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Sample records for blood bactericidal activity

  1. Whole-blood phagocytic and bactericidal activities of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This in vitro study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in aliquots of whole blood from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Any significant effects of exposure to A-bomb radiation could not be detected for both phagocytic and bactericidal activities of whole blood from A-bomb survivors. In addition, there were no significant effects of age categories, sex or city, except in neutrophil counts. (J.P.N.)

  2. Two major medicinal honeys have different mechanisms of bactericidal activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus H S Kwakman

    Full Text Available Honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity, but knowledge regarding the mechanism of action is still incomplete. We assessed the bactericidal activity and mechanism of action of Revamil® source (RS honey and manuka honey, the sources of two major medical-grade honeys. RS honey killed Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 2 hours, whereas manuka honey had such rapid activity only against B. subtilis. After 24 hours of incubation, both honeys killed all tested bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, but manuka honey retained activity up to higher dilutions than RS honey. Bee defensin-1 and H₂O₂ were the major factors involved in rapid bactericidal activity of RS honey. These factors were absent in manuka honey, but this honey contained 44-fold higher concentrations of methylglyoxal than RS honey. Methylglyoxal was a major bactericidal factor in manuka honey, but after neutralization of this compound manuka honey retained bactericidal activity due to several unknown factors. RS and manuka honey have highly distinct compositions of bactericidal factors, resulting in large differences in bactericidal activity.

  3. Inhibition of C5a-induced inflammation with preserved C5b-9-mediated bactericidal activity in a human whole blood model of meningococcal sepsis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong, T.; Brandtzaeg, P.; Fung, M.; Pharo, A.M.; Hoiby, E.A.; Michaelsen, T.E.; Aase, A.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Deuren, M. van; Mollnes, T.E.

    2003-01-01

    The complement system plays an important role in the initial defense against Neisseria meningitidis. In contrast, uncontrolled activation in meningococcal sepsis contributes to the development of tissue damage and shock. In a novel human whole blood model of meningococcal sepsis, we studied the effe

  4. Bacteriostatic and Bactericidal Activities of Moxifloxacin against Coxiella burnetii

    OpenAIRE

    Rolain, Jean-Marc; Maurin, Max; Raoult, Didier

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro activity of moxifloxacin against Coxiella burnetii was compared to those of pefloxacin, ofloxacin, and doxycycline. MICs of moxifloxacin ranged from 0.5 to 1 μg/ml for the Nine Mile, Priscilla, and Q212 strains. Moxifloxacin was not bactericidal against C. burnetii at 4 μg/ml.

  5. Powerful Bactericidal Activity of Moxifloxacin in Human Leprosy▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pardillo, Fe Eleanor F.; Burgos, Jasmin; Fajardo, Tranquilino T.; Cruz, Eduardo Dela; Abalos, Rodolfo M.; Paredes, Rose Maria D.; Andaya, Cora Evelyn S.; Gelber, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    In a clinical trial of moxifloxacin in eight multibacillary leprosy patients, moxifloxacin proved highly effective. In all trial patients, a single 400-mg dose of moxifloxacin resulted in significant killing (P ≤ 0.006) of Mycobacterium leprae, ranging from 82% to 99%, with a mean of 91%. In all instances, no viable bacilli were detected with an additional 3 weeks of daily therapy, this observed rapid bactericidal activity being matched previously only by rifampin. On moxifloxacin therapy, sk...

  6. Bactericidal activity of metal-mediated peroxide-ascorbate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drath, D B; Karnovsky, M L

    1974-11-01

    Model systems containing ascorbate, hydrogen peroxide, and divalent copper or cobalt have been shown to possess marked bactericidal activity. At equivalent concentrations, copper-containing systems were more bactericidal than the corresponding mixtures containing cobalt. Cobalt at concentrations below 10(-4) M did not appreciably augment microbicidal activity, whereas systems containing copper at concentrations as low as 5 x 10(-6) M were still capable of causing some bacterial death. Manganese was inactive. None of these systems was as potent as the well known myeloperoxidase-peroxide-halide system. The mechanisms of action of these systems are not as yet clear. The possibility that they function through the generation of superoxide (O(2) (-)), hydroxyl radical (OH.), or other free radicals was explored through the use of superoxide dismutase and several free radical scavengers. It seems likely at present that the two active metal-mediated systems function via separate mechanisms. The copper system acts with dehydroascorbate, whereas the cobalt system does not. Activity in the cobalt system appears to depend upon the generation of free radicals. PMID:16558093

  7. Bactericidal activity of Musca domestica cecropin (Mdc) on multidrug-resistant clinical isolate of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X; Shen, J; Jin, X; Ma, Y; Huang, Y; Mei, H; Chu, F; Zhu, J

    2012-08-01

    The housefly (Musca domestica) larvae have been used clinically to cure osteomyelitis, decubital necrosis, lip boil, ecthyma and malnutritional stagnation ever since the Ming/Qing Dynasty (1368 Anno Domini) till now, in China. In prior research, we have cloned and characterized a new gene of antimicrobial peptide cecropin from M. domestica larvae. This peptide was potently active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria standard strain. In the present study, we evaluated the possibility of Mdc to be a potential bactericidal agent against clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli and to elucidate the related antimicrobial mechanisms. Antimicrobial activity assays indicated a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1.56 μM. Bactericidal kinetics at MIC showed that Mdc rapid killing of MDR E. coli. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) dose-dependently suppressed Mdc antibacterial potency indicates that LPS is the initial binding site of Mdc in E. coli. Propidium iodide-based flow cytometry revealed that Mdc causes E. coli membrane permeabilization. Transmission electron micrographs further indicated that a remarkable damage in the bacteria's outer and inner membrane, even the leakage of cytoplasmic contents induced by Mdc. DNA binding experimental result implies that DNA is one of the possible intracellular targets of Mdc. Of note, Mdc did not show a perceptible cytotoxic effect on human red blood cells. Altogether, these results suggest that Mdc could be an excellent candidate for the development of more efficacious bactericidal agents. PMID:22202966

  8. Complement-mediated killing of Borrelia garinii--bactericidal activity of wild deer serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isogai, E; Kamewaka, Y; Isogai, H; Kimura, K; Fujii, N; Nishikawa, T

    1994-01-01

    The susceptibility of Borrelia garinii to fresh wild deer sera was determined by incubating strain SIKA2 at 10% serum concentration for 1 hr at 37 C in an in vitro bactericidal assay. Each serum showed bactericidal effects at various levels. The effect was dependent on the concentration of antibody to the spirochetes. Complement was essential in the bactericidal assay because the inactivated deer serum showed greatly decreased activity. Our results suggest that B. garinii is sensitive to deer serum, in the presence of antibody and the bactericidal effect is important for preventing Lyme disease in wild sika deer. PMID:7854216

  9. Preparation and bactericide activity of gallic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, gold nanoparticles with three different sizes (13.7, 39.4, and 76.7 nm) were prepared using a simple aqueous method with gallic acid as the reducing and stabilizing agent, the different sizes were obtained varying some experimental parameters as the pH of the reaction and the amount of the gallic acid. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Samples were identified as elemental gold and present spherical morphology, a narrow size distribution and good stabilization according to TEM and DLS results. The antibacterial activity of this gallic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles against S. mutans (the etiologic agent of dental caries) was assessed using a microdilution method obtaining a minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.31, 12.31, and 49.25 μg/mL for 13.7, 39.4, and 76.7 nm gold nanoparticles, respectively. The antibacterial assay showed that gold nanoparticles prepared in this work present a bactericide activity by a synergistic action with gallic acid. The MIC found for this nanoparticles are much lower than those reported for mixtures of gold nanoparticles and antibiotics.

  10. Preparation and bactericide activity of gallic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Alvarez, S. A. [UASLP, Doctorado Institucional en Ingenieria y Ciencia de Materiales (Mexico); Martinez-Castanon, G. A., E-mail: mtzcastanon@fciencias.uaslp.m [UASLP, Maestria en Ciencias Odontologicas, Facultad de Estomatologia (Mexico); Nino-Martinez, N. [UASLP, Facultad de Ciencias (Mexico); Reyes-Macias, J. F.; Patino-Marin, N.; Loyola-Rodriguez, J. P. [UASLP, Maestria en Ciencias Odontologicas, Facultad de Estomatologia (Mexico); Ruiz, Facundo [UASLP, Facultad de Ciencias (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    In this work, gold nanoparticles with three different sizes (13.7, 39.4, and 76.7 nm) were prepared using a simple aqueous method with gallic acid as the reducing and stabilizing agent, the different sizes were obtained varying some experimental parameters as the pH of the reaction and the amount of the gallic acid. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Samples were identified as elemental gold and present spherical morphology, a narrow size distribution and good stabilization according to TEM and DLS results. The antibacterial activity of this gallic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles against S. mutans (the etiologic agent of dental caries) was assessed using a microdilution method obtaining a minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.31, 12.31, and 49.25 {mu}g/mL for 13.7, 39.4, and 76.7 nm gold nanoparticles, respectively. The antibacterial assay showed that gold nanoparticles prepared in this work present a bactericide activity by a synergistic action with gallic acid. The MIC found for this nanoparticles are much lower than those reported for mixtures of gold nanoparticles and antibiotics.

  11. Effect of peritoneal dialysis fluid and pH on bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick, E M; Echols, R M

    1987-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is active in vitro against most bacteria that cause peritonitis associated with peritoneal dialysis. We compared the effects of pH (5.5 and 7.4) and medium (dialysis fluid) on the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, vancomycin plus rifampin, and rifampin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and three strains of staphylococci. The bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin was not significantly affected by pH or medium, in contrast to the activity of tobr...

  12. Lactobacillus Proteins Are Associated with the Bactericidal Activity against E. coli of Female Genital Tract Secretions

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyoussef, Sabah; Nieves, Edward; Dinerman, Ellen; Carpenter, Colleen; Shankar, Viswanathan; Oh, Jamie; Burd, Berta; Angeletti, Ruth H.; Buckheit, Karen W.; Fredricks, David N.; Madan, Rebecca P.; Keller, Marla J.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Female genital tract secretions are bactericidal for Escherichia (E.) coli ex vivo. However, the intersubject variability and molecules that contribute to this activity have not been defined. Methods The bactericidal activity and concentration of immune mediators in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) collected from 99 healthy women were determined. Results CVL reduced the number of E. coli colonies by 68% [−26, 100] (median [range]). CVL were active against laboratory and clinical isolate...

  13. Serum bactericidal activity as indicator of innate immunity in pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Biller-Takahashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The immune system of teleost fish has mechanisms responsible for the defense against bacteria through protective proteins in several tissues. The protein action can be evaluated by serum bactericidal activity and this is an important tool to analyze the immune system. Pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, is one of the most important fish in national aquaculture. However there is a lack of studies on its immune responses. In order to standardize and assess the accuracy of the serum bactericidal activity assay, fish were briefly challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and sampled one week after the challenge. The bacterial infection increased the concentration of protective proteins, resulting in a decrease of colony-forming unit values expressed as well as an enhanced serum bactericidal activity. The protocol showed a reliable assay, appropriate to determine the serum bactericidal activity of pacu in the present experimental conditions.

  14. Increased bactericidal activity of colistin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in anaerobic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kolpen, Mette; Appeldorff, Cecilie F.; Brandt, Sarah; Mousavi, Nabi; Kragh, Kasper N.; Aydogan, Sevtap; Uppal, Haleema A.; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Ciofu, Oana; Høiby, Niels; Jensen, Peter Ø.

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance towards antibiotics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms is recognized as a major cause of therapeutic failure of chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This lung infection is characterized by antibiotic-tolerant biofilms in mucus with zones of O2 depletion mainly due to polymorphonuclear leukocytic activity. In contrast to the main types of bactericidal antibiotics, it has not been possible to establish an association between the bactericidal effects of colistin and...

  15. The bactericidal activity of glutaraldehyde-impregnated polyurethane

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, E.; Sehmi, S.; Parkin, I.; MacRobert, A.

    2016-01-01

    Although glutaraldehyde is known to be bactericidal in solution, its potential use to create novel antibacterial polymers suitable for use in healthcare environments has not been evaluated. Here, novel materials were prepared in which glutaraldehyde was either incorporated into polyurethane using a simple “swell-encapsulation-shrink” method (hereafter referred to as “glutaraldehyde-impregnated polyurethane”), or simply applied to the polymer surface (hereafter referred to as “glutaraldehyde-c...

  16. [Comparative urinary bactericidal activity of oral antibiotics against gram-positive pathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedenić, Branka; Budimir, Ana; Gverić, Ana; Plecko, Vanda; Vranes, Jasmina; Bubonja-Sonje, Marina; Kalenić, Smilja

    2012-01-01

    In routine bacteriological laboratories the antibacterial activity of antibiotics is determined by in vitro testing, usually by disk-diffusion test. However, in vitro testing does not always reflect antibacterial efficiency of antibiotics in vivo. In this investigation, the urine samples obtained in a single oral dose pharmacokinetic study were examined for their bactericidal activity against a range of relevant Gram-positive urinary tract pathogens. Urinary bactericidal activity of linezolid had been previously compared with ciprofloxacin but not with other oral antibiotics such as beta-lactams. Linezolid showed satisfactory urinary bactericidal titres throughout the whole testing period against all Gram-positive cocci. Fluoroquinolones displayed high and persisting levels of urinary bactericidal activity against staphylococci, but their activity against enterococci was weaker. According to the results of ex-vivo testing amoxycillin could be recommended only for infections caused by E. faecalis. Amoxycillin combined with clavulanic acid can be considered as a therapeutic option for infections caused by S. saprophyticus and E. faecalis. Older cephalosporins had high titres only against S. saprophyticus. Their drawback is a short elimination half-time in urine resulting in rapid decrease of urinary bactericidal titers during dosing interval. Furthermore, they do not show activity against enterococci due to their intrinsic resistance to cephalosporins. PMID:22930932

  17. The behavior of active bactericidal and antifungal coating under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Gang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhao, Yan; Su, Haijia, E-mail: suhj@mail.buct.edu.cn; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-02-15

    In the present paper, the novel active bactericidal and antifungal coatings (ABAC) have been prepared through the immobilization of Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} (anatase) with chitosan. The characterization of ABAC using optical microscope imaging, SEM, AFM and FTIR shows that the Fe doped TiO{sub 2} is embedded into the chitosan coating with favorable dispersion through the hydrogen bonds interaction between chitosan molecules and TiO{sub 2}. The contact angle measurement demonstrated the hydrophilicity of ABAC (θ = 34.5 ± 4.1°). The bactericidal activity of ABAC has been evaluated by inactivating three different test strains: Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger which illustrates the apparently higher bactericidal ability than chitosan, Fe-TiO{sub 2} and chitosan/TiO{sub 2} (pure) under visible light irradiation and its bactericidal activity is lasting for at least 24 h. ABAC showed rapid and efficient antibacterial ability for the three tested strains and its antibacterial ratio in 2 h for E. coli, C. albicans and A. niger was 99.9%, 97.0% and 95.0%, respectively. The prepared chitosan/TiO{sub 2} composite emulsion shows favorable storage stability and can be stored up to 1 year without losing its bactericidal activity. ABAC is a low-cost and eco-friendly antibacterial coating products and promising for domestic, medical and industrial applications.

  18. The behavior of active bactericidal and antifungal coating under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper, the novel active bactericidal and antifungal coatings (ABAC) have been prepared through the immobilization of Fe-doped TiO2 (anatase) with chitosan. The characterization of ABAC using optical microscope imaging, SEM, AFM and FTIR shows that the Fe doped TiO2 is embedded into the chitosan coating with favorable dispersion through the hydrogen bonds interaction between chitosan molecules and TiO2. The contact angle measurement demonstrated the hydrophilicity of ABAC (θ = 34.5 ± 4.1°). The bactericidal activity of ABAC has been evaluated by inactivating three different test strains: Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger which illustrates the apparently higher bactericidal ability than chitosan, Fe-TiO2 and chitosan/TiO2 (pure) under visible light irradiation and its bactericidal activity is lasting for at least 24 h. ABAC showed rapid and efficient antibacterial ability for the three tested strains and its antibacterial ratio in 2 h for E. coli, C. albicans and A. niger was 99.9%, 97.0% and 95.0%, respectively. The prepared chitosan/TiO2 composite emulsion shows favorable storage stability and can be stored up to 1 year without losing its bactericidal activity. ABAC is a low-cost and eco-friendly antibacterial coating products and promising for domestic, medical and industrial applications.

  19. Increased bactericidal activity of colistin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in anaerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mette, Kolpen; Appeldorff, Cecilie F; Brandt, Sarah;

    2016-01-01

    polymorphonuclear leukocytic activity. In contrast to the main types of bactericidal antibiotics, it has not been possible to establish an association between the bactericidal effects of colistin and the production of detectable levels of OH⋅ on several strains of planktonic P. aeruginosa. Therefore we propose that...... production of OH⋅ may not contribute significantly to the bactericidal activity of colistin on P. aeruginosa biofilm. Thus, we investigated the effect of colistin treatment on biofilm of wildtype PAO1, a catalase deficient mutant (ΔkatA) and a colistin resistant CF isolate cultured in microtiter plates in...... normoxic- or anoxic atmosphere with 1 mM nitrate. The killing of bacteria during colistin treatment was measured by CFU counts and the OH⋅ formation was measured by 3'-(p-hydroxylphenyl fluorescein) fluorescein (HPF) fluorescence. Validation of the assay was done by hydrogenperoxide treatment. OH...

  20. Effects of cytochalasin B on the intrcellular bactericidal activity of human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, K

    1975-06-01

    Cytochalasin B (CB) is known to have some inhibitory effects on cytokinesis, single-cell movement, bacterial uptake by phagocytes, and many other processes. The effects of CB on intraleukocytic bactericidal activities in human leukocytes were studied, and the results were summarized as follows. (i) CB inhibited the early stage of the intracellular bactericidal activity of human leukocytes against Streptococcus pyogenes D58 (group A). The effect was rapidly eliminated by rinsing the CB solution. (ii) In the late stage of the intracellular bactericidal process, however, CB possessed no effect against S. pyogenes D58 (group A) and Staphylococcus aureus 209P. (iii) CB also inhibited the translocation of myeloperoxidase granules to the phagosomes of human neutrophils. PMID:1155917

  1. Lactobacillus proteins are associated with the bactericidal activity against E. coli of female genital tract secretions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Kalyoussef

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Female genital tract secretions are bactericidal for Escherichia (E. coli ex vivo. However, the intersubject variability and molecules that contribute to this activity have not been defined. METHODS: The bactericidal activity and concentration of immune mediators in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL collected from 99 healthy women were determined. RESULTS: CVL reduced the number of E. coli colonies by 68% [-26, 100] (median [range]. CVL were active against laboratory and clinical isolates of E. coli, but were inactive against Lactobacillus species. Bactericidal activity correlated with the concentration of protein recovered (p90% inhibitory activity (active and two with<30% activity were subjected to MS/MS proteomic analysis. 215 proteins were identified and six were found exclusively in active samples. Four of these corresponded to Lactobacillus crispatus or jensenii proteins. Moreover, culture supernatants from Lactobacillus jensenii were bactericidal for E. coli. CONCLUSION: Both host and commensal microbiota proteins contribute to mucosal defense. Identification of these proteins will facilitate the development of strategies to maintain a healthy vaginal microbiome and prevent colonization with pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli that increase the risk for urinary tract infections, preterm labor and perinatal infection.

  2. Morphology-dependent bactericidal activities of Ag/CeO2 catalysts against Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lian; He, Hong; Yu, Yunbo; Sun, Li; Liu, Sijin; Zhang, Changbin; He, Lian

    2014-06-01

    Silver-loaded CeO2 nanomaterials (Ag/CeO2) including Ag/CeO2 nanorods, nanocubes, nanoparticles were prepared with hydrothermal and impregnation methods. Catalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli with Ag/CeO2 catalysts through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated. For comparison purposes, the bactericidal activities of CeO2 nanorods, nanocubes and nanoparticles were also studied. There was a 3-4 log order improvement in the inactivation of E. coli with Ag/CeO2 catalysts compared with CeO2 catalysts. Temperature-programmed reduction of H2 showed that Ag/CeO2 catalysts had higher catalytic oxidation ability than CeO2 catalysts, which was the reason for that Ag/CeO2 catalysts exhibited stronger bactericidal activities than CeO2 catalysts. Further, the bactericidal activities of CeO2 and Ag/CeO2 depend on their shapes. Results of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide spin-trapping measurements by electron spin resonance and addition of catalase as a scavenger indicated the formation of OH, O2(-), and H2O2, which caused the obvious bactericidal activity of catalysts. The stronger chemical bond between Ag and CeO2 nanorods led to lower Ag(+) elution concentrations. The toxicity of Ag(+) eluted from the catalysts did not play an important role during the bactericidal process. Experimental results also indicated that Ag/CeO2 induced the production of intracellular ROS and disruption of the cell wall and cell membrane. A possible production mechanism of ROS and bactericidal mechanism of catalytic oxidation were proposed. PMID:24662462

  3. The nature of inherent bactericidal activity: insights from the nanotopology of three species of dragonfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwaring, David E.; Nguyen, Song Ha; Webb, Hayden; Jakubov, Timur; Tobin, Mark; Lamb, Robert N.; Wu, Alex H.-F.; Marchant, Richard; Crawford, Russell J.; Ivanova, Elena P.

    2016-03-01

    While insect wings are widely recognised as multi-functional, recent work showed that this extends to extensive bactericidal activity brought about by cell deformation and lysis on the wing nanotopology. We now quantitatively show that subtle changes to this topography result in substantial changes in bactericidal activity that are able to span an order of magnitude. Notably, the chemical composition of the lipid nanopillars was seen by XPS and synchrotron FTIR microspectroscopy to be similar across these activity differences. Modelling the interaction between bacterial cells and the wing surface lipids of 3 species of dragonflies, that inhabit similar environments, but with distinctly different behavioural repertoires, provided the relationship between surface structure and antibacterial functionality. In doing so, these principal behavioural patterns correlated with the demands for antimicrobial efficiency dictated by differences in their foraging strategies. This work now reveals a new feature in the design elegance of natural multi-functional surfaces as well providing insights into the bactericidal mechanism underlying inherently antimicrobial materials, while suggesting that nanotopology is related to the evolutionary development of a species through the demands of its behavioural repertoire. The underlying relationship between the processes of wetting, adhesion and capillarity of the lipid nanopillars and bactericidal efficiency suggests new prospects for purely mechano-responsive antibacterial surfaces.While insect wings are widely recognised as multi-functional, recent work showed that this extends to extensive bactericidal activity brought about by cell deformation and lysis on the wing nanotopology. We now quantitatively show that subtle changes to this topography result in substantial changes in bactericidal activity that are able to span an order of magnitude. Notably, the chemical composition of the lipid nanopillars was seen by XPS and synchrotron

  4. A complex of equine lysozyme and oleic acid with bactericidal activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Clementi

    Full Text Available HAMLET and ELOA are complexes consisting of oleic acid and two homologous, yet functionally different, proteins with cytotoxic activities against mammalian cells, with HAMLET showing higher tumor cells specificity, possibly due to the difference in propensity for oleic acid binding, as HAMLET binds 5-8 oleic acid molecules per protein molecule and ELOA binds 11-48 oleic acids. HAMLET has been shown to possess bactericidal activity against a number of bacterial species, particularly those with a respiratory tropism, with Streptococcus pneumoniae displaying the greatest degree of sensitivity. We show here that ELOA also displays bactericidal activity against pneumococci, which at lower concentrations shows mechanistic similarities to HAMLET's bactericidal activity. ELOA binds to S. pneumoniae and causes perturbations of the plasma membrane, including depolarization and subsequent rupture, and activates an influx of calcium into the cells. Selective inhibition of calcium channels and sodium/calcium exchange activity significantly diminished ELOA's bactericidal activity, similar to what we have observed with HAMLET. Finally, ELOA-induced death was also accompanied by DNA fragmentation into high molecular weight fragments - an apoptosis-like morphological phenotype that is seen during HAMLET-induced death. Thus, in contrast to different mechanisms of eukaryote cell death induced by ELOA and HAMLET, these complexes are characterized by rather similar activities towards bacteria. Although the majority of these events could be mimicked using oleic acid alone, the concentrations of oleic acid required were significantly higher than those present in the ELOA complex, and for some assays, the results were not identical between oleic acid alone and the ELOA complex. This indicates that the lipid, as a common denominator in both complexes, is an important component for the complexes' bactericidal activities, while the proteins are required both to solubilize

  5. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Bactericidal and Antimycotic Activities against Oral Microbes

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Luis, Osvelia E.; Hernandez-Delgadillo, Rene; Sánchez-Nájera, Rosa Isela; Martínez-Castañón, Gabriel Alejandro; Niño-Martínez, Nereyda; Sánchez Navarro, María del Carmen; Ruiz, Facundo; Cabral-Romero, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a new discipline with huge applications including medicine and pharmacology industries. Although several methods and reducing agents have been employed to synthesize silver nanoparticles, reactive chemicals promote toxicity and nondesired effects on the human and biological systems. The objective of this work was to synthesize silver nanoparticles from Glycyrrhiza glabra and Amphipterygium adstringens extracts and determine their bactericidal and antimycotic activities again...

  6. Characterization and Activity of an Immobilized Antimicrobial Peptide Containing Bactericidal PEG-Hydrogel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleophas, Rik T. C.; Sjollema, Jelmer; Busscher, Henk J.; Kruijtzer, John A. W.; Liskamp, Rob M. J.

    2014-01-01

    A single step immobilization-polymerization strategy of a highly active antimicrobial peptide into a soft hydrogel network on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) surface using thiol-ene chemistry is described. The bactericidal hydrogel was molecularly characterized via Coomassie and Lowry assay protein s

  7. The bactericidal activity of a teat dip containing chlorhexidine and cetrimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J S; Morant, S V; Bramley, A J

    1977-11-19

    Using an in vivo test on teat skin the disinfectant activity of a teat dip containing chlorhexidine and cetrimide was compared with two iodophor solutions, one containing the recommended concentration of 0.5 per cent available iodine and the other a 10-fold dilution of this (0.05 per cent iodine). The test organisms used were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and for both species the 0.5 per cent iodophor was significantly more bactericidal than either the diluted iodophor or the chlorhexidine/cetrimide teat dip (P less than 0.01). In the test against S aureus, chlorhexidine/cetrimide and the 0.05 per cent iodophor showed similar bactericidal activity, but the iodophor was significantly more bactericidal against E coli (P less than 0.01). It is argued that due to its low bactericidal activity this formulation of chlorhexidine/cetrimide is likely to be inferior to 0.5 per cent iodophor solution as a disinfectant teat dip. PMID:339477

  8. Early Bactericidal Activity of Moxifloxacin in Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis: a Prospective, Randomized Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pletz, Mathias W. R.; De Roux, Andres; Roth, Andreas; NEUMANN, Karl-Heinz; Mauch, Harald; Lode, Hartmut

    2004-01-01

    Moxifloxacin is the most active fluoroquinolone against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro. However, data about the efficacy in patients are not available. We enrolled 17 patients with tuberculosis in a prospective, randomized study. After 5 days of monotherapy with either moxifloxacin or isoniazid, we detected significant decreases in mean CFU per milliliter in sputum in both groups. The calculated early bactericidal activities for isoniazid and moxifloxacin were 0.209 and 0.273 log10 CFU p...

  9. Bactericidal Activity of Multiple Combinations of Tigecycline and Colistin against NDM-1-Producing Enterobacteriaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Albur, Mahableshwar; Noel, Alan; Bowker, Karen; MacGowan, Alasdair

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between colistin and tigecycline against eight well-characterized NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains was studied. Time-kill methodology was employed using a 4-by-4 exposure matrix with pharmacokinetically achievable free drug peak, trough, and average 24-h serum concentrations. Colistin sulfate and methanesulfonate alone showed good early bactericidal activity, often with subsequent regrowth. Tigecycline alone had poor activity. Addition of tigecycline to colistin does...

  10. Differential complement activation and susceptibility to human serum bactericidal action by Vibrio species.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    The ability of Vibrio vulnificus to resist human serum bactericidal action and to activate human complement was compared with similar cultures of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Both V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus had similar survival rates in sera and were much more resistant to killing than was V. cholerae. In contrast, V. vulnificus activated significantly less serum complement than did V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus. The relative ability of V. vulnificus to surviv...

  11. In vitro bactericidal activities of Japanese rice-fluid against Helicobacter pylori strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Kawakami, Kozue Oana, Masayoshi Hayama, Hiroyoshi Ota, Masahiko Takeuchi, Kazuhiro Miyashita, Tsunetomo Matsuzawa, Kiyomi Kanaya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori has now been widely recognized as a causative agent of gastroduodenal diseases. The development of safer anti- H. pylori compounds is desirable due to the antibiotic-resistant strains emerged to date. Methods: We successfully developed the compounds of Rice-fluid derived from unpolished, polished, and usually cooked Japanese rice, and investigated their in vitro antibacterial activities by means of the Time-Kill-Curve methods against various species of bacteria including H. pylori strains. Results: All of the compounds revealed keen bactericidal activities against H. pylori, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Campylobacter jejuni strains, but failed to affect the viability of other bacterial species investigated including staphylococci, enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and other gram-negative rods belonging to the family Enterobacteraceae. The bactericidal activities were demonstrated to be time- and concentration-dependent. Conclusions: The compounds of Rice-fluid are considered to be potentially new and safe therapeutic regimens against H. pylori infections. The mechanism of their bactericidal activities against H. pylori strains remains to be elucidated.

  12. Bactericidal Activity of Some Lichen Secondary Compounds of Cladonia ochrochlora , Parmotrema nilgherrensis & Parmotrema sancti-angelii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERMA NEERAJ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, bactericidal potential of some lichen secondary compounds has been presented. Three lichen species namely Cladonia ochrochlora, Parmotrema nilgherrensis and Parmotrema sancti-angelii were successively fractionated in various organic solvents nhexane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. The ethyl acetate fraction (10 μg/ml of these lichen species showed promised bactericidal activity and the order of the activity of lichen species were found as P. nilgherrensis > P. sanctiangelii > C. ochrochlora. Seven lichen secondary compounds alectoronic acid, atranorin, $-collatolic acid, fumarprotocetraric acid, hypoprotocetraric acid, lecanoric acid and protocetraric acid isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of above lichen species demonstrated moderate to strong bactericidal activity with low MIC value; alectoronic acid showed MIC 21.9 μg to 162.1 μg/ml, atranorin (5 μg - 70.7 μg/ml, $-collatolic acid (8.6 μg - 245 μg/ml, fumarprotocetraric acid (24 μg - 227.3 μg/ml, hypoprotocetraric acid (12.2 μg - 278.5 μg/ml, lecanoric acid (24.6 μg - 591.7 μg/ml, protocetraric acid (18.7 μg - 740.7 μg/ml. These secondary compounds were found most effective to kill microorganisms within a period of 0 hrs to 6 hrs incubation as evident from the kinetic time kill assay study. As far as the stability of the lichen compounds for the observed activity, it was found that these compounds were stable at 4oC without loosing their bactericidal potential.

  13. Bactericidal activity of high voltage pulsed current (HVPC in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer, Axel

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The positive effect of electrical stimulation (ES on wound healing has been shown in vitro and in vivo. Based on increased blood flow, protein denaturation and stimulation of cellular defence, an antibacterial effect of ES is to be expected. Although the antibacterial effect of ES already has been demonstrated in vitro, little attention has been paid to the direct antibacterial effect of changing polarity of the applied current. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effect of positive and negative monophasic high voltage pulsed current (HVPV on typical gram positive and gram negative pathogens of chronic wounds.Using the WoundEL®-System, three gram negative (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and three gram positive (S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. faecium organisms were tested against positive and negative polarity HVPV. All tested organisms were significantly (P < 0.01 reduced by ES. The reduction differed significantly (P = 0.02 between positive and negative polarity, with the highest log10 RF achieved with positive polarity. Using positive polarity, the maximum RF was measured for Escherichia coli (median log10 RF 0.83; 25th percentile 0.59, 75th percentile 0.98, the lowest for Staphylococcus epidermidis (median log10 RF 0.20; 25th percentile 0.17, 75th percentile 0.24. Yet, there was no significant difference with positive ES against gram positive (P = 0.35 or gram negative (P = 0.71 organisms.

  14. Direct Comparison of Xpert MTB/RIF Assay with Liquid and Solid Mycobacterial Culture for Quantification of Early Bactericidal Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kayigire, Xavier A.; Friedrich, Sven O.; Venter, Amour; Dawson, Rodney; Gillespie, Stephen Henry; Boeree, Martin J.; Heinrich, Norbert; Hoelscher, Michael; Diacon, Andreas H.

    2013-01-01

    The early bactericidal activity of antituberculosis agents is usually determined by measuring the reduction of the sputum mycobacterial load over time on solid agar medium or in liquid culture. This study investigated the value of a quantitative PCR assay for early bactericidal activity determination. Groups of 15 patients were treated with 6 different antituberculosis agents or regimens. Patients collected sputum for 16 h overnight at baseline and at days 7 and 14 after treatment initiation....

  15. Comprehensive bactericidal activity of an ethanol-based hand gel in 15 seconds

    OpenAIRE

    Kampf Günter; Hollingsworth Angela

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Some studies indicate that the commonly recommended 30 s application time for the post contamination treatment of hands may not be necessary as the same effect may be achieved with some formulations in a shorter application time such as 15 s. Method We evaluated the bactericidal activity of an ethanol-based hand gel (Sterillium® Comfort Gel) within 15 s in a time-kill-test against 11 Gram-positive, 16 Gram-negative bacteria and 11 emerging bacterial pathogens. Each strain ...

  16. Potential role of autophagy in the bactericidal activity of human PMNs for Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Girish; Gade, Padmaja; Tsai, Pei; Lu, Wuyuan; Kalvakolanu, Dhananjaya V; Rosen, Gerald M; Cross, Alan S

    2015-12-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is acquired by mammalian hosts from the environment, as quiescent endospores. These endospores must germinate inside host cells, forming vegetative bacilli, before they can express the virulence factors that enable them to evade host defenses and disseminate throughout the body. While the role of macrophages and dendritic cells in this initial interaction has been established, the role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) has not been adequately defined. We discovered that while B. anthracis 34F2 Sterne endospores germinate poorly within non-activated human PMNs, these phagocytes exhibit rapid microbicidal activity toward the outgrown vegetative bacilli, independent of superoxide and nitric oxide. These findings suggest that a non-free radical pathway kills B. anthracis bacilli. We also find in PMNs an autophagic mechanism of bacterial killing based on the rapid induction of LC-3 conversion, beclin-1 expression, sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) degradation and inhibition of bactericidal activity by the inhibitor, 3-methyladenine. These findings extend to PMNs an autophagic bactericidal mechanism previously described for other phagocytes. PMID:26424808

  17. Superior bactericidal activity of SDS capped silver nanoparticles: Synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized through UV photo-reduction of silver nitrate aqueous solution, containing ethanol and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) using an UV digester equipped with high pressure mercury lamp of 500 W. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy (UV-vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed from the appearance of surface plasmon absorption maxima at 418 nm. TEM showed the spherical nanoparticles with size in 23-67 nm (average 45 ± 10 nm). The silver nanoparticles were stable for more than 8 months. The antibacterial activity of these SDS capped silver nanoparticles was tested using Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a model strain for gram-negative bacteria. SDS capped silver nanoparticles exhibit a much higher bactericidal activity compared to silver nanoparticles capped with other capping agents. Even at a low silver nanoparticle concentration of 5 μg/ml, complete inhibition of 107 colony forming units (CFU) was achieved with SDS capped silver nanoparticles. This concentration is much lower than the values reported by other authors. This enhanced bactericidal activity is attributed to much efficient transport of silver nanoparticles by SDS to the outer membrane of cell wall compared to the other capping agents and have a better interaction of nanoparticles with the cell.

  18. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Bactericidal and Antimycotic Activities against Oral Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvelia E. Rodríguez-Luis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a new discipline with huge applications including medicine and pharmacology industries. Although several methods and reducing agents have been employed to synthesize silver nanoparticles, reactive chemicals promote toxicity and nondesired effects on the human and biological systems. The objective of this work was to synthesize silver nanoparticles from Glycyrrhiza glabra and Amphipterygium adstringens extracts and determine their bactericidal and antimycotic activities against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans growth, respectively. 1 and 10 mM silver nitrate were mixed with an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Amphipterygium adstringens. Green silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were characterized by TEM, Vis-NIR, FTIR, fluorescence, DLS, TGA, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. Bactericidal and antimycotic activities of AgNPs were determined by Kirby and Bauer method and cell viability MTT assays. AgNPs showed a spherical shape and average size of 9 nm if prepared with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract and 3 nm if prepared with Amphipterygium adstringens extract. AgNPs inhibited the bacterial and fungal growth as was expected, without a significant cytotoxic effect on human epithelial cells. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that AgNPs could be an interesting option to control oral biofilms.

  19. Understanding bactericidal performance on ambient light activated TiO2-InVO4 nanostructured films

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ziming; Xu, Qingchi; Yang Tan, Timothy Thatt

    2011-12-01

    TiO2-InVO4 nanostructured films were coated onto glass substrates and systematically investigated for their bactericidal activities using Escherichia coli (E. coli) as the model bacterium under ambient light illumination. The uniform TiO2-InVO4 nanostructured films were prepared using titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) as the precursor via a simple sol-gel approach. Polyethylenimine (PEI) was used as a surfactant to ensure uniform dispersion of InVO4 and a sacrificial pore-inducing agent, generating nanostructured films. Compared to unmodified TiO2 film, the current TiO2-InVO4 films exhibited enhanced bactericidal activities under ambient light illumination. Bacterial cell ``photo-fixation'' was demonstrated to be crucial in enhancing the bactericidal activity. A bacterial-nanostructured surface interaction mechanism was proposed for the current ambient-light activated nanostructured film.TiO2-InVO4 nanostructured films were coated onto glass substrates and systematically investigated for their bactericidal activities using Escherichia coli (E. coli) as the model bacterium under ambient light illumination. The uniform TiO2-InVO4 nanostructured films were prepared using titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) as the precursor via a simple sol-gel approach. Polyethylenimine (PEI) was used as a surfactant to ensure uniform dispersion of InVO4 and a sacrificial pore-inducing agent, generating nanostructured films. Compared to unmodified TiO2 film, the current TiO2-InVO4 films exhibited enhanced bactericidal activities under ambient light illumination. Bacterial cell ``photo-fixation'' was demonstrated to be crucial in enhancing the bactericidal activity. A bacterial-nanostructured surface interaction mechanism was proposed for the current ambient-light activated nanostructured film. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Photocatalytic activity test procedure and results, AFM images, EDX results, LSCM images, and wettability results. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr11126d

  20. Shape-dependent bactericidal activity of copper oxide nanoparticle mediated by DNA and membrane damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Spherical and sheet shaped copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized. • Physical characterizations of these nanoparticles were done by TEM, DLS, XRD, FTIR. • They showed shape dependent antibacterial activity on different bacterial strain. • They induced both membrane damage and ROS mediated DNA damage in bacteria. - Abstract: In this work, we synthesized spherical and sheet shaped copper oxide nanoparticles and their physical characterizations were done by the X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles was determined on both gram positive and gram negative bacterial. Spherical shaped copper oxide nanoparticles showed more antibacterial property on gram positive bacteria where as sheet shaped copper oxide nanoparticles are more active on gram negative bacteria. We also demonstrated that copper oxide nanoparticles produced reactive oxygen species in both gram negative and gram positive bacteria. Furthermore, they induced membrane damage as determined by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Thus production of and membrane damage are major mechanisms of the bactericidal activity of these copper oxide nanoparticles. Finally it was concluded that antibacterial activity of nanoparticles depend on physicochemical properties of copper oxide nanoparticles and bacterial strain

  1. Postantibiotic effect assessments for antibiotics exhibiting a wide range of bactericidal activities by using a modified total-cell-counting method.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, R. C.; S.W. Lee

    1997-01-01

    We recently described a total-cell-counting method for postantibiotic effect (PAE) assessments that performs well with weakly bactericidal antibiotics. This note presents a modified method for the study of PAE with extended capability to cover a broad range of bactericidal activities.

  2. Bactericidal activity does not predict sterilizing activity: the case of rifapentine in the murine model of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak V Almeida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 2004, treatment of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease, or Buruli ulcer, has shifted from surgery to daily treatment with streptomycin (STR + rifampin (RIF for 8 weeks. For shortening treatment duration, we tested the potential of daily rifapentine (RPT, a long-acting rifamycin derivative, as a substitute for RIF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BALB/c mice were infected with M. ulcerans in the right hind footpad and treated either daily (7/7 with STR+RIF or five days/week (5/7 with STR+RIF or STR+RPT for 4 weeks, beginning 28 days after infection when CFU counts were 4.88±0.51. The relative efficacy of the drug treatments was compared by footpad CFU counts during treatment and median time to footpad swelling after treatment cessation as measure of sterilizing activity. All drug treatments were bactericidal. After 1 week of treatment, the decline in CFU counts was significantly greater in treated mice but not different between the three treated groups. After 2 weeks of treatment, the decline in CFU was greater in mice treated with STR+RPT 5/7 than in mice treated with STR+RIF 7/7 and STR+RIF 5/7. After 3 and 4 weeks of treatment, CFU counts were nil in mice treated with STR+RPT and reduced by more than 3 and 4 logs in mice treated with STR+RIF 5/7 and STR+RIF 7/7, respectively. In sharp contrast to the bactericidal activity, the sterilizing activity was not different between all drug regimens although it was in proportion to the treatment duration. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The better bactericidal activity of daily STR+RIF and especially of STR+RPT did not translate into better prevention of relapse, possibly because relapse-freecure after treatment of Buruli ulcer is more related to the reversal of mycolactone-induced local immunodeficiency by drug treatment rather than to the bactericidal potency of drugs.

  3. Effect of influenza infection on the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of pulmonary macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of mouse-adapted influenza A/PR/8/34 virus on pulmonary macrophage function was evaluated by using an in vitro system which allowed direct virus interaction with macrophages and then separate analysis of the steps required for bacterial clearance by macrophages. Infection of macrophages with this virus resulted in the appearance of a hemagglutinating activity on the macrophage surface; expression of this activity was inhibited by amantadine, 2-deoxyglucose, and cycloheximide and by pretreatment of the virus inoculum with with ultraviolet light and specific antiserum. After influenza infection, net ingestion of viable Staphylococcus aureus by macrophage monolayers was unaltered and there was no change in the fraction of the monolayer which ingested cocci over a wide range of bacterial inputs. Influenza-infected microphages also inactivated intracellular S. aureus at a rate indistinguishable from controls. Therefore, these in vitro studies do not support the hypothesis that the defect in pulmonary antibacterial mechanisms associated with influenza infections results from a direct effect of virus infection on either the phagocytic or bactericidal activity of resistant pulmonary macarophages

  4. Antibiotic Bactericidal Activity Is Countered by Maintaining pH Homeostasis in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartek, I L; Reichlen, M J; Honaker, R W; Leistikow, R L; Clambey, E T; Scobey, M S; Hinds, A B; Born, S E; Covey, C R; Schurr, M J; Lenaerts, A J; Voskuil, M I

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics target specific biosynthetic processes essential for bacterial growth. It is intriguing that several commonalities connect the bactericidal activity of seemingly disparate antibiotics, such as the numerous conditions that confer broad-spectrum antibiotic tolerance. Whether antibiotics kill in a manner unique to their specific targets or by a universal mechanism is a critical and contested subject. Herein, we demonstrate that the bactericidal activity of diverse antibiotics against Mycobacterium smegmatis and four evolutionarily divergent bacterial pathogens was blocked by conditions that worked to maintain intracellular pH homeostasis. Single-cell pH analysis demonstrated that antibiotics increased the cytosolic pH of M. smegmatis, while conditions that promoted proton entry into the cytosol prevented intracellular alkalization and antibiotic killing. These findings led to a hypothesis that posits antibiotic lethality occurs when antibiotics obstruct ATP-consuming biosynthetic processes while metabolically driven proton efflux is sustained despite the loss of proton influx via ATP synthase. Consequently, without a concomitant reduction in respiratory proton efflux, cell death occurs due to intracellular alkalization. Our findings indicate the effects of antibiotics on pH homeostasis should be considered a potential mechanism contributing to antibiotic lethality. IMPORTANCE Since the discovery of antibiotics, mortality due to bacterial infection has decreased dramatically. However, infections from difficult to treat bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant pathogens have been on the rise. An understanding of the cascade of events that leads to cell death downstream of specific drug-target interactions is not well understood. We have discovered that killing by several classes of antibiotics was stopped by maintaining pH balance within the bacterial cell, consistent with a shared mechanism of antibiotic killing. Our findings

  5. In vitro bactericidal and fungicidal activities of various extracts of saffron (Crocus sativus L. stigmas from Jammu & Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Muzaffar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activities of methanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Croccus sativus L. (saffron stigmas, were tested against various bacterial strains (Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus by agar well diffusion method. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentration values of each active extract were also determined. The results showed a strong activity of the petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of saffron stigmas against bacteria and fungi used as test organisms. The results of different antimicrobial assays also indicate that the extracts had significantly higher bactericidal than fungicidal activities (p < 0.05. The results suggest that these extracts can be used in pharmaceutical and food formulations for inhibiting pathogenic bacterial and fungal species.

  6. Biosynthesis and recovery of rod-shaped tellurium nanoparticles and their bactericidal activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zare, Bijan; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Sepehrizadeh, Zargham [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6451 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakibaie, Mojtaba [Department of Pharmacognosy and Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutics Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 76175-493 Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaie, Sassan [Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza, E-mail: shahverd@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6451 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Biosynthesis of rod shape tellurium nanoparticles with a hexagonal crystal structure. ► Extraction procedure for isolation of tellurium nanoparticles from Bacillus sp. BZ. ► Extracted tellurium nanoparticles have good bactericidal activity against some bacteria. -- Abstract: In this study, a tellurium-transforming Bacillus sp. BZ was isolated from the Caspian Sea in northern Iran. The isolate was identified by various tests and 16S rDNA analysis, and then used to prepare elemental tellurium nanoparticles. The isolate was subsequently used for the intracellular biosynthesis of elemental tellurium nanoparticles. The biogenic nanoparticles were released by liquid nitrogen and purified by an n-octyl alcohol water extraction system. The shape, size, and composition of the extracted nanoparticles were characterized. The transmission electron micrograph showed rod-shaped nanoparticles with dimensions of about 20 nm × 180 nm. The energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction spectra respectively demonstrated that the extracted nanoparticles consisted of only tellurium and have a hexagonal crystal structure. This is the first study to demonstrate a biological method for synthesizing rod-shaped elemental tellurium by a Bacillus sp., its extraction and its antibacterial activity against different clinical isolates.

  7. Antibodies with higher bactericidal activity induced by a Neisseria gonorrhoeae Rmp deletion mutant strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guocai Li

    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae outer membrane protein reduction modifiable protein (Rmp has strong immunogenicity. However, anti-Rmp antibodies block rather than preserve the antibacterial effects of protective antibodies, which hampers the development of vaccines for gonococcal infections. We herein constructed an Rmp deletion mutant strain of N. gonorrhoeae by gene homologous recombination. The 261-460 nucleotide residues of Rmp gene amplified from N. gonorrhoeae WHO-A strain were replaced with a kanamycin-resistant Kan gene amplified from pET-28a. The resultant hybridized DNA was transformed into N. gonorrhoeae WHO-A strain. PCR was used to screen the colonies in which wild-type Rmp gene was replaced with a mutant gene fragment. Western blotting revealed that the Rmp deletion mutant strain did not express Rmp protein. Rmp deletion did not alter the morphological and Gram staining properties of the mutant strain that grew slightly more slowly than the wild-type one. Rmp gene mutated stably throughout 25 generations of passage. Antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay indicated that the antibodies induced by the mutant strain had evidently higher bactericidal activities than those induced by the wild-type strain. Further modification of the Rmp deletion mutant strain is still required in the development of novel live attenuated vaccines for gonorrhea by Opa genes deletion or screening of phenotypic variant strains that do not express Opa proteins.

  8. Radioiodinated DPA-713 imaging correlates with bactericidal activity of tuberculosis treatments in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Alvaro A; Pokkali, Supriya; DeMarco, Vincent P; Klunk, Mariah; Mease, Ronnie C; Foss, Catherine A; Pomper, Martin G; Jain, Sanjay K

    2015-01-01

    Current tools for monitoring response to tuberculosis treatments have several limitations. Noninvasive biomarkers could accelerate tuberculosis drug development and clinical studies, but to date little progress has been made in developing new imaging technologies for this application. In this study, we developed pulmonary single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using radioiodinated DPA-713 to serially monitor the activity of tuberculosis treatments in live mice, which develop necrotic granulomas and cavitary lesions. C3HeB/FeJ mice were aerosol infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and administered either a standard or a highly active bedaquiline-containing drug regimen. Serial (125)I-DPA-713 SPECT imaging was compared with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and standard microbiology. Ex vivo studies were performed to characterize and correlate DPA-713 imaging with cellular and cytokine responses. Pulmonary (125)I-DPA-713 SPECT, but not (18)F-FDG PET, was able to correctly identify the bactericidal activities of the two tuberculosis treatments as early as 4 weeks after the start of treatment (P < 0.03). DPA-713 readily penetrated the fibrotic rims of necrotic and cavitary lesions. A time-dependent decrease in both tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels was observed with treatments, with (125)I-DPA-713 SPECT correlating best with tissue TNF-α levels (ρ = 0.94; P < 0.01). (124)I-DPA-713 was also evaluated as a PET probe and demonstrated a 4.0-fold-higher signal intensity in the infected tuberculous lesions than uninfected controls (P = 0.03). These studies provide proof of concept for application of a novel noninvasive imaging biomarker to monitor tuberculosis treatments, with the potential for application for humans. PMID:25403669

  9. A Bayesian Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Regression Model for the Characterization of Early Bactericidal Activity of Tuberculosis Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Divan Aristo; Schall, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Trials of the early bactericidal activity (EBA) of tuberculosis (TB) treatments assess the decline, during the first few days to weeks of treatment, in colony forming unit (CFU) count of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the sputum of patients with smear-microscopy-positive pulmonary TB. Profiles over time of CFU data have conventionally been modeled using linear, bilinear, or bi-exponential regression. We propose a new biphasic nonlinear regression model for CFU data that comprises linear and bi...

  10. Comparison of Methods for Evaluation of the Bactericidal Activity of Copper-Sputtered Surfaces against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Rio, Laura; Kusiak-Nejman, Ewelina; Kiwi, John; Betrisey, Bertrand; Pulgarin, Cesar; Trampuz, Andrej; Bizzini, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria can survive on hospital textiles and surfaces, from which they can be disseminated, representing a source of health care-associated infections (HCAIs). Surfaces containing copper (Cu), which is known for its bactericidal properties, could be an efficient way to lower the burden of potential pathogens. The antimicrobial activity of Cu-sputtered polyester surfaces, obtained by direct-current magnetron sputtering (DCMS), against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was tes...

  11. Bactericidal activity under UV and visible light of cotton fabrics coated with anthraquinone-sensitized TiO2

    KAUST Repository

    Rahal, Raed

    2013-06-01

    This study describes a method derived from ISO/TC 206/SC specifications to assess the bactericidal activity against a bacterial strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens, of various photocatalytic fabrics, under UVA and filtered visible light. The experimental method allowed the accurate quantification of bacteria survival on photoactive surfaces and films under UVA and UV-free visible irradiation. Cotton fabrics coated with TiO2, anthraquinone or anthraquinone-sensitized TiO2 display a significant bactericidal efficiency. TiO2-coated fabrics are very efficient against P. fluorescens after 4 h UVA irradiation (bacteria survival below the detection limit). Under UVA-free visible light, anthraquinone-sensitized TiO2 coated fabrics induced a significant bactericidal activity after 2 h irradiation, while anthraquinone alone-coated fabrics were not as efficient and TiO2 coated fabrics were almost inefficient. These results show that although exhibiting a weak n-π* band in the 350-420 nm range, anthraquinone is a good candidate as an efficient visible light photosensitizer. A synergy effect between anthraquinone and TiO2 was demonstrated. A possible reaction mechanism, involving a synergy effect for singlet oxygen formation with anthraquinone-sensitized TiO2 is proposed to account for these results. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The bactericidal activity of β-lactam antibiotics is increased by metabolizable sugar species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsing, Mette; Bentin, Thomas; Givskov, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    establishing sugar metabolism as an important factor influencing the bactericidal outcome of β-lactam treatment. Interestingly, the effect of sugar on β-lactam susceptibility was suppressed in a strain unable to synthesize the nutrient stress alarmone (p)ppGpp. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we...

  13. Bactericidal Activity of Quinupristin-Dalfopristin against Staphylococcus aureus: Clindamycin Susceptibility as a Surrogate Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Peter C.; Barry, Arthur L.; Brown, Steven D.

    2000-01-01

    Of 516 Staphylococcus aureus strains tested, 97.1% were susceptible to quinupristin-dalfopristin, which was bactericidal for 22 (56%) of the 39 strains tested, comparable to vancomycin. All 17 clindamycin and macrolide-resistant strains were inhibited but not killed by quinupristin-dalfopristin, whereas all 22 clindamycin-susceptible strains (5 were macrolide resistant) were killed.

  14. In-vitro bactericidal activity of maggots of the green blowfly (Lucilia sericata)

    OpenAIRE

    Daeschlein, Georg; Hoffmeister, Britta; Below, Harald; Kramer, Axel

    2006-01-01

    Maggots of Lucilia sericata are used as an alternative to surgical intervention and long-term antiseptic therapy for the treatment of chronic wounds. To quantify the bactericidal effect of secretions from larvae, an in-vitro test model based on the modified European quantitative suspension test (EN 1040) was developed, in which a co-culture of maggots and bacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus) in tryptic soy broth was tested. The numbers o...

  15. Verapamil Increases the Bactericidal Activity of Bedaquiline against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Shashank; Tyagi, Sandeep; Bishai, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Bedaquiline is a newly approved drug for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, but there are concerns about its safety in humans. We found that the coadministration of verapamil with subinhibitory doses of bedaquiline gave the same bactericidal effect in mice as did the full human bioequivalent bedaquiline dosing. Adding verapamil to bedaquiline monotherapy also protected against the development of resistant mutants in vivo. The adjunctive use of verapamil may permit use of lower...

  16. Recombinant Bactericidal/Permeability-Increasing Protein (rBPI21) in Combination with Sulfadiazine Is Active against Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Anis A.; Lambert, Lewis H.; Remington, Jack S.; Araujo, Fausto G.

    1999-01-01

    The activity of recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21), alone or in combination with sulfadiazine, on the intracellular replication of Toxoplasma gondii was assessed in vitro and in mice with acute toxoplasmosis. rBPI21 markedly inhibited the intracellular growth of T. gondii in human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs). Following 72 h of exposure, the 50% inhibitory concentration of rBPI21 for T. gondii was 2.6 μg/ml, whereas only slight cytotoxicity for HFF cells was obse...

  17. In vitro and in vivo bactericidal activity of Vitex negundo leaf extract against diverse multidrug resistant enteric bacterial pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Kamruzzaman; S.M. Nayeemul Bari; Shah M. Faruque

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in vitro and in vivo antibacterial potentials of Vitex negundo (V. negundo) leaf extracts against diverse enteric pathogens. Methods: Water and methanol extracts of V. negundo leaves were evaluated against enteric bacterial pathogens by using standard disc diffusion, viable bacterial cell count methods, determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC). Results: Methanol extract of V. negundo leaves showed potent antibacterial activity (inhibition zone: 9.9-22.6 mm, MIC:200-3 200 μg/mL, MBC: 200-6 400 μg/mL) against all the pathogenic enteric bacteria (Vibriocholerae , Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio mimicus, Echerichia coli, Shigella spps., and Aeromonas spps) tested. Methanol extract of V. negundo leaves showed potent bactericidal activity both in vitro laboratory conditions (MBC, 200-400 μg/mL) and in the intestinal environment (Dose, 1-2 mg/mL) of infant mice against pathogenic Vibrio cholerae, the major causative agent of cholera. Furthermore, assays using the mice cholera model showed that V. negundo methanol extract can protect mice from Vibrio cholerae infection and significantly decrease the mortality rate (P<0.0001). Conclusions: For the first time we showed that methanol extract of V. negundo leaves exhibited strong vibriocidal activity both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore, it will be useful to identify and isolate the active compounds of this extract that could be a good alternative of antibiotics to treat cholera.

  18. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford E. Starliper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02–0.04% were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5% of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate.

