suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luca, Vincenzo; Souza, Renan P; Zai, Clement C; Panariello, Fabio; Javaid, Naima; Strauss, John; Kennedy, James L; Tallerico, Teresa; Wong, Albert H

    2011-02-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and may also be involved in suicidal behaviour since BDNF levels are decreased in brain and plasma of suicide victims. Because the differential allelic expression of Val66Met BDNF gene on suicidal behaviour has not been investigated, we analyzed the parent-of-origin effect (POE) in suicide attempters and the differential expression of BDNF Val66Met alleles in suicide victims. We performed a family-based association study and ETDT analyses of the Val66Met polymorphism in nuclear families with at least one subject affected by major psychosis with suicidal behaviour, and compared allele-specific mRNA levels in post-mortem brain samples from suicide and non-suicide victims. The subjects included in this study have diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder type I and type II. Allele 3 in the GT repeat polymorphism was transmitted significantly more often to patients who attempted suicide (maternal transmissions: 46/22, P = 0.003; paternal transmissions: 55/30, P = 0.006). There was no significant difference between maternal and paternal transmission ratios. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the ratio of Val/Met-specific mRNA expression between suicide victims and controls. These data do not support a role for allelic imbalance or POE of BDNF for suicidal behaviour in major psychoses.

  1. Amyloid β levels in human red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Kiko

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ is hypothesized to play a key role by oxidatively impairing the capacity of red blood cells (RBCs to deliver oxygen to the brain. These processes are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Although plasma Aβ has been investigated thoroughly, the presence and distribution of Aβ in human RBCs are still unclear. In this study, we quantitated Aβ40 and Aβ42 in human RBCs with ELISA assays, and provided evidence that significant amounts of Aβ could be detected in RBCs and that the RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. The RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. On the other hand, providing an antioxidant supplement (astaxanthin, a polar carotenoid to humans was found to decrease RBC Aβ as well as oxidative stress marker levels. These results suggest that plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 bind to RBCs (possibly with aging, implying a pathogenic role of RBC Aβ. Moreover, the data indicate that RBC Aβ40 and Aβ42 may constitute biomarkers of AD. As a preventive strategy, therapeutic application of astaxanthin as an Aβ-lowering agent in RBCs could be considered as a possible anti-dementia agent. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN42483402.

  2. Cross-sex hormone treatment in male-to-female transsexual persons reduces serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Johannes; Hellweg, Rainer; Van Caenegem, Eva; Briken, Peer; Stalla, Günter K; T'Sjoen, Guy; Auer, Matthias K

    2015-01-01

    Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are reduced in male-to-female transsexual persons (MtF) compared to male controls. It was hypothesized before that this might reflect either an involvement of BDNF in a biomechanism of transsexualism or to be the result of persistent social stress due to the condition. Here, we demonstrate that 12 month of cross-sex hormone treatment reduces serum BDNF levels in male-to-female transsexual persons independent of anthropometric measures. Participants were acquired through the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI). Reduced serum BDNF in MtF thus seems to be a result of hormonal treatment rather than a consequence or risk factor of transsexualism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  3. Reciprocal Regulation of Very Low Density Lipoprotein Receptors (VLDLRs) in Neurons by Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Reelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hai Thi; Bruelle, Céline; Tselykh, Timofey; Jalonen, Pilvi; Korhonen, Laura; Lindholm, Dan

    2013-01-01

    BDNF positively influences various aspects of neuronal migration, maturation, and survival in the developing brain. Reelin in turn mediates inhibitory signals to migrating neuroblasts, which is crucial for brain development. The interplay between BDNF and Reelin signaling in neurodevelopment is not fully understood. We show here that BDNF increased the levels of the Reelin receptor (VLDL receptor (VLDLR)) in hippocampal neurons by increasing gene expression. In contrast, Reelin decreased VLDLRs, which was accompanied by an increase in the levels of the E3 ligase Mylip/Idol in neurons. Down-regulation of Mylip/Idol using shRNAs abrogated the decrease in VLDLRs induced by Reelin. These results show that VLDLRs are tightly regulated in hippocampal neurons by both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. The regulation of VLDLR by BDNF and Reelin may affect the migration of neurons and contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders in the nervous system. PMID:23990472

  4. Molecular pathways associated with blood pressure and hexadecanedioate levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Menni

    Full Text Available The dicarboxylic acid hexadecanedioate is associated with increased blood pressure (BP and mortality in humans and feeding it to rats raises BP. Here we aim to characterise the molecular pathways that influence levels of hexadecanedioate linked to BP regulation, using genetic and transcriptomic studies. The top associations for hexadecanedioate in a genome-wide association scan (GWAS conducted on 6447 individuals from the TwinsUK and KORA cohorts were tested for association with BP and hypertension in the International Consortium for BP and in a GWAS of BP extremes. Transcriptomic analyses correlating hexadecanedioate with gene expression levels in adipose tissue in 740 TwinsUK participants were further performed. GWAS showed 242 SNPs mapping to two independent loci achieving genome-wide significance. In rs414056 in the SCLO1B1 gene (Beta(SE = -0.088(0.006P = 1.65 x 10-51, P < 1 x 10-51, the allele previously associated with increased risk of statin associated myopathy is associated with higher hexadecanedioate levels. However this SNP did not show association with BP or hypertension. The top SNP in the second locus rs6663731 mapped to the intronic region of CYP4Z2P on chromosome 1 (0.045(0.007, P = 5.49x10-11. Hexadecanedioate levels also correlate with adipose tissue gene-expression of the 3 out of 4 CYP4 probes (P<0.05 and of alcohol dehydrogenase probes (Beta(SE = 0.12(0.02; P = 6.04x10-11. High circulating levels of hexadecanedioate determine a significant effect of alcohol intake on BP (SBP: 1.12(0.34, P = 0.001; DBP: 0.70(0.22, P = 0.002, while no effect is seen in the lower hexadecanedioate level group. In conclusion, levels in fat of ADH1A, ADH1B and CYP4 encoding enzymes in the omega oxidation pathway, are correlated with hexadecanedioate levels. Hexadecanedioate appears to regulate the effect of alcohol on BP.

  5. Reduced ferritin levels in individuals with non-O blood group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigas, Andreas S; Berkfors, Adam A; Pedersen, Ole B

    2017-01-01

    stores expressed as ferritin levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Ferritin levels were measured at least once for 30,595 Danish Blood Donor Study participants. Linear regression analyses were performed with the ABO blood group as explanatory variable and adjusted for age, number of donations 3 years before......BACKGROUND: Genomewide association studies have reported alleles in the ABO locus to be associated with ferritin levels. These studies warrant the investigation of a possible association between the ABO blood group and ferritin levels. We aimed to explore if ABO blood group is associated with iron...... blood group was associated with a ferritin level of less than 15 ng/mL. RESULTS: Non-O blood group donors had lower ferritin levels than blood group O donors, regardless of sex. Accordingly, risk of ferritin level of less than 15 ng/mL was increased for individuals with non-O blood group compared with O...

  6. 24 CFR 35.830 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. 35.830 Section 35.830 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... intervention blood lead level. (a) Risk assessment. Within 15 days after being notified by a public health... an environmental intervention blood lead level, HUD shall complete a risk assessment of the dwelling...

  7. Neurosteroids reduce social isolation-induced behavioral deficits: a proposed link with neurosteroid-mediated upregulation of BDNF expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Schüler Nin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological action of SSRI antidepressants may include a normalization of the decreased brain levels of neurosteroids such as that of the progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone and that of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, which are decreased in patients with depression and PTSD. Allopregnanolone and BDNF decrease in these patients is associated with behavioral symptom severity. Antidepressant treatment upregulates both allopregnanolone levels and the expression of BDNF in a manner that significantly correlates with improved symptomatology, which suggests that neurosteroid biosynthesis and BDNF expression may be interrelated. Preclinical studies using the socially isolated mouse as an animal model of behavioral deficits that resemble some of the symptoms observed in PTSD patients have shown that fluoxetine and derivatives improve anxiety-like behavior, fear responses, and aggressive behavior by elevating the corticolimbic levels of allopregnanolone and BDNF mRNA expression. These actions appeared to be independent and more selective from the action of these drugs on 5-HT reuptake inhibition.Hence, this review addresses the hypothesis that in PTSD or depressed patients brain allopregnanolone levels and BDNF expression upregulation may be part of the mechanisms involved in the beneficial actions of antidepressants or other selective brain steroidogenic stimulant (SBSS molecules.

  8. Resveratrol Increases Serum BDNF Concentrations and Reduces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Contractility via a NOS-3-Independent Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Wiciński

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a polyphenol that presents both antineuroinflammatory properties and the ability to interact with NOS-3, what contributes to vasorelaxation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF, a molecule associated with neuroprotection in many neurodegenerative disorders, is considered as an important element of maintaining stable cerebral blood flow. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs are considered to be an important element in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration and a potential preventative target by agents which reduce the contractility of the vessels. Our main objectives were to define the relationship between serum and long-term oral resveratrol administration in the rat model, as well as to assess the effect of resveratrol on phenylephrine- (PHE- induced contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. Moreover, we attempt to define the dependence of contraction mechanisms on endothelial NO synthase. Experiments were performed on Wistar rats (n=17 pretreated with resveratrol (4 weeks; 10 mg/kg p.o. or placebo. Serum BDNF levels were quantified after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment with ELISA. Contraction force was measured on isolated and perfused tail arteries as the increase of perfusion pressure with a constant flow. Values of serum BNDF in week 0 were 1.18±0.12 ng/mL (treated and 1.17±0.13 ng/mL (control (p = ns. After 2 weeks of treatment, BDNF in the treatment group was higher than in controls, 1.52±0.23 ng/mL and 1.24±0.13 ng/mL, respectively. (p=0.02 Following 4 weeks of treatment, BDNF values were higher in the resveratrol group compared to control 1.64±0.31 ng/mL and 1.32±0.26 ng/mL, respectively (p=0.031. EC50 values obtained for PHE in resveratrol pretreated arteries were significantly higher than controls (5.33±1.7 × 10−7 M/L versus 4.53±1.2 × 10−8 M/L, p<0.05. These results show a significant increase in BDNF concentration in the resveratrol pretreated group. The reactivity of resistant

  9. Blood lead levels and cumulative blood lead index (CBLI) as predictors of late neurodevelopment in lead poisoned children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Linda H.; Wright, Robert O.; Bellinger, David C.; Hussain, Javed; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Chettle, David R.; Pejović-Milić, Ana; woolf, Alan; Shannon, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective To find the best lead exposure assessment marker for children. Methods We recruited 11 children, calculated a cumulative blood lead index (CBLI) for the children, measured their concurrent BLL, assessed their development, and measured their bone lead level. Results Nine of 11 children had clinically significant neurodevelopment problems. CBLI and current blood lead level, but not the peak lead level, were significantly or marginally negatively associated with the full-scale IQ score. Conclusion Lead exposure at younger age significantly impacts a child’s later neurodevelopment. CBLI may be a better predictor of neurodevelopment than are current or peak blood lead levels. PMID:21827276

  10. Neonatal levels of neurotrophic factors and risk of autism spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Mortensen, E L; Greaves-Lord, K

    2013-01-01

    To examine levels of 3 neurotrophic factors (NTFs): Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in dried blood spot samples of neonates diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) later in life and frequency-matched controls....

  11. NGF and BDNF: from nerves to adipose tissue, from neurokines to metabokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaldakov, George N; Tonchev, Anton B; Aloe, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Neurotrophins, particularly, NGF and BDNF are now well recognized to mediate a dizzying number of trophobiological effects, ranging from the Rita Levi-Montalcini's neurotrophic through immunotrophic to metabotrophic effects.These are implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases including neuropsychiatric and cardiometabolic diseases, such as dementia, depression, type 2 diabetes and obesity that may express a common phenotype and coexistence. Recently, adipobiology (adiposcience) as become a focus of numerous studies showing that the adipose tissue is the body's largest endocrine organ producing multiple signaling proteins, including NGF and BDNF, all these dubbed adipokines. On the basis of our and other authors' evidence that low NGF and/or BDNF levels are found in cardiometabolic diseases (atherosclerosis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome), a hypothesis of a critical role of neuro-metabotrophic deficit in the pathogenesis of these diseases has been raised. Since NGF and BDNF also exerts various synaptotrophic effects involved in cognitive enhancement, this hypothesis might also be related to neuropsychiatric diseases such as dementia, depression, schizophrenia, autism, Rett syndrome, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa. Finally, NGF- and BDNF-based therapeutic approach, including ampakines, antidepressants, selective deacetylase inhibitors, statins, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists, and "brain food" and calorie restriction, is outlined.

  12. Changes in Expression of Dopamine, Its Receptor, and Transporter in Nucleus Accumbens of Heroin-Addicted Rats with Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixin; Xia, Baijuan; Li, Rongrong; Yin, Dan; Liang, Wenmei

    2017-06-09

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to explore how changes in the expression of BDNF in MLDS change the effect of BDNF on dopamine (DA) neurons, which may have therapeutic implications for heroin addiction. MATERIAL AND METHODS We established a rat model of heroin addiction and observed changes in the expression of BDNF, DA, dopamine receptor (DRD), dopamine transporter (DAT), and other relevant pathways in NAc. We also assessed the effect of BDNF overexpression in the NAc, behavioral changes of heroin-conditioned place preference (CPP), and naloxone withdrawal in rats with high levels of BDNF. We established 5 adult male rat groups: heroin addiction, lentivirus transfection, blank virus, sham operation, and control. The PCR gene chip was used to study gene expression changes. BDNF lentivirus transfection was used for BDNF overexpression. A heroin CPP model and a naloxone withdrawal model of rats were established. RESULTS Expression changes were found in 20 of the 84 DA-associated genes in the NAc of heroin-addicted rats. Weight loss and withdrawal symptoms in the lentivirus group for naloxone withdrawal was less than in the blank virus and the sham operation group. These 2 latter groups also showed significant behavioral changes, but such changes were not observed in the BDNF lentivirus group before or after training. DRD3 and DAT increased in the NAc of the lentivirus group. CONCLUSIONS BDNF and DA in the NAc are involved in heroin addiction. BDNF overexpression in NAc reduces withdrawal symptoms and craving behavior for medicine induced by environmental cues for heroin-addicted rats. BDNF participates in the regulation of the dopamine system by acting on DRD3 and DAT.

  13. Correlation between hedgehog (hh) protein family and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) in autism spectrum disorder (asd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halepoto, D.M.; Bashir, S.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the correlation of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Indian Hedgehog (IHH), and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Study Design: An observational, comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Autism Research and Treatment Center, Al-Amodi Autism Research Chair, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2011 to May 2012. Methodology: Serum levels of SHH, IHH and BDNF were determined in recently diagnosed autistic patients and age matched healthy children (n=25), using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) was used for the assessment of autistic severity. Spearman correlation co-efficient-r was determined. Results: The serum levels of IHH and SHH were significantly higher in autistic subjects than those of control subjects. There was significant correlation between age and IHH (r = 0.176, p = 0.03), BDNF and severe IHH (r = 0.1763, p = 0.003), and severe BDNF and severe SHH (r = 0.143, p < 0.001). However, there were no significant relationships among the serum levels of SHH, IHH and BDNF and the CARS score, age or gender. Conclusion: The findings support a correlation between SHH, IHH and BDNF in autistic children, suggesting their pathological role in autism. (author)

  14. Activity-Based Anorexia Alters the Expression of BDNF Transcripts in the Mesocorticolimbic Reward Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Emily V; Klenotich, Stephanie J; McMurray, Matthew S; Dulawa, Stephanie C

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex eating disorder with severe dysregulation of appetitive behavior. The activity-based anorexia (ABA) paradigm is an animal model in which rodents exposed to both running wheels and scheduled feeding develop aspects of AN including paradoxical hypophagia, dramatic weight loss, and hyperactivity, while animals exposed to only one condition maintain normal body weight. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an activity-dependent modulator of neuronal plasticity, is reduced in the serum of AN patients, and is a known regulator of feeding and weight maintenance. We assessed the effects of scheduled feeding, running wheel access, or both on the expression of BDNF transcripts within the mesocorticolimbic pathway. We also assessed the expression of neuronal cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) to explore the specificity of effects on BDNF within the mesocorticolimbic pathway. Scheduled feeding increased the levels of both transcripts in the hippocampus (HPC), increased NCAM1 mRNA expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and decreased BDNF mRNA levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In addition, wheel running increased BDNF mRNA expression in the VTA. No changes in either transcript were observed in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Furthermore, no changes in either transcript were induced by the combined scheduled feeding and wheel access condition. These data indicate that scheduled feeding or wheel running alter BDNF and NCAM1 expression levels in specific regions of the mesocorticolimbic pathway. These findings contribute to our current knowledge of the molecular alterations induced by ABA and may help elucidate possible mechanisms of AN pathology.

  15. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

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    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  16. Effect of thallium-201 blood levels on reversible myocardial defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C.W.; Wilson, R.A.; Angello, D.A.; Palac, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    To determine if 201 Tl plasma blood levels correlate with the presence of reversible myocardial defects during exercise testing, 14 patients with stable coronary artery disease underwent two separate exercise 201 Tl stress tests. Between initial and delayed imaging, on one test the patients drank an instant breakfast drink (eating) and on the other they drank an equivalent volume of water as a control (H 2 O). Thallium-201 imaging was performed immediately postexercise, immediately after eating/H 2 O and 210 min after eating/H 2 O. Between initial and immediate post eating/H 2 O images 201Tl reversible defects occurred in 27/38 regions in the H 2 O test versus 15/38 regions in the eating test (p = 0.02). Over this early time period, plasma 201 Tl activity was significantly higher in the H 2 O test than eating test (p less than 0.05). In conclusion, early reversal of 201 Tl defects may, in part, be the result of higher plasma 201 Tl activity early after initial postexercise 201 Tl imaging

  17. Early Blood Lead Levels and Sleep Disturbance in Preadolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Liu, Xianchen; Pak, Victoria; Wang, Yingjie; Yan, Chonghuai; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Dinges, David

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the effect of lead exposure on children's sleep. This study examined the association between blood lead levels (BLL) and sleep problems in a longitudinal study of children. Four community-based elementary schools in Jintan City, China. 1,419 Chinese children. BLL were measured when children were aged 3-5 y, and sleep was assessed at ages 9-13 y. Sleep was assessed by both parents' report, using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and children's report, using an adolescent sleep questionnaire. A total of 665 children with complete data on BLL and sleep at both ages were included in the current study. Mean age of the sample at BLL assessment was 4.74 y (standard deviation [SD] = 0.89) and at sleep assessment was 11.05 y (SD = 0.88). Mean BLL was 6.26 μg/dL (SD = 2.54). There were significant positive correlations between BLL and 3 CSHQ subscales: Sleep onset delay (r = 0.113, P sleep duration (r = 0.139, P sleeping pills (6.5% versus 1.8%, P = 0.03) were more prevalent in children BLL ≥ 10.0 μg/dL than in those children BLL sleep problems and excessive daytime sleepiness in later childhood. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  18. Relationship between ABO Blood Groups and Lipid Profile Level in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multitude of risk factors are responsible for development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and association of cardiovascular disease risk factors with the ABO blood antigens is increasingly being reported. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between ABO blood groups and lipoprotein profiles of ...

  19. Relationship between blood glucose levels and muscle strength in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. High blood glucose has been associated with loss of muscle strength and mass in the lower extremities. However, in African children, little is known about the association between handgrip strength, flexed arm hang or other measures of muscle strength with blood ...

  20. The Great Recession worsened blood pressure and blood glucose levels in American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Teresa; Thomas, Duncan; Merkin, Sharon Stein; Moore, Kari; Watson, Karol; Karlamangla, Arun

    2018-03-27

    Longitudinal, individual-specific data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) provide support for the hypothesis that the 2008 to 2010 Great Recession (GR) negatively impacted the health of US adults. Results further advance understanding of the relationship by ( i ) illuminating hypothesized greater negative impacts in population subgroups exposed to more severe impacts of the GR and ( ii ) explicitly controlling for confounding by individual differences in age-related changes in health over time. Analyses overcome limitations of prior work by ( i ) employing individual-level data that avoid concerns about ecological fallacy associated with prior reliance on group-level data, ( ii ) using four waves of data before the GR to estimate and control for underlying individual-level age-related trends, ( iii ) focusing on objective, temporally appropriate health outcomes rather than mortality, and ( iv ) leveraging a diverse cohort to investigate subgroup differences in the GR's impact. Innovative individual fixed-effects modeling controlling for individual-level age-related trajectories yielded substantively important insights: ( i ) significant elevations post-GR for blood pressure and fasting glucose, especially among those on medication pre-GR, and ( ii ) reductions in prevalence and intensity of medication use post-GR. Important differences in the effects of the GR are seen across subgroups, with larger effects among younger adults (who are likely still in the labor force) and older homeowners (whose declining home wealth likely reduced financial security, with less scope for recouping losses during their lifetime); least affected were older adults without a college degree (whose greater reliance on Medicare and Social Security likely provided more protection from the recession).

  1. Interaction between BDNF Polymorphism and Physical Activity on Inhibitory Performance in the Elderly without Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Canivet

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the elderly, physical activity (PA enhances cognitive performances, increases brain plasticity and improves brain health. The neurotrophic hypothesis is that the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, which is implicated in brain plasticity and cognition, is triggered by PA because motoneurons secrete BDNF into the bloodstream during exercise. Individual differences in cognitive performance may be explained by individual differences in genetic predisposition. A single nucleotide polymorphism on the BDNF gene, BDNFVal66Met, affects activity-dependent BDNF secretion. This study investigated the influence of the BDNFVal66Met polymorphism on the relationship between PA and controlled inhibition performance in older adults.Methods: A total of 114 healthy elderly volunteers (mean age = 71.53 years old were evaluated. Participants were genotyped for the BDNFVal66Met polymorphism. We evaluated inhibitory performance using choice reaction times (RT and error rates from a Simon-like task and estimated their PA using two self-reported questionnaires. We established four groups according to PA level (active vs. inactive and BDNFVal66Met genotype (Met carriers vs. Val-homozygous. The results were analyzed using ANOVA and ANCOVA, including age, gender and body mass index as covariates.Results: The BDNFVal66Met polymorphism interacted with PA on controlled inhibition performance. More specifically, inactive Val-homozygous participants exhibited a lower inhibition performance than active Val homozygotes and inactive Met carriers; the former had a higher error rate without differences in RT.Conclusion: Differences between individuals on inhibitory performance may be partially understood by the interaction between genetic influence in BDNF secretion and PA level. The results of this study clearly support the neurotrophic hypothesis that BDNF synthesis is an important mechanism underlying the influence of physical activity on brain

  2. PFOS Disturbs BDNF-ERK-CREB Signalling in Association with Increased MicroRNA-22 in SH-SY5Y Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, is neurotoxic to mammalian species. However, the underlying mechanism of its neurotoxicity was unclear. We hypothesized that PFOS suppresses BDNF expression to produce its neurotoxic effects by inhibiting the ERK-CREB pathway. SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were exposed to various concentrations of PFOS to examine the role of the BDNF-ERK-CREB signalling pathway in PFOS-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity. Furthermore, to ascertain the mechanism by which PFOS reduces BDNF signalling, we examined the expression levels of miR-16 and miR-22, which potentially regulate BDNF mRNA translation at the posttranscriptional level. Results indicated that PFOS significantly decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, BDNF and pERK protein levels decreased after PFOS treatment; however, pCREB protein levels were significantly elevated in PFOS treated groups. TrkB protein expression increased in the 10 μM and 50 μM PFOS groups and significantly decreased in the 100 μM PFOS group. Our results demonstrated that PFOS exposure decreased miR-16 expression and increased miR-22 expression, which may represent a possible mechanism by which PFOS decreases BDNF protein levels. PFOS may inhibit BDNF-ERK-CREB signalling by increasing miR-22 levels, which may, in part, explain the mechanism of PFOS neurotoxicity.

  3. BDNF: An Oncogene or Tumor Suppressor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Daniel P; Patel, Parth

    2017-08-01

    Neurotrophins are a family of growth factors that are vital to the proper development of the central nervous system. Their effects on cells are governed by the expression and activation of the tyrosine kinase receptors TrkA, TrkB and TrkC. TrkB has been immensely implicated in mediating neuronal migration, development and differentiation. It has also been shown to protect several neuronal cell types from an array of cytotoxic stressors after activation by its conjugate ligand brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Over the past two decades, it has been shown that TrkB and BDNF are up-regulated in many types of cancers, conferring aggressive phenotypes underpinned by their resistance to several standard chemotherapeutic agents. This resistance to chemotherapy is modulated by the downstream targets of the TrkB receptor which include the well-characterized PI3K /Akt growth pathway, a hallmark of uncontrolled cancer cell growth and proliferation. Pre-clinical efforts to develop inhibitors of this receptor are promising, and such inhibitors also seem to sensitize cancer cells to standard chemotherapies. However, new evidence suggests that BDNF overexpression in the hypothalamus has immunoaugmenting properties, eliciting an increased anti-tumor immune response and reducing the activity of several proteins that would normally confer resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. In the current work, we provide a global analysis of the physiological consequences of TrkB receptor activation in vitro and discuss the dynamic consequences of TrkB activation in vivo. Finally, we propose a clinically-feasible option for increasing BDNF expression in the hypothalamus to more readily utilize the oncolytic effects of BDNF. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  4. Juvenile methylphenidate reduces prefrontal cortex plasticity via D3 receptor and BDNF in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L Andersen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early drug intervention in childhood disorders aims to maximize individual potential in the short- and long-term. Consistently, juvenile exposure to psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate (MPH, reduces risk for substance use in animals and sub-populations of individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. We investigated the effects of MPH on brain plasticity via dopamine receptor D3 (D3R and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in developing rats. Methods: Between postnatal days 20-35, rat pups were administered saline vehicle (Veh or MPH (2 mg/kg, the D3R-preferring agonist ± 7-OHDPAT, or the antagonist nafadotride (0.05 mg/kg alone, or in combination with MPH twice a day. In adulthood, subjects were challenged to Veh or cocaine (10 mg/kg for two days. The prefrontal cortex was analyzed for protein and mRNA levels of total BDNF, its splice variants I, IIc, III/IV, and IV/VI, and D3 receptors. A separate group of subjects was assessed for splice variants at 20, 35, 40 and 60 days. Results: Across age strong correlations were evident between Drd3 and Bdnf mRNA levels (r=0.65 and a negative relationship between Drd3 and exon IIc after MPH exposure (r=-0.73. BDNF protein levels did not differ between Veh- and MPH subjects at baseline, but were significantly lower in MPH-treated and cocaine challenged subjects (30.3 ± 9.7%. Bdnf mRNA was significantly higher in MPH subjects, and reversed upon exposure to cocaine. This effect was blocked by nafadotride. Furthermore, Bdnftotal and Bdnf splice variants I, IIc, III/IV, and IV/VI changed across the transitions between juvenility and late adolescence. Conclusions: These data suggest a sensitive window of vulnerability to modulations of BDNF expression around adolescence, and that compared to normal animals, juvenile exposure to MPH permanently reduces prefrontal BDNF transcription and translation upon cocaine exposure in adulthood by a D3R

  5. The role of BDNF, leptin, and catecholamines in reward learning in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Philipp; Grob, Simona; Milos, Gabriella; Schnyder, Ulrich; Eckert, Anne; Lang, Undine; Hasler, Gregor

    2014-12-07

    A relationship between bulimia nervosa and reward-related behavior is supported by several lines of evidence. The dopaminergic dysfunctions in the processing of reward-related stimuli have been shown to be modulated by the neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the hormone leptin. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, a reward learning task was applied to study the behavior of 20 female subjects with remitted bulimia nervosa and 27 female healthy controls under placebo and catecholamine depletion with alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT). The plasma levels of BDNF and leptin were measured twice during the placebo and the AMPT condition, immediately before and 1 hour after a standardized breakfast. AMPT-induced differences in plasma BDNF levels were positively correlated with the AMPT-induced differences in reward learning in the whole sample (P=.05). Across conditions, plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor levels were higher in remitted bulimia nervosa subjects compared with controls (diagnosis effect; P=.001). Plasma BDNF and leptin levels were higher in the morning before compared with after a standardized breakfast across groups and conditions (time effect; Pbulimia nervosa and controls. A role of leptin in reward learning is not supported by this study. However, leptin levels were sensitive to a depletion of catecholamine stores in both remitted bulimia nervosa and controls. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  6. Mercury levels in cord blood and meconium of healthy newborns and venous blood of their mothers: Clinical, prospective cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unuvar, Emin [Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Department of Pediatrics, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: Eunuvar@superonline.com; Ahmadov, Hasan [Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Department of Pediatrics, Istanbul (Turkey); Kiziler, Ali Riza [Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Department of Pediatrics, Istanbul (Turkey); Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Department of Biophysics, Istanbul (Turkey); Aydemir, Birsen [Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Department of Pediatrics, Istanbul (Turkey); Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Department of Biophysics, Istanbul (Turkey); Toprak, Sadik [Gazi Osman Pasa University, Department of Forensic Pathology, Tokat (Turkey); Ulker, Volkan [Bakirkoy Government Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Ark, Cemal [Bakirkoy Government Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-03-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the chronic mercury intoxication in pregnant women and newborns living in Istanbul, Turkey. Methods: The research was carried out as a prospective with 143 pregnant women and their newborns. Venous blood from the mother, cord blood from the neonate, and meconium were collected for mercury analysis. Frequency of fish and vegetable-eating and the number of teeth filled were investigated. Analyses were made in cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, {mu}g/L). Results: Mercury levels were 0.38 {+-} 0.5 {mu}g/L (0-2.34) in venous blood of pregnant women, 0.50 {+-} 0.64 {mu}g/L (0-2.36) in umbilical cord blood and 9.45 {+-} 13.8 {mu}g/g (0-66.5) in meconium. Maternal blood mercury level was lower than the known toxic limit for humans (EPA, 5 {mu}g/L). Mercury levels of the maternal venous blood were significantly correlated with umbilical cord blood. The primary risk factors affecting mercury levels were eating fishmeals more than twice a week and having filled teeth more than five. The fact that the mother had a regular vegetable diet everyday reduced the mercury levels. Increased levels of mercury in the mother and umbilical cord blood could lead to retarded newborns' weight and height. Conclusion: Pregnant women living in Istanbul may be not under the risk of chronic mercury intoxication. Fish consumption more than twice per week and tooth-filling of mother more than five may increase mercury level. On the contrary, regular diet rich in vegetable decreases the mercury level.