  19. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, Clifford E; Ketola, Henry G; Noyes, Andrew D; Schill, William B; Henson, Fred G; Chalupnicki, Marc A; Dittman, Dawn E

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC's) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02-0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate. PMID:25685547

  20. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Ketolab, Henry G.; Noyes, Andrew D.; Schill, William B.; Henson, Fred G.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments for captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine if selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s) were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum) and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBC’s (0.02 to 0.04%) were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBC’s for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14 to 0.30% and 0.10 to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11 and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5%) of Allimed® tested resulted in MBC’s to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBC’s for all but one isolate

  1. Bactericidal activity of moxifloxacin against multidrug-resistant Streptoccocus pneumoniae at clinically achievable serum and epithelial lining fluid concentrations compared with three other antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafini, Fabio; Alou, Luis; Sevillano, David; Valero, Eva; Prieto, José

    2004-10-01

    Time-kill studies compared the activities of moxifloxacin with those of levofloxacin, azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate against 10 pneumococcal strains with various drug susceptibilities. Three Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were resistant to moxifloxacin: 6, 7 and 2 strains were resistant to levofloxacin, azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively. Of these, 1 strain was resistant to all antimicrobial agents studied. Moxifloxacin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were bactericidal after 24h at serum Cmax levels against 9 and 8 strains, respectively, while levofloxacin and azithromycin were bactericidal against 3 and 2 strains, respectively. A higher activity was only observed for amoxicillin-clavulanate for logarithmic phase cultures at 1, 4 and 8h compared with stationary phase organisms. Amoxicillin-clavulanate and moxifloxacin were bactericidal at free serum levels (protein unbound) after 24h against 8 and 3 strains, respectively. Moxifloxacin was bactericidal at epithelial lining fluid levels against all strains at 24h, including one moxifloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and azithromycin-resistant strain; lower levels of bactericidal activity was observed for levofloxacin, azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate against 7, 2 and 4 strains, respectively. This demonstrated the importance of moxifloxacin tissue levels. PMID:15380257

  2. In-vitro bactericidal activity of maggots of the green blowfly (Lucilia sericata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeschlein, Georg

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Maggots of Lucilia sericata are used as an alternative to surgical intervention and long-term antiseptic therapy for the treatment of chronic wounds. To quantify the bactericidal effect of secretions from larvae, an in-vitro test model based on the modified European quantitative suspension test (EN 1040 was developed, in which a co-culture of maggots and bacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus in tryptic soy broth was tested. The numbers of bacterial colonies with and without maggot exposure were compared after 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure. The mean log10 reduction factor (RF for bacterial elimination per maggot was > 4 at all examined times for all tested bacteria. Thus, maggot secretion fulfilled the required definitions of an antiseptic. In addition, maggot's ability of ingesting bacteria was also evaluated. Maggots contained viable bacteria after 48 h of contact with the respective organisms. These maggots also continued excreting bacteria.

  3. Aging Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species and Bactericidal Activity in Peritoneal Macrophages by Upregulating Classical Activation Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, Heather S.; López-Ferrer, Daniel; Squier, Thomas C.

    2011-10-07

    Maintenance of macrophages in their basal state and their rapid activation in response to pathogen detection are central to the innate immune system, acting to limit nonspecific oxidative damage and promote pathogen killing following infection. To identify possible age-related alterations in macrophage function, we have assayed the function of peritoneal macrophages from young (3–4 months) and aged (14–15 months) Balb/c mice. In agreement with prior suggestions, we observe age-dependent increases in the extent of recruitment of macrophages into the peritoneum, as well as ex vivo functional changes involving enhanced nitric oxide production under resting conditions that contribute to a reduction in the time needed for full activation of senescent macrophages following exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Further, we observe enhanced bactericidal activity following Salmonella uptake by macrophages isolated from aged Balb/c mice in comparison with those isolated from young animals. Pathways responsible for observed phenotypic changes were interrogated using tandem mass spectrometry, which identified age-dependent increases in levels of proteins linked to immune cell pathways under basal conditions and following LPS activation. Immune pathways upregulated in macrophages isolated from aged mice include proteins critical to the formation of the immunoproteasome. Detection of these latter proteins is dramatically enhanced following LPS exposure for macrophages isolated from aged animals; in comparison, the identification of immunoproteasome subunits is insensitive to LPS exposure for macrophages isolated from young animals. Consistent with observed global changes in the proteome, quantitative proteomic measurements indicate that there are age-dependent abundance changes involving specific proteins linked to immune cell function under basal conditions. LPS exposure selectively increases the levels of many proteins involved in immune cell function in aged Balb/c mice

  4. Comparison of methods for evaluation of the bactericidal activity of copper-sputtered surfaces against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Laura; Kusiak-Nejman, Ewelina; Kiwi, John; Bétrisey, Bertrand; Pulgarin, César; Trampuz, Andrej; Bizzini, Alain

    2012-12-01

    Bacteria can survive on hospital textiles and surfaces, from which they can be disseminated, representing a source of health care-associated infections (HCAIs). Surfaces containing copper (Cu), which is known for its bactericidal properties, could be an efficient way to lower the burden of potential pathogens. The antimicrobial activity of Cu-sputtered polyester surfaces, obtained by direct-current magnetron sputtering (DCMS), against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was tested. The Cu-polyester microstructure was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy to determine the microstructure of the Cu nanoparticles and by profilometry to assess the thickness of the layers. Sputtering at 300 mA for 160 s led to a Cu film thickness of 20 nm (100 Cu layers) containing 0.209% (wt/wt) polyester. The viability of MRSA strain ATCC 43300 on Cu-sputtered polyester was evaluated by four methods: (i) mechanical detachment, (ii) microcalorimetry, (iii) direct transfer onto plates, and (iv) stereomicroscopy. The low efficacy of mechanical detachment impeded bacterial viability estimations. Microcalorimetry provided only semiquantitative results. Direct transfer onto plates and stereomicroscopy seemed to be the most suitable methods to evaluate the bacterial inactivation potential of Cu-sputtered polyester surfaces, since they presented the least experimental bias. Cu-polyester samples sputtered for 160 s by DCMS were further tested against 10 clinical MRSA isolates and showed a high level of bactericidal activity, with a 4-log(10) reduction in the initial MRSA load (10(6) CFU) within 1 h. Cu-sputtered polyester surfaces might be of use to prevent the transmission of HCAI pathogens. PMID:22983970

  5. Contribution of the Autolysin AtlA to the Bactericidal Activity of Amoxicillin against Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bravetti, Anne-Lise; Mesnage, Stéphane; Lefort, Agnès; Chau, Françoise; Eckert, Catherine; Garry, Louis; Arthur, Michel; Fantin, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    The bactericidal activity of amoxicillin was investigated against Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 and against an isogenic mutant deficient in the production of the N-acetylglucosaminidase AtlA. Comparison of the two strains indicated that this autolysin contributes to killing by amoxicillin both in vitro and in a rabbit model of experimental endocarditis.

  6. Short-term storage does not affect the quantitative yield of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum in early-bactericidal-activity studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolwijck, E.; Mitchell, M.; Venter, A.; Friedrich, S.O.; Dawson, R.; Diacon, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Early-bactericidal-activity (EBA) studies measure the change in mycobacterial load in sputum over time to evaluate antituberculosis drugs. We investigated whether a delay in sputum processing influences the quantitative results of sputum mycobacterial culture. We identified pretreatment smear-positi

  7. Bactericidal activities of health-promoting,food-derived powders against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli,listeria monocytogenes, salmonella enterica,and staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the relative bactericidal activities of 10 presumed health-promoting food-based powders (nutraceuticals) and for comparison, several selected known components of such powders against the following foodborne pathogens: Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes...

  8. Enhanced bactericidal potency of nanoliposomes by modification of the fusion activity between liposomes and bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma YF

    2013-06-01

    amount of negative charges in fluid liposomes reduces fluid liposomes-bacteria fusion when tested without calcium cations due to electric repulsion, but addition of calcium cations brings the fusion level of fluid liposomes to similar or higher levels. Among the negative phospholipids examined, DMPA gave the highest degree of fusion, DMPS and DMPG had intermediate fusion levels, and PI resulted in the lowest degree of fusion. Furthermore, the fluid liposomal encapsulated tobramycin was prepared, and the bactericidal effect occurred more quickly when bacteria were cultured with liposomal encapsulated tobramycin. Conclusion: The bactericidal potency of fluid liposomes is dramatically enhanced with respect to fusion ability when the fusogenic lipid, DOPE, is included. Regardless of changes in liposome composition, fluid liposomes-bacterium fusion is universally enhanced by calcium ions. The information obtained in this study will increase our understanding of fluid liposomal action mechanisms, and help in optimizing the new generation of fluid liposomal formulations for the treatment of pulmonary bacterial infections. Keywords: liposomes, fusion, bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, lipid composition

  9. Antimicrobial activity of human α-defensin 6 analogs: insights into the physico-chemical reasons behind weak bactericidal activity of HD6 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Basil; Nagaraj, Ramakrishnan

    2015-11-01

    Human α-defensin 6 (HD6), unlike other mammalian defensins, does not exhibit bactericidal activity, particularly against aerobic bacteria. Monomeric HD6 has a tertiary structure similar to other α-defensins in the crystalline state. However, the physico-chemical reasons behind the lack of antibacterial activity of HD6 are yet to be established unequivocally. In this study, we have investigated the antimicrobial activity of HD6 analogs. A linear analog of HD6, in which the distribution of arginine residues was similar to active α-defensins, shows broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, indicating that atypical distribution of arginine residues contributes to the inactivity of HD6. Peptides spanning the N-terminal cationic segment were active against a wide range of organisms. Antimicrobial potency of these shorter analogs was further enhanced when myristic acid was conjugated at the N-terminus. Cytoplasmic localization of the analogs without fatty acylation was observed to be necessary for bacterial killing, while they exhibited fungicidal activity by permeabilizing Candida albicans membranes. Myristoylated analogs and the linear full-length arginine analog exhibited activity by permeabilizing bacterial and fungal membranes. Our study provides insights into the lack of bactericidal activity of HD6 against aerobic bacteria. PMID:26400692

  10. Expression of the K54 and O4 specific antigen has opposite effects on the bactericidal activity of squalamine against an extraintestinal isolate of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, T A; Mylotte, D

    1998-05-15

    Squalamine is a novel cationic steroid that possesses potent, broad spectrum, antimicrobial activity. Recent data suggests that squalamine or related compounds may be present and important in host resistance to infection in the urinary tract. Therefore, the role of the K54 capsule and the O4 specific antigen moiety of the lipopolysaccharide in protecting an extraintestinal isolate of Escherichia coli against the bactericidal activity of this novel antimicrobial compound was studied. The O4 specific antigen was important for protection against squalamine. Surprisingly, in contrast, the presence of the K54 antigen enhanced the bactericidal activity of squalamine. This is the first example, to our knowledge, in which an established virulence trait, the K54 capsule, may be detrimental to an infecting pathogen under certain circumstances. PMID:9627966

  11. Ambroxol inhibits mucoid conversion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and contributes to the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin against mucoid P. aeruginosa biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenlei; Yu, Jialin; He, Yu; Wang, Zhengli; Li, Fang

    2016-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that can cause severe infections in immunocompromised individuals. Because it forms biofilms, which protect against host immune attack and increase resistance to conventional antibiotics, mucoid P. aeruginosa is nearly impossible to eradicate. Moreover, mucoid conversion of P. aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients leads to poor outcomes. This conversion is mainly due to mucA gene mutation, which is thought to be induced by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and the reactive oxygen species they release. Ambroxol, a mucolytic agent with antioxidant characteristics, is used clinically, and this compound has recently been demonstrated to possess anti-biofilm properties. In this study, we found that ambroxol inhibits the H2 O2 -mediated conversion of P. aeruginosa from a non-mucoid to a mucoid phenotype, an effect that is due to its antioxidant property against H2 O2 . Furthermore, the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin against mucoid P. aeruginosa biofilms was increased in vitro when used in combination with ambroxol. PMID:27102839

  12. Antibodies recognizing a variety of different structural motifs on meningococcal Lip antigen fail to demonstrate bactericidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, C R; Virji, M; Heckels, J E

    1992-11-01

    The neisserial Lip antigen is a conserved antigen associated with the pathogenic Neisseria species, and is composed of multiple repeats of a consensus pentapeptide. A series of monoclonal antibodies reacting with meningococcal Lip antigen were subjected to epitope mapping, using solid-phase synthetic peptides based on the consensus repeat sequence. The antibodies were found to recognize different continuous epitopes based on the consensus sequence. One monoclonal antibody was utilized in affinity chromatography to obtain purified Lip antigen and the antigen was used for immunization of mice. The resulting antisera did not recognize Lip antigen on Western blots but reacted specifically with Lip antigen in immune precipitation experiments, indicating that the predominant polyclonal immune response was directed against conformational epitopes. Despite the diversity of both continuous and conformational epitopes recognized by the antibodies produced, none of the antibodies demonstrated the ability to promote complement-mediated bactericidal activity. Thus despite its initial apparent promise as a potential vaccine candidate the case for the inclusion of Lip antigen in vaccine formulation cannot be supported at present. PMID:1282535

  13. Destabilization of α-Helical Structure in Solution Improves Bactericidal Activity of Antimicrobial Peptides: Opposite Effects on Bacterial and Viral Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaeto, David O; Morris, Christopher J; Fox, Marc A; Gumbleton, Mark; Beck, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    We have previously examined the mechanism of antimicrobial peptides on the outer membrane of vaccinia virus. We show here that the formulation of peptides LL37 and magainin-2B amide in polysorbate 20 (Tween 20) results in greater reductions in virus titer than formulation without detergent, and the effect is replicated by substitution of polysorbate 20 with high-ionic-strength buffer. In contrast, formulation with polysorbate 20 or high-ionic-strength buffer has the opposite effect on bactericidal activity of both peptides, resulting in lesser reductions in titer for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that the differential action of polysorbate 20 and salt on the virucidal and bactericidal activities correlates with the α-helical content of peptide secondary structure in solution, suggesting that the virucidal and bactericidal activities are mediated through distinct mechanisms. The correlation of a defined structural feature with differential activity against a host-derived viral membrane and the membranes of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria suggests that the overall helical content in solution under physiological conditions is an important feature for consideration in the design and development of candidate peptide-based antimicrobial compounds. PMID:26824944

  14. Complement-mediated bactericidal activity of human antibodies to poly alpha 2-->8 N-acetylneuraminic acid, the capsular polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrell, R E; Azmi, F H; Granoff, D M

    1995-11-01

    Serum antibodies to Neisseria meningitidis group B (MenB) polysaccharide are reported not to elicit bacteriolysis in the presence of human complement. To reexamine this question, we evaluated the ability of two human IgM anti-MenB polysaccharide monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and seven human MenB polysaccharide-reactive human IgM paraproteins to elicit bacteriolysis. In the presence of human complement, both MAbs and five of the seven paraproteins were bactericidal at antibody concentrations of 0.25-9.6 micrograms/mL (50% killing). Activity of the respective antibodies was enhanced 200- to > 10,000-fold when rabbit complement was used instead of human complement. With rabbit complement, the bactericidal activity of human IgM polyclonal antibody or MAb to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) polysaccharide but not human IgG polyclonal antibody or MAb to Hib polysaccharide was similarly augmented. Thus, for both MenB and Hib, IgM antipolysaccharide antibodies elicit complement-mediated bactericidal activity in the presence of human complement, and the use of rabbit complement yields spuriously high activity. PMID:7594665

  15. Bactericidal Activities of Daptomycin, Quinupristin-Dalfopristin, and Linezolid against Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Model with Simulated Endocardial Vegetations

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Raymond; Brown, William J.; Rybak, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    In search of treatment alternatives against vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), an in vitro pharmacodynamic model with simulated endocardial vegetations incorporating protein and a high inoculum was used to simulate daptomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and vancomycin against the Michigan VRSA strain. Daptomycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin exhibited the greatest bacterial reductions, and all tested agents except vancomycin exhibited bactericidal activity against the VRSA.

  16. Re-Examining the Role of Hydrogen Peroxide in Bacteriostatic and Bactericidal Activities of Honey

    OpenAIRE

    Brudzynski, Katrina; Abubaker, Kamal; St-Martin, Laurent; Castle, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to critically analyze the effects of hydrogen peroxide on growth and survival of bacterial cells in order to prove or disprove its purported role as a main component responsible for the antibacterial activity of honey. Using the sensitive peroxide/peroxidase assay, broth microdilution assay and DNA degradation assays, the quantitative relationships between the content of H2O2 and honey’s antibacterial activity was established. The results showed that: (A) the average...

  17. The Lytic SA Phage Demonstrate Bactericidal Activity against Mastitis Causing Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Ameer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the major causative agent of mastitis among dairy animals as it causes intramammary gland infection. Due to antibiotic resistance and contamination of antibiotics in the milk of diseased animals; alternative therapeutic agents are required to cure mastitis. Lytic bacteriophages and their gene products can be potential therapeutic agents against bacteria as they are host specific and less harmful than antibiotics. In this study, Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from milk samples of the infected animals and identified biochemically. SA phage was isolated from sewage water showing lytic activity against Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The highest lytic activity of bacteriophages was observed at 37°C and pH 7, and the most suitable storage condition was at 4°C. SA phage efficiently reduced bacterial growth in the bacterial reduction assay. The characterization and bacterial growth reduction activity of the bacteriophages against Staphylococcus aureus signifies their underlying potential of phage therapy against mastitis.

  18. Silver nanoparticles strongly enhance and restore bactericidal activity of inactive antibiotics against multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panáček, Aleš; Smékalová, Monika; Večeřová, Renata; Bogdanová, Kateřina; Röderová, Magdaléna; Kolář, Milan; Kilianová, Martina; Hradilová, Šárka; Froning, Jens P; Havrdová, Markéta; Prucek, Robert; Zbořil, Radek; Kvítek, Libor

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics is currently one of the most important healthcare issues, and has serious negative impacts on medical practice. This study presents a potential solution to this problem, using the strong synergistic effects of antibiotics combined with silver nanoparticles (NPs). Silver NPs inhibit bacterial growth via a multilevel mode of antibacterial action at concentrations ranging from a few ppm to tens of ppm. Silver NPs strongly enhanced antibacterial activity against multiresistant, β-lactamase and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae when combined with the following antibiotics: cefotaxime, ceftazidime, meropenem, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. All the antibiotics, when combined with silver NPs, showed enhanced antibacterial activity at concentrations far below the minimum inhibitory concentrations (tenths to hundredths of one ppm) of individual antibiotics and silver NPs. The enhanced activity of antibiotics combined with silver NPs, especially meropenem, was weaker against non-resistant bacteria than against resistant bacteria. The double disk synergy test showed that bacteria produced no β-lactamase when treated with antibiotics combined with silver NPs. Low silver concentrations were required for effective enhancement of antibacterial activity against multiresistant bacteria. These low silver concentrations showed no cytotoxic effect towards mammalian cells, an important feature for potential medical applications. PMID:26970828

  19. Radioiodinated DPA-713 Imaging Correlates with Bactericidal Activity of Tuberculosis Treatments in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ordonez, Alvaro A.; Pokkali, Supriya; DeMarco, Vincent P.; Klunk, Mariah; Mease, Ronnie C.; Foss, Catherine A.; Pomper, Martin G.; Jain, Sanjay K.

    2014-01-01

    Current tools for monitoring response to tuberculosis treatments have several limitations. Noninvasive biomarkers could accelerate tuberculosis drug development and clinical studies, but to date little progress has been made in developing new imaging technologies for this application. In this study, we developed pulmonary single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using radioiodinated DPA-713 to serially monitor the activity of tuberculosis treatments in live mice, which develop necro...

  20. Bactericidal Activity of Rifampin-Amikacin against Mycobacterium ulcerans in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Dega, Herve; Bentoucha, Abdelhalim; Robert, Jerome; Jarlier, Vincent; Grosset, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    To identify the most active curative treatment of Buruli ulcer, two regimens incorporating the use of rifampin (RIF) were compared with the use of RIF alone in a mouse footpad model of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection. Treatments began after footpad swelling from infection and continued for 12 weeks with five doses weekly of one of the following regimens: (i) 10 mg of RIF/kg alone; (ii) 10 mg of RIF/kg and 100 mg of amikacin (AMK)/kg; and (iii) 10 mg of RIF/kg, 100 mg of clarithromycin (CLR)/...

  1. Bactericidal activity of curcumin I is associated with damaging of bacterial membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Tyagi

    Full Text Available Curcumin, an important constituent of turmeric, is known for various biological activities, primarily due to its antioxidant mechanism. The present study focused on the antibacterial activity of curcumin I, a significant component of commercial curcumin, against four genera of bacteria, including those that are Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These represent prominent human pathogens, particularly in hospital settings. Our study shows the strong antibacterial potential of curcumin I against all the tested bacteria from Gram-positive as well as Gram-negative groups. The integrity of the bacterial membrane was checked using two differential permeabilization indicating fluorescent probes, namely, propidium iodide and calcein. Both the membrane permeabilization assays confirmed membrane leakage in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria on exposure to curcumin I. In addition, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy were employed to confirm the membrane damages in bacterial cells on exposure to curcumin I. The present study confirms the broad-spectrum antibacterial nature of curcumin I, and its membrane damaging property. Findings from this study could provide impetus for further research on curcumin I regarding its antibiotic potential against rapidly emerging bacterial pathogens.

  2. 11. Bactericidal Activity of Photocatalytic TiO2 Excited by Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS): An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Chieko; Koseki, Hironobu

    2016-08-01

    Photocatalysis with anatase-type titanium dioxide (TiO2) under ultraviolet has a well-recognized bactericidal effect. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the photocatalytic bactericidal effects of TiO2 on Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC35984) caused by Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS) associated with bio-implant-related infections. The photocatalytic properties of the TiO2 films were confirmed by the degradation of an aqueous solution of methylene blue. The disks were seeded with cultured Staphylococcus epidermidis and irradiated by LIPUS. The bactericidal effect of the TiO2 films was evaluated by counting the surviving colonies. The viability of the bacteria on the photocatalytic TiO2 film coated titanium was suppressed significantly to 63% after 2 hours of LIPUS treatment (P < 0.05). The photocatalytic bactericidal effect of TiO2 under LIPUS is useful for sterilizing the contaminated and infected surfaces of metal bio-implants. PMID:27441772

  3. Periowave demonstrates bactericidal activity against periopathogens and leads to improved clinical outcomes in the treatment of adult periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Cale N.; Andersen, Roger; Loebel, Nicolas G.

    2009-02-01

    Periodontitis affects half of the U.S. population over 50, and is the leading cause of tooth loss after 35. It is believed to be caused by growth of complex bacterial biofilms on the tooth surface below the gumline. Photodynamic therapy, a technology used commonly in antitumor applications, has more recently been shown to exhibit antimicrobial efficacy. We have demonstrated eradication of the periopathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in vitro using PeriowaveTM; a commercial photodisinfection system. In addition, several clinical studies have now demonstrated the efficacy of this treatment. A pilot study in the U.S. showed that 68% of patients treated with PeriowaveTM adjunctively to scaling and root planing (SRP) showed clinical attachment level increase of >1 mm, as opposed to 30% with SRP alone. In a subsequent larger study, a second PeriowaveTM treatment 6 weeks after initial treatment led to pocket depth improvements of >1.5 mm in 89% of patients. Finally, in the most recent multicenter, randomized, examiner-blinded study conducted on 121 subjects in Canada, PeriowaveTM treatment produced highly significant gains in attachment level (0.88 mm vs. 0.57 mm; p=0.003) and pocket depth (0.87 mm vs. 0.63 mm; p=0.01) as compared to SRP alone. In summary, PeriowaveTM demonstrated strong bactericidal activity against known periopathogens, and treatment of periodontitis using this system produced significantly better clinical outcomes than SRP alone. This, along with the absence of any adverse events in patients treated to date demonstrates that PDT is a safe and effective treatment for adult chronic periodontitis.

  4. First-in-Class Inhibitors of Sulfur Metabolism with Bactericidal Activity against Non-Replicating M. tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palde, Prakash B; Bhaskar, Ashima; Pedró Rosa, Laura E; Madoux, Franck; Chase, Peter; Gupta, Vinayak; Spicer, Timothy; Scampavia, Louis; Singh, Amit; Carroll, Kate S

    2016-01-15

    Development of effective therapies to eradicate persistent, slowly replicating M. tuberculosis (Mtb) represents a significant challenge to controlling the global TB epidemic. To develop such therapies, it is imperative to translate information from metabolome and proteome adaptations of persistent Mtb into the drug discovery screening platforms. To this end, reductive sulfur metabolism is genetically and pharmacologically implicated in survival, pathogenesis, and redox homeostasis of persistent Mtb. Therefore, inhibitors of this pathway are expected to serve as powerful tools in its preclinical and clinical validation as a therapeutic target for eradicating persisters. Here, we establish a first functional HTS platform for identification of APS reductase (APSR) inhibitors, a critical enzyme in the assimilation of sulfate for the biosynthesis of cysteine and other essential sulfur-containing molecules. Our HTS campaign involving 38 350 compounds led to the discovery of three distinct structural classes of APSR inhibitors. A class of bioactive compounds with known pharmacology displayed potent bactericidal activity in wild-type Mtb as well as MDR and XDR clinical isolates. Top compounds showed markedly diminished potency in a conditional ΔAPSR mutant, which could be restored by complementation with Mtb APSR. Furthermore, ITC studies on representative compounds provided evidence for direct engagement of the APSR target. Finally, potent APSR inhibitors significantly decreased the cellular levels of key reduced sulfur-containing metabolites and also induced an oxidative shift in mycothiol redox potential of live Mtb, thus providing functional validation of our screening data. In summary, we have identified first-in-class inhibitors of APSR that can serve as molecular probes in unraveling the links between Mtb persistence, antibiotic tolerance, and sulfate assimilation, in addition to their potential therapeutic value. PMID:26524379

  5. Plant-mediated synthesis of biosilver nanoparticles using Pandanus amaryllifolius extract and its bactericidal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhir, Rabiatuladawiyah Md.; Fairuzi, Afiza Ahmad [School of Physics and Material Studies, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, 40450 Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Ismail, Nur Hilwani [School of Biology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, 40450 Selangor Darul Ehsan Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2015-08-28

    In this work, we describe a cost effective, easily scaled up and environmental friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from 5 mM AgNO{sub 3} solution using aqueous extract of Pandanus amaryllifolius (P. amaryllifolius) leaves as reducing agent. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was confirmed by sampling the reaction mixture at regular intervals and the absorption maxima was scanned by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy at wavelength of 200-500 nm. Images from Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) have shown that the silver nanoparticles are 17-30 nm in range and assembled in mostly spherical shape. Elemental composition analysis by using Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) confirmed the presence of silver. Low concentration of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles have been found to exhibit good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria with average mean diameter of zone of inhibition (ZOI) of 16 mm.

  6. Plant-mediated synthesis of biosilver nanoparticles using Pandanus amaryllifolius extract and its bactericidal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we describe a cost effective, easily scaled up and environmental friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from 5 mM AgNO3 solution using aqueous extract of Pandanus amaryllifolius (P. amaryllifolius) leaves as reducing agent. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was confirmed by sampling the reaction mixture at regular intervals and the absorption maxima was scanned by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy at wavelength of 200-500 nm. Images from Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) have shown that the silver nanoparticles are 17-30 nm in range and assembled in mostly spherical shape. Elemental composition analysis by using Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) confirmed the presence of silver. Low concentration of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles have been found to exhibit good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria with average mean diameter of zone of inhibition (ZOI) of 16 mm

  7. Heteronanostructure of Ag particle on titanate nanowire membrane with enhanced photocatalytic properties and bactericidal activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel seed induced method has been developed for syntheses of Ag particles on titanate nanowires, and then the heteronanostructured Ag/titanate nanowires were assembled into porous, flexible membranes. These titanate nanowires were about several hundreds micrometers in length and about 80 nm in diameter. The size of the Ag particle can be tuned within 300-700 nm. The pore size and thickness of the heteronanostructured membrane were easily controlled. An Ag/titanate nanowire membrane reactor has been developed to study the photocatalytic degradation of methamidophos in aqueous solution, and 87.0% of the methamidophos can be degraded in a concurrent filtration and photocatalytic oxidation process. The antibacterial activity was also investigated on the heteronanostructured membrane with UVA light (365 nm) irradiation, and a 99.99% satisfactory antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli was achieved.

  8. Glyceryl monooleate-based otic delivery system of ofloxacin: release profile and bactericidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adwan, Samer; Abu-Dahab, Rana; Al-Bakri, Amal G; Sallam, Alsayyed

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the preparation and characterization of glyceryl monooleate- (GMO) based drug delivery system containing ofloxacin for the treatment of otitis externa. Acetate buffer (pH 4.5) containing dissolved ofloxacin was added to molten GMO as an aqueous phase, this resulted in the formation of a cubic and a reverse hexagonal phases. The release behavior of ofloxacin from the drug delivery system was studied using three different methods. The mechanism of drug release using paddles/dissolution apparatus and Franz diffusion cells followed Higuchi and Fickian diffusion models; whereas intrinsic release rate method showed zero-order kinetics. The intrinsic release rate was estimated and found to be 187.2 µg/cm(2)/h. The release mechanisms were similar irrespective of the loaded ofloxacin amount, however, the higher drug load displayed higher release rate. The drug delivery system was proven to be microbiologically effective by using agar diffusion method, against Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The GMO/ofloxacin formulation was stable for 6 months after preparation at room temperature as measured with respect to phase stability and antibacterial activity. PMID:24392877

  9. Bactericidal and Fungicidal Activity in the Gas Phase of Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proto, Antonio; Zarrella, Ilaria; Cucciniello, Raffaele; Pironti, Concetta; De Caro, Francesco; Motta, Oriana

    2016-08-01

    Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) is usually employed as a disinfectant for the treatment of water, environmental surfaces and medical equipment principally for its effectiveness as a microbicide agent. In this study, we explore the possibility of a new use for NaDCC by investigating the microbicidal activity of chlorine, which derives from the hydrolysis of NaDCC mediated by air humidity, and by testing its effect on the neutralization of microbes present in domestic waste. NaDCC was inserted in a plastic garbage can where LB agar plates, with different dilutions of a known title of four different microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Debaryomyces hansenii and Aspergillus brasiliensis), were weakly inserted. The molecular chlorine (Cl2) levels present in the garbage can were quantified using an iodometric titration. The gas emitted in the garbage can presented a strong microbicide effect, inhibiting the proliferation of all four microorganisms and for four consecutive weeks, thus showing that NaDCC hydrolysis, mediated by air humidity, is able to ensure the decontamination of restricted environments, avoiding the proliferation of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi. PMID:27086304

  10. Serum bactericidal test.

    OpenAIRE

    Stratton, C W

    1988-01-01

    The serum bactericidal test represents one of the few in vitro tests performed in the clinical microbiology laboratory that combines the interaction of the pathogen, the antimicrobial agent, and the patient. Although the use of such a test antedates the antimicrobial era, its performance, results, and interpretation have been subject to question and controversy. Much of the confusion concerning the serum bactericidal test can be avoided by an understanding of the various factors which influen...

  11. Randomized Dose-Ranging Study of the 14-Day Early Bactericidal Activity of Bedaquiline (TMC207) in Patients with Sputum Microscopy Smear-Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Diacon, Andreas H; Dawson, Rodney; Von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Florian; Symons, Gregory; Venter, Amour; Donald, Peter R.; Conradie, Almari; Erondu, Ngozi; Ginsberg, Ann M.; Egizi, Erica; Winter, Helen; De Becker, Piet; Mendel, Carl M.

    2013-01-01

    Bedaquiline is a new antituberculosis agent targeting ATP synthase. This randomized, double-blinded study enrolling 68 sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients evaluated the 14-day early bactericidal activity of daily doses of 100 mg, 200 mg, 300 mg, and 400 mg bedaquiline, preceded by loading doses of 200 mg, 400 mg, 500 mg, and 700 mg, respectively, on the first treatment day and 100 mg, 300 mg, 400 mg, and 500 mg on the second treatment day. All groups showed activity with a m...

  12. Bactericidal activity and mechanism of AgI/AgBr/BiOBr(0.75)I(0.25) under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jialiang; Deng, Jun; Li, Mian; Tong, Meiping

    2016-02-01

    The AgI/AgBr/BiOBr0.75I0.25 nanocomposites were synthesized by a solvothermal process, followed by an in-situ ion exchange reaction. The disinfection activities of the as-synthesized photocatalyst to model cell type, Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli), were investigated under visible light irradiation condition (λ≥400 nm). Results showed that 80 mg/L AgI/AgBr/BiOBr0.75I0.25 could completely inactivate 3×10(7) CFU mL(-1)E. coli cells within 30 min under visible light irradiation. Moreover, the bactericidal mechanisms involved in the photocatalytic disinfection process were systematically investigated. Ag(+) ions released from the nanocomposites negligibly contributed to the bactericidal activity, while active species including h(+), e(-) and ·O2(-) played important roles in the disinfection system. Direct contact of bacterial cells and nanoparticles was found to be the prerequisite for both the generation of ·O2(-) and the disinfection processes. The disruption of cell membrane and emission of cytoplasm directly inactivated E. coli cells. In addition, AgI/AgBr/BiOBr0.75I0.25 exhibited strong antibacterial activity toward E. coli even in four consecutive reused cycles. PMID:26674838

  13. Identification and characterization of a phospholipase A2 from the venom of the Saw-scaled viper: Novel bactericidal and membrane damaging activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Gopalakrishnakone, P; Bow, Ho; Puspharaj, Peter N; Chow, Vincent T K

    2010-12-01

    Phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), a common toxic component of snake venom, has been implicated in various pharmacological effects. In this study, a basic myotoxic PLA(2), named EcTx-I was isolated from Echis carinatus snake venom by using gel filtration on Superdex G-75, and reverse phase HPLC on C18 and C8 Sepharose columns. PLA(2), EcTx-I was 13,861.72 molecular weight as estimated by MALDI-TOF (15 kD by SDS-PAGE), and consisted of 121 amino acid residues cross-linked by seven disulfide bonds. The N-terminal sequences revealed significant homology with basic myotoxic PLA(2)s from other snake venoms. The purified PLA(2) EcTx-I was evaluated (250 μg/ml) for bactericidal activity of a wide variety of human pathogens against Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW&TES), Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. EcTx-I showed strong antibacterial activity against B. pseudomallei (KHW) and E. aerogenes among the tested bacteria. Other Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria showed only a moderate effect. However, the Gram-positive bacterium E. aerogenes failed to show any effect on EcTx-I protein at tested doses. The most significant bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect of EcTx-I was observed at MICs of >15 μg/ml against (B. pseudomallei, KHW) and MICs >30 μg/ml against E. aerogenes. Mechanisms of bactericidal and membrane damaging effects were proved by ultra-structural analysis. EcTx-I was able to induce cytotoxicity on THP-1 cells in vitro as well as lethality in BALB/c mice. EcTx-I also induced mild myotoxic effects on mouse skin, but was devoid of hemolytic effects on human erythrocytes up to 500 μg/ml. It is shown that the toxic effect induced by E. carinatus venom is due to the presence of myotoxic PLA(2) (EcTx-I). The result also corroborates the hypothesis of an association between toxic and enzymatic domains. In conclusion, EcTx-I displays a heparin binding C-terminal region

  14. Bactericidal block copolymer micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnalkova, Renata; Eisenberg, Adi; van de Ven, Theo

    2011-05-12

    Block copolymer micelles with bactericidal properties were designed to deactivate pathogens such as E. coli bacteria. The micelles of PS-b-PAA and PS-b-P4VP block copolymers were loaded with biocides TCMTB or TCN up to 20 or 30 wt.-%, depending on the type of antibacterial agent. Bacteria were exposed to loaded micelles and bacterial deactivation was evaluated. The micelles loaded with TCN are bactericidal; bacteria are killed in less than two minutes of exposure. The most likely interpretation of the data is that the biocide is transferred to the bacteria by repeated micelle/bacteria contacts, and not via the solution. PMID:21275041

  15. Bactericidal activity of juvenile chinook salmon macrophages against Aeromonas salmonicida after exposure to live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum or to soluble proteins produced by R. salmoninarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, D.C.; Congleton, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Macrophages isolated from the anterior kidney of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in 96-well microtiter plates were exposed for 72 h to 0, 105, or 106 live or heat-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum cells per well or to 0, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 ??g/mL of R. salmoninarum soluble proteins. After treatment, the bactericidal activity of the macrophages against Aerornonas salmonicida was determined by a colorimetric assay based on the reduction of the tetrazolium dye MTT to formazan by viable bacteria. The MTT assay was modified to allow estimation of the percentage of bacteria killed by reference to a standard curve relating the number of bacteria added to microtiter wells to absorbance by formazan at 600 nm. The live and heat-killed R. salmoninarum treatments significantly (P < 0.001) increased killing of A. salmonicida by chinook salmon macrophages. In each of the five trials, significantly (P < 0.05) greater increases in killing occurred after exposure to 105 R. salmoninarum cells than to 106 R. salmoninarum cells per well. In contrast, treatment of macrophages with 10 ??g/mL R. salmoninarum soluble proteins significantly (P < 0.001) decreased killing of A. salmonicida, but treatment with lower doses did not. These results show that the bactericidal activity of chinook salmon macrophages is stimulated by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells at lower dose levels but inhibited by exposure to R. salmoninarum cells or soluble proteins at higher dose levels.

  16. Influence of the surface properties on bactericidal and fungicidal activity of magnetron sputtered Ti-Ag and Nb-Ag thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcieszak, D; Mazur, M; Kaczmarek, D; Mazur, P; Szponar, B; Domaradzki, J; Kepinski, L

    2016-05-01

    In this study the comparative investigations of structural, surface and bactericidal properties of Ti-Ag and Nb-Ag thin films have been carried out. Ti-Ag and Nb-Ag coatings were deposited on silicon and fused silica substrates by magnetron co-sputtering method using innovative multi-target apparatus. The physicochemical properties of prepared thin films were examined with the aid of X-ray diffraction, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy methods. Moreover, the wettability of the surface was determined. It was found that both, Ti-Ag and Nb-Ag thin films were nanocrystalline. In the case of Ag-Ti film presence of AgTi3 and Ag phases was identified, while in the structure of Nb-Ag only silver occurred in a crystal form. In both cases the average size of crystallites was ca. 11nm. Moreover, according to scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy investigations the surface of Nb-Ag thin films was covered with Ag-agglomerates, while Ti-Ag surface was smooth and devoid of silver particles. Studies of biological activity of deposited coatings in contact with Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus hirae, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were performed. It was found that prepared coatings were bactericidal and fungicidal even in a short term-contact, i.e. after 2h. PMID:26952401

  17. Microbial and chemical origins of the bactericidal activity of thermally treated yellow mustard powder toward Escherichia coli O157:H7 during dry sausage ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Fernando B; Belland, Julie; Holley, Richard A

    2011-01-31

    Work examines the origin of bactericidal activity in mustard flour and explores the relative contribution from starter cultures, E. coli O157:H7 itself and other sources. Bacteria can degrade naturally occurring glucosinolates in mustard and form isothiocyanates with antimicrobial activity. In the present work, 24 starter cultures (mostly from commercial mixtures) were screened for their capacity to decompose the glucosinolate, sinalbin. The most active pair, Pediococcus pentosaceus UM 121P and Staphylococcus carnosus UM 123 M, were used together for the production of dry fermented sausage contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 (~6.5 log CFU/g). They were compared to industrial starters used previously (P. pentosaceus UM 116P and S. carnosus UM 109 M) for their reduction of E. coli O157:H7 viability. Sausage batches containing hot mustard powder (active myrosinase), cold mustard powder (inactivated myrosinase), autoclaved mustard powder (inactivated myrosinase) and no mustard flour (control) were prepared. Interestingly, both pairs of starter cultures yielded similar results. Elimination of E. coli O157:H7 (>5 log CFU/g) occurred after 31 days in the presence of hot flour and in 38 days when the cold flour was added. Reductions >5 log CFU/g of the pathogen did not occur (up to 38 days) in the control group. It was found that E. coli O157:H7 itself had a greater effect on sinalbin conversion than either pair of starter cultures, and glucosinolate degradation by the starter cultures was less important in determining E. coli survival. The autoclaved powder caused more rapid bactericidal action against E. coli O157:H7, yielding a >5 log CFU/g reduction in 18 days. This may have been a result of the formation and/or release of antimicrobial substances by the autoclave treatment. Autoclaved mustard powder could potentially solve an important challenge facing the meat industry as it strives to manufacture safe dry fermented sausages. PMID:21146240

  18. Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collise Njume

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638 using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50 values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05 as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05. These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity.

  19. SYSTEMIC BLOOD ACTIVATION DURING AND AFTER AUTOTRANSFUSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHONBERGER, JPAM; VANOEVEREN, W; BREDEE, JJ; EVERTS, PAM; DEHAAN, J; WILDEVUUR, CRH

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the extent of shed blood activation in two autotransfusion systems and the effect of circulating blood activation upon autotransfusion, we performed a prospective study in 18 patients undergoing internal mammary artery bypass operation and a control group of 10 patients. The autotransfus

  20. 血清抗b型流感嗜血杆菌磷酸多聚核糖基核糖醇抗体杀菌活性体外检测方法的建立%Development of Serum Bactericidal Assay In Vitro for Determination of Bactericidal Activity of Serum Anti-Haemophilus influenzae Type b Polyribosylribitol Phosphate Antibody

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔瑞洁; 李亚南; 赵志强; 刘佳; 王浩; 史晓玲; 谭小梅; 杜送田; 谢贵林

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a serum bactericidal assay(SBA) in vitro for determination of bactericidal activity of serum anti-Haemophilus infiuenzae type b (Hib) polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) antibody. Methods A SBA method was developed by screening of complement and index bacterial strain, and verified for stability, specificity and precision. Results Hib-EAGAN strain as an index strain and Hib-pesitive serum showed high bactericidal specificity, of bath of which the non-specific bactericidal rates were 0. of the four batches of complements provided by Pel-Freez, Lot 17830 showed high stability and specificity. The result of verification showed high stability and specificity of the developed Hib-SBA system, of which the CV of precision was 16% ~ 28%. Conclusion The SBA in vitro for determination of bactericidal activity of serum anti-Hib-PRP was successfully developed, which was of high-throughput, was time-saving and easy to be standardized.%目的 建立免疫血清中抗b型流感嗜血杆菌(Haemophilus influenzae type b,Hib)磷酸多聚核糖基核糖醇(Polyribosylribitol phosphate,PRP)抗体体外血清杀菌试验(Serum bacterialcid assay,SBA)方法.方法 通过对补体和指示菌株的筛选,建立体外测定血清中抗Hib-PRP抗体杀菌试验方法,并对实验体系的耐变性、特异性及精密性进行验证.结果 指示菌Hib-EAGAN株与Hib阳性血清显示出良好的杀菌特异性,其平均非特异性杀菌率为0;Pel-Freez公司提供的4批补体中,批号为17830的补体具有良好的杀菌稳定性和特异性;经验证,建立的Hib-SBA体系具有良好的耐变性和特异性,其精密性CV值在16%~28%之间.结论 成功建立了血清抗Hib-PRP抗体杀菌活性体外检测方法,该方法具有检测样本量大、省时、易标准化等优点.

  1. Bactericidal properties of pradofloxacin against veterinary pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silley, Peter; Stephan, Bernd; Greife, Heinrich A; Pridmore, Andrew

    2012-05-25

    Pradofloxacin is a new veterinary 8-cyano-fluoroquinolone developed for use against bacterial infections in dogs and cats involving both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The minimal bactericidal concentrations have been determined against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus canis, Proteus spp., Fusobacterium spp., Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella species. A subset of these species was selected, and the in vitro rate of kill by pradofloxacin was determined. For 27 of the 30 tested aerobic strains the pradofloxacin MBC was within two doubling dilutions of the MIC. For the remaining strains, the MIC and MBC were within three to four doubling dilutions. Pradofloxacin also demonstrated bactericidal activity against all anaerobic strains, and the MBC was equal to the MIC for four of the strains, within 1 doubling dilution for three strains, within 2 dilutions for a further 3 strains and within 3 dilutions for the remaining five strains. As pradofloxacin concentration was increased, a faster rate of killing was observed; bactericidal effects were seen in all cases at concentrations ≤ 0.25 μg/mL. The bactericidal activity against the anaerobic strains was marked, of particular relevance was the complete absence of regrowth even at 48 h at concentrations as low as 0.125 μg/mL. In conclusion, pradofloxacin exhibits clear bactericidal activity in terms of MBC and kill kinetics against aerobic and anaerobic clinical isolates from dogs and cats at concentrations that are greatly exceeded within the systemic circulation after administration of the recommended therapeutic doses to the target animals. It is expected that such a rapid rate of kill will play a significant role in clinical efficacy. These data demonstrate the complete and rapid killing of anaerobic bacteria by a veterinary 8-cyano-fluoroquinolone. PMID:22209121

  2. Eco-friendly synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles with enhanced bactericidal activity and study of silver catalyzed reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Sivakumar, A.

    2014-07-01

    The present study reports a simple and robust method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Coleus forskohlii root extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. Stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanopoarticles (AuNPs) were formed on treatment of an aqueous silver nitrate (AgNO3) and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solutions with the root extract. The nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). UV-Vis and TEM analysis indicate that with higher quantities of root extract, the interaction is enhanced leading to size reduction of spherical metal nanoparticles. XRD confirms face-centered cubic phase and the diffraction peaks can be attributed to (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 2) and (3 1 1) planes for these nanoparticles. These synthesized Ag and Au nanoparticles were found to exhibit excellent bactericidal activity against clinically isolated selected pathogens such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The synthesized AgNPs were also found to function as an efficient green catalyst in the reduction of anthropogenic pollutant 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) by sodium borohydride, which was apparent from the periodical color change from bright yellow to colorless, after the addition of AgNPs.

  3. Exploring a new phenomenon in the bactericidal response of TiO{sub 2} thin films by Fe doping: Exerting the antimicrobial activity even after stoppage of illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naghibi, Sanaz, E-mail: naghibi@iaush.ac.ir [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vahed, Shohreh, E-mail: sh_vahed@iaush.ac.ir [Department of Food Science, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Torabi, Omid, E-mail: omid_trb@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Advanced Materials Research Center, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamshidi, Amin, E-mail: amin_jam_g@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Advanced Materials Research Center, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golabgir, Mohammad Hossein, E-mail: m.hosseingolabgir@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Advanced Materials Research Center, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Highly uniform Fe–TiO{sub 2} thin films were deposited on glass using sol–gel hot-dipping technique. • The photocatalytic properties were studied upon UV and visible irradiation. • By Fe doping into TiO{sub 2} structure, its microbial performance was prolonged even after stopping the illumination. • Due to Fe doping, the significant improvement in bactericidal coating was evident. - Abstract: Antibacterial properties of Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared on glass by the sol–gel hot-dipping technique were studied. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by measuring the decomposition rate of methylene blue under ultra violet and visible light. The antibacterial properties of the coatings were investigated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisia and Aspergillus niger. The principle of incubation methods was also discussed. The results indicated that Fe doping of thin films eventuated in high antibacterial properties under visible light and this performance remained even after stoppage of illumination. This article tries to provide some explanation for this fact.

  4. Stem Bark Extract and Fraction of Persea americana (Mill. Exhibits Bactericidal Activities against Strains of Bacillus cereus Associated with Food Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Akinpelu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL–12.5 mg/mL and 1.25–10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract’s butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results.

  5. Stem bark extract and fraction of Persea americana (Mill.) exhibits bactericidal activities against strains of bacillus cereus associated with food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinpelu, David A; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A; Akinpelu, Oluseun F; Okoh, Anthony I

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL-12.5 mg/mL and 1.25-10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract's butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results. PMID:25558854

  6. Preparation of bio-deep eutectic solvent triggered cephalopod shaped silver chloride-DNA hybrid material having antibacterial and bactericidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Jitkumar; Mondal, Dibyendu; Bhojani, Gopal; Chatterjee, Shruti; Prasad, Kamalesh

    2015-11-01

    2.5% w/w DNA (Salmon testes) was solubilized in a bio-deep eutectic solvent [(bio-DES), obtained by the complexation of choline chloride and ethylene glycol at 1:2 molar ratio] containing 1% w/w of silver chloride (AgCl) to yield a AgCl decorated DNA based hybrid material. Concentration dependent formation of AgCl crystals in the DES was observed and upon interaction with DNA it gave formation of a cephalopod shaped hybrid material. DNA was found to maintain its chemical and structural stability in the material. Further, AgCl microstructures were found to have orderly self assembled on the DNA helices indicating the electrostatic interaction between Ag(+) and phosphate side chain of DNA as a driving force for the formation of the material with ordered microstructural distribution of AgCl. Furthermore, the functionalized material exhibited excellent antibacterial and bactericidal activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive pathogenic bacteria. PMID:26249573

  7. The bactericidal and biocompatible characteristics of reinforced calcium phosphate cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infection remains a serious medical problem in orthopaedic surgery. Antibiotic administration can be available either systemically via the blood stream or locally, directly into the infected bone. One of the main limitations of antibiotic administration is the development of multi-antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. In this study, we developed bactericidal calcium phosphate cements (CPC) by incorporation of different molecular weight chitosan and hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan (HACC). Two standard strains, S. epidermidis (ATCC35984) and S. aureus (ATCC25923), and one clinical isolate, methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE), were selected to evaluate the antibacterial activity of these bone cements. Our data showed that the CPC loaded with low molecular weight chitosan and HACC significantly inhibited the bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. In addition, HACC-containing CPC has no cytotoxic effects on both mouse pluripotent C3H10T1/2cell line and a murine L929 fibroblast cell line. We propose that HACC-containing CPC represents a promising polymer-based bactericidal bone scaffold in controlling orthopaedic surgery-related infection. (paper)

  8. In Vitro Bactericidal Activity of 4- and 5-Chloro-2-hydroxy-N-[1-oxo-1-(phenylaminoalkan-2-yl]benzamides against MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Zadrazilova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of nine substituted 2-hydroxy-N-[1-oxo-1-(phenylaminoalkan-2-yl]benzamides was assessed as prospective bactericidal agents against three clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and S. aureus ATCC 29213 as the reference and quality control strain. The minimum bactericidal concentration was determined by subculturing aliquots from MIC determination onto substance-free agar plates. The bactericidal kinetics of compounds 5-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-[(2S-3-methyl-1-oxo-1-{[4-(trifluoromethylphenyl]amino}butan-2-yl]benzamide (1f, N-{(2S-1-[(4-bromophenylamino]-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl}-4-chloro-2-hydroxybenzamide (1g, and 4-chloro-N-{(2S-1-[(3,4-dichlorophenylamino]-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl}-2-hydroxybenzamide (1h was established by time-kill assay with a final concentration of the compound equal to 1x, 2x, and 4x MIC; aliquots were removed at 0, 4, 6, 8, and 24 h time points. The most potent bactericidal agent was compound 1f exhibiting remarkable rapid concentration-dependent bactericidal effect even at 2x MIC at 4, 6, and 8 h (with a reduction in bacterial count ranging from 3.08 to 3.75 log10 CFU/mL and at 4x MIC at 4, 6, 8, and 24 h (5.30 log10 CFU/mL reduction in bacterial count after incubation against MRSA 63718. Reliable bactericidal effect against other strains was maintained at 4x MIC at 24 h.

  9. Relationship between complex compositions and their bactericidal activity in binary mixture of sodium 1-octanesulfonate and lanthanum (III) chloride; Okutansuruhon san natoriumu-enka rantan (III) kongo suiyoekichu ni keiseisareru fukugotai no sosei to sono sakkin sayo tono kanrensei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihara, K.; Furuta, T. [Saraya Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-05-10

    The composition of complexes formed in aqueous solution consisting of a binary mixture of sodium 1-octanesulfonate (NaOS) and lanthanum (III) chloride (LaCl3) was studied by measuring surface tension, electric conductivity and proton spin-lattice relaxation time. In the molar ratio of octanesulfonic anion and lanthanum (III) cation below 0.1, a 3:1-complex was formed. The area per the 3:1-complex absorbed at air-water interface was 208 angstrom{sup 2} on the assumption of monomolecular layer. The formations of 2:1- and 1:1-complex were found in the vicinity of 0.5 and above 1.2 of LaCl3/NaOS, respectively. Whereas, when LaCl3 was added to 15 mol m{sup -3} NaOS, the bactericidal activity of the mixed solution against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 markedly increased with increasing the molar ratio (LaCl3/NaOS) up to 1.0 and finally remained constant. The contribution of complexes on the bactericidal activity was estimated at 1.5:1:1 from the combination of data of complex distributions and bactericidal activity. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Bactericidal activity of the food color additive Phloxine B against Staphylococcus aureus and other food borne microbial pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spread of antibiotic resistance among Staphylococcus aureus strains requires the development of new anti S. aureus agents. The objective of this study was evaluating the antimicrobial activity of the food color additive Phloxine B against S. aureus and other food microbial pathogens. Our result ...

  11. Correlation between serum bactericidal activity against Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y measured using human versus rabbit serum as the complement source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, C J; Ram, S; Welsch, J A; Detora, L; Anemona, A

    2011-12-01

    The surrogate of protection against invasive meningococcal disease is the presence of serum bactericidal activity (SBA) at a titer ≥4 in an assay using human serum as the complement source (hSBA). However, for various practical and logistical reasons, many meningococcal vaccines in use today were licensed based on a modified SBA assay that used baby rabbit serum as the complement source (rSBA). To assess the strength of correlation between the two assay systems for serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y, we analyzed a subset of samples from adolescent subjects enrolled in a Phase II study of Novartis' MenACWY-CRM conjugate vaccine vs. an ACWY polysaccharide vaccine; samples were analyzed in parallel using hSBA and rSBA. We compared geometric mean titers (GMTs), calculated Pearson correlation coefficients between paired hSBA and rSBA results, and calculated sensitivity/specificity and likelihood ratios for an rSBA ≥8 or ≥128 for classifying hSBA ≥4, taking hSBA as the 'gold standard'. Correlations between hSBA and rSBA ranged from 0.46 to 0.78 for serogroup C, but were weaker for serogroups A, W-135 and Y (range -0.15 to 0.57). In post vaccination samples, nearly all subjects had rSBA titers ≥8, though up to 15% remained seronegative by hSBA. In post vaccination settings, rSBA titers at ≥8 or ≥128 was highly sensitive for an hSBA titer ≥4, but non-specific. In conclusion, results generated by rSBA did not accurately classify serostatus according to hSBA for serogroups A, W-135 and Y. PMID:22075087

  12. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles by novel Pseudomonas veronii AS41G inhabiting Annona squamosa L. and their bactericidal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Syed; Mohan Kumar, K.; Santosh, P.; Rakshith, D.; Satish, S.

    2015-02-01

    In present investigation extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles were synthesized using cell free supernatant of Pseudomonas veronii AS41G isolated from Annona squamosa L. The bacterium significantly reduced silver nitrate to generate silver nanoparticles which was characterized with hyphenated techniques. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles preliminary confirmed by UV-Visible spectrophotometry with the intense peak at 410 nm, Further FTIR analysis revealed the possible role of biomolecules in the supernatant responsible for mediating the nanoparticles formation. The XRD spectra exhibited the characteristic Bragg peaks of 1 0 0, 1 1 1, 2 0 0, and 2 2 0 facets of the face centred cubic symmetry of nanoparticles suggesting that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. TEM microgram showed polydispersity of nanoparticles with size ranging from 5 to 50 nm. Synthesized silver nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against human and environmental pathogens including MRSA. The study enlightens the role of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles as an emerging alternative for drug resistant microorganisms. The obtained results are promising enough to pave the environmentally benign nanoparticle synthesis processes without use of any toxic chemicals and also envision the emerging role of endophytes towards synthesis of nanoparticles. With scanty reports available on P.veronii species, a new role has been reported in this study which will be very valuable for future researchers working on it.

  13. Does bipolar pacemaker current activate blood platelets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesdal, Grunde; Hansen, Annebirthe Bo; Brandes, Axel

    2009-01-01

    platelets and muscle cells contain actin and myosin filaments, and both cells are activated following calcium influx. Muscle cells open their calcium channels and contract when exposed to an electric current. Current through a bipolar pacemaker lead will expose a small volume of blood, including platelets......, to the depolarizing current. Platelet activation may ensue, resulting in aggregation, release reaction, and contraction. In contrast, a unipolar pacemaker system will not depolarize blood, but transmit current directly into the myocardium, and the current afterward passes through other tissues before...

  14. Electrospun biodegradable polymers loaded with bactericide agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaz Katsarava

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of materials with an antimicrobial activity is fundamental for different sectors, including medicine and health care, water and air treatment, and food packaging. Electrospinning is a versatile and economic technique that allows the incorporation of different natural, industrial, and clinical agents into a wide variety of polymers and blends in the form of micro/nanofibers. Furthermore, the technique is versatile since different constructs (e.g. those derived from single electrospinning, co-electrospinning, coaxial electrospinning, and miniemulsion electrospinning can be obtained to influence the ability to load agents with different characteristics and stability and to modify the release behaviour. Furthermore, antimicrobial agents can be loaded during the electrospinning process or by a subsequent coating process. In order to the mitigate burst release effect, it is possible to encapsulate the selected drug into inorganic nanotubes and nanoparticles, as well as in organic cyclodextrine polysaccharides. In the same way, processes that involve covalent linkage of bactericide agents during surface treatment of electrospun samples may also be considered. The present review is focused on more recent works concerning the electrospinning of antimicrobial polymers. These include chitosan and common biodegradable polymers with activity caused by the specific load of agents such as metal and metal oxide particles, quaternary ammonium compounds, hydantoin compounds, antibiotics, common organic bactericides, and bacteriophages.