  7. Mercury levels in cord blood and meconium of healthy newborns and venous blood of their mothers: Clinical, prospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unuvar, Emin; Ahmadov, Hasan; Kiziler, Ali Riza; Aydemir, Birsen; Toprak, Sadik; Ulker, Volkan; Ark, Cemal

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the chronic mercury intoxication in pregnant women and newborns living in Istanbul, Turkey. Methods: The research was carried out as a prospective with 143 pregnant women and their newborns. Venous blood from the mother, cord blood from the neonate, and meconium were collected for mercury analysis. Frequency of fish and vegetable-eating and the number of teeth filled were investigated. Analyses were made in cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, μg/L). Results: Mercury levels were 0.38 ± 0.5 μg/L (0-2.34) in venous blood of pregnant women, 0.50 ± 0.64 μg/L (0-2.36) in umbilical cord blood and 9.45 ± 13.8 μg/g (0-66.5) in meconium. Maternal blood mercury level was lower than the known toxic limit for humans (EPA, 5 μg/L). Mercury levels of the maternal venous blood were significantly correlated with umbilical cord blood. The primary risk factors affecting mercury levels were eating fishmeals more than twice a week and having filled teeth more than five. The fact that the mother had a regular vegetable diet everyday reduced the mercury levels. Increased levels of mercury in the mother and umbilical cord blood could lead to retarded newborns' weight and height. Conclusion: Pregnant women living in Istanbul may be not under the risk of chronic mercury intoxication. Fish consumption more than twice per week and tooth-filling of mother more than five may increase mercury level. On the contrary, regular diet rich in vegetable decreases the mercury level

  8. Platelet protein kinase C and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in borderline personality disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigsberg, Harold W; Yuan, Peixiong; Diaz, George A; Guerreri, Stephanie; Dorantes, Christine; Mayson, Sarahjo; Zamfirescu, Constantin; New, Antonia S; Goodman, Marianne; Manji, Husseini K; Siever, Larry J

    2012-09-30

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a prevalent and difficult to treat psychiatric condition characterized by abrupt mood swings, intense anger and depression, unstable interpersonal relationships, impulsive self-destructive behavior and a suicide rate of approximately 10%. Possible underlying molecular dysregulations in BPD have not been well explored. Protein kinase C (PKC) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have both been implicated in affective disorders, but their role in BPD has not been examined. Platelets were isolated from blood obtained from 24 medication-free BPD patients and 18 healthy control subjects. PKC-α, phosphorylated-PKC-α (p-PKCα), PKC-βII, and BDNF were measured in platelet homogenates by immunoblotting. In the males, platelet BDNF and PKC-α levels were lower in patients than controls. p-PKC-α and PKC-βII were lower at trend levels. In the entire sample, platelet p-PKCα and PKC-α activity were lower, at a trend level, in patients compared to controls. This is the first report to our knowledge of PKC and BDNF activity in BPD and calls for replication. These findings are consistent with altered PKC and BDNF activity in a range of neuropsychiatric conditions including bipolar disorder, depression and suicide. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10

  10. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, Brian; Anderson, Phil; Taylor, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels ( 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10 µg/dL. • High precision lead isotopic ratios in blood, house dust wipes, soil, water, paint. • Associations for isotopic measures of blood and dust, blood and

  11. Pgrmc1/BDNF Signaling Plays a Critical Role in Mediating Glia-Neuron Cross Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fen; Nguyen, Trinh; Jin, Xin; Huang, Renqi; Chen, Zhenglan; Cunningham, Rebecca L; Singh, Meharvan; Su, Chang

    2016-05-01

    Progesterone (P4) exerts robust cytoprotection in brain slice cultures (containing both neurons and glia), yet such protection is not as evident in neuron-enriched cultures, suggesting that glia may play an indispensable role in P4's neuroprotection. We previously reported that a membrane-associated P4 receptor, P4 receptor membrane component 1, mediates P4-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) release from glia. Here, we sought to determine whether glia are required for P4's neuroprotection and whether glia's roles are mediated, at least partially, via releasing soluble factors to act on neighboring neurons. Our data demonstrate that P4 increased the level of mature BDNF (neuroprotective) while decreasing pro-BDNF (potentially neurotoxic) in the conditioned media (CMs) of cultured C6 astrocytes. We examined the effects of CMs derived from P4-treated astrocytes (P4-CMs) on 2 neuronal models: 1) all-trans retinoid acid-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells and 2) mouse primary hippocampal neurons. P4-CM increased synaptic marker expression and promoted neuronal survival against H2O2. These effects were attenuated by Y1036 (an inhibitor of neurotrophin receptor [tropomysin-related kinase] signaling), as well as tropomysin-related kinase B-IgG (a more specific inhibitor to block BDNF signaling), which pointed to BDNF as the key protective component within P4-CM. These findings suggest that P4 may exert its maximal protection by triggering a glia-neuron cross talk, in which P4 promotes mature BDNF release from glia to enhance synaptogenesis as well as survival of neurons. This recognition of the importance of glia in mediating P4's neuroprotection may also inform the design of effective therapeutic methods for treating diseases wherein neuronal death and/or synaptic deficits are noted.

  12. Postnatal BDNF Expression Profiles in Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus of a Rat Schizophrenia Model Induced by MK-801 Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei Guo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptors represents one of experimental animal models for schizophrenia. This study is to investigate the long-term brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression profiles in different regions and correlation with “schizophrenia-like” behaviors in the adolescence and adult of this rat model. The NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 was administered to female Sprague-Dawley rats on postnatal days (PND 5 through 14. Open-field test was performed on PND 42, and PND 77 to examine the validity of the current model. BDNF protein levels in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC were analyzed on PND 15, PND 42, and PND 77. Results showed that neonatal challenge with MK-801 persistently elevated locomotor activity as well as BDNF expression; the alterations in BDNF expression varied at different developing stages and among brain regions. However, these findings provide neurochemical evidence that the blockade of NMDA receptors during brain development results in long-lasting alterations in BDNF expression and might contribute to neurobehavioral pathology of the present animal model for schizophrenia. Further study in the mechanisms and roles of the BDNF may lead to better understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  13. Development of automatic blood extraction device with a micro-needle for blood-sugar level measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanaka, Kaichiro; Uetsuji, Yasutomo; Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2008-12-01

    In this study, a portable type HMS (Health Monitoring System) device is newly developed. It has features 1) puncturing a blood vessel by using a minimally invasive micro-needle, 2) extracting and transferring human blood and 3) measuring blood glucose level. This miniature SMBG (Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose) device employs a syringe reciprocal blood extraction system equipped with an electro-mechanical control unit for accurate and steady operations. The device consists of a) a disposable syringe unit, b) a non-disposable body unit, and c) a glucose enzyme sensor. The syringe unit consists of a syringe itself, its cover, a piston and a titanium alloy micro-needle, whose inner diameter is about 100µm. The body unit consists of a linear driven-type stepping motor, a piston jig, which connects directly to the shaft of the stepping motor, and a syringe jig, which is driven by combining with the piston jig and slider, which fixes the syringe jig. The required thrust to drive the slider is designed to be greater than the value of the blood extraction force. Because of this driving mechanism, the automatic blood extraction and discharging processes are completed by only one linear driven-type stepping motor. The experimental results using our miniature SMBG device was confirmed to output more than 90% volumetric efficiency under the driving speed of the piston, 1.0mm/s. Further, the blood sugar level was measured successfully by using the glucose enzyme sensor.

  14. Changes of blood lactate levels after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagona, Giovanna; Coco, Marinella; Rapisarda, Giuseppe; Costanzo, Erminio; Maci, Tiziana; Restivo, Domenico; Maugeri, Antonino; Perciavalle, Vincenzo

    2009-01-30

    The objective was to study whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex could induce modification of peripheral blood lactate values. Nineteen young healthy volunteers were included; during the study, all subjects were at rest, sitting on a comfortable armchair. The muscular activation was evaluated by continuous electromyographic record. TMS was performed by using a circular coil at the vertex. Resting motor threshold (rMT) was defined as the lowest TMS intensity able to induce motor responses of an amplitude >50 microV in the relaxed contralateral target muscle in approximately 50% of 20 consecutive stimuli. Venous blood lactate values were measured before, immediately after and 10 min after a single session of low frequencies (1Hz for 15 min) rTMS (LF rTMS) or high frequency (20 Hz for 15 min) rTMS (HF rTMS). As expected, LF rTMS induced a decrease of motor cortex excitability, whereas HF rTMS evoked an increase of motor cortex excitability. However, in the present investigation we observed that both conditions are associated to a significant increase of blood lactate. Since in our experimental conditions we can exclude a muscular production of lactate, the significant increment of peripheral blood lactate values, observed 10 min after the end of the rTMS session, is probably due to the crossing by brain-produced lactate of the blood-brain barrier.

  15. Comparison of blood lead levels of mothers and cord blood in intrauterine growth retarded neonates and normal term neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iranpour, R.; Besharati, Amir A.; Nasseri, F.; Hashemipour, M.; Kelishadi, R.; Balali-Mood, M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to compare the blood lead levels of mothers and cord blood in intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR) neonates and normal term neonates. From April 2005, we carried out a cross-sectional, prospective study in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Blood lead levels were measured in the umbilical cord and maternal venous blood samples in the 32 mother-infant pairs with IUGR full term neonates and 34 mother-infant pairs with normal full term neonates. Blood-lead levels were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean lead concentration in neonates of IUGR and normal groups was not significantly different (107.47+- 16.75 versus 113.08+-19.08 ug/L, p=0.2). The mean lead concentration in mothers of IUGR group was lower than normal groups, but this difference was not significant (124.56+-19.71 versus 135.26+-26.91 ug/L, p=0.07). Maternal lead levels were strongly related with related with cord blood in both IUGR and normal groups (r=0.8, p 100ug/L by the centers for disease control; however, this was not statistically different between the groups. Our results indicate that the mean lead level was not higher in IUGR neonates, and the whole blood lead was not related to the birth weight. In addition, maternal and cord blood lead levels were strongly correlated, and there were remarkable lead burdens on both the mothers and their neonates in this industrial area. (author)

  16. Level of Mercury Manometer With Respect to Heart: Does it Affect Blood Pressure Measurement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Raj; Roy, V K; Manna, S; Bhattacharjee, M

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of blood pressure is an integral part of clinical examination. Over the years various types of instruments have been used to measure blood pressure but till date the mercury sphygmomanometer is regarded as the gold standard. However, there is a myth prevalent among health professionals regarding the level of the manometer in relation to heart at the time of measuring of blood pressure. Many professionals insist that it has to be placed at the level of the heart. We argue that the limb from which pressure is measured must be at the heart level rather than the manometer. We conducted a study in which we measured the blood pressure in adults by placing the manometer at three different levels with respect to the heart. The values of blood pressure obtained at all levels were similar and did not show any statistically significant difference. We therefore conclude that the level of sphygmomanometer per se does not affect blood pressure measurement.

  17. Quantify Glucose Level in Freshly Diabetic's Blood by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Chen, Xiaofeng; Ma, Shihua; Wu, Xiumei; Yang, Wenxing; Zhang, Weifeng; Li, Xiao

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate the capability of terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) to quantify glucose level in ex vivo freshly diabetic's blood. By investigating the THz spectra of different human blood, we find out THz absorption coefficients reflect a high sensitivity to the glucose level in blood. With a quantitative analysis of 70 patients, we demonstrate that the THz absorption coefficients and the blood glucose levels perform a linear relationship. A comparative experiment between THz measurement and glucometers is also conducted with another 20 blood samples, and the results confirm that the relative error is as less as 15%. Our ex vivo human blood study indicates that THz technique has great potential application to diagnose blood glucose level in clinical practice.

  18. Highlights of the Report of the Expert Panel on Blood Cholesterol Levels in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Studies have shown that high blood cholesterol levels play a role in the development of coronary heart disease in adults, and that the process leading to atherosclerosis begins in childhood. To address the problem of high cholesterol levels in children, the Panel on Blood Cholesterol Levels recommends complementary approaches for individuals and…

  19. A retrospective cohort study of blood hemoglobin levels in blood donors and competitive rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, P.I.; Ullum, H.; Jensen, K.

    2009-01-01

    .3% of the females demonstrated values above the recommended limit for athletic competition. Thus, the prevalence of a high hemoglobin value was greater in the rowers, of both gender, than in the candidate blood donors (P

  20. Variation in Fasting in Blood Sugar Levels of Pregnant and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a descriptive study on variation in fasting blood sugar level of pregnant and non-pregnant women attending Federal Medical Centre (FMC) Yenagoa, Nigeria in March 2008. Blood sample was taken under strict aseptic technique and tested for fasting blood sugar. The findings were analyzed using t-test and ...

  1. Long-term effects of enriched environment following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia on behavior, BDNF and synaptophysin levels in rat hippocampus: Effect of combined treatment with G-CSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griva, Myrsini; Lagoudaki, Rosa; Touloumi, Olga; Nousiopoulou, Evangelia; Karalis, Filippos; Georgiou, Thomas; Kokaraki, Georgia; Simeonidou, Constantina; Tata, Despina A; Spandou, Evangelia

    2017-07-15

    Increasing evidence shows that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) is neuroprotective in adult and neonatal animal models of brain ischemia. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether post-weaning EE would be effective in preventing functional deficits and brain damage by affecting markers of synaptic plasticity in a neonatal rat model of hypoxia-ischemia (HI). We also examined the possibility that granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a growth factor with known neuroprotective effects in a variety of experimental brain injury models, combined with EE stimulation could enhance the potential beneficial effect of EE. Seven-day-old Wistar rats of either sex were subjected to permanent ligation of the left common carotid artery followed by 60min of hypoxia (8% O 2 ) and immediately after weaning (postnatal day 21) were housed in enriched conditions for 4weeks. A group of enriched-housed rats had been treated with G-CSF immediately after HI for 5 consecutive days (50μg/kg/day). Behavioral examination took place approximately at three months of age and included assessments of learning and memory (Morris water maze) as well as motor coordination (Rota-Rod). Infarct size and hippocampal area were estimated following behavioral assessment. Synaptic plasticity was evaluated based on BDNF and synaptophysin expression in the dorsal hippocampus. EE resulted in recovery of post-HI motor deficits and partial improvement of memory impairments which was not accompanied by reduced brain damage. Increased synaptophysin expression was observed in the contralateral to carotid ligation hemisphere. Hypoxia-ischemia alone or followed by enriched conditions did not affect BDNF expression which was increased only in enriched-housed normal rats. The combined therapy of G-CSF and EE further enhanced cognitive function compared to EE provided as monotherapy and prevented HI-induced brain damage by

  2. Association between iron deficiency anemia and blood level in egyptian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, E.M.; Moawad, A.T.; Abd Alla, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between iron deficiency and blood lead levels was investigated in a cross-sectional study of 200 children of both sexes, aged 6-12 years with mean of 7.8 +- 2.6 years. They were randomly selected from governmental primary school located near a highly contaminated industrial area. Blood samples were collected for measuring blood lead levels, serum iron serum ferritin, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and other hematological indices. According to iron status, children were classified into non-anemic healthy controls(n=37),iron depleted children(n=58)and children with iron deficiency anemia (n=105).Iron deficiency is defined when MCV 10 / dl were significantly lower than those for children with blood lead levels < 10 /dl. Comparison of blood lead concentrations between boys and girls revealed highly significant increase in blood lead level in boys than girls. A strong negative correlation was detected between blood lead levels and serum iron in all subjects. However, such correlation vanished between blood lead concentration and serum ferritin,so, it could be concluded from the present study that the blood lead levels were changed according to changes in iron status. Improving iron status, along with reducing exposure to environmental contamination with lead, may help in reducing blood lead levels among most children especially those living in contaminated environment

  3. Inter-Individual Differences in RNA Levels in Human Peripheral Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomczynski, Piotr; Wilfinger, William W.; Eghbalnia, Hamid R.; Kennedy, Amy; Rymaszewski, Michal; Mackey, Karol

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the range of RNA levels in human blood. This report provides assessment of peripheral blood RNA level and its inter-individual differences in a group of 35 healthy humans consisting of 25 females and 10 males ranging in age from 50 to 89 years. In this group, the average total RNA level was 14.59 μg/ml of blood, with no statistically significant difference between females and males. The individual RNA level ranged from 6.7 to 22.7 μg/ml of blood. In healthy subjects, the repeated sampling of an individual’s blood showed that RNA level, whether high or low, was stable. The inter-individual differences in RNA level in blood can be attributed to both, differences in cell number and the amount of RNA per cell. The 3.4-fold range of inter-individual differences in total RNA levels, documented herein, should be taken into account when evaluating the results of quantitative RT-PCR and/or RNA sequencing studies of human blood. Based on the presented results, a comprehensive assessment of gene expression in blood should involve determination of both the amount of mRNA per unit of total RNA (U / ng RNA) and the amount of mRNA per unit of blood (U / ml blood) to assure a thorough interpretation of physiological or pathological relevance of study results. PMID:26863434

  4. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Long-Lian; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang; Xu, Da-Yong; Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established

  5. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long-Lian, E-mail: Longlian57@163.com [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Lu, Ling [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Xu, Da-Yong [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  6. Serial hexachlorophene blood levels in the premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, S J; Ferry, D G; McQueen, E G; Malcolm, D S; Buckfield, P M

    1975-04-09

    The concentration of hexachlorophene was determined in serial blood samples taken from seven premature infants washed with pHisoHex. Results indicated that after a single wash with 5ml of pHisoHex, blood concentrations reached a maximum of 0.75-1.20mug/ml two to four days after application. The results obtained in this study confirm that the dermal absorption of hexachlorophene is greater in premature than in full-term infants. Use of hexachlorophene for infants. Use of hexachlorophene for infants of birth weight less than 2kg has now been discontinued at Queen Mary Hospital and the amount of pHisoHex used in the initial toileting of infants with birth weight more than 2kg has been limited to a single application of 5ml.

  7. Plasma BDNF is associated with age-related white matter atrophy but not with cognitive function in older, non-demented adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Driscoll

    Full Text Available Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF seems to be involved in regulation of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. BDNF plasma and serum levels have been associated with depression, Alzheimer's disease, and other psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. In a community sample, drawn from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA, we examined whether BDNF plasma concentration was associated with rates of age-related change in cognitive performance (n = 429 and regional brain volume (n = 59. Plasma BDNF levels, which were significantly higher in females (p0.05. Sex differences in the relationship between BDNF and the trajectories of regional brain volume changes were observed for the whole brain and frontal white matter volumes (p<0.05, whereby lower plasma BDNF was associated with steeper volume decline in females but not males. Together, our findings contribute to furthering the understanding of the relationships between plasma BDNF, structural brain integrity and cognition. Potential mechanisms mediating these relationships merit further investigation.

  8. Vitamins and iron blood biomarkers are associated with blood pressure levels in European adolescents. The HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Iglesia, Iris; González-Gross, Marcela; Breidenassel, Christina; Ferrari, Marika; Molnar, Dénes; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Androutsos, Odysseas; Kafatos, Anthony; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Sjöström, Michael; Gottrand, Frederic; Widhalm, Kurt; Carvalho, Heráclito Barbosa; Moreno, Luis A

    2014-01-01

    Previous research showed that low concentration of biomarkers in the blood during adolescence (i.e., iron status; retinol; and vitamins B6, B12, C, and D) may be involved in the early stages of development of many chronic diseases, such as hypertension. The aim was to evaluate if iron biomarkers and vitamins in the blood are associated with blood pressure in European adolescents. Participants from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence cross-sectional study (N = 1089; 12.5-17.5 y; 580 girls) were selected by complex sampling. Multilevel linear regression models examined the associations between iron biomarkers and vitamins in the blood and blood pressure; the analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for contextual and individual potential confounders. A positive association was found in girls between RBC folate concentration and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (β = 3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-5.77), although no association between the vitamin serum biomarkers concentrations and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was found. In boys, retinol was positively associated with DBP (β = 3.84; 95% CI, 0.51-7.17) and vitamin B6 was positively associated with SBP (β = 3.82; 95% CI, 1.46-6.18). In contrast, holotranscobalamin was inversely associated with SBP (β = -3.74; 95% CI, -7.28 to -0.21). Levels of RBC folate and vitamin B6 in blood may affect BP in adolescents. In this context, programs aimed at avoiding high BP levels should promote healthy eating behavior by focusing on the promotion of vegetable proteins and foods rich in vitamin B12 (i.e., white meat and eggs), which may help to achieve BP blood control in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Glycyrrhiza uralensis flavonoids inhibit brain microglial cell TNF-α secretion, p-IκB expression, and increase brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita P. Patil

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: ASHMI and its effective flavonoid, isoliquiritigenin, inhibited TNF-α production by LPS stimulated microglial cells and elevated BDNF levels, which may prove to have anti-CNS inflammatory and anti-anxiety effects.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of fluid levels in an aneurysmal bone cyst and in anticoagulated human blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, T.M.; Hamlin, D.J.; Fitzsimmons, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a fluid level within an aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). Since the ABC contained gross blood at operation, an anticoagulated human blood sample was studied by MRI also, and a fluid level was again clearly visible. MRI pulse sequences emphasizing T/sub 1/ contrast showed the fluid levels most clearly in both the ABC and the blood. Sequences emphasizing T/sub 2/ contrast showed homogeneous, bright signals in the ABC and in the blood, with no visible fluid level in the ABC and a nearly invisible one in the blood. In the blood sample, the calculated plasma T/sub 1/ value was 1585 ms, and that of the red cells was 794 ms.

  11. Predictors of blood volatile organic compound levels in Gulf coast residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werder, Emily J; Gam, Kaitlyn B; Engel, Lawrence S; Kwok, Richard K; Ekenga, Christine C; Curry, Matthew D; Chambers, David M; Blair, Aaron; Miller, Aubrey K; Birnbaum, Linda S; Sandler, Dale P

    2017-12-29

    To address concerns among Gulf Coast residents about ongoing exposures to volatile organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, and m-xylene/p-xylene (BTEX), we characterized current blood levels and identified predictors of BTEX among Gulf state residents. We collected questionnaire data on recent exposures and measured blood BTEX levels in a convenience sample of 718 Gulf residents. Because BTEX is rapidly cleared from the body, blood levels represent recent exposures in the past 24 h. We compared participants' levels of blood BTEX to a nationally representative sample. Among nonsmokers we assessed predictors of blood BTEX levels using linear regression, and predicted the risk of elevated BTEX levels using modified Poisson regression. Blood BTEX levels in Gulf residents were similar to national levels. Among nonsmokers, sex and reporting recent smoky/chemical odors predicted blood BTEX. The change in log benzene was -0.26 (95% CI: -0.47, -0.04) and 0.72 (0.02, 1.42) for women and those who reported odors, respectively. Season, time spent away from home, and self-reported residential proximity to Superfund sites (within a half mile) were statistically associated with benzene only, however mean concentration was nearly an order of magnitude below that of cigarette smokers. Among these Gulf residents, smoking was the primary contributor to blood BTEX levels, but other factors were also relevant.

  12. Inhibition of Inwardly Rectifying Potassium (Kir 4.1 Channels Facilitates Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF Expression in Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Kinboshi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir 4.1 channels in astrocytes regulate neuronal excitability by mediating spatial potassium buffering. Although dysfunction of astrocytic Kir4.1 channels is implicated in the development of epileptic seizures, the functional mechanisms of Kir4.1 channels in modulating epileptogenesis remain unknown. We herein evaluated the effects of Kir4.1 inhibition (blockade and knockdown on expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a key modulator of epileptogenesis, in the primary cultures of mouse astrocytes. For blockade of Kir4.1 channels, we tested several antidepressant agents which reportedly bound to and blocked Kir4.1 channels in a subunit-specific manner. Treatment of astrocytes with fluoxetine enhanced BDNF mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner and increased the BDNF protein level. Other antidepressants (e.g., sertraline and imipramine also increased the expression of BDNF mRNA with relative potencies similar to those for inhibition of Kir4.1 channels. In addition, suppression of Kir4.1 expression by the transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA targeting Kir4.1 significantly increased the mRNA and protein levels of BDNF. The BDNF induction by Kir4.1 siRNA transfection was suppressed by the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126, but not by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 or the JNK inhibitor SP600125. The present results demonstrated that inhibition of Kir4.1 channels facilitates BDNF expression in astrocytes primarily by activating the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway, which may be linked to the development of epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  13. Effects of end-stage renal disease and dialysis modalities on blood ammonia level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, Nosratola D; Khazaeli, Mahyar; Nunes, Ane C F; Harley, Kevin T; Said, Hyder; Alipour, Omeed; Lau, Wei Ling; Pahl, Madeleine V

    2017-07-01

    Uremia results in a characteristic breath odor (uremic fetor) which is largely due to its high ammonia content. Earlier studies have shown a strong correlation between breath ammonia and blood urea levels and a 10-fold reduction in breath ammonia after hemodialysis in patients with chronic kidney disease. Potential sources of breath ammonia include: (i) local ammonia production from hydrolysis of urea in the oropharyngeal and respiratory tracts by bacterial flora, and (ii) release of circulating blood ammonia by the lungs. While the effects of uremia and hemodialysis on breath ammonia are well known their effects on blood ammonia are unknown and were explored here. Blood samples were obtained from 23 hemodialysis patients (immediately before and after dialysis), 14 peritoneal dialysis patients, and 10 healthy controls. Blood levels of ammonia, creatinine, urea, and electrolytes were measured. No significant difference was found in baseline blood ammonia between hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and control groups. Hemodialysis procedure led to a significant reduction in urea concentration (P ammonia level in 10 of the 23 patients studied. Change in blood ammonia pre- and post-hemodialysis correlated with change in serum bicarbonate levels (r = 0.61, P ammonia levels after dialysis, there was a strong correlation with drop in mean arterial pressure (r = 0.88, P ammonia compared to the patients who manifested a fall in blood ammonia (124 ± 8 vs. 136 ± 6 mmHg respectively, P = 0.27). Fall in blood urea following hemodialysis in ESRD patients was paradoxically accompanied by a modest rise in blood ammonia levels in 43% of the patients studied, contrasting prior reported effects of hemodialysis on breath ammonia. In this subgroup of patients, changes in blood ammonia during hemodialysis correlated with rise in blood bicarbonate and fall in mean arterial blood pressure. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  14. Blood pressure levels in male carriers of Arg82Cys in CD300LG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Julie; Grarup, Niels; Hørlyck, Arne

    2014-01-01

    found to be associated with fasting HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The polymorphism has not been detected in hypertension GWAS potentially due to its low frequency, but CD300LG has been linked to blood pressure as CD300LG knockout mice have changes in blood pressure. Twenty......-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure was obtained in human CD300LG CT-carriers to follow up on these observations. METHODS: Twenty healthy male CD300LG rs72836561 CT-carriers matched for age and BMI with 20 healthy male CC-carriers. Office blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, carotid intima......-media thickness (CIMT), and fasting blood samples were evaluated. The clinical study was combined with a genetic-epidemiological study to replicate the association between blood pressure and CD300LG Arg82Cys in 2,637 men and 3,249 women. RESULTS: CT-carriers had a higher 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure...