  15. Systemic hypoxia enhances exercise-mediated bactericidal and subsequent apoptotic responses in human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jong-Shyan; Chiu, Ya-Ting

    2009-10-01

    Phagocytosis and oxidative burst are critical host defense mechanisms in which neutrophils clear invading pathogens. Clearing phagocytic neutrophils by triggering apoptosis is an essential process for controlling inflammation. This study elucidates how various exercise bouts with/without hypoxia affected neutrophil bactericidal activity and subsequent apoptosis in humans. Fifteen sedentary males performed six distinct experimental tests in an air-conditioned normobaric hypoxia chamber: two normoxic exercises [strenuous exercise (SE; up to maximal O2 consumption) and moderate exercise (ME; 50% maximal O2 consumption for 30 min) while exposed to 21% O2], two hypoxic exercises (ME for 30 min while exposed to 12% and 15% O2), and two hypoxic exposures (resting for 30 min while exposed to 12% and 15% O2). The results showed that 1) plasma complement-C3a desArg/C4a desArg/C5a concentrations were increased, 2) expressions of L-selectin/lymphocyte functin-associated antigen-1/Mac-1/C5aR on neutrophils were enhanced, 3) phagocytosis of neutrophils to Esherichia coli and release of neutrophil oxidant products by E. coli were elevated, and 4) E. coli-induced phosphotidylserine exposure or caspase-3 activation of neutrophils were promoted immediately and 2 h after both 12% O2 exposure at rest and with ME as well as normoxic SE. Although neither normoxic ME nor breathing 15% O2 at rest influenced these complement- and neutrophil-related immune responses, ME at both 12% and 15% O2 resulted in enhanced complement activation in the blood, expressions of opsonic/complement receptors on neutrophils, or the bactericidal activity and apoptosis of neutrophils. Moreover, the increased neutrophil oxidant production and apoptosis by normoxic SE and hypoxic ME were ameliorated by treating neutrophils with diphenylene iodonium (a NADPH oxidase inhibitor). Therefore, we conclude that ME at 12-15% O2 enhances bactericidal capacity and facilitates the subsequent apoptosis of neutrophils. PMID

  16. Bactericidal Activity of Aqueous Acrylic Paint Dispersion for Wooden Substrates Based on TiO2 Nanoparticles Activated by Fluorescent Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Di Gioia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic effect of TiO2 has great potential for the disinfection of surfaces. Most studies reported in the literature use UV activation of TiO2, while visible light has been used only in a few applications. In these studies, high concentrations of TiO2, which can compromise surface properties, have been used. In this work, we have developed an acrylic-water paint dispersion containing low TiO2 content (2 vol % for the inactivation of microorganisms involved in hospital-acquired infections. The nanoparticles and the coating have been characterized using spectroscopic techniques and transmission electron microscopy, showing their homogenous dispersion in the acrylic urethane coating. A common fluorescent light source was used to activate the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. The paint dispersion showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The coating containing the TiO2 nanoparticles maintained good UV stability, strong adhesion to the substrate and high hardness. Therefore, the approach used is feasible for paint formulation aimed at disinfection of healthcare surfaces.

  17. Characterization and relative photonic efficiencies of a new nanocarbon/TiO2 composite photocatalyst designed for organic dye decomposition and bactericidal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two kinds of nanocarbon/TiO2 composite photocatalysts were synthesized using an MCPBA oxidation method, employing MWCNT (multi-wall carbon nanotubes) and C60 as nanocarbon sources and TNB (titanium (IV) n-butoxide) as a titanium dioxide source. From the XRD patterns of the composites, structural variations revealed the C60/TiO2 composite having a mixture of anatase and rutile forms, with the MWCNT/TiO2 composite presenting only the anatase phase. Elemental analysis indicated a predominance of carbon and Ti metal peaks over any other element. From the SEM results, the TiO2 particles were dispersed regularly on the fullerene surface with large clusters bearing irregular agglomerate dispersions. However, the MWCNT/TiO2 showed homogenous distributions with only individual MWCNT, covered with TiO2 and without any jam-like aggregates between the two. According to the photocatalytic results, the relationship of the -ln (c/c0) of the solution products of the organic dye, methylene blue (MB), as a function of time under UV irradiation, showed linearity properties with first-order kinetics and an excellent photodegradation effect. From the measured bactericidal effects, the inhibition zone was defined by the halo method with the curves of E. coli inactivation denoting effectiveness of the nanocarbon/TiO2 composites in the sunlight.

  18. Staying Active and Healthy: Blood Thinners

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Referenced Links: Review the following links for additional information on this topic: • Blood Thinner Pills: Your Guide to Using Them Safely ... the following related programs are offered for your review: Preventing Blood Clots After Hip or Knee Surgery ...

  19. Staying Active and Healthy: Blood Thinners

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Referenced Links: Review the following links for additional information on this topic: • Blood Thinner Pills: Your Guide ... Size: 17.6 MB Related Programs: For more information, the following related programs are offered for your ...

  20. Improved bactericidal enzybiotics against pneumococcus and other bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    García González, Pedro; Menéndez Fernández, Margarita; García, Ernesto; Díez-Martínez, Roberto; Paz Fernández, Héctor de; Bustamante, Noemí

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to the field of biotechnology and concerns a polypeptide sequence derived from the Cp7 phage lytic enzyme wall-binding module (Cpl-7), which enables new lytic enzymes having improved bactericidal activity and a broad spectrum to be built. The invention also concerns chimeric enzymes containing the improved wall-binding module, and examples of the activity thereof against gram positive and gram negative species are provided.

  1. Staying Active and Healthy: Blood Thinners

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the following links for additional information on this topic: • Blood Thinner Pills: Your Guide to Using Them ... U.S. Government’s Official Web Portal Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 5600 Fishers Lane Rockville, MD 20857 ...

  2. Bactericidal Activities of Spicy Essential Oils on Microorganisms in Crude Food%香辛料精油成分对生鲜食品中有害菌杀灭活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段雪娟; 吴克刚; 柴向华

    2012-01-01

    Bactericidal activities of seven spicy essential oil components on five microorganisms (Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus Awrous, Saimonella, Listcria monocytogenes, Vibrio Parahemolyticus) were studied by plate dilution method and transferring substrate cob method. Results showed that salicylaldehyde had the best bactericidal activity,followed successively by thymol, cin-namic aldehyde, anethole, eugenol, citral, vanillin. The optimal composite essential oil ( salicylaldehyde: cinnamic aldehyde: thymol: anethole 2:5: 20: 5. ) was obtained through orthogonal test. The minimum bactericidal mass concentration of the composite essential oil for killing five pathogens was 0.25 mg/L, only 1/2 of that of salicylaldehyde. Synergistic sterilization effects of composite essential oil was analyzed. The composite essential oil showed a strong synergistic effect on Listeria monocytogenes, an additive effect on Staphylococcus Aurous , Escherichia Coli and Vibrio Parahemolyticus, and unrelated effect on Salmonella.%采用平板稀释法和菌块转移法研究了百里香酚、丁香酚、肉桂醛、茴香脑、水杨醛、柠檬醛、香兰素7种食用植物精油组分对大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、沙门氏菌、单增李斯特菌、副溶血性弧菌等生鲜食品常见5种有害菌的杀灭活性.实验结果表明,水杨醛对5种有害菌的综合杀灭能力最强,然后依次是百里香酚、肉桂醛、茴香脑、丁香酚、柠檬醛、香兰素.通过正交试验将水杨醛、肉桂醛、百里香酚、茴香脑复配,得到最佳组合是为:水杨醛、肉桂醛、百里香酚、茴香脑的质量比为2:5:20:5,其杀灭所有供试菌的最低质量浓度为0.25 mg/L,仅为杀菌效果最好的单一水杨醛浓度的1/2.通过对香辛料精油成分杀菌作用协同效应分析得出,复配的香辛精油对单增李斯特菌的杀灭表现出很强的协同增效作用效果,对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌和副溶血性弧菌的杀灭

  3. Systemic blood coagulation activation in acute coronary syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Undas, Anetta; Szułdrzyński, Konstanty; Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E.; Tracz, Wiesława; Zmudka, Krzysztof; Mann, Kenneth G.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated systemic alterations to the blood coagulation system that occur during a coronary thrombotic event. Peripheral blood coagulation in patients with acute coronary thrombosis was compared with that in people with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Blood coagulation and platelet activation at the microvascular injury site were assessed using immunochemistry in 28 non-anticoagulated patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) versus 28 stable CAD patients matched for age, sex, ...

  4. Blood Vessel Diameter Estimation System Using Active Contours

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Jane; Tizon, Ana

    2011-01-01

    The study and analysis of blood vessel geometry has become the basis of medical applications related to early diagnosis and effective monitoring of therapies in vascular diseases. This paper presents a new method to trace the outline of blood vessels from imperfect images and extract useful information about their dimensions in an automated manner. The system consists of a segmentation procedure that uses two Active Contours to detect blood vessel boundaries and a novel approach to measure bl...

  5. Survival and function of phagocytes in blood culture media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, T K; Prag, J; Kharazmi, A

    1999-01-01

    The survival and function of human phagocytes in sterile aerobic and anaerobic blood culture media were investigated using neutrophil morphology, white blood cell count in a haemoanalyser, flow cytometry, oxidative burst response, and bactericidal effect in Colorbact and Septi-Chek blood culture...... media and Bact/Alert. When comparing agitation to stationary incubation no difference in phagocytic activity was found. The methods showed the same trends demonstrating that the phagocytes' viability and activity were prolonged by oxygen and shortened by anaerobic conditions and sodium polyethanol...... sulfonate (SPS). Best preserved activity and viability were found in the aerobic media containing less than 0.5 g/l SPS, in which significant phagocyte oxidative burst and bactericidal activity were found up to 4 days after inoculation. Considering that the majority of bacteremias are due to aerobic or...

  6. Creatine kinase activity is associated with blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Brewster; G. Mairuhu; N.R. Bindraban; R.P. Koopmans; J.F. Clark; G.A. van Montfrans

    2006-01-01

    Background - We previously hypothesized that high activity of creatine kinase, the central regulatory enzyme of energy metabolism, facilitates the development of high blood pressure. Creatine kinase rapidly provides adenosine triphosphate to highly energy-demanding processes, including cardiovascula

  7. Blood-group-Ii-active gangliosides of human erythrocyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than ten new types of gangliosides, in addition to haematoside and sialosylparagloboside, were isolated from human erythrocyte membranes. These were separated by successive chromatographies on DAEA-Sephadex, on porous silica-gel columns and on thin-layer silica gel as acetylated compounds. Highly potent blood-group-Ii and moderate blood-group-H activities were demonstrated in some of the ganglioside fractions. The gangliosides incorporated into chlolesterol/phosphatidylcholine liposomes stoicheiometrically inhibited binding of anti-(blood-group-I and i) antibodies to a radioiodinated blood-group-Ii-active glycoprotein. The fraction with the highest blood-group-I activity, I(g) fraction, behaved like sialosyl-deca- to dodeca-glycosylceramides on t.l.c. Certain blood-group-I and most of the i-determinants were in partially or completely cryptic form and could be unmasked by sialidase treatment. Thus the I and i antigens, which are known to occur on internal structures of blood-group-ABH-active glycoproteins in secretions, also occur in the interior of the carbohydrate chains of erythrocyte gangliosides. (author)

  8. Cicada Wing Surface Topography: An Investigation into the Bactericidal Properties of Nanostructural Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, S M; Habimana, O; Lawler, J; O' Reilly, B; Daniels, S; Casey, E; Cowley, A

    2016-06-22

    Recently, the surface of the wings of the Psaltoda claripennis cicada species has been shown to possess bactericidal properties and it has been suggested that the nanostructure present on the wings was responsible for the bacterial death. We have studied the surface-based nanostructure and bactericidal activity of the wings of three different cicadas (Megapomponia intermedia, Ayuthia spectabile and Cryptotympana aguila) in order to correlate the relationship between the observed surface topographical features and their bactericidal properties. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy performed in this study revealed that the tested wing species contained a highly uniform, nanopillar structure on the surface. The bactericidal properties of the cicada wings were investigated by assessing the viability of autofluorescent Pseudomonas fluorescens cells following static adhesion assays and targeted dead/live fluorescence staining through direct microscopic counting methods. These experiments revealed a 20-25% bacterial surface coverage on all tested wing species; however, significant bactericidal properties were observed in the M. intermedia and C. aguila species as revealed by the high dead:live cell ratio on their surfaces. The combined results suggest a strong correlation between the bactericidal properties of the wings and the scale of the nanotopography present on the different wing surfaces. PMID:26551558

  9. Stem Bark Extract and Fraction of Persea americana (Mill.) Exhibits Bactericidal Activities against Strains of Bacillus cereus Associated with Food Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Akinpelu, David A.; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A.; Akinpelu, Oluseun F.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged betw...

  10. [Detection of bactericidal antibody in the breast milk of a mother infected with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, E; Tanaka, H; Toyoda, N; Takeda, T

    1999-05-01

    A 21 years-old pregnant woman developed diarrhea, fresh bloody stools and abdominal pain on April 6th 1997 at 32 weeks of gestation, and was admitted to the hospital on April 11th. The stool culture on admission was positive for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 (Stx1 and 2). Clinical laboratory data during admission showed only slight elevation of beta-microglobulin and N-acetyl glucosaminidase in the urine, and no neurological or hemolytic symptoms were seen. After the antibiotic and lactobacillus administration, all her symptoms were relieved and no abnormal findings in pregnancy were observed. She delivered a baby girl normally on May 30th. Serum (between 41 and 120 days from the onset) and milk (between 4 and 64 days post partum) samples from the mother, and serum (64 days of age) from a baby and cord blood were obtained to monitor the immune status against EHEC O157:H7 and against Shiga toxins (Stx). Anti-E. coli O157 LPS antibodies (IgA, G and M) were assayed by the ELISA method. Neutralizing anti-Stx antibodies were measured by using ACHN cell cytotoxicity assay. In the colostrum and mature milk, high levels of IgA and IgM, and no IgG antibodies against EHEC O157 LPS were detected. In one of the control colostrum samples obtained from 4 healthy mothers IgA antibody against EHEC O157 LPS was detected. To assess the potency of protection against EHEC O157:H7 by the breast milk, we monitored it by the bactericidal activity for the organism under complement-coincubation experiment, and by the neutralization test for the Stx cytotoxicity. As a result, breast milk samples (both colostrum and mature milk) from a patient were demonstrated to kill the organisms. One of 4 healthy milk samples, showed bactericidal activity though it was negative in O157-LPS antibody. This bactericidal activity seen in one healthy colostrum is possibly due to a nonspecific reaction caused by non-O157 E. coli infection. From these observations, it was suggested that the

  11. Study of Bactericidal Properties of Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marina Mot

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE The antibacterial activity of an alcoholic extract of propolis from Apis mellifera was investigated using a method of growth inhibition in the culture medium of microorganisms. For this study were been chosen bacterial species implicated in severe infections in animals: Streptococcus suis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pasteurella haemolytica (Mannheimia haemolytica, 1999. The propolis extract demonstrated to possess bactericidal properties against studied microorganisms in descending order as follows: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pasteurella haemolytica, Salmonella spp. All these results demonstrates the possibility of using propolis in either treatment alone, as a natural alternative, be associated with an appropriate antibiotic for the potentiation effect in the event of serious infections in animals. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  12. Platelets release mitochondria serving as substrate for bactericidal group IIA-secreted phospholipase A2 to promote inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Boudreau, Luc H.; Duchez, Anne-Claire; Cloutier, Nathalie; Soulet, Denis; Martin, Nicolas; Bollinger, James; Paré, Alexandre; Rousseau, Matthieu; Naika, Gajendra S.; Lévesque, Tania; Laflamme, Cynthia; Marcoux, Geneviève; Lambeau, Gérard; Farndale, Richard W.; Pouliot, Marc

    2014-01-01

    When activated and in platelet storage bags, platelets release respiratory-competent mitochondria, a recognized damage-associated molecular pattern.Mitochondria, descendant of Rickettsia prowazekii, serve as substrate for bactericidal sPLA2-IIA to promote inflammation.

  13. Performance of a coincidence based blood activity monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new device has been constructed that measures the positron emitting radio-tracer concentration in arterial blood by extracting blood with a peristaltic pump, then measuring the activity concentration by detecting coincident pairs of 511 keV photons with a pair of heavy inorganic scintillators attached to photomultiplier tubes. The sensitivity of this device is experimentally determined to be 610 counts/second per μCi/ml, and has a paralyzing dead time of 1.2 μs, so is capable of measuring blood activity concentration as high as 1 mCi/ml. Its performance is compared to two other blood monitoring methods: discrete blood samples counted with a well counter and device that uses a plastic scintillator to directly detect positrons. The positron detection efficiency of this device for 18F is greater than the plastic scintillation counter, and also eliminates the radioisotope dependent correction factors necessary to convert count rate to absolute concentration. Coincident photon detection also has the potential of reducing the background compared to direct positron detection, thereby increasing the minimum detectable isotope concentration. 10 refs., 6 figs

  14. Biomechanopharmacology in Evaluation of Herbs of Activating Blood Circulation to Remove Blood Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Fu-long; CAO Jun

    2005-01-01

    Herbs of activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis(ABCRBS) are a category of over 10% in the modern Chinese Pharmacopoeia. A new borderline discipline, biomechanopharmacology, is shaping by the efforts of applying biomechanics in pharmacological studies of ABCRBS herbs. Biomechanics is involved in modeling of blood stasis syndrome (BSS) with mechanical force induced injury and model evaluation by shear stress monitoring for blood coagulation. Investigations showed that tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) contained in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort and diallyl trisulfide (DT) extracted from garlic demonstrated inhibiting characteristics on vWF mediated platelet activation and thrombus formation occurring under high shear rates. The effect of TMP on shear-induced platelet aggregation might be due to inhibition of calcium channel activity since it showed significant inhibition on intracellular level of calcium demonstrated by laser confocal microscope. The combined effects of TMP and shear stress on rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cell (rCMEC) were investigated by various doses of TMP incorporated with different levels of shear stress generated by a rotational coneplate rheometer. The results indicated that apoptosis of rCMECs could be restrained by a combination of medial level of shear stress with a suitable dose of TMP. To study the influences of shear stress, pressure and TMP on angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cell, cultured rCMEC was pretreated in a flow chamber with independent adjustment for levels of shear stress and pressure, and then 3D cultured on Matrigel. The results indicate that combined effects of shear stress, pressure and TMP may influence angiogenesis significantly. We believe that research on interactions among blood shear stress, secretion of endothelial cell, and pharmacodynamics will be an interesting area of biomechanopharmacology. Herbs of ABCRBS and their extracts for protecting endothelial cells to maintain their normal functions are

  15. Bactericidal and anti-adhesive properties of culinary and medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rachel O'Mahony; Huda Al-Khtheeri; Deepeka Weerasekera; Neluka Fernando; Dino Vaira; John Holton; Christelle Basset

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the bactericidal and anti-adhesive properties of 25 plants against Helicobacter pylori (H pylori).METHODS: Twenty-five plants were boiled in water to produce aqueous extracts that simulate the effect of cooking. The bactericidal activity of the extracts was assessed by a standard kill-curve with seven strains of H pylori. The anti-adhesive property was assessed by the inhibition of binding of four strains of FITC-labeled H pylori to stomach sections. RESULTS: Of all the plants tested, eight plants, including Bengal quince, nightshade, garlic, dill, black pepper, coriander, fenugreek and black tea, were found to have no bactericidal effect on any of the isolates. Columbo weed, long pepper, parsley, tarragon, nutmeg, yellow-berried nightshade, threadstem carpetweed, sage and cinnamon had bactericidal activities against H pylori, but total inhibition of growth was not achieved in this study. Among the plants that killed H pylori, turmeric was the most efficient, followed by cumin, ginger, chilli, borage, black caraway, oregano and liquorice. Moreover, extracts of turmeric; borage and parsley were able to inhibit the adhesion of H pylori strains to the stomach sections.CONCLUSION: Several plants that were tested in our study had bactericidal and/or anti-adhesive effects on H pylori. Ingestion of the plants with anti-adhesive properties could therefore provide a potent alternative therapy for H pylori infection, which overcomes the problem of resistance associated with current antibiotic treatment.

  16. The magnesium reference value in whole blood using nuclear activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study is to establish an indicative interval for reference value for Mg in whole blood, using the Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis Technique. The necessity of this measurement is related to the fact that the conventional clinical analysis for Mg quantification is performed using plasma, so there is no reference values established for Mg in whole blood for Brazilian population. Ours results provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients and permit to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations. (author)

  17. Susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to bactericidal properties of medium-chain monoglycerides and free fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petschow, B W; Batema, R P; Ford, L L

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that various short- and medium-chain free fatty acids (FFAs) and their corresponding monoacylglycerol esters (MGs) have antibacterial activity in vitro against primarily gram-positive bacteria. More recent studies have also shown that the growth of Helicobacter spp. is inhibited by linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to the in vitro bactericidal properties of medium-chain MGs and FFAs. Incubation of H. pylori with saturated MGs, ranging in carbon chain length from C10:0 to C14:0, at 1 mM caused a 4-log-unit or greater reduction in the number of viable bacteria after exposure for 1 h. Lower levels of bactericidal activity were observed with C9:0, C15:0, and C16:0 MGs. In contrast, lauric acid (C12:0) was the only medium-chain saturated FFA with bactericidal activity against H. pylori. The MGs and FFAs were bactericidal after incubation for as little as 15 min at neutral or acidic pHs. Higher levels of MGs and FFAs were required for bactericidal activity in the presence of higher amounts of protein in liquid diets. We also found that the frequency of spontaneous development of resistance by H. pylori was higher for metronidazole and tetracycline (10(-5) to 10(-6)) than for C10:0 MG, C12:0 MG, and C12:0 FFA (< 10(-8)). Collectively, our data demonstrate that H. pylori is rapidly inactivated by medium-chain MGs and lauric acid and exhibits a relatively low frequency of spontaneous development of resistance to the bactericidal activity of MGs. Further studies are needed to establish whether MGs may be useful either alone or with other known therapeutic agents in the management of H. pylori infections in humans. PMID:8834870

  18. Thiopurine methyltransferase activity in red blood cells of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Linda Benjamin; Salavaggione, Oreste E; Szumlanski, Carol L; Miller, Jackie L; Weinshilboum, Richard M; Trepanier, Lauren

    2004-01-01

    Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) is an important enzyme in the metabolism of thiopurine medications such as azathioprine. In humans, activity varies widely among individuals, primarily because of genetic polymorphisms. Low TPMT activity increases the risk of myelosuppression from azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine, whereas high TPMT activity is associated with poor drug efficacy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dogs also show a wide range of TPMT activity. Heparinized blood samples were obtained from 177 dogs associated with a veterinary teaching hospital. Red blood cell (RBC) TPMT activity was measured by means of a modification of a radiochemical method as established for use in people. TPMT activity varied across a 9-fold range (7.9-71.8 U of RBC per milliliter; median, 21.7). Variation in TPMT activity was not associated with age, sex, or neutering status. Giant Schnauzers had much lower TPMT activity (7.9-20 U of RBC per milliliter; median, 13.1; P dogs could affect thiopurine drug toxicity and efficacy in canine patients. PMID:15058773

  19. Bactericidal behavior of Cu-containing stainless steel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Ma, Yong; Lin, Naiming; Fan, Ailan; Tang, Bin

    2012-10-01

    Stainless steels are one of the most common materials used in health care environments. However, the lack of antibacterial advantage has limited their use in practical application. In this paper, antibacterial stainless steel surfaces with different Cu contents have been prepared by plasma surface alloying technology (PSAT). The steel surface with Cu content 90 wt.% (Cu-SS) exhibits strong bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) within 3 h. Although the Cu-containing surface with Cu content 2.5 wt.% (CuNi-SS) can also kill all tested bacteria, this process needs 12 h. SEM observation of the bacterial morphology and an agarose gel electrophoresis were performed to study the antibacterial mechanism of Cu-containing stainless steel surfaces against E. coli. The results indicated that Cu ions are released when the Cu-containing surfaces are in contact with bacterial and disrupt the cell membranes, killing the bacteria. The toxicity of Cu-alloyed surfaces does not cause damage to the bacterial DNA. These results provide a scientific explanation for the antimicrobial applications of Cu-containing stainless steel. The surfaces with different antibacterial abilities could be used as hygienic surfaces in healthcare-associated settings according to the diverse requirement of bactericidal activities.

  20. Mechanisms of α-defensin bactericidal action: COMPARATIVE MEMBRANE DISRUPTION BY CRYPTDIN-4 AND ITS DISULFIDE-NULL ANALOG†

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjicharalambous, Chrystalleni; Sheynis, Tanya; Jelinek, Raz; Shanahan, Michael T.; Ouellette, Andre J.; Gizeli, Electra

    2008-01-01

    Mammalian α-defensins all have a conserved triple-stranded β-sheet structure that is constrained by an invariant tridisulfide array, and the peptides exert bactericidal effects by permeabilizing the target cell envelope. Curiously, the disordered, disulfide-null variant of mouse α-defensin cryptdin-4 (Crp4), termed (6C/A)-Crp4, has equal or greater bactericidal activity than the native peptide, providing rationale for comparing the mechanisms by which the peptides interact with and disrupt ph...

  1. Serum Bactericidal Assay: New Role in Salmonella Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Da; Sun, Min; Deng, Mingjun; Cui, Shuhua; Liang, Chengzhu; Geng, Juan; Sun, Tao; Long, Ling; Xiao, Xizhi

    2016-01-01

    While inspecting animal feed for Salmonella contamination, we routinely observed bacterial colonies on selective agars that were similar in appearance to those formed by Salmonella. These were identified as Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia fonticola using biochemical and serological techniques. Because the presence of these bacterial species confounds identification of Salmonella, we refer to them as "interference bacteria." Polyvalent antisera against these interference bacteria were prepared by immunizing rabbits with a mixture of all three organisms. To minimize or eliminate interference by these bacteria, the polyvalent antisera were introduced between the steps of selective enrichment and Salmonella-selective plating. The antisera raised against the interference bacteria, when combined with neonatal rabbit complement, exhibited specific bactericidal activity against C. freundii, P. mirabilis, and S. fonticola. The respective serum bactericidal assay titers were 2(9), 2(8), and 2(10). In selective broth, polyvalent antisera could also kill the target bacterial cells effectively. We tested 526 samples (186 white fishmeal, 97 red fishmeal, and 243 cattle bone powder) using the polyvalent antisera and found that the rates of contamination of each species of the three respective foods decreased by 58.8, 100, and 83%. Our data indicates that polyvalent sera against C. freundii, P. mirabilis, and S. fonticola can be used as inhibitors to increase the accuracy of Salmonella detection. PMID:26822285

  2. Delayed bactericidal response of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to bedaquiline involves remodelling of bacterial metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koul, A.; Vranckx, L.; Dhar, N.;

    2014-01-01

    Bedaquiline (BDQ), an ATP synthase inhibitor, is the first drug to be approved for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in decades. Though BDQ has shown excellent efficacy in clinical trials, its early bactericidal activity during the first week of chemotherapy is minimal. Here, using...

  3. Adhesion molecules levels in blood correlate with MRI activity and clinical activity in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research into pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has prompted efforts to identify immunological markers associated with disease activity. Adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are associated with inflammatory mediated blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. In this study investigates the correlation between blood level of circulating ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) activity in different clinical phases of patients with MS. We show that RRMS and SPMS patients in clinically active phase with Gd-enhancing lesions in CNS had higher blood levels of cICAM-1 and cVCAM-1 compared these parameters levers of RRMS patients in remission stage. These results suggest that cICAM-1 and cVCAM-1 is a sensitive indicator of disease activity associated with BBB inflammatory dysfunction. Elevated blood level of cICAM-1 more strongly correlated with clinical activity and BBB damage, than cVCAM-1 and that could be used as biological marker of disease activity. Circulating VCAM-1 as an early indicator of BBB disturbance, may also serve as marker of beneficial activity in relapses phase of MS course. (authors)

  4. Hierarchical Polymer Brushes with Dominant Antibacterial Mechanisms Switching from Bactericidal to Bacteria Repellent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shunjie; Luan, Shifang; Shi, Hengchong; Xu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jidong; Yuan, Shuaishuai; Yang, Yuming; Yin, Jinghua

    2016-05-01

    Although polycationic surfaces have high antimicrobial efficacies, they suffer from high toxicity to mammalian cells and severe surface accumulation of dead bacteria. For the first time, we propose a surface-initiated photoiniferter-mediated polymerization (SI-PIMP) strategy of constructing a "cleaning" zwitterionic outer layer on a polycationic bactericidal background layer to physically hinder the availability of polycationic moieties for mammalian cells in aqueous service. In dry conditions, the polycationic layer exerts the contact-active bactericidal property toward the adherent bacteria, as the zwitterionic layer collapses. In aqueous environment, the zwitterionic layer forms a hydration layer to significantly inhibit the attachment of planktonic bacteria and the accumulation of dead bacteria, while the polycationic layer kills bacteria occasionally deposited on the surface, thus preserving the antibacterial capability for a long period. More importantly, the zwitterionic hydrated layer protects the mammalian cells from toxicity induced by the bactericidal background layer, and therefore hierarchical antibacterial surfaces present much better biocompatibility than that of the naked cationic references. The dominant antibacterial mechanism of the hierarchical surfaces can switch from the bactericidal efficacy in dry storage to the bacteria repellent capability in aqueous service, showing great advantages in the infection-resistant applications. PMID:27049327

  5. Tolerance of staphylococci to bactericidal antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudaux, Pierre; Lew, Daniel P

    2006-05-01

    Antibiotic therapy for deep-seated staphylococcal infections, especially when they are associated with artificial devices used for orthopedic surgery is often associated with failure. Standard anti-staphylococcal bactericidal antibiotics, such as semi-synthetic penicillins, cephalosporins, or glycopeptides, are effective when given prophylactically in clinical conditions or experimental trials of implant-related infections. However, the efficacy of all anti-staphylococcal agents is seriously diminished on already established implant-related deep-seated infections, which then frequently require surgical implant removal to obtain a cure. The failure of antibiotic therapy to cure established staphylococcal foreign-body infections may arise in part from a broad-spectrum phenotypic tolerance expressed in vivo to different classes of antimicrobial agents. The molecular and physiological mechanisms of this in vivo tolerance remain poorly understood. PMID:16651066

  6. BLOOD TELOMERASE ACTIVITY AND ITS CORRELATIVITY WITH NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡坚; 李任远; 孙骊; 倪一鸣

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlativity between blood telomerase activity and Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) through relative quantitative analysis of telomerase activity. Methods: Thirty-eight NSCLC and 25 inpatients with benign lung disease were selected. Telomerase repeat amplification protocol was adopted. PCR products were assayed with ELISA. Results: (a) Blood telomerase activity during operation was higher than that before or after operation (P0.05). (c) Blood telomerase activity of adenocarcinoma during and after operation was higher than that before operation (P0.05). Conclusion: The qualitative assay of blood telomerase activity can be adopted as an assistant index for diagnosis of NSCLC. Postoperative blood telomerase activity of adenocarcinoma is higher than that of squamous carcinoma. It may be an evidence for the likelihood of adenocarcinoma to metastase through blood. Blood telomerase activity increases significantly during operation, suggesting that operation may cause more cancer cells entering into circulation.

  7. Determination of phosphodiesterase I activity in human blood serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynie, I; Meuffels, M; Poznanski, W J

    1975-09-01

    Phosphodiesterase I (EC 3.1.4.1) activity was detected in normal human blood serum. The enzyme is stable at laboratory temperature for three days, but is inactivated at pH less than 7. The pH for optimum activity increases with the substrate concentration (under the conditions used, from pH 9.0 to 10.2) and, conversely, the Km increases with pH and buffer concentration. The enzyme is inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetate but not by phosphate (0.1 mol/liter). We developed a simple quantitative method for its determination, based on hydrolysis of the p-nitrophenyl ester of thymidine 5'-monophosphate and subsequent measurement of the liberated p-nitrophenol at 400 nm in NaOH (0.1 mol/liter). Normal values (mean +/- 2 SD) were determined to be 33 +/- 6.4 U/liter. Preliminary studies indicate that phosphodiesterase I activity is greater than normal in serum of patients with necrotic changes in the liver or kidney or in cases of breast cancer, but not in that of patients with myocardial infarction, bone cancer, lung cancer, or chronic liver cirrhosis. PMID:168991

  8. Delayed bactericidal response of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to bedaquiline involves remodelling of bacterial metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Koul, Anil; Vranckx, Luc; Dhar, Neeraj; Gohlmann, Hinrich W. H.; Özdemir, Muhittin Emre; Neefs, Jean-Marc; Schulz, Melanie; Lu, Ping; Mortz, Ejvind; McKinney, John D.; Andries, Koen; Bald, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Bedaquiline (BDQ), an ATP synthase inhibitor, is the first drug to be approved for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in decades. Though BDQ has shown excellent efficacy in clinical trials, its early bactericidal activity during the first week of chemotherapy is minimal. Here, using microfluidic devices and time-lapse microscopy of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we confirm the absence of significant bacteriolytic activity during the first 3-4 days of exposure to BDQ. BDQ-induced inhib...

  9. Bactericidal effect of colistin on planktonic Pseudomonas aeruginosa is independent of hydroxyl radical formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brochmann, Rikke Prejh; Toft, Anders; Ciofu, Oana;

    2014-01-01

    The bactericidal effect of several major types of antibiotics has recently been demonstrated to be dependent on the formation of toxic amounts of hydroxyl radicals (OH·) resulting from oxidative stress in metabolically active cells. Since killing by the antimicrobial peptide colistin does not...... require bacterial metabolic activity, we tested whether the bactericidal effect of colistin depends on the formation of OH·. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures, OH-mediated killing by ciprofloxacin was demonstrated by decreased bacterial survival and induction of 3'-(p-hydroxyphenyl) fluorescein (HPF......· was seen in P. aeruginosa during killing by colistin, and prevention of OH· accumulation could not rescue P. aeruginosa from killing by colistin. These results therefore demonstrate that the bactericidal activity of colistin on P. aeruginosa is not dependent on oxidative stress. In conclusion...

  10. Bactericidal effect of a 405-nm diode laser on Porphyromonas gingivalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of 405-nm diode laser irradiation on periodontopathic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro. A diluted suspension of P. gingivalis was irradiated directly with a 405-nm diode laser under conditions of 100 mW-10 sec, 100 mW-20 sec, 200 mW-5 sec, 200 mW-10 sec, 200 mW-20 sec, 400 mW-5 sec, 400 mW-10 sec, and 400 mW-20 sec. The energy density ranged from 2.0 to 16.0 J/cm2. The irradiated bacterial suspension was spread on a blood agar plate and growth of the colonies was examined after an anaerobic culture for 7 days. Bacterial growth was inhibited under all irradiation conditions, but the bactericidal effect of the 405-nm diode laser depended on the energy density. More than 97% of bacterial growth was inhibited with irradiation at an energy density > 4.0 J/cm2. The mechanism of the bactericidal effect is photochemical, rather than photothermal. These findings suggest that a 405-nm diode laser has a high bactericidal effect on P. gingivalis

  11. Time impact on non-activated and kaolin-activated blood samples in thromboelastography

    OpenAIRE

    Durila, Miroslav; Lukáš, Pavel; Bronský, Jiří; Cvachovec, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Background The correct methodology of thrombelastography might be influenced by elapsing time. In our study we investigated kaolin activated citrated samples together with non-activated citrated samples in relation to the elapsed times of 0, 15 and 30 minutes to compare both methods and to find out if there is an impact of time on results of thrombelastography. Methods Blood samples obtained from 10 healthy volunteers were analyzed after 0, 15 and 30 minutes from sampling with kaolin activati...

  12. Hierarchical polymer coating for optimizing the antifouling and bactericidal efficacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shunjie; Song, Lingjie; Li, Zhihong; Luan, Shifang; Shi, Hengchong; Xin, Zhirong; Li, Shenghai; Yang, Yuming; Yin, Jinghua

    2016-10-01

    The bacteria-repellent and bactericidal functionalities in a single system are generally need to be carefully optimized in order to obtain the highest antibacterial performance. In this study, the controlled SI-PIMP strategy was developed for creating hierarchical polymer brushes possessing the bacteria-repellent and bactericidal functionalities. To obtain a bactericidal surface with minimal interference to its nonfouling property, optimization studies were conducted by facilely tailoring the surface density of the quaternary ammonium compound moieties through control over the monomer concentration. An optimal hierarchical polymer coating showed potent protein and bacteria repellence as well as certain bactericidal property. The longlasting antibacterial performance was also achieved due to the good balance between the dual functionalities. The tenability of the hierarchical polymer coating is applicable to surface chemistries for biosensors, molecular imaging, and biomedical applications. PMID:27363527

  13. The bactericidal effect of a Genius (R) Nd : YAG laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, A.A.; Reijden, W.A. van der; Winkelhoff, A.J. van; Weijden, G.A. van der

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the 'in vitro' bactericidal effect of the Nd:YAG laser (Genius, MØlsgaard Dental, Copenhagen, Denmark) on six periodontal pathogens. METHODS: Suspensions of six different periodontal pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedi

  14. Investigation of the bactericidal effects of vancomycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin on Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    OpenAIRE

    HOŞGÖR-LİMONCU, Mine; ERMERTCAN, Şafak; COŞAR, Güner

    2004-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the correlation between the bactericidal activity of vancomycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D) on Staphylococcus aureus isolates and their minimal inhibition concentrations. The in-vitro susceptibilities of the 99 S. aureus isolates to vancomycin and Q/D were investigated by agar dilution. Thirty methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 30 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) vancomycin and Q/D susceptible isolates were involved in time-kill stu...

  15. Mechanisms of Bactericidal Action of Cinnamaldehyde against Listeria monocytogenes and of Eugenol against L. monocytogenes and Lactobacillus sakei

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Alexander O.; Holley, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    The spice oil components eugenol and cinnamaldehyde possess activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, but the mechanisms of action remain obscure. In broth media at 20°C, 5 mM eugenol or 30 mM cinnamaldehyde was bactericidal (>1-log reduction in the number of CFU per milliliter in 1 h) to Listeria monocytogenes. At a concentration of 6 mM eugenol was bactericidal to Lactobacillus sakei, but treatment with 0.5 M cinnamaldehyde had no significant effect. To investigate the...

  16. Reinforcement of the bactericidal effect of ciprofloxacin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm by hyperbaric oxygen treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolpen, Mette; Mousavi, Nabi; Sams, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    diffusive supply for aerobic respiration during ciprofloxacin treatment. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates that biofilm reoxygenation by HBOT can significantly enhance the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin on P. aeruginosa. Combining ciprofloxacin treatment with HBOT thus clearly has potential...... mechanisms affecting antibiotic effectiveness on biofilms remain unclear, accumulating evidence suggests that the efficacy of several bactericidal antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin is enhanced by stimulation of the aerobic respiration of pathogens, and that lack of O2 increases their tolerance. Reoxygenation...... of O2-depleted biofilms may thus improve susceptibility to ciprofloxacin possibly by restoring aerobic respiration. We tested such a strategy using reoxygenation of O2-depleted P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 agarose-embedded biofilms by hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) (100% O2, 2.8bar), enhancing the...

  17. Bactericidal Antibiotics Do Not Appear To Cause Oxidative Stress in Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feld, Louise; Knudsen, Gitte Maegaard; Gram, Lone

    2012-01-01

    to cause oxidative stress in L. monocytogenes and propose that this is caused by its noncyclic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) pathway. Hence, in this noncyclic metabolism, there is a decoupling between the antibiotic-mediated cellular requirement for NADH and the induction of TCA enzyme activity, which......Oxidative stress can be an important contributor to the lethal effect of bactericidal antibiotics in some bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, despite the different target-specific actions of bactericidal antibiotics, they have a common mechanism leading to bacterial...... self-destruction by internal production of hydroxyl radicals. The purpose of the present study was to determine if a similar mechanism is involved in antibiotic killing of the infectious human pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes. We treated wild-type L. monocytogenes and oxidative stress mutants (Δsod...

  18. Alpha-amylase activity in blood increases after pharmacological, but not psychological, activation of the adrenergic system

    OpenAIRE

    Nater, Urs M.; Roberto La Marca; Katja Erni; Ulrike Ehlert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIM: Alpha-amylase in both blood and saliva has been used as a diagnostic parameter. While studies examining alpha-amylase activity in saliva have shown that it is sensitive to physiological and psychological challenge of the adrenergic system, no challenge studies have attempted to elucidate the role of the adrenergic system in alpha-amylase activity in blood. We set out to examine the impact of psychological and pharmacological challenge on alpha-amylase in blood in two separat...

  19. Leptospira interrogans activation of peripheral blood monocyte glycolipoprotein demonstrated in whole blood by the release of IL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dorigatti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycolipoprotein (GLP from pathogenic serovars of Leptospira has been implicated in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis by its presence in tissues of experimental animals with leptospirosis, the inhibition of the Na,K-ATPase pump activity, and induced production of cytokines. The aims of the present study were to investigate the induction of IL-6 by GLP in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and to demonstrate monocyte stimulation at the cellular level in whole blood from healthy volunteers. PBMC were stimulated with increasing concentrations (5 to 2500 ng/ml of GLP extracted from the pathogenic L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni, lipopolysaccharide (positive control or medium (negative control, and supernatants were collected after 6, 20/24, and 48 h, and kept at -80ºC until use. Whole blood was diluted 1:1 in RPMI medium and cultivated for 6 h, with medium, GLP and lipopolysaccharide as described above. Monensin was added after the first hour of culture. Supernatant cytokine levels from PBMC were measured by ELISA and intracellular IL-6 was detected in monocytes in whole blood cultures by flow-cytometry. Monocytes were identified in whole blood on the basis of forward versus side scatter parameters and positive reactions with CD45 and CD14 antibodies. GLP ( > or = 50 ng/ml-induced IL-6 levels in supernatants were detected after 6-h incubation, reaching a peak after 20/24 h. The percentage of monocytes staining for IL-6 increased with increasing GLP concentration. Thus, our findings show a GLP-induced cellular activation by demonstrating the ability of GLP to induce IL-6 and the occurrence of monocyte activation in whole blood at the cellular level.

  20. The Application of Bactericidal Silver Nanoparticles in Wound Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geewoo Nam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Even with the prevalence of wounds, the medical technol‐ ogy for efficiently managing skin damage is still primitive. The disruption of any of the numerous healing processes can lead to problems in the time-sensitive healing actions of the dermal and epidermal layers. Bacterial infection is one of the major obstacles to proper wound healing as it poses a danger of causing long-term negative effects. Keeping the wound free of bacteria is imperative to the proper and hasty repair of dermal wounds. Silver has been widely used to treat wounds for its bactericidal properties. Although the mechanism of silver’s antibacterial action is not fully understood, it exhibits a significant antimicrobial efficacy against a wide spectrum of bacterial species. A number of different approaches to the mechanism are reported and presented in this review. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have been reported to exhibit enhanced antibac‐ terial activity due to their increased surface-area-to-volume ratio. AgNPs are capable of various modifications, signifi‐ cantly broadening the therapeutic properties of the mate‐ rial as a result. This review explores the different aspects of silver and silver nanoparticles, and their antibacterial properties, which can be applied in the field of wound treatments.

  1. Bioprotective properties of Dragon's blood resin: In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rajinder K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food preservation is basically done to preserve the natural characteristics and appearance of the food and to increase the shelf life of food. Food preservatives in use are natural, chemical and artificial. Keeping in mind the adverse effects of synthetic food preservatives, there is a need to identify natural food preservatives. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Dragon's blood resin obtained from Dracaena cinnabari Balf f., with a view to develop safer food preservatives. Methods In this study, three solvents of varying polarity were used to extract and separate the medium and high polarity compounds from the non-polar compounds of the Dragon's blood resin. The extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against the food borne pathogens. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were assessed using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging, FRAP, metal chelating and reducing power assays. Total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols of extracts were also estimated using the standard methods. Results Phytochemical analysis of extracts revealed high phenolic content in CH2Cl2 extract of resin. Free radical scavenging of CH2Cl2 extract was found to be highest which is in good correlation with its total phenolic content. All test microorganisms were also inhibited by CH2Cl2 extract. Conclusions Our result provide evidence that CH2Cl2 extract is a potential source of natural antioxidant compounds and exhibited good inhibitory activity against various food borne pathogens. Thus, CH2Cl2 extract of Dragon's blood resin could be considered as possible source of food preservative.

  2. Silver nanoparticles influence on the blood activation process and their release to blood plasma from synthetic polymer scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, R.; Lackner, J. M.; Sanak, M.; Major, B.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, blood and blood plasma interaction to silver stabilised polyelectrolytes was investigated in vitro. The designed materials are dedicated for regeneration of the cardiovascular system. Silver nanoparticles were introduced into the polyelectrolyte structure in order to reduce the risk of bacterial biofilm formation. The introduction of Ag nanoparticles occurred by deposition at high vacuum by magnetron sputtering. The analysis of blood-materials interactions were performed by using commercially available tester, Impact-R (Diamed). The assessment of silver ion nanoparticles release into the plasma consisted in determining the Prothrombin Time (PT) and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT). Unmodified surface of polyelectrolytes is a strong activator for blood elements. The introduction of silver nanoparticles resulted in a significant reduction in the probability of clotting. The extrinsic pathway of coagulation determined on the basis of the PT and the intrinsic and common pathways of coagulation measured by the APTT did not indicate the danger out of range. Microstructure was studied using TEM on thin foils prepared from the cross-section of samples subjected to biomedical treatments. The observations revealed hetero- interface between two different crystalline solids.

  3. Endothelial Dysfunction and Blood Viscosity Inpatients with Unstable Angina in Different Periods of a Solar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshina, S. S.; Tokaeva, L. K.; Dolgova, E. M.; Afanas'yeva, T. N.; Strelnikova, O. A.

    The origin of hemorheologic and endothelial defects in patients with unstable angina (comparing with healthy persons) is determined by a solar activity period: the blood viscosity increases in a period of high solar activity in the vessels of small, medium and macro diameters, a local decompensate dysfunction of small vessels endothelium had been fixed (microcirculation area). In the period of a low solar activity there is an increase of a blood viscosity in vessels of all diameters, generalized subcompensated endothelial dysfunction is developed (on the background of the III phase blood clotting activating). In the period of a high solar activity a higher blood viscosity had been fixed, comparing with the period of a low solar activity.

  4. Lipid peroxidation in rat blood following a single administration of different active 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peroxidation in rat blood male Wistar by chemiluminescence single ingestion of radioactive iodine was investigated. Introduction of activity (3.3, 19.2 and 90 kBq per animal) cause changes in the indices of the chemiluminescent reaction (sum light emission, the final intensity of the glow, the time to reach maximum values), the value of which is not significantly dependent on the administration of the active isotope was shown. There were no significant changes in catalase activity in the blood. The features of the flow processes of peroxide in the blood of rats with single administration 131I were discussed

  5. The influence on PGI2-like activity of blood vessel wall following γ ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the previous work, it has been shown that the reaction of blood platelet aggregation is risen during the early days following γ ray irradiation of large doses. In this paper, the changes of Rat PGI2-like activity with inhibiting platelet aggregation after γ ray irradiation of 8 Gy are reported. The results indicated that the activity was reduced at the first day after radiation, then recovered at the third day, lowered again at the 5-7 days. The changes have significant concern between the increase of blood platelet aggregation of Rats and the inhibition of PGI2-like activity of blood vessel wall following γ ray irradiation

  6. Personality traits of aggression-submissiveness and perfectionism associate with ABO blood groups through catecholamine activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobgood, Donna K

    2011-08-01

    Personality trait research has shown associations with many genes, prominently those of the catecholamine metabolism such as dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). Because DBH gene is in linkage disequilibrium with ABO gene, there is reason to think that other catecholamine genes using the same substrate as DBH may also have associations with ABO blood groups, and this paper demonstrates how this may be so. Reasons include similarities in hapmap population frequency distributions, similarities in illness risks between ABO blood groups and DBH activities as well as between ABO blood groups and COMT activities and between ABO blood groups and MAOA activities. If ABO blood groups can be demonstrated to associate with all these catecholamine genes, then the catecholamine personality trait research can be applied to ABO blood groups and tested for confirmation. ABO blood typing is widely available and affords ability to test this hypothesis and thus confirm the possible joint association of personality traits of aggression-submissiveness and perfectionism to catecholamine genes and to ABO blood groups. Clinical applications and implications are discussed. PMID:21601990

  7. Keeping the blood flowing—plasminogen activator genes and feeding behavior in vampire bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellgren-Roth, Åsa; Dittmar, Katharina; Massey, Steven E.; Kemi, Cecilia; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Savolainen, Peter; Lyons, Leslie A.; Liberles, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The blood feeding vampire bats emerged from New World leaf-nosed bats that fed on fruit and insects. Plasminogen activator, a serine protease that regulates blood coagulation, is known to be expressed in the saliva of Desmodus rotundus (common vampire bat) and is thought to be a key enzyme for the emergence of blood feeding in vampire bats. To better understand the evolution of this biological function, we studied the plasminogen activator (PA) genes from all vampire bat species in light of their feeding transition to bird and subsequently mammalian blood. We include the rare species Diphylla ecaudata and Diaemus youngi, where plasminogen activator had not previously been studied and demonstrate that PA gene duplication observed in Desmodus is not essential to the vampire phenotype, but relates to the emergence of predominant mammalian blood feeding in this species. Plasminogen activator has evolved through gene duplication, domain loss, and sequence evolution leading to change in fibrin-specificity and susceptibility to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Before undertaking this study, only the four plasminogen activator isoforms from Desmodus were known. The evolution of vampire bat plasminogen activators can now be linked phylogenetically to the transition in feeding behavior among vampire bat species from bird to mammalian blood.

  8. Guanfacine in essential hypertension: Effect on blood pressure, plasma noradrenaline concentration and plasma renin activity

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeppe, W; Brecht, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    1 The acute and chronic effects of guanfacine on blood pressure, plasma noradrenaline concentration and plasma renin activity were investigated in 23 patients (15 males, 8 females) with essential hypertension (WHO grade I-II).

  9. Studies on bactericidal efficacy of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) peel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    El Zawane Kamarudin; Qamar Uddin Ahmed; Zuvairea Nazren Mohd Sirajudin; Ahmad Jalal Khan Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the in vitro antibacterial potential of the peel of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne (tropical pumpkin) (C. moschata) against human pathogenic bacteria. Methods:In the present study, dichloromethane (DCM), methanol (MEOH) and aqueous extracts of C. moschata peel were examined for in vitro antibacterial potency against eight bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus cereus, Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility and broth micro-dilution methods. Results: DCM extract of pumpkin peel exhibited the maximum zone of inhibition against Staphyloccocus aureus (21 mm) whereas aqueous extract of pumpkin peel revealed the least zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (8 mm). MEOH extract gave maximum zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aerugenosa (19 mm). Broth micro-dilution method showed minimum inhibitory concentration for the DCM extract against Burkholderia cepacia at 6.25 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations were also determined to know the nature of all extracts. DCM and MEOH extracts exhibited bactericidal nature to all bacterial strains except for the Vibrio alginolyticus. The minimum bactericidal concentrations values exhibited bactericidal nature ranging from 3.12 mg/mL to 100.00 mg/mL. The screening of antimicrobial properties of different extracts of C. moschata peel revealed that the DCM extract possessed good antimicrobial efficacy compared to MEOH and aqueous extracts. Conclusions: Peel of C. moschata possesses antibacterial compounds and could be potential source for a new class of antibiotics.

  10. Bactericidal action of cold atmospheric plasma in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study different influences on the bactericidal effect of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) were investigated intensively. In detail, different initial densities of Escherichia coli cells and different treatment times of up to 8 min were studied. The results show that up to densities of 105 cells per 20 μl high reduction rates of up to 5 log can be achieved in less than 3 min of CAP application. In contrast, for higher cell densities almost no reduction was measured for CAP treatment times of up to 8 min. To understand this data in detail, a theoretical model was developed. This model starts from the premise that bacteria are able to some degree to neutralize reactive species and that accordingly the bactericidal effect depends on the bacterial concentration. A further purpose of this study was to analyze the contribution of reactive oxygen and also reactive nitrogen species—produced by the CAP—to the bactericidal effect. We therefore measured nitrites, nitrates and hydrogen peroxide—products of chemical reactions between the species produced by the CAP and the liquid. The evidence of nitric oxide (NO) uptake in bacteria and the corresponding reference experiments with hydrogen peroxide and a chemical NO donor clearly show that the bactericidal effect of CAP is related to a combination of oxidative and nitrosative effects. (paper)

  11. Oligo-2',5'-adenylate synthetase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes in various diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, N; Kotake, S.; Hirose, S; Ohno, S; Yasuda, I.; Sagawa, A; Ishikawa, K.; Minagawa, T

    1984-01-01

    Interferon induces oligo-2',5'-adenylate synthetase in cells. In various diseases, interferon was detectable in the circulation or was produced spontaneously from peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes. The oligo-2',5'-adenylate synthetase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes was examined in various diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, and Behcet's disease. The activity of this enzyme was significantly increased in system...

  12. Aggregation activity of blood formed elements in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Il'ich Kuznik; Yuriy Antonovich Vitkovskiy; Marina Yur'evna Zakharova; Natal'ya Nikolaevna Klyuchereva; Ol'ga Sergeevna Rodnina; Aleksey Vladimirovich Solpov

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To assess differences in blood formed elements aggregation activity in patients with type 1 (T1) and type 2 (T2) diabetes mellitus (DM). Materials and methods. We studied blood samples from 88 patients with T1 and T2 DM. Platelet aggregation activity was assessed by means of «Biola» aggregometer; we also determined platelet-lymphocyte and leucocyte-erythrocyte adhesion intensity. Results. We show that spontaneous platelet aggregation is markedly increased in patients with T1...

  13. Moringa oleifera Lam.: Protease activity against blood coagulation cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Satish

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The present study evaluated the protease activity of aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae leaf (MOL and root (MOR. Materials and Methods : Protease activity was assayed using casein, human plasma clot and human fibrinogen as substrates. Results : Caseinolytic activity of MOL was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05 than that of MOR. Similar observations were found in case of human plasma clot hydrolyzing activity, wherein MOL caused significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05 plasma clot hydrolysis than MOR. Zymographic techniques were used to detect proteolytic enzymes following electrophoretic separation in gels. Further, both the extracts exhibited significant procoagulant activity as reflected by a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05 in recalcification time, accompanied by fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activities; clotting time was decreased from 180 ± 10 sec to 119 ± 8 sec and 143 ± 10 sec by MOL and MOR, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL. Fibrinogenolytic (human fibrinogen and fibrinolytic activity (human plasma clot was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, plate method and colorimetric method. Zymographic profile indicated that both the extracts exerted their procoagulant activity by selectively hydrolyzing Aa and Bb subunits of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot, thereby exhibiting fibrinogenolytic activity. However, prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot, suggesting fibrinolytic like activity. Conclusions : These findings support the traditional usage of M. oleifera extracts for wound healing.

  14. Advances of Studies on Mechanisms of Drugs for Activating Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis in Treatment of Primary Liver Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Primary liver cancer is mainly characterized by the mass in hypochondriac region, stabbing pain at a fixative region, tenderness, dim complexion,vascular spider, vein exposure, livid tongue,ecchymosis, taut and uneven pulse and other symptoms of blood stasis. Experimental studies have found that the patient with liver cancer is often accompanied with disturbance of microcirculation,increase of blood viscosity and high blood agglutinative state. Therefore, activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis is clinically an important therapy for primary liver cancer. A great number of studies on the mechanisms have been carried out in China and other countries. The follow is a review about the mechanisms.

  15. Systems biology of coagulation initiation: kinetics of thrombin generation in resting and activated human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash S Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Blood function defines bleeding and clotting risks and dictates approaches for clinical intervention. Independent of adding exogenous tissue factor (TF, human blood treated in vitro with corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI, to block Factor XIIa will generate thrombin after an initiation time (T(i of 1 to 2 hours (depending on donor, while activation of platelets with the GPVI-activator convulxin reduces T(i to ∼20 minutes. Since current kinetic models fail to generate thrombin in the absence of added TF, we implemented a Platelet-Plasma ODE model accounting for: the Hockin-Mann protease reaction network, thrombin-dependent display of platelet phosphatidylserine, VIIa function on activated platelets, XIIa and XIa generation and function, competitive thrombin substrates (fluorogenic detector and fibrinogen, and thrombin consumption during fibrin polymerization. The kinetic model consisting of 76 ordinary differential equations (76 species, 57 reactions, 105 kinetic parameters predicted the clotting of resting and convulxin-activated human blood as well as predicted T(i of human blood under 50 different initial conditions that titrated increasing levels of TF, Xa, Va, XIa, IXa, and VIIa. Experiments with combined anti-XI and anti-XII antibodies prevented thrombin production, demonstrating that a leak of XIIa past saturating amounts of CTI (and not "blood-borne TF" alone was responsible for in vitro initiation without added TF. Clotting was not blocked by antibodies used individually against TF, VII/VIIa, P-selectin, GPIb, protein disulfide isomerase, cathepsin G, nor blocked by the ribosome inhibitor puromycin, the Clk1 kinase inhibitor Tg003, or inhibited VIIa (VIIai. This is the first model to predict the observed behavior of CTI-treated human blood, either resting or stimulated with platelet activators. CTI-treated human blood will clot in vitro due to the combined activity of XIIa and XIa, a process enhanced by platelet activators and which proceeds

  16. Cell-wall determinants of the bactericidal action of group IIA phospholipase A2 against Gram-positive bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Foreman-Wykert, Amy K.; Weinrauch, Yvette; Elsbach, Peter; Weiss, Jerrold

    1999-01-01

    We have shown previously that a group IIA phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is responsible for the potent bactericidal activity of inflammatory fluids against many Gram-positive bacteria. To exert its antibacterial activity, this PLA2 must first bind and traverse the bacterial cell wall to produce the extensive degradation of membrane phospholipids (PL) required for bacterial killing. In this study, we have examined the properties of the cell-wall that may determine the potency of group IIA PLA2 action...

  17. Xenoestrogenic activity in blood of European and Inuit populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manicardi Gian-Carlo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs is ubiquitous and found in all individuals. Studies have documented endocrine disrupting effects and impact on reproduction. The aim of the present study was to compare the level of xenoestrogenic activity in serum of groups with varying POP exposure, and to evaluate correlations to the POP biomarkers, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153 and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl-ethylene (p,p'-DDE. Methods The study included 358 men: Greenlandic Inuit's, Swedish fishermen, and Warsaw (Poland and Kharkiv (Ukraine inhabitants. Xenoestrogenicity of serum extracts alone (XER and XER competitive (XERcomp effect on 17β-estradiol induced estrogen receptor (ER transactivity were assessed in the hormone free, lipophilic serum fraction containing the POPs using the MVLN human breast cancer cell line. Results No agonistic XER activity was exhibited for Inuit serum samples, while 12 – 24% of the European samples had detectable agonistic XER activity. On the contrary, 71% of Inuit serum samples antagonized XERcomp compared to 7 – 30 % in the other regions. XER and XERcomp were not or weakly correlated to the two POP markers. XER activity of Inuit samples was negatively associated to levels of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE. For the Warsaw group a positive and negative correlation between XER and p,p'-DDE and estradiol equivalence level and CB-153 levels was found. Conclusion No strong consistent association between xenoestrogenic net activity and the two POP markers was found. The results showed that the selected POP markers alone can not predict the integrated xenoestrogenic serum activity. Correlations to the POP markers were found at the extreme edge; the Inuit's and Warsaw study groups eliciting high frequency of samples with ER antagonistic and agonistic activity, respectively. We suggest that the variation in xenoestrogenic serum activity reflects differences in POP exposure

  18. Structure of ganglioside with CAD blood group antigen activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The novel erythrocyte ganglioside which carries the blood group Cad determinant has been isolated, and its structure has been determined. The ganglioside contained Glu:Gal:GalNAc:GlcNAc in a molar ratio of 1.00:1.94:0.93:0.95. The ganglioside binds Helix pomatia lectin and its chromatographic mobility is similar to G/sub D3/. After treatment with β-hexosaminidase (human placenta HexA) the product migrated with sialosylparagloboside (SPG), no longer binds Helix lectin, and binds a human anti-SPG antibody. Treatment of this material with neuraminidase (V. cholera) yielded a product with the mobility of paragloboside that bound monoclonal antibody 1B2. NMR analysis revealed that the terminal GalNAc is linked β1-4 to Gal, and confirms the structure proposed previously: GalNAcβ1-4(NeuAcα2-3)Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-3Galβ1-4Glc-Cer. This structure is consistent with the previous demonstration that a compound with the same chromatographic mobility as the Cad ganglioside could be synthesized by enzymatic transfer of GalNAc to sialosylparagloboside

  19. Clostridium perfringens alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase blood group A2-degrading activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Smith, Daniel

    2003-04-01

    Enzymic modification of type A(2) erythrocyte membranes with Clostridium perfringens alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase was investigated. An ELISA demonstrated hydrolysis of type A(2) epitopes under conditions of red-blood-cell collection and storage. The enzyme hydrolysed the terminal N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine from the blood type A(2) antigen, producing H antigen, blood group O, which is universally compatible in the ABO system. The enzyme was active in common red-cell preservative solutions at pH 6.4-7.0, at 4 degrees C, at ionic strengths found in stored red cell units and in the presence of type A plasma. These data imply that the C. perfringens alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase might be added directly to packed A(2) red-blood-cell units for enzymic conversion to blood type O. Further studies are warranted. PMID:12630904

  20. The bactericidal effect of carbon nanotube/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared light on Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dental caries are mainly associated with oral pathogens, and Streptococcus mutans is a primary cariogenic organism. Many methods have been established to eliminate S. mutans from the oral cavity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of carbon nanotube (CNT)/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) light on S. mutans, as a potential photothermal antimicrobial nanotherapy. A colony-forming unit assay clearly showed that CNT/agar composites attain bactericidal activity after NIR light irradiation; this bactericidal activity is higher than that of graphite (GP)/agar and activated carbon (AC)/agar composites. Furthermore, it was observed that longer irradiation times immobilized S. mutans in the CNT/agar composite.

  1. The bactericidal effect of carbon nanotube/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared light on Streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akasaka, Tsukasa, E-mail: akasaka@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Matsuoka, Makoto [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Hashimoto, Takeshi [Meijo Nano Carbon Co. Ltd., Otsubashi bldg. 4F, 3-4-10 Marunouchi, Naka-ku, Nagoya 460-0002 (Japan); Abe, Shigeaki; Uo, Motohiro; Watari, Fumio [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Dental caries are mainly associated with oral pathogens, and Streptococcus mutans is a primary cariogenic organism. Many methods have been established to eliminate S. mutans from the oral cavity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of carbon nanotube (CNT)/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) light on S. mutans, as a potential photothermal antimicrobial nanotherapy. A colony-forming unit assay clearly showed that CNT/agar composites attain bactericidal activity after NIR light irradiation; this bactericidal activity is higher than that of graphite (GP)/agar and activated carbon (AC)/agar composites. Furthermore, it was observed that longer irradiation times immobilized S. mutans in the CNT/agar composite.

  2. Antibacterial properties and mechanism of graphene oxide-silver nanocomposites as bactericidal agents for water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Biao; Zhang, Chang; Zeng, Guangming; Gong, Jilai; Chang, Yingna; Jiang, Yan

    2016-08-15

    Providing clean and affordable drinking water without harmful disinfection byproducts generated by conventional chemical disinfectants gives rise to the need for technological innovation. Nanotechnology has great potential in purifying water and wastewater treatment. A graphene oxide-silver (GO-Ag) nanocomposite with excellent antibacterial activity was prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The tests were carried out using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as model strains of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. The effect of bactericide dosage and pH on antibacterial activity of GO-Ag was examined. Morphological observation of bacterial cells by scanning electron microscope showed that GO-Ag was much more destructive to cell membrane of Escherichia coli than that of Staphylococcus aureus. Experiments were carried out using catalase, superoxide dismutase and sodium thioglycollate to investigate the formation of reactive oxygen species and free silver ions in the bactericidal process. The activity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes was measured to investigate the potential role of oxidative stress. According to the consequence, synergetic mechanism including destruction of cell membranes and oxidative stress accounted for the antibacterial activity of GO-Ag nanocomposites. All the results suggested that GO-Ag nanocomposites displayed a good potential for application in water disinfection. PMID:27170600

  3. An investigation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities from blood components of Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosri, Santi; Mahakunakorn, Pramote; Lueangsakulthai, Jiraporn; Jangpromma, Nisachon; Swatsitang, Prasan; Daduang, Sakda; Dhiravisit, Apisak; Thammasirirak, Sompong

    2014-10-01

    Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were found from Crocodylus siamensis (C. siamensis) blood. The 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and linoleic peroxidation assays were used to investigate the antioxidant activities of the crocodile blood. Results show that crocodile blood components had antioxidant activity, especially hemoglobin (40.58 % nitric oxide radical inhibition), crude leukocyte extract (78 % linoleic peroxidation inhibition) and plasma (57.27 % hydroxyl radical inhibition). Additionally, the anti-inflammatory activity of the crocodile blood was studied using murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) as a model. The results show that hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. Also they showed anti-inflammatory activity by reduced nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) productions from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells. The NO inhibition percentages of hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma were 31.9, 48.24 and 44.27 %, respectively. However, only crude leukocyte extract could inhibit IL-6 production. So, the results of this research directly indicate that hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma of C. siamensis blood provide both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which could be used as a supplementary agent in pharmaceutical products. PMID:25216803

  4. Changes of human leukocyte phagocytic activity after ultraviolet irradiation of blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phagocytic activity of human mono- and granulocytes increased markedly after UV blood irradiation in the apparatus ''Izolda'' used in hospitals of the USSR for medical treatment. With the rise of irradiation dose the ratio of cells ingesting latex particles increased, although the average number of particles ingested per cell decreased. The integrative phagocytic index poorly depended on the irradiation dose. In patients with a low initial level of phagocytic index, after UV blood irradiation it became more pronounced than in those with the initial elevated level. The enhancement of phagocytic activity is the result of a direct UV-stimulation of cells. This stimulation not mediated by irradiated blood plasma is known to inhibit the phagocytic activity of leucocytes. A possible mechanism of phagocytic activity stimulation is discussed discussed

  5. Bioluminescent imaging of ABCG2 efflux activity at the blood-placenta barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Jeyan S.; Bih-Rong Wei; Madigan, James P.; R Mark Simpson; Hall, Matthew D; Gottesman, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Physiologic barriers such as the blood placenta barrier (BPB) and the blood brain barrier protect the underlying parenchyma from pathogens and toxins. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are transmembrane proteins found at these barriers, and function to efflux xenobiotics and maintain chemical homeostasis. Despite the plethora of ex vivo and in vitro data showing the function and expression of ABC transporters, no imaging modality exists to study ABC transporter activity in vivo at the B...

  6. Effect of Active and Passive Recovery on Athletes' White Blood Cell Count

    OpenAIRE

    P. Piraki, MA; Kh. Ebrahim; F. Karimi; A Anissian

    2008-01-01

    Background and ObjectivesExercise affects the immune system. The aim of this study is comparison of the effect of active and passive recovery (AR and RR, respectively) on differential white blood cell (WBC) count after an exhaustive exercise session in athlete males.Methods Twenty male athletes who signed an informed consent form were randomly divided in to two equal groups. Their blood samples were drawn at rest, immediately after an exhaustive exercise session, immediately after 15 minutes ...

  7. Acute effects of electromagnetic stimulation of the brain on cortical activity, cortical blood flow, blood pressure and heart rate in the cat: an evaluation of safety.

    OpenAIRE

    Eyre, J A; Flecknell, P. A.; Kenyon, B R; Koh, T H; Miller, S.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of repeated high intensity electromagnetic stimulation of the brain on cortical activity, cortical blood flow, blood pressure and heart rate has been investigated in the cat, to evaluate the safety of the method. The observations have been made in preparations under propofol anaesthesia before, during and after periods of anoxia. Electromagnetic stimulation of the brain evoked activity in descending motor pathways and was recorded by activity in the median nerve and by muscle tw...

  8. A high-fat meal does not activate blood coagulation factor VII in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A K; Larsen, L F; Bladbjerg, E-M; Hansen, A K; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P

    2001-01-01

    It is a matter of debate whether postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII) is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. To clarify this question, an animal model in which consequences of dietary FVII activation can be studied in a more detailed way would be an important...

  9. Release of interleukin-1 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with tuberculosis and active inflammation.

    OpenAIRE

    Chensue, S. W.; Davey, M P; Remick, D. G.; Kunkel, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    Peripheral blood monocytes from patients with active tuberculosis and acute inflammatory disease showed spontaneous interleukin-1 production when compared with those from control patients or healthy controls. Moreover, interleukin-1 production appeared to be a more specific indicator of active disease than were other commonly used indices, such as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and serum C-reactive protein levels.

  10. Walking Activity, Body Composition and Blood Pressure in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual disabilities engage in limited physical activity which places their health at risk. This study examined the walking activity, body composition and blood pressure of adults with intellectual disabilities. Methods: A group of male and female adults (n = 103) wore a pedometer for 7 days and were categorized…

  11. Antitumor activities of human dendritic cells derived from peripheral and cord blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Kun Zhang; Jun Li; Hai-Bin Chen; Jin-Lun Sun; Yao-Juan Qu; Juan-Juan Lu

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To observe the biological specialization of humanperipheral blood dendritic cells (DC) and cord blood derivedDC and its effects on effector cells killing humanhepatocarcinoma cell line BEL-7402 in vitro.METHODS: The DC biological characteristics were detectedwith immunohistochemical and MTT assay. Two antitumorexperimental groups are: peripheral blood DC and cordblood DC groups. Peripheral blood DC groups used LAKcells as the effector cells and BEL-7402 as target cells, whilecord blood DC groups used CTL induced by tumor antigentwice pulsed DC as effector cells and BEL-7402 as targetcells, additional peripheral blood DC and cord blood DC areadded to observe its stimulating activities to effector cells.The effector's cytotoxicity to tumor cells were detected withneutral red colorimetric assay at two effector/target ratios of5:1 and 10: 1.RESULTS: Peripheral blood DC and cord blood DC highlyexpressed HLA-ABC, HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, CD54 and S-100protein. The stimulating activities to lymphocyteproliferation were compared between experimental groups(DC added) and control group (no DC added). In sixexperiment subgroups, the DC/lymphocyte ratio wassequentially 0.25: 100, 0.5: 100, 1: 100, 2: 100, 4: 100 and 8:100, A values(x± s) were 0.75396± 0.009, 0.84916± 0.010,0.90894± 0.012, 0.98371 ± 0.007, 1.01299 ± 0.006 and 1.20384± 0.006 in peripheral blood DC groups and 0.77650 ± 0.005,0.83008± 0.007, 0.92725 ± 0.007, 1.05990 ± 0.010, 1.15583 ±0.011, 1.22983 ± 0.011 in cord blood DC groups. A value was0.59517 ± 0.005 in control group. The stimulating activitieswere higher in experimental groups than in control group ( P< 0.01 ), which were increased when the DC concentrationwas enlarged ( P < 0.01 ). Two differently derived DCs hadthe same phenotypes and similar stimulating activities ( P >0.05). In peripheral blood DC groups, the cytotoxicity (x ±s) of the LD groups (experimental groups) and L groups(control group) was 58.16% ± 2.03% (5: 1), 46.18% ±2

  12. 淋病奈瑟菌rmp基因缺失突变株的构建及其抗体杀菌作用研究%Construction of a recombinant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain with rmp gene deletion and study on the bactericidal activities of its antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国才; 解如山; 冒艳丽; 刘双喜; 焦红梅; 陈红菊; 严华; 季明春

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the role of the outer membrane protein Rmp of Neisseria gonor-rhoeae strain in immunosuppression and the strategy of eliminating it .Methods The rmp gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain was amplified by PCR and inserted into pMD 19-T vector .The recombinant vector pMD 19△rmp∷Kan containing Kan and the 5′-and 3′-flanking regions of rmp (△rmp∷Kan) was constructed by replacing 200 nucleotide residues of pMD 19-rmp with kanamycin resistance gene Kan and transformed into Neisseria gonorrhoeae WHO-A strain.PCR and Western blot assay were used to screen and identify the re-combinant mutant strains that could not express Rmp .Mice were immunized with mutant strains and bacteri-cidal activities of the immune sera were detected by antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay.Results The mutant strains that could not encode Rmp were successfully constructed .Antibodies in-duced by mutant strains showed stronger bactericidal activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae in comparison with those induced by wild strains .Conclusion The recombinant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain with rmp gene de-letion might eliminate the immunosuppressive effects of Rmp expressed in wild gonococcal strains , which provides a reference for further development of novel live attenuated whole-cell vaccines of Neisseria gonor-rhoeae.%  目的研究淋病奈瑟菌的外膜蛋白Rmp在免疫阻抑中的作用及其消除策略。方法PCR扩增淋病奈瑟菌rmp基因,将rmp中间200个核苷酸残基用卡那霉素抗性基因Kan取代,含rmp两侧侧翼区和Kan的DNA片段△rmp∷Kan转化淋病奈瑟菌 WHO-A菌株,PCR和Western blot 鉴定野生rmp被突变基因(△rmp∷Kan)取代并不能表达Rmp的突变株。突变株免疫小鼠,并用抗体介导的补体杀菌作用研究免疫血清的抗菌活性。结果构建了rmp基因缺失的淋病奈瑟菌突变株,突变株诱生的抗体具有更强的杀伤淋病奈瑟菌活性。结论淋

  13. Xenoestrogenic activity in blood of European and Inuit populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Hjelmborg, Philip Sebastian; Reinert, Line S;

    2006-01-01

    ) inhabitants. Xenoestrogenicity of serum extracts alone (XER) and XER competitive (XERcomp) effect on 17beta-estradiol induced estrogen receptor (ER) transactivity were assessed in the hormone free, lipophilic serum fraction containing the POPs using the MVLN human breast cancer cell line. RESULTS: No...... markers. XER activity of Inuit samples was negatively associated to levels of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE. For the Warsaw group a positive and negative correlation between XER and p,p'-DDE and estradiol equivalence level and CB-153 levels was found. CONCLUSION: No strong consistent association between...

  14. MINIMUM INHIBITORY AND BACTERICIDAL CONCENTRATIONS OF THEAFLAVIN AND SYNGERGISTIC COMBINATIONS WITH EPICATECHIN AND QUERCETIN AGAINST CLINICAL ISOLATES OF STENOTROPHOMONAS MALTOPHILIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Haswell

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an important nosocomial pathogen with intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics. Previous investigations have shown flavanols from black tea to possess antibacterial activity. This study describes the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentration for theaflavin independently and in formulations with the polyphenols epicatechin and quercetin against nine clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and the control isolate NCTC 130141 via the microtitre assay. The results demonstrate that theaflavin has strong antibacterial activity and also shows significant synergism with epicatechin and quercetin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the isolates range between 200-400 g/mL for theaflavin and 100-200 g/mL for both theaflavin:epicatechin and theaflavin:quercetin combinations. The minimum bactericidal concentrations were discovered to be a 2 fold increase on those of the minimum inhibitory concentrations. The research highlights the potential use of polyphenols for the clinical treatment of highly antibiotic resistant bacteria

  15. Studies on bactericidal efficacy of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Zawane Kamarudin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: T o explore the in vitro antibacterial potential of the peel of Cucurbita moschata D uchesne ( tropical pumpkin ( C. moschata against human pathogenic bacteria. Methods: I n the present study, dichloromethane ( DCM , methanol ( MEOH and aqueous extracts of C. moschata peel were examined for in vitro antibacterial potency against eight bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus cereus, Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus using K irby- B auer disk diffusion susceptibility and broth micro-dilution methods. Results: DCM extract of pumpkin peel exhibited the maximum zone of inhibition against Staphyloccocus aureus ( 21 mm whereas aqueous extract of pumpkin peel revealed the least zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli ( 8 mm . MEOH extract gave maximum zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aerugenosa ( 19 mm . B roth micro-dilution method showed minimum inhibitory concentration for the DCM extract against Burkholderia cepacia at 6 . 25 mg/m L . T he minimum bactericidal concentrations were also determined to know the nature of all extracts. DCM and MEOH extracts exhibited bactericidal nature to all bacterial strains except for the Vibrio alginolyticus. T he minimum bactericidal concentrations values exhibited bactericidal nature ranging from 3 . 12 mg/m L to 100 . 00 mg/m L . T he screening of antimicrobial properties of different extracts of C. moschata peel revealed that the DCM extract possessed good antimicrobial efficacy compared to MEOH and aqueous extracts. Conclusions: P eel of C. moschata possesses antibacterial compounds and could be potential source for a new class of antibiotics.

  16. Bactericidal and cytotoxic effects of hypothiocyanite-hydrogen peroxide mixtures.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, J.; Edlund, M B; Hänström, L.

    1984-01-01

    Lactoperoxidase catalyzes the oxidation of thiocyanate by hydrogen peroxide into hypothiocyanite, a reaction which can protect bacterial and mammalian cells from killing by hydrogen peroxide. The present study demonstrates, however, that lactoperoxidase in the presence of thiocyanate can actually potentiate the bactericidal and cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide under specific conditions, such as when hydrogen peroxide is present in the reaction mixtures in excess of thiocyanate. The toxi...

  17. Subsets of memory CD4+ T cell and bactericidal antibody response to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C after immunization of HIV-infected children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar G Milagres

    Full Text Available Meningococcal disease is endemic in Brazil, with periodic outbreaks and case fatality rates reach as high as 18 to 20% of cases. Conjugate vaccines against meningococci are immunogenic in healthy children. However, we have previously shown a poor bactericidal antibody response to a Men C conjugate vaccine in Brazilian HIV-infected children and adolescents after a single vaccine administration. The goal of the present work was to investigate associations between bactericidal antibody response induced by MenC vaccine and the frequency and activation profile (expression of CD38, HLA-DR and CCR5 molecules of total CD4+ memory T cell sub-populations in HIV-1-infected children and adolescents. Responders to vaccination against MenC had a predominance (about 44% of CD4+ TINTERMEDIATE subset followed by TTRANSITIONAL memory subset (23 to 26%. Importantly, CD4+ TINT frequency was positively associated with bactericidal antibody response induced by vaccination. The positive correlation persisted despite the observation that the frequency TINT CD38+HLA-DR+ was higher in responders. In contrast, CD4+ TCENTRAL MEMORY (TCM subset negatively correlated with bactericidal antibodies. In conclusion, these data indicate that less differentiated CD+ T cells, like TCM may be constantly differentiating into intermediate and later differentiated CD4+ T cell subsets. These include CD4 TINT subset which showed a positive association with bactericidal antibodies.

  18. Electrospun biodegradable polymers loaded with bactericide agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaz Katsarava; del Valle, Luís J; Lourdes Franco; Jordi Puiggalí

    2016-01-01

    Development of materials with an antimicrobial activity is fundamental for different sectors, including medicine and health care, water and air treatment, and food packaging. Electrospinning is a versatile and economic technique that allows the incorporation of different natural, industrial, and clinical agents into a wide variety of polymers and blends in the form of micro/nanofibers. Furthermore, the technique is versatile since different constructs (e.g. those derived from single electrosp...

  19. Blood selenium and glutathione peroxidase activity of populations in New Zealand, Oregon, and South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whanger, P.D.; Beilstein, M.A.; Thomson, C.D.; Robinson, M.F.; Howe, M.

    1988-11-01

    The relationship of whole blood selenium (Se) to glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity was examined for individuals in New Zealand, Oregon, and South Dakota who represented, respectively, populations with exposure to low, medium, and high amounts of Se. The mean (respective) blood Se levels were 60, 200, and 400 ng/ml. Intergroup differences in blood Se levels were highly significant. GPX assays were performed using two variations of an enzyme-coupled procedure to assess the equivalence of the two methods. Despite a fourfold difference in absolute activities measured by these methods, the GPX activities were highly correlated between procedures. Average blood GPX activity was significantly lower for the New Zealand group compared with the other two groups, but there was no difference in GPX activities between the Oregon and South Dakota groups. Linear regression of GPX vs. Se values within each group indicated a significant correlation of these parameters only in the New Zealand group. Comparison of these parameters for combined data from all three groups also showed a significant positive correlation. A saturation model (ln GPX = k{sub 1} + k{sub 2} (Se){sup {minus}1}) fits the combined data better than does direct comparison of the two parameters. These results suggest that GPX activity is an appropriate indicator of human Se status only in populations with below normal exposure to Se, as activity of this enzyme is saturated at relatively low levels.

  20. Rapid infrared determination of the potency of chlorinated bactericides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, F; Cestaro, J P

    1971-06-01

    A rapid infrared reflectance method for evaluating the germicidal potency of synthetic materials containing various amounts of two chlorinated bactericides was developed. The dimeric product 2,2'-methylenebis (4,6-dichlorophenol) exhibited a characteristic C=C skeletal inplane stretching infrared absorption band at 1,640 cm(-1). The monomeric 2,4-dichlorophenol precursor showed a characteristic absorption band at 1,579 cm(-1). These characteristic infrared absorptions may be used for analysis of the potency of the manufactured chlorinated bactericide. For a series of samples known to vary in dimer content, the micrograms per milliliter required for a 100% bacterial kill is first determined by a standard American Petroleum Institute method. Then the area ratio of the infrared absorption bands characteristic of the chlorinated bactericides is measured for each sample and plotted versus the microgram per milliliter required for 100% bacterial kill. The potency of subsequent samples is simply and rapidly determined by measuring this ratio from the infrared absorption curve and calculating micrograms per milliliter required for 100% kill from the calibration curve. Analysis time is approximately 1 hr compared to biocidal tests in current use requiring approximately a 1-month incubation period. PMID:5564677

  1. Polyurethane foams doped with stable silver nanoparticles as bactericidal and catalytic materials for the effective treatment of water

    OpenAIRE

    Domènech Garcia, Berta; Ziegler Benítez, Kharla; Vigués Frantzen, Núria; Olszewski, Wojciech; Marini, Carlo; Mas Gordi, Jordi; Muñoz Tapia, Maria; Muraviev, Dmitri N; Macanás de Benito, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The development of reusable dual-purpose nanocomposite foams for catalytic and bactericidal water treatment is reported. Small non-aggregated silver nanoparticles were made using Intermatrix Synthesis inside a polyurethane foam, which was chosen as a suitable polymeric matrix due to its high chemical and mechanical stability and industrial applicability. The antibacterial activity of the obtained nanocomposites was evaluated against suspensions of Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli), showing ide...

  2. Alkaline and Acid Phosphatase Activity in Blood Plasma of Chickens Irradiated by Low dose Gamma Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petar, K.; Marinko, V.; Saveta, M.; Miljenko, S.

    2004-07-01

    In our previous paper (Kraljevic et, al, 2000; Kraljevic et al 2002) we showed that the growth of the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy gamma-rays before incubation was significantly higher than in controls during the fattening period (1-42 days). The concentration of total protein, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of the same chickens was also significantly changed. In this paper an attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs by low dose ionizing radiation before incubation upon activity of alkaline and acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens were irradiated by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60 Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 6, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The activity of both enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically by using Boehring Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. the activity of alkaline phosphatase in blood plasma was decreased on days 42, and the activity of acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of the same chickens was increased on day 42. Obtained results confirm our early obtained results that low dose of gamma radiation has effects upon metabolic processes in the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. (Author)

  3. Alkaline and Acid Phosphatase Activity in Blood Plasma of Chickens Irradiated by Low dose Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our previous paper (Kraljevic et, al, 2000; Kraljevic et al 2002) we showed that the growth of the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy gamma-rays before incubation was significantly higher than in controls during the fattening period (1-42 days). The concentration of total protein, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of the same chickens was also significantly changed. In this paper an attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs by low dose ionizing radiation before incubation upon activity of alkaline and acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens were irradiated by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60 Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 6, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The activity of both enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically by using Boehring Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. the activity of alkaline phosphatase in blood plasma was decreased on days 42, and the activity of acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of the same chickens was increased on day 42. Obtained results confirm our early obtained results that low dose of gamma radiation has effects upon metabolic processes in the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. (Author)

  4. Encapsulation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in PLA microspheres using supercritical emulsion extraction to produce bactericidal nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campardelli, R., E-mail: rcampardelli@unisa.it; Della Porta, G. [University of Salerno, Department of Industrial Engineering (Italy); Gomez, V.; Irusta, S. [University of Zaragoza, Aragon Institute of Nanoscience (INA) (Spain); Reverchon, E., E-mail: ereverchon@unisa.it [University of Salerno, Department of Industrial Engineering (Italy); Santamaria, J., E-mail: jesus.santamaria@unizar.es [University of Zaragoza, Aragon Institute of Nanoscience (INA) (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    In this work, PLA microparticles containing TiO{sub 2} (anatase) nanoparticles have been produced using the Continuous Supercritical Emulsion Extraction technique (SEE-C). A stabilized anatase colloidal suspension (15 {+-} 5 nm) in ethanol aqueous solution was obtained by precipitation from solutions of titanium alkoxides and directly used as the water internal phase of a water-in-oil in water double emulsion or suspended as a powder in the organic phase of a solid-in-oil in water emulsion. Micro- (0.9 {+-} 0.5 {mu}m) and submicro-particles (203 {+-} 40 nm) have been produced, with TiO{sub 2} nominal loadings of 1.2, 2.4, and 3.6 wt%. High TiO{sub 2} encapsulation efficiencies up to about 90 % have been obtained. PLA/TiO{sub 2} particles have been characterized by TEM and XPS to investigate the dispersion of the metal oxide in the polymeric matrix. The photo-assisted bactericidal activity of TiO{sub 2}-containing microparticles against a biofilm-forming strain of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in specific assays under UV light. Pure TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and PLA/TiO{sub 2} particles showed the same bactericidal activity.

  5. Encapsulation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in PLA microspheres using supercritical emulsion extraction to produce bactericidal nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, PLA microparticles containing TiO2 (anatase) nanoparticles have been produced using the Continuous Supercritical Emulsion Extraction technique (SEE-C). A stabilized anatase colloidal suspension (15 ± 5 nm) in ethanol aqueous solution was obtained by precipitation from solutions of titanium alkoxides and directly used as the water internal phase of a water-in-oil in water double emulsion or suspended as a powder in the organic phase of a solid-in-oil in water emulsion. Micro- (0.9 ± 0.5 μm) and submicro-particles (203 ± 40 nm) have been produced, with TiO2 nominal loadings of 1.2, 2.4, and 3.6 wt%. High TiO2 encapsulation efficiencies up to about 90 % have been obtained. PLA/TiO2 particles have been characterized by TEM and XPS to investigate the dispersion of the metal oxide in the polymeric matrix. The photo-assisted bactericidal activity of TiO2-containing microparticles against a biofilm-forming strain of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in specific assays under UV light. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles and PLA/TiO2 particles showed the same bactericidal activity

  6. IN VITRO INHIBITION OF ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN RED BLOOD CELLS BY CADMIUM AND LEAD

    OpenAIRE

    Abdollahi, M.; M. Biukabadi M. A. Ebrahimzadeh

    1998-01-01

    The effects of cadmium and lead on human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity were studied. Blood used in this study was obtained from 24 healthy individuals, then after hemolysation, treated with 3 various concentrations of cadmium and lead. A strong inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was noted in treated samples by cadmium and lead. The remaining activity In the case of lead, the remaining activity was found to be 81% with the highest concentration , S7% with the middle and 94% with th...

  7. Anti-bactericidal properties of stingray Dasyatis pastinaca groups V, IIA, and IB phospholipases A2: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, Abir Ben

    2014-10-01

    Group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 (group IIA sPLA2) is known to display potent Gram-positive bactericidal activity in vitro and in vivo. We have analyzed the bactericidal activity of the full set of native stingray and dromedary groups V, IIA, and IB sPLA2s on several Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains. The rank order potency among both marine and mammal sPLA2s against Gram-positive bacteria is group IIA > V > IB, whereas Gram-negative bacteria exhibited a much higher resistance. There is a synergic action of the sPLA2 with lysozyme when added to the bacteria culture prior to sPLA2.The bactericidal efficiency of groups V and IIA sPLA2s was shown to be dependent upon the presence of calcium ions and to a less extent Mg(2+) ions and then a correlation could be made to its hydrolytic activity of membrane phospholipids. Importantly, we showed that stingray and dromedary groups V, IIA, and IB sPLA2s present no cytotoxicity after their incubation with MDA-MB-231cells. stingray groups V and IIA sPLA2s, like mammal ones, may be considered as future therapeutic agents against bacterial infections. PMID:25119545

  8. Red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in female nulligravid and pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Guglielmo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The alterations of the glutathione peroxidase enzyme complex system occur in physiological conditions such as aging and oxidative stress consequent to strenuous exercise. Methods Authors optimize the spectrophotometric method to measure glutathione peroxidase activity in rat red blood cell membranes. Results The optimization, when applied to age paired rats, both nulligravid and pregnant, shows that pregnancy induces, at seventeen d of pregnancy, an increase of both reactive oxygen substance concentration in red blood cells and membrane glutathione peroxidase activity. Conclusion The glutathione peroxidase increase in erythrocyte membranes is induced by systemic oxidative stress long lasting rat pregnancy.

  9. Preparation of cerium-doped TiO2 film on 304 stainless steel and its bactericidal effect in the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerium-doped TiO2 film with bactericidal activity was prepared on 304 stainless steel by a sol-gel process. The doped cerium ions were identified to have retarding effect on the phase transition from amorphous TiO2 to anatase TiO2. This effect was interpreted as the distortion of crystal lattice, due to the introduction of cerium ions into the crystal structure of TiO2. The absorption band edge of cerium-doped TiO2 film has a red shift compared with that of pure TiO2 film in UV-vis spectra. The films covered with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) medium were exposed to sunlight for 6 h and the bactericidal efficiency was evaluated with most probable number technique. It was found that the bactericidal efficiency of cerium-doped TiO2 film and pure TiO2 film were 95% and 85%, respectively.

  10. Whole Blood Activation Results in Altered T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production Profiles by Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2001-01-01

    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry, a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a whole-blood activation culture has been described. In this study, whole blood activation was compared to traditional PBMC activation and the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells, T cell subsets and monocytes was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: For T cell cytokine assessment (IFNg/IL-10 and IL-21/L-4) following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a Significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture and (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. Four-color analysiS was used to allow assessment of cytokine production by specific T cell subsets. It was found that IFNgamma production was significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were Significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines (IL-1a/IL-12 and TNFa/IL-10) in conjunction with CD14. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFa. equally well in both culture systems, however monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated in whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and TNFa producing

  11. Effectiveness of physical activity promotion in blood pressure and blood sugar reduction: A community–based intervention study in rural south India

    OpenAIRE

    Subitha Lakshminarayanan; Bala, Soudarssanane M; Murugesan Ramanujam; Kannan, G

    2012-01-01

    Context: Physical activity of moderate intensity for 30 minutes a day, on most days substantially reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. Aim: To assess the effect of regular physical activity on blood pressure and blood sugar levels in a rural Indian community Settings and Design: This community-based study was carried out in Periakattupalayam and Rangareddipalayam in south India, with 485 subjects, aged 20 to 49 years. Materials and Methods: The study was done in five phases: Awareness c...

  12. Molecular genetics of blood-fleshed peach reveals activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis by NAC transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Lin-Wang, Kui; Wang, Huiliang; Gu, Chao; Dare, Andrew P; Espley, Richard V; He, Huaping; Allan, Andrew C; Han, Yuepeng

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanin pigmentation is an important consumer trait in peach (Prunus persica). In this study, the genetic basis of the blood-flesh trait was investigated using the cultivar Dahongpao, which shows high levels of cyanidin-3-glucoside in the mesocarp. Elevation of anthocyanin levels in the flesh was correlated with the expression of an R2R3 MYB transcription factor, PpMYB10.1. However, PpMYB10.1 did not co-segregate with the blood-flesh trait. The blood-flesh trait was mapped to a 200-kb interval on peach linkage group (LG) 5. Within this interval, a gene encoding a NAC domain transcription factor (TF) was found to be highly up-regulated in blood-fleshed peaches when compared with non-red-fleshed peaches. This NAC TF, designated blood (BL), acts as a heterodimer with PpNAC1 which shows high levels of expression in fruit at late developmental stages. We show that the heterodimer of BL and PpNAC1 can activate the transcription of PpMYB10.1, resulting in anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco. Furthermore, silencing the BL gene reduces anthocyanin pigmentation in blood-fleshed peaches. The transactivation activity of the BL-PpNAC1 heterodimer is repressed by a SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like TF, PpSPL1. Low levels of PpMYB10.1 expression in fruit at early developmental stages is probably attributable to lower levels of expression of PpNAC1 plus the presence of high levels of repressors such as PpSPL1. We present a mechanism whereby BL is the key gene for the blood-flesh trait in peach via its activation of PpMYB10.1 in maturing fruit. Partner TFs such as basic helix-loop-helix proteins and NAC1 are required, as is the removal of transcriptional repressors. PMID:25688923

  13. The Effects of Ramadan Fasting and Physical Activity on Blood Hematological-Biochemical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Hejazi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting during Ramadan is a religious obligation and belief for healthy and adult Moslems. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of Ramadan fasting and physical activity on blood hematological-biochemical parameters. Methods: In this study twenty six healthy males were assigned into two experimental groups, non-active fasting (13 people and active fasting (13 people groups. Two blood samples were taken from each group at the beginning and end of Ramadan. The data was analyzed through repeated measure ANOVA.Results: At the end of Ramadan, Hematocrit (Hct, red blood cell count (RBC, TC, LDL, HDL, LDL: HDL, TC: HDL and VLDL decreased significantly in both groups (P<0.05. Amount of HDL during fasting increased significantly in active fasting (P=0.023 and non-active fasting (P=0.042. The FBS levels reduced significantly only in active fasting group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Fasting during Ramadan by regular physical activity led to the positive alterations in Hematological-Biochemical Index. These changes can be due to the alterations in diet, biology response of the body to the starving and physical activity during Ramadan.

  14. Bactericidal Antibiotics Induce Toxic Metabolic Perturbations that Lead to Cellular Damage

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    Peter Belenky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how antibiotics impact bacterial metabolism may provide insight into their mechanisms of action and could lead to enhanced therapeutic methodologies. Here, we profiled the metabolome of Escherichia coli after treatment with three different classes of bactericidal antibiotics (β-lactams, aminoglycosides, quinolones. These treatments induced a similar set of metabolic changes after 30 min that then diverged into more distinct profiles at later time points. The most striking changes corresponded to elevated concentrations of central carbon metabolites, active breakdown of the nucleotide pool, reduced lipid levels, and evidence of an elevated redox state. We examined potential end-target consequences of these metabolic perturbations and found that antibiotic-treated cells exhibited cytotoxic changes indicative of oxidative stress, including higher levels of protein carbonylation, malondialdehyde adducts, nucleotide oxidation, and double-strand DNA breaks. This work shows that bactericidal antibiotics induce a complex set of metabolic changes that are correlated with the buildup of toxic metabolic by-products.

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of bactericidal properties of CuO nanoparticles against Aeromonas hydrophila

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    Sayedeh Fatemeh Shaffiey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: CuO is one of the most important transition metal oxides due to its captivating properties. It is used in various technological applications such as high critical temperature superconductors, gas sensors, in photoconductive applications, and so on. Recently, it has been used as an antimicrobial agent against various bacterial species.   Materials and Methods: Here, we synthesized CuO nanoparticles (NPs and explored the antibacterial activity of CuO NPs preparation. Results: Single crystalline nanoparticles of copper oxide having almost uniform particle size of 5-6 nm has been synthesized by a facile and versatile route. XRD spectra confirmed the formation of single phase CuO NPs. Transmission electron microscopy results corroborate well with XRD results. The technique employed is free from toxic solvents, organics and amines, is based on a simple reaction of copper sulfate and de-ionized water (DI, and their bactericidal effects against of Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966T bacteria were investigated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC with liquid culture for all of the Aeromonas hydrophila culture Medias was done. Conclusion: Present study confirms that Copper oxide nanoparticles have great promise as antimicrobial agent against Aeromonas hydrophila

  16. Analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy of the MDPB bactericidal effect on S. mutans biofilm CLSM analysis of MDPB bactericidal effect on biofilm

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    Fabíola Galbiatti de Carvalho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Since bacteria remain in the dentin following caries removal, restorative materials with antibacterial properties are desirable to help maintaining the residual microorganisms inactive. The adhesive system Clearfil Protect Bond (PB contains the antibacterial monomer 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide (MDPB in its primer, which has shown antimicrobial activity. However, its bactericidal effect against biofilm on the dentin has been little investigated. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM and viable bacteria counting (CFU the MDPB bactericidal effect against S. mutans biofilm on the dentin surface. Material and methods: Bovine dentin surfaces were obtained and subjected to S. mutans biofilm formation in BHI broth supplemented with 1% (w/v sucrose for 18 h. Samples were divided into three groups, according to the primer application (n=3: Clearfil Protect Bond (PB, Clearfil SE Bond, which does not contain MDPB, (SE and saline (control group. After the biofilm formation, Live/ Dead stain was applied directly to the surface of each sample. Next, 10 µL of each primer were applied on the samples during 590 s for the real-time CLSM analysis. The experiment was conducted in triplicate. The primers and saline were also applied on the other dentin samples during 20, 90, 300 and 590 s (n=9 for each group and period evaluated and the CFU were assessed by colonies counting. Results: The results of the CLSM showed that with the Se application, although non-viable bacteria were detected at 20 s, there was no increase in their count during 590 s. In contrast, after the PB application there was a gradual increase of non-viable bacteria over 590 s. Conclusions: The quantitative analysis demonstrated a significant decrease of S. mutans CFU at 90 s PB exposure and only after 300 s of Se application. Protect Bond showed an earlier antibacterial effect than Se Bond.

  17. A Kinesthetic Activity Using LEGO Bricks and Buckets for Illustrating the Regulation of Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urschler, Margaret; Meidl, Katherine; Browning, Samantha; Khan, Basima; Milanick, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how, when first faced with understanding blood sugar regulation, students often resort to simple memorization.Many students would like to get more involved with the conceptual framework but do not know how to start. The authors have developed an activity based on the Modell approach, a "view from the inside." This…

  18. Alkaline phosphatase activity and some minerals concentration in canine blood plasma with radiation combined injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkaline phosphatase activity, Ca, P and Mg concentration were investigated in the blood plasma of dogs with a bone fracture as well as in those ones with a bone fracture combined with irradiation (2Gy). Obtained results show that none of the investigated parameters were significantly changed during the experiment. (author) 6 refs.; 1 tab

  19. Thrombin Activity Propagates in Space During Blood Coagulation as an Excitation Wave

    OpenAIRE

    Dashkevich, N.M.; Ovanesov, M.V.; Balandina, A.N.; Karamzin, S.S.; Shestakov, P.I.; Soshitova, N.P.; Tokarev, A.A.; Panteleev, M.A.; Ataullakhanov, F.I.

    2012-01-01

    Injury-induced bleeding is stopped by a hemostatic plug formation that is controlled by a complex nonlinear and spatially heterogeneous biochemical network of proteolytic enzymes called blood coagulation. We studied spatial dynamics of thrombin, the central enzyme of this network, by developing a fluorogenic substrate-based method for time- and space-resolved imaging of thrombin enzymatic activity. Clotting stimulation by immobilized tissue factor induced localized thrombin activity impulse t...

  20. Blood-Brain Barrier Active Efflux Transporters: ATP-Binding Cassette Gene Family

    OpenAIRE

    Löscher, Wolfgang; Potschka, Heidrun

    2005-01-01

    Summary: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) contributes to brain homeostasis by protecting the brain from potentially harmful endogenous and exogenous substances. BBB active drug efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family are increasingly recognized as important determinants of drug distribution to, and elimination from, the CNS. The ABC efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) has been demonstrated as a key element of the BBB that can actively transport a huge variety of lip...

  1. Anopheles midgut epithelium evades human complement activity by capturing factor H from the blood meal.

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    Ayman Khattab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hematophagous vectors strictly require ingesting blood from their hosts to complete their life cycles. Exposure of the alimentary canal of these vectors to the host immune effectors necessitates efficient counteractive measures by hematophagous vectors. The Anopheles mosquito transmitting the malaria parasite is an example of hematophagous vectors that within seconds can ingest human blood double its weight. The innate immune defense mechanisms, like the complement system, in the human blood should thereby immediately react against foreign cells in the mosquito midgut. A prerequisite for complement activation is that the target cells lack complement regulators on their surfaces. In this work, we analyzed whether human complement is active in the mosquito midgut, and how the mosquito midgut cells protect themselves against complement attack. We found that complement remained active for a considerable time and was able to kill microbes within the mosquito midgut. However, the Anopheles mosquito midgut cells were not injured. These cells were found to protect themselves by capturing factor H, the main soluble inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway. Factor H inhibited complement on the midgut cells by promoting inactivation of C3b to iC3b and preventing the activity of the alternative pathway amplification C3 convertase enzyme. An interference of the FH regulatory activity by monoclonal antibodies, carried to the midgut via blood, resulted in increased mosquito mortality and reduced fecundity. By using a ligand blotting assay, a putative mosquito midgut FH receptor could be detected. Thereby, we have identified a novel mechanism whereby mosquitoes can tolerate human blood.

  2. Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on cord blood lymphocyte proliferation and NK cell activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effects of gamma-ray irradiation on cord blood lymphocyte proliferation and NK cell activity. Methods: Freshly isolated mononuclear cells from human cord blood were irradiated with different doses (0.248-15.872 Gy) of gamma-rays. The lymphocyte proliferation and NK cell activity were measured using 3H-TdR incorporation assay and 3H-TdR release assay, respectively. Results: In dose range of 0.248-15.872 Gy, lymphocyte proliferation was inhibited and the inhibition rate was positively correlated with the irradiation dose(r=0.839, P<0.05). Lymphocyte proliferation was not found in dose range of 3.968-15.872 Gy. Irradiation doses from 0.248 to 1.984 Gy could enhance NK cell activity. The activity of NK cells was reserved after irradiated with 3.968 Gy. Within the dose range of 5.952-15.872 Gy, NK cell activity was significantly inhibited. Conclusion: Lymphocyte proliferation is inhibited and the activity of NK cell is reserved when irradiated with the dose of 3.968 Gy gamma-rays. So if the lymphocytes are irradiated with such a dose before donor lymphocytes infusion or mix-cord blood transplantation, the effect of graft versus host disease (GVHD) could be decreased whereas the effect of graft versus leukemia (GVL) reaction could be reserved simultaneously during adoptive cellular immunotherapy. (authors)

  3. Contact activation of blood coagulation on a defined kaolin/collagen surface in a microfluidic assay

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Shu; Diamond, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Generation of active Factor XII (FXIIa) triggers blood clotting on artificial surfaces and may also enhance intravascular thrombosis. We developed a patterned kaolin (0 to 0.3 pg/μm2)/type 1 collagen fibril surface for controlled microfluidic clotting assays. Perfusion of whole blood (treated only with a low level of 4 μg/mL of the XIIa inhibitor, corn trypsin inhibitor) drove platelet deposition followed by fibrin formation. At venous wall shear rate (100 s−1), kaolin accelerated onset of fi...

  4. P2Y2 receptor activation decreases blood pressure and increases renal Na+ excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Rieg, Timo; Gerasimova, Maria; Boyer, José L.; Insel, Paul A.; Vallon, Volker

    2011-01-01

    ATP and UTP are endogenous agonists of P2Y2/4 receptors. To define the in vivo effects of P2Y2 receptor activation on blood pressure and urinary excretion, we compared the response to INS45973, a P2Y2/4 receptor agonist and UTP analog, in wild-type (WT) and P2Y2 receptor knockout (P2Y2−/−) mice. INS45973 was administered intravenously as a bolus injection or continuous infusion to determine effects on blood pressure and renal function, respectively. Within seconds, bolus application of INS459...

  5. Natural and Environment-friendly New Bactericide for Leather Industry: Essential Oil of Origanum minutiflorum

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    E. Eser Eke Bayramoglu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, essential oil of Origanum minutiflorum was purchased and used as a bactericide during soaking process to avoid bacterial growth. One gram per liter of oil was applied and also commercial bactericide which is commonly used in leather industry, 7-25% phenol, 4-chloro-3-methyl was used and compared. The trials showed that Origanum minutiflorum has much better antibacterial effect than commercial bactericide. From the study it was concluded that this essential oil can be used as bactericide in leather industry.

  6. A STUDY OF THE BACTERICIDAL PROPERTY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF MEDICINAL PLANTS-ACACIA CATECHU AND FISCUS HISPIDA USED IN THE TRADITIONAL SYSTEM OF MEDICINE IN MANIPUR

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    Lokhendro Singh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To find out the bactericidal effect of extract of the Acacia catechu and Ficus hispida which are commonly used by the local quacks for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery in the villages of the state of Manipur where the medical facilities are not available. METHODS: The plant barks are collected from different parts of Manipur during the period of March 2006 to February 2007, dried at room temperature; make powder in the grinder and soxhlated at low temperature to get the yield (extract. In case of Acacia catechu dried power form is available in the market. The powder is soxhlated to get the yield. These extracts are tested for the bactericidal effect in serial dilutions against the known strain of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and incubated at 370C overnight. After overnight incubation, the tubes are checked for the growth of the organisms and from the tubes sub cultures are made serially corresponding to the dilutions on to the Blood agar, Mac Conkey and Nutrient agar media, incubated at 370C overnight. After overnight incubation, the dilution where the growth of the organisms does not occurred, are noted and tabulated. RESULT: The aqueous extract of Acacia catechu shows bactericidal effect up to the dilution of 1:8 whereas the aqueous extract of Ficus hispida shows no bactericidal effect even at higher concentration. CONCLUSION: These plants extract have been using for the treatment of ailments in the villages of the state of Manipur by the local quacks since time immemorial. In this study it has seen that Acacia catechu has the medicinal properties whereas Ficus hispida has no bactericidal property though the plant has other medicinal properties. It is therefore, necessary to do further studies to identify the ingredients present in this two plants for safe use and large scale production in the state.

  7. Concentration of Some Minerals and Activity of Alkaline Phosphate in Blood Plasma of Irradiated Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of our previous papers have shown the changes on hematological parameters, some enzymes activity and mineral metabolism in blood plasma of chickens after internal contamination with a lethal amount of radioactive isotope 32P. So, this time an attempt has been made to investigate the effects of whole body irradiation by semilethal dose (8 Gy) of gamma-rays on some mineral concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in blood plasma of chickens for early detecting of acute radiation syndrome. Experiments were carried out on fifty-days-old hybrid chickens of the 'Jata' breed of male sex with 2 to 2.3 kg of body mass. The animals were divided into two groups with five chickens in each group. The experimental group was whole body irradiated by gamma-rays (60Co) with single dose of 8 Gy. Blood samples for biochemical analysis were drawn from wing vein on day before irradiation and on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th and 15th days after irradiation. The concentration of calcium, inorganic phosphorus and magnesium as well as the activity of alkaline phosphatase, were determined in blood plasma. The statistical analysis was performed and the results obtained are shown as a mean value. The significance of the changes was checked according to the Student and Fisher t-test. Obtained results have shown that activity of alkaline phosphatase in blood plasma of whole body gamma-rays irradiated chickens significantly changes only on the first day after irradiation. In the same time the calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentration were not significantly changed during the whole experiment. Therefore, we can conclude that the concentration of this mineral would not be an acceptable parameter for early detecting of acute radiation syndrome in 50 day-old chickens after irradiation by semilethal dose of gamma-radiation. (author)

  8. Blood acylpeptide hydrolase activity is a sensitive marker for exposure to some organophosphate toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quistad, Gary B; Klintenberg, Rebecka; Casida, John E

    2005-08-01

    Acylpeptide hydrolase (APH) unblocks N-acetyl peptides. It is a major serine hydrolase in rat blood, brain, and liver detected by derivatization with (3)H-diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) or a biotinylated fluorophosphonate. Although APH does not appear to be a primary target of acute poisoning by organophosphorus (OP) compounds, the inhibitor specificity of this secondary target is largely unknown. This study fills the gap and emphasizes blood APH as a potential marker of OP exposure. The most potent in vitro inhibitors for human erythrocyte and mouse brain APH are DFP (IC(50) 11-17 nM), chlorpyrifos oxon (IC(50) 21-71 nM), dichlorvos (IC(50) 230-560 nM), naled (IC(50) 370-870 nM), and their analogs with modified alkyl substituents. (3)H-diisopropyl fluorophosphate is a potent inhibitor of mouse blood and brain APH in vivo (ED(50) 0.09-0.2 mg/kg and 0.02-0.03 mg/l for ip and vapor exposure, respectively). Mouse blood and brain APH and blood butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) are of similar sensitivity to DFP in vitro and in vivo (ip and vapor exposure), but APH inhibition is much more persistent in vivo (still >80% inhibition after 4 days). The inhibitory potency of OP pesticides in vivo in mice varies from APH selective (dichlorvos, naled, and trichlorfon), to APH and BChE selective (profenofos and tribufos), to ChE selective or nonselective (many commercial insecticides). Sarin administered ip at a lethal dose to guinea pigs inhibits blood acetylcholinesterase and BChE completely but erythrocyte APH only partially. Blood APH activity is therefore a sensitive marker for exposure to some but not all OP pesticides and chemical warfare agents. PMID:15888665

  9. Physical Activity and Blood Pressure Responsiveness to the Cold Pressor Test in Normotensive Young Adult African-American Males

    OpenAIRE

    BOND, VERNON; Adams, R. George; Vaccaro, Paul; Blakely, Raymond; FRANKS, B. DON; Williams, Deborah; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Millis, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine whether there is an association between blood pressure reactivity to the cold pressor test in African Americans who engaged in different levels of physical activity. We examined the systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac index, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow during a two-minute cold pressor test in 15 aerobic, physically active and 15 physically inactive, normotensive young adult African...

  10. EFFECTS OF INTERFERON THERAPY UPON IMMUNE MARKER PROFILE AND ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES OF PATIENTS WITH RENAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kurtasova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have observed forty-four patients with metastatic renal cancer before and after interferon therapy. Immune markers of of peripheral blood lymphocytes were determined by flow cytometry. Activity of NAD (P-dependent dehydrogenase in blood lymphocytes was studied by means of bioluminescence technique. Changes of immune marker profiles and enzymatic activities of peripheral blood lymphocytes were found in patients with renal cancer after a course of interferon therapy.

  11. NEUROTROPIC AND DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF THICK EXTRACT OF THE BLOOD-RED HAWTHORN’S FRUITS

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    V. A. Kurkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood-red hawthorn (Crataegi fructus are a popular cardiotonic herbal materials, which widely used in medical practice in our country and abroad. In order to prevent diseases of the cardiovascular system is appropriate to prescribe herbal medicines, because they combine the breadth and softness of therapeutic action, along with the absence of a significant number of side effects and contraindications.The purpose was to study diuretic and antidepressant activity of thick fruit extract of blood-red hawthorn.Material and methods. Under laboratory conditions we obtained a thick extract of blood-red hawthorn fruits. This phytopharmaceutical was studied by us for any diuretic and antidepressant activity. Investiga- tions were carried out on white rats of both sexes weighing 200–220 g. Each experimental group consist- ed of ten animals. Study drug was administered intragastrically by stomach tube. Control in both cases served as purified water. For determination of diuretic activity, we used a thick extract of hawthorn fruits in a dose of 20 mg/kg against the background of the water load in the amount of 3% of body weight of the animal. Reference preparation was chosen dichlorthiazid 20 mg/kg. It was administered once. After ad- ministration the animals were placed in metabolic cages for urine collection for 24 hours. The study de- termined diuresis, natriuresis, kaliuresis, and kreatininuresis for 4 h and 24 h of the experiment. On the day of the experiment the animals of the control group was administered water load of 3%, and experi- enced – intragastrically drug in an identical amount. Animals were placed in a metabolic cage for a day. Collected 4 h and 24-h urine sample. Determined by renal excretion of water was recorded concentration of sodium and potassium by flame photometry in the fiery liquid analyzer PAG-1, creatinine – colorimet- ric method for photocolorimeter CFC-3. For determining antidepressant activity we used a thick hawthorn

  12. Active Path Selection of Fluid Microcapsules in Artificial Blood Vessel by Acoustic Radiation Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Kohji; Muramatsu, Yusuke; Ueda, Sawami; Nakamoto, Ryusuke; Nakayashiki, Yusuke; Ishihara, Ken

    2009-07-01

    Micrometer-sized microcapsules collapse upon exposure to ultrasound. Use of this phenomenon for a drug delivery system (DDS), not only for local delivery of medication but also for gene therapy, should be possible. However, enhancing the efficiency of medication is limited because capsules in suspension diffuse in the human body after injection, since the motion of capsules in blood flow cannot be controlled. To control the behavior of microcapsules, acoustic radiation force was introduced. We detected local changes in microcapsule density by producing acoustic radiation force in an artificial blood vessel. Furthermore, we theoretically estimated the conditions required for active path selection of capsules at a bifurcation point in the artificial blood vessel. We observed the difference in capsule density at both in the bifurcation point and in alternative paths downstream of the bifurcation point for different acoustic radiation forces. Comparing the experimental results with those obtained theoretically, the conditions for active path selection were calculated from the acoustic radiation force and fluid resistance of the capsules. The possibility of controlling capsule flow towards a specific point in a blood vessel was demonstrated.

  13. Effect of Active and Passive Recovery on Athletes' White Blood Cell Count

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    P. Piraki, MA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesExercise affects the immune system. The aim of this study is comparison of the effect of active and passive recovery (AR and RR, respectively on differential white blood cell (WBC count after an exhaustive exercise session in athlete males.Methods Twenty male athletes who signed an informed consent form were randomly divided in to two equal groups. Their blood samples were drawn at rest, immediately after an exhaustive exercise session, immediately after 15 minutes active and passive recovery from an exhaustive exercise session. A WBC’s (lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basohils, and eosinophils count was done on all of these samples.This exercise protocol was based on the Bruce Protocol Treadmill Stress Test until feeling excessive fatigue followed by AR (first group, and RR (second group.Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney test were used for descriptive and statistical analysis on collected raw data. Statistical significance in this analysis was set at P ≤ 0.05.ResultsA session of exhaustive exercise increased the number of WBCs (except for eosinophils with a statistical significant differences of (P0.05.ConclusionThe results show a session of exhaustive exercise increases the blood leukocytes, except for eosinophils. Also, taking 15 minutes recovery (AR or RR has no effect on athlete's WBC count. It means the type of recovery has no special and different effect on athlete's WBC count. In fact, if there are any changes in WBC count during or after exhaustive exercise, they are not due to the type of 15 minutes recovery. Furthermore, under the conditions of this study after completing the AR and RR, number of the blood leukocytes was over their basal level.Keywords: Active Recovery, Passive Recovery, White Blood Cell Count, Athletes.