  15. 24 CFR 35.1225 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of environmental intervention blood lead level children from the public health department(s), the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Child with an environmental... STRUCTURES Tenant-Based Rental Assistance § 35.1225 Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level...

  16. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. 95.025 Section 95.025 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies to...

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level for post-neurosurgical bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: The PBM diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations was relatively low, whereas the accuracy of CSF lactate level was high. Some variables that are involved in the incidence of PBM can also affect the diagnostic accuracy for PBM. Taking into account the effects of these variables significantly improves the diagnostic accuracies of routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level.

  18. 24 CFR 35.325 - Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intervention blood lead level. 35.325 Section 35.325 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... STRUCTURES Project-Based Assistance Provided by a Federal Agency Other Than HUD § 35.325 Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. If a child less than 6 years of age living in a federally assisted...

  19. Levels of perfluoroalkylated compounds in whole blood from Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerrman, A.; Bavel, B. van; Hardell, L.; Lindstroem, G. [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology-Environmental Research Centre; Jaernberg, U. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Applied Environmental Research

    2004-09-15

    Historically the reports on perfluoroalkylated (PFA) compounds have been limited to mainly perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) but recently a number of other, potentially bioaccumulating, perfluorinated acids were reported in wildlife and in human blood. PFOS is the PFA compound that has been reported most frequently and in the < 1-82 pg/{mu}l range in human serum from the general population of several countries. PFOS and its salts represents only a fraction of the total fluoroproduction but can occur as an impurity in other products and is suspected to be the stable degradation product from other perfluorinated compounds, for example derivatives of perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). Recent studies indicate that more volatile fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and sulfonamidethanols can degrade biotic to different PFA compounds. FTOHs and sulfonamidoalcohols are used in both industrial and household applications and have been found in the trophosphere. Since possible degradation pathways, distribution and exposure routes for this group of compounds are still under investigation; information of human exposure to a larger number of PFAs is valuable. In this study we analysed 66 whole blood samples from the Swedish general population with respect to 12 perfluorinated sulfonates and carboxylates (including perfluorooctane sulfonamide) with carbon chain length between 4 and 14.

  20. Relationship between systemic hemodynamics and ambulatory blood pressure level are sex dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfie, J; Waisman, G D; Galarza, C R; Magi, M I; Vasvari, F; Mayorga, L M; Cámera, M I

    1995-12-01

    Sex-related differences in systemic hemodynamics were analyzed by means of cardiac index and systemic vascular resistance according to the level of daytime ambulatory blood pressure. In addition, we assessed the relations between ambulatory blood pressure measurements and systemic hemodynamics in male and female patients. We prospectively included 52 women and 53 men referred to our unit for evaluation of arterial hypertension. Women and men were grouped according to the level of daytime mean arterial pressure: or = 110 mm Hg. Patients underwent noninvasive evaluation of resting hemodynamics (impedance cardiography) and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Compared with women men with lower daytime blood pressure had a 12% higher systemic vascular resistance index (P = NS) and a 14% lower cardiac index (P < .02), whereas men with higher daytime blood pressure had a 25% higher vascular resistance (P < .003) and a 21% lower cardiac index (P < .0004). Furthermore, in men systemic vascular resistance correlated positively with both daytime and nighttime systolic and diastolic blood pressures, whereas cardiac index correlated negatively only with daytime diastolic blood pressure. In contrast, women did not exhibit any significant correlation between hemodynamic parameters and ambulatory blood pressure measurements. In conclusion, sex-related differences in systemic hemodynamics were more pronounced in the group with higher daytime hypertension. The relations between systemic hemodynamics and ambulatory blood pressure level depended on the sex of the patient. In men a progressive circulatory impairment underlies the increasing level of ambulatory blood pressure, but this was not observed in women.

  1. Rapid evaluation of fibrinogen levels using the CG02N whole blood coagulation analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Mineji; Gando, Satoshi; Ono, Yuichi; Mizugaki, Asumi; Katabami, Kenichi; Maekawa, Kunihiko; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Wada, Takeshi; Yanagida, Yuichiro; Sawamura, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    Rapid evaluation of fibrinogen (Fbg) levels is essential for maintaining homeostasis in patients with massive bleeding during severe trauma and major surgery. This study evaluated the accuracy of fibrinogen levels measured by the CG02N whole blood coagulation analyzer (A&T Corporation, Kanagawa, Japan) using heparinized blood drawn for blood gas analysis (whole blood-Fbg). A total of 100 matched pairs of heparinized blood samples and citrated blood samples were simultaneously collected from patients in the intensive care unit. Whole blood-Fbg results were compared with those of citrated plasma (standard-Fbg). The whole blood coagulation analyzer measured fibrinogen levels within 2 minutes. Strong correlations between standard-Fbg and whole blood-Fbg were observed (ρ = 0.91, p coagulation analyzer can rapidly measure fibrinogen levels in heparinized blood and could be useful in critical care settings where excessive bleeding is a concern. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. A STUDY ON EFFECT OF AGE, BREED AND SEX ON BLOOD SUGAR LEVEL OF DISEASED DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the dogs with moderate to serious illness coming for treatment at the Dog Ward of West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, West Bengal, India, to find out possible correlation between fasting blood sugar level with breed, sex and age of dogs. The study result implicated that the blood sugar level was not having any general tendency to increase with advancement of age of ailing dogs. The blood sugar level of ailing dogs was higher in small breeds of dogs, particularly in 0 to <4 year age group. The large breeds showed highest level of sugar in blood in disease condition at above the age 12 years or more. The blood sugar level of ailing dogs had a gender bias, as it was found more in females than males in all breeds and age groups.

  3. BDNF val66met association with serotonin transporter binding in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, P M; Ozenne, B; Svarer, C; Adamsen, D; Lehel, S; Baaré, W F C; Jensen, P S; Knudsen, G M

    2017-02-14

    The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is a key feature of the serotonin system, which is involved in behavior, cognition and personality and implicated in neuropsychiatric illnesses including depression. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms have predicted differences in 5-HTT levels in humans but with equivocal results, possibly due to limited sample sizes. Within the current study we evaluated these genetic predictors of 5-HTT binding with [ 11 C]DASB positron emission tomography (PET) in a comparatively large cohort of 144 healthy individuals. We used a latent variable model to determine genetic effects on a latent variable (5-HTT LV ), reflecting shared correlation across regional 5-HTT binding (amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, midbrain, neocortex, putamen and thalamus). Our data supported a significant BDNF val66met effect on 5-HTT LV such that met-carriers showed 2-7% higher subcortical 5-HTT binding compared with val/val individuals (P=0.042). Our data did not support a BDNF val66met effect in neocortex and 5-HTTLPR did not significantly predict 5-HTT LV . We did not observe evidence for an interaction between genotypes. Our findings indicate that met-carriers have increased subcortical 5-HTT binding. The small difference suggests limited statistical power may explain previously reported null effects. Our finding adds to emerging evidence that BDNF val66met contributes to differences in the human brain serotonin system, informing how variability in the 5-HTT level emerges and may represent an important molecular mediator of BDNF val66met effects on behavior and related risk for neuropsychiatric illness.

  4. Effect of occupational lead-exposure on blood pressure, serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouman, A E; El-Safty, I A

    2000-01-01

    Numerous observations have indicated a relationship between lead exposure and elevated blood pressure. The present study aims to investigate the association between occupational lead-exposure and elevated blood pressure as well as serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity as parameters affecting blood pressure. Fifty occupationally lead-exposed (16 males and 34 females) and 50 non-exposed (15 males and 34 females) workers were selected after application of certain exclusion criteria. All workers were admitted to complete clinical examination, including standard blood pressure measurement. Also, blood lead level, serum aldosterone concentration and plasma renin activity were estimated. The results of both occupationally lead-exposed males and females demonstrated no significant differences regarding age, work duration, systolic and diastolic blood pressures when compared to occupationally non-exposed males and females; respectively. In addition, occupationally lead-exposed males and females revealed a significant increase in blood lead level and serum aldosterone concentration in comparison to their controls. Moreover, plasma renin activity is significantly decreased among the lead-exposed male workers while it is significantly increased among the lead-exposed female workers in comparison to their controls. It is concluded that serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity are affected by occupationally low-level of lead exposure, and the present study provide further support for the association between blood lead exposure and blood pressure related hormones.

  5. Rescue of axotomized rubrospinal neurons by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the developing opossum, Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X M; Terman, J R; Martin, G F

    1999-12-10

    Many rubrospinal neurons die in developing opossums when their axon is cut at thoracic levels of the spinal cord and in the present study we asked whether they can be rescued by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Bilateral injections of Fast Blue (FB) were made into the rostral lumbar cord to prelabel rubrospinal neurons and 5 days later the rubrospinal tract was cut unilaterally by hemisecting the thoracic cord. Immediately after hemisection, BDNF-soaked gelfoam was placed into the lesion cavity. Since pilot data indicated that one application of BDNF was not sufficient to produce a rescue effect, a second application was made 7 days later. Seven days after the second application the pups were killed by an overdose of anesthetic so that the red nucleus contralateral and ipsilateral to the lesion site could be examined for labeled neurons. The rubrospinal tract is almost entirely crossed, so the red nucleus contralateral to the lesion contained many axotomized neurons, whereas the red nucleus ipsilateral to it did not. Age-matched controls were subjected to the same procedures, but the gelfoam applied to the lesion site in the experimental animals was soaked only in the vehicle used to deliver BDNF. In all cases, labeled neurons were fewer in number in the red nucleus contralateral to the lesion than ipsilateral to it. It was of particular interest, however, that labeled neurons contralateral to the lesion were more numerous in the animals treated with BDNF than in the controls. We conclude that BDNF rescues at least some rubrospinal neurons from axotomy-induced cell death in developing opossums suggesting that loss of access to BDNF, and perhaps other neurotrophins, contributes to failure of rubrospinal neurons to survive axotomy.

  6. Decreased expression of Sprouty2 in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a correlation with BDNF expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilkumar Pillai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current theories on the pathophysiology of schizophrenia suggest altered brain plasticity such as decreased neural proliferation and migration, delayed myelination, and abnormal synaptic modeling, in the brain of subjects with schizophrenia. Though functional alterations in BDNF, which plays important role in neuroplasticity, are implicated in many abnormalities found in schizophrenia, the regulatory mechanism(s involved in the abnormal signaling of BDNF in schizophrenia is not clear. The present study investigated whether Sprouty2, a regulator of growth factor signaling, is abnormally expressed in schizophrenia, and is associated with the changes in BDNF mRNA in this disorder. The potential effect of antipsychotic drugs on Sprouty2 expression was tested in adult rats. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sprouty2 and BDNF gene expression were analyzed in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex samples from the Stanley Array Collection. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of RNA in 100 individuals (35 with schizophrenia, 31 with bipolar disorder, and 34 psychiatrically normal controls showed significantly decreased expression of Sprouty2 and BDNF in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Moreover, a significant correlation between these two genes existed in control, schizophrenia and bipolar subjects. Long-term treatment with antipsychotic drugs, haloperidol and olanzapine, showed differential effects on both Sprouty2 and BDNF mRNA and protein levels in the frontal cortex of rats. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrating decreased expression of Sprouty2 associated with changes in BDNF, suggest the possibility that these decreases are secondary to treatment rather than to factors that are significant in the disease process of either schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorder. Further exploration of Sprouty2-related signal transduction pathways may be helpful to design novel treatment strategies for these disorders.

  7. Low zinc serum levels and high blood lead levels among school-age children in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Adriyan; Panunggal, Binar; Rahfiludin, M. Zen; Swastawati, Fronthea

    2017-02-01

    The coverage of environmental lead toxicant was quiet wide. Lead exposure recently has been expected to be associated with zinc deficiency and blood indices disturbance. Emphasizing on children, which could absorb more than 50 % of lead that enters the body. Lead became the issue on the coastal area due to it has polluted the environment and waters as the source of fisheries products. This was a cross sectional study to determined nutritional status, blood lead levels, zinc serum levels, blood indices levels, fish intake among school children in coastal region of Semarang. This study was carried out on the school children aged between 8 and 12 years old in coastal region of Semarang. Nutritional status was figured out using anthropometry measurement. Blood lead and zinc serum levels were analyzed using the Atomic Absorbent Spectrophotometry (AAS) at a wavelength of 213.9 nm for zinc serum and 283.3 nm for blood lead. Blood indices was measured using auto blood hematology analyzer. Fish intake was assessed using 3-non consecutive days 24-hours food recall. The children had high lead levels (median 34.86 μg/dl, range 11.46 - 58.86 μg/dl) compared to WHO cut off. Zinc serum levels was low (median 18.10 μg/dl, range 10.25 - 41.39 μg/dl) compared to the Joint WHO/UNICEF/IAEA/IZiNCG cut off. Approximately 26.4% of children were anemic. This study concluded that all school children had high blood lead levels, low zinc serum, and presented microcytic hypochromic anemia. This phenomenon should be considered as public health concern.

  8. Could BDNF be involved in compensatory mechanisms to maintain cognitive performance despite acute sleep deprivation? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobbo, Bruno Lima; Corrêa, Márcio Silveira; Vedovelli, Kelem; de Souza, Carlos Eduardo Bruhn; Spitza, Letícia Martins; Gonçalves, Lucas; Paludo, Nathália; Molina, Rachel Dias; da Rosa, Eduarda Dias; Argimon, Irani Iracema de Lima; Bromberg, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest that acute sleep deprivation can lead to adaptations, such as compensatory recruitment of cerebral structures, to maintain cognitive performance despite sleep loss. However, the understanding of the neurochemical alterations related to these adaptations remains incomplete. Investigate BDNF levels, cognitive performance and their relations in healthy subjects after acute sleep deprivation. Nineteen sleep deprived (22.11±3.21years) and twenty control (25.10±4.42years) subjects completed depression, anxiety and sleep quality questionnaires. Sleep deprived group spent a full night awake performing different playful activities to keep themselves from sleeping. Attention, response inhibition capacity and working memory (prefrontal cortex-dependent) were assessed with Stroop and Digit Span tests. Declarative memory (hippocampus-dependent) was assessed with Logical Memory test. Serum BDNF was measured by sandwich ELISA. Data were analyzed with independent samples T-test, ANOVA, ANCOVA and curve estimation regressions. psleep deprived group showed higher BDNF levels and normal performance on attention, response inhibition capacity and working memory. However, declarative memory was impaired. A sigmoidal relation between BDNF and Stroop Test scores was found. Increased BDNF could be related, at least in part, to the maintenance of normal prefrontal cognitive functions after sleep deprivation. This potential relation should be further investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic factors influencing ferritin levels in 14,126 blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Erik; Rigas, Andreas S; Thørner, Lise W

    2015-01-01

    AND METHODS: The effect of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on ferritin levels in 14,126 blood donors were investigated in four genes: in Human Hemochromatosis Protein gene (HFE; rs1800562 and rs179945); in Transmembrane Protease gene, Serine 6 (TMPRSS6-regulating hepcidin; rs855791); in BTB domain......BACKGROUND: Many biologic functions depend on sufficient iron levels, and iron deficiency is especially common among blood donors. Genetic variants associated with iron levels have been identified, but the impact of genetic variation on iron levels among blood donors remains unclear. STUDY DESIGN...

  10. Effect of intrapleural oxytocin injection on blood glucose level in rat (rattus norvegicous).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezhkam, Y; Dezhkam, N

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Oxytocin on energy metabolism is still question. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exogenous oxytocin injection in different dose and timetable on blood glucose level in rat. In this study 16 adult female rats were divided into 2 groups (Treatment 1(T1) and Treatment 2(T2)). T1 with 8 adult female rats received 0.2 IU/Kg oxytocin via intrapleural (IP) and blood glucose level was tested at 0th, 20th, 40th and 60th min after injection by collecting the blood from jugular vein. In T2 eight female rats received 0.4 IU/kg oxytocin via IP taking blood glucose measure at the same minutes as T1. The experiment tested in three replicates. Blood glucose meter (Model: 3TMSO1G) was used with glucose smart blood glucose monitoring system to the measurement of blood glucose level in rats. Data were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS (SAS, version 9) PDIFF was used to compare least square means among treatments adjusting by tukey test. There were hypoglycemic tendency in the changes of the blood glucose level in both T1 and T2, 20th min after injection (88.79 ± 3.28, 68.58 ± 3.63, respectively), while in the remaining subjects (4th and 60th min) blood glucose level increased (115.54 ± 4, 79.7 ± 2.09 and 136.33 ± 5.8, 123.54 ± 0.9, respectively). These results showed that blood glucose level in T1 significantly higher than T2 (p < 0.0001). These in vivo results showed that exogenous oxytocin can be good choice to decrease the blood glucose level very fast.

  11. An artificial pancreas provided a novel model of blood glucose level variability in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munekage, Masaya; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Takezaki, Yuka; Tamura, Takahiko; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects on prognosis of blood glucose level variability have gained increasing attention, it is unclear whether blood glucose level variability itself or the manifestation of pathological conditions that worsen prognosis. Then, previous reports have not been published on variability models of perioperative blood glucose levels. The aim of this study is to establish a novel variability model of blood glucose concentration using an artificial pancreas. We maintained six healthy, male beagles. After anesthesia induction, a 20-G venous catheter was inserted in the right femoral vein and an artificial pancreas (STG-22, Nikkiso Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was connected for continuous blood glucose monitoring and glucose management. After achieving muscle relaxation, total pancreatectomy was performed. After 1 h of stabilization, automatic blood glucose control was initiated using the artificial pancreas. Blood glucose level varied for 8 h, alternating between the target blood glucose values of 170 and 70 mg/dL. Eight hours later, the experiment was concluded. Total pancreatectomy was performed for 62 ± 13 min. Blood glucose swings were achieved 9.8 ± 2.3 times. The average blood glucose level was 128.1 ± 5.1 mg/dL with an SD of 44.6 ± 3.9 mg/dL. The potassium levels after stabilization and at the end of the experiment were 3.5 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that an artificial pancreas contributed to the establishment of a novel variability model of blood glucose levels in beagles.

  12. HORMONE LEVELS IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , 1972. Plasma oestrogen and progesterone levels after mating, and during late pregnancy and post partum in cows . Endocrinologt, 90, 1336. MARION, G.B. & GIER, H.T., 1968. Factors affecting bovine ovarian activity after parturition. J. Anim.

  13. HORMONE LEVELS IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . PROGESTERONE LEVELS DURING THE POST PARTUM PEzuOD. Receipt of MS 26.03.1978. W.A. Coetzer*, C.H. van Niekerk and J.C. Morgenthal. Department of Animal and Human Physiologt,. Universiry of Stellenbosch, 7600.

  14. Study Of Blood Lead Levels, Hemoglobin & Plasma AscorbicAcid In ACarCompanyWelders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Dorosti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Background and aim: About 30-40% of lead entered the respiratorysystem, is absorbed to the bloodstream. Some studies have demonstrated that cigarette smokingresults in blood-lead levels elevation as well as decreased blood ascorbic acid. This study hasperformed on this issue in lead exposed welder workers.Method:Adescriptive cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate associations of smokinghabit with blood lead, hemoglobin and plasma ascorbic acid levels in 32 welders. All the casesused to work in a car factory in Tehran suburb as welders 8 hours a day. They were divided intothree groups based on blood lead level quartiles.The blood lead levels were determined by 8003 NAIOSH method and blood ascorbic acid levelwas determined by Lowery method. Results were compared (based on mean values usingindependent sample t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA methods.Results: Results indicated that the blood lead levels in those who smoke 7+ cigarettes per day wassignificantly higher than those who smoke <7 cigarettes per day (p<0.05 or no smoking group(p<0.001. The hemoglobin concentrations in 7+ group was significantly lower than of the <7(p<0.01 and no smoking (p<0.05 groups.Conclusion :Smoking hait in population, who occupationally exposed to lead, causes an increaseexposure to lead and, hence, elevation of blood-lead levels as well as inhibition of hemoglobinsynthesis and therefore reduces hemoglobin concentration.

  15. Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reverse dipping pattern of nocturnal blood pressure in patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Kadoya

    Full Text Available Basic studies have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has critical roles in the survival, growth, maintenance, and death of central and peripheral neurons, while it is also involved in regulation of the autonomic nervous system. Furthermore, recent clinical studies have suggested potential role of plasma BDNF in the circulatory system.We investigated the mutual relationships among plasma BDNF, patterns of nocturnal blood pressure changes (dippers, non-dippers, extra-dippers, and reverse-dippers, and cardiac autonomic function as determined by heart rate variability (HRV.This was a cross-sectional study of patients registered in the Hyogo Sleep Cardio-Autonomic Atherosclerosis (HSCAA Study from October 2010 to November 2012.Two-hundred fifty patients with 1 or more cardiovascular risk factor(s (obesity, smoking, presence of cardiovascular event history, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease were enrolled.Plasma BDNF levels (natural logarithm transformed were significantly (p = 0.001 lower in reverse-dipper patients (7.18±0.69 pg/ml, mean ± SD, n = 36 as compared to dippers (7.86±0.86 pg/ml, n = 100. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that BDNF (odds ratios: 0.417, 95% confidence interval: 0.228-0.762, P = 0.004 was the sole factor significantly and independently associated with the reverse-dippers as compared with dippers. Furthermore, plasma BDNF level was significantly and positively correlated with the time-domain (SDNN, SDANN5, CVRR and frequency-domain (LF of HRV parameters. Finally, multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the relationship between plasma BDNF and the reverse-dippers was weakened, yet remained significant or borderline significant even after adjusting for HRV parameters.Low plasma BDNF was independently associated with patients showing a reverse-dipper pattern of nocturnal blood pressure, in which an imbalance of cardiac autonomic function

  16. The Effects of Blood Glucose Levels on Cognitive Performance: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jolene; Barshi, Immanuel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to discuss the research literature on the effects of blood glucose levels on executive and non-executive functions in humans. The review begins with a brief description of blood glucose, how it has been studied, previous syntheses of prior studies, and basic results regarding the role of blood glucose on cognitive functioning. The following sections describe work that investigated the effect of blood glucose on both non-executive and executive functions (e.g., sensory processing, psychomotor functioning, attention, vigilance, memory, language and communication, judgement and decision-making, and complex task performance). Within each section, summaries of the findings and challenges to the literature are included. Measurement conversions of blood glucose levels, blood glucose values, and associated symptoms are depicted. References to the types of tests used to investigate blood glucose and cognitive performance are provided. For more detailed descriptions of references within (and in addition to) this paper, an annotated bibliography is also provided. Several moderator variables including individual differences and contextual variables related to the effects of blood glucose levels on performance (e.g., age, gender, time of day, familiarity with the task and symptom awareness, expectancy effects, dose dependent effects, time dependent effects, task specific effects, rising and falling blood glucose levels, and speed and/or accuracy trade-offs) are addressed later in the paper. Some suggestions for future experimental methodologies are also made.

  17. Hormonal contraception and blood lead levels in inner-city adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Elba A; Coupey, Susan M; Markowitz, Morri E

    2008-10-01

    Physiological states of estrogen deficiency can lead to bone demineralization. Lead is stored in bone and may be released into blood during demineralization. The contraceptive injection depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is associated with estrogen deficiency and bone demineralization and, we hypothesized, may be associated with toxic blood lead levels in adolescents at high risk for lead exposure. We sought to compare blood lead levels in inner-city adolescent girls using DMPA with levels in those using oral contraceptive pills (OCP) and those taking no hormones and to examine the influence of lead exposure and reproductive history on blood lead levels in the total sample. Cross-sectional survey of a clinical convenience sample. Inner-city adolescent clinic in an academic medical center. 174 females aged 13-21 years; 86% minority ethnicity. None. Measurement of blood lead levels and an 82-item questionnaire examining lead exposure and reproductive history. 28 subjects were using DMPA, 25 used OCPs, and 121 used no hormones. Mean blood lead level in the total sample of 174 was 1.6 mug/dL, SD = 1.1. Many subjects had environmental risk factors for lead exposure and 15% reported one or more past pregnancies. Mean blood lead levels for subjects with the various environmental and reproductive risk factors ranged from 1.2 microg/dL to 2.0 microg/dL and were not different from levels for subjects without such risk factors. Mean blood lead levels for subjects in the 3 hormonal groups were significantly different (2.1 vs. 1.2 vs.1.5 microg/dL in DMPA, OCP, and no hormone groups respectively, P = 0.007). We dichotomized the blood lead levels into "High" > or =4 microg/dL, or "Low" exposure to lead and the possibility of long-term accumulation of lead in bone, we did not find elevated blood levels in our sample. However, DMPA-treated girls were significantly more likely to have higher mean blood lead levels than OCP users and non-hormone users. In addition, DMPA users

  18. Lifestyle modification increases serum testosterone level and decrease central blood pressure in overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Hiroshi; Zempo-Miyaki, Asako; Yoshikawa, Toru; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Maeda, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has reached global epidemic proportions and is associated with multiple comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease. A novel predictor of cardiovascular disease is elevated central systolic blood pressure. In fact, lifestyle modifications have been shown to decrease the central systolic blood pressure in overweight and obese men. The mechanism underlying these changes has yet to be fully elucidated. Interestingly, testosterone has been found to have cardioprotective effects. Moreover, serum testosterone levels are lower in obese men than in normal weight men. However, it is still unclear whether testosterone participates in the decrease of central blood pressure in overweight and obese men following lifestyle modifications. So, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of testosterone on central systolic blood pressure in overweight and obese men before and after the 12-week lifestyle modification program. Forty-four overweight and obese men completed a 12-week lifestyle modification program (aerobic exercise training and dietary modifications). For all participants, central systolic blood pressure and serum testosterone levels were measured before and after the program. After the program, central systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased while serum total testosterone levels were significantly increased in overweight and obese men. Moreover, we also found a significant negative relationship between the change in serum testosterone levels and that in central systolic blood pressure. The present study suggests that increased serum testosterone levels likely contribute to a decrease in central blood pressure in overweight and obese men.

  19. ( Myrciaria jaboticaba ) peel on blood glucose and cholesterol levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Berg) peel was lyophilized and the proximate composition, total anthocyanins and polyphenolic content were determined. The effect of the freeze-dried jaboticaba peels (FJP) in the plasmatic levels of glucose, lipid fractions, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in Wistar adult male rats was ...

  20. Pharmacist's Intervention in the Control of Blood Sugar Levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The extended roles of pharmacists in Nigeria in the improvement of quality of health care at the primary health care (PHC) level is currently poorly executed even though pharmacists have been proven to be involved in interventional activities in health care delivery. Objective: To evaluate pharmacists' ...

  1. Blood Lead Levels And Potental Environmental Exposures Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p = 0.439). Low risk parental occupation (p = 0.001) and. Kales sourced from the market/kiosks (p = 0.001) were significantly associated with BLL ≥ 10ug/dl. Soil lead levels (Soil Pb) ranged from 3,000 to 90,000ug/kg, which was very high ...

  2. Levels of micronutrients and heavy metals in cord blood and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to smoke from biomass fuel causes chronic diseases, but the mechanism underlying negative effects of household air pollution (HAP) is not exactly understood. The basis of the impact of HAP on maternal and fetal health was assessed by determining the levels of teratogenic heavy metals [Lead (Pb), Mercury ...

  3. The relationship between maternal blood cadmium, zinc levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The delivery of babies with low birth weight is a prognosis of neonatal mortality, morbidity and poor health outcomes later in life. This study evaluates the levels of cadmium, zinc and calculated cadmium/zinc ratio in non-occupationally exposed pregnant women at delivery and their relationship with birth weight of babies.

  4. Community Characteristics are Associated with Blood Pressure Levels in a Racially Integrated Community

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, L. J.; Thorpe, R. J.; Bower, K. M.; LaVeist, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Community problems have been associated with higher, and community resources and social cohesion with lower, blood pressure. However, prior studies have not accounted for potential confounding by residential racial segregation. This study tested associations between community characteristics and blood pressure levels and prevalent hypertension in a racially integrated community. The Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study measured blood pressure in residents of two contig...