  14. Crocodile blood extract induces the apoptosis of lung cancer cells through PTEN activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yuqian; Ho, Wing Shing

    2016-09-01

    Current treatment strategies for lung cancer cause undesirable side‑effects. Integrated medicine with a curative approach has become a common approach to the treatment strategy. Recent studies suggest that American alligator blood is effective in reducing colorectal cancer cell viability in vitro, but the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to study the anticancer activity of crocodile blood extracts on lung cancer cell line A549 and investigate the possible mechanisms involved. In vitro studies were utilized to investigate the effects on the cancer cells after incubation with the blood extracts. The active fraction that showed more efficacy in inhibiting cell growth was characterized in the supernatant (S2) from whole blood extracts. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that S2 contained more polar moiety from whole blood. S2 induced DNA fragmentation. Cell cycle arrest in the G1/M phase was demonstrated and mitochondrial membrane permeability was disrupted. An increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased activities of caspase-3 and caspase-7 were detected. Furthermore, release of cytochrome c, upregulation of expression of Bax, p53, p21, Bid, cleaved forms of the caspase family and PARP along with downregulation of Bcl-2, PCNA, MDM2, caspase‑8, wild types of caspase family proteins and PARP were recorded after treatment with S2 fractions. Moreover, the PI3K/AKT survival pathway was downregulated by S2 fractions in the lung cancer cell line. PMID:27431918

  15. Thyroid hormone stimulation in vitro of red blood cell Ca2+-ATPase activity: interspecies variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, F B; Kite, J H; Davis, P J; Blas, S D

    1982-01-01

    In vitro susceptibility to thyroid hormone stimulation of membrane-associated Ca2+-ATPase activity has been examined in red blood cells from rat, rabbit, dog, monkey, and man. Monkey and human red cell Ca2+-ATPase activities responded comparably to 10(-10)M T4 or T3. Basal and thyroid hormone-stimulated Ca2+-ATPase activity in rabbit erythrocytes was four-fold higher than in primate red cells. Rat and dog red cell Ca2+-ATPase did not respond to iodothyronines in vitro. PMID:6459228

  16. Dosimetry of criticality accidents using activations of the blood and hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation dose received by a person in a criticality accident can be determined with reasonable accuracy from the activity induced in the blood or in the hair. However, both of these methods require a knowledge of the neutron spectra and the exposure conditions. In this report we have compiled results from numerous criticality studies to serve as a guide for neutron dose evaluations based on blood and hair activation. A technique is described in which a combination of these blood and hair activations can be used to determine the neutron dose. This evaluation technique is independent of the person's orientation, shielding provided by walls, equipment, etc. (except for massive shielding by metals), and the neutron leakage spectra. The technique will improve the accuracy of the dose determination, especially if there is little information available on the exposure conditions. This estimate is normally accurate to within +-20 to 30%. This paper also discusses the gamma-to-neutron ratio and its use in establishing the gamma dose (if no gamma exposure data is available) or the neutron dose (if the gamma exposure is known). The use of a G-M instrument at the abdomen is discussed and curves are given to convert the G-M readings to neutron dose. A simplified counting procedure for hair activation is recommended. (author)

  17. Lymphokine-activated killer cell phenomenon. III. Evidence that IL-2 is sufficient for direct activation of peripheral blood lymphocytes into lymphokine-activated killer cells

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Purified interleukin 2 (IL-2) was found to be sufficient for direct activation of peripheral blood lymphocytes into lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. The LAK activation factor was directly and consistently associated with IL-2 activity using classic protein purification techniques, adsorption to IL-2-dependent cell lines, and inhibition with anti-Tac antibody. As yet, no other cytokines have been found that perform the same role.

  18. Associations among Environmental Supports, Physical Activity, and Blood Pressure in African American Adults in the PATH Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K.; Egan, Brent M.

    2013-01-01

    High blood pressure disproportionately affects African American adults and is a leading cause of stroke and heart attack. Engaging in recommended levels of physical activity reduces blood pressure, and social and physical environmental supports for physical activity may increase engagement in physical activity. Based on social cognitive theory within a bioecological framework, the present study tested hypotheses that perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkabi...

  19. Influence of circulating antigen on blood pool activity of a radioiodinated monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athymic mice with and without circulating CA 125 antigen were injected with 0.1-100 μg of 131I-labeled OC 125 F(ab')2 antibody fragment. Both the blood clearance of 131I activity and the change in serum CA 125 were monitored over 24 h. Influence of CA 125 on blood pool activity could be avoided only at the 100 μg dose. In patient studies, circulating CA 125 levels decreased for the first 2 h after injection of OC 125 F(ab')2 but generally returned to preinjection levels shortly thereafter. In vitro binding studies using the sera from patients injected with 131I-labeled OC 125 F(ab')2 suggest that circulating CA 125 could interfere with the tumor uptake of the labeled antibody. (author)

  20. Spectrophotometric Screening of Potent Bactericidal Property of Thevetia Peruviana Schum. Leaf and Fruit Rind Extracts on Clinical and Plant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazneen Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of multi drug resistance in human and plant pathogens, reconsidering the traditional medicines as antibacterial source and presence of promising phytochemicals in leaf and fruit rind of T. peruviana (S (Nazneen et al., 2014 prompted the authors to take up the antibacterial evaluation of different extracts. Antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of various extracts of T. peruviana (S were measured using methods of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC spectrophotometric determination of active extracts has found that the MICs of all the active extracts lies between the range of 250 μg to 1250 μg and bactericidal concentration in a range of 500 to 1250 μg. The percentage of inhibition was analysed, where in among all the extracts tested against B. subtilis and E. coli, fruit upper liquid (FUL exhibited highest inhibition percentage of 33.75% and 30.31 % at 500 μg/ml respectively. Similarly, fruit hexane (FH extract has the highest inhibition of 15.60% against B. cereus at 750 μg/ml. The Xanthomonas sp. was susceptible to leaf chloroform (LC with 32.29% of inhibition at 1000 μg/ ml. The activity index and total antimicrobial activity indicates the antibacterial action of extracts. The present investigations have revealed that among the extracts, the fruit rind extracts have most prominent inhibition abilities against tested bacteria, which are validating the use of this plant in traditional system of medicine and this is the first report of exploration of above extracts for their antibacterial activities against B. subtilis, B. cereus, E. coli and Xanthomonas sp.

  1. Phagocytic activity of peripheral blood and crevicular phagocytes in health and periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neutrophils constitute the main phagocytic cell system in mammalian host defense against an infecting agent. Abnormalities in leukocyte number and function are associated with increased susceptibility to periodontal diseases. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the in vitro phagocytic properties of crevicular and peripheral blood neutrophils in healthy and periodontitis subjects. Patients and Methods: A total of 30 subjects, that is, 10 patients in each of the following three groups: healthy controls, chronic periodontitis (CP, and localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP, were included in the study. The neutrophils were isolated from the peripheral blood and gingival crevice and tested for phagocytosis of Candida albicans. The percentage of leukocytes with ingested C. albicans was determined by light microscopy. Results: A significant reduction in the phagocytic activity of crevicular fluid polymorphonuclear neutrophils (CF-PMN of LAP subjects (mean: 54.3±7(P< 0.001 was observed, compared to healthy controls (mean: 74.2±9 and chronic periodontitis subjects (mean: 69±9(P=0.352. The mean percentage of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs with phagocytosis of opsonized C. albicans in LAP patients was significantly reduced (mean: 74.9±5(P< 0.0068 compared to the phagocytic activity of neutrophils from controls (mean:82.1±3 and chronic periodontitis subjects (mean: 82.0±5(P=0.970. There was no significant reduction in the phagocytic activity of CF PMNs (mean: 69±9 (P=0.35 and peripheral blood PMNs (mean: 82.5(P=0.97 in the chronic periodontitis group when compared to the control group. Conclusion: The phagocytic activity of both crevicular and peripheral neutrophils in subjects with periodontitis is altered, increasing the susceptibility to periodontitis. Thus individual susceptibility may be an additional and important modifying factor in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

  2. Leptin into the rostral ventral lateral medulla (RVLM) augments renal sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Maria J.; David Harry McDougal

    2014-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone released from adipose tissue. While this hormone normally acts to reduce feeding behavior and increase energy expenditure, in obesity, resistance to these effects occurs even though the hormone is released in large amounts. Although leptin no longer works to suppress feeding in the obese, leptin retains its potent effects on other autonomic functions such as blood pressure regulation. Leptin has been associated with hypertension and increased sympathetic autonomic activ...

  3. Leptin into the rostral ventral lateral medulla (RVLM) augments renal sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Maria J.; McDougal, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone released from adipose tissue. While this hormone normally acts to reduce feeding behavior and increase energy expenditure, in obesity, resistance to these effects occurs even though the hormone is released in large amounts. Although leptin no longer works to suppress feeding in the obese, leptin retains its potent effects on other autonomic functions such as blood pressure regulation. Leptin has been associated with hypertension and increased sympathetic autonomic activity...

  4. Comparison of Hemagglutination and Hemolytic Activity of Various Bacterial Clinical Isolates Against Different Human Blood Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrv, Rajkumar; Devaki, Ramakrishna; Kandi, Venkataramana

    2016-01-01

    Among the various pathogenic determinants shown by microorganisms hemagglutination and hemolysin production assume greater significance in terms of laboratory identification. This study evaluated the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of various bacterial isolates against different blood groups. One hundred and fifty bacterial strains, isolated from clinical specimens like urine, pus, blood, and other body fluids were tested for their hemagglutinating and hemolytic activity against human A, B, AB, and O group red blood cells. Among the 150 isolates 81 were Escherichia coli, 18 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 19 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were Pseudomonas spp, six were Proteus mirabilis, and the rest 16 were Staphylococcus aureus. Nearly 85% of the isolates agglutinated A group cells followed by B and AB group (59.3% and 60.6% respectively). Least number of isolates agglutinated O group cells (38.0%). When the hemolytic activity was tested, out of these 150 isolates 79 (52.6%) hemolyzed A group cells, 61 (40.6%) hemolyzed AB group cells, 46 (30.6%) hemolyzed B group cells, and 57 (38.6%) isolates hemolyzed O group cells. Forty-six percent of the isolates exhibited both hemagglutinating and hemolytic property against A group cells, followed by B and AB group cells (28.6% and 21.3% respectively). Least number of isolates i.e., 32 (21.3%) showed both the properties against O group cells. The isolates showed wide variation in their hemagglutination and hemolytic properties against different combinations of human blood group cells. The study highlights the importance of selection of the type of cells especially when human RBCs are used for studying the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates because these two properties are considered as characteristic of pathogenic strains. PMID:27014523

  5. Effect of Active and Passive Recovery on Athletes' White Blood Cell Count

    OpenAIRE

    P Piraki

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives

    Exercise affects the immune system. The aim of this study is comparison of the effect of active and passive recovery (AR and RR, respectively) on differential white blood cell (WBC) count after an exhaustive exercise session in athlete males.

    Methods

    Twenty male athletes who signed an informed consent form were randomly divided in to two equal gro...

  6. Linear coupling between cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in activated human cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Richard D. Hoge; Atkinson, Jeff; Gill, Brad; Crelier, Gérard R.; Marrett, Sean; Pike, G Bruce

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, within a specific cortical unit, fractional changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) are coupled through an invariant relationship during physiological stimulation. This aim was achieved by simultaneously measuring relative changes in these quantities in human primary visual cortex (V1) during graded stimulation with patterns designed to selectively activate different populations of V1...

  7. Relationship between blood peroxidases activity and visfatin levels in metabolic syndrome patients

    OpenAIRE

    Samsam-Shariat, Seyyed Ziaedin; Bolhasani, Mohammad; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Najafi, Somayeh; Asgary, Sedigheh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The observed relationships between visfatin, peroxidases activity, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are inconsistent; therefore, this study was undertaken to understand these relationships. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted as a part of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program, Iran. A blood sample of 90 MetS and non-MetS patients were used to estimate total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyc...

  8. Diminished adhesion and activation of platelets and neutrophils with CD47-functionalized blood contacting surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Finley, Matthew J.; Rauova, Lubica; Alferiev, Ivan S.; Weisel, John W.; Levy, Robert J; Stachelek, Stanley J.

    2012-01-01

    CD47 is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane protein that, through signaling mechanisms mediated by signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα1), functions as a biological marker of ‘self-recognition’. We showed previously that inflammatory cell attachment to polymeric surfaces is inhibited by the attachment of biotinylated recombinant CD47 (CD47B). We test herein the hypothesis that CD47-modified blood conduits can reduce platelet and neutrophil activation under clinically relevant conditions....

  9. Synthesis of poly(amidoamine-dendrimer-silver nanoparticles composite for application as bactericides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Namazkar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As awareness of sanitation, disease transmission factors and personal protection increases, researchers have focused on developing materials with antibacterial properties. Silver-PAMAM-dendrimer has unique antibacterial properties that make it an ideal candidate for medical applications. In this study, poly (amidoamine (PAMAM dendrimers from Generations 0.5- 4.0 were synthesized using divergent methods. Silver was combined with PAMAM dendrimers from the Generation 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 to form colloidal solutions. The antimicrobial capabilities of Silver-PAMAM-dendrimer (Generation 2.0 were tested against four types of gram positive and negative bacteria. Its bactericidal activities were revealed for all four types of bacteria that could not grow in samples containing 600 ppm of Silver-PAMAM-dendrimer (Generation 2.0.

  10. Bactericidal and virucidal mechanisms in the alkaline disinfection of compost using calcium lime and ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijikata, Nowaki; Tezuka, Rui; Kazama, Shinobu; Otaki, Masahiro; Ushijima, Ken; Ito, Ryusei; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, the bactericidal and virucidal mechanisms in the alkaline disinfection of compost with calcium lime and ash were investigated. Two indicator microorganisms, Escherichia coli and MS2 coliphage, were used as surrogates for enteric pathogens. The alkaline-treated compost with calcium oxide (CaO) or ash resulted primarily in damage to the outer membrane and enzyme activities of E. coli. The alkaline treatment of compost also led to the infectivity loss of the coliphage because of the partial capsid damage and RNA exteriorization due to a raised pH, which is proportional to the amount of alkaline agents added. These results indicate that the alkaline treatment of compost using calcium oxide and ash is effective and can contribute to the safe usage of compost from a mixing type dry toilet. PMID:27562698

  11. Retinal blood flow velocity in patients with active uveitis using the retinal function imager

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xing; Kedhar Sanjay; Bhoomibunchoo Chavakij

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest a link between macular edema and retinal blood flow velocity (RBFV).The effects of inflammation in the retinal blood vessels are not clearly understood.We want to evaluate the differences in retinal blood flow velocities of patients with active uveitis and healthy controls using the retinal function imager (RFI)and determine the correlation between retinal blood flow veiocity and central macular thickness in uveitis patients.Methods Twenty-eight eyes of 24 patients with active anterior uveitis and 51 eyes of 51 normal control subjects were enrolled.Retinal blood flow velocities evaluated by RFI and central macular thickness evaluated by optical coherence tomography (SLO-OCT) were obtained.Differences among the groups were assessed using Stata statistical software.Results Ten eyes had uveitic cystoid macular edema (CME).Median (first quartile,third quartile) venous velocity for uveitic eyes with CME,uveitic eyes without CME,and controls were 2.09 (1.92,2.44),2.64 (2.32,2.86),and 2.82 (2.39,3.53) mm/s respectively.Median (first and quartile) arterial velocity for uveitic eyes with CME,uveitic eyes without CME,and controls were 3.79 (3.61,4.09),3.46 (2.86,4.12),and 3.93 (3.35,4.65) mm/s.Uveitic eyes with CME had significantly lower venous velocity than controls (P=0.044).There was a strong linear relationship between venous velocity and central retinal thickness (P=-0.007).Conclusions Retinal venous velocities were significantly decreased in eyes with uveitic CME relative to controls.Decreased venous velocity was correlated with increased central retinal thickness in uveitic eyes.

  12. A Clinical Study on Treatment of Senile Psoriasis by Replenishing Qi to Activate Blood--A Report of 40 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪普; 谭奇纹; 刘华昌

    2004-01-01

    40 cases of senile psoriasis were treated by the therapeutic principle of replenishing qi to activate blood,and the changes of T lymphocyte subgroups and indexes of haemorheology were observed. The results showed that CD4 was significantly increased, CDs significantly decreased, and the CD4/CD8 ratio significantly raised; and that the specific viscosity of whole blood at high shearing rate, and at low shearing rate, the specific viscosity of plasma, packed cell volume, and fibrinogen all significantly decreased after treatment. It is therefore concluded that the therapeutic method of replenishing qi to activate blood can exert an effect of improving immunologic function and blood circulation.

  13. Test industrial pumping of an oil displacement bactericide at the Neftyannyye Kamni deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suleymanov, A.B.; Amirov, G.B.; Kandinskaya, L.I.; Kerimov, K.S.; Mamedov, E.A.; Mamedov, N.G.; Pashayev, N.G.

    1983-01-01

    The results are cited of works conducted to increase the oil production of the stratum at the Neftyannyye Kamni deposit through pumping an oil displacement bactericide (BNV), and the issues for selecting an object and process technology for the successful introduction of flooding with the oil displacement bactericide are discussed.

  14. Surface-Induced Hydrogelation for Fluorescence and Naked-Eye Detections of Enzyme Activity in Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tengyan; Liang, Chunhui; Ji, Shenglu; Ding, Dan; Kong, Deling; Wang, Ling; Yang, Zhimou

    2016-07-19

    Fluorescence probes have been widely applied for the detection of important analytes with high sensitivity and specificity. However, they cannot be directly applied for the detection in samples with autofluorescence such as blood. Herein, we demonstrated a simple but effective method of surface-induced self-assembly/hydrogelation for fluorescence detection of an enzyme in biological fluids including blood and cell lysates. The method utilizes an attracting glass surface to induce self-assembly of an enzyme-generating fluorescent probe. After removing the upper solution, the fluorescence turn-on at the glass surface can therefore be used for the detection of enzyme activity. By judging the thickness and color depth of hydrogels at the surface of the glass plates, we could also estimate the enzyme activity by naked eyes. Our study not only expands the application of molecular self-assembly but also provides a useful method that can be applied for direct detection of enzyme activity in complex biological samples such as blood and cell lysates. PMID:27345959

  15. Diminished adhesion and activation of platelets and neutrophils with CD47 functionalized blood contacting surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Matthew J; Rauova, Lubica; Alferiev, Ivan S; Weisel, John W; Levy, Robert J; Stachelek, Stanley J

    2012-08-01

    CD47 is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane protein that, through signaling mechanisms mediated by signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα1), functions as a biological marker of 'self-recognition'. We showed previously that inflammatory cell attachment to polymeric surfaces is inhibited by the attachment of biotinylated recombinant CD47 (CD47B). We test herein the hypothesis that CD47 modified blood conduits can reduce platelet and neutrophil activation under clinically relevant conditions. We appended a poly-lysine tag to the C-terminus of recombinant CD47 (CD47L) allowing for covalent linkage to the polymer. SIRPα1 expression was confirmed in isolated platelets. We then compared biocompatibility between CD47B and CD47L functionalized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces and unmodified control PVC surfaces. Quantitative and Qualitative analysis of blood cell attachment to CD47B and CD47L surfaces, via scanning electron microscopy, showed strikingly fewer platelets attached to CD47 modified surfaces compared to control. Flow cytometry analysis showed that activation markers for neutrophils (CD62L) and platelets (CD62P) exposed to CD47 modified PVC were equivalent to freshly acquired control blood, while significantly elevated in the unmodified PVC tubing. In addition, ethylene oxide gas sterilization did not inhibit the efficacy of the CD47 modification. In conclusion, CD47 modified PVC inhibits both the adhesion and activation of platelets and neutrophils. PMID:22613135

  16. Cumulated blood activity measurements and modelling in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Introduction: the purpose of the radioiodine therapy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) formulated by the EANM Therapy Committee is to provide advice to nuclear medicine clinicians on how to ablate thyroid remnant or treat inoperable advanced DTC or both employing large 131-iodine activities. The therapy of DTC with radioactive iodine is a standard procedure for the ablation of remnant thyroid tissue following surgery and for the treatment of iodine avid metastases. The level of administered activity in radionuclide therapy is often limited by hematological toxicity resulting from the absorbed dose delivered to the bone marrow. The purpose of this study is to validate models for calculation of an effective half-life (Teff) of 131I, blood and bone marrow dose in patients with DTC. Materials and method: the measurements of 131I concentration in blood samples have been used to estimate the marrow absorbed dose. The administered activity was 100-103 mCi (about 3.7 GBq). In 328 patients, the measurement of the exposure rate was performed at 4, 8, 18, 24, 30, 42, 54, 66 hours after administration of Na131I using well counter ISOMED 1010 for studying the absorbed dose (according to the MIRD schema) and Teff evaluation. To obtain cumulated activity in blood/red marrow two mathematical models of radioisotope elimination were used: mono-exponential and bi-exponential. Results: the majority of the activity is excreted by the patients in the first 24 hours after Na131I administration. The effective half-life of 131I ranged from 2 to 37 hours due to the first model. According to the administrated activity, the evaluation of the total absorbed dose by patients to red marrow ranged from 5.5*10-4 to 3.1*10-1 Gy. Bi-exponential model allows estimating an initial income of the 131I concentration, as well as later excretion. More precise model found 2 subgroups of patients: with fast (∼37%) and slow (∼63%) kinetics of the 131I in the blood

  17. Microwave, sonochemical and combustion synthesized CuO nanostructures and their electrical and bactericidal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •CuO nanoleaves synthesized by CTAB-assisted hydrothermal method. •CuO nanodiscs synthesized by CTAB-assisted sonochemical method. •Combustion synthesized CuO is highly porous. •Synthetic method and morphology influence CuO bactericidal activity. -- Abstract: Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-assisted microwave synthesis of CuO provides nanoleaves and in the absence of CTAB the shape of CuO is irregular. Sonochemical synthesis of CuO using CTAB gives nanodiscs whereas irregularly shaped flake-like structure is obtained without CTAB. Combustion synthesized CuO is highly porous with innumerable large holes. CTAB does not provide any structure in combustion synthesis. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) display the constituent nanoparticles of microwave and sonochemically synthesized CuO. The powder X-ray diffractogram (XRD) shows the sample obtained by sonochemical method in the absence of CTAB as a mixture of monoclinic CuO, cubic Cu2O, and orthorhombic Cu(OH)2. But the rest of the samples are pure CuO in monoclinic phase. The selected area electron diffractograms (SAED) of the microwave and sonochemically synthesized samples, in the presence as well as in the absence of CTAB, confirm the monoclinic phase of CuO and indicates the presence of amorphous CuO in traces. All the samples are characteristic of Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) Cu–O stretching frequencies. The method of synthesis and also the morphology influence the electrical properties as well as the bactericidal activity of CuO

  18. Microwave, sonochemical and combustion synthesized CuO nanostructures and their electrical and bactericidal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karunakaran, C., E-mail: karunakaranc@rediffmail.com; Manikandan, G.; Gomathisankar, P.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •CuO nanoleaves synthesized by CTAB-assisted hydrothermal method. •CuO nanodiscs synthesized by CTAB-assisted sonochemical method. •Combustion synthesized CuO is highly porous. •Synthetic method and morphology influence CuO bactericidal activity. -- Abstract: Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-assisted microwave synthesis of CuO provides nanoleaves and in the absence of CTAB the shape of CuO is irregular. Sonochemical synthesis of CuO using CTAB gives nanodiscs whereas irregularly shaped flake-like structure is obtained without CTAB. Combustion synthesized CuO is highly porous with innumerable large holes. CTAB does not provide any structure in combustion synthesis. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) display the constituent nanoparticles of microwave and sonochemically synthesized CuO. The powder X-ray diffractogram (XRD) shows the sample obtained by sonochemical method in the absence of CTAB as a mixture of monoclinic CuO, cubic Cu{sub 2}O, and orthorhombic Cu(OH){sub 2}. But the rest of the samples are pure CuO in monoclinic phase. The selected area electron diffractograms (SAED) of the microwave and sonochemically synthesized samples, in the presence as well as in the absence of CTAB, confirm the monoclinic phase of CuO and indicates the presence of amorphous CuO in traces. All the samples are characteristic of Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) Cu–O stretching frequencies. The method of synthesis and also the morphology influence the electrical properties as well as the bactericidal activity of CuO.

  19. Alkali treatment of microrough titanium surfaces affects macrophage/monocyte adhesion, platelet activation and architecture of blood clot formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Milleret

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Titanium implants are most commonly used for bone augmentation and replacement due to their favorable osseointegration properties. Here, hyperhydrophilic sand-blasted and acid-etched (SBA titanium surfaces were produced by alkali treatment and their responses to partially heparinized whole human blood were analyzed. Blood clot formation, platelet activation and activation of the complement system was analyzed revealing that exposure time between blood and the material surface is crucial as increasing exposure time results in higher amount of activated platelets, more blood clots formed and stronger complement activation. In contrast, the number of macrophages/monocytes found on alkali-treated surfaces was significantly reduced as compared to untreated SBA Ti surfaces. Interestingly, when comparing untreated to modified SBA Ti surfaces very different blood clots formed on their surfaces. On untreated Ti surfaces blood clots remain thin (below 15 mm, patchy and non-structured lacking large fibrin fiber networks whereas blood clots on differentiated surfaces assemble in an organized and layered architecture of more than 30 mm thickness. Close to the material surface most nucleated cells adhere, above large amounts of non-nucleated platelets remain entrapped within a dense fibrin fiber network providing a continuous cover of the entire surface. These findings might indicate that, combined with findings of previous in vivo studies demonstrating that alkali-treated SBA Ti surfaces perform better in terms of osseointegration, a continuous and structured layer of blood components on the blood-facing surface supports later tissue integration of an endosseous implant.

  20. Rh D blood group conversion using transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyun O; Baek, Eun J; Kurita, Ryo; Cha, Hyuk-Jin; Nakamura, Yukio; Kim, Hyongbum

    2015-01-01

    Group O D-negative blood cells are universal donors in transfusion medicine and methods for converting other blood groups into this universal donor group have been researched. However, conversion of D-positive cells into D-negative is yet to be achieved, although conversion of group A or B cells into O cells has been reported. The Rh D blood group is determined by the RHD gene, which encodes a 12-transmembrane domain protein. Here we convert Rh D-positive erythroid progenitor cells into D-negative cells using RHD-targeting transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). After transfection of TALEN-encoding plasmids, RHD-knockout clones are obtained. Erythroid-lineage cells differentiated from these knockout erythroid progenitor cells do not agglutinate in the presence of anti-D reagents and do not express D antigen, as assessed using flow cytometry. Our programmable nuclease-induced blood group conversion opens new avenues for compatible donor cell generation in transfusion medicine. PMID:26078220

  1. Rupture Forces among Human Blood Platelets at different Degrees of Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi-Huong; Palankar, Raghavendra; Bui, Van-Chien; Medvedev, Nikolay; Greinacher, Andreas; Delcea, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about mechanics underlying the interaction among platelets during activation and aggregation. Although the strength of a blood thrombus has likely major biological importance, no previous study has measured directly the adhesion forces of single platelet-platelet interaction at different activation states. Here, we filled this void first, by minimizing surface mediated platelet-activation and second, by generating a strong adhesion force between a single platelet and an AFM cantilever, preventing early platelet detachment. We applied our setup to measure rupture forces between two platelets using different platelet activation states, and blockade of platelet receptors. The rupture force was found to increase proportionally to the degree of platelet activation, but reduced with blockade of specific platelet receptors. Quantification of single platelet-platelet interaction provides major perspectives for testing and improving biocompatibility of new materials; quantifying the effect of drugs on platelet function; and assessing the mechanical characteristics of acquired/inherited platelet defects. PMID:27146004

  2. Leptin into the rostral ventral lateral medulla (RVLM augments renal sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J Barnes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is a hormone released from adipose tissue. While this hormone normally acts to reduce feeding behavior and increase energy expenditure, in obesity, resistance to these effects occurs even though the hormone is released in large amounts. Although leptin no longer works to suppress feeding in the obese, leptin retains its potent effects on other autonomic functions such as blood pressure regulation. Leptin has been associated with hypertension and increased sympathetic autonomic activity. Therefore, leptin is emerging as a major contributor to the hypertensive state observed in obesity. Sympathetic control of blood pressure is maintained principally by autonomic reflex control circuits in the caudal brainstem. The rostral ventral-lateral medulla (RVLM is the primary regulator of the sympathetic nervous system, sending excitatory fibers to sympathetic preganglionic neurons to regulate sympathetic control over resistance vessels and blood pressure. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that neurons in the ventral lateral medulla express leptin receptors (ObRb. Our present study using pseudo-rabies multi-synaptic retrograde tract tracing and immunohistochemical methods revealed that neurons within the RVLM that send sympathetic projections to the kidney express leptin receptors. Acute microinjection of leptin (1 and 3µg; 40nL into the RVLM evoked a significant increase in Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA. When the 3µg dose of leptin was preceded with a leptin antagonist, (SLAN-4; 1ng, it attenuated the cardiovascular response of leptin. Taken together, these data suggest that leptin’s actions within the RVLM may influence blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity.

  3. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, effect on blood pressure & gastric tolerability of antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeta Kaur Chugh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Antidepressants are being used as analgesics for various pain related disorders like neuropathic and non neuropathic pain. Although their analgesic activity is well recognized but anti-inflammatory potential of antidepressants is still inconclusive. Since the antidepressants are used for longer duration, it becomes important to elucidate effect of anti-depressants on blood pressure and gastric mucosa. This study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of various antidepressant drugs as well as their effect on blood pressure and gastric tolerability on chronic administration in rats. Methods: Rat paw oedema model was used for studying anti-inflammatory activity, single dose of test drug (venlafaxine 20 and 40 mg/kg, amitryptline 25 mg/kg, fluoxetine 20 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally 45 min prior to administration of 0.1 ml of 1 per cent carrageenan in sub-planter region. Oedema induced in test group was compared with normal saline treated control group. For studying effect on blood pressure and gastric tolerability, test drugs were administered for 14 days. Blood pressure was recorded on days 0, 7 and 14 using tail cuff method. On day 14, 4 h after drug administration, rats were sacrificed and stomach mucosa was examined for ulcerations. Results: Pretreatment of rats with venlafaxine (40 mg/kg resulted in a significant decrease in paw oedema as compared to control (2.4 ± 0.15 to 1.1 ± 0.16 ml, P<0.01. Similarly, in the group pretreated with fluoxetine, significant decrease in paw oedema was observed in comparison to control (P<0.05. Significant change in mean blood pressure was seen in rats pretreated with venlafaxine 40 mg/kg (126.7 ± 4.2 to 155.2 ± 9.7, P<0.05 and fluoxetine (143.5 ± 2.6 to 158.3 ± 1.2, P<0.05 on day 7. No significant difference with regard to gastric tolerability was observed among groups. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant anti

  4. Bactericidal synergy of lysostaphin in combination with antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, A P; Coote, P J

    2011-08-01

    Drug-resistant staphylococci constitute a serious problem that urgently requires the discovery of new therapeutic agents. There has been a resurgence in interest in using lysostaphin (a specific anti-staphylococcal enzyme) as a treatment for infections caused by these important pathogens. However, bacterial resistance to lysostaphin is a problem, but the use of a combination treatment may surmount this issue. In this present study, using viable counts from suspension incubations, lysostaphin is shown to be synergistically bactericidal in combination with various conventional antimicrobial peptides, the antimicrobial protein bovine lactoferrin, a lantibiotic (nisin), and certain lipopeptides used clinically (colistin, daptomycin and polymyxin B). Combinations that act in synergy are of clinical importance as these reduce the doses of the compounds needed for effective treatments and decrease the chances of resistance being selected. The use of lysostaphin in combination with a peptide may represent a new avenue in tackling drug-resistant staphylococci. PMID:21311938

  5. Iron requirement in the bactericidal mechanism of streptonigrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 that are unable to make use of the enterochelin transport system were used to confirm that streptonigrin requires iron for its bactericidal action. Correlation of viability studies and 55Fe3+ uptake experiments showed that killing by streptonigrin increased with an increase in 55Fe3+ uptake by the cells. Fetreptonigrin did not kill iron-starved mutants that were unable to import iron. The level of iron uptake by these mutants was manipulated by agents such as the enterochelin biosynthetic precursors 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2 x 10(-5) M) and shikimic acid (2 x 10(-4) M), citrate (10(-2) M), which promotes iron uptake by an independent pathway, and the chelating agents desferrioxamine (2 x 10(-4) M) and orthophenanthroline (10(-4) M). Addition of the precursors shikimate and dihydroxybenzoate to strain AB2847 (aroB) and dihydroxybenzoate to strain AN193 (entA), allowing these strains to make enterochelin, resulted in an increase in Fe3+ uptake and a corresponding sharp increase in killing by streptonigrin. Addition of enterochelin itself (10(-6) M) caused an even more pronounced effect. Studies on the effect of citrate in strain AN102 (fep) showed that this mutant was not killed by streptonigrin (4 x 10(-5) M), even in the presence of citrate; however, overnight growth in citrate induced Fe3+ uptake by means of the ferric citrate transport system and resulted in killing by streptonigrin. These studies showed a clear correlation between the change in levels of intracellular iron and the bactericidal effectiveness of streptonigrin

  6. Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeddu, Roberto; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines. PMID:23229279

  7. In vitro detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxin type E activity in avian blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Timothy M.; Blehert, David S.; Dunning, F. Mark; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Zeytin, Fusun N.; Samuel, Michael D.; Tucker, Ward C.

    2011-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E) outbreaks in the Great Lakes region cause large annual avian mortality events, with an estimated 17,000 bird deaths reported in 2007 alone. During an outbreak investigation, blood collected from bird carcasses is tested for the presence of BoNT/E using the mouse lethality assay. While sensitive, this method is labor-intensive and low throughput and can take up to 7 days to complete. We developed a rapid and sensitive in vitro assay, the BoTest Matrix E assay, that combines immunoprecipitation with high-affinity endopeptidase activity detection by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to rapidly quantify BoNT/E activity in avian blood with detection limits comparable to those of the mouse lethality assay. On the basis of the analysis of archived blood samples (n = 87) collected from bird carcasses during avian mortality investigations, BoTest Matrix E detected picomolar quantities of BoNT/E following a 2-h incubation and femtomolar quantities of BoNT/E following extended incubation (24 h) with 100% diagnostic specificity and 91% diagnostic sensitivity.

  8. Blood concentrations of ions and metals in amateur and elite runners using neutron activation analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, I, K, Mg, Na, S and Zn concentration were investigated in blood of Brazilian athletes (endurance) using Neutron Activation Analyses technique (NAA). The blood samples were collected from male amateur athletes (AR) and male and female elite athletes (ER), ranging from 18 to 36 year old. The blood samples were collected at the LABEX/UNICAMP and they were irradiated in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 at IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). The range (at rest) established for AR and ER were compared with the control group (CG), subjects of same gender and age but not involved with physical activities, and showed significant differences for Ca (51 - 439 mgL-1 for CG, 162 - 410 mgL-1 for AR and 64 - 152 mgL-1 for ER) and Br (7.4 - 30.6 mgL-1 for CG, 4.0 - 9.6 mgL-1 for AR and 1.9 - 3.5 mgL-1 for ER), suggesting that a strong dependency of these limits in function of adopted physical training exists. We also performed a systematic investigation for the AR before, during and after the exercise program. These data can be considered for the preparation of a balanced diet, for evaluating the performance of the athletes during the period of competition preparation as well as contributing for proposing new protocols of clinical evaluation not reported in the literature yet. (author)

  9. Bactericidal and cytotoxic effects of Erythrina fusca leaves aquadest extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janti Sudiono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirically, Erythrina fusca has been used as traditional herb for its antibacterial and antiinflammation properties. Periodontal disease is one of the most oral infectious diseases with microorganism predominated as the contributing factors. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis is one of the main bacteria pathogen found in periodontal diseases. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the bactericidal effect of Erythrina fusca Leaves Aquadest Extract (EFLAE at various concentrations on P. gingivalis and cytotoxic effect on fibroblast. Methods: Pure P. gingivalis was cultured in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI medium for 24 hours with or without various concentrations of treatment of EFLAE. Calculation and statistical analysis of remaining bacteria were performed by inhibitory zone method to evaluate the EFLAE bactericidal effect and compared to chlorhexidine as positive control. To evaluate the cytotoxic effect, NIH 3T3 cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s Modification of Eagle’s Medium (DMEM containing of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS and 1% penicillin-streptomycin, pH 7.2, in 5% CO2, and stored in humidified incubator under temperature 370 C. Cells were treated with/without various concentrations of EFLAE for 48 hours. The viable cells were then counted using 3-(4,5- Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5 diphenyl tetrazodium bromide (MTT method. Results: EFLAE have bactericidal effect on P. gingivalis in a concentration dependent manner starting from 78%. The concentration of 90% EFLAE had stronger bactericidal effect (35.004 ± 1.546 than those of chlorhexidine as positive control (32.313 ± 1.619. One-way ANOVA showed significant bactericidal effect differences among concentrations of EFLAE and chlorhexidine (p<0.05 while Tuckey HSD test showed significant difference only between lower concentration of EFLAE (78%, 79% and chlorhexidine. With the highest concentration of EFLAE (100% applied in the bactericidal test, no cytotoxic effect

  10. Study on Blood Coagulant/Fibrinolytic Activity at Plasma andMonocytic Levels in Coronary Heart Disease Patients withBlood-Stasis Syndrome of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To explore and compare the changes of coagulant/fibrinolytic activity in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with Blood Stasis Syndrome of TCM and evaluate the roles of these changes. Methods: Eighty patients of CHD were divided into two groups by Syndrome Differentiation of TCM, the Blood-Stasis (BS) group (30 cases) and the non-Blood-Stasis (NBS) group (50 cases, including 27 cases of Phlegm-Dampness Syndrome and 23 cases of Qi-Stagnation Syndrome); and 20 healthy persons were enrolled as normal control group. Tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and its inhibitor (PAI-1) in plasma and in human peripheral blood monocyte cell (PBMC), as well as the procoagulant activity (PCA) in PBMC were measured by chromogenic substrate method. Results: The plasma PAI-1 activity and PCA of PBMC in the BS group were significantly higher than those in the NBS group and the normal control group (P<0.01). PAI-1 activity of PBMC in the two groups of CHD patients was higher than those in the normal control group significantly (P<0.01), but no significant difference was found between the BS group and the NBS group (P>0.05). The difference of plasma t-PA activity between the two groups of CHD was insignificant. The PBMC t-PA activity in the BS group was lower than that in the NBS and normal control groups (P<0.01). Conclusion: In the CHD patients with BS, the PBMC PCA was increased and the fibrinolytic activity at both plasma and monocyte levels lowered significantly, these changes in coagulant/fibrinolytic activity may be the important pathologic factors in forming BS which suggests that CHD patients with BS were in the prothrombotic state.

  11. Environmental variation of arsenic levels in human blood determined by neutron activation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    1970-01-01

    Arsenic levels in blood plasma and red cells from patients with Blackfoot disease, a peripheral arteriosclerosis endemic to a small area in Taiwan, were studied in relation to healthy individuals from the same and other parts of Taiwan and compared with arsenic levels in a control group from Denm...... in Denmark, which geochemically belongs to a soil zone with less arsenic than Taiwan.......Arsenic levels in blood plasma and red cells from patients with Blackfoot disease, a peripheral arteriosclerosis endemic to a small area in Taiwan, were studied in relation to healthy individuals from the same and other parts of Taiwan and compared with arsenic levels in a control group from...... Denmark. Arsenic was determined by neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation and re-irradiation yield determination. The precision and accuracy of the results have been carefully evaluated in order to permit quantitative tests for the significance of the observed differences. The results...

  12. Trypsin inhibitory activity in blood and cervical mucus of sheep following chronic gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect was investigated of chronic gamma irradiation for a period of 7 days to a total dose of 6.7 Gy. A decrease was found in TIA (trypsin inhibition activity) of blood plasma to 73.6% of the value prior to irradiation. The low-molecular fraction of TIA increased to 194.6%. Later in the experiment the values decreased. The TIA dynamics of the cervical mucus had the reverse character. The values increased; at the 16th day after irradiation they increased up to 392% of the initial values. A comparison with previous experiments shows that acute local irradiation with an almost three-fold dose of the hypothalamo-pituitary area and of the ovaries does not induce significant changes in the blood plasma TIA. (M.D.)

  13. IN VITRO INHIBITION OF ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN RED BLOOD CELLS BY CADMIUM AND LEAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdollahi

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cadmium and lead on human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity were studied. Blood used in this study was obtained from 24 healthy individuals, then after hemolysation, treated with 3 various concentrations of cadmium and lead. A strong inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was noted in treated samples by cadmium and lead. The remaining activity In the case of lead, the remaining activity was found to be 81% with the highest concentration , S7% with the middle and 94% with the lowest one (30 fi g/dl, p<0.05. Cadmium showed a nearly linear correlation between doses used and decrease in activity (r- = 0.S3, lead showed a better correlation (r- = 0.92. The direct effect of metal ions on AChE, i.e. a decrease in quantity of the enzyme, may be a proposed mechanism for this depression.

  14. Influence of endogenous S-adenosylmethionine on the determination of catechol O-methyltrausferase activity in red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double isotope method for the simultaneous determination of S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) and catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity in red blood cells was developed. Healthy persons contained 7.9 +- 1.9 nmol SAM per ml red blood cells and 1.9 to 3.8 nmol per ml plasma. Epinephrine increases the SAM biosynthesis rate in red blood cells. The possible influence of endogenous SAM on previous methods to determine COMT activity in red blood cells is discussed. The statement of Briggs and Briggs (Briggs, M.H. and Briggs, M. (1973) Experientia 29, 278-281) that COMT activity in red blood cells is lower during the last 3 months of pregnancy could not be verified. (Auth.)

  15. Abnormalities in the cellular phase of blood fibrinolytic activity in systemic lupus erythematosus and in venous thromboembolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibrinolytic activities of whole blood and plasma were determined by 125I-fibrin radiometric assay in 16 normal subjects, and in 11 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 14 with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), 23 with venous thromboembolic disease, and 20 patients awaiting elective surgery. Mean whole blood and plasma activities for patients with PSS, and for those awaiting elective surgery, were similar to normal values, as was the mean plasma activity in patients with SLE. However, mean whole blood activity in SLE was significantly decreased compared with normals (p less than 0.05), with mean plasma activity accounting for 44% of mean whole blood activity (compared with 17% in normal subjects), representing a 67% decrease in mean calculated cellular phase activity in SLE, when compared with normals. Since the numbers of cells (neutrophils, monocytes) possibly involved in cellular activity were not decreased, the findings suggest a functional defect in fibrinolytic activity of one or more blood cell types in SLE. An additional finding was the participation of the cellular phase as well as the well-known plasma phase of blood in the fibrinolytic response to thromboembolism

  16. A high-throughput assay of NK cell activity in whole blood and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We demonstrated a simple assay of NK cell activity from whole blood. • The measurement of secreted IFN-γ from NK cell enables high-throughput screening. • The NKA assay was validated by clinical results of colorectal cancer patients. - Abstract: Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system and have the ability to kill tumor cells and virus-infected cells without prior sensitization. Malignant tumors and viruses have developed, however, strategies to suppress NK cells to escape from their responses. Thus, the evaluation of NK cell activity (NKA) could be invaluable to estimate the status and the outcome of cancers, viral infections, and immune-mediated diseases. Established methods that measure NKA, such as 51Cr release assay and CD107a degranulation assay, may be used to determine NK cell function, but they are complicated and time-consuming because they require isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or NK cells. In some cases these assays require hazardous material such as radioactive isotopes. To overcome these difficulties, we developed a simple assay that uses whole blood instead of PBMC or isolated NK cells. This novel assay is suitable for high-throughput screening and the monitoring of diseases, because it employs serum of ex vivo stimulated whole blood to detect interferon (IFN)-γ secreted from NK cells as an indicator of NKA. After the stimulation of NK cells, the determination of IFNγ concentration in serum samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) provided a swift, uncomplicated, and high-throughput assay of NKA ex vivo. The NKA results microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer patients was showed significantly lower NKA, 263.6 ± 54.5 pg/mL compared with healthy subjects, 867.5 ± 50.2 pg/mL (p value <0.0001). Therefore, the NKA could be utilized as a supportive diagnostic marker for microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer

  17. A high-throughput assay of NK cell activity in whole blood and its clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Saet-byul [Department of Microbiology and Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Junhoe [ATGen Co. Ltd., Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Im-kyung [Department of Surgery, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Joo Chun [Department of Microbiology, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyo Joon [Department of Microbiology and Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Woo; Cho, Sunjung; Youn, Dong-Ye; Lee, Heyja; Lee, Choong Hwan [ATGen Co. Ltd., Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Myun [Department of Microbiology and Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Young, E-mail: kylee117@yuhs.ac [Department of Surgery, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jongsun, E-mail: jkim63@yuhs.ac [Department of Microbiology and Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-14

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We demonstrated a simple assay of NK cell activity from whole blood. • The measurement of secreted IFN-γ from NK cell enables high-throughput screening. • The NKA assay was validated by clinical results of colorectal cancer patients. - Abstract: Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system and have the ability to kill tumor cells and virus-infected cells without prior sensitization. Malignant tumors and viruses have developed, however, strategies to suppress NK cells to escape from their responses. Thus, the evaluation of NK cell activity (NKA) could be invaluable to estimate the status and the outcome of cancers, viral infections, and immune-mediated diseases. Established methods that measure NKA, such as {sup 51}Cr release assay and CD107a degranulation assay, may be used to determine NK cell function, but they are complicated and time-consuming because they require isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or NK cells. In some cases these assays require hazardous material such as radioactive isotopes. To overcome these difficulties, we developed a simple assay that uses whole blood instead of PBMC or isolated NK cells. This novel assay is suitable for high-throughput screening and the monitoring of diseases, because it employs serum of ex vivo stimulated whole blood to detect interferon (IFN)-γ secreted from NK cells as an indicator of NKA. After the stimulation of NK cells, the determination of IFNγ concentration in serum samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) provided a swift, uncomplicated, and high-throughput assay of NKA ex vivo. The NKA results microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer patients was showed significantly lower NKA, 263.6 ± 54.5 pg/mL compared with healthy subjects, 867.5 ± 50.2 pg/mL (p value <0.0001). Therefore, the NKA could be utilized as a supportive diagnostic marker for microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer.

  18. Blood coagulation parameters and activity indices in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Arshinov

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess coagulation parameters and activity indices in pts with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Material and methods . 86 pts with SLE (83 female and 3 male were examined. 12 of them had antiphospholipid syndrome. Mean age was 35,9±1,5 years (from 18 to 58 years, mean disease duration was 9,8+1,4 years. Control group consisted of 60 healthy volunteers with mean age 37,1+4,1 years. SLE activity assessment was performed with SLAM, SLEDAI and ECLAM indices. Results. SLE pts showed 5-fold (p<0,01 increase of spontaneous platelets aggregation and more than 3-fold increase of factor von Willebrand antigen (FWA concentration. Platelet activation in pts was accompanied by decrease of platelet aggregation with collagen (on 27%, p<0,01. Characteristic sign of coagulation hemostasis activation was significant increase of soluble fibrin-monomer complexes (SFMC concentration on 81 % (p<0,01 so as increase D-dimers level in 53,3% of pts. Fibrinogen concentration was increased on 29%, spontaneous fibrinolysis parameters were decreased on 20%, antithrombin (AT 111 - on 21% in comparison with control. Direct correlation between activity indiccs and SFMC(ECLAM, r=0,5, fibrinogen concentration (SLAM, r=0,34, D- dimers level (ECLAM, r=0,5, spontaneous platelet aggregation (ECLAM, r=0,5 so as inverse correlation with AT III activity (SLEDAI, r-0,73 was revealed. Conclusion. Changes of hemostasis parameters in SLE may serve as predictors of thrombotic disorders development and indication to drug correction of blood coagulation disorders. Direct correlation between blood coagulation system activity and indices of SLE activity.

  19. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF TELOMERASE ACTIVITY AND PERIPHERAL VENOUS BLOOD CK-20 EXPRESSION IN BLADDER TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟惟德; 曾广翘; 蔡岳斌; 胡建波; 魏鸿蔼

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The relationship between peripheral blood CK-20 Mrna expression and tissue telomerase activity in bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCCB) was investigated to evaluate the feasibility of their combined detection in early-stage diagnosis and prognosis estimation of TCCB. Methods: the blood CK-20 was detected by semi-nested RT-PCR and telomerase activity in tumor tissue was examined with silver-stained TRAP reaction. Results: the blood CK-20 expression and tissue telomerase activity in TCCB were 41% and 93% respectively. No statistical significance was detected among pathological grading and clinical staging (P>0.05). Positive correlation was shown between CK-20 expression and telomerase activity with the pathologic grade or clinical stage. Conclusion: combined use of blood CK-20 and tissue telomerase activity detections might be of great importance for clinical diagnosis, treatment and prognosis evaluation.

  20. P-glycoprotein activity in the blood-brain barrier is affected by virus-induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorduin, Janine; de Vries, Erik F. J.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Klein, Hans C.

    2014-01-01

    A large percentage of schizophrenic patients respond poorly to antipsychotic treatment. This could be explained by inefficient drug transport across the blood-brain barrier due to P-glycoprotein mediated efflux. P-glycoprotein activity and expression in the blood-brain barrier can be affected by inf

  1. Twenty-four-hour exposure to altered blood flow modifies endothelial Ca2+-activated K+ channels in rat mesenteric arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilgers, Rob H P; Janssen, Ger M J; Fazzi, Gregorio E;

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that changes in arterial blood flow modify the function of endothelial Ca2+-activated K+ channels [calcium-activated K+ channel (K(Ca)), small-conductance calcium-activated K+ channel (SK3), and intermediate calcium-activated K+ channel (IK1)] before arterial structural...

  2. Relationship between red blood cell thiopurine methyltransferase activity and myelotoxicity in dogs receiving azathioprine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Damon B; Mackin, Andrew; Easley, Roger; Boyle, Carolyn R; Hou, Weiying; Langston, Cory; Walsh, Amy M; Province, Michael A; McLeod, Howard L

    2004-01-01

    Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) produces inactive metabolites of azathioprine and, in humans, has a variable amount of activity. Humans with low TPMT activity commonly develop myelotoxicity when receiving azathioprine. Our study sought to characterize the distribution of TPMT activity in a population of dogs and to determine whether the pretreatment knowledge of red blood cell (RBC) TPMT activity could predict myelotoxicity in dogs receiving azathioprine. RBC TPMT activity was measured in 299 healthy dogs, and 9 dogs that represented a wide range of enzyme activity received azathioprine at a standard therapeutic dose for 30 days. TPMT activity in healthy dogs was log normally distributed and varied over an approximately 7-fold range. Geometric mean, minimum, and maximum RBC TPMT activities were 37.1, 16.3, and 115 nmol per gram of hemoglobin (gHb) per hour, respectively. TPMT deficiency was not identified. Two populations of TPMT activity in dogs were detected by statistical modeling (commingling analysis). Dogs with intermediate TPMT activity (14-38 nmol/gHb/h) receiving azathioprine had significantly lower neutrophil counts during week 4 than during weeks 0-3, whereas those with high activity (>39 nmol/gHb/h) did not have a significant change in neutrophil count. An analysis of TPMT activity in 6 dogs with a history of azathioprine-associated myelotoxicity in a clinical setting revealed either intermediate or high TPMT enzyme activity in all dogs, suggesting that TPMT activity, as measured in RBCs, is not the sole cause of severe azathioprine-associated myelosuppression in dogs. PMID:15188821

  3. Analysis of Time Dependent Low Level Exposure to Gallium Arsenide on Blood ALAD activity, Glutathione and Lipid per oxidation levels in Rat Blood, Liver and Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braham Deo Gupta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gallium arsenide (GaAs, an intermetallic semiconductor has widespread applications in the electronic industry. GaAs has the ability to dissociate into its constitutive moieties, arsenic and gallium which might be responsible for the oxidative stress. The present study was aimed at evaluating, effect of gallium arsenide on blood ALAD activity, glutathione and lipid per oxidation levels in rat blood, liver and kidney on exposure of 1, 2 and 6 months. Result indicated that arsenic moiety in GaAs was mainly responsible for causing oxidative stress via increased TBARS levels, decreased glutathione levels in blood and tissues. We also noted the decreased activity of ALAD in rat blood on exposure to gallium arsenide. The study demonstrates that the time dependent exposure to low level gallium arsenide led to increased in lipid per oxidation, decrease glutathione level and ALAD activity which concludes that the slow release of arsenic moiety from GaAs is mainly responsible for oxidative stress in rats and exerts its toxicity in time dependent manner related to its dissolution and maximum toxicity by increasing the time period of exposure.

  4. Effectiveness of physical activity promotion in blood pressure and blood sugar reduction: A community-based intervention study in rural south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subitha Lakshminarayanan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Physical activity of moderate intensity for 30 minutes a day, on most days substantially reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. Aim: To assess the effect of regular physical activity on blood pressure and blood sugar levels in a rural Indian community Settings and Design: This community-based study was carried out in Periakattupalayam and Rangareddipalayam in south India, with 485 subjects, aged 20 to 49 years. Materials and Methods: The study was done in five phases: Awareness campaign, baseline assessment of participants, intervention phase (10 weeks, interim, and final assessment. Physical activity of moderate intensity (brisk walking for 30 minutes on four days / week was promoted by forming 30 small walking groups, in a home-based setting, with professional supervision. Village leaders and Self-Help Group members were the resource people for the promotion of physical activity. Statistical Analysis: Analysis was done by using paired ′t′ test; the ′Intention-to-Treat′ approach was utilized for the interpretation of the findings of the study. Results: Of the 485 subjects, 265 (54.6% complied with walking on more than four days / week, while 156 (32.2% walked on one to four days / week, and 64 (13.2% dropped out during the intervention period. This study has shown that a 10-week intervention to promote physical activity was effective in significantly decreasing the population′s BP by 1.56 / 0.74 mm Hg, fasting blood sugar levels by 2.82 mg%, body weight by 0.17 kg, and BMI by 0.06 kg / m 2 . Conclusions: This study has proved the functional feasibility of enabling people to undertake physical activity in a rural Indian community, and the effectiveness of using physical activity, to significantly reduce the population′s mean BP and blood sugar levels.

  5. Effects of single-dose irradiation on tumor blood flow studied by 15O decay after photon activation in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A noninvasive technique employing photon activation of tissue oxygen in situ and detection of subsequent 15O positron decay was used to study the effects of single-dose 60Co irradiation on capillary blood flow in transplanted rat rhabdomyosarcomas. Tumor blood flow was measured before irradiation with 16.5, 38.5, or 60.5 Gy and at sever al intervals afterward (0-72 hr). Pre-irradiation values of volume-averaged blood flow in the tumor ranged from 7 to 44 ml/min/100 g. Several hours after irradiation, blood flow fell by up to 50% for 60.5 Gy and up to 35% for 16.5 Gy. However, 24 hours after irradiation, tumor blood flow had recovered completely in the 16.5-Gy group and substantially in the others. For smaller doses such as the fractions typically employed in radiotherapy, no changes in tumor blood flow were observed

  6. Effects of single-dose irradiation in tumor blood flow studied by 15O decay after proton activation in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, B; Ten Haken, R K; Nussbaum, G H; Hughes, W L

    1981-10-01

    A noninvasive technique employing photon activation of tissue oxygen in situ and detection of subsequent 15O positron decay was used to study the effects of single-dose 60Co irradiation on capillary blood flow in transplanted rat rhabdomyosarcomas. Tumor blood flow was measured before irradiation with 16.5, 38.5, or 60.5 Gy and at several intervals afterward (0-72 hr.). Pre-irradiation values of volume-averaged blood flow in the tumor ranged from 7 to 44 ml/min./100 g. Several hours after irradiation, blood flow fell by up to 50% for 60.5 Gy and up to 35% for 16.5 Gy. However, 24 hours after irradiation, tumor blood flow had recovered completely in the 16.5-Gy group and substantially in the others. For smaller doses such as the fractions typically employed in radiotherapy, no changes in tumor blood flow were observed. PMID:7291527

  7. Effects of single-dose irradiation in tumor blood flow studied by 15O decay after proton activation in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A noninvasive technique employing photon activation of tissue oxygen in situ and detection of subsequent 15O positron decay was used to study the effects of single-dose 60Co irradiation on capillary blood flow in transplanted rat rhabdomyosarcomas. Tumor blood flow was measured before irradiation with 16.5, 38.5, or 60.5 Gy and at several intervals afterward (0-72 hr.). Pre-irradiation values of volume-averaged blood flow in the tumor ranged from 7 to 44 ml/min./100 g. Several hours after irradiation, blood flow fell by up to 50% for 60.5 Gy and up to 35% for 16.5 Gy. However, 24 hours after irradiation, tumor blood flow had recovered completely in the 16.5-Gy group and substantially in the others. For smaller doses such as the fractions typically employed in radiotherapy, no changes in tumor blood flow were observed

  8. Cohort Profile: Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Leoné; Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Steyn, Hendrik S; Malan, Nicolaas T

    2015-12-01

    Adapting to an over-demanding stressful urban environment may exhaust the psychophysiological resources to cope with these demands, and lead to sympathetic nervous system dysfunction. The evidence that an urban-dwelling lifestyle may be detrimental to the cardiometabolic health of Africans motivated the design of the Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in African Prospective cohort study. We aimed to determine neural mechanistic pathways involved in emotional distress and vascular remodelling. The baseline sample included 409 teachers representing a bi-ethnic sex cohort from South Africa. The study was conducted in 2008-09 and repeated after 3-year follow-up in 2011-12, with an 87.8% successful follow-up rate. Seasonal changes were avoided and extensive clinical assessments were performed in a well-controlled setting. Data collection included sociodemographics, lifestyle habits, psychosocial battery and genetic analysis, mental stress responses mimicking daily life stress (blood pressure and haemostatic, cardiometabolic, endothelial and stress hormones). Target organ damage was assessed in the brain, heart, kidney, blood vessels and retina. A unique highly phenotyped cohort is presented that can address the role of a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system and neural response pathways contributing to the burden of cardiometabolic diseases in Africans. PMID:25344943

  9. Indolic uremic solutes enhance procoagulant activity of red blood cells through phosphatidylserine exposure and microparticle release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chunyan; Ji, Shuting; Dong, Weijun; Qi, Yushan; Song, Wen; Cui, Debin; Shi, Jialan

    2015-11-01

    Increased accumulation of indolic uremic solutes in the blood of uremic patients contributes to the risk of thrombotic events. Red blood cells (RBCs), the most abundant blood cells in circulation, may be a privileged target of these solutes. However, the effect of uremic solutes indoxyl sulfate (IS) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on procoagulant activity (PCA) of erythrocyte is unclear. Here, RBCs from healthy adults were treated with IS and IAA (mean and maximal concentrations reported in uremic patients). Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure of RBCs and their microparticles (MPs) release were labeled with Alexa Fluor 488-lactadherin and detected by flow cytometer. Cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]) with Fluo 3/AM was analyzed by flow cytometer. PCA was assessed by clotting time and purified coagulation complex assays. We found that PS exposure, MPs generation, and consequent PCA of RBCs at mean concentrations of IS and IAA enhanced and peaked in maximal uremic concentrations. Moreover, 128 nM lactadherin, a PS inhibitor, inhibited over 90% PCA of RBCs and RMPs. Eryptosis or damage, by indolic uremic solutes was due to, at least partially, the increase of cytosolic [Ca(2+)]. Our results suggest that RBC eryptosis in uremic solutes IS and IAA plays an important role in thrombus formation through releasing RMPs and exposing PS. Lactadherin acts as an efficient anticoagulant in this process. PMID:26516916

  10. Indolic Uremic Solutes Enhance Procoagulant Activity of Red Blood Cells through Phosphatidylserine Exposure and Microparticle Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Gao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Increased accumulation of indolic uremic solutes in the blood of uremic patients contributes to the risk of thrombotic events. Red blood cells (RBCs, the most abundant blood cells in circulation, may be a privileged target of these solutes. However, the effect of uremic solutes indoxyl sulfate (IS and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA on procoagulant activity (PCA of erythrocyte is unclear. Here, RBCs from healthy adults were treated with IS and IAA (mean and maximal concentrations reported in uremic patients. Phosphatidylserine (PS exposure of RBCs and their microparticles (MPs release were labeled with Alexa Fluor 488-lactadherin and detected by flow cytometer. Cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+] with Fluo 3/AM was analyzed by flow cytometer. PCA was assessed by clotting time and purified coagulation complex assays. We found that PS exposure, MPs generation, and consequent PCA of RBCs at mean concentrations of IS and IAA enhanced and peaked in maximal uremic concentrations. Moreover, 128 nM lactadherin, a PS inhibitor, inhibited over 90% PCA of RBCs and RMPs. Eryptosis or damage, by indolic uremic solutes was due to, at least partially, the increase of cytosolic [Ca2+]. Our results suggest that RBC eryptosis in uremic solutes IS and IAA plays an important role in thrombus formation through releasing RMPs and exposing PS. Lactadherin acts as an efficient anticoagulant in this process.