  5. CLASSICAL MUSIC DECREASE STRESS LEVEL AND BLOOD PRESSURE PRIMIGRAVIDA IN THE THIRD TRIMESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Alit Armini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many changes in psychology and biology increase primigravida’s stress in the third trimester. The stress response makes blood pressure being unstable, it causes bad effect for pregnancy. Classical music can be used as one of relaxation facilities that can reduce stress. The aimed of this study were to analyze the effect of classical music on stress level and blood pressure. Method: This study was used a quasy experimental purposive sampling design. The sample in this study were 14 pregnancy women in the third trimester in RSIA Cempaka Putih Permata Surabaya. The independent variable in this study was classical music and the dependent variable were stress level and blood pressure. Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, Mann Withney U Test, Paired t Test and Independent t Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that the stress level in controlled group with p=0.567 and intervention group with p=0.025. The result of blood pressure in controlled group with p=0.522 in systolic blood pressure, p=0.35 in diastolic blood pressure and intervention group showed p=0.103 in systolic blood pressure and p=1.00 in diastolic blood pressure. Discussion: It can be concluded that listening classical music can reduce stress level, stabilize blood pressure, although blood pressure hasn’t significant result but mean of blood pressure show that it was stable. Further studies should be considered to used cortisol to identify stress biology response spesifically.

  6. BDNF VAL66MET Polymorphism Elevates the Risk of Bladder Cancer via MiRNA-146b in Micro-Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Emerging studies on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF have shown that might be novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for cancer. We explore the role of BDNF in the tumorigenesis of bladder cancer and the underlying molecular mechanism. Methods: 368 patients with diagnosed bladder cancer and 352 healthy controls were enrolled to evaluate the association of BDNF and the miR-146b. Bioinformatics algorithm analysis and luciferase assay were performed to identify the target genes of miR-146b. Real-time PCR and western-blot were carried out to validate the relationship between miR-146b and CRK. MTT assay and FACS were used to evaluated the proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells. MVs were isolated and transfect into the culture cells to confirm the above observation. Results: The clinical study shows that BDNF Met/Met was significantly associated with the risk of bladder cancer. In addition, comparing with Val/Val and Val/Met, Met/Met has lower miR-146b level. Luciferase assay shows that BDNF Val/Val is apparently enhanced miR-146b promoter-luciferase, but not BDNF Met/Met. Based on luciferase assay, CRK is a direct target gene of miR-146b. MiR-146b mimics significantly inhibited the expression of CRK and activation of AKT level. The expression of CRK and the activation of AKT (p-AKT were significantly inhibited by MV-BDNF Val/Val-miR-146b or MV-BDNF Val/Met-miR-146b, but not MV-BDNF Met/Met-miR-146b. MV-BDNF Val/Val-miR-146b or Val/Met-miR-146b obviously inhibited cell proliferation, which eliminated by CRK. Meanwhile, with MV-BDNF Met/Met-miR-146b or Met/Met-miR-146b+CRK did not affect the proliferation. MV-BDNF Val/Val-miR-146b or Val/Met-miR-146b enhanced cell apoptosis, which could be eliminated by CRK. Meanwhile, MV-BDNF Met/Met-miR-146b or Met/Met-miR-146b+CRK did not promote apoptosis. Conclusion: BDNF VAL66MET polymorphism is associated with miR-146b and its target gene CRK. MiR-146b and CRK mediated BDNF VAL66

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level for post-neurosurgical bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Xiong; Zhang, Junting; Gao, Zhixian; Ji, Nan; Zhang, Liwei

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) lactate level for Post-neurosurgical Bacterial Meningitis (PBM) at a large sample-size of post-neurosurgical patients. The diagnostic accuracies of routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level to distinguish between PAM and PBM were evaluated with the values of the Area Under the Curve of the Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUC -ROC ) by retrospectively analyzing the datasets of post-neurosurgical patients in the clinical information databases. The diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations was relatively low (AUC -ROC surgical diagnosis and postoperative days (the interval days between the neurosurgery and examinations) were shown to affect the diagnostic accuracy of these examinations. The variables were integrated with routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level by Fisher discriminant analysis to improve their diagnostic accuracy. As a result, the diagnostic accuracy of blood examinations and CSF lactate level was significantly improved with an AUC -ROC value=0.760 (CI 95%, 0.737-0.782) and 0.921 (CI 95%, 0.887-0.948) respectively. The PBM diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations was relatively low, whereas the accuracy of CSF lactate level was high. Some variables that are involved in the incidence of PBM can also affect the diagnostic accuracy for PBM. Taking into account the effects of these variables significantly improves the diagnostic accuracies of routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. STRING BEAN JUICE DECREASES BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmayetty Harmayetty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is deficiency of insulin and caused by decreases of insulin receptor or bad quality of insulin. As a result, insulin hormone does not work effectively in blood glucose regulation. String bean juice contains thiamin and fiber may regulate blood glucose level. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of string bean juice to decrease blood glucose level of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: This study employed a quasy-experimental pre-post test control group design and purposive sampling.  The population were all type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Puskesmas Pacar Keling Surabaya. Sample were 12 patients who met inclusion criteria. The independent variable was string bean juice and dependent variable was blood glucose level. Data were analyzed by using Paired T-test with significance level of α≤ 0.05 and Independent T-test with significant level of α≤0.05. Result: The results showed that string bean juice has an effect on decreasing blood glucose between pre test and post test for blood glucose with independent T-test is p=0.003. Analysis: In conclusion, string bean juice has an effect on blood glucose level in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Discussion: The possible explanation for this findings is string bean juice contains two ingredients: thiamine and fiber. Thiamine helps support insulin receptors and glucose transporter in cells hence GLUT-4 could translocated to the cell membrane brought glucouse enter to the  intracellular compartment, that leads to blood glucouse level well regulated.  Dietary fiber reduces food transit time so slowing the glucose absorption. Therefore blood glucose level will be decreased.

  9. Measurement of endotoxin levels in blood of hemodialysis Patients by 'Lal' test and comparision of its efficacy with blood culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Vazirzadeh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Presently, bacteremia is the principal cause of morbidity in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Gram-negative bacteria account for approximately 50 percent of documented infections. Endotoxins released during lysis of gram negative bacteremia result in inflammatory and defense response by the body and if not treated promptly result in septic shock and ultimately death of the patient. This study describes the detection of endotoxins in blood of patients with bacteremia due to gram - negative bacteria by LAL test. Method: Blood samples of 278 hemodialysis patients were analyzed in this study and pathogens were isolated from blood culture samples. Then, their antibiotic sensitivity was determined. In patients with positive blood culture, endotoxin levels were measured by LAL-test. Results: Frequency of bacteremia in patients was 13.6% . The prevalence of gram – negative bacteremia was 44.7%. E coli were the major pathogens, while staphylococcus aureus was the most common gram positive bacterium. Endotoxin was detected in 15 patients (3.8 ± 1.08 EU/ml . The sensitivity and specificity of endotoxins for gram – negative bacteremia were 88% and 95%, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicate that the LAL method is a fast, sensitive and simple method. There was no significant difference between the results of blood culture and LAL – test ( P > 0.05 .

  10. Influence of perinatal factors on thyroid stimulating hormone level in cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir-mohammad Armanian

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion we deduce that the only factor that can affect cord blood TSH was method of delivery. Infant with vaginal delivery has higher TSH level in cord blood. Other factors that were evaluated in this study didn′t have any statistically significant relationship.

  11. Factors associated with elevated blood lead levels in inner ·city ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out to determine risk factors for childhood lead exposure. Blood lead levels of inner-city Sub A coloured children living in Woodstock were examined in relation to information obtained by questionnaire on environmental and social factors. The mean blood lead concentration of ...

  12. Determination of glucose levels using dried filter paper blood spots: new perspective in home monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Laura Sterian; Novis, Renata Britto; Nascimento, Veridiana Toledo; Nóbrega, Miriam Siesler; Saad, Mário José Abdalla

    1996-01-01

    We present a method for the determination of blood glucose using dried filter paper blood spots.To validate this method, we compared our results using filter paper and simultaneously collected venous blood. We demonstrated that there is a linear relationship between the filter paper glucose levels and those determined in whole blood (r=0.98). There was no significant difference between the results of the two methods (p>0.05).This method is a cheap alternative which may improve the control of ...

  13. Determination of glucose levels using dried filter paper blood spots: new perspective in home monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sterian Ward

    Full Text Available We present a method for the determination of blood glucose using dried filter paper blood spots.To validate this method, we compared our results using filter paper and simultaneously collected venous blood. We demonstrated that there is a linear relationship between the filter paper glucose levels and those determined in whole blood (r=0.98. There was no significant difference between the results of the two methods (p>0.05.This method is a cheap alternative which may improve the control of diabetes mellitus, and may also be very useful in the diagnosis of postprandial hypoglycemia and other special situations.

  14. Working Memory Deficits, Increased Anxiety-Like Traits, and Seizure Susceptibility in BDNF Overexpressing Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo, Francesco; Silverman, Jill L.; Aney, Jordan; Tian, Qingjun; Barkan, Charlotte L.; Chadman, Kathryn K.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2011-01-01

    BDNF regulates components of cognitive processes and has been implicated in psychiatric disorders. Here we report that genetic overexpression of the BDNF mature isoform (BDNF-tg) in female mice impaired working memory functions while sparing components of fear conditioning. BDNF-tg mice also displayed reduced breeding efficiency, higher…

  15. Blood manganese levels and associated factors in a population-based study in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Ana Lívia Carvalho; Urbano, Mariana Ragassi; Almeida Lopes, Ana Carolina Bertin De; Carvalho, Maria de Fatima H; Buzzo, Marcia Liane; Peixe, Tiago Severo; Aschner, Michael; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; Paoliello, Monica Maria Bastos

    2017-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential dietary nutrient for human health serving as a cofactor for many enzymes; however, exposure to excessive quantities of Mn may lead to toxicity with symptoms analogous to Parkinson's disease (PD). Population-based biomonitoring is an effective tool for characterizing the body burden of environmental or occupational pollutants, including Mn. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to (1) estimate reference values (RV) for blood Mn in an adult population and (2) assess the variables that were associated with higher blood metal levels. A total of 947 adults, aged 40 years or older, were randomly selected in a city in Southern Brazil. Information on socioeconomic, dietary, lifestyle, and occupational background was collected by trained interviewers. Blood Mn levels (μg/L) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The RV for blood Mn concentrations were obtained from the upper limits of the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the 95th percentile distributions. Cluster analysis was performed to identify variables associated with high or low blood Mn concentrations. The RV for blood Mn levels in this study were 18.54 and 20.15 μg/L for men and women, respectively. Mn blood concentrations decreased with age and were higher in females compared to males. No marked association was noted between blood Mn and smoking or drinking habits, education levels and socioeconomic status. Diastolic blood pressure was higher in a group of women approximately 54 years of age associated with elevated blood Mn levels. Important reference data stratified by demographic and lifestyle factors that may prove useful for future surveillance of environmental exposure to Mn and health risks associated with this metal are presented.

  16. Effect of blood glucose level on 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Haibo; Lin Xiangtong; Guan Yihui; Zhao Jun; Zuo Chuantao; Hua Fengchun; Tang Wenying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of blood glucose level on the image quality of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT imaging. Methods: Eighty patients referred to the authors' department for routine whole-body 18 F-FDG PET/CT check up were recruited into this study. The patients were classified into 9 groups according to their blood glucose level: normal group avg and SUV max ) of liver on different slices. SPSS 12.0 was used to analyse the data. Results: (1) There were significant differences among the 9 groups in image quality scores and image noises (all P avg and SUV max : 0.60 and 0.33, P<0.05). Conclusions: The higher the blood glucose level, the worse the image quality. When the blood glucose level is more than or equal to 12.0 mmol/L, the image quality will significantly degrade. (authors)

  17. Effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Dol

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the effects of yogic exercises on life stress and blood glucose levels in nursing students. [Subjects and Methods] The study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven undergraduate nursing students were randomly selected, with 12 assigned to an exercise group and 15 assigned to a control group. The yogic exercises intervention was undertaken for 60 minutes one day a week for 12 weeks. It consisted of physical exercise (surya namaskara) combined with relaxation and meditation (shavasana and yoga nidra). Life stress was measured by the Life Stress Scale for College Students, and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured with a digital glucometer. [Results] The exercise group measurements were significantly decreased in both life stress and postprandial blood glucose levels compared with the control group. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that yogic exercises would reduce life stress and lower postprandial blood glucose levels in nursing students.

  18. Effect of advance meditation program on electrocardiogram, blood pressure, and stress level in young healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: AMP has its positive effects on ECG, blood pressure, and stress level. Thus, it can be considered as one of the important nonpharmacological methods for prevention of stress, anxiety, and cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Blood conservation pediatric cardiac surgery in all ages and complexity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohsen; Sullivan, Jill M; Linthicum, Carrie; Mathew, Anil

    2017-04-26

    To demonstrate the feasibility of blood conservation methods and practice across all ages and risk categories in congenital cardiac surgery. We retrospectively analyzed a collected database of 356 patients who underwent cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) from 2010-2015. The patients were grouped into blood conservation ( n = 138) and non-conservation ( n = 218) groups and sub-grouped based on their ages and procedural complexity scores. There were no statistical differences in gender, weight, pre-operative and pre-CPB hematocrit levels in both groups. Despite equivalent hematocrit levels during and after CPB for both groups, there was significantly less operative homologous blood utilized in blood conservation group across all ages and complexity levels. Blood conservation surgery can be performed in congenital patients needing cardiac surgery in all age groups and complexity categories. The above findings in addition to attendant risks and side effects of blood transfusion and the rising cost of safer blood products justify blood conservation in congenital cardiac surgery.

  20. Effects of different timing of stress on corticosterone, BDNF and memory in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radahmadi, Maryam; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Nasrin

    2015-02-01

    Learning and memory seem to be affected by chronic stress. Previous reports have considered chronic stress as a precipitating factor of different neuropsychological disorders, while others reported neurobiological adaptations following stress. The present study investigated the effects of chronic stress before, after, and during learning on the changes of learning and memory, on serum and hippocampal levels of corticosterone (CORT), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and body weight in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=10) including Control (Co), Stress-Learning-Rest (St-L-Re), Rest-Learning-Stress (Re-L-St), and Stress-Learning-Stress (St-L-St) groups. The chronic restraint stress was applied 6 h/day for 21 days. Moreover, the passive avoidance test was used to assess memory deficit, 1, 7, and 21 days after training. At the end of experiments, CORT and BDNF levels were measured. The findings did not support adaptation in chronic stress conditions. The acquisition time as well as the short and mid-term memories was significantly impaired in the St-L-Re group. Short, mid, and long-term memories were significantly impaired in the Re-L-St and St-L-St groups compared with the Co group, as a result of the enhancement of CORT and reduction of BDNF levels. In the St-L-St group, changes in memory functions were less pronounced than in the Re-L-St group. Also, body weight declined following the chronic stress, while recovery period enhanced the body weight gain in stressed rats. It can be concluded that a potential time-dependent involvement of stress and recovery period on the level of BDNF. Longer duration time of chronic stress might promote adaptive effects on memory and CORT level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurement of blood calprotectin (MRP-8/MRP-14) levels in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojko, Jaryna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to compare blood calprotectin (MRP8/14, S100A 8/9) levels in patients with systemic-onset, polyarticular, RF-negative and oligoarticular subtypes of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and to explore links between blood calprotectin levels and clinical and laboratory markers of JIA activity. Measurement of calprotectin in blood serum was performed in 160 patients with JIA followed up at Lviv Regional Council Public Institution "Western-Ukrainian Specialised Children's Medical Centre". Seventeen patients with systemic-onset JIA (sJIA) and 49 patients with other JIA subtypes (RF-negative polyarthritis and oligoarthritis) in the active phase of the disease were included in this study. Determination of calprotectin levels in blood serum was performed using EK-MRP8/14 Buhlmann Calprotectin reagents (Buhlmann, Switzerland) by the ELISA method. The results of the investigations showed that blood calprotectin levels were higher in patients with systemic-onset subtype of the disease (median 13,800 ng/ml), and differed significantly from levels in healthy children (median 1,800 ng/ml, p = 0.00002), levels in patients with articular subtypes of JIA (median 2,700 ng/ml, p = 0.000008), and patients with RF-negative polyarthritis (median 3,800 ng/ml, p = 0.003226) and oligoarthritis (median 2,500 ng/ml, p = 0.000009). The highest blood calprotectin levels were found in patients with newly diagnosed sJIA, the median being 32,500 ng/ml (range: 13,800-177,000 ng/ml). Direct correlations were found between blood calprotectin and JADAS 27 activity score ( p = 0.000009), ESR ( p = 0.000079) and CRP ( p = 0.000058). Blood calprotectin level is one of the measures that can be used to confirm the diagnosis of sJIA and to monitor the disease activity and therapy effectiveness.

  2. Blood lead level and dental caries in school-age children.

    OpenAIRE

    Gemmel, Allison; Tavares, Mary; Alperin, Susan; Soncini, Jennifer; Daniel, David; Dunn, Julie; Crawford, Sybil; Braveman, Norman; Clarkson, Thomas W; McKinlay, Sonja; Bellinger, David C

    2002-01-01

    The association between blood lead level and dental caries was evaluated in cross-sectional analyses of baseline data for 543 children 6-10 years old screened for enrollment in the Children's Amalgam Trial, a study designed to assess potential health effects of mercury in silver fillings. Approximately half of the children were recruited from an urban setting (Boston/Cambridge, MA, USA) and approximately half from a rural setting (Farmington, ME, USA). Mean blood lead level was significantly ...

  3. Obedience of Control and the Level of Blood Sugar in Kediri Baptis Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Suprihatin, Suprihatin

    2012-01-01

    Obedience controls carried out someone who suffers from a disease that requires control or check at the hospital. If the patient is less obedience will affect blood sugar levels. The purpose of this study to analyze compliance with the control of blood sugar levels at Baptist Hospital Kediri. The study design was cross-sectional. The population were patients with diabetes mellitus who controls or checks at Baptist Hospital Kediri. The sample of 81 respondents who met the inclusion criteria us...

  4. Brief Report: Whole Blood Serotonin Levels and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Marler, Sarah; Ferguson, Bradley J.; Lee, Evon Batey; Peters, Brittany; Williams, Kent C.; McDonnell, Erin; Macklin, Eric A.; Levitt, Pat; Gillespie, Catherine Hagan; Anderson, George M.; Margolis, Kara Gross; Beversdorf, David Q.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Elevated whole blood serotonin levels are observed in more than 25 % of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Co-occurring gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are also common in ASD but have not previously been examined in relationship with hyperserotonemia, despite the synthesis of serotonin in the gut. In 82 children and adolescents with ASD, we observed a correlation between a quantitative measure of lower GI symptoms and whole blood serotonin levels. No significant association was seen...

  5. BDNF, produced by a TPO-stimulated megakaryocytic cell line, regulates autocrine proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Shogo [Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Nagasawa, Ayumi; Masuda, Yuya; Tsunematsu, Tetsuya [Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Hayasaka, Koji; Matsuno, Kazuhiko; Shimizu, Chikara [Division of Laboratory and Transfusion Medicine, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo (Japan); Ozaki, Yukio [Department of Clinical and Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi (Japan); Moriyama, Takanori, E-mail: moriyama@hs.hokuda.ac.jp [Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It has been thought that BDNF is not produced in the megakaryocytic lineage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MEG-01 produces BDNF upon TPO stimulation and regulates its proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDNF accelerates proliferation of MEG-01 in an autocrine manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDNF may be an autocrine MEG-CSF, which regulates megakaryopoiesis. -- Abstract: While human platelets release endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) upon activation, a previous report on MEG-01, a megakaryocytic cell line, found no trace of BDNF production, and the pathophysiological function of platelet BDNF has remained elusive. In the present study, we demonstrate that MEG-01 produces BDNF in the presence of TPO and that this serves to potentiate cell proliferation. Our in vitro findings suggest that BDNF regulates MEG-01 proliferation in an autocrine manner, and we suggest that BDNF may be a physiological autocrine regulator of megakaryocyte progenitors.

  6. The relationship between helminth infections and low haemoglobin levels in Ethiopian children with blood type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degarege, A; Yimam, Y; Madhivanan, P; Erko, B

    2017-05-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the nature of association of ABO blood type with helminth infection and related reduction in haemoglobin concentration. Stool samples were collected from 403 school-age children attending Tikur Wuha Elementary School from February to April 2011. Helminth infection was examined using formol-ether concentration and thick Kato-Katz (two slides per stool specimen) techniques. Haemoglobin level was determined using a HemoCue machine and ABO blood type was determined using the antisera haemagglutination test. Nutritional status was assessed using height and weight measurements. Out of 403 children examined, 169, 120, 96 and 18 had blood type O, A, B and AB, respectively. The prevalences of helminth infections were 46.9% for hookworm, 24.6% for Schistosoma mansoni, 4.2% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 1.7% for Trichuris trichiura and 58.3% for any helminth species. The relative odds of infection with at least one helminth species was significantly higher among children with blood type A (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.28-3.45) or blood type B (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.22-3.56) as compared to children with blood type O. Among children infected with helminths, mean haemoglobin concentration was lower in those with blood type A than those with blood type O (β, -0.36; 95% CI, -0.72 to -0.01). The relative odds of hookworm infection (AOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.08-2.92) and related reduction in haemogobin levels (β, -0.45; 95% CI, -0.84 to -0.04) was higher among children with blood type A as compared to those with blood type O. Although the difference was not significant, the relative odds of S. mansoni or A. lumbricoides infections and related reduction in haemoglobin levels was also higher in children with blood type A or B as compared to children with blood type O. In conclusion, children with blood type A are associated with an increased risk of helminth, particularly hookworm, infection and related reduction

  7. Aging and ABO blood type influence von Willebrand factor and factor VIII levels through interrelated mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albánez, S; Ogiwara, K; Michels, A; Hopman, W; Grabell, J; James, P; Lillicrap, D

    2016-05-01

    Essentials von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII (FVIII) levels are modulated by age and ABO status. The effect of aging and ABO blood type on VWF and FVIII was assessed in 207 normal individuals. Aging and ABO blood type showed combined and bidirectional influences on VWF and FVIII levels. Aging and ABO blood type influence VWF levels through both secretion and clearance mechanisms. Background The effect of aging and ABO blood type on plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII (FVIII) have been widely reported; however, a comprehensive analysis of their combined effect has not been performed and the mechanisms responsible for the age-related changes have not been determined. Objectives To assess the influence of aging and ABO blood type on VWF and FVIII levels, and to evaluate the contribution of VWF secretion and clearance to the age-related changes. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was performed in a cohort of 207 normal individuals, whose levels of VWF, FVIII, VWF propeptide (VWFpp), VWFpp/VWF:Ag ratio and blood type A antigen content on VWF (A-VWF) were quantified. Results Aging and ABO blood type exerted interrelated effects on VWF and FVIII plasma levels, because the age-related increase in both proteins was significantly higher in type non-O individuals (β = 0.011 vs. 0.005). This increase with age in non-O subjects drove the differences between blood types in VWF levels, as the mean difference increased from 0.13 U/mL in the young to 0.57 U/mL in the old. Moreover, A-VWF was associated with both VWF antigen (β = 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09, 0.50) and VWF clearance (β = -0.15; 95% CI, -0.25, -0.06). We also documented an effect of ABO blood type on VWF secretion with aging, as old individuals with blood type non-O showed higher levels of VWFpp (mean difference 0.29 U/mL). Conclusions Aging and ABO blood type have an interrelated effect on VWF and FVIII levels, where the effect of one is significantly

  8. Effect of LED phototherapy on blood lactate level in Taekwondo contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H. C.; Lee, B. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, S.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of LED phototherapy on blood lactate level in the muscle was studied. A 450cm2 large red and near infrared LED pad with its irradiance of 10mW/cm2 was applied for 10 minutes to brachial muscle and quadriceps muscle of thigh to the participants before and after the Taekwondo contest. Blood samples from the participants were taken at 5 minutes after the competition and 10 minutes after the recovery. The test results showed that the LED therapy (LEDT) before and after the competition had a significant effect on the decrease of blood lactate level of the participants.

  9. Secretion, blood levels and cutaneous expression of TL1A in psoriasis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Elm; Schmidt, Esben Gjerløff Wedebye; Sørensen, Jesper Freddie

    2015-01-01

    as disease and response biomarkers are of high interest. Here, we demonstrate TL1A expression in biopsies from psoriatic lesions. Also, we investigated spontaneous and induced TL1A secretion from PBMCs and blood levels from a cohort of psoriasis patients. Here, increased spontaneous secretion from PBMCs...... was observed as compared to healthy controls and a small subset of patients had highly elevated TL1A in the blood. Interestingly, activation of PBMCs with various cytokines showed a decreased sensitivity for TL1A activation in psoriasis patients compared to healthy controls.TL1A levels in blood and biopsies...

  10. Reactive Transformation and Increased BDNF Signaling by Hippocampal Astrocytes in Response to MK-801.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Yu

    Full Text Available MK-801, also known as dizocilpine, is a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptor antagonist that induces schizophrenia-like symptoms. While astrocytes have been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, astrocytic responses to MK-801 and their significance to schizotypic symptoms are unclear. Changes in the expression levels of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP, a marker of astrocyte activation in response to a variety of pathogenic stimuli, were examined in the hippocampus of rats treated with the repeated MK-801 injection (0.5 mg/10 ml/kg body weight for 6 days and in primary cultured hippocampal astrocytes incubated with MK-801 (5 or 20 μM for 24 h. Moreover, the expression levels of BDNF and its receptors TrkB and p75 were examined in MK-801-treated astrocyte cultures. MK-801 treatment enhanced GFAP expression in the rat hippocampus and also increased the levels of GFAP protein and mRNA in hippocampal astrocytes in vitro. Treatment of cultured hippocampal astrocytes with MK-801 enhanced protein and mRNA levels of BDNF, TrkB, and p75. Collectively, our results suggest that hippocampal astrocytes may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia symptoms associated with NMDA receptor hypofunction by reactive transformation and altered BDNF signaling.

  11. Reactive Transformation and Increased BDNF Signaling by Hippocampal Astrocytes in Response to MK-801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenjuan; Zhu, Hao; Wang, Yueming; Li, Guanjun; Wang, Lihua; Li, Huafang

    2015-01-01

    MK-801, also known as dizocilpine, is a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist that induces schizophrenia-like symptoms. While astrocytes have been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, astrocytic responses to MK-801 and their significance to schizotypic symptoms are unclear. Changes in the expression levels of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), a marker of astrocyte activation in response to a variety of pathogenic stimuli, were examined in the hippocampus of rats treated with the repeated MK-801 injection (0.5 mg/10 ml/kg body weight for 6 days) and in primary cultured hippocampal astrocytes incubated with MK-801 (5 or 20 μM for 24 h). Moreover, the expression levels of BDNF and its receptors TrkB and p75 were examined in MK-801-treated astrocyte cultures. MK-801 treatment enhanced GFAP expression in the rat hippocampus and also increased the levels of GFAP protein and mRNA in hippocampal astrocytes in vitro. Treatment of cultured hippocampal astrocytes with MK-801 enhanced protein and mRNA levels of BDNF, TrkB, and p75. Collectively, our results suggest that hippocampal astrocytes may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia symptoms associated with NMDA receptor hypofunction by reactive transformation and altered BDNF signaling.

  12. Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, C. V. L.; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type. Results....... Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable...... household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men. Conclusions. The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes...

  13. Long-term Administration of Salicylate-induced Changes in BDNF Expression and CREB Phosphorylation in the Auditory Cortex of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Bin; Wu, Cong; Shi, Runjie; Han, Kun; Sheng, Haibin; Li, Bei; Mei, Ling; Wang, Xueling; Huang, Zhiwu; Wu, Hao

    2018-03-01

    We investigated whether salicylate induces tinnitus through alteration of the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), proBDNF, tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB), cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB), and phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) in the auditory cortex (AC). Salicylate medication is frequently used for long-term treatment in clinical settings, but it may cause reversible tinnitus. Salicylate-induced tinnitus is associated with changes related to central auditory neuroplasticity. Our previous studies revealed enhanced neural activity and ultrastructural synaptic changes in the central auditory system after long-term salicylate administration. However, the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Salicylate-induced tinnitus-like behavior in rats was confirmed using gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle and prepulse inhibition testing, followed by comparison of the expression levels of BDNF, proBDNF, TrkB, CREB, and p-CREB. Synaptic ultrastructure was observed under a transmission electron microscope. BDNF and p-CREB were upregulated along with ultrastructural changes at the synapses in the AC of rats treated chronically with salicylate (p  0.05). Long-term administration of salicylate increased BDNF expression and CREB activation, upregulated synaptic efficacy, and changed synaptic ultrastructure in the AC. There may be a relationship between these factors and the mechanism of tinnitus.