  11. Serum γ-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase activity in Iranian healthy blood donor men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Khedmat; Nasrin Zarei; Farahnaz Fallahian; Hassan Abolghasemi; Bashir Hajibeigi; Zohre Attarchi; Farshid Alaeddini; Mohammad Taghi Holisaz; Masoumeh Pourali; Shahin Sharifi

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, and to assess their correlation with demographic and clinical findings in healthy blood donors.METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed in 934 male blood donors, aged 18 to 68 years, who consecutively attended Tehran blood transfusion service in 2006. All participants were seronegative for HBV or HCV infections, non alcohol users, and all underwent a standard interview and anthropometric tests. Clinical and biochemical parameters including AST, ALT, and GGT activities were determined. Patients taking drugs known to cause hepatic fat deposition were excluded. For AST, ALT, and GGT variables, we used 33.33 and 66.66 percentiles, so that each of them was divided into three tertiles.RESULTS: Mean AST, ALT, and GGT activities were 25.26 ± 12.58 U/L (normal range 5-35 U/L), 33.13 ± 22.98 (normal range 5-35 U/L), and 25.11 ± 18.32 (normal range 6-37 U/L), respectively. By univariate analyses, there were significant associations between increasing AST, ALT, or GGT tertiles and age, body weight, body mass index, and waist and hip circumferences (P < 0.05). By multiple linear regression analyses, ALT was found to be positively correlated with dyslipidemia (B = 6.988, P = 0.038), whereas ALT and AST were negatively correlated with age. AST, ALT, and GGT levels had positive correlation with family history of liver disease (B = 15.763, P < 0.001), (B = 32.345, P < 0.001), (B =24.415, P < 0.001), respectively.CONCLUSION: Although we did not determine the cutoffs of the upper normal limits for AST, ALT, and GGT levels, we would suggest screening asymptomatic patients with dyslipidemia and also subjects with a family history of liver disease.

  12. Cerebrospinal Fluid Hypernatremia Elevates Sympathetic Nerve Activity and Blood Pressure via the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Sean D; Lang, Susan M; Simmonds, Sarah S; Wenner, Megan M; Farquhar, William B

    2015-12-01

    Elevated NaCl concentrations of the cerebrospinal fluid increase sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in salt-sensitive hypertension. Neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) play a pivotal role in the regulation of SNA and receive mono- or polysynaptic inputs from several hypothalamic structures responsive to hypernatremia. Therefore, the present study investigated the contribution of RVLM neurons to the SNA and pressor response to cerebrospinal fluid hypernatremia. Lateral ventricle infusion of 0.15 mol/L, 0.6 mol/L, and 1.0 mol/L NaCl (5 µL/10 minutes) produced concentration-dependent increases in lumbar SNA, adrenal SNA, and arterial blood pressure, despite no change in splanchnic SNA and a decrease in renal SNA. Ganglionic blockade with chlorisondamine or acute lesion of the lamina terminalis blocked or significantly attenuated these responses, respectively. RVLM microinjection of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) agonist muscimol abolished the sympathoexcitatory response to intracerebroventricular infusion of 1 mol/L NaCl. Furthermore, blockade of ionotropic glutamate, but not angiotensin II type 1, receptors significantly attenuated the increase in lumbar SNA, adrenal SNA, and arterial blood pressure. Finally, single-unit recordings of spinally projecting RVLM neurons revealed 3 distinct populations based on discharge responses to intracerebroventricular infusion of 1 mol/L NaCl: type I excited (46%; 11/24), type II inhibited (37%; 9/24), and type III no change (17%; 4/24). All neurons with slow conduction velocities were type I cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that acute increases in cerebrospinal fluid NaCl concentrations selectively activate a discrete population of RVLM neurons through glutamate receptor activation to increase SNA and arterial blood pressure. PMID:26416846

  13. Fast neutron beam activation in situ for tumor blood flow determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel method to determine regional blood flow, is applicable to cancer patients receiving photon radiation therapy at energies greater than 25MW, using in situ produced radioactivities and measuring disappearance of annihilation radiation from the tumor volume, which is due to decay and to transport of radio-activity from the field of view. The present work considers in situ production of radioactivity by a clinical fast neutron beam. In a p(43) Be(22) beam, /sup 11/C, /sup 13/N, and /sup 15/O are produced when tissue is irradiated. A treatment of 100 cCy produces millicurie amounts, adequate to examine the mobile component of the induced activity on its first pass through the heart. The yields of positron emitters from fast neutron irradiation of carbon, hydrazine, and water targets was measured thus separately accounting for radioactivities from the principal elements of blood and tissue. To evaluate the dynamics of radioactivity in the heart, a phantom was constructed in which tissue equivalent liquid was circulated and neutron activated in a ''tumor volume'', then passed to a ''heart'' and from there to the circulatory system with only a small fraction returning to the tumor volume. Positron decay rates vs time were measured in the ''tumor'' volume and in the ''heart'' for various flow rates

  14. Predominance of Th1 cytokine in peripheral blood and pathological tissues of patients with active untreated adult onset Still's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, D; Lan, J; Lin, F.; Hsieh, T; Wen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the type 1 T helper (Th1)/type 2 T helper (Th2) balance in the peripheral blood (PB) and pathological tissues of patients with active untreated adult onset Still's disease (AOSD).

  15. The effects of the bacterial interaction with visible-light responsive titania photocatalyst on the bactericidal performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chia-Liang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bactericidal activity of traditional titanium dioxide (TiO2 photocatalyst is effective only upon irradiation by ultraviolet light, which restricts the potential applications of TiO2 for use in our living environments. Recently carbon-containing TiO2 was found to be photoactive at visible-light illumination that affords the potential to overcome this problem; although, the bactericidal activity of these photocatalysts is relatively lower than conventional disinfectants. Evidenced from scanning electron microscopy and confocal Raman spectral mapping analysis, we found the interaction with bacteria was significantly enhanced in these anatase/rutile mixed-phase carbon-containing TiO2. Bacteria-killing experiments indicate that a significantly higher proportion of all tested pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri and Acinetobacter baumannii, were eliminated by the new nanoparticle with higher bacterial interaction property. These findings suggest the created materials with high bacterial interaction ability might be a useful strategy to improve the antimicrobial activity of visible-light-activated TiO2.

  16. Regional cerebral blood flow in psychiatry: The resting and activated brains of schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of regional brain functioning in schizophrenia has been based on behavioral techniques. Although results are sometimes inconsistent, the behavioral observations suggest left hemispheric dysfunction and left hemispheric overreaction. Recent developments in neuroimaging technology make possible major refinements in assessing regional brain function. Both anatomical and physiological information now be used to study regional brain development in psychiatric disorders. This chapter describes the application of one method - the xenon-133 technique for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) - in studying the resting and activated brains of schizoprenic patients

  17. Determination of blood Cd in subjects living near dismessed mines and active industrial sites

    OpenAIRE

    Madeddu, Roberto Beniamino; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    The environmental exposure to Cd in 265 subjects living in a South-Western area of Sardinia (Sulcis-Iglesiente) with a great history of mining activities and large industrial settings was assessed. Individuals living near the industrial plants had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (0.47 μg/l) and than residents of the mining sites (0.54 μg/l). Demographic and lifestyle variables were also investigated and data show...

  18. Trace element analysis of human blood serum by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt was made to determine if there is any correlation between trace element concentrations in human blood serum and some specific diseases. The serum samples of the patients suffering from cancer, Down syndrome, and Banti syndrome were analyzed by the neutron activation method and compared with the trace element concentrations observed among clinically healthy men. The cancer patients had concentrations in Rb, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Al and Se below normal. The Down syndrome patients were found to have similar deficiencies in Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Cu and Sb. (author)

  19. Equilibrium physics breakdown reveals the active nature of red blood cell flickering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turlier, H.; Fedosov, D. A.; Audoly, B.; Auth, T.; Gov, N. S.; Sykes, C.; Joanny, J.-F.; Gompper, G.; Betz, T.

    2016-05-01

    Red blood cells, or erythrocytes, are seen to flicker under optical microscopy, a phenomenon initially described as thermal fluctuations of the cell membrane. But recent studies have suggested the involvement of non-equilibrium processes, without definitively ruling out equilibrium interpretations. Using active and passive microrheology to directly compare the membrane response and fluctuations on single erythrocytes, we report here a violation of the fluctuation-dissipation relation, which is a direct demonstration of the non-equilibrium nature of flickering. With an analytical model of the composite erythrocyte membrane and realistic stochastic simulations, we show that several molecular mechanisms may explain the active fluctuations, and we predict their kinetics. We demonstrate that tangential metabolic activity in the network formed by spectrin, a cytoskeletal protein, can generate curvature-mediated active membrane motions. We also show that other active membrane processes represented by direct normal force dipoles may explain the observed membrane activity. Our findings provide solid experimental and theoretical frameworks for future investigations of the origin and function of active motion in cells.

  20. The effect of amphetamine on regional cerebral blood flow during cognitive activation in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the role of monoamines on cerebral function during specific prefrontal cognitive activation, we conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of the effects of 0.25 mg/kg oral dextroamphetamine on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as determined by 133Xe dynamic single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) during performance of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and a sensorimotor control task. Ten patients with chronic schizophrenia who had been stabilized for at least 6 weeks on 0.4 mg/kg haloperidol participated. Amphetamine produced a modest, nonsignificant, task-independent, global reduction in rCBF. However, the effect of amphetamine on task-dependent activation of rCBF (i.e., WCST minus control task) was striking. Whereas on placebo no significant activation of rCBF was seen during the WCST compared with the control task, on amphetamine significant activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) occurred (p = 0.0006). Both the mean number of correct responses and the mean conceptual level increased (p less than 0.05) with amphetamine relative to placebo. In addition, with amphetamine, but not with placebo, a significant correlation (p = -0.71; p less than 0.05) emerged between activation of DLPFC rCBF and performance of the WCST task. These findings are consistent with animal models in which mesocortical catecholaminergic activity modulates and enhances the signal-to-noise ratio of evoked cortical activity

  1. An Investigation of the Effects of Ivermectin on Blood Serum, Semen Hyaluronidase Activities and Spermatological Characteristics in Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    TANYILDIZI, Sadettin

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of ivermectin on the hyaluronidase activities of blood serum and semen and on the sperm characteristics in sheep. In this investigation 18 sheep, at the age of 2 years and weighing between 50-60kg were used. After the administration of ivermectin subcutanously at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg, semen and blood samples were taken at different times. The hyaluronidase activities of blood serum and semen samples in sheep were determined to increase sign...

  2. Associations among environmental supports, physical activity, and blood pressure in African-American adults in the PATH trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K; Egan, Brent M

    2013-06-01

    High blood pressure disproportionately affects African-American adults and is a leading cause of stroke and heart attack. Engaging in recommended levels of physical activity reduces blood pressure, and social and physical environmental supports for physical activity may increase engagement in physical activity. Based on social cognitive theory within a bioecological framework, the present study tested hypotheses that perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability would be positively associated with physical activity, and that physical activity would mediate their relation with blood pressure. Baseline data were collected with 434 African-American adults in underserved communities (low income, high crime) participating in the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial. Perceived peer social support for physical activity and neighborhood walkability were measured with validated surveys. Physical activity was assessed with 7-day accelerometry (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, min/day) and with a 4-week recall of walking. Three blood pressure assessments were taken by trained staff using standard protocols, with values from the second and third assessments averaged. The sample was predominantly female (63%), overweight (mean body mass index = 30.9, SD = 8.4), and had slightly elevated blood pressures with a mean systolic blood pressure of 132.4 (SD = 17.9) and a mean diastolic blood pressure of 81.4 (SD = 11.0). Results demonstrated that peer social support for physical activity (B = 2.43, p = .02) and neighborhood walkability (B = 2.40, p = .046) were significantly related to average daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Neighborhood walkability was also significantly associated with self-reported average daily walking (B = 8.86, p = .02). Physical activity did not mediate their relation with blood pressure and no significant direct effects of these variables on blood pressure were found. The positive influence of

  3. Arginase activity in the blood of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yegnasew Takele

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease associated with high mortality. The most important foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia are in the Northwest and are predominantly associated with high rates of HIV co-infection. Co-infection of visceral leishmaniasis patients with HIV results in higher mortality, treatment failure and relapse. We have previously shown that arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression, was increased in patients with visceral leishmaniasis and in HIV seropositive patients; further our results showed that high arginase activity is a marker of disease severity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that increased arginase activities associated with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV infections synergize in patients co-infected with both pathogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recruited a cohort of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and a cohort of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV infection from Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia, and recorded and compared their clinical data. Further, we measured the levels of arginase activity in the blood of these patients and identified the phenotype of arginase-expressing cells. Our results show that CD4(+ T cell counts were significantly lower and the parasite load in the spleen was significantly higher in co-infected patients. Moreover, our results demonstrate that arginase activity was significantly higher in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma of co-infected patients. Finally, we identified the cells-expressing arginase in the PBMCs as low-density granulocytes. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that increased arginase might contribute to the poor disease outcome characteristic of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV co-infection.

  4. Incomplete activation of peripheral blood dendritic cells during healthy human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Bella, S; Giannelli, S; Cozzi, V; Signorelli, V; Cappelletti, M; Cetin, I; Villa, M L

    2011-05-01

    Successful pregnancy relies on the adaptation of immune responses that allow the fetus to grow and develop in the uterus despite being recognized by maternal immune cells. Dendritic cells (DCs) are central to the control of immune tolerance, and their state of activation at the maternal-decidual interface is critical to the feto-maternal immunological equilibrium. So far, the involvement of circulating DCs has been investigated poorly. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether, during healthy human pregnancy, peripheral blood DCs (PBDCs) undergo changes that may be relevant to the adaptation of maternal immune responses that allow fetal tolerance. In a cross-sectional study, we analysed PBDCs by six-colour flow cytometry on whole blood samples from 47 women during healthy pregnancy progression and 24 non-pregnant controls. We demonstrated that both myeloid and plasmacytoid PBDCs undergo a state of incomplete activation, more evident in the third trimester, characterized by increased expression of co-stimulatory molecules and cytokine production but lacking human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR up-regulation. To investigate the contribution of soluble circulating factors to this phenomenon, we also performed culture experiments showing that sera from pregnant women added to control DCs conditioned a similar incomplete activation that was associated with reduced DC allostimulatory capacity, supporting the in vivo relevance of our findings. We also obtained evidence that the glycoprotein hormone activin-A may contribute to DC incomplete activation. We suggest that the changes of PBDCs occurring during late pregnancy may aid the comprehension of the immune mechanisms operated by the maternal immune system to maintain fetal tolerance. PMID:21352205

  5. Bactericidal effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aun, Carlos E.; Barberini, Alexandre F.; Camargo, Selma C. C.; Silva Kfouri, Luciana; Lorenzetti Simionato, Maria R.

    1999-05-01

    The success of endodontic therapy is based on the elimination of bacterial colonization from the endodontic system and periapical tissues. Recent studies have been showing the bactericidal effect of laser in root canal treatment. The propose of the study is to evaluate the effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in contaminated root canal treatment. The propose of the study is to evaluate the effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in contaminated root canals from upper central incisor. For the experiment 12 teeth were selected, respect at the apical third, sterilized, and 10 μm Streptococcus sanguis liquid culture were inoculated in the root canals. The laser test groups were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser at standard setting of 15Hz, 100mj and 1,5 W for 10, 20 and 30 seconds each in slow helicoidal movements from the apex to the top using a 300 micrometers fiber. After the procedure the specimens were placed in Tryptic Soy Agar, the number of colony forming units was evaluated. The experiment showed a significant reduction on viability of Streptococcus sanguis at the respective time of 20 and 30 seconds.

  6. Effect of Active and Passive Recovery on Athletes' White Blood Cell Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Piraki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    Exercise affects the immune system. The aim of this study is comparison of the effect of active and passive recovery (AR and RR, respectively on differential white blood cell (WBC count after an exhaustive exercise session in athlete males.

    Methods

    Twenty male athletes who signed an informed consent form were randomly divided in to two equal groups. Their blood samples were drawn at rest, immediately after an exhaustive exercise session, immediately after 15 minutes active and passive recovery from an exhaustive exercise session. A WBC’s (lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basohils, and eosinophils count was done on all of these samples.

    This exercise protocol was based on the Bruce Protocol Treadmill Stress Test until feeling excessive fatigue followed by AR (first group, and RR (second group.Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney test were used for descriptive and statistical analysis on collected raw data. Statistical significance in this analysis was set at P ≤ 0.05.

    Results

    A session of exhaustive exercise increased the number of WBCs (except for eosinophils with a statistical significant differences of (P<0.05. A Comparison of the changes before and after workout, showed no statistical significant difference. Also, a 15 minute AR and RR, didn't alter WBCs count (all P>0.05.

    Conclusion

    The results show a session of exhaustive exercise increases the blood leukocytes, except for eosinophils. Also, taking 15 minutes recovery (AR or RR has no effect on athlete's WBC count. It means the type of recovery has no special and different effect on athlete's WBC count. In fact, if there are any changes in WBC count during or after exhaustive exercise, they are not due to the type of 15 minutes recovery. Furthermore, under the conditions of this study after completing the AR and RR, number of the blood

  7. Assessment of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in blood plasma of agriculture workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Dhananjayan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cholinesterase determination indicates whether the person has been under pesticide exposure is not. It is recommended that the worker′s cholinesterase level should be assessed for workers at a pesticide applied region. Hence, cholinesterase activities in blood samples of agricultural workers exposed to vegetables and grape cultivation with age matched, unexposed workers, who never had any exposure to pesticides, were estimated. Methods: The detailed occupational history and lifestyle characters were obtained by questionnaire. Cholinesterase activity was determined by the method of Ellman as modified by Chambers and Chambers. Results: AChE was ranging from 1.65 to 3.54μmoles/min/ml in exposed subjects where as it was ranged from 2.22 to 3.51μmoles/min/ml in control subjects. BChE activity was ranging from 0.16 to 5.2μmoles/min/ml among exposed subjects, where as it was ranged from 2.19 to 5.06μmoles/min/ml in control subjects. The results showed statistically significant reduction in enzyme activities (AChE 14%; BChE 56% among exposed subjects. Conclusion: It was concluded that the reduction in cholinesterase activity may lead to varieties of effects. Hence it is compulsory to use protective gadgets during pesticide spray. Further a continuous biomonitoring study is recommended to assess pesticide exposure.

  8. Mitogen-activated Tasmanian devil blood mononuclear cells kill devil facial tumour disease cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gabriella K; Tovar, Cesar; Cooray, Anne A; Kreiss, Alexandre; Darby, Jocelyn; Murphy, James M; Corcoran, Lynn M; Bettiol, Silvana S; Lyons, A Bruce; Woods, Gregory M

    2016-08-01

    Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) is a transmissible cancer that has brought the host species, the Tasmanian devil, to the brink of extinction. The cancer cells avoid allogeneic immune recognition by downregulating cell surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I expression. This should prevent CD8(+) T cell, but not natural killer (NK) cell, cytotoxicity. The reason why NK cells, normally reactive to MHC-negative cells, are not activated to kill DFTD cells has not been determined. The immune response of wild devils to DFTD, if it occurs, is uncharacterised. To investigate this, we tested 12 wild devils with DFTD, and found suggestive evidence of low levels of antibodies against DFTD cells in one devil. Eight of these devils were also analysed for cytotoxicity, however, none showed evidence for cytotoxicity against cultured DFTD cells. To establish whether mimicking activation of antitumour responses could induce cytotoxic activity against DFTD, Tasmanian devil peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were treated with either the mitogen Concanavalin A, the Toll-like receptor agonist polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid or recombinant Tasmanian devil IL-2. All induced the PBMC cells to kill cultured DFTD cells, suggesting that activation does not occur after encounter with DFTD cells in vivo, but can be induced. The identification of agents that activate cytotoxicity against DFTD target cells is critical for developing strategies to protect against DFTD. Such agents could function as adjuvants to induce functional immune responses capable of targeting DFTD cells and tumours in vivo. PMID:27089941

  9. Thromboelastography results on citrated whole blood from clinically healthy cats depend on modes of activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiinberg Bo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decade, thromboelastography (TEG has gained increasing acceptance as a diagnostic test in veterinary medicine for evaluation of haemostasis in dogs, however the use of TEG in cats has to date only been described in one previous study and a few abstracts. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare three different TEG assays in healthy cats, in order to establish which assay may be best suited for TEG analyses in cats. Methods 90 TEG analyses were performed on citrated whole blood samples from 15 clinically healthy cats using assays without activator (native or with human recombinant tissue factor (TF or kaolin as activators. Results for reaction time (R, clotting time (K, angle (α, maximum amplitude (MA and clot lysis (LY30; LY60 were recorded. Results Coefficients of variation (CVs were highest in the native assay and comparable in TF and kaolin activated assays. Significant differences were observed between native and kaolin assays for all measured parameters, between kaolin and TF for all measured parameters except LY60 and between native and TF assays for R and K. Conclusion The results indicate that TEG is a reproducible method for evaluation of haemostasis in clinically healthy cats. However, the three assays cannot be used interchangeably and the kaolin- and TF activated assays have the lowest analytical variation indicating that using an activator may be superior for performing TEG in cats.

  10. Fungi and bacteria. [fungicide and bactericide measures for spacecraft in tropical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    Spacecraft equipment is usually protected from fungi and bacteria by incorporating a fungicide-bactericide in the material, by a fungicide-bactericide spray, or by reducing the relative humidity to a degree where growth will not take place. A unique method to protect delicate, expensive bearings in equipment was to maintain a pressure (with dry air or nitrogen) slightly above the outside atmosphere (few millibars) within the working parts of the equipment, thus preventing fungi from entering equipment.

  11. Two approaches to form antibacterial surface: Doping with bactericidal element and drug loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhorukova, I. V.; Sheveyko, A. N.; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Ph. V.; Anisimova, N. Y.; Gloushankova, N. A.; Zhitnyak, I. Y.; Benesova, J.; Amler, E.; Shtansky, D. V.

    2015-03-01

    Two approaches (surface doping with bactericidal element and loading of antibiotic into specially formed surface microcontainers) to the fabrication of antibacterial yet biocompatible and bioactive surfaces are described. A network structure with square-shaped blind pores of 2.6 ± 0.6 × 10-3 mm3 for drug loading was obtained by selective laser sintering (SLS). The SLS-fabricated samples were loaded with 0.03, 0.3, 2.4, and 4 mg/cm2 of co-amoxiclav (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid). Ag-doped TiCaPCON films with 0.4, 1.2, and 4.0 at.% of Ag were obtained by co-sputtering of composite TiC0.5-Ca3(PO4)2 and metallic Ag targets. The surface structure of SLS-prepared samples and cross-sectional morphology of TiCaPCON-Ag films were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The through-thickness of Ag distribution in the TiCaPCON-Ag films was obtained by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. The kinetics of Ag ion release in normal saline solution was studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Bacterial activity of the samples was evaluated against S. epidermidis, S. aureus, and K. pneum. ozaenae using the agar diffusion test and photometric method by controlling the variation of optical density of the bacterial suspension over time. Cytocompatibility of the Ag-doped TiCaPCON films was observed in vitro using chondrocytic and MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. The viability and proliferation of chondrocytic cells were determined using the MTS assay and PicoGreen assay tests, respectively. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the SLS-fabricated samples loaded with co-amoxiclav was also studied. The obtained results showed that the moderate bacteriostatic effect of the Ag-doped TiCaPCON films is mainly manifested in the change of bacterial colony morphology and optical densities of bacteria suspensions. In contrast, the SLS-prepared samples showed a very rapid initial drug release resulting in strong bactericidal effect just from the start of the

  12. Biological and bactericidal properties of Ag-doped bioactive glass in a natural extracellular matrix hydrogel with potential application in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Y-Y Wang; X Chatzistavrou; D Faulk; Badylak, S; Zheng, L; S. Papagerakis; Ge, L.; H. Liu; Papagerakis, P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the fabrication and evaluation of a novel bioactive and bactericidal material, which could have applications in dentistry by supporting tissue regeneration and killing oral bacteria. Our hypothesis was that a new scaffold for pulp-dentin tissue engineering with enhanced antibacterial activity could be obtained by associating extracellular matrix derived from porcine bladder with an antibacterial bioactive glass. Our study combines in vitro approaches and ectopic impl...

  13. Bactericidal evaluation of N-halamine-functionalized silica nanoparticles based on barbituric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Alideertu; Xue, Min; Lan, Shi; Wang, Qin; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yanling; Gao, Ge; Liu, Fengqi; Harnoode, Chokto

    2014-01-01

    Novel N-halamine-functionalized silica nanoparticles (NHFS NPs) were facilely fabricated from the 5-allylbarbituric acid (ABBA) by a seeded copolymerization using colloidal silica nanoparticles as support and ABBA-based N-halamine copolymers as shell. The NHFS NPs with spherical morphology and legible core-shell structure have the average diameter of 538.5 nm and the average shell thickness of 19.8 nm. The NHFS NPs possessed improved antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria compared with their bulk powder counterparts. The structural effect of N-halamine on bactericidal activity was clarified through the comparison between barbituric acid-based NHFS NPs and hydantoin-structural NHFS NPs. Effects of colloidal silica support and comonomer methyl methacrylate on particles morphology and the corresponding antimicrobial activity were comparatively investigated as well. Antibacterial tests revealed that N-halamine nanomaterials originated from barbituric acid derivative displayed powerful antibacterial performance and long-term stability. PMID:24144511

  14. Two approaches to form antibacterial surface: Doping with bactericidal element and drug loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bioactive materials with rate-controlled release of antibacterial agent. • Ag+ ion release from TiCaPCON-Ag films depended on Ag content. • TiCaPCON-coated Ti network structure with blind pores loaded with co-amoxiclav. • Strong bactericidal effect of drug-loaded samples. • Antibacterial yet biocompatible and bioactive surfaces. - Abstract: Two approaches (surface doping with bactericidal element and loading of antibiotic into specially formed surface microcontainers) to the fabrication of antibacterial yet biocompatible and bioactive surfaces are described. A network structure with square-shaped blind pores of 2.6 ± 0.6 × 10−3 mm3 for drug loading was obtained by selective laser sintering (SLS). The SLS-fabricated samples were loaded with 0.03, 0.3, 2.4, and 4 mg/cm2 of co-amoxiclav (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid). Ag-doped TiCaPCON films with 0.4, 1.2, and 4.0 at.% of Ag were obtained by co-sputtering of composite TiC0.5-Ca3(PO4)2 and metallic Ag targets. The surface structure of SLS-prepared samples and cross-sectional morphology of TiCaPCON-Ag films were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The through-thickness of Ag distribution in the TiCaPCON-Ag films was obtained by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. The kinetics of Ag ion release in normal saline solution was studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Bacterial activity of the samples was evaluated against S. epidermidis, S. aureus, and K. pneum. ozaenae using the agar diffusion test and photometric method by controlling the variation of optical density of the bacterial suspension over time. Cytocompatibility of the Ag-doped TiCaPCON films was observed in vitro using chondrocytic and MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. The viability and proliferation of chondrocytic cells were determined using the MTS assay and PicoGreen assay tests, respectively. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the SLS-fabricated samples loaded with

  15. Two approaches to form antibacterial surface: Doping with bactericidal element and drug loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhorukova, I.V.; Sheveyko, A.N.; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Ph.V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky pr. 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Anisimova, N.Y.; Gloushankova, N.A.; Zhitnyak, I.Y. [N.N Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center of RAMS, Kashirskoe shosse 24, Moscow 115478 (Russian Federation); Benesova, J. [Institute of Experimental Medicine of the ASCR, Vídenska 1083, Prague 14220 (Czech Republic); Institute of Biophysics, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, V Uvalu 84, Prague 15006 (Czech Republic); Amler, E. [Institute of Experimental Medicine of the ASCR, Vídenska 1083, Prague 14220 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague (Czech Republic); Shtansky, D.V., E-mail: shtansky@shs.misis.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky pr. 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bioactive materials with rate-controlled release of antibacterial agent. • Ag{sup +} ion release from TiCaPCON-Ag films depended on Ag content. • TiCaPCON-coated Ti network structure with blind pores loaded with co-amoxiclav. • Strong bactericidal effect of drug-loaded samples. • Antibacterial yet biocompatible and bioactive surfaces. - Abstract: Two approaches (surface doping with bactericidal element and loading of antibiotic into specially formed surface microcontainers) to the fabrication of antibacterial yet biocompatible and bioactive surfaces are described. A network structure with square-shaped blind pores of 2.6 ± 0.6 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 3} for drug loading was obtained by selective laser sintering (SLS). The SLS-fabricated samples were loaded with 0.03, 0.3, 2.4, and 4 mg/cm{sup 2} of co-amoxiclav (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid). Ag-doped TiCaPCON films with 0.4, 1.2, and 4.0 at.% of Ag were obtained by co-sputtering of composite TiC{sub 0.5}-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} and metallic Ag targets. The surface structure of SLS-prepared samples and cross-sectional morphology of TiCaPCON-Ag films were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The through-thickness of Ag distribution in the TiCaPCON-Ag films was obtained by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. The kinetics of Ag ion release in normal saline solution was studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Bacterial activity of the samples was evaluated against S. epidermidis, S. aureus, and K. pneum. ozaenae using the agar diffusion test and photometric method by controlling the variation of optical density of the bacterial suspension over time. Cytocompatibility of the Ag-doped TiCaPCON films was observed in vitro using chondrocytic and MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. The viability and proliferation of chondrocytic cells were determined using the MTS assay and PicoGreen assay tests, respectively. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP

  16. Measurement of microbial DNA polymerase activity enables detection and growth monitoring of microbes from clinical blood cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Zweitzig

    Full Text Available Surveillance of bloodstream infections (BSI is a high priority within the hospital setting. Broth-based blood cultures are the current gold standard for detecting BSI, however they can require lengthy incubation periods prior to detection of positive samples. We set out to demonstrate the feasibility of using enzymatic template generation and amplification (ETGA-mediated measurement of DNA polymerase activity to detect microbes from clinical blood cultures. In addition to routine-collected hospital blood cultures, one parallel aerobic blood culture was collected and immediately refrigerated until being transported for ETGA analysis. After refrigeration holding and transport, parallel-collected cultures were placed into a BACTEC incubator and ETGA time-course analysis was performed. Of the 308 clinical blood cultures received, 22 were BACTEC positive, and thus were initially selected for ETGA time course analysis. The ETGA assay detected microbial growth in all 22 parallel-positive blood cultures in less time than a BACTEC incubator and also yielded genomic DNA for qPCR-based organism identification. In summary, feasibility of detecting microbes from clinical blood culture samples using the ETGA blood culture assay was demonstrated. Additional studies are being considered towards development of clinically beneficial versions of this methodology.

  17. Novel aspects of blood coagulation factor XIII. I. Structure, distribution, activation, and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muszbek, L.; Adany, R. [Univ. Medical School of Debrecen (Hungary); Mikkola, H. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-10-01

    Blood coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) is a protransglutaminase that becomes activated by the concerted action of thrombin and Ca{sup 2+} in the final stage of the clotting cascade. In addition to plasma, FXIII also occurs in platelets, monocytes, and monocyte-derived macrophages. While the plasma factor is a heterotetramer consisting of paired A and B subunits (A{sub 2}B{sub 2}), its cellular counterpart lacks the B subunits and is a homodimer of potentially active A subunits (A{sub 2}). The gene coding for the A and B subunits has been localized to chromosomes 6p24-25 and 1q31-32.1, respectively. The genomic as well as the primary protein structure of both subunits has been established. Plasma FXIII circulates in association with its substrate precursor, fibrinogen. Fibrin(ogen) has an important regulatory role in the activation of plasma FXIII, for instance the proteolytic removal of activation peptide by thrombin, the dissociation of subunits A and B, and the exposure of the originally buried active site on the free A subunits. The end result of this process is the formation of an active transglutaminase, which crosslinks peptide chains through {epsilon}({gamma}-glutamyl)lysyl isopeptide bonds. The protein substrates of activated FXIII include components of the clotting-fibrinolytic system, adhesive and contractile proteins. The main physiological function of plasma FXIII is to cross-link fibrin and protect it from the fibrinolytic enzyme plasmin. The latter effect is achieved mainly by covalently linking {alpha}{sub 2} antiplasmin, the most potent physiological inhibitor of plasmin, to fibrin. Plasma FXIII seems to be involved in wound healing and tissue repair, and it is essential to maintaining pregnancy. Cellular FXIII, if exposed to the surface of the cells, might support or perhaps take over the hemostatic functions of plasma FXIII; however, its intracellular role has remained mostly unexplored. 328 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Depression in pregnancy is associated with decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in fetal cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camkurt, Mehmet Akif; Fındıklı, Ebru; Bakacak, Murat; Karaaslan, Mehmet Fatih; Tolun, Fatma İnanç; Tuman, Taha Can

    2016-08-01

    The investigation of fetal cord blood (FCB) during child delivery has created a novel topic in the field of psychiatric research. The umbilical vein receives nutrients and oxygen from the mother's circulation and transports them to the fetal circulation. Investigating fetal cord blood during delivery is beneficial for understanding the fetal environment. Depression in pregnancy is associated with medical and emotional burdens. In this study, we aimed to investigate glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the FCB of depressed mothers and healthy controls. Our study included 45 depressed mothers and 59 healthy controls. The FCB samples were collected from the umbilical vein during delivery. We found that Gpx levels were significantly decreased in the FCB of depressed mothers than healthy controls, medians were 0.14 U/ml and 0.16 U/ml respectively, Z: -3.567 and p < 0.001. MPO levels were similar in both groups, medians were 1.0 U/L and 1.2 U/L respectively, Z: -1.837 and p:0.066. Depression in pregnancy may be associated with decreased antioxidant levels, and this condition may cause an oxidative load, which may lead to improper brain development. Future studies should be performed in larger samples to clarify our preliminary results. PMID:27174401

  19. Ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes in peripheral blood in patients diagnosed with active tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes in peripheral blood could reflect an indi- vidual's immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes and clinical status of patients with active tuberculosis.Methods:This was a retrospective review of data collected from the clinical database of The Fifth People's Hospital of Wuxi, Medical College of Jiangnan University. A total of 419 patients who had newly diagnosed active tuberculosis and 108 cases from 419 patients with tuberculosis therapy either near completion or completed were selected. Controls were 327 healthy donors.Results:Median ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes was 0.36 (IQR, 0.22-0.54 in patients before treatment, and 0.16 (IQR, 0.12-0.20 in controls (p25% was significant predictors for active tuberculosis (OR = 114.73, 95% CI, 39.80-330.71; OR = 89.81, 95% CI, 53.18-151.68, respectively. After treatment, the median ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes recovered to be nearly normal. Compared to other patients, patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis and of age >60 years were more likely to have extreme ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes (AOR = 2.57, 95% CI, 1.08-6.09; AOR = 4.36, 95% CI, 1.43-13.29, respectively.Conclusions:Ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes 25% is predictive of active tuberculosis.

  20. Whole blood assay for NK activity in splenectomized and non-splenectomized hairy cell leukemia patients during IFN-alpha-2b treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B; Hokland, P; Ellegaard, J;

    1989-01-01

    Natural killer cell (NK) activity in peripheral blood (PB) was followed longitudinally for up to 2 yr after initiation of low-dose IFN-alpha-2b therapy in nine hairy cell leukemia (HCL) patients. A whole blood NK (WB-NK) assay was employed in order to measure the NK activity per unit blood. The p...

  1. Increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, heart rate, respiration and skin blood flow during passive viewing of exercise

    OpenAIRE

    RachaelBrown; VaughanGMacefield

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular and respiratory effects of exercise have been widely studied, as have the autonomic effects of imagined and observed exercise. However, the effects of observed exercise in the first person have not been documented, nor have direct recordings of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) been obtained during observed or imagined exercise. The aim of the current study was to measure blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, skin blood flow, sweat release and muscle sympathetic ...

  2. Increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, heart rate, respiration, and skin blood flow during passive viewing of exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Rachael; Kemp, Ursula; Macefield, Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular and respiratory effects of exercise have been widely studied, as have the autonomic effects of imagined and observed exercise. However, the effects of observed exercise in the first person have not been documented, nor have direct recordings of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) been obtained during observed or imagined exercise. The aim of the current study was to measure blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, skin blood flow, sweat release, and MSNA (via microelec...

  3. The Effect of Trans-Chalcone on Amylase Activity, Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in Diabetic and Non Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Najafian, M.; Ebrahim-Habibi, A.; P Yaghmaei; Parivar, K.; Larijani, B.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Alpha amylase is the most important decomposing enzyme in starch. Digestion and absorption of starch in the intestine can be prevented and also the blood sugar levels can be controlled by restrain and control of alpha amylase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of trans-chalcone on amylase activity, blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic and non diabetic rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 1388 at Tehran Universit...

  4. Visual detection of blood glucose based on peroxidase-like activity of WS2 nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tianran; Zhong, Liangshuang; Song, Zhiping; Guo, Liangqia; Wu, Hanyin; Guo, Qingquan; Chen, Ying; Fu, FengFu; Chen, Guonan

    2014-12-15

    Tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets were discovered to possess intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and catalyze the peroxidase substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) to produce a color reaction in the presence of H2O2. Based on this finding, a colorimetric method and a portable test kit for the visual detection of blood glucose have been developed by using glucose oxidase (GOx) and WS2 nanosheets-catalyzed reactions. The linear range for glucose was ranged from 5 to 300 μM (R(2)=0.999) with the detection limit of 2.9 μM. The portable test kit was successfully evaluated glucose levels in serum samples from normal persons and diabetes persons by the observable color change from pale yellow to yellow-green, blue-green. PMID:25032681

  5. Donation intensity and metabolic syndrome in active whole-blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peffer, K.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Swinkels, D.W.; Geurts-Moespot, A.; Heijer, M. den; Atsma, F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Increased iron and metabolic syndrome (MetS) go hand in hand. Frequent blood donation depletes iron stores. This study investigates whether high-intensity blood donation is associated with lower MetS prevalence compared with low-intensity blood donation, and whether iron a

  6. Antihaemolytic activity of thirty herbal extracts in mouse red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Masoumeh; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Safdari, Yaghoub

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to haemolysis and eventually to diseases such as thalassemia and sickle cell anaemia. Their action can be counteracted by the antihaemolytic activity of therapeutic agents. The aim of our study was to identify plants that most efficiently counteract ROS-caused haemolysis. From ten plants known for their antioxidant activity (Orobanche orientalis G. Beck, Cucumis melo L., Albizzia julibrissin Durazz, Galium verum L., Scutellaria tournefortii Benth, Crocus caspius Fischer & Meyer, Sambucus ebulus L., Danae racemosa L., Rubus fruticsos L., and Artemisia absinthium L.) we prepared 30 extracts using three extraction methods (percolation, Soxhlet, and ultrasound-assisted extraction) to see whether the extraction method affects antihaemolytic efficiency, and one extraction method (polyphenol extraction) to see how much of this action is phenol-related. Extract antihaemolytic activity was determined in mice red blood cells and compared to that of vitamin C as a known antioxidant. Nine of our extracts were more potent than vitamin C, of which G. verum (aerial parts/percolation) and S. tournefortii (aerial parts/polyphenol) extracts were the most potent, with an IC50 of 1.32 and 2.08 μg mL⁻¹, respectively. Haemolysis inhibition depended on extract concentration and the method of extraction. These plants could provide accessible sources of natural antioxidants to the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25720027

  7. Comparative in vitro activities of fluconazole, voriconazole, and MXP-4509 against Romanian blood yeast isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareş, Mihai; Năstasă, Valentin; Ramona, Florina Moraru; Doroftei, Bogdan; Stefanache, Alina

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of a new triazole formulation against 182 clinical isolates of yeasts recovered from blood cultures in three tertiary hospitals in Romania and to compare its activity with those of fluconazole and voriconazole. In vitro susceptibility was assessed by following the guidelines of AFST-EUCAST E. Def. 7.1. The distribution of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of MXP-4509 was very similar to that of voriconazole (MIC(50): 0.0312 mg/l vs. 0.0156 mg/l; MIC(90): 0.25 mg/l vs. 0.25 mg/l), but significantly different from that of fluconazole (MIC(50): 0.0312 mg/l vs. 0.5 mg/l; MIC(90): 0.25 mg/l vs. 32 mg/l). The new triazole MXP-4509 proved to have a good in vitro antifungal activity raising the interest for further pharmacological and microbiological investigations in order to assess its potential advantages for therapy. PMID:21805354

  8. Uroporphyrinogen-I-synthetase activity in red blood cells of lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Waseef, A.

    1982-01-01

    Lead-exposed (n . 26) and control (n . 12) subjects were investigated for their blood lead concentration erythrocyte 5-amino-laevulinic acid dehydratase (5-ALAD) and erythrocyte uroporphyrinogen-I-synthetase (URO-I-S) activity; 5-amino-laevulinic acid (5-ALA) and porphobilinogen (PBG) were used as substrates in the synthetase assay. In the lead workers erythrocyte 5-ALA dehydratase was grossly inhibited but with PBG as substrate the synthetase activity was not significantly different from the control group. With 5-ALA as substrate the synthetase assay showed marked inhibition. Addition of zinc (0.1 mmol/l) and dithiotheritol (0.5 mmol/l) brought the activities of both the dehydratase and synthetase (using 5-ALA as substrate) back into the ranges seen in the control group. With porphobilinogen as substrate higher concentrations of zinc caused inhibition of the synthetase, whilst reduction of added zinc to 0.01 mmol/l resulted in stimulation of the synthetase. A good correlation (r . 0.87) was obtained in synthetase assay when PBG and 5-aminolaevulinate (with added zinc and dithiothreitol) were used as substrates. With these additions 5-ALA may be used as a substrate in the URO-I-S assay in the investigation of latent cases of acute intermittent porphyria.

  9. Photocatalytic Bactericidal Efficiency of Ag Doped TiO2/Fe3O4 on Fish Pathogens under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkachai Kanchanatip

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluates photocatalytic bactericidal efficiencies of Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 in visible light using target pollutants that include Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, and Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. The investigation started with Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 synthesis and calcination followed by a series of product tests that include the examination of crystallite phase, light absorption, element composition morphology, and magnetic properties. The results of the experiment indicate that Ag and Fe3O4 significantly enhanced the light absorption capacity of TiO2 in the entire visible light range. The Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 prepared in this study displays significantly enhanced visible light absorption and narrowed band gap energy. The magnetic property of Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 made it easy for retrieval using a permanent magnet bar. The photocatalytic activity of Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 remains above 85% after three application cycles, which indicates high and favorable efficiency in bactericidal evaluation. The experiments have proved that the Ag-TiO2/Fe3O4 magnetic photocatalyst is a promising photocatalyst for antibacterial application under visible light.

  10. Evaluation of the bactericidal efficacy of three different alcohol hand rubs against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus using an ex vivo carrier test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, K E; Denyer, S P; Hosein, I K; Williams, G J; Maillard, J-Y

    2011-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of three alcohol hand rubs (AHRs) against Staphylococcus aureus using an ex vivo carrier test method and investigated the residual activity of AHRs and the effect of mechanical rubbing. A much longer contact time was required for the AHRs to achieve a bactericidal effect using the ex vivo test (between 10 and >20 min) compared with the in vitro test. Mechanical rubbing was found to increase the efficacy of the AHR compared to a rubbing control. Since the AHRs had no residual activity, the bactericidal effect achieved using the ex vivo test with contact times greater than the evaporation times (15 s) is unlikely to be achieved in practice. In view of such findings it is unlikely that AHRs are able to achieve a significant bactericidal effect (≥4 log(10) reduction) in practice, suggesting that contamination on the hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) may not be reduced enough to overcome the risk of cross-contamination and healthcare-associated infection. Since the AHRs had no residual effect they would be unable to prevent recolonisation of the hands of HCWs. PMID:21130519

  11. Green synthesis and characterization of Carica papaya leaf extract coated silver nanoparticles through X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and evaluation of bactericidal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banala, Rajkiran Reddy; Nagati, Veera Babu; Karnati, Pratap Reddy

    2015-09-01

    The evolution of nanotechnology and the production of nanomedicine from various sources had proven to be of intense value in the field of biomedicine. The smaller size of nanoparticles is gaining importance in research for the treatment of various diseases. Moreover the production of nanoparticles is eco-friendly and cost effective. In the present study silver nanoparticles were synthesized from Carica papaya leaf extract (CPL) and characterized for their size and shape using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS/EDX) and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) were conducted to determine the concentration of metal ions, the shape of molecules. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using Luria Bertani broth cultures and the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were estimated using turbidimetry. The data analysis showed size of 50-250 nm spherical shaped nanoparticles. The turbidimetry analysis showed MIC and MBC was >25 μg/mL against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria in Luria Bertani broth cultures. In summary the synthesized silver nanoparticles from CPL showed acceptable size and shape of nanoparticles and effective bactericidal activity. PMID:26288570

  12. The use of a novel in-bed active Leg Exercise Apparatus (LEX) for increasing venous blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenta; Kamada, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yukiyo; Aikawa, Shizu; Nishino, Tomofumi; Ochiai, Naoyuki; Sakane, Masataka; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) and leg deep vein thrombosis (DVT) has increased in recent years in association with aging and an increase in the number of bedridden individuals. We developed an active in-bed leg exercise apparatus labeled the Leg Exercise Apparatus (LEX) for DVT prevention. We compared the effect of leg exercises performed using the LEX to conventional active ankle exercises on increased blood flow. Materials & Methods: The subjects were eight healthy adult volunteers [five men and three women, aged 20–34 (mean 27.0) years]. Subjects performed two types of exercise; exercise 1 consisted of leg exercises using the LEX, while exercise 2 consisted of in-bed active plantar flexion/dorsiflexion exercises without the device. Measurements were taken 1, 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes after exercise including common femoral vein blood flow, mean blood flow velocity, maximum blood flow velocity, and vessel diameter using Doppler ultrasound. Statistical procedures included timed measurement data analysis using a linear mixed model. A Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparisons. Results: Compared to resting levels, blood flow reached a maximum value 1 minute after exercise for both exercise types, with a significantly greater increase after exercise 1 (1.76-fold increase) compared to exercise 2 (1.44-fold increase) (p = 0.005). There was a significant difference (p = 0.03) between the two exercises for all values from 1 minute to 30 minutes following exercise. There was no significant difference between exercises for peak or mean blood flow velocity. Compared to resting levels, blood vessel diameter reached a maximum value of 1.47-fold greater at 5 minutes post-exercise for exercise 1 and a maximum value of 1.21-fold greater at 1 minute post-exercise for exercise 2. Conclusions: Exercise using the LEX increased lower leg venous blood flow and vessel diameter. We propose that the LEX may serve as a new DVT prevention tool. PMID

  13. Glucocorticoids Induce Nondipping Blood Pressure by Activating the Thiazide-Sensitive Cotransporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Jessica R; Oosthuyzen, Wilna; Peltz, Theresa S; Howarth, Amelia R; Hunter, Robert W; Dhaun, Neeraj; Al-Dujaili, Emad A S; Webb, David J; Dear, James W; Flatman, Peter W; Bailey, Matthew A

    2016-05-01

    Blood pressure (BP) normally dips during sleep, and nondipping increases cardiovascular risk. Hydrochlorothiazide restores the dipping BP profile in nondipping patients, suggesting that the NaCl cotransporter, NCC, is an important determinant of daily BP variation. NCC activity in cells is regulated by the circadian transcription factor per1. In vivo, circadian genes are entrained via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Here, we test whether abnormalities in the day:night variation of circulating glucocorticoid influence NCC activity and BP control. C57BL6/J mice were culled at the peak (1:00 AM) and trough (1:00 PM) of BP. We found no day:night variation in NCC mRNA or protein but NCC phosphorylation on threonine(53)(pNCC), required for NCC activation, was higher when mice were awake, as was excretion of NCC in urinary exosomes. Peak NCC activity correlated with peak expression of per2 and bmal1 (clock genes) and sgk1 and tsc22d3 (glucocorticoid-responsive kinases). Adrenalectomy reduced NCC abundance and blunted the daily variation in pNCC levels without affecting variation in clock gene transcription. Chronic corticosterone infusion increased bmal1, per1, sgk1, and tsc22d3 expression during the inactive phase. Inactive phase pNCC was also elevated by corticosterone, and a nondipping BP profile was induced. Hydrochlorothiazide restored rhythmicity of BP in corticosterone-treated mice without affecting BP in controls. Glucocorticoids influence the day:night variation in NCC activity via kinases that control phosphorylation. Abnormal glucocorticoid rhythms impair NCC and induce nondipping. Night-time dosing of thiazides may be particularly beneficial in patients with modest glucocorticoid excess. PMID:26953322

  14. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles supporting activated protein C-mediated regulation of blood coagulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzica Livaja Koshiar

    Full Text Available Elevated levels of erythrocyte-derived microparticles are present in the circulation in medical conditions affecting the red blood cells. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles expose phosphatidylserine thus providing a suitable surface for procoagulant reactions leading to thrombin formation via the tenase and prothrombinase complexes. Patients with elevated levels of circulating erythrocyte-derived microparticles have increased thrombin generation in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether erythrocyte-derived microparticles are able to support the anticoagulant reactions of the protein C system. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles were isolated using ultracentrifugation after incubation of freshly prepared erythrocytes with the ionophore A23187 or from outdated erythrocyte concentrates, the different microparticles preparations yielding similar results. According to flow cytometry analysis, the microparticles exposed phoshatidylserine and bound lactadherin, annexin V, and protein S, which is a cofactor to activated protein C. The microparticles were able to assemble the tenase and prothrombinase complexes and to stimulate the formation of thrombin in plasma-based thrombin generation assay both in presence and absence of added tissue factor. The addition of activated protein C in the thrombin generation assay inhibited thrombin generation in a dose-dependent fashion. The anticoagulant effect of activated protein C in the thrombin generation assay was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody that prevents binding of protein S to microparticles and also attenuated by anti-TFPI antibodies. In the presence of erythrocyte-derived microparticles, activated protein C inhibited tenase and prothrombinase by degrading the cofactors FVIIIa and FVa, respectively. Protein S stimulated the Arg306-cleavage in FVa, whereas efficient inhibition of FVIIIa depended on the synergistic cofactor activity of protein S and FV. In summary, the erythrocyte

  15. Myeloperoxidase activity and the oxidized proteins in blood neutrophils of patients with pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravlyova, Larissa; Molotov-Luchanskiy, Vilen; Bakirova, Ryszhan; Klyuyev, Dmitriy; Demidchik, Ludmila; Kolesnikova, Yevgeniya

    2014-10-01

    The main purpose of our investigation was to study myeloperoxidase activity and concentration of oxidized proteins in blood neutrophils of patients with ambulant pneumonia and secondary pneumonia which has arisen on a background of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients were divided into 2 groups. 17 patients with ambulant pneumonia moderate severity and respiratory insufficiency of grade 2 were included in the 1-st group. 20 COPD patients with secondary pneumonia moderate severity and with respiratory insufficiency of grade 2 were included in the 2-nd group. The control group consisted of 15 healthy subjects. The reactive protein carbonyl derivates, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and myeloperoxidase activity were detected in neutrophils. In neutrophils of 1-st group patients the augmentation of reactive protein carbonyl derivates was observed in comparison with healthy ones. In neutrophils of 2-nd group patients the slight decrease of reactive protein carbonyl derivates was observed in comparison with healthy ones (by 17%). In neutrophils of 2-nd group patients the significant increasing AOPP in comparison with healthy ones (p <0.01) and 1 group patients (p <0.05) was fixed. Myeloperoxidase activity was higher in neutrophils of 1-th group patients in comparison with healthy ones. In neutrophils of 2-nd group patients myeloperoxidase activity was higher in comparison with the same of 1 group patients (by 67%, p <0.05). Our results showed the different direction of oxidized proteins formation neutrophils of patients with primary and secondary pneumonia. Besides that the varied degree of myeloperoxidase activity was fixed. Our results require more detailed understanding because they can reflect peculiar mechanisms of pneumonia development and determine the characteristics of their progression. PMID:26461373

  16. Whole Blood Activation Results in Enhanced Detection of T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production by Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Clarence F.; Crucian, Brian E.

    2001-01-01

    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a wholeblood activation culture has been described. We compared whole blood culture to standard PBMC culture and determined the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells and monocytes via flow cytometry. For T cells cytokine assessment following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture; (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. In addition, a four-color cytometric analysis was used to allow accurate phenotyping and quantitation of cytokine producing lymphocyte populations. Using this technique we found IFNgamma production to be significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines in conjunction with CD 14. The cytokine pairs used for analysis were IL-1a/IL-12, and IL-10ITNFa. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFalpha equally well in both culture systems. Monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated following whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and

  17. Expression of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein requires C/EBP epsilon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Miyuki; Gombart, Adrian F; Koeffler, H Phillip; Shiohara, Masaaki

    2007-05-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) is a 55-kd cationic protein found mainly in neutrophil primary granules. BPI shows cytotoxicity against Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we studied the role of a myeloid-specific transcription factor, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein epsilon (C/EBP epsilon), in the regulation of BPI gene expression. A patient with neutrophil-specific granule deficiency with a homozygous inactivating mutation in the CEBP epsilon gene showed severely impaired expression of both BPI messenger RNA (mRNA) and BPI protein. Both U937 and NB4 cells treated with 10-7 M all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for 6 days displayed increased levels of BPI protein and accompanying up-regulated C/EBP epsilon expression. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed binding of the C/EBP epsilon protein to the C/EBP-binding site in the BPI gene promoter. U937 cells stably transfected with a zinc-inducible C/EBP epsilon expression vector showed a 30-fold increase in BPI mRNA levels compared with cells transfected with control empty vector after culturing for 48 hours with 100 microM ZnSO4. BPI mRNA expression was severely reduced in the bone marrow of C/EBP epsilon-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Expression of BPI in human cord blood cells was increased by incubation with 10-7 MATRA for 48 hours. These results demonstrate the requirement for C/EBP epsilon in mediating BPI gene expression in myeloid cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:17483073

  18. Relationships between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and sympathetic nervous system activity: a short review of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazzullo, P; Barbato, A; Vuotto, P; Galletti, F

    2001-01-01

    Experimental and clinical studies provided evidence in favor of complex relationships between sympathetic nervous system activity and salt-sensitivity of blood pressure. Genetic and acquired metabolic alterations associated with a tendency to retain salt and water may generate salt-sensitivity of blood pressure and shift the pressure-natriuresis curve to the right, promoting an increase in blood pressure. Sympathetic activation is a factor contributing to this result. Chronic high dietary salt intake is followed by a derangement in mechanisms of central sympathetic inhibition and then by an enhanced peripheral sympathetic tone. This, in turn, may generate salt-sensitivity of blood pressure by affecting renal hemodynamics, tubular sodium and water handling. Insulin resistance and sodium and water retention are prompted by high-fat (as well as high carbohydrate) diets, and by an increase in body fat mass. Also, aging is a condition of impaired interactions of the above factors. A gain in weight due to reduced physical activity, not followed by a parallel decrease in calorie intake, brings to a fall in insulin sensitivity. In many cases, the natural age-related decline of renal function is associated with a reduced physical exercise, hyperinsulinemia and sodium retention; sympathetic nervous system activity is enhanced and causes an increase in blood pressure. PMID:11270585

  19. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  20. Correlation of acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain and blood of wistar rats acutely infected with Trypanosoma congolense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Habila N; Inuwa HM; Aimola IA; Lasisi OI; Chechet DG; Okafor IA

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the neurotransmitter enzyme Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain and blood of rats infected with Trypanosoma congolense (T. congo). Methods: Presence and degree of parasitemia was determined daily for each rat by the rapid matching method. AChE activity was determined by preparing a reaction mixture of brain homogenate and whole blood with 5, 5-dithiobisnitrobenzioc acid (DTNB or Ellman’s reagent) and Acetylthiocholine (ATC). The increase in absorbance was recorded at 436 nm over 10 min at 2 min intervals. Trypanosome species identification (before inoculation and on day 10 post infection) was done by Polymerase chain reaction using specific primers. Results: The AChE activity in the brain and blood decreased significantly as compared with the uninfected control. The AChE activity dropped to 0.32 from 2.20 μmol ACTC min-1mg protein-1 in the brain and 4.57 to 0.76 μmol ACTC min-1mg protein-1 in the blood. The animals treated with Diminaveto at 3.5 mg/kg/d were observed to have recovered significantly from parasitemia and were able to regain AChE activity in the blood but not in the brain as compared to the control groups. We also observed, that progressive parasitemia resulted to alterations in PCV, Hb, RBC, WBC, neurophils, total protein, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophil in acute infections of T. congo. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of infected blood before inoculation and on day 10 post infection revealed 600 bp on agarose gel electrophoresis. Conclusions: This finding suggest that decrease in AChE activity increases acetylcholine concentration in the synaptic cleft resulting to neurological failures in impulse transfer in T. congo infection rats.

  1. Muscle activation, blood lactate, and perceived exertion responses to changing resistance training programming variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Daniel J; Dawson, Brian; Donnelly, Cyril J; Peeling, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE: 0-10) during resistance training with varying programming demands were examined. Blood lactate (BLa) and muscle activation (using surface electromyography: EMG) were measured as potential mediators of RPE responses. Participants performed three sets of single arm (preferred side) bicep curls at 70% of 1 repetition maximum over 4 trials: Trial (A) 3 sets × 8 repetitions × 120 s recovery between sets; (B) 3 sets × 8 repetitions × 240 s recovery; (C) 3 sets × maximum number of repetitions (MNR) × 120 s recovery; (D) 3 sets × MNR × 240 s recovery. Overall body (RPE-O) and active muscle (RPE-AM) perceptual responses were assessed following each set in each trial. Biceps brachii and brachioradialis muscle EMG was measured during each set for each trial. RPE-O and RPE-AM were not different between Trial A (3.5 ± 1 and 6 ± 1, respectively) and Trial B (3.5 ± 1 and 5.5 ± 1, respectively) (p < .05). However, RPE-AM was significantly greater in Trial C (7.5 ± 1.5) and Trial D (7.5 ± 1.5) than in Trial B (p < .05). There were no significant differences in muscle activation or BLa between trials; however, work rate (tonnage/min) was greater in Trials C and D compared to Trial B. In conclusion, BLa and muscle activation were not related to RPE, but resistance training variables, such as work rate, may impact on RPE when intensity (%1RM) and the number of sets completed remain constant. PMID:26267339

  2. Activity of kallikrein-kinin system of blood and state of placental circulation at full-term pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Kairov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The activity of kallikrein-kinin system of blood and the state of placental circulation at full-term physiological pregnancy have been studied.In 30 pregnant women aged 18—27 at 38th—40th weeks of pregnancy, the activity of  kallikrein-kinin system (KKS of blood before and after the action double local hypoxia of arm and the state of placental hemodynamics were analyzed. Three types of reaction of kininogenase and inhibitory chains of KSS were revealed: adaptive, kininogenase, and inhibitory. Disturbed placental hemodynamics  was observed in pregnant women with kininogenase and inhibitory types of KSS reaction.

  3. There is no Gradient of TSH Receptor Antibody Activity Between Thyroidal and Peripheral Venous Blood in Patients with Graves' Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyrotropin binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII) and thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) activities were measured in the thyroidal and peripheral venous blood samples at the time of subtotal thyroidectomy from twenty one patients with Graves' disease prepared for surgery with antithyroid drugs. There was no difference in TBII and TSAb activities between thyroidal and peripheral blood samples. These findings were regarded that while intrathyroidal lymphocytes are major site of thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) production, similar levels are found in thyroidal and peripheral veins and that this in vive study cannot exactly ascertain the TRAb producing site.

  4. Monoclonal antibodies against the iron regulated outer membrane Proteins of Acinetobacter baumannii are bactericidal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel Vikas

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron is an important nutrient required by all forms of life.In the case of human hosts,the free iron availability is 10-18M,which is far less than what is needed for the survival of the invading bacterial pathogen.To survive in such conditions, bacteria express new proteins in their outer membrane and also secrete iron chelators called siderophores. Results/ Discussion Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606, a nosocomial pathogen which grows under iron restricted conditions, expresses four new outer membrane proteins,with molecular weight ranging from 77 kDa to 88 kDa, that are called Iron Regulated Outer Membrane Proteins (IROMPs. We studied the functional and immunological properties of IROMPs expressed by A.baumanii ATCC 19606.The bands corresponding to IROMPs were eluted from SDS-PAGE and were used to immunize BALB/c mice for the production of monoclonal antibodies. Hybridomas secreting specific antibodies against these IROMPs were selected after screening by ELISA and their reactivity was confirmed by Western Blot. The antibodies then generated belonged to IgM isotype and showed bactericidical and opsonising activities against A.baumanii in vitro.These antibodies also blocked siderophore mediated iron uptake via IROMPs in bacteria. Conclusion This proves that iron uptake via IROMPs,which is mediated through siderophores,may have an important role in the survival of A.baumanii inside the host,and helps establishing the infection.

  5. Synthesis of nanosilver particles by reverse micelle method and study of their bactericidal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Thi Ngoc Dung; Ngo Quoc Buu; Dang Viet Quang; Le Anh Bang; Nguyen Hoai Chau; Nguyen Thi Ly [Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay Distr., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Huynh Thi Ha [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay Distr., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen Vu Trung [National Institute for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, 1 Ton That Tung, Dong Da Distr., Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: ttndzung@yahoo.com, E-mail: buu_nq@yahoo.com

    2009-09-01

    Nanosilver particles have been synthesized by the reverse micelle method, where AgNO{sub 3} was used as a silver ions source, NaBH{sub 4} and quercetin - as reducing agents, CTAB, SDOSS and AOT- as surfactants, while the stabilizer was Vietnamese chitosan. Studying the factors influencing the process of nanosilver particle formation, it was shown that the particle size of the nanosilver products depends on the concentration of the reaction components and their stoichiometric ratio. It was also shown that the reaction system using AOT surfactant is capable of producing nanosilver particles with smallest nanoparticles ({phi}{sub av} {approx} 5 nm) and good particle-size distribution. The study on bactericidal activity of the nanosilver products indicated that the disinfecting solution with a nanosilver concentration of 3 ppm was able to inhibit all E.coli and Coliforms, TPC and fungi at 15 ppm, while Vibrio cholerae cells were inactivated completely with 0.5 ppm of nanosilver after 30 minutes exposition.

  6. IPN hydrogel nanocomposites based on agarose and ZnO with antifouling and bactericidal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Hu, Hongkai; Yang, Zhonglin; Wei, Jun; Li, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Nanocomposite hydrogels with interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) structure based on poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate modified ZnO (ZnO-PEGMA) and 4-azidobenzoic agarose (AG-N3) were prepared by a one-pot strategy under UV irradiation. The hydrogels exhibited a highly macroporous spongelike structure, and the pore size decreased with the increase of the ZnO-PEGMA content. Due to the entanglement and favorable interactions between the two crosslinked networks, the IPN hydrogels exhibited excellent mechanical strength and light transmittance. The maximum compressive and tensile strengths of the IPN hydrogels reached 24.8 and 1.98MPa respectively. The transparent IPN hydrogels transmitted more than 85% of visible light at all wavelengths (400-800nm). The IPN hydrogels exhibited anti-adhesive property towards Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and the bactericidal activity increased with the ZnO-PEGMA content. The incorporation of ZnO-PEGMA did not reduce the biocompatibility of the IPN hydrogels and all the IPN nanocomposites showed negligible cytotoxicity. The present study not only provided a facile method for preparing hydrogel nanocomposites with IPN structure but also developed a new hydrogel material which might be an excellent candidate for wound dressings. PMID:26838864

  7. Bactericidal paper trays doped with silver nanoparticles for egg storing applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KALIYAPERUMAL VISWANATHAN; M LATHA MALA PRIYADHARSHINI; KARUPPASAMY NIRMALA; MUTHUSAMY RAMAN; GOPAL DHINAKAR RAJ

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a cost-effective way to deposit the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on paper egg trays was developed, which proved suitable for prolonged storage of table eggs for house-hold use without deterioration of egg quality. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized based on chemical reduction approach and mixed with gelatin–chitosan mixer used as a colloidal stabilizer as well as fixing agent. AgNPs-doped paper egg trays were characterized by TEM, SEM, FTIR, EDX and XRD. AgNPs containing egg trays were tested for its bactericidal effect against commonly found bacteria on egg shells, E. coli, S. aureus, Streptococcus spp and Salmonella spp. Storing of eggs in the AgNPs-deposited paper egg trays improved the shelf-life of the eggs by more than 14 days compared to controls (eggs stored in conventional trays). In conclusion, the developed paper trays possessed strong antimicrobial activity and it could be an effective storage material for eggs.

  8. Geneva cocktail for cytochrome p450 and P-glycoprotein activity assessment using dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilkovska, M; Samer, C F; Déglon, J; Rebsamen, M; Staub, C; Dayer, P; Walder, B; Desmeules, J A; Daali, Y

    2014-09-01

    The suitability of the capillary dried blood spot (DBS) sampling method was assessed for simultaneous phenotyping of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) using a cocktail approach. Ten volunteers received an oral cocktail capsule containing low doses of the probes bupropion (CYP2B6), flurbiprofen (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), midazolam (CYP3A), and fexofenadine (P-gp) with coffee/Coke (CYP1A2) on four occasions. They received the cocktail alone (session 1), and with the CYP inhibitors fluvoxamine and voriconazole (session 2) and quinidine (session 3). In session 4, subjects received the cocktail after a 7-day pretreatment with the inducer rifampicin. The concentrations of probes/metabolites were determined in DBS and plasma using a single liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The pharmacokinetic profiles of the drugs were comparable in DBS and plasma. Important modulation of CYP and P-gp activities was observed in the presence of inhibitors and the inducer. Minimally invasive one- and three-point (at 2, 3, and 6 h) DBS-sampling methods were found to reliably reflect CYP and P-gp activities at each session. PMID:24722393

  9. Bactericidal action of positive and negative ions in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sleigh P Andrew

    2007-04-01

    . However in the case of Mycobacterium parafortuitum, electroporation resulting from exposure to the electric field appears to have been the principal cause of cell inactivation. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that the bactericidal action attributed to negative air ions by previous researchers may have been overestimated.

  10. Does self-reported physical activity associate with high blood pressure in adolescents when adiposity is adjusted for?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barros, Mauro V G; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Honda Barros, Simone Storino;

    2013-01-01

    interest is the evaluation of whether the association between PA and high blood pressure is independent of adiposity. A sample of 3764 Brazilian adolescents who attend high schools was selected using random cluster sampling. Data were collected using the Global School-based Student Health Survey......, anthropometry, and blood pressure readings. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 14.6% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 13.5-15.7), higher amongst males (20.0%; 95%CI 18.0-22.1) compared with females (10.9%; 95%CI 9.7-12.3). Sixty-six per cent of the adolescents were reported to be insufficiently active. The...... prevalence of high blood pressure was 12.8% (95%CI 11.0-14.7) amongst active compared with 15.4% (95%CI 14.0-16.9) amongst insufficiently active adolescents. The association between PA and high blood pressure was observed only amongst females after adjusting for waist circumference (odds ratio (OR) 1.67; 95...

  11. Electrophoretic pattern of blood serum proteins and enzymes activity of house sparrow (Passer domesticus in Baghdad (Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris A. Al-Obaidi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the electrophoretic pattern of blood serum proteins and the activity of some blood serum enzymes included GOT, GPT and AP of house Sparrow (Passer domesticus in Baghdad, Iraq. Seventeen (9 males and 8 females individuals of house sparrow were collected from different regions of Baghdad. Samples of 1.0 ml of whole blood were taken from the wing vein from individuals to determined electrophoretic pattern of serum proteins and enzymes in three replicates for each sex within species. Results revealed that house sparrow blood serum proteins were separated into seven different regions, these bands were pre- albumen (3.68%, albumen (13.20%, post–albumen (8.37%, α–globulin (4.54%, β–globulin (27.49%, γ–globulin (30.15% and transferrin (12.59%. Electrophoretic pattern of serum proteins were differed due to sex: females dominated males in pre–albumen, γ–globulin and total albumens. House sparrow blood serum GOT, GPT and AP enzymes activity were 38.4, 10.9 and 42.05 U/L respectively. Males had higher activity of GOT and GPT enzymes compared to females.

  12. An Interferon Signature in the Peripheral Blood of Dermatomyositis Patients is Associated with Disease Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Baechler, Emily C.; Bauer, Jason W.; Slattery, Catherine A; Ortmann, Ward A.; Espe, Karl J; Novitzke, Jill; Ytterberg, Steven R.; Gregersen, Peter K; Behrens, Timothy W.; Reed, Ann M

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown increased expression of interferon (IFN)-regulated genes in the peripheral blood cells of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. A similar interferon signature has been observed in affected muscle tissue from patients with dermatomyositis (DM), but it has not yet been determined if this signature extends to the peripheral blood in DM. We performed global gene expression profiling of peripheral blood cells from adult and juvenile DM patients and healthy controls....

  13. Study of garlic effect on fibrinolytic activity of the blood clot in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari.F

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe main function of the fibrinolytic system is to dissolve fibrin clots in circulation. This system is composed of inactive precursor plasminogen which can be converted into plasmin by the proteolytic enzymes like tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA. Fibrinolytic properties can be found in a variety of medicine plants and they could effectively prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVD. One of these medicine plants is Allium sativum, which was used for its antiplatlet and fibrinolytic effects in patients with CVD (garlic.This study considers to find the fibrinolytic effect of the various concentration of garlic extract and the time of the most effect.MethodsGarlic extracts were prepared using 70% ethanol, and labeling fibrinogen with fluorescent agent to create a labeled clot. Then 10, 25 and 50μg/μl of garlic extract were separately added to plasma environment and finally the labeled clots were inserted. At the end fluorescence intensity of the supernatant was measured. The data were analyzed using SPSS (version 16.ResultsThe results indicated that garlic extract showed fibrinolytic effect significantly compared with the control group (p<0.05. Various concentrations of garlic extract showed significant different rise in the fibrinolytic activity of blood clot in different time (p<0.05. Desirable result obtained in the lower concentration of (10μg/μl after 7 hours.ConclusionGarlic extract displayed the fibrinolytic activity which concentration and time factors of exposure influenced it but the minimum concentration and the maximum time showed the best result.

  14. Complement activation-related pseudoallergy: a stress reaction in blood triggered by nanomedicines and biologicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szebeni, Janos

    2014-10-01

    Intravenous injection of a variety of nanotechnology enhanced (liposomal, micellar, polymer-conjugated) and protein-based (antibodies, enzymes) drugs can lead to hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs), also known as infusion, or anaphylactoid reactions. The molecular mechanism of mild to severe allergy symptoms may differ from case to case and is mostly not known, however, in many cases a major cause, or contributing factor is activation of the complement (C) system. The clinical relevance of C activation-related HSRs, a non-IgE-mediated pseudoallergy (CARPA), lies in its unpredictability and occasional lethal outcome. Accordingly, there is an unmet medical need to develop laboratory assays and animal models that quantitate CARPA. This review provides basic information on CARPA; a short history, issues of nomenclature, incidence, classification of reactogenic drugs and symptoms, and the mechanisms of C activation via different pathways. It is pointed out that anaphylatoxin-induced mast cell release may not entirely explain the severe reactions; a "second hit" on allergy mediating cells may also contribute. In addressing the increasing requirements for CARPA testing, the review evaluates the available assays and animal models, and proposes a possible algorithm for the screening of reactogenic drugs and hypersensitive patients. Finally, an analogy is proposed between CARPA and the classic stress reaction, suggesting that CARPA represents a "blood stress" reaction, a systemic fight of the body against harmful biological and chemical agents via the anaphylatoxin/mast-cell/circulatory system axis, in analogy to the body's fight of physical and emotional stress via the hypothalamo/pituitary/adrenal axis. In both cases the response to a broad variety of noxious effects are funneled into a uniform pattern of physiological changes. PMID:25124145

  15. Ouabain exacerbates activation-induced cell death in human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel B. Esteves

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymphocytes activated by mitogenic lectins display changes in transmembrane potential, an elevation in the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations, proliferation and/or activation induced cell death. Low concentrations of ouabain (an inhibitor of Na+,K+-ATPase suppress mitogen-induced proliferation and increases cell death. To understand the mechanisms involved, a number of parameters were analyzed using fluorescent probes and flow cytometry. The addition of 100nM ouabain to cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes activated with 5µg/ml phytohemagglutinin (PHA did not modify the increased expression of the Fas receptor or its ligand FasL induced by the mitogen. However, treatment with ouabain potentiated apoptosis induced by an anti-Fas agonist antibody. A synergy between ouabain and PHA was also observed with regard to plasma membrane depolarization. PHA per se did not induce dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential but when cells were also exposed to ouabain a marked depolarization could be observed, and this was a late event. It is possible that the inhibitory effect of ouabain on activated peripheral blood lymphocytes involves the potentiation of some of the steps of the apoptotic process and reflects an exacerbation of the mechanism of activation-induced cell death.Quando linfócitos são ativados por lectinas mitogênicas apresentam mudanças do potencial de membrana, elevação das concentrações citoplasmáticas de cálcio, proliferação e/ou morte celular induzida por ativação (AICD. Concentrações baixas de ouabaína (um inibidor da Na,K-ATPase suprimem a proliferação induzida por mitógenos e aumentam a morte celular. Para entender os mecanismos envolvidos, uma série de parâmetros foram avaliados usando sondas fluorescentes e citometria de fluxo. A adição de 100nM de ouabaína para culturas de linfócitos de sangue periférico ativadas por fitohemaglutinina (PHA não modificou o aumento de expressão do receptor Fas ou de

  16. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000324.htm Home blood sugar testing To use the sharing features on this ... with their nutrition and activity plans. Check Your Blood Sugar Often Usual times to test your blood sugar ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  18. Activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor: A key early step in the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether the factor VII/tissue factor complex that forms in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation must be activated to factor VIIa/tissue factor before it can activate its substrates, factor X and IX, has been a difficult question to answer because the substrates, once activated, back-activate factor VII. The earlier studies suggested that human factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate factor IX. Studies have now been extended to the activation of factor X. Reaction mixtures were made with purified factor VII, X, and tissue factor; in some experiments antithrombin III and heparin were added to prevent back-activation of factor VII. Factor X was activated at similar rates in reaction mixtures containing either VII or factor VIIa after an initial 30-sec lag with factor VII. In reaction mixtures with factor VII a linear activation of factor X was established several minutes before cleavage of 125I-labeled factor VII to the two-chain activated molecule was demonstrable on gel profiles. These data suggest that factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate measurable amounts of factor X over several minutes. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that a rapid preferential activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor by trace amounts of factor Xa is a key early step in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation

  19. The bactericidal effect of surface micro-discharge plasma under different ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, T.; Zimmermann, J. L.; Morfill, G. E.

    2011-02-01

    A series of experiments on the bactericidal properties of plasmas using a surface micro-discharge (SMD) device in an atmosphere under different ambient temperatures and humidities was carried out. This plasma dispenser was developed for use as a disinfection system in private and public places (hospitals, medical practices, etc). The bactericidal effect is due to the interplay of the plasma and the chemical products produced via interactions with O2/N2 and H2O vapour in air. To use this device in different countries and therefore under various ambient conditions, it is important to understand its behaviour and efficiency, especially with respect to air temperature and humidity. The experimental results obtained in this study show that the bactericidal properties of the SMD plasma dispenser are not sensitive to the different temperatures and humidities.

  20. A role for activated endothelial cells in red blood cell clearance: implications for vasopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fens, Marcel H A M; van Wijk, Richard; Andringa, Grietje;

    2012-01-01

    Background Phosphatidylserine exposure by red blood cells is acknowledged as a signal that initiates phagocytic removal of the cells from the circulation. Several disorders and conditions are known to induce phosphatidylserine exposure. Removal of phosphatidylserine-exposing red blood cells gener...

  1. Reference values comparisons between DMD and C57B whole blood mice using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In health area animal models are used to perform clinical investigations, for example, to test new medicines for medical diagnostic and treatment investigations before to be applied in human being. Currently, the conventional bio chemistries analyses are performed using serum, but when small size animal model is involved the biological material can be scarce restricting its collection. In the last years the NAA has been successfully applied at LEER at IPEN for investigation of several elements in blood of small sized animals, resulting in an efficiency procedure for clinical practice. The advantage in using whole blood is relate to the fact that this nuclear procedure needs small quantity of biological material (10 to 100 ?L of whole blood ) when compared with the conventional analyses (0.5 to 1.0 ml of serum). But, to use whole blood to perform these biochemistry investigations it is essential to establish the reference value in blood for the species or animal models. In this study we intend to evaluate a normal range of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na concentrations in whole blood using NAA in samples of DMDmdx and C57B/6J mice model used for muscular dystrophy investigations. Thirty whole blood samples were analyzed in the IEA R1- nuclear reactor at IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). These data contribute for applications in veterinary medicine related to biochemistry analyses using whole blood. (author)

  2. Reference values comparisons between DMD and C57B whole blood mice using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metairon, Sabrina; Zamboni, Cibele Bugno; Suzuki, Miriam F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sant' Anna, Oswaldo A. [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Maria Denise F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: In health area animal models are used to perform clinical investigations, for example, to test new medicines for medical diagnostic and treatment investigations before to be applied in human being. Currently, the conventional bio chemistries analyses are performed using serum, but when small size animal model is involved the biological material can be scarce restricting its collection. In the last years the NAA has been successfully applied at LEER at IPEN for investigation of several elements in blood of small sized animals, resulting in an efficiency procedure for clinical practice. The advantage in using whole blood is relate to the fact that this nuclear procedure needs small quantity of biological material (10 to 100 ?L of whole blood ) when compared with the conventional analyses (0.5 to 1.0 ml of serum). But, to use whole blood to perform these biochemistry investigations it is essential to establish the reference value in blood for the species or animal models. In this study we intend to evaluate a normal range of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na concentrations in whole blood using NAA in samples of DMDmdx and C57B/6J mice model used for muscular dystrophy investigations. Thirty whole blood samples were analyzed in the IEA R1- nuclear reactor at IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). These data contribute for applications in veterinary medicine related to biochemistry analyses using whole blood. (author)

  3. Cerebral blood flow during paroxysmal EEG activation induced by sleep in patients with complex partial seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements were combined with sleep polysomnography in nine patients with complex partial seizures. Two methods were used: the 133Xe method for measuring regional (rCBF) and the stable xenon CT method for local (LCBF). Compared to nonepileptic subjects, who show diffuse CBF decreases during stages I-II, non-REM sleep onset, patients with complex partial seizures show statistically significant increases in CBF which are maximal in regions where the EEG focus is localized and are predominantly seen in one temporal region but are also propagated to other cerebral areas. Both CBF methods gave comparable results, but greater statistical significance was achieved by stable xenon CT methodology. CBF increases are more diffuse than predicted by EEG paroxysmal activity recorded from scalp electrodes. An advantage of the 133Xe inhalation method was achievement of reliable data despite movement of the head. This was attributed to the use of a helmet which maintained the probes approximated to the scalp. Disadvantages were poor resolution (7 cm3) and two-dimensional information. The advantage of stable xenon CT method is excellent resolution (80 mm3) in three dimensions, but a disadvantage is that movement of the head in patients with seizure disorders may limit satisfactory measurements

  4. Cerebral blood flow during paroxysmal EEG activation induced by sleep in patients with complex partial seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozukirmizi, E; Meyer, J S; Okabe, T; Amano, T; Mortel, K; Karacan, I

    1982-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements were combined with sleep polysomnography in nine patients with complex partial seizures. Two methods were used: the 133Xe method for measuring regional (rCBF) and the stable xenon CT method for local (LCBF). Compared to nonepileptic subjects, who show diffuse CBF decreases during stages I-II, non-REM sleep onset, patients with complex partial seizures show statistically significant increases in CBF which are maximal in regions where the EEG focus is localized and are predominantly seen in one temporal region but are also propagated to other cerebral areas. Both CBF methods gave comparable results, but greater statistical significance was achieved by stable xenon CT methodology. CBF increases are more diffuse than predicted by EEG paroxysmal activity recorded from scalp electrodes. An advantage of the 133Xe inhalation method was achievement of reliable data despite movement of the head. This was attributed to the use of a helmet which maintained the probes approximated to the scalp. Disadvantages were poor resolution (7 cm3) and two-dimensional information. The advantage of stable xenon CT method is excellent resolution (80 mm3) in three dimensions, but a disadvantage is that movement of the head in patients with seizure disorders may limit satisfactory measurements. PMID:7163722

  5. Cerebral blood flow during paroxysmal EEG activation induced by sleep in patients with complex partial seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozukirmizi, E.; Meyer, J.S.; Okabe, T.; Amano, T.; Mortel, K.; Karacan, I.

    1982-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements were combined with sleep polysomnography in nine patients with complex partial seizures. Two methods were used: the 133Xe method for measuring regional (rCBF) and the stable xenon CT method for local (LCBF). Compared to nonepileptic subjects, who show diffuse CBF decreases during stages I-II, non-REM sleep onset, patients with complex partial seizures show statistically significant increases in CBF which are maximal in regions where the EEG focus is localized and are predominantly seen in one temporal region but are also propagated to other cerebral areas. Both CBF methods gave comparable results, but greater statistical significance was achieved by stable xenon CT methodology. CBF increases are more diffuse than predicted by EEG paroxysmal activity recorded from scalp electrodes. An advantage of the 133Xe inhalation method was achievement of reliable data despite movement of the head. This was attributed to the use of a helmet which maintained the probes approximated to the scalp. Disadvantages were poor resolution (7 cm3) and two-dimensional information. The advantage of stable xenon CT method is excellent resolution (80 mm3) in three dimensions, but a disadvantage is that movement of the head in patients with seizure disorders may limit satisfactory measurements.

  6. Effects of Cortical Spreading Depression on Synaptic Activity, Blood Flow and Oxygen Consumption in Rat Cerebral Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Piilgaard

    2010-01-01

    As the title of this thesis indicates I have during my PhD studied the effects of cortical spreading depression (CSD) on synaptic activity, blood flow and oxygen consumption in rat cerebral cortex. This was performed in vivo using an open cranial window approach in anesthetized rats. I applied...... two different sets of interneurons. Our data imply that for a given cortical area the amplitude of vascular signals will depend critically on the type of input and hence on the type of neurons activated. In the second study I investigated the effect of cortical spreading depression (CSD) on the evoked...... Laser-Doppler Flowmetry for measurements of cerebral blood flow, glass microelectrodes for recording of synaptic activity – local field potentials – and ongoing cortical electrical activity and a Clark type electrode for measurements of tissue partial pressure of oxygen (tpO2). Offline calculations of...

  7. NAD(P-DEPENDENT DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES OF INFANTS WITH ENLARGEMENT OF PHARYNGEAL TONSILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kurtasova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We have observed and examined 57 children 1 to 3 years old diagnosed with enlargement of pharyngeal tonsils. A control group was presented by 35 healthy children. Bioluminescence technique was applied for studying NAD(P-dependent dehydrogenase activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Activation of aerobic respiration and increasing activity of pentose phosphate cycle-dependent plastic processes were registered in blood lymphocytes of children with hypertrophic pharyngeal tonsils; along with decreased function of malate-aspartate shunt in energy metabolism of the cells, diminished anaerobic reaction of NADHdependent LDH, lower interaction between Krebs cycle and reactions of amino acid metabolism, and reduced activity of glutathione reductase.

  8. Effects of ionizing radiation on the blood brain barrier permeability to pharmacologically active substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trnovec, T.; Kallay, Z.; Bezek, S. (Institute of Experimental Pharmacology, Bratislava (Yugoslavia))

    1990-12-01

    Ionizing radiation can impair the integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Data on early and late damage after brain irradiation are usually reported separately, yet a gradual transition between these two types has become evident. Signs appearing within 3 weeks after irradiation are considered to be early manifestations. The mechanism of radiation-effected integrity impairment of the BBB is discussed in relation to changes in morphological structures forming the BBB, the endothelium of intracerebral vessels, and in the surrounding astrocytes. Alterations in the function of the BBB are manifested in the endothelium by changes in the ultrastructural location of the activity of phosphatases and by the activation of pinocytotic vesicular transport, and in astrocyte cytoplasm by glycogen deposition. The changes in ultrastructure were critically surveyed with regard to increasing doses of radiation to the brain in the range of 5 Gy to 960 Gy. The qualitative as well as the semiquantitative and quantitative observations on the passage of substances across the damaged BBB were treated separately. Qualitative changes are based mainly on findings of extravasation of vital stains and of labelled proteins. The quantitative studies established differences in radiation-induced changes in the permeability of the BBB depending on the structure and physico-chemical properties of the barrier penetrating tracers. Indirect evaluation of radiation-induced BBB changes is based on studies of pharmacological effects of substances acting on the CNS. In conclusion, radiation impairs significantly the integrity of the BBB following single irradiation of the brain with a dose exceeding 10-15 Gy. The response of the BBB to ionizing radiation is dependent both on the dose to which the brain is exposed and on specific properties of the tracer. 68 references.

  9. Interactions of Genetic Variants with Physical Activity are Associated with Blood Pressure in Chinese: The GenSalt Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montasser, May E.; Gu, Donfeng; Chen, Jing; Shimmin, Lawrence C.; Gu, Charles; Kelly, Tanika N.; Jaquish, Cashell E.; Rice, Treva; Rao, DC; Cao, Jie; Chen, Jichun; Liu, De-pei; Whelton, Paul; He, Jiang; Hixson, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood pressure (BP) homeostasis involves complex interactions among genetic and non-genetic factors, providing major challenges to dissection of the genetic components that influence BP and hypertension. In this study, we examine the effects of interaction of genetic variants with physical activity on BP in a relatively genetically homogenous cohort of rural Chinese villagers. Methods Generalized estimating equations analysis was used to test for associations of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with variants in 24 genes in BP pathways (196 SNPs) among 3,142 Chinese participants divided according to physical activity (active versus inactive groups). Results In the physically active group, 2 SNPs in NR3C2 were significantly associated with lower SBP, and a SNP in SCNN1B was significantly associated with lower SBP and DBP. In the physically inactive group, a SNP in APLNR was associated with lower SBP, a SNP in GNB3 was associated with higher SBP and DBP, and a SNP in BDKRB2 was associated with lower DBP. Cumulative effects in carriers of minor alleles of these SNPs showed reductions of SBP and DBP as large as 8 and 5 mmHg, respectively, in the active individuals compared to inactive individuals carrying the same number of minor alleles. Conclusions We found that physical activity modifies the effects of genetic variants on BP. However, our results also show that active individuals with specific genotypes always have lower BP than inactive individuals with the same genotypes, demonstrating the overall beneficial effects of physical activity on blood pressure. PMID:21654856

  10. Blood Coagulation Induced by Iranian Saw-Scaled Viper (Echis Carinatus) Venom: Identification, Purification and Characterization of a Prothrombin Activator

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Babaie; Hossein Salmanizadeh; Hossein Zolfagharian

    2013-01-01

      Objective(s): Echis carinatus is one of the venomous snakes in Iran. The venom of Iranian Echis carinatus is a rich source of protein with various factors affecting the plasma protein and blood coagulation factor. Some of these proteins exhibit types of enzymatic activities. However, other items are proteins with no enzymatic activity.   Materials and Methods: In order to study the mechanism and effect of the venom on human plasma proteins, the present study has evaluated the effect of crud...

  11. A new method for measuring simultaneously the phagocytic and bactericidal capacity of human leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique for simultaneously measuring the phagocytic and bactericidal capacity of human leukocytes is proposed. The method uses 14C labelled bacteria and is based on the principle that only viable intra-cellular bacteria incorporate 3H-thymidine. Phagocytosis is measured by the ratio intra-cellular 14C/extra and intra-cellular 14C and the bactericidal capacity of leukocytes by the difference between the 3H-thymidine incorporation of the ingested and non-ingested bacteria. Results in normal subjects and in a case of chronic granulomatous disease show the validity of the method which is easier and quicker than the methods previously used

  12. Bactericide Effect of Atmospheric Plasma of Flat and Comb Electrodes on Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    A. Hosseinzadeh Colagar; F. Sohbatzadeh; S. Mirzanejhad; N. Asadian

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study was undertaken to examine the bactericide effects of atmospheric plasma produced by flat and comb electrodes on E.coli.Materials and Methods: DC (20 W) and AC (500 W) power supplies, flat and comb electrodes, insulator and oxygen gas were used to produce atmospheric plasma. Bactericide effects of the atmospheric plasma were studied on E.coli on sterilized plate placed on ice powder, at 3 McFarland concentration.Results: Flow of the atmospheric plasma produced by f...

  13. Ex vivo measurement of calpain activation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes by detection of immunoreactive products of calpastatin degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek M Witkowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited proteolysis of multiple intracellular proteins by endogenous Ca-dependent cysteine proteases--calpains--is an important regulatory mechanism for cell proliferation, apoptosis etc. Its importance for cellular functions is stressed by existence of endogenous calpain inhibitors--calpastatins. The calpain-calpastatin system within living cells is in a fragile balance, which depends on both partners. The interdependence of calpain--a protease--and calpastatin--an endogenous inhibitor and at the same time a substrate for this enzyme makes any assessment of actual activity of this enzyme in the cells very difficult. In this work we made an attempt to estimate and compare the activity of calpain in human peripheral blood lymphocytes by assessing the levels of limited proteolysis of calpastatin in these cells by western blot, while at the same time the levels of calpain protein inside these cells was measured by flow cytometry. Our results indicate that it is possible to compare (semi-quantitatively the activities of calpain in peripheral blood CD4+ and CD19+ lymphocytes from various donors that way. Preliminary results showed that calpain activity is increased in the CD4+ T cells isolated from peripheral blood of rheumatoid arthritis patients as compared to control lymphocytes. Extremely high intrinsic activity of calpain was detected in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CD19+ cells. All this confirms the detection of immunoreactive products of calpastatin as a good maker of endogenous calpain activity.

  14. Cerebral cortical neurons with activity linked to central neurogenic spontaneous and evoked elevations in cerebral blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golanov, E. V.; Reis, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    We recorded neurons in rat cerebral cortex with activity relating to the neurogenic elevations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) coupled to stereotyped bursts of EEG activity, burst-cerebrovascular wave complexes, appearing spontaneously or evoked by electrical stimulation of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL) or fastigial nucleus (FN). Of 333 spontaneously active neurons only 15 (5%), in layers 5-6, consistently (P neurons in deep cortical laminae whose activity correlates with neurogenic elevations of rCBF. These neurons may function to transduce afferent neuronal signals into vasodilation.

  15. Potent and specific bactericidal effect of juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) on the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thilo Christopher; Gosch, Christian; Mirbeth, Beate; Gselmann, Markus; Thallmair, Veronika; Stich, Karl

    2012-12-12

    A screening of plant quinones for inhibiting effects on the bacterial fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora was performed. The most active compound, juglone from walnuts, has a potent and specific bactericidal effect on E. amylovora and minimal inhibitory concentrations of only 2.5-10 μM, with stronger effects at lower, but still physiological, pH values. In vitro tests with juglone and inoculated flowers of apple (Malus domestica) showed an efficacy of 67% in preventing infection. In two years of field tests juglone had variable degrees of efficacy ranging from 40 to 82%, seemingly due to environmental conditions. A phytotoxic reaction to juglone, which is known for its allelopathic effect on plants, was restricted to browning of petals; later fruit russeting was not observed. Juglone is a promising candidate for the development of a new environmentally friendly plant protectant to replace the antibiotic streptomycin currently used in fire blight control. PMID:23163769

  16. Phagocytic and oxidative-burst activity of blood leukocytes in rats fed a protein-free diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Winnicka, Anna; Chwalibog, André;

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two weeks' protein deprivation on the cellular parameters of non-specific immunity in rats. Wistar rats (200-250 g) were divided into two groups (2x12) and were fed two isoenergetic (control and protein-free) diets. The phagocytic activity...... of neutrophils and monocytes, and the oxidative-burst activity of neutrophils of peripheral blood, were determined by flow cytometry after stimulation with E. coli and phorbol 12-mirystate 13-acetate. Feeding the protein-free diet for two weeks did not influence the phagocytic activity of neutrophils......, monocytes or blood morphology. However, the oxidative burst of stimulated neutrophils was increased indicating that two weeks' protein deprivation does not depress the oxygen-dependent killing mechanism in neutrophils, but may lead to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species....

  17. Blood pressure lowering, fibrinolysis enhancing and antioxidant activities of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S K; Jain, Vartika; Katewa, S S

    2009-12-01

    Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton. (Small cardamom) fruit powder was evaluated for its antihypertensive potential and its effect on some of the cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with stage 1 hypertension. Twenty, newly diagnosed individuals with primary hypertension of stage 1 were administered 3 g of cardamom powder in two divided doses for 12 weeks. Blood pressure was recorded initially and at 4 weeks interval for 3 months. Blood samples were also collected initially and at 4 weeks interval for estimation of lipid profile, fibrinogen and fibrinolysis. Total antioxidant status, however, was assessed initially and at the end of the study. Administration of 3 g cardamom powder significantly (pcardamom effectively reduces blood pressure, enhances fibrinolysis and improves antioxidant status, without significantly altering blood lipids and fibrinogen levels in stage 1 hypertensive individuals. PMID:20361714

  18. Vasoactive enzymes and blood flow responses to passive and active exercise in peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, Meegan A.; Høier, Birgitte; Walker, Philip J.;

    2016-01-01

    than CON (1.04 ± 0.19 vs 0.50 ± 0.06 AU, P = 0.02), with no differences for other enzymes. Leg blood flow during exercise was correlated with prostacyclin synthase (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Elevated NADPH oxidase indicates that oxidative stress may be a primary cause of low nitric oxide availability......Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterised by impaired leg blood flow, which contributes to claudication and reduced exercise capacity. This study investigated to what extent vasoactive enzymes might contribute to altered blood flow in PAD (Fontaine stage II). Methods: We...... compared femoral artery blood flow during reactive hyperaemia, leg-extension exercise and passive leg movement, and determined the level of vasoactive enzymes in skeletal muscle samples from the vastus lateralis in PAD (n = 10, 68.5 ± 6.5 years) and healthy controls (CON, n = 9, 62.1 ± 12.3 years). Leg...

  19. Persistent organochlorine pollutants with endocrine activity and blood steroid hormone levels in middle-aged men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Emeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener 153, and chlordecone. METHODS: We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. RESULTS: DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether

  20. Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator Can Be Safely Given without Complete Blood Count Results Back.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Dong

    Full Text Available It is well known that the efficacy of intravenous (i.v. tissue plasminogen activator (tPA is time-dependent when used to treat patients with acute ischemic strokes.Our study examines the safety issue of giving IV tPA without complete blood count (CBC resulted.This is a retrospective observational study by examining the database from Huashan Hospital in China and OSF/INI Comprehensive Stroke Center in United States. Patient data collected included demographics, occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, door to needle intervals, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores on admission, CBC results on admission and follow-up modified Rankin Scale scores. Linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify factors that would have an impact on door-to-needle intervals.Our study included 120 patients from Huashan Hospital and 123 patients from INI. Among them, 36 in Huashan Hospital and 51 in INI received i.v. tPA prior to their CBC resulted. Normal platelet count was found in 98.8% patients after tPA was given. One patient had thrombocytopenia but no hemorrhagic event. A significantly shorter door to needle interval (DTN was found in the group without CBC resulted. There was also a difference in treatment interval between the two hospitals. Door to needle intervals had a strong correlation to onset to treatment intervals and NIHSS scores on admission.In patients presented with acute ischemic stroke, the risk of developing hemorrhagic event is low if i.v. tPA is given before CBC has resulted. The door to needle intervals can be significantly reduced.

  1. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Index A-Z Blood Clots Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood that can be stationary (thrombosis) ... treated? What are blood clots? Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood. Normally, blood flows freely through ...

  2. In vitro bactericidal activity of equine platelet concentrates, platelet poor plasma, and plasma against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Actividad bactericida in vitro de concentrados de plaquetas, plasma pobre en plaquetas y plasma de equinos contra Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ME Álvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were 1 to evaluate the antibacterial effect of equine platelet concentrates (ePCs (either activated or not with calcium gluconate (CG against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, and 2 to compare their antibacterial effect with activated platelet poor plasma (PPP and plasma (P. Blood products were allotted in 4 groups (ePC, ePC/CG, PPP/CG, and P plus a positive control group (PCG and a negative control group, and mixed with MRSA and Mueller-Hinton broth. Samples were incubated during 1, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h, and colony-forming units were counted. The bacterial growth was significantly (P = 0.01 inhibited by the ePC, ePC/CG, PPP/CG and P in comparison with the PCG during the first 12 h. At 24h only a statistically significant (P = 0.01 antibacterial effect was noticed for the ePC, ePC/ CG and PPP/CG in comparison with the PCG and P. Equine PCs and PPP provided the best in vitro antibacterial effect against MRSA.Los objetivos del estudio fueron: 1 evaluar el efecto antibacteriano de concentrados de plaquetas equinas (ePC (activados o no con gluconato de calcio (CG frente a Staphylococcus aureus meticilino-resistente (MRSA y 2 comparar su efecto antibacteriano contra plasma pobre en plaquetas (PPP (activado con CG -PPP/GC- y plasma (P. Los productos sanguíneos fueron divididos en 4 grupos (ePC, ePC/CG, PPP/CG y P, más un grupo control positivo (PCG y otro control negativo. Los grupos se mezclaron con caldo Mueller-Hinton y MRSA. Las muestras fueron incubadas durante 1, 4, 8, 12 y 24 horas y se contaron las unidades formadoras de colonias. El crecimiento de las bacterias fue significativamente (P = 0,01 inhibido por el ePC, ePC/CG, PPP/CG y P en comparación con el PCG durante las primeras 12 h. Sólo a las 24 horas hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (P = 0.01 y se observó un efecto antibacteriano para el ePC, ePC/CG y PPP/CG en comparación con el PCG y P. Los ePCs y PPP equinos mostraron el

  3. Anti-inflammatory and blood stasis activities of essential oil extracted from Artemisia argyi leaf in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yue-Bin; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Xiong, Ying; Huang, Xian-Ju; Mei, Zhi-Nan; Hong, Zong-Guo

    2016-07-01

    Artemisia argyi leaf is a well-known species in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the anti-inflammatory and activating blood stasis activities of its essential oil (AAEO) have not been explored in vivo. The present study measured the contents of three chemical components by gas chromatography (GC). The anti-acute inflammatory effects of AAEO were investigated in dimethyl benzene, glacial acetic acid and carrageenan-induced animals through skin administration or by oral gavage, respectively. The effects of AAEO on haemorheology were studied in a rat acute blood stasis model. The contents of eucalyptol, camphor and borneol in AAEO were 254.4, 51.6 and 58.7 mg/g, respectively. All dosages of AAEO by skin administration significantly decreased the swelling in dimethyl benzene-induced ear oedema and carrageenan-induced paw oedema, and reduced the permeability in glacial acetic acid-induced abdominal blood capillary (p < 0.01). Meanwhile, haemorheology indexes such as whole blood viscosity and the erythrocyte aggregation index significantly decreased only in the high dosage group. In addition, the effects of AAEO by oral gavage were weaker than skin administration at the medium dose in the experiments. It suggests that AAEO has better absorption bioavailability and pharmacological effects through skin administration due to the better skin permeability of essential oil than gastrointestinal absorption. PMID:26894818

  4. [Bacteriostatic effect and/or xylitol bactericide of crops on Listeria Monocytogenes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón de Salim, Alba Rosa; Ramírez Mérida, Luis Guillermo

    2013-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has been considered as an emerging pathogen causing foodborne illness. In the search for an alternate route biocontrol propagation, xylitol has been proposed as a possible bacteriostatic and / or bactericide. Xylitol is a polyol derived from the hydrogenation of xylose monosaccharide of importance in the pharmaceutical industry for its anti-cariogenic effect. To check the possible effect of xylitol as bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal against Listeria monocytogenes, it was determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the time minimum inhibition (TMI) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of xylitol solutions on Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7635. The agar diffusion method was applied, using xylitol solutions at concentrations of 0-10%, respectively, for the MIC. The TMI was determined by growth curves in trypticase soy broth with solutions 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 9, 10 and 20% of xylitol, respectively, with an initial inoculum of 108 CFU per ml of Listeria monocytogenes in each solution. MIC observed was the solution 1% of xylitol; the TMI was 10 hours to concentrations of 1 to 10% and 7 hours to apply 20% xylitol. It was found that xylitol has bacteriostatic power on Listeria monocytogenes (p < 0.001), but not bactericide effect. PMID:24934074

  5. LED array designing and its bactericidal effect researching on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jing; Xing, Jin; Gao, Liucun; Shen, Benjian; Kang, Hongxiang; Jie, Liang; Peng, Chen

    2015-10-01

    Lights with some special waveband and output power density have a bactericidal effect to some special bacteria. In this paper, the bactericidal effect of light at wavelength of 470 nm on P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) is researched with different irradiation dose. The light source is a LED array which is obtained by incoherent combine of 36 LEDs with emitting wavelength of 470 nm. The P. aeruginosa suspension is exposed with the LED array at the light power density of 100 mW/cm2 with exposures time of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 min, respectively. The numbers of CFU are then determined by serial dilutions on LB agar plates. The bactericidal effect research results of 470 nm LED on P. aeruginosa show that the killing ratio increases with increasing of the exposure time. For the 80 min irradiation, as much as 92.4% reduction of P. aeruginosa is achieved. The results indicate that, in vitro, 470-nm lights produce dose dependent bactericidal effects on P. aeruginosa.

  6. Following the Mechanisms of Bacteriostatic versus Bactericidal Action Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernatová, Silvie; Samek, Ota; Pilát, Zdeněk; Šerý, Mojmír; Ježek, Jan; Jákl, Petr; Šiler, Martin; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Zemánek, Pavel; Holá, V.; Dvořáčková, M.; Růžička, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 11 (2013), s. 13188-13199. ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR GAP205/11/1687 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Raman spectroscopy * antibiotics * bacteria * bactericidal * bacteriostatic Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.095, year: 2013

  7. Malformation of certain brain blood vessels caused by TCDD activation of Ahr2/Arnt1 signaling in developing zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes various signs of toxicity in early life stages of vertebrates through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). The AHR also plays important roles in normal development in mice, and AHR-/- mice show abnormal development of vascular structures in various blood vessels. Our previous studies revealed that Ahr type 2 (Ahr2) activation by TCDD and β-naphthoflavone (BNF) caused a significant decrease in blood flow in the dorsal midbrain of zebrafish embryos. Here we report effects of TCDD exposure on the morphology of some blood vessels in the head of developing zebrafish. TCDD caused concentration-dependent anatomical rearrangements in the shape of the prosencephalic artery in zebrafish larvae. In contrast, no major vascular defects were recognized in the trunk and tail regions following exposure to TCDD at least at the concentrations used. Essentially, the same observations were also confirmed in BNF-exposed larvae. Knock-down of either Ahr2 or Ahr nuclear translocator type 1 (Arnt1) by morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) protected larvae against abnormal shape of the prosencephalic artery caused by TCDD and BNF. On the other hand, knock-down of Ahr2 or Arnt1 in vehicle-exposed zebrafish larvae had no clear effect on morphology of the prosencephalic artery or trunk vessels. Ascorbic acid, an antioxidant, protected against the TCDD-induced decrease in blood flow through the prosencephalic artery, but not the abnormal morphological changes in the shape of this artery. These results indicate that activation of Ahr2/Arnt1 pathway by TCDD and BNF affects the shape of certain blood vessels in the brain of developing zebrafish.

  8. Malformation of certain brain blood vessels caused by TCDD activation of Ahr2/Arnt1 signaling in developing zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoka, Hiroki, E-mail: hteraoka@rakuno.ac.jp [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu 069-8501 (Japan); Ogawa, Akira [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu 069-8501 (Japan); Kubota, Akira [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu 069-8501 (Japan); Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Stegeman, John J. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Peterson, Richard E. [School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Hiraga, Takeo [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu 069-8501 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes various signs of toxicity in early life stages of vertebrates through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). The AHR also plays important roles in normal development in mice, and AHR{sup -/-} mice show abnormal development of vascular structures in various blood vessels. Our previous studies revealed that Ahr type 2 (Ahr2) activation by TCDD and {beta}-naphthoflavone (BNF) caused a significant decrease in blood flow in the dorsal midbrain of zebrafish embryos. Here we report effects of TCDD exposure on the morphology of some blood vessels in the head of developing zebrafish. TCDD caused concentration-dependent anatomical rearrangements in the shape of the prosencephalic artery in zebrafish larvae. In contrast, no major vascular defects were recognized in the trunk and tail regions following exposure to TCDD at least at the concentrations used. Essentially, the same observations were also confirmed in BNF-exposed larvae. Knock-down of either Ahr2 or Ahr nuclear translocator type 1 (Arnt1) by morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) protected larvae against abnormal shape of the prosencephalic artery caused by TCDD and BNF. On the other hand, knock-down of Ahr2 or Arnt1 in vehicle-exposed zebrafish larvae had no clear effect on morphology of the prosencephalic artery or trunk vessels. Ascorbic acid, an antioxidant, protected against the TCDD-induced decrease in blood flow through the prosencephalic artery, but not the abnormal morphological changes in the shape of this artery. These results indicate that activation of Ahr2/Arnt1 pathway by TCDD and BNF affects the shape of certain blood vessels in the brain of developing zebrafish.

  9. Telomerase activity is increased and telomere length shortened in T cells from blood of patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kehuai; Higashi, N; Hansen, E R;

    2000-01-01

    We studied telomerase activity and telomere length in PBMC and purified CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from blood obtained from a total of 32 patients with atopic dermatitis, 16 patients with psoriasis, and 30 normal controls. The telomerase activity was significantly increased in PBMC from the patients......(+) T cell subsets from normal donors. In conclusion, the increased telomerase activity and shortened telomere length indicates that T lymphocytes in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis are chronically stimulated and have an increased cellular turnover in vivo....

  10. Bos taurus papillomavirus activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells: demonstrating a productive infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, T C; Araldi, R P; Pessoa, N S D; de-Sá-Júnior, P L; Carvalho, R F; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2015-01-01

    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is an oncogenic virus with mucous and epithelial tropism. Possible productive virus infection in other tissues, such as blood, has been hypothesized. In order to investigate this possibility, three samples of skin papillomas and blood were collected from bovines with BPV infection and five samples of peripheral blood and one sample of normal tissue were collected from a calf without BPV infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from whole blood and examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy. The tissue samples were examined for histopathological and immunohistochemical features. The skin papillomas showed the presence of DNA sequences of BPV-2, BPV-11, and a putative virus type. The blood samples showed DNA sequences of BPV-1, 2, and 4 simultaneously. Immunohistochemistry showed BPV L1 protein in both epithelium and stroma and BPV E2 protein in koilocytes. In situ hybridization confirmed the presence of BPV DNA in PBMCs and immunofluorescence showed nuclear labeling of E2 and L1 BPV proteins in PBMCs. The transcription analysis revealed transcripts of BPV-1 L1, BPV-2 L2, and BPV-4 E7 in blood and papilloma samples of BPV-infected cattle. The comet assay revealed high levels of host cell DNA damage upon BPV infection. Electron microscopy analysis of PBMCs identified the presence of particles in the cytoplasm that are consistent with papillomavirus in size and shape. The productive infection of PBMCs with BPV has been previously discussed and this study provides evidence indicating that PBMCs are a target of BPV. PMID:26681018

  11. Blood or Urine IP-10 Cannot Discriminate between Active Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases Different from Tuberculosis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Petrone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Interferon-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10, either in blood or in urine, has been proposed as a tuberculosis (TB biomarker for adults. This study aims to evaluate the potential of IP-10 diagnostics in children from Uganda, a high TB-endemic country. Methods. IP-10 was measured in the blood and urine concomitantly taken from children who were prospectively enrolled with suspected active TB, with or without HIV infection. Clinical/microbiological parameters and commercially available TB-immune assays (tuberculin skin test (TST and QuantiFERON TB-Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT were concomitantly evaluated. Results. One hundred twenty-eight children were prospectively enrolled. The analysis was performed on 111 children: 80 (72% of them were HIV-uninfected and 31 (27.9% were HIV-infected. Thirty-three healthy adult donors (HAD were included as controls. The data showed that IP-10 is detectable in the urine and blood of children with active TB, independent of HIV status and age. However, although IP-10 levels were higher in active TB children compared to HAD, the accuracy of identifying “active TB” was low and similar to the TST and QFT-IT. Conclusion. IP-10 levels are higher in children with respiratory illness compared to controls, independent of “TB status” suggesting that the evaluation of this parameter can be used as an inflammatory marker more than a TB test.