  14. Variations in the APOE allele or BDNF Val66Met polymorphism are not associated with changes in cognitive function following a tertiary education intervention in older adults: the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Megan E; Summers, Mathew J; Summers, Jeffery J; Saunders, Nichole L; Vickers, James C

    2017-07-01

    The apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele and the Met variant of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism are associated with reduced cognitive function in older adults. The aim of this study was to examine the independent and interactional effect of the APOE ε4 allele and BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on cognitive function in a cohort of healthy older adults who had undertaken further university level education. Multiple group latent growth curve modeling revealed no change in cognitive function over time in APOE ε4-carriers or in BDNF Met-carriers, nor in carriers of both APOE-ε4 and BDNF-Met alleles. Further, the results indicate that allelic variation in either APOE or BDNF does not modify the beneficial effects of a university-based education intervention on cognitive function over a 4-year period following the intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 in blood transfusion components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holten-Andersen, M N; Brunner, N; Christensen, I J; Jensen, V; Nielsen, H J

    2002-01-01

    Blood transfusion during surgery for solid tumors may reduce patient survival because of various bioactive substances present in blood preparations. The anti-proteolytic protein tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) present in large quantities in platelets has been shown to stimulate cell growth and to inhibit apoptosis and may therefore be considered to influence tumor progression. We measured TIMP-1 levels in blood transfusion preparations. especially in platelet-containing preparations, before and after leucofiltration and at different time-points during storage. The mean TIMP-1 levels in whole blood (WB) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were slightly reduced by leucofiltration; WB: 41.6 microg/L versus 34.9 microg/L. PRP: 139.8 microg/L versus 127.2 microg/L. However, with prestorage leucofiltration. TIMP-1 levels in buffy-coat-derived platelet (BCP) pools were significantly reduced from 134.2 microg/L to 102.2 microg/L (p=0.0013). In saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAG-M) blood preparations in which the platelet content is reduced by more than 99%,. TIMP-1 could not be detected. Extracellular TIMP-1 accumulated significantly in non-filtered WB and in aferesis platelet concentrates (APC), but TIMP-1 was at no time detectable in SAG-M blood during storage. In conclusion. TIMP-1 is present in various platelet-containing blood preparations, but not in platelet-free preparations such as SAG-M, indicating that most of the TIMP-1 measured in blood preparations originates from platelets. Furthermore, TIMP-1 levels increased during storage in preparations containing platelets. which suggests a continuous disintegration of platelets. These data imply that information on preoperative blood transfusions should be taken into account when evaluating plasma TIMP-1 levels in patients.

  16. BDNF val66met association with serotonin transporter binding in healthy humans

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, P. M.; Ozenne, B.; Svarer, C.; Adamsen, D.; Lehel, S.; Baaré, W. F. C.; Jensen, P.S.; Knudsen, G. M.

    2017-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is a key feature of the serotonin system, which is involved in behavior, cognition and personality and implicated in neuropsychiatric illnesses including depression. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms have predicted differences in 5-HTT levels in humans but with equivocal results, possibly due to limited sample sizes. Within the current study we evaluated these genetic predictors of 5-HTT binding with [11C]DASB po...

  17. Impact of Dietary Acculturation on the Food Habits, Weight, Blood Pressure, and Fasting Blood Glucose Levels of International College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almohanna, Amal; Conforti, Frank; Eigel, William; Barbeau, William

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of dietary acculturation on the health status of newly arrived international students at Virginia Tech in Fall 2010. Thirty-five international students, 18-36 years of age, completed the study. Data were collected at 3 different time periods (V1, V2, and V3) approximately 6 weeks apart. A food frequency- and dietary pattern-related questionnaire was administered and numerically coded responses were analyzed. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data were also collected at V1, V2, and V3. Body weight, fasting blood glucose level, and blood pressure of study participants were also determined at each time period. Total sample population (TSP) had a significant increase in mean weight of 2.79 lb from visit 1 (V1) to visit 3 (V3) (p = .0082). Ten participants gained an average of 9.0 lb (participants who gained weight; n = 10). There was also an increase in the frequency of consumption of high-calorie American food items from V1 to V3. However, there were no significant changes in mean systolic blood pressure and mean fasting blood glucose was significantly lower at V3 than at V1. There was a gradual shift in the dietary patterns of international students towards the American diet. Dietary acculturation led to weight gain among some of the students, which may potentially have a negative impact on their health status if continued for longer time periods.

  18. Environmental lead exposure among preschool children in Shanghai, China: blood lead levels and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Cao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine blood lead levels and to identify related risk factors among children in Shanghai; to explore the lead change trend of children after industrial transformation and to provide data for policy development to control environmental lead pollution in Shanghai. METHODS: A stratified-clustered-random sampling method was used. A tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer was employed to determine blood lead levels. RESULTS: The arithmetic mean, geometric mean and median of blood lead levels of 0- to 6-year-old children from Shanghai were 22.49 µg/L, 19.65 µg/L and 19.5 µg/L, including 0.26% (6/2291 with concentrations ≥100 µg/L and 2.7% (61/2291 with concentrations ≥50 µg/L. Boys' levels (23.57 µg/L were greater than those of girls (21.2 µg/L. The blood lead levels increased with age. This survey showed that the Chongming district was the highest and Yangpu district was the lowest, this result is completely opposite with the earlier survey in Shanghai. Risk factors for lead contamination included housing environment, parents' education levels, social status, hobbies, and children's nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: The blood lead levels of children in Shanghai were lower than the earlier data of Shanghai and those of published studies in China, but higher than the blood lead levels of developed countries. The blood lead levels of urban districts are higher than the central districts with the industrial transformation. Society and the government should take an active interest in childhood lead poisoning of urban areas.

  19. A Pilot Study of Children’s Blood Lead Levels in Mount Isa, Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Green

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mount Isa, Queensland, is one of three Australian cities with significant lead emissions due to nonferrous mining and smelting. Unlike the two other cities with lead mines or smelters, Mount Isa currently has no system of annual, systematic, community-wide blood lead level testing; and testing rates among Indigenous children are low. In previous screenings, this group of children has been shown to have higher average blood lead levels than non-Indigenous children. The first aim of this study was to assess whether parents and children would participate in less invasive, rapid point-of-care capillary testing. The second aim was to measure blood lead levels among a range of children that roughly reflected the percentage of the Indigenous/non-Indigenous population. This pilot study is based on a convenience sample of children between the ages of 12 and 83 months who were recruited to participate by staff at a Children and Family Centre. Over three half-days, 30 children were tested using capillary blood samples and the LeadCare II Point-of-Care testing system. Rapid point-of-care capillary testing was well tolerated by the children. Of 30 children tested, 40% (n = 12 had blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dL and 10% had levels ≥10 µg/dL. The highest blood lead level measured was 17.3 µg/dL. The percentage of children with blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dL was higher among Indigenous children compared to non-Indigenous (64.2% compared to 18.8% as was the geometric mean level (6.5 (95% CI, 4.7, 9.2 versus 2.4 (95% CI, 1.8, 3.1, a statistically significant difference. Though based on a small convenience sample, this study identified 12 children (40% of the sample with blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dL. Due to historical and ongoing heavy metal emissions from mining and smelting in Mount Isa, we recommend a multi-component program of universal blood lead level testing, culturally appropriate follow-up and intervention for children who are identified with blood lead

  20. Change of blood glucose level and its possible mechanism in patients with cerebral stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weizhen; Zhang Yong; Zhang Zikang; Mo Congjian

    2003-01-01

    To study the mechanism of the change of blood glucose levels in patients with cerebral stroke, the levels of blood glucose, cortisol, glucogen, insulin, growth hormone, triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxine (T 4 ) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were dynamically measured in 90 patients with cerebral stroke. The circumstances of brain middle line movement, lateral ventricle oppression and entrance brain ventricle of burst hematoma of the patients were examines by CT scan. The total incidence of hyperglycemia in the patients was 42.22%. The blood glucose level was positively related to the cortisol and glucogen levels, and negatively related to the T 3 level. The changed level of blood glucose and its related hormones both returned to normal range in 10 days. Both the ACTH level and the rate of cerebral pathological change in hyperglycemia group were significantly higher than that in normoglycemia and control groups. The rate of cerebral pathological change in elevated ACTH level group was higher than that in normal ACTH level group. The mechanism of hyperglycemia in the patients with cerebral stroke might be related to the stimulation of the hypothalamus, which may induce the discharge of ACTH and glucagon releasing factor, and to that the level of cortisol and glucagon increased, the level of T 3 decreased

  1. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  2. EFFECT OF SAPPAN WOOD (Caesalpinnia sappan L EXTRACT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN WHITE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saefudin Saefudin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sappan wood or kayu secang (Caesalpinia sappan L. was reported of having medicinal properties, such as natural antioxidant, relieve vomiting of blood, and mix of ingredients for malaria drugs. The research was conducted to study the influence of ethanol extract from sappan wood on blood glucose level of white rats. The study of the blood glucose level in rats was carried out by using glucose tolerance method. It was measured by Refloluxs (Accutrend GC with Chloropropamide 50 mg/200 g BW (Body weight as positive control. The ethanol extracts were used in various concentrations 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/200 g BW per-oral and was observed every hour, beginning one hour before to 7 hours after the extract being administered. The results showed that treatment of ethanol extract of sappan wood by administer doses gave remarkable effect on the blood glucose level in white rat. It reduced the glucose level in the blood compared to the negative and positive control. Treatment of dose 30 mg/200 g BW gave similar effect to positive controls, while a dose of 50 mg/200 g BW gave lower blood glucose level (93 mg/dl than the positive controls.

  3. Waist circumference as a predictor for blood glucose levels in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta L Hardiman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric indexes such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, hip ciucumference (HC, and waist–hip ratio (WHR, are all useful anthropometric measurements to provide important information on blood glucose concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine different anthropometric measurements, in particular BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, in their ability to predict the blood glucose levels in men and women 40 to 60. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 44 men and 127 women aged 40 to 50 who lived in Cipete Selatan subdistrict, South Jakarta. Blood glucose levels was assessed and anthropometric measurements comprising BMI, WC, HC, WHR were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the best predictor for blood glucose levels. The study showed that the prevalence of DM type 2 was 25.7% and the prevalence was higher in men (40.9% compared to women (23.5%. The significant predictive variables in the simple regression analysis were age and waist circumference. Multiple linear regression showed that after adjustment for age, WC was positively associated with blood glucose levels. Standardized a value was 0.172 (p=0.026. WC predict blood glucose levels, beyond that explained by traditional diabetic risk factors and BMI. These findings provide support for the recommendation that WC be a routine measure for identification of diabetes mellitus type 2 in men and women aged 40 to 60 years.

  4. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); Carlos III Health Institute (ISCIII), 20220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Public Health Laboratory of Alava, Direccion de Salud Publica, Gobierno Vasco, Santiago 11, 01002, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country (Spain); Vioque, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Av de Alicante KM 87, 03550, Sant Joan d' Alacant (Spain); Ibarluzea, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Departamento de Sanidad Gobierno Vasco, Subdireccion de Salud Publica de Gipuzkoa, Avenida de Navarra 4, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Biodonostia, Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica, San Sebastian (Spain); Guxens, Monica [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Casas, Maribel [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Murcia, Mario [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Maria [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2011-05-01

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. {>=} vs < 2 {mu}g/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 {mu}g/dL and 19 {mu}g/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: {yields} Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. {yields} Cord blood Pb levels in

  5. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llop, Sabrina; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Guxens, Monica; Casas, Maribel; Murcia, Mario; Ruiz, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. ≥ vs < 2 μg/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 μg/dL and 19 μg/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: → Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. → Cord blood Pb levels in Spanish newborn are low in

  6. Adropin levels and target organ damage secondary to high blood pressure in the ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulen, Bedia; Eken, Cenker; Kucukdagli, Okkes Taha; Serinken, Mustafa; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Kılıc, Elif; Uyarel, Hüseyin

    2016-11-01

    High blood pressure is still a challenge for emergency physicians to discern the patients that require further analysis to establish the existence of acute hypertensive target organ damage (TOD). The present study aimed to reveal that adropin levels are useful for detecting TOD in patients presenting with high blood pressure. Patients presenting with a blood pressure of more than 180/110 mm Hg were enrolled into the study. After a resting period of 15 minutes, patients' blood pressures were measured thrice at 5-minute intervals while the patients were sitting on a chair, and the average of these measurements was accepted as the baseline value. Blood samples were obtained for either adropin levels or possible TOD during the emergency department admission. A total of 119 patients were included in the study. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures of study patients were 204.8±23.2 and 108.3 ± 10.3, respectively, and 42% (n = 50) of the patients had TOD. Although the adropin levels were similar between the patients with or without TOD (TOD group = 195 pg/mL, interquartile range [IQR]: 178-201; no-TOD group = 196 pg/mL, IQR: 176-204 [P = .982]), it is significantly higher in normotensive patients (normotensive group = 289 pg/mL, IQR: 193-403) compared with the hypertensive ones (P high blood pressure to the emergency department. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental lead and childhood blood lead levels in US children: NHANES, 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Stacey M; Talbott, Evelyn O; Brink, LuAnn L; Wu, Candace; Sharma, Ravi K; Marsh, Gary M

    2017-03-04

    Although blood lead levels in the United States have fallen dramatically since 1980, there remain subgroups of children with high blood lead levels. We assessed the relationship between environmental lead sources and blood lead levels in children ages 1 to 5 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2006. Modeled ambient air lead levels and industrial lead releases at the census-tract level were assigned to each child's residence with adjustment for confounding factors. Of 3,223 children, 272 (8.4%) had blood lead levels ≥ 5 ug/dL. Industrial releases (2,252 vs 1,696 lbs/mi 2 ) and ambient air lead levels (2.28 vs 1.75 ng/m 3 ) were greater in exposed versus unexposed children. For every 10,000 lb/mi 2 increase in inverse distance squared weighted exposure, there was a 1.13% increase (95% CI: 0.45%, 1.81%) in blood lead (p = .001).

  8. The Role of Blood Lactate Levels as Outcome Predictor of Isolated Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Laode

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Traumatic brain injury (TBI is accompanied by regional alterations of brain metabolism, reduction in metabolic rates and possible energy crisis. This metabolic disturbance reflected by increase and accumulation of the brain lactate levels. Objective of this study was to determine the correlation between abnormalities in lactate metabolism for predicting neurologic outcome after moderate or severe traumatic brain injury. Methods: An observational prospective study in 60 patients with isolated TBI. Blood sample taken from vein of the limbs after underwent initial resuscitation. Serial assessment of the blood lactate level was measured in 1st, 2nd and 7th day with Lact2 Roche Cobas® C-System. Neurologic outcome assessed on 7th days using Modified GCS. Results: On initial assessment, 38.3% of patients with normal lactate (≤ 2 mMol/L, 61.7% of patients was hyperlactatemia ( > 2 mMol/L. In this study, it was obtained that the lower of GCS level, the higher of blood lactate level, and vice versa (p = 0.033. In both treatment, there was a significant lactate clearance 24-hour as 37.96% ± 32.76 (p = 0.001 and 13.49% ± 40.32 (p = 0.011, respectively. No significant changes between blood lactate level on the 2nd and 7th day, both operative (p = 0.938; p > 0.05 neither conservative (p = 0.280; p > 0.05 patient. While, there was no correlation between neurologic outcome with 24-hour lactate clearance (p = 0.349. The higher of the initial blood lactate level, the patient’s outcome was worsen (p = 0.029. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between blood lactate level and severity TBI according to GCS level. The lower GCS level, the higher blood lactate level and vice versa. This study also demonstrates that 24-hour lactate clearance did not affect patient’s outcome, but more influence by initial blood lactate level. Therefore, initial blood lactate level can used as an outcome predictor in TBI patients.

  9. Elevated lead levels from e-waste exposure are linked to decreased olfactory memory in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Huo, Xia; Xu, Long; Cheng, Zhiheng; Cong, Xiaowei; Lu, Xueling; Xu, Xijin

    2017-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is a developmental neurotoxicant and can cause abnormal development of the nervous system in children. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Pb exposure on child olfactory memory by correlating the blood Pb levels of children in Guiyu with olfactory memory tests. We recruited 61 preschool children, 4- to 7-years of age, from Guiyu and 57 children from Haojiang. The mean blood Pb level of Guiyu children was 9.40 μg/dL, significantly higher than the 5.04 μg/dL mean blood Pb level of Haojiang children. In addition, approximately 23% of Guiyu children had blood Pb levels exceeding 10.00 μg/dL. The correlation analysis showed that blood Pb levels in children highly correlated with e-waste contact (r s  = 0.393). Moreover, the mean concentration of serum BDNF in Guiyu children (35.91 ng/ml) was higher than for Haojiang (28.10 ng/ml) and was positively correlated with blood Pb levels. Both item and source olfactory memory tests at 15 min, 5 h and 24 h after odor exposure showed that scores were lower in Guiyu children indicative of reduced olfactory memory in Guiyu children. Olfactory memory tests scores negatively correlated with blood Pb and serum BDNF levels, but were positively associated with parental education levels. At the same time, scores of both tests on children in the high blood Pb level group (blood Pb levels > 5.00 μg/dL) were lower than those in the low blood Pb level group (blood Pb levels ≤ 5.00 μg/dL), implying that Pb exposure decreases olfactory memory in children. Our findings suggest that Pb exposure in e-waste recycling and dismantling areas could result in an increase in serum BDNF level and a decrease in child olfactory memory, in addition, BDNF might be involved in olfactory memory impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of hypergravity on catecholamine levels in telemetrically collected blood of rats during centrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvetnansky, R.; Petrak, J.; Mravec, B.; Tillinger, A.; Jurani, M.; Baranovska, M.; Hapala, I.; Frollo, I.

    2005-08-01

    Hypergravity is known to activate the sympathoadrenal system (SAS). Rats subjected to various accelerations (+G) exhibited increased levels of plasma epinephrine (EPI) and partly also norepinephrine (NE). However, the collection of blood was performed after centrifugation finished and therefore plasma NE and EPI levels could have been affected by the process of deceleration. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma EPI and NE levels in blood collected directly during the centrifugation after reaching different +G, using newly developed remote controlled equipment. Such telemetrically regulated equipment for multiple blood sampling allows us to investigate selective effects of hypergravity during centrifugation. All animals had a polyethylene tubing in the tail artery which was connected to a pre-programmed device for three blood withdrawals (0.6 ml each) into individual syringes, performed at any chosen time intervals. Plasma EPI and NE levels were measured at hypergravity between +1G - +5G. Plasma EPI levels showed a huge, hypergravity dependent increase at the interval of 10-20 min. After the blood collection was completed, the centrifuge was turned off and another blood sampling was performed immediately after the centrifuge stopped (10 min). In these samples plasma EPI levels showed a significant reduction compared to the 20 min interval of centrifugation but the EPI levels at 4G-6G were still significantly elevated compared to pre- centrifugation levels. Plasma NE levels showed less pronounced changes (increased after 6G only) with a slower return to control levels.Thus, our data has shown completely different responses of the adrenomedullary (epinephrine) and sympathoneural (norepinephrine) systems to hypergravitation. This data shows that the increased gravitation and not the stressful situations connected with centrifugation is the factor responsible for massive activation of the adrenomedullary system. The mechanism of small activation of the

  11. Predictors of iron levels in 14,737 Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigas, Andreas Stribolt; Sørensen, Cecilie Juul; Pedersen, Ole Birger

    2014-01-01

    . STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In the Danish Blood Donor Study, we assessed the effect of blood donation frequency, physiologic factors, lifestyle and supplemental factors, and dietary factors on ferritin levels. We used multiple linear and logistic regression analyses stratified by sex and menopausal status......BACKGROUND: Dietary studies show a relationship between the intake of iron enhancers and inhibitors and iron stores in the general population. However, the impact of dietary factors on the iron stores of blood donors, whose iron status is affected by blood donations, is incompletely understood...... of blood donations in a 3-year period, and the time since last donation. Other significant factors included weight, age, intensity of menstruation, iron tablets, vitamin pills, and consumption of meat and wine. CONCLUSION: The study confirms iron deficiency as an important problem, especially among...

  12. A study on dietary habits, health related lifestyle, blood cadmium and lead levels of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Nari; Hyun, Whajin; Lee, Hongmie; Ro, Mansoo; Song, Kyunghee

    2012-08-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate dietary habits, health related lifestyle and blood cadmium and lead levels in female college students. 80 college students (43 males and 37 females) participated in the survey questionnaires. Body weight and height, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. The systolic blood pressure of male and female students were 128.9 ± 13.9 and 109.8 ± 12.0, respectively. The diastolic blood pressure of male and female students were 77.1 ± 10.3 and 66.0 ± 6.9, respectively, showing that male students had significantly higher blood pressure than female students (P habits score of female students was significantly higher than that of male students (P improve their dietary and health related living habits.

  13. The Impact of 200 Meter Breast Stroke Swimming Activity on Blood Glucose Level of The Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahrastani, S.; Badri, H.; Argantos, A.; Yuniarti, E.

    2018-04-01

    Blood sugar in the human body is very important, as it is a source of energy for humans. Fasting blood sugar needs to be recognized, because it is an indicator of a person’s health. The research that has been done aims to determine the effect of physical activity on fasting blood sugar. This research is a quasi-experimental research. The research was conducted on 15 students of FIK UNP Padang, who have passed the swimming course. Blood was taken before and after doing physical exercise activity of 200 meter breaststroke swimming. Data collection was conducted with tests and measurements. The data analysis technique used inference statistics with t test formula, with α = 0.05. From the results it is obtained that there is a very significant impact on blood sugar levels after 200 meters breaststroke swimming activity with p <0.05

  14. Blood levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites in Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica): emphasis on interspecies comparison, gender difference and association with blood thyroid hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaeda, Daisuke; Nomiyama, Kei; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Iwata, Hisato; Tsydenova, Oyuna; Amano, Masao; Petrov, Evgeny A; Batoev, Valeriy B; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated that Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica) are still being exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the population is at risk. In the present study, we measured the residue levels of PCBs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in the blood of Baikal seals and assessed the impact of OH-PCBs on the thyroid function. Blood concentrations of PCBs and OH-PCBs were in the range of 2.8-130 ng g(-1)wet wt. and 0.71-4.6 ng g(-1)wetwt., respectively. Concentrations of higher-chlorinated OH-PCBs (hexa- to octa-PCBs) were more than 70% to total OH-PCB concentrations, indicating Baikal seals are mostly risked by higher-chlorinated OH-PCBs. High levels of 4OH-CB146 and 4OH-CB187 and low levels of 4OH-CB107/4'OH-CB108 found in Baikal seals were different from those in other phocidae species, suggesting the unique drug-metabolizing enzyme activities and/or contamination sources in this species. Concentrations of some OH-PCBs in males were significantly higher than those in females. These results suggest that these isomers may be preferentially transferred from mother to pup via cord blood. However, concentrations of almost all the isomers were not significantly correlated with the levels of blood total T3 and T4, implying less impact of PCB-related compounds on the thyroid hormone circulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Blood lead levels in a group of children: the potential risk factors and health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuShady, Mones M; Fathy, Hanan A; Fathy, Gihan A; Fatah, Samer Abd El; Ali, Alaa; Abbas, Mohamed A

    To investigate blood lead levels in schoolchildren in two areas of Egypt to understand the current lead pollution exposure and its risk factors, aiming to improve prevention politicies. This was a cross-sectional study in children (n=400) aged 6-12 years recruited from two areas in Egypt (industrial and urban). Blood lead levels were measured using an atomic absorption method. Detailed questionnaires on sources of lead exposure and history of school performance and any behavioral changes were obtained. The mean blood lead level in the urban area of Egypt (Dokki) was 5.45±3.90μg/dL, while that in the industrial area (Helwan) was 10.37±7.94μg/dL, with a statistically significant difference between both areas (p<0.05). In Dokki, 20% of the studied group had blood lead levels≥10μg/dL, versus 42% of those in Helwan. A significant association was found between children with abnormal behavior and those with pallor with blood lead level≥10μg/dL, when compared with those with blood lead level<10μg/dL (p<0.05). Those living in Helwan area, those with bad health habits, and those living in housing with increased exposure were at a statistically significantly higher risk of having blood lead level≥10μg/dL. Lead remains a public health problem in Egypt. High blood lead levels were significantly associated with bad health habits and housing with increased exposure, as well as abnormal behavior and pallor. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: cord blood levels and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Guxens, Mònica; Casas, Maribel; Murcia, Mario; Ruiz, María; Amurrio, Ascensión; Rebagliato, Marisa; Marina, Loreto Santa; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2011-05-01

    Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. ≥ vs < 2μg/dL). A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels ≥ 2μg/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06μg/dL and 19μg/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels ≥ 2μg/dL. In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of blood glucose level on FDG uptake by liver: a FDG-PET/CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Kazuo, E-mail: kkubota@cpost.plala.or.j [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshige; Murata, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Yukihiro, Masashi; Ito, Kimiteru; Morooka, Miyako; Minamimoto, Ryogo [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Hori, Ai [Department of Epidemiology and International Health, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    In FDG-PET for abdominal malignancy, the liver may be assumed as an internal standard for grading abnormal FDG uptake both in early images and in delayed images. However, physiological variables of FDG uptake by the liver, especially the effects of blood glucose level, have not yet been elucidated. Methods: FDG-PET studies of 70 patients examined at 50 to 70 min after injection (60{+-}10 min: early images) and of 68 patients examined at 80 to 100 min after injection (90{+-}10 min: delayed images) were analyzed for liver FDG uptake. Patients having lesions in the liver, spleen and pancreas; patients having bulk tumor in other areas; and patients early after chemotherapy or radiotherapy were excluded; also, patients with blood glucose level over 125 mg/dl were excluded. Results: Mean standardized uptake value (SUV) of the liver, blood glucose level and sex showed no significant differences between early images and delayed images. However, liver SUV in the delayed image showed a larger variation than that in the early image and showed significant correlation to blood glucose level. The partial correlation coefficient between liver SUV and blood glucose level in the delayed image with adjustment for sex and age was 0.73 (P<.0001). Multivariate regression coefficient (95% confidence interval) of blood glucose was 0.017 (0.013-0.021). Conclusion: Blood glucose level is an important factor affecting the normal liver FDG uptake in nondiabetic patients. In the case of higher glucose level, liver FDG uptake is elevated especially in the delayed image. This may be due to the fact that the liver is the key organ responsible for glucose metabolism through gluconeogenesis and glycogen storage.

  18. Association between Blood Lead Levels and Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmel La-Llave-León

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood lead levels (BLLs and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD activity are considered biomarkers of lead exposure and lead toxicity, respectively. The present study was designed to investigate the association between BLLs and ALAD activity in pregnant women from Durango, Mexico. A total of 633 pregnant women aged 13–43 years participated in this study. Blood lead was measured by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. ALAD activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Mean blood lead was 2.09 ± 2.34 µg/dL; and 26 women (4.1% crossed the Centers for Disease Control (CDC recommended level of 5 µg/dL. ALAD activity was significantly lower in women with levels of lead ≥5 µg/dL compared to those with BLLs < 5 µg/dL (p = 0.002. To reduce the influence of extreme values on the statistical analysis, BLLs were analyzed by quartiles. A significant negative correlation between blood lead and ALAD activity was observed in the fourth quartile of BLLs (r = −0.113; p < 0.01. Among women with blood lead concentrations ≥2.2 µg/dL ALAD activity was negatively correlated with BLLs (r = −0.413; p < 0.01. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that inhibition of ALAD in pregnant women may occur at levels of lead in blood above 2.2 µg/dL.

  19. Treatment and blood glucose level control of diabetes patients aged 30 and above in Balcova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevser Tarı Selçuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: This cross-sectional study aims to evaluate the treatment uptake and control rates of blood glucose, BMI, blood pressure, lipid levels in diabetes patients aged 30 and above in Balcova Heart Study. The association between treatment and blood glucose level control and socio-demographic characteristics will also be evaluated. Methods: The study included data from 1.643 diabetes patients aged 30 and above who participated in the baseline survey of Balcova’s Heart Project. Fasting blood glucose test was carried out for diagnosis of diabetes, and ADA 2011 diagnosis criteria were employed for the overall assessment. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, logistic regression analysis were used. The study was supported by Dokuz Eylul University Scientific Research Projects and Balcova Municipality. Results: Of all patients, 75.4% are receiving treatment, 32.6% of treated patients have blood glucose level, 21.8% have blood pressure, 9.4% have BMI, 34.7% have LDL, 45.2% have HDL, and 52.6% have triglyceride levels under control. According to logistic regression model, diabetes treatment is significantly high for 70 and above age group [OR=1.76, %95.0 CI:1.14-2.72]; for patients with social security[OR=2.21, %95.0 CI:1.39-3.52]; and for patients with coexisting chronic diseases[OR=2.24, %95.0 CI:1.74-2.89]. According to logistic regression model, blood glucose level control of treated patients is significantly high for patients with coexisting chronic diseases [OR=1.49, %95.0 GA:1.12-1.99]. Conclusions: One fourth of diabetes patients are not receiving treatment, and only one third of patients have blood glucose level under control. BMI, blood pressure, lipid control rates are below desired levels. Awareness of diabetes patient on importance of continuous follow-up should be raised, and quality follow-up should be improved.Key Words: Diabetes, diabetes treatment, blood glucose level

  20. Seaweed intake and blood pressure levels in healthy pre-school Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Keiko; Nakamura, Kozue; Tamai, Yuya; Tsuji, Michiko; Sahashi, Yukari; Watanabe, Kaori; Ohtsuchi, Sakiko; Yamamoto, Keiko; Ando, Kyoko; Nagata, Chisato

    2011-08-10

    Few studies have examined whether dietary factors might affect blood pressure in children. We purposed to investigate whether seaweed intake is associated with blood pressure level among Japanese preschool children. The design of the study was cross-sectional and it was conducted in autumn 2006. Subjects were healthy preschoolers aged 3-6 years in Aichi, Japan. Blood pressure and pulse were measured once by an automated sphygmomanometer, which uses oscillometric methods. Dietary data, including seaweed intake, were assessed using 3-day dietary records covering 2 consecutive weekdays and 1 weekend day. Of a total of 533 children, 459 (86.1 percent) agreed to be enrolled in our study. Finally, blood pressure measurement, complete dietary records and parent-reported height and weight were obtained for 223 boys and 194 girls. When we examined Spearman's correlation coefficients, seaweed intake was significantly negatively related to systolic blood pressure in girls (P = 0.008). In the one-way analysis of covariance for blood pressure and pulse after adjustments for age and BMI, the boys with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake had diastolic blood pressure readings of 62.8, 59.3 and 59.6 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.11, trend P = 0.038). Girls with higher seaweed intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure readings (102.4, 99.2 and 96.9 mmHg for girls with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake, respectively; P = 0.037, trend P = 0.030). Our study showed that seaweed intake was negatively related to diastolic blood pressure in boys and to systolic blood pressure in girls. This suggests that seaweed might have beneficial effects on blood pressure among children.

  1. Effects of different levels of coconut fiber on blood glucose, serum insulin and minerals in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindurani, J A; Rajamohan, T

    2000-01-01

    The effect of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from coconut kernel (Cocos nucifera L) in rats fed 5%, 15% and 30% level on the concentration of blood glucose, serum insulin and excretion of minerals was studied. Increase in the intake of fiber resulted in significant decrease in the level of blood glucose and serum insulin. Faecal excretion of Cu, Cr, Mn, Mg, Zn and Ca was found to increase in rats fed different levels of coconut fiber when compared to fiber free group. The result of the present investigation suggest that inclusion of coconut fiber in the diet results in significant hypoglycemic action.

  2. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, C.; Li, Y.; Li, Y.L.; Zou, Y.; Zhang, G.L.; Normura, M.; Zhu, G.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 A and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N ε bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO 2 decreases

  3. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, C. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: LY@sinap.ac.cn; Li, Y.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zou, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, G.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Normura, M. [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK, Oho, Tsukuba 305 (Japan); Zhu, G.Y. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 A and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N{sub {epsilon}} bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO{sub 2} decreases.

  4. Early Stress Evokes Age-Dependent Biphasic Changes in Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Bdnf Expression, and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Deepika; Veenit, Vandana; Sarkar, Ambalika; Thiagarajan, Devi; Kumar, Arvind; Nestler, Eric J.; Galande, Sanjeev; Vaidya, Vidita A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adult-onset stressors exert opposing effects on hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition, with enhancement observed following mild stress and dysfunction following severe chronic stress. While early life stress evokes persistent changes in anxiety, it is unknown whether early stress differentially regulates hippocampal neurogenesis, trophic factor expression, and cognition across the life span. Methods Hippocampal-dependent cognitive behavior, neurogenesis, and epigenetic regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) expression was examined at distinct time points across the life span in rats subjected to the early stress of maternal separation (ES) and control groups. We also examined the influence of chronic antidepressant treatment on the neurogenic, neurotrophic, and cognitive changes in middle-aged ES animals. Results Animals subjected to early stress of maternal separation examined during postnatal life and young adulthood exhibited enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis, decreased repressive histone methylation at the Bdnf IV promoter along with enhanced Bdnf levels, and improved performance on the stress-associated Morris water maze. Strikingly, opposing changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and epigenetic regulation of Bdnf IV expression, concomitant with impairments on hippocampal-dependent cognitive tasks, were observed in middle-aged ES animals. Chronic antidepressant treatment with amitriptyline attenuated the maladaptive neurogenic, epigenetic, transcriptional, and cognitive effects in middle-aged ES animals. Conclusions Our study provides novel insights into the short- and long-term consequences of ES, demonstrating both biphasic and unique, age-dependent changes at the molecular, epigenetic, neurogenic, and behavioral levels. These results indicate that early stress may transiently endow animals with a potential adaptive advantage in stressful environments but across a life span is associated with long-term deleterious effects. PMID

  5. Muscle Contraction Regulates BDNF/TrkB Signaling to Modulate Synaptic Function through Presynaptic cPKCα and cPKCβI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Hurtado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF acts via tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB to regulate synapse maintenance and function in the neuromuscular system. The potentiation of acetylcholine (ACh release by BDNF requires TrkB phosphorylation and Protein Kinase C (PKC activation. BDNF is secreted in an activity-dependent manner but it is not known if pre- and/or postsynaptic activities enhance BDNF expression in vivo at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ. Here, we investigated whether nerve and muscle cell activities regulate presynaptic conventional PKC (cPKCα and βI via BDNF/TrkB signaling to modulate synaptic strength at the NMJ. To differentiate the effects of presynaptic activity from that of muscle contraction, we stimulated the phrenic nerve of rat diaphragms (1 Hz, 30 min with or without contraction (abolished by μ-conotoxin GIIIB. Then, we performed ELISA, Western blotting, qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence and electrophysiological techniques. We found that nerve-induced muscle contraction: (1 increases the levels of mature BDNF protein without affecting pro-BDNF protein or BDNF mRNA levels; (2 downregulates TrkB.T1 without affecting TrkB.FL or p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75 levels; (3 increases presynaptic cPKCα and cPKCβI protein level through TrkB signaling; and (4 enhances phosphorylation of cPKCα and cPKCβI. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cPKCβI, which is exclusively located in the motor nerve terminals, increases activity-induced acetylcholine release. Together, these results show that nerve-induced muscle contraction is a key regulator of BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway, retrogradely activating presynaptic cPKC isoforms (in particular cPKCβI to modulate synaptic function. These results indicate that a decrease in neuromuscular activity, as occurs in several neuromuscular disorders, could affect the BDNF/TrkB/PKC pathway that links pre- and postsynaptic activity to maintain neuromuscular function.

  6. Performance of Layers Fed Graded Levels of Blood –Rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    240 laying hens were fed graded levels of Blood-Rumen content mixture (BRCM) for a period of eight weeks. The study was designed to determine the level of BRCM that layers can tolerate in their diet. Feed intake by birds fed the control and 4% BRCM diets were comparable, but significantly higher (P<0.05) than those ...

  7. Effect of Short-term 900 MHz low level electromagnetic radiation exposure on blood serotonin and glutamate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eris, A H; Kiziltan, H S; Meral, I; Genc, H; Trabzon, M; Seyithanoglu, H; Yagci, B; Uysal, O

    2015-01-01

    Long term exposure to low level electromagnetic radiation (LLER) by using cellular phones causes serious health problems. Ten male Wistar Albino rats were anesthetized 30 min before the LLER exposure, 0.5 ml blood was taken from the tail vein of rats in order to determine control values. Rats were grouped by three and placed on a plexi-glass flat. A fixed equivalent frequency emitter device was used. A sign to be an electromagnetic field 15.14 V/m (608 mW/m(2)) in strength in the head region with 100 kHz FM modulation at 900 MHz was applied to the animals. After calculating the ideal position for the device, electromagnetic LLER energy was applied for 45 minutes from a distance to be equal with energy transmitted by a mobile phone from a 0.5-1 cm distance to their head regions. After 1.5 hours and before the rats awoke, 0.5 ml of blood was taken from the tail veins in order to determine the treatment values. Plasma 5-HT and glutamate levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using commercial kits. It was found that a single 45 min of LLER exposure increased the blood 5-HT level significantly, but did not change the glutamate level of rats. It was concluded that even a single 45 min of LLER exposure may produce an increase in 5-HT level without changing the blood glutamate level. Increased 5-HT level may lead to a retarded learning and a deficit in spatial memory (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 24).

  8. Sex-specific Profiles of Blood Metal Levels Associated with Metal–Iron Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Kook Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which iron is absorbed are similar to those of divalent metals, particularly manganese, lead, and cadmium. These metals, however, show different toxicokinetics in relation to menarche or menopause, although their interaction with iron is the same. This review focuses on the kinetics of these three toxic metals (manganese, lead, and cadmium in relation to menarche, pregnancy, and menopause. The iron–manganese interaction is the major factor determining sex-specific differences in blood manganese levels throughout the whole life cycle. The effects of estrogen overshadow the association between iron deficiency and increased blood lead concentrations, explaining why women, despite having lower ferritin concentrations, have lower blood lead concentrations than men. Iron deficiency is associated with elevated cadmium levels in premenopausal women, but not in postmenopausal women or men; these findings indicate that sex-specific differences in cadmium levels at older ages are not due to iron–cadmium interactions, and that further studies are required to identify the source of these differences. In summary, the potential causes of sex-specific differences in the blood levels of manganese, lead, and cadmium differ from each other, although all these three metals are associated with iron deficiency. Therefore, other factors such as estrogen effects, or absorption rate as well as iron deficiency, should be considered when addressing environmental exposure to toxic metals and sex-specific differences in the blood levels of these metals.

  9. How Effective is Swedish Massage on Blood Glucose Level in Children with Diabetes Mellitus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Sajedi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available "nThis study was conducted to determine the effect of Swedish massage on blood glucose level in children with diabetes mellitus (DM. It was prospective randomized controlled trial study that conducted on 36 children, 6-12 years old with DM, recruited from a hospital in Qom City, Iran. The children were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Swedish massage was performed 15 minutes, 3 times a week, for 3 months in intervention group. The blood glucose levels were evaluated immediately after every session of massage in two groups. The mean ages of children in the intervention (n=18 and control (n=18 groups were 9.05 ± 1.55 and 9.83 ±2.03 years respectively. There was statistically no significant difference in blood glucose levels before intervention between two groups (P=0.586, but the blood glucose levels were lower significantly in intervention group in comparison with control group after intervention (P<0.0001. Addition of Swedish massage to daily routines; exercise, diet and medication regimens, is an effective intervention to reduce blood glucose level in diabetic children.

  10. Effect of blood glucose levels on image quality in 18F fluorodeoxyglucose scanning - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeto, E.; Keane, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: In December last year, a 71-year-old gentleman presented to the Nuclear Medicine Department at St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney for an FDG coincidence detection positron emission scan. The patient had cancer of the lung with a large lesion in the left upper lobe and a small lesion in the right middle lobe. On initial investigation, this patient had a blood sugar level of 17mmol/L which was eventually reduced to 6.7mmol/L just prior to scanning. The patient was then asked to return to be rescanned without his blood sugar levels being adjusted. Just prior to his second scan, his blood sugar level was 15.4mmollL. The aim of the initial scan being repeated was to see just how important a role blood sugar levels play in the quality of a Co Pet scan. The first scan showed excellent image quality while the repeated scan showed markedly inferior image quality due to unwanted soft tissue FDG uptake. In conclusion, blood sugar levels play a significant role in output image quality in FDG coincidence detection positron emission scanning. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  11. CYTOKINE LEVELS IN MATERNAL BLOOD AND UMBICAL CORD SERA FROM WOMEN WITH SYMPTOMS OF INTRAUTERINE INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Botvin’eva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We had investigated serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ra and TNFα in peripheral blood of pregnant women at the terms of 38 to 40 weeks with polyhydramnios and serum IgG antibodies specific for Chlamydia trachomatis (titers of 1:20 to 1:40. Same parameters were tested in umbilical cord blood sera, obtained at delivery. We had found high levels of TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 in sera from umbilical cord blood, and increased levels of TNFα in maternal sera before delivery in a group of women with high Apgar scores of their children (≥ 8 points, in comparison with control group. High levels of TNFα, IL-6, IL-10 in sera from umbical cord and increased serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ra and TNFα before delivery were evaluated in group of women with circulating antibodies against C. trachomatis during pregnancy and with low degrees of newborn children (< 7 by Apgar score. We suggest that high cytokine levels in maternal blood and in sera of umbilical cord blood from women with polyhydramnios and circulating antibodies against C. trachomatis sufficiently correlate with high clinical risk of intrauterine infection in newborns. However, high inter-individual variability of the cytokine parameters does not permit their usage as independent diagnostic criteria.

  12. Surveillance of elevated blood lead levels in children in Torreon, Coahuila, Mexico, 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Vega, Rogelio; Valdez-Abrego, Camilo; Adame-Lopez, Beatriz; Gurrola-Mendez, Aurora

    2012-09-01

    Because children exposed to lead have a very high health risk, surveillance and prevention programs are very important to avoid short- and long-term health effects. To describe the trend for the blood lead levels over a 12-year period in environmentally exposed children and to document the actions implemented to reduce the blood lead levels. We performed a retrospective cohort study of children aged 0-15 years who were enrolled in the Coahuila Health Secretary's Childhood Blood Lead Level Surveillance program. This database includes children from the city of Torreon, Coahuila, Mexico, where the biggest smelter in Latin America is located. A total of 151,322 observations were analyzed in the study. The percentage of samples with elevated blood lead levels decreased from 84.9% to 10.4% during 1998-2010, and the decrease was greater in girls than in boys. According to the results of our study, the majority of strategies and activities to decrease blood lead levels in an environmentally exposed population should be focused on children aged 0-5 years, on the home environment, on preventing fugitive emissions from smelters and other sources and on the proper disposal and confinement of industrial residues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. The Relation Between Blood Lead Levels and Osteoporosis in Turkish Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurver Turfaner Ertürk

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a toxic heavy element which is to 90% deposited in bone until the 6th decade and is given to the blood with pregnancy, lactation and physiologic osteoporosis. When it is over certain amounts it may cause osteoporosis and an increase in cardiac events and cancer. In order to evaluate the effect of menopause and osteoporosis on blood lead 20 post-menopausal osteoporotic, 19 non-osteoporotic and 21 pre-menopausal women were selected and their blood levels were measured. In post-menopausal women, its relation with bone mineral density was also investigated. There was no difference between osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic women and pre and postmenopausal women in terms of blood lead (Pb. There was no relation between age and Pb levels but in non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women there was a negative correlation between Pb levels and duration of menopause. There was no relation between bone mineral density and blood lead whereas blood lead and environmental pollution displayed a meaningful correlation.

  14. Blood lead and erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase levels in Manchester taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flindt, M L; King, E; Walsh, D B

    1976-05-01

    Among 40 Manchester taxi drivers the mean blood lead was 1.10 mumol/1 (22.8 mug per 100 ml). The mean erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity among 34 of them was 30.1 units. No significant association was found between the blood lead levels and erythrocyte ALAD activity in these 34 men. No significant association was found between either blood lead elvels or erythrocyte ALAD activity and duration of service or weekly mileage as a taxi driver or with drinking or smoking habits, or age. The mean blood lead of those with homes in the north east quadrant of the city was higher than of those living elsewhere but the difference was not statistically significant. Although there was no correlation between blood lead levels and the source of domestic water, the mean blood lead of those with lead domestic plumbing was appreciably higher than the level of those with copper plumbing. There was no indication that, by virtue of their occupation, the taxi drivers were liable to greater lead absorption than their fellow-citizens.

  15. 1-Hydroxypyrene Levels in Blood Samples of Rats After Exposure to Generator Fumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifegwu, Clinton; Igwo-Ezikpe, Miriam N.; Anyakora, Chimezie; Osuntoki, Akinniyi; Oseni, Kafayat A.; Alao, Eragbae O.

    2013-01-01

    Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major component of fuel generator fumes. Carcinogenicity of these compounds has long been established. In this study, 37 Swiss albino rats were exposed to generator fumes at varied distances for 8 hours per day for a period of 42 days and the level of 1-hydroxypyrene in their blood was evaluated. This study also tried to correlate the level of blood 1-hyroxypyrene with the distance from the source of pollution. Plasma was collected by centrifuging the whole blood sample followed by complete hydrolysis of the conjugated 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide to yield the analyte of interest, 1-hydroxypyrene, which was achieved using beta glucuronidase. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detector was used to determine the 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in the blood samples. The mobile phase was water:methanol (12:88 v/v) isocratic run at the flow rate of 1.2 mL/min with CI8 stationary phase at 250 nm. After 42 days of exposure, blood concentration level of 1-hydroxypyrene ranged from 34 μg/mL to 26.29 μg/mL depending on the distance from source of exposure. The control group had no 1-hydroxypyrene in their blood. After the period of exposure, percentage of death correlated with the distance from the source of exposure. Percentage of death ranged from 56% to zero depending on the proximity to source of pollution. PMID:24179393

  16. Curcumin Improves Amyloid β-Peptide (1-42) Induced Spatial Memory Deficits through BDNF-ERK Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Fang, Yu; Xu, Yuming; Lian, Yajun; Xie, Nanchang; Wu, Tianwen; Zhang, Haifeng; Sun, Limin; Zhang, Ruifang; Wang, Zhenhua

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, the most active component of turmeric, has various beneficial properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor effects. Previous studies have suggested that curcumin reduces the levels of amyloid and oxidized proteins and prevents memory deficits and thus is beneficial to patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying curcumin's effect on cognitive functions are not well-understood. In the present study, we examined the working memory and spatial reference memory in rats that received a ventricular injection of amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42), representing a rodent model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The rats treated with Aβ1-42 exhibited obvious cognitive deficits in behavioral tasks. Chronic (seven consecutive days, once per day) but not acute (once a day) curcumin treatments (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) improved the cognitive functions in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the beneficial effect of curcumin is accompanied by increased BDNF levels and elevated levels of phosphorylated ERK in the hippocampus. Furthermore, the cognition enhancement effect of curcumin could be mimicked by the overexpression of BDNF in the hippocampus and blocked by either bilateral hippocampal injections with lentiviruses that express BDNF shRNA or a microinjection of ERK inhibitor. These findings suggest that chronic curcumin ameliorates AD-related cognitive deficits and that upregulated BDNF-ERK signaling in the hippocampus may underlie the cognitive improvement produced by curcumin.

  17. BDNF mechanisms in late LTP formation: A synthesis and breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panja, Debabrata; Bramham, Clive R

    2014-01-01

    Unraveling the molecular mechanisms governing long-term synaptic plasticity is a key to understanding how the brain stores information in neural circuits and adapts to a changing environment. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has emerged as a regulator of stable, late phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) at excitatory glutamatergic synapses in the adult brain. However, the mechanisms by which BDNF triggers L-LTP are controversial. Here, we distill and discuss the latest advances along three main lines: 1) TrkB receptor-coupled translational control underlying dendritic protein synthesis and L-LTP, 2) Mechanisms for BDNF-induced rescue of L-LTP when protein synthesis is blocked, and 3) BDNF-TrkB regulation of actin cytoskeletal dynamics in dendritic spines. Finally, we explore the inter-relationships between BDNF-regulated mechanisms, how these mechanisms contribute to different forms of L-LTP in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus, and outline outstanding issues for future research. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'BDNF Regulation of Synaptic Structure, Function, and Plasticity'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between serum osteocalcin level and blood pressure in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiting; Ma, Xiaojing; Xiong, Qin; Hu, Xiang; Zhang, Xueli; Yuan, Yeqing; Bao, Yuqian

    2018-04-01

    This observational study investigated the association between serum osteocalcin level and blood pressure in a Chinese population. A total of 2241 subjects (909 men and 1,332 women; age, 24-78 years) from Shanghai communities were recruited. Subjects were divided into non-hypertensive and hypertensive groups according to diagnosis of hypertension based on the 1999 World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension Guidelines. Serum osteocalcin levels were measured using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Men in the hypertensive group showed lower serum osteocalcin level compared with those in the non-hypertensive group, [16.37 (13.34-20.11) ng/mL versus 17.01 (14.23-20.79) ng/mL, p = .039]. No difference in serum osteocalcin level was found between the two groups of women (p = .675). An inverse association was observed between serum osteocalcin level and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in men (p = .004), but serum osteocalcin level was not associated with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in men (p = .472). No associations were detected between serum osteocalcin level and SBP or DBP in women (SBP: p = .108; DBP: p = .575). A multiple stepwise regression analysis showed an inverse association between serum osteocalcin level and SBP in men after adjusting for age, smoking status, family history of hypertension, and lipid and C-reactive protein levels (standardized β = -0.074, p = .023), but the association disappeared after adjustment for body mass index, waist circumference, blood glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (p = .327). Serum osteocalcin level was not independently associated with blood pressure in a Chinese population.

  19. Metal Levels in Shorebird Feathers and Blood During Migration Through Delaware Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna; Niles, Lawrence; Dey, Amanda; Gochfeld, Michael; Peck, Mark; Mizrahi, David

    2017-05-01

    We investigated levels of arsenic mercury, lead, cadmium, and chromium in Red Knot (Calidris canutus), Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), and Sanderling (Calidris alba) migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey to determine if contaminant levels are likely to be causing negative effects on the populations of these shorebirds, to compare among species, and to explore differences among individuals collected early and late during their migration stopover. We analyzed blood and feathers, both nonlethal ways of exploring contaminants in birds. Blood contaminant analysis provides a direct measure of recent dietary exposure, whereas feathers reflect body burden at the time of feather molt. We found some differences among species and between early and late samples. Levels of Hg and Pb were higher in Sanderling blood collected early (36.52 ± 8.45 and 145.00 ± 12.56 ng/g ww respectively) compared with later (16.21 ± 6.03 and 33.60 ± 4.05 ng/g ww respectively) during the migration stopover. Blood Pb levels of Sanderling in the early period were higher than those of the other two species (75.38 ± 15.52 ng/g ww in Red Knot and 42.39 ± 8.42 ng/g ww in Semipalmated Sandpipers). Semipalmated Sandpipers had lower blood As levels than the other two species (254.33 ± 40.15 and 512.00 ± 66.79 ng/g ww early and late respectively) but higher feather levels (914.01 ± 167.29 and 770.00 ± 116.21 ng/g dw early and late respectively), and their blood As was higher in the later sampling period compared with the early sampling period. Arsenic levels in shorebird tissues were relatively high and may reflect levels in horseshoe crab eggs, their primary diet item in Delaware Bay. In Red Knot, blood Cr levels were elevated in the later samples (572.17 ± 62.82 ng/g ww) compared to the early samples (382.81 ± 95.35 ng/g ww) and to the other species. The mean values of the metals analyzed were mostly below effect levels-the level that has a

  20. Transdermally delivered peroxovanadium can lower blood glucose levels in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, R M; Hamel, F G

    1999-06-25

    The element vanadium can have insulin mimetic properties and therefore has been suggested as a possible therapeutic agent for treatment of diabetes. A series of peroxovanadium compounds that are more potent at lowering blood glucose levels than sodium metavanadate, sodium orthovanadate and vanadyl sulfate have recently been synthesized. These compounds probably will not be orally active so transdermal administration is a potential option. A patch containing either the peroxovanadium compound [VO(O2)2 1-10 phenanthroline], abbreviated bpV(phen), or placebo was placed on the back of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and was delivered either passively (16 h) or iontophoretically (0.5 mA/cm2 for 4 h). Blood samples were analyzed for glucose and vanadium levels. Mean blood glucose levels were 83+/-1% and 109+/-1% of the starting values for animals iontophoretically treated with bpV(phen) and vehicle, respectively. The compound's insulin mimetic properties were evident within 60 min of current initiation. Blood glucose levels were reduced to 74+/-14% of the original level after 16 h of passive treatment. The compound was ineffective when fed to animals. Transdermal delivery of bpV(phen) resulted in significantly greater blood levels of vanadium than the orally delivered compound (P<0.05). Overall these experiments demonstrate that peroxovanadium delivered through the skin can lower blood glucose levels in rats. Further experiments are warranted to better characterize the nature of the response and to determine the potential for using these compounds in humans.

  1. Blood lactate level in Wistar rats after four and twelve week intermittent aerobic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi N. Sari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aerobic training can be done not only continuously, but also intermittently. Intermittent aerobic training aimed to get blood lactate level lower than continuous aerobic training. Blood lactate concentration in one of the various factors that determine training performance. However, until recently, little studies about intermittent aerobic training and blood lactate levels have been done. Therefore, this study aimed to measure blood lactate levels in Wistar rats after 4 and 12 weeks of intermittent aerobic training.Methods: 16 Wistar rats were divided into two groups, control and aerobic group. Every group was divided into two subgroups, 4-week and 12-week subgroup. Aerobic group performed training using T-6000 treadmill with a speed of 20 m/minute for 20 minutes, with resting period for 90 seconds every 5 minute. Measurements of lactate level was done with L-lactate (PAP Randox kit (LC2389.Results: Blood lactate level in the 4-week aerobic group was 2.11 mmol/L, while that of the 4-week control group was 1.82 mmol/L (p > 0.05. Meanwhile, lactate level in 12-week aerobic group was 1.71 mmol/L (p < 0.05, and significantly lower than in 12-week control group, which was 3.03 mmol/L.Conclusion: This study showed that lactate level after 12-week intermittent aerobic training was the lowest compared to 4-week intermittent aerobic and 12-week control group. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:141-5. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i3.582Keywords: Blood lactate, intermittent aerobic training, Wistar rat

  2. Baseline blood Pb levels of black-necked stilts on the upper Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, Thomas V.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.

    2015-01-01

    There are no known biological requirements for lead (Pb), and elevated Pb levels in birds can cause a variety of sub-lethal effects and mortality. Historic and current levels of Pb in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) suggest that environmental sources of Pb remain available on the upper Texas coast. Because of potential risks of Pb exposure among coexisting marsh birds, black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) blood Pb concentrations were measured during the breeding season. Almost 80 % (n = 120) of 152 sampled stilts exceeded the background threshold (>20 μg/dL) for Pb exposure. However, blood Pb concentrations did not vary by age or gender, and toxic or potentially lethal concentrations were rare (<5 %). Consistent, low-level blood Pb concentrations of black-necked stilts in this study suggest the presence of readily bioavailable sources of Pb, although potential impacts on local stilt populations remain unclear.

  3. Lead levels in the workers blood at the Toluca bus terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez H, S.P.; Garcia G, G.

    1998-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to detect the levels of lead in blood in exposed workers to the lead in their place of work, in the Toluca bus terminal. The measurement of the levels of lead in blood was carried out in a sample of 31 people of 60 workers for atomic absorption spectrometry. The lead is a general protoplasmic poison that is accumulative and produce great variety of symptoms, the lead could be absorbed inside the body for ingestion, inhalation and through the skin. Organic compounds of the lead as tetraethyl lead, penetrate the cutaneous barrier quickly. From the beginning the personal habits were evaluated, hygienic, nutritious and the environmental conditions by means of a questionnaire. The levels of lead in opposing blood, they were below them you limit permissible for personal exposed, published by the WHO. (Author)

  4. High blood acetaldehyde levels after ethanol administration. Difference between alcoholic and nonalcoholic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsten, M A; Matsuzaki, S; Feinman, L; Lieber, C S

    1975-02-20

    Blood actaldehyde and ethanol levels were measured in 11 subjects, six with chronic alcholoism and five nonalcholic controls, after alcohol had been given intravenously. Despite a progressive fall in blood ethanol over a range of 54 to 33 mM/acetaldehyde did not decrease in any of the 11 subjects. The mean acetaldehyde plateau level was significantly (p less than 0.001) higher in alcoholic (42.7 plus or minus 1.2 mum) than in nonalcoholic (26.5 plus or minus 1.5 mum) subjects. When the mean blood ethanol concentration reached 24 mM,the acetaldehyde plateau ended abruptly in each subject. The ethanol concentration at which this fall of blood acetaldehyde occurred suggests desaturation of an ethanol oxidizing system other than alcohol dehydrogenase and indicates that at high ethanol blood levels, such a system contributes to ethanol oxidation. The highet acetaldehyde levels in alcholism may result from both greater activity of this system and mitochondrial damage, and could contribut to the neurologic, hepatic and cardiac complications of alcoholism.

  5. Determinants of maternal and umbilical blood lead levels: a cross-sectional study, Mosul, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jomard Raghad A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The populations who are most sensitive to lead exposure from various sources are pregnant women and their newborns. Aiming to explore the presence of correlation between maternal and cord blood lead levels and to identify potential predictors that may influence both levels, the present study has been conducted. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted covering 350 full terms maternal-newborns pairs from Mosul maternity hospitals. Data were obtained directly from women just before delivery by the use of a detailed questionnaire form. Maternal and umbilical blood lead levels were estimated using LEADCARE® Blood Lead Testing System and Kits. Results A positive significant correlation was found between maternal and cord blood lead values (r = 0.856, p = 0.001. By backward stepwise logistic regression analysis the followings emerged as significant potential predictors of high maternal blood lead: low parity, smoking and Hb level Conclusion Study results have provided baseline data needed to be transformed to decision makers to implement measures to eliminate lead from the environment and protect future generation from its deleterious effects.

  6. Quantification of modulated blood oxygenation levels in single cerebral veins by investigating their MR signal decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacik, Jan [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States). Div. of Translational Imaging Research; University Clinics Jena (Germany). Medical Physics Group; Rauscher, Alexander [University Clinics Jena (Germany). Medical Physics Group; British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). MRI Research Centre; Reichenbach, Juergen R. [University Clinics Jena (Germany). Medical Physics Group

    2009-07-01

    The transverse magnetization of a single vein and its surrounding tissue is subject to spin dephasing caused by the local magnetic field inhomogeneity which is induced by the very same vessel. This phenomenon can be approximated and simulated by applying the model of an infinitely long and homogeneously magnetized cylinder embedded in a homogeneous tissue background. It is then possible to estimate the oxygenation level of the venous blood by fitting the simulated magnetization-time-course to the measured signal decay. In this work we demonstrate the ability of this approach to quantify the blood oxygenation level (Y) of small cerebral veins in vivo, not only under normal physiologic conditions (Y{sub native}=0.5-0.55) but also during induced changes of physiologic conditions which affect the cerebral venous blood oxygenation level. Changes of blood's oxygenation level induced by carbogen (5% CO{sub 2}, 95% O{sub 2}) and caffeine were observed and quantified, resulting in values of Y{sub carbogen}=0.7 and Y{sub caffeine}=0.42, respectively. The proposed technique may ultimately help to better understand local changes in cerebral physiology during neuronal activation by quantifying blood oxygenation in veins draining active brain areas. It may also be beneficial in clinical applications where it may improve diagnosis of cerebral pathologies as well as monitoring of responses to therapy. (orig.)

  7. A flavonoid agonist of the TrkB receptor for BDNF improves hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampus-dependent memory in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagni, Fiorenza; Giacomini, Andrea; Guidi, Sandra; Emili, Marco; Uguagliati, Beatrice; Salvalai, Maria Elisa; Bortolotto, Valeria; Grilli, Mariagrazia; Rimondini, Roberto; Bartesaghi, Renata

    2017-12-01

    Intellectual disability is the unavoidable hallmark of Down syndrome (DS), with a heavy impact on public health. Reduced neurogenesis and impaired neuron maturation are considered major determinants of altered brain function in DS. Since the DS brain starts at a disadvantage, attempts to rescue neurogenesis and neuron maturation should take place as soon as possible. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that plays a key role in brain development by specifically binding to tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB). Systemic BDNF administration is impracticable because BDNF has a poor blood-brain barrier penetration. Recent screening of a chemical library has identified a flavone derivative, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF), a small-molecule that crosses the blood-brain barrier and binds with high affinity and specificity to the TrkB receptor. The therapeutic potential of TrkB agonists for neurogenesis improvement in DS has never been examined. The goal of our study was to establish whether it is possible to restore brain development in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS by targeting the TrkB receptor with 7,8-DHF. Ts65Dn mice subcutaneously injected with 7,8-DHF in the neonatal period P3-P15 exhibited a large increase in the number of neural precursor cells in the dentate gyrus and restoration of granule cell number, density of dendritic spines and levels of the presynaptic protein synaptophysin. In order to establish the functional outcome of treatment, mice were treated with 7,8-DHF from P3 to adolescence (P45-50) and were tested with the Morris Water Maze. Treated Ts65Dn mice exhibited improvement of learning and memory, indicating that the recovery of the hippocampal anatomy translated into a functional rescue. Our study in a mouse model of DS provides novel evidence that treatment with 7,8-DHF during the early postnatal period restores the major trisomy-linked neurodevelopmental defects, suggesting that therapy with 7,8-DHF may represent a

  8. Suppression of choriocarcinoma invasion and metastasis following blockade of BDNF/TrkB signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Kawamura, Nanami; Okamoto, Naoki; Manabe, Motomu

    2013-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) acts through its cognate receptor tyrosine kinase-B (TrkB) to regulate diverse physiological functions in reproductive and other tissues. In normal and malignant trophoblastic cells, the BDNF/TrkB signaling promotes cell growth. Due to the highly malignant nature of choriocarcinoma, we investigated possible involvement of this system in choriocarcinoma cell invasion and metastasis. We demonstrated that treatment of cultured choriocarcinoma cells, known to express both BDNF and TrkB, with a soluble TrkB ectodomain or a Trk receptor inhibitor K252a suppressed cell invasion accompanied with decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2, a cell invasion marker. In vivo studies using a tumor xenograft model in athymic nude mice further showed inhibition of cell invasion from tumors to surrounding tissues following the suppression of endogenous TrkB signaling. For an in vivo model of choriocarcinoma metastasis, we performed intravenous injections of JAR cells expressing firefly luciferase into severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Treatment with K252a inhibited metastasis of tumors to distant organs. In vivo K252a treatment also suppressed metastatic tumor growth as reflected by decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis and caspases-3/7 activities, together with reduced tissue levels of a tumor marker, human chorionic gonadotropin-β. In vivo suppression of TrkB signaling also led to decreased expression of angiogenic markers in metastatic tumor, including cluster of differentiation 31 and vascular endothelial growth factor A. Our findings suggested essential autocrine/paracrine roles of the BDNF/TrkB signaling system in choriocarcinoma invasion and metastasis. Inhibition of this signaling could serve as the basis to develop a novel therapy for patients with choriocarcinoma

  9. Blood lead levels, iron metabolism gene polymorphisms and homocysteine: a gene-environment interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lee, Mee-Ri; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2017-12-01

    Homocysteine has been causally associated with various adverse health outcomes. Evidence supporting the relationship between lead and homocysteine levels has been accumulating, but most prior studies have not focused on the interaction with genetic polymorphisms. From a community-based prospective cohort, we analysed 386 participants (aged 41-71 years) with information regarding blood lead and plasma homocysteine levels. Blood lead levels were measured between 2001 and 2003, and plasma homocysteine levels were measured in 2007. Interactions of lead levels with 42 genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five genes ( TF , HFE , CBS , BHMT and MTR ) were assessed via a 2-degree of freedom (df) joint test and a 1-df interaction test. In secondary analyses using imputation, we further assessed 58 imputed SNPs in the TF and MTHFR genes. Blood lead concentrations were positively associated with plasma homocysteine levels (p=0.0276). Six SNPs in the TF and MTR genes were screened using the 2-df joint test, and among them, three SNPs in the TF gene showed interactions with lead with respect to homocysteine levels through the 1-df interaction test (phomocysteine levels at an α-level of 0.05, but the associations did not persist after Bonferroni correction. These SNPs did not show interactions with lead levels. Blood lead levels were positively associated with plasma homocysteine levels measured 4-6 years later, and three SNPs in the TF gene modified the association. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Blood cadmium levels are associated with a decline in lung function in males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Chang-Mo; Oh, In-Hwan; Lee, Jong-Keun; Park, Yoon Hyung; Choe, Bong-Keun; Yoon, Tai-Young; Choi, Joong-Myung

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cadmium exposure was found to cause a decline in lung function among the general population, but these findings were limited to smokers and gender differences were not explored. Objectives: To examine the relationship between cadmium and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) according to gender and smoking status in Korea. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011 were analyzed. COPD was defined by a pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s divided by forced vital capacity of <0.70. A logistic regression model was used to elucidate the association between blood cadmium levels and COPD according to gender and smoking status. Results: Among 3861 eligible participants, 3622 were included in the analysis. The prevalence of COPD demonstrated an increasing trend in males (P for trend<0.001), but not in females (P for trend=0.67). After adjusting for covariates, a higher blood cadmium level, but within the normal range, was associated with COPD in males, including those who had never-smoked (P for trend <0.001 and P for trend=0.008). However, a higher blood cadmium level was not significantly associated with COPD in females, including those who had never smoked (P for trend=0.39 and P for trend=0.43). Conclusions: A higher blood cadmium level, within the normal range, was associated with COPD in males, including those who had never smoked. However, there was no significant association between blood cadmium levels and COPD in females. - Highlights: • Elevated blood cadmium level is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in male. • This association can be seen even in never smoked male. • However, this association is present only in male, but not in female

  11. Blood cadmium levels are associated with a decline in lung function in males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Chang-Mo [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); The Korea Central Cancer Registry, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Oh, In-Hwan; Lee, Jong-Keun [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yoon Hyung [Departments of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Bong-Keun; Yoon, Tai-Young [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Joong-Myung, E-mail: jmchoi@khu.ac.kr [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Background: Cadmium exposure was found to cause a decline in lung function among the general population, but these findings were limited to smokers and gender differences were not explored. Objectives: To examine the relationship between cadmium and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) according to gender and smoking status in Korea. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011 were analyzed. COPD was defined by a pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s divided by forced vital capacity of <0.70. A logistic regression model was used to elucidate the association between blood cadmium levels and COPD according to gender and smoking status. Results: Among 3861 eligible participants, 3622 were included in the analysis. The prevalence of COPD demonstrated an increasing trend in males (P for trend<0.001), but not in females (P for trend=0.67). After adjusting for covariates, a higher blood cadmium level, but within the normal range, was associated with COPD in males, including those who had never-smoked (P for trend <0.001 and P for trend=0.008). However, a higher blood cadmium level was not significantly associated with COPD in females, including those who had never smoked (P for trend=0.39 and P for trend=0.43). Conclusions: A higher blood cadmium level, within the normal range, was associated with COPD in males, including those who had never smoked. However, there was no significant association between blood cadmium levels and COPD in females. - Highlights: • Elevated blood cadmium level is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in male. • This association can be seen even in never smoked male. • However, this association is present only in male, but not in female.

  12. Aging Triggers a Repressive Chromatin State at Bdnf Promoters in Hippocampal Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Palomer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive capacities decline with age, an event accompanied by the altered transcription of synaptic plasticity genes. Here, we show that the transcriptional induction of Bdnf by a mnemonic stimulus is impaired in aged hippocampal neurons. Mechanistically, this defect is due to reduced NMDA receptor (NMDAR-mediated activation of CaMKII. Decreased NMDAR signaling prevents changes associated with activation at specific Bdnf promoters, including displacement of histone deacetylase 4, recruitment of the histone acetyltransferase CBP, increased H3K27 acetylation, and reduced H3K27 trimethylation. The decrease in NMDA-CaMKII signaling arises from constitutive reduction of synaptic cholesterol that occurs with normal aging. Increasing the levels of neuronal cholesterol in aged neurons in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo restored NMDA-induced Bdnf expression and chromatin remodeling. Furthermore, pharmacological prevention of age-associated cholesterol reduction rescued signaling and cognitive deficits of aged mice. Thus, reducing hippocampal cholesterol loss may represent a therapeutic approach to reverse cognitive decline during aging.

  13. Hemoglobin levels and blood transfusion in patients with sepsis in Internal Medicine Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muady, Gassan Fuad; Bitterman, Haim; Laor, Arie; Vardi, Moshe; Urin, Vitally; Ghanem-Zoubi, Nesrin

    2016-10-13

    Acute reduction in hemoglobin levels is frequently seen during sepsis. Previous studies have focused on the management of anemia in patients with septic shock admitted to intensive care units (ICU's), including aggressive blood transfusion aiming to enhance tissue oxygenation. To study the changes in hemoglobin concentrations during the first week of sepsis in the setting of Internal Medicine (IM) units, and their correlation to survival. Observational prospective study. We recorded hemoglobin values upon admission and throughout the first week of hospital stay in a consecutive cohort of septic patients admitted to IM units at a community hospital, the patients were enrolled into a prospective registry. Data on blood transfusions was also collected, we examined the correlation between hemoglobin concentrations during the first week of sepsis and survival, the effect of blood transfusion was also assessed. Eight hundred and fifteen patients (815) with sepsis were enrolled between February 2008 to January 2009. More than 20 % of them had hemoglobin levels less than 10g/dL on admission, a rate that was doubled during the first week of sepsis. Overall, 68 (8.3 %) received blood transfusions, 14 of them (20.6 %) due to bleeding. Typically, blood transfusion was given to older patients with a higher rate of malignancy and lower hemoglobin levels. While hemoglobin concentration on admission had strong correlation with in-hospital mortality (O.R-0.83 [95 % C.I. 0.74-0.92], blood transfusion was not found to be an independent predicting factor for mortality. Anemia is very common in sepsis. While hemoglobin level on admission exhibit independent correlation with survival, blood transfusion do not.

  14. Maternal and childhood nutrition and later blood pressure levels in young Guatemalan adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Aimee L; Conlisk, Andrea J; Barnhart, Huiman X; Martorell, Reynaldo; Grajeda, Rubén; Stein, Aryeh D

    2005-08-01

    Low birth weight and subsequent rapid child growth are associated with later blood pressure levels. The role of maternal and child nutrition in this association remains unclear. We studied 450 men and women (ages 21-29 years) born during a randomized trial of protein-energy supplementation (Atole) vs low energy/no protein supplementation (Fresco) in pregnancy and early childhood in four rural Guatemalan villages from 1969 to 1977. Protein-energy supplementation was not associated with differences in blood pressure in adulthood (diastolic blood pressure (DBP): beta = 0.69 mm Hg, 95% confidence internal (CI) (20.82-2.19); P = 0.37; systolic blood pressure (SBP): beta = 0.17 mm Hg, 95% CI (21.68-2.02); P = 0.86). Within the Atole group, maternal height was associated with later SBP (0.22 mm Hg/cm, 95% CI (20.002-0.45); P = 0.05). No other associations between maternal nutritional status, birth size, child growth, or supplement intake were observed for adult blood pressure. Our data do not support the role of maternal nutrition during pregnancy, birth size, or early child growth in programming adult blood pressure. Likewise, we found no effect of protein-energy supplementation in pregnancy or in early childhood on blood pressure in young adults.

  15. High circulating osteoprotegerin levels are associated with non-zero blood groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Elod Erno; Varga-Fekete, Timea; Puskas, Attila; Kelemen, Piroska; Brassai, Zoltan; Szekeres-Csiki, Katalin; Gombos, Timea; Csanyi, Maria Csilla; Harsfalvi, Jolan

    2016-05-26

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) form complex within endothelial cells and following secretion. The nature of blood group antigens strongly influences the levels of circulating VWF, but there is no available data concerning its ascendancy on OPG levels. We aimed to assess the relationship of AB0 blood groups with OPG, VWF levels (VWF: Ag) and collagen binding activity (VWF: CB) in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients. Functional and laboratory parameters of 105 PAD patients and 109 controls were examined. Results of OPG, VWF: Ag, VWF: CB (ELISA-s) were analysed by comparative statistics, together with clinical data. OPG levels were higher in patients than in controls (4.64 ng/mL vs. 3.68 ng/mL, p blood groups compared to 0-groups both in patients and controls (4.95 ng/mL vs. 3.90 ng/mL, p = 0.012 and 4.09 ng/mL vs. 3.40 ng/mL, p = 0.002). OPG levels are associated to blood group phenotypes and higher in non-0 individuals. Increased OPG levels in PAD characterize disease severity. The significant correlation between OPG and VWF:CB might have functional importance in an atherothrombosis-prone biological environment.

  16. Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood, as discussed in the following paragraphs. Red Blood Cells Red blood cells carry oxygen from ... leaks out, and its levels in your blood rise. For example, blood levels of troponin rise when ...

  17. Serum BDNF correlates with connectivity in the (pre)motor hub in the aging human brain--a resting-state fMRI pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Karsten; Arelin, Katrin; Möller, Harald E; Sacher, Julia; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Luck, Tobias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Villringer, Arno; Schroeter, Matthias L

    2016-02-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been discussed to be involved in plasticity processes in the human brain, in particular during aging. Recently, aging and its (neurodegenerative) diseases have increasingly been conceptualized as disconnection syndromes. Here, connectivity changes in neural networks (the connectome) are suggested to be the most relevant and characteristic features for such processes or diseases. To further elucidate the impact of aging on neural networks, we investigated the interaction between plasticity processes, brain connectivity, and healthy aging by measuring levels of serum BDNF and resting-state fMRI data in 25 young (mean age 24.8 ± 2.7 (SD) years) and 23 old healthy participants (mean age, 68.6 ± 4.1 years). To identify neural hubs most essentially related to serum BDNF, we applied graph theory approaches, namely the new data-driven and parameter-free approach eigenvector centrality (EC) mapping. The analysis revealed a positive correlation between serum BDNF and EC in the premotor and motor cortex in older participants in contrast to young volunteers, where we did not detect any association. This positive relationship between serum BDNF and EC appears to be specific for older adults. Our results might indicate that the amount of physical activity and learning capacities, leading to higher BDNF levels, increases brain connectivity in (pre)motor areas in healthy aging in agreement with rodent animal studies. Pilot results have to be replicated in a larger sample including behavioral data to disentangle the cause for the relationship between BDNF levels and connectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and aerobic exercise training (AET) increased plasma BDNF and ameliorated depressive symptoms in patients suffering from major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Iraj; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Bajoghli, Hafez; Gerber, Markus; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-05-01

    To treat patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD), research has focused on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and aerobic exercise training (AET). Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems to be key in MDD. The aims of the present study were therefore two-fold, to investigate in a three-arm interventional study the differential effects of ECT, ECT plus AET, and AET alone in patients suffering from TR-MDD on 1. depressive symptoms and 2. plasma BDNF (pBDNF). 60 patients with MDD (mean age: 31 years; 31.6% female patients) were randomly assigned either to the ECT, ECT + AET, or AET condition. The AET condition consisted of treadmill exercise for 45 min, three times a week. Both depression severity and pBDNF levels were assessed at baseline and 4 weeks later. All patients were further treated with an SSRI standard medication. pBDNF levels increased over time in all three study conditions, though, highest increase was observed in the ECT + EAT condition, and lowest increase was observed in the AET condition. Depressive symptoms decreased in all three conditions over time, though, strongest decrease was observed in the ECT + AET condition. The combination of ECT + AET led to significantly greater remission rates than in either the ECT or AET alone conditions. BDNF levels were not associated with symptoms of depression. The pattern of results suggests that ECT, AET and particularly their combination are promising directions for the treatment of patients suffering from MDD, and that it remains unclear to what extent pBDNF is key and a reliable biomarker for MDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. Design: The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16–20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Results: Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90–208; nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P = 0.002 and r=0.22; P = 0.04, respectively while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. Conclusion: In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium.

  20. Community Characteristics are Associated with Blood Pressure Levels in a Racially Integrated Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, L J; Thorpe, R J; Bower, K M; LaVeist, T A

    2015-06-01

    Community problems have been associated with higher, and community resources and social cohesion with lower, blood pressure. However, prior studies have not accounted for potential confounding by residential racial segregation. This study tested associations between community characteristics and blood pressure levels and prevalent hypertension in a racially integrated community. The Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study measured blood pressure in residents of two contiguous racially integrated and low-income US Census Tracts. Community characteristics included a standardized community problem score and binary indicators for community social cohesion, having a community leader available, and having at least one community resource observed on the participant's block. In adjusted models, greater community problems and proximity to resources were associated with lower systolic (β = -2.020, p = 0.028; β = -4.132, p = 0.010) and diastolic (β = -1.261, p = 0.038; β = -2.290, 0.031) blood pressure, respectively, among whites (n = 548). Social cohesion was associated with higher systolic (β = 4.905, p = 0.009) and diastolic blood pressure (β = 3.379, p = 0.008) among African Americans (n = 777). In one racially integrated low-income community, community characteristics were associated with blood pressure levels, and associations differed by race. Directions of associations for two findings differed from prior studies; greater community problem was associated with lower blood pressure in whites and community social cohesion was associated with higher blood pressure in African Americans. These findings may be due to exposure to adverse environmental conditions and hypertensive risk factors in this low-income community.

  1. Blood hemoglobin level may affect radiosensitivity--preliminary results on acutely reacting normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, Michael; Bechtold, Christine; Momm, Felix; Doerr, Wolfgang; Guttenberger, Roland

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of blood hemoglobin concentration on the radiosensitivity of acutely reacting normal tissues. Methods and Materials: Weekly scores (EORTC/RTOG criteria) for acute reactions of skin and mucosa are available for 60 patients with cancer of the head and neck undergoing a standard conventional radiotherapy. The prognostic significance of blood hemoglobin levels on the development of acute reactions is studied by multivariate analysis (Cox Proportional Hazards Model). Further, the incidence and the time to development of these reactions is looked at in cohorts of patients with different mean blood hemoglobin concentrations during radiotherapy. Patients are therefore classified into a 'severely anemic group' (hemoglobin < 11.0 g/100 mL), and into a cohort with a blood hemoglobin value equal or above 11.0 g/100 mL. Results: Normal tissue scoring and monitoring of blood hemoglobin levels allows for a detailed analysis of possible correlations. A decrease in the mean blood hemoglobin value of 1 g/100 mL predicts a reduced risk to develop a skin reaction of Grade 2 or 3 (RR = 0.9; p = 0.08; RR = 0.8; p = 0.26, respectively) or a mucosa reaction of Grade 3 (RR = 0.8; p = 0.16), independent from the radiation dose, the treatment time and from previous surgery within the radiation volume (multivariate analysis). Likewise, patients with severe anemia develop grade 3 mucositis or dermatitis less often (0%; 13%) as compared to those with blood hemoglobin concentrations equal or above 11.0 g/100 mL (21%; 19%). Skin and mucosa reactions further tend to occur later in the course of radiation. The observations are not statistically significant and possible reasons will be discussed. Conclusions: A decreased blood hemoglobin concentration may - perhaps by an impaired tissue oxygenation - reduce the radiosensitivity of normal tissue such as skin and mucosa. However, the data is preliminary and needs further confirmation

  2. Increased basal plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in sprint runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Paulo Roberto; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; Pansani, Aline; Toscano-Silva, Michelle; de Almeida, Antonio Carlos; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2011-10-01

    Exercise is known to enhance circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in healthy humans. BDNF changes have been measured in endurance but not in strength exercise. The present study aimed to investigate whether anaerobic activity such as sprinting differentially alters basal plasma BDNF concentration. Brazilian sprinters (100 m) at either the international (Olympics and Outdoor World Championships) (n = 14) or the domestic level (n = 8), and sedentary subjects (n = 15), were recruited. Plasma BDNF concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The basal plasma BDNF concentrations were significantly higher in the international and the domestic sprinters than in the sedentary subjects. In addition, sprinters at the international level had higher plasma BDNF concentrations than those at the domestic level. Our findings suggest that increased basal plasma BDNF level is related to enhanced exercise performance.

  3. Delicious Low GL space foods by using Low GI materials -Checked of blood sugar level-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Kuwayama, Akemi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Enough life-support systems are necessary to stay in space for a long term. The management of the meal for astronauts is in particular very important. When an astronaut gets sick in outer space, it means death. To astronauts, the delicious good balance space foods are essential for their work. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating space foods menu for the healthy space-life by measuring blood sugar level. We made space foods menu to referred to Japanese nutrition standard in 2010. We made space foods menu which are using "brown rice, wheat, soy bean, sweet potato and green-vegetable" and " loach and insects which are silkworm pupa, snail, mud snail, turmait, fly, grasshopper, bee". We use ten health adults as subjects. Ten subjects performed the sensory test of the questionnaire method. There was the sensuality examination in the item of "taste, a fragrance, color, the quantity" and acquired a mark at ten points of perfect scores. The blood sugar level was measured with peripheral blood, before and after a meal for each 15 minutesduring 120 minutes. Statistical analysis was analysed by Excel statistics. As a result of having measured blood sugar level, the space foods menu understood that hyperglycosemia value after a meal was hard to happen. As a result of sensuality exam-ination of the subject, ten points of evaluation of the taste exceeded eight points in a perfect score. The healthy space foods which were hard to go up of the blood sugar level were made deliciously. We can evaluate space foods leading to good health maintenance of the balance by measuring blood sugar level. An astronaut must be healthy to stay in the space for a long term. Therefore the development of the delicious space foods which increase of the health is essential. I devise a combination and the cooking method of the cooking ingredient and want to make healthier space foods menu.

  4. Development of a new control device for stabilizing blood level in reservoir during extracorporeal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Naoki; Yamakoshi, Rie; Kokubo, Ryo; Yasuda, Toru; Iwamoto, Norio; Umeda, Chinori; Nakajima, Itsuro; Yanagisawa, Mitsunobu; Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2010-03-01

    We developed a simple device that stabilizes the blood level in the reservoir of the extracorporeal circulation open circuit system by measuring the hydrostatic pressure of the reservoir to control the flow rate of the arterial pump. When the flow rate of the venous return decreases, the rotation speed of the arterial pump is automatically slowed down. Consequently, the blood level in the reservoir is stabilized quickly between two arbitrarily set levels and never falls below the pre-set low level. We conducted a basic experiment to verify the operation of the device, using a mock circuit with water. Commercially available pumps and reservoir were used without modification. The results confirmed that the control method effectively regulates the reservoir liquid level and is highly reliable. The device possibly also functions as a safety device.

  5. Diet enriched with fresh coconut decreases blood glucose levels and body weight in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Venugopal; Shankar, Nagashree R; Mavathur, Ramesh; Mooventhan, A; Anju, Sood; Manjunath, N K

    2018-02-20

    Background There exist controversies about the health effects of coconut. Fresh coconut consumption on human health has not been studied substantially. Fresh coconut consumption is a regular part of the diet for many people in tropical countries like India, and thus there is an increasing need to understand the effects of fresh coconut on various aspects of health. Aim To compare the effects of increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) and fiber intake, provided by fresh coconut, versus monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and fiber intake, provided by a combination of groundnut oil and groundnuts, on anthropometry, serum insulin, glucose levels and blood pressure in healthy adults. Materials Eighty healthy volunteers, randomized into two groups, were provided with a standardized diet along with either 100 g fresh coconut or an equivalent amount of groundnuts and groundnut oil for a period of 90 days. Assessments such as anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood sugar and insulin levels were performed before and after the supplementation period. Results Results of this study showed a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar (FBS) in both the groups. However, a significant reduction in body weight was observed in the coconut group, while a significant increase in diastolic pressure was observed in the groundnut group. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that fresh coconut-added diet helps reduce blood glucose levels and body weight in normal healthy individuals.

  6. Sapropterin therapy increases stability of blood phenylalanine levels in patients with BH4-responsive phenylketonuria (PKU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Barbara K; Bausell, Heather; Katz, Rachel; Laduca, Holly; Sullivan, Christine

    2010-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that variability in blood phenylalanine levels is inversely correlated with IQ and is a better predictor of IQ in early and continuously treated patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) than mean blood phenylalanine levels. This suggests that stability of blood phenylalanine should be a therapeutic goal in patients with PKU. The purpose of this study was to determine if treatment with sapropterin in patients with BH4-responsive PKU would increase the stability of blood phenylalanine levels. The records of all patients treated with sapropterin in the PKU Clinic at Children's Memorial Hospital in Chicago were examined retrospectively. Patients were included in the study if they were responsive to sapropterin during a 2- to 4-week challenge (reduction of blood phenylalanine level of at least 25% after 2weeks of therapy or, in the case of patients with well-controlled blood phenylalanine at the time of testing, increased dietary phenylalanine tolerance by 4weeks of treatment). A total of 37 subjects were eligible for inclusion (16male; 21 female); the mean age was 12.6years (range, 1.5-32.0). The total number of observations (phenylalanine levels) for all subjects was 1391 with a mean of 39 per subject (range, 13-96). Linear mixed modeling was utilized to estimate variances of the blood phenylalanine before (pre) and after (post) starting sapropterin. Likelihood ratio test was performed using SAS 9.1. Means and standard deviations for phenylalanine as estimated by the model were 6.67mg/dl (4.20) and post 5.16 (3.78). The mean level post-sapropterin was significantly lower (p=.0002). The within-subject variances (mean and SD) of phenylalanine were: pre 6.897 (2.62) and post 4.799 (2.19). These two variances are significantly different with a p=.0017. We conclude that sapropterin therapy results in increased stability of blood phenylalanine levels. This effect is likely to improve cognitive outcome in BH4-responsive patients with PKU

  7. Association of serum uric acid level and blood pressure in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savira, M.; Rusdiana; Syahputra, M.

    2018-03-01

    Uric acid is an end product of purine degradation in humans and primarily excreted through urine. In adulthood, concentrations rise steadily over time and vary with height, body weight, blood pressure, renal function, and alcohol intake. Uric acid is known as anti-oxidant, it has a beneficial role in diseases. Elevated serum uric acid associated with anincreased risk of cardiovascular disease. It has been found that elevated levels of uric acid associated with high risks of acomplication of type 2 diabetes mellitus and It has astrong association between elevated uric acid levels and obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disorders. The aim of the study analyzed the association between serum uric acid level and blood pressure in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. This research is descriptive analytic research with a cross sectional design included 50 diabetic subjects aged over 40 years old. Subjects picked by consecutive sampling then we examined the weight, height, waist size, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and serum uric acid level. Statistical analysis using chi-square found that there was no significant association between serum uric acid level and systole and diastole pressure in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (p>0.005).

  8. Significance of determination of insulin, glucagon and cortisol levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chun; Li Runhao; Yan Songqin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the insulin (INS), glucagon (GLUC) and cortisol (COR) levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood for appropriate gestational age (AGA) neonates and to explore the correlation among the body weight of AGA neonates and body mass index (BMI) of pregnant woman, serum INS, GLUC, COR levels of maternal as well as umbilical cord blood. Methods: Neonates fell into lower-than-normal body weight group ( group A n=9) and higher-than-normal body weight group (group B n =17); serum INS, GLUC and COR levels were measured with radioimmunoassay in 26 pairs of mothers and neonates with uneventful delivery. Results: The body weight of neonate was positively correlated with the BMI of pregnant women, the BMI of pregnant women in group B were significantly higher than those in group A (P<0.05). The maternal serum GLUC and COR levels were significantly higher than those in cord blood (P<0.05, P<0.01). Cord blood COR contents in group B were significantly higher than those in group A (P<0.01), the reverse was true for GLUC (P<0.05). Conclusion: Fetal growth is closely related to the BMI of pregnant women and serum INS, GLUC and COR levels indicating that maternal nutritional condition would directly affect the birth weight of the neonates. (authors)

  9. [Evaluation of hearing loss parameters in workers and its relationship with fasting blood glucose levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, M Teofila; Lladosa Marco, Silvia; Ramírez-Iñiguez de La Torre, M Victoria; Terradillos-García, M Jesús; López-González, Ángel Arturo

    2014-05-01

    Hearing loss due to noise is considered within the prevention plans of the most common occupational diseases. In addition to evaluation of working conditions, other personal factors increasing the risk of hypoacusis, such as diabetes, should be taken into account. To explore hearing loss in the workplace and its relationship to impaired fasting baseline blood glucose levels. An observational, cross-sectional study enrolling 1636 workers from service companies was conducted. Full audiometric evaluation was performed at different frequencies: high frequency (HF), early loss index (ELI), speech average loss (SAL), and monaural and binaural loss. Results were categorized by baseline blood glucose levels: G1 (125mg/dl). Based on both HF and ELI, 11% of workers had clear indication of deafness. Women with G3 levels showed significant differences in the results of HF and ELI indexes as compared to the G1 group (P=.038 and .046, respectively). A positive association was found between hearing loss and G3 blood glucose levels in HF (OR: .338; p=.002), ELI (OR: .407; p=.007), and the monaural test in the left ear (OR: 4.77×10-5; p=.006). Despite the methodological limitations of this study, there is evidence for an increased risk of high frequency hearing loss in workers with high baseline blood glucose levels. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Procalcitonin level as a surrogate for catheter-related blood stream infection among hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada Imam, Mahmoud; Gamal, Eman

    2017-11-17

    Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is a frequent complication among hemodialysis patients who usually are presented with nonspecific signs such as fever, rigors, and hypotension. Blood culture will take up to 5 days and antimicrobials will be started. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a valid marker in sepsis. Our goal in this study is to evaluate its usefulness as a diagnostic marker in detecting CRBSI among hemodialysis patients who present with suspected CRBSI. Thirty-one hemodialysis patients with suspected CRBSI were enrolled in this study. PCT level was measured at the time of presentation. Patients were divided into two groups according to blood culture results: positive and negative groups. PCT level and other markers for inflammation: white blood cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), and ferritin were compared between the two groups. Statistical analysis of variables was performed using the t-test or Mann-Whitney test together with Spearman correlation test. Thirty-one patients had median age 44.7 ± 2.1 years. They comprised 16 males (52%) and 15 females (48%). Sixteen patients had a positive blood culture result while in 15 it was negative. PCT level was significantly higher in the positive blood culture group (40.0 ± -21.9) (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.4-51.8) while its level was 1.1 ± 1 (95% CI 0.54-1.8) in the negative blood culture group [t(15) = -7, p<0.001). In the positive culture group, there was a correlation between CRP and ferritin (r = -0.58, p = 0.01, n = 16), while no correlation between PCT and other markers of inflammation. PCT is a useful marker for diagnosis of CRBSI among hemodialysis patients.

  11. Blood optical properties at various glucose level values in THz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, S. I.; Borovkova, M. A.; Strepitov, M. A.; Khodzitsky, M. K.

    2015-07-01

    The number of diabetics is rapidly growing every day in all parts of the world. By the year 2010, the number of patients suffering from diabetes had amounted to more than 230 million people, which is estimated as 3.5% of the whole world adult population [1]. According to expert forecasts, this number is projected to double by the year 2025, which is going to be 7% of whole Earth population. It was calculated that every 10 seconds someone in the world dies due to diabetes and its complications, which is 3 million people per year. The average life expectancy of children with diabetes is less than 28.3 years of onset. Diabetes is considered to be the fourth most common cause of death in industrialized countries. Vascular complications due to diabetes cause early disability and high mortality. Mortality from heart diseases and strokes is 2-3 times more likely for patients suffering from diabetes, whereas blindness, nephropathy and lower limbs gangrene happen respectively 10, 12-15 times, and almost 20 times more often for diabetics than general population. The number and strength of complications depend directly on the blood glucose level control quality. At the moment, the blood glucose level measurements are performed by glucometers [2,3]. This method requires that a patient makes a finger puncture for every measurement. About five punctures per day should be done for proper glucose monitoring, which is about 1,800 punctures per year. Besides, each measurement by glucometer requires a distinct test strip. Expenses for 1,800 test strips could be estimated as about 450 euros per year. It is also necessary to take into account that each puncture has a risk of blood poisoning. Using non-invasive techniques for glucose level control could reduce the amount of possible risky manipulations by 1800 per year. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that only eight of ten fingers are suitable for puncturing, and the constant skin damage which cannot be avoided is quite annoying for

  12. Systematic review and meta-analysis of circulating S100B blood levels in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katina Aleksovska

    Full Text Available S100B is a calcium-binding protein secreted in central nervous system from astrocytes and other glia cells. High blood S100B levels have been linked to brain damage and psychiatric disorders. S100B levels have been reported to be higher in schizophrenics than healthy controls. To quantify the relationship between S100B blood levels and schizophrenia a systematic literature review of case-control studies published on this topic within July 3rd 2014 was carried out using three bibliographic databases: Medline, Scopus and Web of Science. Studies reporting mean and standard deviation of S100B blood levels both in cases and controls were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-Mean Ratio (mMR of S100B blood levels in cases compared to controls was used as a measure of effect along with its 95% Confidence Intervals (CI. 20 studies were included totaling for 994 cases and 785 controls. Schizophrenia patients showed 76% higher S100B blood levels than controls with mMR = 1.76 95% CI: 1.44-2.15. No difference could be found between drug-free patients with mMR = 1.84 95%CI: 1.24-2.74 and patients on antipsychotic medication with mMR = 1.75 95% CI: 1.41-2.16. Similarly, ethnicity and stage of disease didn't affect results. Although S100B could be regarded as a possible biomarker of schizophrenia, limitations should be accounted when interpreting results, especially because of the high heterogeneity that remained >70%, even after carrying out subgroups analyses. These results point out that approaches based on traditional categorical diagnoses may be too restrictive and new approaches based on the characterization of new complex phenotypes should be considered.

  13. Correlative study between neuron-specific enolase and blood sugar level in ischemic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Pandey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A study to investigate the level of the neurobiochemical marker, Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE, at the time of admission and its correlation with the blood sugar level in ischemic stroke patients. Patients and Methods: We investigated 90 patients with complete stroke who were admitted to the Stroke Unit of the Department of Neurology at Sri Aurobindo Institute of Medical Sciences. NSE was measured with commercially available quantitative ′sandwich′ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits obtained from R and D Systems. Hyperglycemia was defined as blood glucose concentration ≥ 7 mmol / L, and measured using the glucose oxidase method immediately. Results: Significantly increased NSE and lipid profile levels were found in ischemic stroke patients as compared to the control. Hyperglycemic ischemic stroke patients had increased levels of NSE, lipid profile, and National Institute of Health stroke scale scores (NIHSS score compared to normoglycemic ischemic stroke patients. In addition the serum NSE level of hyperglycemic stroke patients was also positively correlated with the blood sugar level (r = 0.734 P < 0.001. Conclusions: Hyperglycemia predicts an increased risk of poor outcome after ischemic stroke and it is reflected by a significantly increased level of Neuron-Specific Enolase.

  14. The effect of food with different glycaemic index on the blood glucose level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Kouřimská

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose levels are affected by many factors including the type of foods consumed, processing technology and cooking method. Hormone insulin lowers blood glucose to its constant level, while glucagon, growth hormone, adrenalin and glucocorticoids have the opposite effect. High steepness of the blood glucose level rise after meals may be unfavourable for the organism. Sugars are transferred into the blood at different speeds according to the type of food. Therefore the aim of this study was to confirm experimentally the effect of food on blood glucose levels in men and women of different ages. Two types of low, medium and high-glycaemic index (GI foods were given to 4 men and 4 women of different age (from 35 to 65 years. All volunteers were healthy, slightly overweight, and without any regular sporting activity. None of them had any idea about their daily carbohydrates consumption and what the term glycaemic index meant. The volunteers came to the GI determination fasted in the morning. Their rise in blood glucose level was monitored by glucometer before the meal and after 1 and 2 hours of the consumption of baked potatoes (GI 85, white bread bun (GI 70, boiled potatoes (GI 64, rye bread (GI 62, potato dumplings (GI 52 and white cooked spaghetti (GI 41. Fasting blood sugar levels of volunteers highly depended on their age (p <0.0001 and gender (p <0.0001. The blood glucose values increased with age and were higher in men than in women. Significant influence of food GI on blood glucose levels in both men and women in all the age categories was observed (p <0.0001. An interaction between age and gender was also statistically highly significant (p <0.0001. One hour after consuming food the blood glucose values were significantly different from the values of fasting (p = 0.0035. The differences of these values did not depend on the age (p = 0.0574 and sex (p = 0.8256 of volunteers, but there was a significant difference on the GI value of food

  15. High Maternal Blood Mercury Level Is Associated with Low Verbal IQ in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Park, Hyewon; Ha, Eunhee; Shin, Jiyoung; Hong, Yun Chul; Ha, Mina; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Bung Nyun; Lee, Boeun; Lee, Soo Jeong; Lee, Kyung Yeon; Kim, Ja Hyeong; Kim, Yangho

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship of IQ in children with maternal blood mercury concentration during late pregnancy. The present study is a component of the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. The study cohort consisted of 553 children whose mothers underwent testing for blood mercury during late pregnancy. The children were given the Korean language version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, revised edition (WPPSI-R) at 60 months of age. Multivariate linear regression analysis, with adjustment for covariates, was used to assess the relationship between verbal, performance, and total IQ in children and blood mercury concentration of mothers during late pregnancy. The results of multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that a doubling of blood mercury was associated with the decrease in verbal and total IQ by 2.482 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.749-4.214) and 2.402 (95% CI, 0.526-4.279), respectively, after adjustment. This inverse association remained after further adjustment for blood lead concentration. Fish intake is an effect modifier of child IQ. In conclusion, high maternal blood mercury level is associated with low verbal IQ in children. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  16. Abnormalities in the zinc-metalloprotease-BDNF axis may contribute to megalencephaly and cortical hyperconnectivity in young autism spectrum disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Jae-Young; Lim, Joon Seo; Byun, Hyae-Ran; Yoo, Min-Heui

    2014-09-03

    Whereas aberrant brain connectivity is likely the core pathology of autism-spectrum disorder (ASD), studies do not agree as to whether hypo- or hyper-connectivity is the main underlying problem. Recent functional imaging studies have shown that, in most young ASD patients, cerebral cortical regions appear hyperconnected, and cortical thickness/brain size is increased. Collectively, these findings indicate that developing ASD brains may exist in an altered neurotrophic milieu. Consistently, some ASD patients, as well as some animal models of ASD, show increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, how BDNF is upregulated in ASD is unknown. To address this question, we propose the novel hypothesis that a putative zinc-metalloprotease-BDNF (ZMB) axis in the forebrain plays a pivotal role in the development of hyperconnectivity and megalencephaly in ASD. We have previously demonstrated that extracellular zinc at micromolar concentrations can rapidly increase BDNF levels and phosphorylate the receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB via the activation of metalloproteases. The role of metalloproteases in ASD is still uncertain, but in fragile X syndrome, a monogenic disease with an autistic phenotype, the levels of MMP are increased. Early exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and other MMP activators such as organic mercurials also have been implicated in ASD pathogenesis. The resultant increases in BDNF levels at synapses, especially those involved in the zinc-containing, associative glutamatergic system may produce abnormal brain circuit development. Various genetic mutations that lead to ASD are also known to affect BDNF signaling: some down-regulate, and others up-regulate it. We hypothesize that, although both up- and down-regulation of BDNF may induce autism symptoms, only BDNF up-regulation is associated with the hyperconnectivity and large brain size observed in most young idiopathic ASD patients. To test this hypothesis, we propose to examine the

  17. Manganese superoxide dismutase level in blood cells of patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adzic, M.; Niciforovic, A.; Filipovic, D.; Vucic, V.; Neskovic-Konstantinovic, Z.; Radojcic, M.B. . E-mail address of corresponding author: marija@vin.bg.ac.yu; Radojcic, M.B.)

    2005-01-01

    The intracellular MnSOD levels were determined in peripheral blood cells obtained from two age groups of patients with breast cancer (BC): 30-45 year old patients (premenopausal, n=7, clinical stage 1 to 3) and 46-60 year old patients (peri- and postmenopausal women, n=12, clinical stage 3 or 4), at diagnosis, prior to any clinical treatment. The respective healthy women groups were used as controls. Blood cells were also irradiated in vitro with 2- and 9- Gy of gamma-ray radiation from 60 Co source. The MnSOD levels were determined by the specific immunostaining and quantified by the laser densitometry. The MANOVA analysis and Tukey post-hoc test indicated significantly higher MnSOD levels in both groups of BC patients in relation to the respective controls ( F=25.166, p<0.001). The data indicated that the increased initial MnSOD levels in peripheral blood cells may be related to the presence of BC i.e. they may reflect the system response to the presence of malignant tumour. In addition to that, in vitro radiation challenge of blood cells indicate that MnSOD overexpression may be a good indicator for selection of BC patients that would express increased resistance to oxidative stress imposed by the clinical treatment. (author)

  18. DECREASED LEVEL OF CORD BLOOD CIRCULATING ENDOTHELIAL COLONY-FORMING CELLS IN PREECLAMPSIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Hernandez, Rocio; Miranda, Maria L.; Stiefel, Pablo; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Praena-Fernández, Juan M.; Dominguez-Simeon, Maria J.; Villar, Jose; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Melero-Martin, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder associated with increased cardiovascular risk for the offspring. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are a subset of circulating endothelial progenitor cells that participate in the formation of vasculature during development. However, the effect of preeclampsia on fetal levels of ECFCs is largely unknown. In this study, we sought to determine whether cord blood ECFC abundance and function are altered in preeclampsia. We conducted a prospective cohort study that included women with normal (n=35) and preeclamptic (n=15) pregnancies. We measured ECFC levels in the umbilical cord blood of neonates and characterized ECFC phenotype, cloning-forming ability, proliferation and migration towards VEGF-A and FGF-2, in vitro formation of capillary-like structures, and in vivo vasculogenic ability in immunodeficient mice. We found that the level of cord blood ECFCs was statistically lower in preeclampsia than in control pregnancies (P = .04), a reduction that was independent of other obstetric factors. In addition, cord blood ECFCs from preeclamptic pregnancies required more time to emerge in culture than control ECFCs. However, once derived in culture, ECFC function was deemed normal and highly similar between preeclampsia and control, including the ability to form vascular networks in vivo. This study demonstrates that preeclampsia affects ECFC abundance in neonates. A reduced level of ECFCs during preeclamptic pregnancies may contribute to an increased risk of developing future cardiovascular events. PMID:24752434

  19. Light therapy modulates serotonin levels and blood flow in women with headache. A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaz de Magalhães, Miriam; Núñez, Silvia Cristina; Kato, Ilka Tiemy; Ribeiro, Martha Simões

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we looked at the possible effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on blood flow velocity, and serotonin (5-HT) and cholinesterase levels in patients with chronic headache associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). LLLT has been clinically applied over the past years with positive results in analgesia and without the report of any side effects. The understanding of biological mechanisms of action may improve clinical results and facilitate its indication. Ten patients presenting headache associated with TMD completed the study. An 830-nm infrared diode laser with power of 100 mW, exposure time of 34 s, and energy of 3.4 J was applied on the tender points of masseter and temporal muscle. Blood flow velocity was determined via ultrasound Doppler velocimetry before and after laser irradiation. The whole blood 5-HT and cholinesterase levels were evaluated three days before, immediately, and three days after laser irradiation. Pain score after treatment decreased to a score of 5.8 corresponding to 64% of pain reduction (P  0.05). Our findings indicated that LLLT regulates blood flow in the temporal artery after irradiation and might control 5-HT levels in patients suffering with tension-type headache associated to TMD contributing to pain relief. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  20. A report of high triglyceride level in cord blood of Iranian newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Naghi Kazemi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The mean and 95 th percentiles of triglyceride levels in cord blood of our newborn infants were higher than other reports. We recommend that larger studies should be conducted in this area to establish preventive ways for increasing epidemic of the metabolic syndrome.

  1. Low cortisol levels in blood from dairy cows with ketosis: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Kristina B; Ljungvall, Orjan A; Jones, Bernt V

    2010-05-20

    An elevated plasma glucose concentration has been considered to be a potential risk factor in the pathogenesis of left-displaced abomasums (DA). Therefore the present study was performed to investigate if spontaneous disease (parturient paresis, metritis, ketosis etc) in dairy cows results in elevated concentrations of glucose and cortisol in blood as cortisol is the major regulator of glucose in ruminants. Cortisol, insulin, beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), non esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and serum calcium were analyzed in blood serum and glucose, in whole blood, from 57 spontaneously diseased cows collected at different farms. The cows were grouped according to the disease; parturient paresis, recumbent for other reasons, mastitis, metritis, ketosis, inappetance and others. No elevated concentrations of cortisol or glucose were found in cows with metritis and mastitis but both cortisol and glucose were elevated in cows stressed by recumbency. Cows with ketonemia (BHBA > 1.5 mmol/l) did not have low concentration of glucose in blood but significantly low levels of cortisol. Some of these cows even had cortisol concentrations below the detection limit of the analysing method (ketosis, recommending glucocorticoids, insulin etc. However further studies of this problem are needed to understand why cows with ketosis have low levels of cortisol and normal levels of glucose. To what extent elevated cortisol and glucose levels in hypocalcemic and recumbent cows are involved in the ethiology and /or the pathogenesis of DA also will need further research.

  2. Brief Report: Whole Blood Serotonin Levels and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Sarah; Ferguson, Bradley J.; Lee, Evon Batey; Peters, Brittany; Williams, Kent C.; McDonnell, Erin; Macklin, Eric A.; Levitt, Pat; Gillespie, Catherine Hagan; Anderson, George M.; Margolis, Kara Gross; Beversdorf, David Q.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Elevated whole blood serotonin levels are observed in more than 25% of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Co-occurring gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are also common in ASD but have not previously been examined in relationship with hyperserotonemia, despite the synthesis of serotonin in the gut. In 82 children and adolescents with ASD,…

  3. Sodium Butyrate Prevents Memory Impairment by Re-establishing BDNF and GDNF Expression in Experimental Pneumococcal Meningitis.

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    Barichello, Tatiana; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Simões, Lutiana R; Faller, Cristiano Julio; Ceretta, Renan A; Petronilho, Fabricia; Lopes-Borges, Jéssica; Valvassori, Samira S; Quevedo, João

    2015-08-01

    Pneumococcal meningitis is a serious infection of the central nervous system (CNS) with high fatality rates that causes reduced psychomotor performance, slight mental slowness, impairments in attention executive functions and learning and memory deficiencies. Previously, we demonstrated a correlation between memory impairment and decreased levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampi of rats subjected to pneumococcal meningitis. Emerging evidence demonstrates that histone acetylation regulates neurotrophins; therefore, a potential molecular intervention against cognitive impairment in bacterial meningitis may be the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, sodium butyrate, which stimulates the acetylation of histones and increases BDNF expression. In this study, animals received either artificial cerebrospinal fluid as a placebo or a Streptococcus pneumoniae suspension at a concentration of 5 × 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU/mL). The animals received antibiotic treatment as usual and received saline or sodium butyrate as an adjuvant treatment. Ten days after, meningitis was induced; the animals were subjected to open-field habituation and the step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Immediately after these behavioural tasks, the animals were killed, and their hippocampi were removed to evaluate the expression of BDNF, nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In the meningitis group that received saline, the animals presented memory impairment in both behavioural tasks, and hippocampal BDNF and GDNF expression was decreased. Sodium butyrate was able to prevent memory impairment and re-establish hippocampal neurotrophin expression in experimental pneumococcal meningitis.

  4. [Relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetes patients].

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    Elkafri, I H; Mashlah, A; Shaqifa, A

    2014-03-13

    This study was evaluated the relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetic patients. The sample comprised 210 participants (age ranged 40-60 years). Based on fasting blood glucose levels the participants were divided into 3 groups: controls with normal blood glucose levels; diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL; and diabetic patients with levels > 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH and buffering capacity were determined in a sample of resting (non-stimulated) saliva taken from each participant. Salivary pH levels in diabetic patients with blood glucose levels > 200 mg/dL were lower than in the controls and diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH levels were comparable in controls and diabetic patients with blood glucose levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary buffering capacity in the 3 groups was comparable.

  5. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants.

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    Violeta Moya-Alvarez

    Full Text Available Elevated blood lead levels (BLL and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far.Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed.At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83, and 128 infants (63% had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%. Twenty-five infants (12.5% had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobin<110 g/L. Elevated blood lead levels were significantly associated with reduced risk of a positive blood smear (AOR = 0.38, P-value = 0.048 and P. falciparum parasite density (beta-estimate = -1.42, P-value = 0.03 in logistic and negative binomial regression multivariate models, respectively, adjusted on clinical and environmental indicators.Our study shows for the first time that BLL are negatively associated with malarial risk considering other risk factors. Malaria is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in infants under 5 years worldwide, and lead poisoning is the 6th most important contributor to the global burden of diseases measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs according to the Institute of Health Metrics. In conclusion, due

  6. Lead and PCB's in canvasback ducks: Relationship between enzyme levels and residues in blood

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    Dieter, M.P.; Perry, M.C.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1976-01-01

    Blood samples were taken for two successive years from canvasback ducks trapped in the Chesapeake Bay. The first winter (1972?1973) five plasma enzymes known to respond to organochlorine poisoning were examined. Abnormal enzyme elevations suggested that 20% of the population sampled (23/115 ducks) might contain organochlorine contaminants, but no residue analyses were performed. The second winter (1974) two of the same enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, and a third enzyme known to be specifically inhibited by lead, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, were assayed in 95 blood samples. Blood residues of organochlorine compounds and of lead were determined in representative samples, and the correlations between residue levels and enzyme changes were examined. The enzyme bioassays in 1974 indicated that lead was a more prevalent environmental contaminant than organochlorine compounds in canvasback ducks; 17% of the blood samples had less than one-half of the normal delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, but only 11% exhibited abnormal aspartate aminotransferase or lactate dehydrogenase activities. These findings were confirmed by residue analyses that demonstrated lead concentrations four times higher than background levels, but only relatively low organochlorine concentrations. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and blood lead concentrations (Pheme synthesis and is regarded as detrimental in humans.

  7. Influence of perinatal factors on thyroid stimulating hormone level in cord blood.

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    Armanian, Amir-Mohammad; Hashemipour, Mahin; Esnaashari, Azadeh; Kelishadi, Roya; Farajzadegan, Ziba

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of various perinatal factors on cord blood TSH among newborns in Isfahan, Iran. This was a descriptive-analytic cross sectional study which performed in Isfahan Iran. During a period of four months, since February to May 2012 a total number of 440 newborns delivered in Alzahra and Shahid beheshti hospitals were enrolled in the study. For all newborns one mL blood sample from umbilical vein was obtained by one of the project investigators and sent to laboratory for further examinations. Cord blood TSH and birth body weight (BBW), gestational age, history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), apgar at one minute, apgar at five minute, newborn gender and the mother's age were documented. Differences considered statistically significant if P BBW, gestational age, GDM, apgar at one minute, apgar at five minute, newborn gender and the mother's age didn't have statistically significant relationship with cord TSH level. In conclusion we deduce that the only factor that can affect cord blood TSH was method of delivery. Infant with vaginal delivery has higher TSH level in cord blood. Other factors that were evaluated in this study didn't have any statistically significant relationship.

  8. Dose-Dependent Protective Effect of Lithium Chloride on Retinal Ganglion Cells Is Interrelated with an Upregulated Intraretinal BDNF after Optic Nerve Transection in Adult Rats

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    Ming-Mei Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotection of lithium for axotomized retinal ganglion cells (RGCs is attributed to upregulated intraretinal Bcl-2. As lithium also upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF which can rescue axotomized RGCs, it is hypothesized that lithium could protect RGCs through BDNF. This study investigated this hypothesis and a possible relationship between the dose and protection of lithium. All adult experimental rats received daily intraperitoneal injections of lithium chloride (LiCl at 30, 60 or 85 mg/kg·bw until they were euthanized 2, 7 or 14 days after left intraorbital optic nerve (ON transection. Our results revealed that RGC densities promoted and declined with increased dose of LiCl and the highest RGC densities were always in the 60 mg/kg·bw LiCl group at both 7 and 14 day points. Similar promotion and decline in the mRNA and protein levels of intraretinal BDNF were also found at the 14 day point, while such BDNF levels increased in the 30 mg/kg·bw LiCl group but peaked in the 60 and 85 mg/kg·bw LiCl groups at the 7 day point. These findings suggested that lithium can delay the death of axotomized RGCs in a dose-dependent manner within a certain period after ON injury and such beneficial effect is interrelated with an upregulated level of intraretinal BDNF.

  9. Maternal age during pregnancy is associated with third trimester blood pressure level: the generation R study.

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