  12. Blood or Urine IP-10 Cannot Discriminate between Active Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases Different from Tuberculosis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, Linda; Cannas, Angela; Aloi, Francesco; Nsubuga, Martin; Sserumkuma, Joseph; Nazziwa, Ritah Angella; Jugheli, Levan; Lukindo, Tedson; Girardi, Enrico; Reither, Klaus; Goletti, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Interferon-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10), either in blood or in urine, has been proposed as a tuberculosis (TB) biomarker for adults. This study aims to evaluate the potential of IP-10 diagnostics in children from Uganda, a high TB-endemic country. Methods. IP-10 was measured in the blood and urine concomitantly taken from children who were prospectively enrolled with suspected active TB, with or without HIV infection. Clinical/microbiological parameters and commercially available TB-immune assays (tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON TB-Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT)) were concomitantly evaluated. Results. One hundred twenty-eight children were prospectively enrolled. The analysis was performed on 111 children: 80 (72%) of them were HIV-uninfected and 31 (27.9%) were HIV-infected. Thirty-three healthy adult donors (HAD) were included as controls. The data showed that IP-10 is detectable in the urine and blood of children with active TB, independent of HIV status and age. However, although IP-10 levels were higher in active TB children compared to HAD, the accuracy of identifying “active TB” was low and similar to the TST and QFT-IT. Conclusion. IP-10 levels are higher in children with respiratory illness compared to controls, independent of “TB status” suggesting that the evaluation of this parameter can be used as an inflammatory marker more than a TB test. PMID:26346028

  13. Lack of leptin activity in blood samples of Adélie penguin and bar-tailed godwit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosefi, Sara; Hen, Gideon; Rosenblum, Charles I; Cerasale, David J; Beaulieu, Michaël; Criscuolo, Francois; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2010-10-01

    Unsuccessful attempts to identify the leptin gene in birds are well documented, despite the characterization of its receptor (LEPR). Since leptin and LEPR have poor sequence conservation among vertebrates, we speculated that a functional assay should represent the best way to detect leptin in birds. Using a leptin bioassay that is based on activation of the chicken LEPR in cultured cells, blood samples from wild birds with extreme seasonal variation in voluntary food intake and fat deposition (Adélie penguins and bar-tailed godwits) were tested for leptin activity. In these experiments, blood samples collected during the pre-incubation and the chick-rearing periods of Adélie penguins, and during the migratory flight and refueling stages of bar-tailed godwits, were found to contain no detectable leptin activity, while the sensitivity of the assay to activation by human blood samples from donor subjects representing a variety of body mass indices and fat contents was clearly demonstrated. These results suggest that in birds, an alternative control mechanism to that of mammals operates in the communication between the body fat tissues and the central control on energy homeostasis. PMID:20675300

  14. Synergistic bactericidal effect by combined exposure to Ag nanoparticles and UVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broad and strong antimicrobial properties of silver (Ag) have been used for biomedical applications, water treatment, etc. In this study, a synergistic antibacterial effect between Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) and ultraviolet (UV) light was examined. AgNPs ( 1 μm) with UVA and AgNPs with UVB (280–325 nm) did not. As significant bactericidal activity was also exhibited by hydrogen peroxide-treated AgNPs, the surface oxidation of AgNPs caused by UVA irradiation was considered to contribute to the enhanced antibacterial effect. Although no difference in NP-incorporation rates was observed with or without the surface oxidation of AgNPs, a particle size of less than 0.1 μm was a factor for AgNPs uptake and an essential requirement for the antimicrobial function of Ag particles. Incorporated AgNPs oxidized by UVA irradiation released larger amounts of Ag ion inside cells than reduced AgNPs, which reacted with intercellular molecules having –SH groups such as glutathione. The synergistic use of AgNPs and UVA could become a powerful tool with broad antimicrobial applications. Highlights: • Combined treatment with AgNPs and UV achieved a remarkable antibacterial effect in E. coli. • For the antibacterial effect, it is necessary to satisfy the following requirements: • 1) Translocation of nano-sized Ag particles inside E. coli. • 2) Oxidation of AgNPs by UVA, and extensive and persistent release of Ag+ inside E. coli. • Ag+ released inside cells reacted with intercellular molecules having –SH groups such as GSH

  15. Synergistic bactericidal effect by combined exposure to Ag nanoparticles and UVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaoxu; Toyooka, Tatsushi; Ibuki, Yuko, E-mail: ibuki@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp

    2013-08-01

    Broad and strong antimicrobial properties of silver (Ag) have been used for biomedical applications, water treatment, etc. In this study, a synergistic antibacterial effect between Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) and ultraviolet (UV) light was examined. AgNPs (< 0.1 μm) with subsequent exposure to UVA (320–400 nm) showed pronounced toxicity in Escherichia coli, but micro-sized Ag particles (> 1 μm) with UVA and AgNPs with UVB (280–325 nm) did not. As significant bactericidal activity was also exhibited by hydrogen peroxide-treated AgNPs, the surface oxidation of AgNPs caused by UVA irradiation was considered to contribute to the enhanced antibacterial effect. Although no difference in NP-incorporation rates was observed with or without the surface oxidation of AgNPs, a particle size of less than 0.1 μm was a factor for AgNPs uptake and an essential requirement for the antimicrobial function of Ag particles. Incorporated AgNPs oxidized by UVA irradiation released larger amounts of Ag ion inside cells than reduced AgNPs, which reacted with intercellular molecules having –SH groups such as glutathione. The synergistic use of AgNPs and UVA could become a powerful tool with broad antimicrobial applications. Highlights: • Combined treatment with AgNPs and UV achieved a remarkable antibacterial effect in E. coli. • For the antibacterial effect, it is necessary to satisfy the following requirements: • 1) Translocation of nano-sized Ag particles inside E. coli. • 2) Oxidation of AgNPs by UVA, and extensive and persistent release of Ag{sup +} inside E. coli. • Ag{sup +} released inside cells reacted with intercellular molecules having –SH groups such as GSH.

  16. In vitro cytokine induction by TLR-activating vaccine adjuvants in human blood varies by age and adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haren, Simon D; Ganapathi, Lakshmi; Bergelson, Ilana; Dowling, David J; Banks, Michaela; Samuels, Ronald C; Reed, Steven G; Marshall, Jason D; Levy, Ofer

    2016-07-01

    Most infections occur in early life, prompting development of novel adjuvanted vaccines to protect newborns and infants. Several Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists (TLRAs) are components of licensed vaccine formulations or are in development as candidate adjuvants. However, the type and magnitude of immune responses to TLRAs may vary with the TLR activated as well as age and geographic location. Most notably, in newborns, as compared to adults, the immune response to TLRAs is polarized with lower Th1 cytokine production and robust Th2 and anti-inflammatory cytokine production. The ontogeny of TLR-mediated cytokine responses in international cohorts has been reported, but no study has compared cytokine responses to TLRAs between U.S. neonates and infants at the age of 6months. Both are critical age groups for the currently pediatric vaccine schedule. In this study, we report quantitative differences in the production of a panel of 14 cytokines and chemokines after in vitro stimulation of newborn cord blood and infant and adult peripheral blood with agonists of TLR4, including monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) and glucopyranosyl lipid Adjuvant aqueous formulation (GLA-AF), as well as agonists of TLR7/8 (R848) and TLR9 (CpG). Both TLR4 agonists, MPLA and GLA-AF, induced greater concentrations of Th1 cytokines CXCL10, TNF and Interleukin (IL)-12p70 in infant and adult blood compared to newborn blood. All the tested TLRAs induced greater infant IFN-α2 production compared to newborn and adult blood. In contrast, CpG induced greater IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-12p40, IL-10 and CXCL8 in newborn than in infant and adult blood. Overall, to the extent that these in vitro studies mirror responses in vivo, our study demonstrates distinct age-specific effects of TLRAs that may inform their development as candidate adjuvants for early life vaccines. PMID:27081760

  17. Characterization of lymphokine-activated killer cells from peripheral blood and lymph nodes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and lymph node lymphocytes (LNL) from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients were tested for lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK) cells cytotoxicity using appropriate targets in a short-term 51chromium-release assay. The results showed a significant depression in LNL-LAK activity suggesting the reduced capacity of LNL to generate LAK cells. LNL-LAK cells demonstrated significantly low percentages of cells expressing CD16, CD56 and CD25 as compared to PBL-LAK and healthy donors. The reduced capacity to generate LAK cells in lymph nodes could by due to the presence of low numbers of natural killer cells which are thought to be the main precursors of LAK cells. The IL-2 producing ability of lymph node mononuclear cells was found to by significantly higher than that of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from both healthy donors and and NHL patients. (author)

  18. Aspects on the cytokine load in trauma with special reference to blood components and local versus systemic cytokine activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansson, Marianne

    1997-01-01

    ASPECTS ON THE CYTOKINE LOAD IN TRAUMA with special reference to BLOOD COMPONENTS and LOCAL VERSUS SYSTEMIC CYTOKINE ACTIVITY by Marianne Kristiansson, M.D. Dissertation from the Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Huddinge University Hospital Karolinska Institute, Stockholm and Department of Clinical Immunology, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden Cytokines and their inhibitors are thought to be involved in many of the pathophysiologi...

  19. Chronic intermittent hypoxia in humans during 28 nights results in blood pressure elevation and increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmartin, G. S.; Lynch, M; Tamisier, R.; Weiss, J W

    2010-01-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is thought to be responsible for the cardiovascular disease associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Increased sympathetic activation, altered vascular function, and inflammation are all putative mechanisms. We recently reported (Tamisier R, Gilmartin GS, Launois SH, Pepin JL, Nespoulet H, Thomas RJ, Levy P, Weiss JW. J Appl Physiol 107: 17–24, 2009) a new model of CIH in healthy humans that is associated with both increases in blood pressure and augme...

  20. Calcium-activated potassium channels mediated blood-brain tumor barrier opening in a rat metastatic brain tumor model

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Background The blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB) impedes the delivery of therapeutic agents to brain tumors. While adequate delivery of drugs occurs in systemic tumors, the BTB limits delivery of anti-tumor agents into brain metastases. Results In this study, we examined the function and regulation of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels in a rat metastatic brain tumor model. We showed that intravenous infusion of NS1619, a KCa channel agonist, and bradykinin selectively enhanced BTB perm...

  1. Genetic and environmental influences on blood pressure and physical activity: a study of nuclear families from Muzambinho, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Forjaz, C.L.M.; Bartholomeu, T.; J.A.S. Rezende; J. A. de Oliveira; Basso, L.; Tani, G.; A. Prista; Maia, J.A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) and physical activity (PA) levels are inversely associated. Since genetic factors account for the observed variation in each of these traits, it is possible that part of their association may be related to common genetic and/or environmental influences. Thus, this study was designed to estimate the genetic and environmental correlations of BP and PA phenotypes in nuclear families from Muzambinho, Brazil. Families including 236 offspring (6 to 24 years) and their 82 fathers...

  2. Determination of total creatine kinase activity in blood serum using an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase

    OpenAIRE

    Kucherenko, Ivan S; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O; Lagarde, Florence; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Dzyadevych, S.V.; Soldatkin, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    International audience Creatine kinase (CK: adenosine-5-triphosphate-creatine phosphotransferase) is an important enzyme of muscle cells; the presence of a large amount of the enzyme in blood serum is a biomarker of muscular injuries, such as acute myocardial infarction. This work describes a bi-enzyme (glucose oxidase and hexokinase based) biosensor for rapid and convenient determination of CK activity by measuring the rate of ATP production by this enzyme. Simultaneously the biosensor de...

  3. Efecto bactericida del láser de diodo en periodoncia Bactericidal effects of diode laser in periodontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caccianiga

    2008-04-01

    associated use of laser irradiation and hydrogen peroxide with the goal of reducing the bacterial charge of stocks commonly present in the active periodontal pockets and resistant to the bactericide action of laser irradiation alone such as Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Peptostreptococcus micron. The laboratory method used foresees the following protocol: each bacterial suspension has been exposed to hydrogen peroxide at 3% concentrations and it has been irradiated with laser for 10, 15 or 20 seconds, using sterile 1.5 ml Eppendorf tubes. The results confirm the higher bactericide effectiveness of the combined action of hydrogen peroxide and laser. The microbiological cultivations carried out reveal how, in spite of the bactericide effect, the laser has an insufficient action on bacterial stocks tested if it isn’t associated with hydrogen peroxide. Particularly in the case of the Prevotella intermedia or the Fusobacterium nucleatum the use of just hydrogen peroxide at 3% has offered better results than the laser irradiation alone while the association of both treatments has always offered optimal results. In the case of the Peptostreptococcus micron the use of hydrogen peroxide and laser separately has offered an insufficient reduction of the bacterial count while the association of treatments has increased their bactericide action.

  4. Increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, heart rate, respiration and skin blood flow during passive viewing of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RachaelBrown

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular and respiratory effects of exercise have been widely studied, as have the autonomic effects of imagined and observed exercise. However, the effects of observed exercise in the first person have not been documented, nor have direct recordings of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA been obtained during observed or imagined exercise. The aim of the current study was to measure blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, skin blood flow, sweat release and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (via microelectrodes inserted into the common peroneal nerve, during observation of exercise from the first person point of view. It was hypothesised that the moving stimuli would produce robust compensatory increases in the above-mentioned parameters as effectively as those generated by mental imagery and - to a lesser extent - actual exercise. Nine subjects watched a first-person running video, allowing them to view the action from the perspective of the runner rather than viewing someone else perform the exercise. On average, statistically significant increases from baseline during the running phase were seen in heart rate, respiratory rate, skin blood flow and burst amplitude of muscle sympathetic nerve activity. These results suggest that observation of exercise in the first person is a strong enough stimulus to evoke “physiologically appropriate” autonomic responses that have a purely psychogenic origin.

  5. Blood shizonticidal activities of phenazines and naphthoquinoidal compounds against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and in mice malaria studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolli Bellotti de Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the recent advances of atovaquone, a naphthoquinone, through clinical trials as treatment for malarial infection, 19 quinone derivatives with previously reported structures were also evaluated for blood schizonticide activity against the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. These compounds include 2-hydroxy-3-methylamino naphthoquinones (2-9, lapachol (10, nor-lapachol (11, iso-lapachol (12, phthiocol (13 and phenazines (12-20. Their cytotoxicities were also evaluated against human hepatoma and normal monkey kidney cell lines. Compounds 2 and 5 showed the highest activity against P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant blood-stage parasites (clone W2, indicated by their low inhibitory concentration for 50% (IC50 of parasite growth. The therapeutic potential of the active compounds was evaluated according to the selectivity index, which is a ratio of the cytotoxicity minimum lethal dose which eliminates 50% of cells and the in vitro IC50. Naphthoquinones 2 and 5, with activities similar to the reference antimalarial chloroquine, were also active against malaria in mice and suppressed parasitaemia by more than 60% in contrast to compound 11 which was inactive. Based on their in vitro and in vivo activities, compounds 2 and 5 are considered promising molecules for antimalarial treatment and warrant further study.

  6. Determination of reference values of elements in whole blood of the wistar rats using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B., E-mail: laura@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Some investigations, especially biochemistry analysis, can be performed using whole blood if the normality limits are established. The present study deals with the determination of reference values for elements of clinical interest, in whole blood of Wistar rats using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Usually these small-sized animals are used as guinea-pig on experiments that involves testing new medicines and medical diagnostic studies. In this investigation, the reference values for blood were determined for: Br (0.0011 - 0.0095 gL{sup -1}), Ca (0.0 - 0.66 gL{sup -1}), Cl (2.35 - 4.91 gL{sup -1}), K (1.00 - 3.12 gL{sup -1}), Mg (0.044 - 0.108 gL{sup -1}), Na (1.13 - 3.09 gL{sup -1}) and S (0.53 - 1.81 gL{sup -1}). These data will allow researchers to optimize their studies, both in terms of cost and time by selecting species that fits to the experimental model as a clinical reference as well as performing biochemical analyses in whole blood using small quantities (few {mu}L) compared to the conventional analyses performed in serum (few mL). (author)

  7. Xenoestrogenic and dioxin-like activity in blood of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Simon Erik; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    induced ER response. Positive correlations were found in subadult bears between XER and several POP biomarkers. XER and XERcomp correlated positively to each other. A total of 91% of the polar bear blood extracts elicited agonistic AhR transactivity. The AhR-TCDD equivalent (AhR-TEQ) median levels were...

  8. Blood monocyte oxidative burst activity in acute P. falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Theander, T G

    1989-01-01

    The release of superoxide anion from blood monocytes was studied in eight patients with acute primary attack P. falciparum malaria. Before treatment a significant enhancement of the oxidative burst prevailed, which contrasts with previous findings of a depressed monocyte chemotactic responsivenes...

  9. St. John's Wort constituents modulate P-glycoprotein transport activity at the blood-brain barrier.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ott, M.; Huls, M.; Cornelius, M.G.; Fricker, G.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term signaling effects of St. John's Wort (SJW) extract and selected SJW constituents on the blood-brain barrier transporter P-glycoprotein and to describe the role of PKC in the signaling. METHODS: Cultured porcine brain capillary endo

  10. Sedentary Behavior and Light Physical Activity Are Associated with Brachial and Central Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerage, A. M.; Benedetti, T. R. B.; Farah, B. Q.; Santana, F. D.; Ohara, D.; Andersen, Lars Bo; Ritti-Dias, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    pressure. Arterial stiffness parameters (augmentation index and pulse wave velocity) and cardiac autonomic modulation (sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation in the heart) were also obtained as secondary outcomes. Results Sedentary activities and light physical activities were positively and inversely......Background Physical activity is recommended as a part of a comprehensive lifestyle approach in the treatment of hypertension, but there is a lack of data about the relationship between different intensities of physical activity and cardiovascular parameters in hypertensive patients. The purpose of...... this study was to investigate the association between the time spent in physical activities of different intensities and blood pressure levels, arterial stiffness and autonomic modulation in hypertensive patients. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 87 hypertensive patients (57.5 +/- 9.9 years of...

  11. The link between high-fat meals and postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII possibly involves kallikrein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Marckmann, P; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie;

    2000-01-01

    Contrary to low-fat meals, high-fat meals are known to cause postprandial factor VII (FVII) activation, but the mechanism is unknown. To study the postprandial FVII activation in detail, 18 young men consumed in randomized order high-fat or low-fat test meals. Fasting and non-fasting blood samples......-rich lipoproteins activate prokallikrein postprandially, which might form an important initial event in FVII activation after consumption of high-fat meals....... were collected. The high-fat test was associated with an increase in plasma triglyceride and kallikrein concentrations and postprandial FVII activation (p<0.001). Plasma kallikrein was strongly associated with triglycerides in fasting and non-fasting samples (r2=0.74-0.87, p<0.0001), suggesting that...

  12. Thrombin-Mediated Platelet Activation of Lysed Whole Blood and Platelet-Rich Plasma: A Comparison Between Platelet Activation Markers and Ultrastructural Alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Tanya N; van der Spuy, Wendy J; Kaberry, Lindsay L; Shayi, Millicent

    2016-06-01

    Platelet ultrastructural alterations representing spurious activation have been identified in pathological conditions. A limitation of platelet studies is that sample preparation may lead to artifactual activation processes which may confound results, impacting the use of scanning electron microscopy as a supplemental diagnostic tool. We used scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometry to analyze platelet activation in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and whole blood (WB) samples. PRP generated using a single high g force centrifugation, and WB samples treated with a red blood cell lysis buffer, were exposed to increasing concentrations of the agonist thrombin. Platelets in lysed WB samples responded to thrombin by elevating the activation marker CD62p definitively, with corresponding ultrastructural changes indicating activation. Conversely, CD62p expression in PRP preparations remained static. Ultrastructural analysis revealed fully activated platelets even under low concentration thrombin stimulation, with considerable fibrin deposition. It is proposed that the method for PRP production induced premature platelet activation, preventable by using an inhibitor of platelet aggregation and fibrin polymerization. Nevertheless, our results show a definitive correspondence between flow cytometry and scanning electron microscopy in platelet activation studies, highlighting the potential of the latter technique as a supplemental diagnostic tool. PMID:27329313

  13. [Dynamics of lysozyme levels in the blood serum and milk of puerperae with various functional activities of the breasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronov, O V; Bakuleva, L P; Nesterova, A A; Babaian, S S

    1991-05-01

    The morbidity rates, ++features of lactation formation, and serum and breast milk lysozyme levels were studied in 91 parturients who showed various breast functional activity in the early postpartum period. The highest frequency of postpartum ++pyo-septic diseases was found in females with hyperlactation. There was earlier appearance of foremilk and milk in these females. Healthy mothers with higher breast functional activity exhibited the greatest levels of lysozyme in the milk and marked decreases in its levels in the blood within the first 3 days as compared to those observed in females who had normal or insufficient quantities of milk. PMID:1897671

  14. Effect of the PPARα-activator gemfibrozil on whole blood drug transporter gene expression in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Zefeng Jr

    2014-01-01

    Gemfibrozil is a fibric acid derivative used in the treatment of dyslipidemia. It activates peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and alters lipoprotein metabolism gene expression. PPARα may also regulate the expression of drug disposition genes (e.g., CYP3A4). The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of gemfibrozil on drug transporter gene expression in human whole blood. In a randomized crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers took 600 mg gemfibrozil or p...

  15. Alterations in peripheral blood memory B cells in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis are dependent on the action of tumour necrosis factor

    OpenAIRE

    Souto-Carneiro, M. Margarida; Mahadevan, Vijayabhanu; Takada, Kazuki; Fritsch-Stork, Ruth; Nanki, Toshihiro; Brown, Margaret; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Wilson, Mildred; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Lipsky, Peter E

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Disturbances in peripheral blood memory B cell subpopulations have been observed in various autoimmune diseases, but have not been fully delineated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Additionally, the possible role of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in regulating changes in specific peripheral blood memory B cell subsets in RA is still unclear. METHODS: The frequency and distribution of B cell subsets in the peripheral blood and synovial membrane of active RA patients with long-standing...

  16. The Human Antimicrobial Protein Bactericidal/Permeability-Increasing Protein (BPI) Inhibits the Infectivity of Influenza A Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkenburg, Olaf; Meyer, Torben; Bannert, Norbert; Norley, Steven; Bolte, Kathrin; Czudai-Matwich, Volker; Herold, Susanne; Gessner, André; Schnare, Markus

    2016-01-01

    In addition to their well-known antibacterial activity some antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) display also antiviral effects. A 27 aa peptide from the N-terminal part of human bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) previously shown to harbour antibacterial activity inhibits the infectivity of multiple Influenza A virus strains (H1N1, H3N2 and H5N1) the causing agent of the Influenza pneumonia. In contrast, the homologous murine BPI-peptide did not show activity against Influenza A virus. In addition human BPI-peptide inhibits the activation of immune cells mediated by Influenza A virus. By changing the human BPI-peptide to the sequence of the mouse homologous peptide the antiviral activity was completely abolished. Furthermore, the human BPI-peptide also inhibited the pathogenicity of the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus but failed to interfere with HIV and measles virus. Electron microscopy indicate that the human BPI-peptide interferes with the virus envelope and at high concentrations was able to destroy the particles completely. PMID:27273104

  17. Correlation between Copper Ion Concentration in Cervical Mucus and Fllbrinolytic Activity in Menstrual Blood in Copper-releasiag IUD Users

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林建华; 潘家骧; 严隽鸿

    1993-01-01

    In the present study, 44 women using TCu220c-IUD or inert-IUD were asked to make follow-ups before insertion and at the 1st., 3rd., 6th, 9th and 12th month after insertion The mean menstrual blood loss, the fibrinalytic activity including the activation of tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA) and the amount of plasminogen PIG) and fibrinogen-fibrin degradation products (FDP) in menstrual blood and the copper ion concentration in cervical mucus were determined. The correlation between the copper ion concentration and the fibrinalytic activity was considered. It was found that the change of the copper ion concentration was positively correlated with that of the activition of t-PA and the amount of FDP. On the contrary, the change ofthe copper ion concentration was inversely related to the change of PLG value. It is concluded that the high copper ion level can enhance the activation of fibrinolytic system in human endometrium and induce the increase of menorrhagia.

  18. Local membrane deformations activate Ca2+-dependent K+ and anionic currents in intact human red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Dyrda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanical, rheological and shape properties of red blood cells are determined by their cortical cytoskeleton, evolutionarily optimized to provide the dynamic deformability required for flow through capillaries much narrower than the cell's diameter. The shear stress induced by such flow, as well as the local membrane deformations generated in certain pathological conditions, such as sickle cell anemia, have been shown to increase membrane permeability, based largely on experimentation with red cell suspensions. We attempted here the first measurements of membrane currents activated by a local and controlled membrane deformation in single red blood cells under on-cell patch clamp to define the nature of the stretch-activated currents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cell-attached configuration of the patch-clamp technique was used to allow recordings of single channel activity in intact red blood cells. Gigaohm seal formation was obtained with and without membrane deformation. Deformation was induced by the application of a negative pressure pulse of 10 mmHg for less than 5 s. Currents were only detected when the membrane was seen domed under negative pressure within the patch-pipette. K(+ and Cl(- currents were strictly dependent on the presence of Ca(2+. The Ca(2+-dependent currents were transient, with typical decay half-times of about 5-10 min, suggesting the spontaneous inactivation of a stretch-activated Ca(2+ permeability (PCa. These results indicate that local membrane deformations can transiently activate a Ca(2+ permeability pathway leading to increased [Ca(2+](i, secondary activation of Ca(2+-sensitive K(+ channels (Gardos channel, IK1, KCa3.1, and hyperpolarization-induced anion currents. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The stretch-activated transient PCa observed here under local membrane deformation is a likely contributor to the Ca(2+-mediated effects observed during the normal aging process of red blood cells, and

  19. Decreased glutathione content and glutathione S-transferase activity in red blood cells of coal miners with early stages of pneumoconiosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Evelo, C T; Bos, R P; Borm, P J

    1993-01-01

    Blood samples of miners heavily exposed to coal dust were examined for changes in glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. Decreased GST activity was found in red blood cells of subjects with early stages of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (International Labour Office classification 0/1-1/2) when compared with control miners. At further progression of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (> or = 2/1), the activity of GST was not different from controls. In the same group with moderate coal workers' pne...

  20. Effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation (EMFR generated by activated mobile phones on fasting blood glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Extensive use of mobile phones has been accompanied by a common public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. No study has been published so far to establish any association between the fastest growing innovation of mobile phone and fasting blood glucose. The aim was to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation generated by mobile phones on fasting blood glucose in Wistar Albino rats. Materials and Methods: 40 Male Albino rats (Wistar Strain were divided into 5 equally numerous groups. Group A served as the control one, group B received mobile phone radiation for less than 15 min/day, group C: 15-30 min/day, group D: 31-45 min/day, and group E: 46-60 min/day for a total period of 3 months. Fasting blood glucose was determined by using Spectrophotometer and serum insulin by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The Homeostatic Model (HOMA-B was applied for the assessment of β-cell function and (HOMA-IR for resistance to insulin. Results: Wister Albino rats exposed to mobile phone radiation for longer than 15 min a day for a total period of 3 months had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (p < 0.015 and serum insulin (p < 0.01 compared to the control group. HOMA-IR for insulin resistance was significantly increased (p < 0.003 in the groups that were exposed for 15-30 and 46-60 min/day compared to the control rats. Conclusion: The results of the present study show an association between long-term exposure to activated mobile phones and increase in fasting blood glucose and serum insulin in Albino rats.

  1. Fate of gamma-interferon-activated killer blood monocytes adoptively transferred into the abdominal cavity of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five patients with colorectal cancer widely metastatic to peritoneal surfaces have been treated i.p. with infusions of autologous blood monocytes made cytotoxic by in vitro incubation with human gamma-interferon. The monocytes were purified by a combination of cytapheresis and counter-current centrifugal elutriation procedures; each week approximately 350 million activated monocytes were given to patients as adoptive immunotherapy by a single i.p. instillation. On the eighth cycle of treatment the trafficking of i.p. infused blood monocytes was studied in two patients by prelabeling the cells with 111In. These activated cells became distributed widely within the peritoneal cavity. Two and 5 days after infusion their position within the peritoneum had not changed. When peritoneal specimens were obtained 36 h after 111In-labeled monocyte infusion, labeled monocytes were demonstrated to be associated with the serosal surfaces by autoradiographic analysis. Scintiscanning structures outside the abdominal cavity revealed that 111In-labeled monocytes infused i.p. did not traffic to other organs during the 5 days of the study. We conclude that i.p. adoptive transfer of autologous killer blood monocytes is an effective way of delivering these cytotoxic cells to sites of tumor burden on peritoneal surfaces in these cancer patients

  2. One-touch-activated blood multidiagnostic system using a minimally invasive hollow microneedle integrated with a paper-based sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng Guo; Joung, Hyou-Arm; Noh, Hyungrye; Song, Mun-Bum; Kim, Min-Gon; Jung, Hyungil

    2015-08-21

    The development of real-time innocuous blood diagnosis has been a long-standing goal in healthcare; an improved, miniature, all-in-one point-of-care testing (POCT) system with low cost and simplified operation is highly desired. Here, we present a one-touch-activated blood multidiagnostic system (OBMS) involving the synergistic integration of a hollow microneedle and paper-based sensor, providing a number of unique characteristics for simplifying the design of microsystems and enhancing user performance. In this OBMS, all functions of blood collection, serum separation, and detection were sequentially automated in one single device that only required one-touch activation by finger-power without additional operations. For the first time, we successfully demonstrated the operation of this system in vivo in glucose and cholesterol diagnosis, showing a great possibility for human clinical application and commercialization. Additionally, this novel system offers a new approach for the use of microneedles and paper sensors as promising intelligent elements in future real-time healthcare monitoring devices. PMID:26190447

  3. A high fat meal activates blood coagulation factor VII in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Aage K; Bladbjerg, Else M; Hansen, Axel K;

    2002-01-01

    LEW/Mol rat. We gavaged 3 mL of a fat emulsion (n = 42) or 3 mL isotonic glucose (n = 42). Blood was sampled by heart puncture 2, 4 and 6 h (n = 14/group at each time) after the fat/glucose load. Furthermore, blood was sampled from 16 untreated rats to determine the baseline levels. Triglyceride....../L), and FVIIa was significantly raised at 4 h (54 U/L) and 6 h (58 U/L) compared with baseline (29 U/L). No postprandial changes in FVIIc, FVIIam and TAT were observed. Glucose administration did not affect any variable. We conclude that the LEW/Mol rat is a promising model for use in future studies of...

  4. Xenoestrogenic and dioxin-like activity in blood of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Simon Erik; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the project were to (i) extract the lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the blood of 99 East Greenland polar bears and assess the combined mixture effect on the estrogen receptor (ER) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated transactivity; (ii) To evaluate...... whether the receptor transactivities were associated with selected POP markers, and (iii) compare the receptor transactivities in polar bears with earlier studies on Greenlandic Inuit. Lipophilic POPs were extracted using a combination of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid...... induced ER response. Positive correlations were found in subadult bears between XER and several POP biomarkers. XER and XERcomp correlated positively to each other. A total of 91% of the polar bear blood extracts elicited agonistic AhR transactivity. The AhR-TCDD equivalent (AhR-TEQ) median levels were...

  5. Local membrane deformations activate Ca2+-dependent K+ and anionic currents in intact human red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrda, Agnieszka; Cytlak, Urszula; Ciuraszkiewicz, Anna;

    2010-01-01

    flow, as well as the local membrane deformations generated in certain pathological conditions, such as sickle cell anemia, have been shown to increase membrane permeability, based largely on experimentation with red cell suspensions. We attempted here the first measurements of membrane currents......-activated transient PCa observed here under local membrane deformation is a likely contributor to the Ca(2+)-mediated effects observed during the normal aging process of red blood cells, and to the increased Ca(2+) content of red cells in certain hereditary anemias such as thalassemia and sickle cell anemia.......BACKGROUND: The mechanical, rheological and shape properties of red blood cells are determined by their cortical cytoskeleton, evolutionarily optimized to provide the dynamic deformability required for flow through capillaries much narrower than the cell's diameter. The shear stress induced by such...

  6. Blood flow controls coagulation onset via the positive feedback of factor VII activation by factor Xa

    OpenAIRE

    Panteleev Mikhail A; Lobanova Ekaterina S; Shibeko Alexey M; Ataullakhanov Fazoil I

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Blood coagulation is a complex network of biochemical reactions, which is peculiar in that it is time- and space-dependent, and has to function in the presence of rapid flow. Recent experimental reports suggest that flow plays a significant role in its regulation. The objective of this study was to use systems biology techniques to investigate this regulation and to identify mechanisms creating a flow-dependent switch in the coagulation onset. Results Using a detailed mech...

  7. Alloantigen-induced unresponsiveness in cord blood T lymphocytes is associated with defective activation of Ras

    OpenAIRE

    Porcu, Pierluigi; Gaddy, Jay; Broxmeyer, Hal E.

    1998-01-01

    Human umbilical cord blood T lymphocytes (CBTL) respond to primary allostimulation but they do not proliferate upon rechallenge with alloantigen. Using PKH-26-labeled cells created a proliferative block that was observed only in CBTL that have divided during primary stimulation (PKH-26dim) but not in unstimulated (PKH-26bright) CBTL. CBTL’s secondary unresponsiveness resembles anergy and can be overcome by treatment with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin or by high doses (50–100 u...

  8. Focal MMP-2 and MMP-9 Activity at the Blood-Brain Barrier Promotes Chemokine-Induced Leukocyte Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Song

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although chemokines are sufficient for chemotaxis of various cells, increasing evidence exists for their fine-tuning by selective proteolytic processing. Using a model of immune cell chemotaxis into the CNS (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis [EAE] that permits precise localization of immigrating leukocytes at the blood-brain barrier, we show that, whereas chemokines are required for leukocyte migration into the CNS, additional MMP-2/9 activities specifically at the border of the CNS parenchyma strongly enhance this transmigration process. Cytokines derived from infiltrating leukocytes regulate MMP-2/9 activity at the parenchymal border, which in turn promotes astrocyte secretion of chemokines and differentially modulates the activity of different chemokines at the CNS border, thereby promoting leukocyte migration out of the cuff. Hence, cytokines, chemokines, and cytokine-induced MMP-2/9 activity specifically at the inflammatory border collectively act to accelerate leukocyte chemotaxis across the parenchymal border.

  9. Activity and isoenzyme spectrum of alkaline phosphatase in liver and blood plasma of gamma-irradiated hen and chick embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve day and 20 day-old embryos and one-day old chicks were gamma-irradiated with a single dose of 100 rad. On the 1st, 2nd and 72nd hours after treatment the alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and isozyme spectrum in liver homogenates and blood plasma were determined. AP in the liver was demonstrated histochemically as well. The results show that the initial damage of the liver parenchyma by irradiation treatment is characterized by a slight decrease of liver AP activity and a marked increase in total plasma enzyme activity. The isozyme spectrum changes (increase of AP1 in the early period and increase of AP1 and AP5 in the later period) show that the initial liver parenchymal damage is followed by bile duct damage as well. Comparison of the results of biochemical and histochemical studies indicate the presence of direct correlation between serum and liver alkaline phosphatase activities. (A.B.)

  10. Monoclonal autoantibodies to the TSH receptor, one with stimulating activity and one with blocking activity, obtained from the same blood sample

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Michele; Sanders, Jane; Tagami, Tetsuya; Sanders, Paul; Young, Stuart; Roberts, Emma; Wilmot, Jane; Hu, Xiaoling; Kabelis, Katarzyna; Clark, Jill; Holl, Sabrina; Richards, Tonya; Collyer, Alastair; Furmaniak, Jadwiga; Rees Smith, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Patients who appear to have both stimulating and blocking TSHR autoantibodies in their sera have been described but the two activities have not been separated and analysed. We now describe the isolation and detailed characterisation of a blocking type TSHR monoclonal autoantibody and a stimulating type TSHR monoclonal autoantibody from a single sample of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Design, Patients and Measurements: Two heterohybridoma cell lines secreting ...

  11. Analysis on Mechanisms of Activating Blood Circulation and Compatible Regularity of Cinnamon Twig%桂枝活血机理及配伍规律探析*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慕鸽; 魏凯峰(通讯作者)

    2013-01-01

    阐述了桂枝功能与活血的关系,以及相关的配伍。认为桂枝的活血功效是通过调节机体血、气、水发挥,根据证候配伍活血药、养血药、温里药、理气药、补气药而在临床灵活使用。%This paper states the function of activating blood circulation in Cinnamon Twig, as well as the compatible regularity. The function on activating blood circulation of Cinnamon Twig is resulted from regulating body's blood, Qi and fluid. We should use it flexibly according to rational combination with blood-activating drugs, blood-enriching drugs and Qi-tonifying drugs in clinical practice.

  12. Associations of sedentary behaviour, physical activity, blood pressure and anthropometric measures with cardiorespiratory fitness in children with cerebral palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Ryan

    Full Text Available Children with cerebral palsy (CP have poor cardiorespiratory fitness in comparison to their peers with typical development, which may be due to low levels of physical activity. Poor cardiorespiratory fitness may contribute to increased cardiometabolic risk.The aim of this study was to determine the association between sedentary behaviour, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children with CP. An objective was to determine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, anthropometric measures and blood pressure in children with CP.This study included 55 ambulatory children with CP [mean (SD age 11.3 (0.2 yr, range 6-17 yr; Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS levels I and II]. Anthropometric measures (BMI, waist circumference and waist-height ratio and blood pressure were taken. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a 10 m shuttle run test. Children were classified as low, middle and high fitness according to level achieved on the test using reference curves. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry over 7 days. In addition to total activity, time in sedentary behaviour and light, moderate, vigorous, and sustained moderate-to-vigorous activity (≥10 min bouts were calculated.Multiple regression analyses revealed that vigorous activity (β = 0.339, p<0.01, sustained moderate-to-vigorous activity (β = 0.250, p<0.05 and total activity (β = 0.238, p<0.05 were associated with level achieved on the shuttle run test after adjustment for age, sex and GMFCS level. Children with high fitness spent more time in vigorous activity than children with middle fitness (p<0.05. Shuttle run test level was negatively associated with BMI (r2 = -0.451, p<0.01, waist circumference (r2 = -0.560, p<0.001, waist-height ratio (r2 = -0.560, p<0.001 and systolic blood pressure (r2 = -0.306, p<0.05 after adjustment for age, sex and GMFCS level.Participation in physical activity, particularly at a vigorous intensity, is

  13. Interleukin 3 activates human blood basophils via high-affinity binding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pure populations of human basophilic granulocytes were obtained from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) blood by negative selection using a mixture of monoclonal antibodies and complement. 125I-radiolabeled recombinant human interleukin 3 (rhIL-3) bound to purified basophils in a specific manner. Quantitative binding studies and Scatchard plot analyses performed on samples from two donors revealed the presence of a single class of high-affinity IL-3 binding sites. Purified CML basophils maintained in suspension in the presence of rhIL-3 incorporated up to 12 times more [3H]thymidine than basophils in control cultures. Furthermore, after preincubation in vitro with rhIL-3 for 30 min, normal blood basophils released 2- to 3-fold more histamine than basophils pretreated with control medium when exposed to various concentrations of an anti-IgE antibody. Together, these results show that rhIL-3 binds to a specific receptor on blood basophils and is a regulator of basophil function

  14. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lead an active, normal life. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force that blood puts on ... and medications. continue Long-Term Effects of High Blood Pressure When someone has high blood pressure, the heart ...

  15. Determination of total creatine kinase activity in blood serum using an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, I S; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2015-11-01

    Creatine kinase (CK: adenosine-5-triphosphate-creatine phosphotransferase) is an important enzyme of muscle cells; the presence of a large amount of the enzyme in blood serum is a biomarker of muscular injuries, such as acute myocardial infarction. This work describes a bi-enzyme (glucose oxidase and hexokinase based) biosensor for rapid and convenient determination of CK activity by measuring the rate of ATP production by this enzyme. Simultaneously the biosensor determines glucose concentration in the sample. Platinum disk electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. Glucose oxidase and hexokinase were co-immobilized via cross-linking with BSA by glutaraldehyde and served as a biorecognition element of the biosensor. The biosensor work at different concentrations of CK substrates (ADP and creatine phosphate) was investigated; optimal concentration of ADP was 1mM, and creatine phosphate - 10 mM. The reproducibility of the biosensor responses to glucose, ATP and CK during a day was tested (relative standard deviation of 15 responses to glucose was 2%, to ATP - 6%, to CK - 7-18% depending on concentration of the CK). Total time of CK analysis was 10 min. The measurements of creatine kinase in blood serum samples were carried out (at 20-fold sample dilution). Twentyfold dilution of serum samples was chosen as optimal for CK determination. The biosensor could distinguish healthy and ill people and evaluate the level of CK increase. Thus, the biosensor can be used as a test-system for CK analysis in blood serum or serve as a component of multibiosensors for determination of important blood substances. Determination of activity of other kinases by the developed biosensor is also possible for research purposes. PMID:26452867

  16. Fatty Acid Blood Levels, Vitamin D Status, Physical Performance, Activity, and Resiliency: A Novel Potential Screening Tool for Depressed Mood in Active Duty Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Nicholas D; Kotwal, Russ S; Lewis, Michael D; Funderburk, Leslee K; Elliott, Timothy R; Crouse, Stephen F; Smith, Stephen B; Greenwood, Michael; Kreider, Richard B

    2016-09-01

    This study examined whether blood fatty acid levels, vitamin D status, and/or physical activity are associated with physical fitness scores; a measure of mood, Patient Health Questionnaire-9; and a measure of resiliency, Dispositional Resiliency Scale-15 in active duty Soldiers. 100 active duty males at Fort Hood, Texas, underwent a battery of psychometric tests, anthropometric measurements, and fitness tests, and they also provided fasting blood samples for fatty acid and vitamin D analysis. Pearson bivariate correlation analysis revealed significant correlations among psychometric tests, anthropometric measurements, physical performance, reported physical inactivity (sitting time), and fatty acid and vitamin D blood levels. On the basis of these findings, a regression equation was developed to predict a depressed mood status as determined by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The equation accurately predicted depressed mood status in 80% of our participants with a sensitivity of 76.9% and a specificity of 80.5%. Results indicate that the use of a regression equation may be helpful in identifying Soldiers at higher risk for mental health issues. Future studies should evaluate the impact of exercise and diet as a means of improving resiliency and reducing depressed mood in Soldiers. PMID:27612362

  17. Spectroscopy investigation on chemo-catalytic, free radical scavenging and bactericidal properties of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using Salicornia brachiata aqueous extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seralathan, Janani; Stevenson, Priscilla; Subramaniam, Shankar; Raghavan, Rachana; Pemaiah, Brindha; Sivasubramanian, Aravind; Veerappan, Anbazhagan

    2014-01-01

    Nanosized silver have been widely used in many applications, such as catalysis, photonics, sensors, medicine etc. Thus, there is an increasing need to develop high-yield, low cost, non-toxic and eco-friendly procedures for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Herein, we report an efficient, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles utilizing the aqueous extract of Salicornia brachiata, a tropical plant of the Chenopodiaceae family. Silver nanoparticles have been characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The morphology of the particles formed consists of highly diversified shapes like spherical, rod-like, prism, triangular, pentagonal and hexagonal pattern. However, addition of sodium hydroxide to the extract produces mostly spherical particles. The stable nanoparticles obtained using this green method show remarkable catalytic activity in the reduction of 4-nitro phenol to 4-amino phenol. The reduction catalyzed by silver nanoparticles followed the first-order kinetics, with a rate constant of, 0.6 × 10-2 s-1. The bactericidal activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles against the pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus E, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, was also explored using REMA. The obtained results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration required to induce bactericidal effect is lower than the control antibiotic, ciprofloxacin. In addition to these, the biogenic synthesized nanoparticles also exhibited excellent free radical scavenging activity.

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Antifungal Activity of Some Natural Essential Oils against Candida Species Isolated from Blood Stream Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida is a part of normal microflora of human body and exists as an opportunistic pathogen as it attacks immunocompromised patients. Aims and Objectives: Candida is the most commonly isolated organism from blood stream infections. Fluconazole is the major antifungal drug used for treatment of Candida. Resistance to fluconazole has been increasing in recent years so there should be search of some other alternative. To find out these alternatives, anti candidial activity of some natural essential oils was studied. Materials and Methods: In the present study nine Candida strains isolated from blood stream infections were collected from National Culture Collection of Pathogenic Fungi (N.C.C.P.F. P.G.I.M.E.R Chandigarh India and the antifungal activity of some natural essential oils such as lemongrass oil, coconut oil, almond oil and clove oil was checked by using agar diffusion method. Result: All oils have shown a significantly anti-candidal activity. However, the antifungal activity was maximum in lemongrass oil. Conclusion: Our study may help to design new chemotherapeutic strategies against Candidal infections.

  19. Acute effect of oral sensation of sweetness on celiac artery blood flow and gastric myoelectrical activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Kohei; Kashima, Hideaki; Yokota, Akiko; Miura, Kohei; Yamaoka Endo, Masako; Hirano, Harutoyo; Tsuji, Toshio; Fukuba, Yoshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the effect of sweet taste stimulus on gastrointestinal motility and splanchnic blood flow. We examined whether gastric myoelectrical activity and/or celiac artery blood flow (CABF), which perfuses the stomach, are increased following an oral sensation of sweetness. After overnight fasting, 11 subjects rested for 5min and sipped, but not swallowed, one of four solutions for 1min. The fluid was then spat out, and subjects remained at rest for a further 10min. Fluids were approximately 15ml of three glucose solutions (4, 16, or 48%) or distilled water. Subjects completed trials with all four solutions in a randomized order. During each trial, gastric myoelectrical activity and CABF were continuously measured using electrogastrography and pulsed Doppler ultrasonography, respectively. None of the four solutions affected gastric myoelectrical activity. CABF was significantly increased after oral stimuli by all three glucose solutions, but not by water. There were no significant differences in the increments in CABF among the three glucose solutions. These results suggest that a sweet taste stimulus above a certain level of intensity acutely increases CABF during cephalic phase, without augmentation of gastric myoelectrical activity. PMID:26987409

  20. Nanoparticle synthesis of zinc peroxide: structural and morphological characterization for bactericidal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc peroxide (ZnO2) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The chemicals used for the synthesis were zinc acetate di-hydrate (Zn(CH3COO)2.2H2O) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at 30 % in an aqueous solution with sonication. The structure of the ZnO2 nanoparticles was characterized by X-ray diffraction. While the morphology and the cluster size were determined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. For a preliminary evaluation of the bactericidal properties of the ZnO2, the material was exposed to Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli y Bacillus subtili, and the nanoparticles presented good bactericidal properties. (author)

  1. Use of recombinant activated factor VII for reduction of perioperative blood loss during elective surgical correction of spine deformity in a Jehovah's Witness. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kącka, Katarzyna; Kącki, Wojciech; Merak, Joanna; Błęka, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Planned surgical procedures at patients who refuse allogenic blood transfusion because of religious convictions are important problem, not only medical but also ethical and juristical. At the study authors report the successful use of activated recombinant factor VII (rFVIIa) for the reduction of perioperative blood loss in four years old child - Jehovah's Witness, who had planned Torode kyphectomy. Applied perioperative management together with preparing to surgery with erythropoietin allowed for reduction of blood loss and avoiding of blood transfusion. Authors state, that appropriate perioperative proceeding makes a possibility of safe surgical procedures also at patients who refuse the transfusion. PMID:21057153

  2. Bactericidal efficacy of elevated pH on fish pathogenic and environmental bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Watten, Barnaby J.

    2013-01-01

    Ship ballast water is a recognized medium for transfer and introductions of nonindigenous species. There is a need for new ballast water treatment methods that effectively and safely eliminate or greatly minimize movements of these species. The present study employed laboratory methods to evaluate the bactericidal efficacy of increased pH (pH 10.0–12.0) for exposure durations of up to 72 h to kill a variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including fish pathogens (Aeromonas spp., Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Serratia liquefaciens, Carnobacterium sp.), other common aquatic-inhabitant bacteria (Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp.) and indicators listed in International Maritime Organization D2 Standards; namely, Vibrio cholera (an environmental isolate from fish), Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Volumes of 5 N NaOH were added to tryptic soy broth to obtain desired pH adjustments. Viable cells were determined after 0, 4, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Initial (0 h) cell numbers ranged from 3.40 × 104 cfu/mL for Bacillus sp. to 2.44 × 107 cfu/mL for E. faecalis. The effective endpoints of pH and treatment duration necessary to realize 100% bactericidal effect varied; however, all bacteria tested were killed within 72 h at pH 12.0 or lower. The lowest parameters examined, 4 h at pH 10.0, were bactericidal to V. cholera, E. ictaluri, three of four isolates of E. coli, and (three of four) Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Bactericidal effect was attained at pH 10.0 within 12 h for the other A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, and within 24 h for P. fluorescens, and the remaining E. coli.

  3. Bactericidal Effect of Aqueous Extracts of the Bark of the Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) on Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Rabah Chadli; Aman Bouzid; Khadidja Bouzid; Hamida Nader

    2015-01-01

    This research concerns the study of antibacterial properties of different aqueous extracts of the bark of the pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Three bacterial strains were used in this test: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella. Very interesting bactericidal properties of aqueous extracts of the bark of the pomegranate were found on bacteria. The inhibition zones have a very large diameter up to 20 mm and the MIC and MBC are low, of the order of 0.78 mg/ml. This work ...

  4. Untersuchungen zur Expression und Regulation von murinem Bactericidal/ Permeability Increasing Protein (BPI)

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    LPS-bindende Proteine repräsentieren eine wichtige Säule bei der Bekämpfung von gramnegativen Bakterien durch das angeborene Immunsystem. Zum einen liefern sie einen wichtigen Beitrag bei der hochsensitiven Erkennung gramnegativer Bakterien, zum anderen können sie durch die Neutralisation von LPS die Ausbildung eines septischen Schocks durch eine überschießende Immunantwort verhindern. Humanes Bactericidal/ Permeability Increasing Protein (BPI) ist als LPS-bindendes Protein beschrieben. Es ze...

  5. Electrochemical analysis of the UV treated bactericidal Ti6Al4V surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacha-Olivenza, Miguel A. [Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Extremadura, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Gallardo-Moreno, Amparo M., E-mail: amparogm@unex.es [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Extremadura, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Vadillo-Rodríguez, Virginia; González-Martín, M. Luisa [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Extremadura, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Pérez-Giraldo, Ciro [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Extremadura, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Galván, Juan C. [National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    2013-04-01

    This research investigates in detail the bactericidal effect exhibited by the surface of the biomaterial Ti6Al4V after being subjected to UV-C light. It has been recently hypothesized that small surface currents, occurring as a consequence of the electron–hole pair recombination taking place after the excitation process, are behind the bactericidal properties displayed by this UV-treated material. To corroborate this hypothesis we have used different electrochemical techniques, such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization plots and Mott–Schottky plots. EIS and Mott–Schottky plots have shown that UV-C treatment causes an initial increase on the surface electrical conduction of this material. In addition, EIS and polarization plots demonstrated that higher corrosion currents occur at the UV treated than at the non-irradiated samples. Despite this increase in the corrosion currents, EIS has also shown that such currents are not likely to affect the good stability of this material oxide film since the irradiated samples completely recovered the control values after being stored in dark conditions for a period not longer than 24 h. These results agree with the already-published in vitro transitory behavior of the bactericidal effect, which was shown to be present at initial times after the biomaterial implantation, a crucial moment to avoid a large number of biomaterial associated infections. Highlights: ► Bactericidal response of UV-treated Ti6Al4V is explained through electrochemistry. ► There is an increase in the superficial electrical conduction after UV-treatment. ► Higher corrosion currents for UV-treated against non-UV-treated samples are shown. ► EIS shows the recuperation on irradiated samples in agreement with microbial tests.

  6. Bactericidal effect of 5-azacytidine on Escherichia coli carrying EcoRII restriction-modification enzymes.

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, S.

    1982-01-01

    5-Azacytidine was found to be bactericidal to Escherichia coli carrying plasmids specifying EcoRII restriction-modification systems, but not to the same strains lacking these plasmids. Of other base analogs tested, only 5(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)isocytidine had similar, although weaker, effects. Plasmids that had lost the EcoRII restriction-modification system did not confer sensitivity to 5-azacytidine. Mutants defective in the restriction function remained sensitive to the toxic effects of the...

  7. Bactericidal efficacy of elevated pH on fish pathogenic and environmental bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford E. Starliper

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ship ballast water is a recognized medium for transfer and introductions of nonindigenous species. There is a need for new ballast water treatment methods that effectively and safely eliminate or greatly minimize movements of these species. The present study employed laboratory methods to evaluate the bactericidal efficacy of increased pH (pH 10.0–12.0 for exposure durations of up to 72 h to kill a variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including fish pathogens (Aeromonas spp., Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Serratia liquefaciens, Carnobacterium sp., other common aquatic-inhabitant bacteria (Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp. and indicators listed in International Maritime Organization D2 Standards; namely, Vibrio cholera (an environmental isolate from fish, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Volumes of 5 N NaOH were added to tryptic soy broth to obtain desired pH adjustments. Viable cells were determined after 0, 4, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Initial (0 h cell numbers ranged from 3.40 × 104 cfu/mL for Bacillus sp. to 2.44 × 107 cfu/mL for E. faecalis. The effective endpoints of pH and treatment duration necessary to realize 100% bactericidal effect varied; however, all bacteria tested were killed within 72 h at pH 12.0 or lower. The lowest parameters examined, 4 h at pH 10.0, were bactericidal to V. cholera, E. ictaluri, three of four isolates of E. coli, and (three of four Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Bactericidal effect was attained at pH 10.0 within 12 h for the other A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, and within 24 h for P. fluorescens, and the remaining E. coli.

  8. [Bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal extract of Aloe vera gel on cultures of Listeria monocytogenes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Mérida, Luis Guillermo; Morón de Salim, Alba; Catinella, Rosangela; Castillo, Luis

    2012-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacteria responsible for food borne diseases (FBD). The effect of Aloe vera gel extract as a possible bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal against Listeria monocytogenes, was checked by determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the time of minimum inhibition (TMI) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) solutions extract of Aloe vera gel in different concentrations on cultures of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7635. We applied the agar diffusion method, using solutions of extract of Aloe vera gel at concentrations of 0 to 100% for the MIC. The TMI was determined by growth curves in trypticase soy broth with an initial inoculum of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7635 of 108 CFU/mL in each solution. It was determined that the MIC was 10% extract of Aloe vera gel and TMI was 5 hours at concentrations of 10%, 20% and 30% of Aloe vera, while concentrations of 50, 80, 90 and 100%, the time was 8 hours. It was found that indeed the Aloe vera gel is bacteriostatic power on Listeria monocytogenes (p < 0.001), but yet, no bactericidal effect was obtained in our study. PMID:23477211

  9. Sulfur determination in blood from inhabitants of Brazil using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP) Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    In this study the NAA technique was applied to analyze sulfur in blood from inhabitants of Brazil for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering lifestyle factors (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure) of Brazilian inhabitants. The influence of gender was also investigated considering several age ranges (18-29, 30-39, 40-49, >50 years). These data are useful in clinical investigations, to identify or prevent diseases caused by inadequate sulfur ingestion and for nutritional evaluation of Brazilian population.

  10. Preparation of inocula for experimental infection of blood with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas-Alegre, Santiago; Fernández-Natal, Isabel; López-Fidalgo, Eduardo; Rivero-Lezcano, Octavio Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Experimental infections of either cells or animals require the preparation of good quality inocula. Unfortunately, the important pulmonary pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is a fastidious microorganism that suffers an autolysis process when cultured in vitro. Supplementation of Todd–Hewitt broth with a biological buffer (20 mM Tris–HCl, pH = 7.8) promotes a six hours delay in the beginning of the autolysis process. Additional improvements include washing bacteria before freezing, avoiding manipulations after thawing, and the use of glycerol (70% of the frozen bacteria was viable after 28 weeks at −80 °C, and aliquots were highly homogeneous. We have tested their utility in a whole blood infection model and have found that human plasma exhibits a higher microbicidal activity than whole blood, a result that we have not found previously reported. Additionally, we have also observed significant variations in the antimicrobial activity against different strains, which might be related to their virulence.•Media culture buffering extends S. pneumoniae viability for 6 h.•Washing before freezing of single use aliquots minimizes manipulation after thawing.•Experimental infection with the frozen inocula has shown that plasma has higher bactericidal activity than blood. PMID:26844211

  11. Human RBCs blood group conversion from A to O using a novel α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase of high specific activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU ChengYu; XU Hua; WANG LiSheng; ZHANG JianGeng; ZHANG YangPei

    2008-01-01

    α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (aNAGA) can convert group A human red blood cells (RBCs) to group O. One novel aNAGA gene was cloned by PCR from Elizabethkingia meningosepticum isolated from a domestic clinical sample. Pure recombinant aNAGA was obtained by genetic engineering and protein purification with a calculated molecule of 49.6 kD. aNAGA was selective for terminal a-N-acetylgalacto-samine residue with a high specific activity, aNAGA could completely remove A antigens of 1 U (about 100 mL) group A1 or A2 RBCs in 1 h at pH 6.8 and 25℃ with a consumption of 1.5 or 0.4 mg recombinant enzyme. Enzyme-converted group A RBCs did not agglutinate after being mixed with monoclonal anti-A or sera of groups A, B, AB and O. Other blood group antigens except ABO had no change. FCM analy-sis showed that A antigens and A1 antigens disappeared while H antigens increased. It indicated thataNAGA successfully converted human blood group A RBCs to universally transfusable group O RBCs without the risk of ABO-incompatible transfusion reactions. This aNAGA was suitable for producing universal RBCs to increase clinical transfusion safety, improve the RBCs supply, and to decrease transfusion cost and support transfusion service in case of emergency,

  12. Measurement of HCV-Specific CD8(+) Cytotoxic T-Cell Activities in the Peripheral Blood by Europium Release Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imawari, M

    1999-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) contain NK cells, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL), helper T-cells, and B-cells that respond to viral infection and act to eliminate the virus from infected individuals. CTLs are not only thought to be a major host defense against viral infection, but are also implicated in the immunopathogenesis. Classical CTLs are CD8(+) and recognize endogenously synthesized and processed antigen in association with a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecule. The antigens are usually 8-10 amino acids long. HCV-specific CTLs have been demonstrated in the peripheral blood of some of patients with HCV infection by stimulating PBMC with the HCV synthetic peptides (1). The peptides were synthesized as overlapping peptides to encompass a certain region of the HCV antigen (1), on the basis of antigenicity prediction from the amino acid composition of HCV (2), or on the basis of the HLA binding motifs in the HCV antigen (3). Several minimal and optimal epitopes in the HCV antigen and their HLA restriction of recognition by CTLs have been defined. Recently, it has been reported that HCV-specific CTLs may suppress the outgrowth of HCV (4). In this chapter, methods will be discussed that demonstrate HCV-specific CTLs in the peripheral blood of patients with HCV infection. We use nonradioisotope europium (Eu) for assay of CTL activities. PMID:21374383

  13. The effect of photoperiod on life history and blood-feeding activity in Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, K S; Schelble, S; Jerz, K; Keenan, M

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have examined how climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation may affect life history traits in mosquitoes that are important to disease transmission. Despite its importance as a seasonal cue in nature, studies investigating the influence of photoperiod on such traits are relatively few. This study aims to investigate how photoperiod alters life history traits, survival, and blood-feeding activity in Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus). We performed three experiments that tested the effects of day length on female survival, development time, adult size, fecundity, adult life span, and propensity to blood feed in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. Each experiment had three photoperiod treatments: 1) short-day (10L:14D), 2) control (12L:12D), and 3) long-day (14L:10D). Aedes albopictus adult females were consistently larger in size when reared in short-day conditions. Aedes aegypti adult females from short-day treatments lived longer and were more likely to take a blood meal compared to other treatments. We discuss how species-specific responses may reflect alternative strategies evolved to increase survival during unfavorable conditions. We review the potential impacts of these responses on seasonal transmission patterns, such as potentially increasing vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti during periods of shorter day lengths. PMID:26047197

  14. Phenotyping of leukocytes and granulocyte and monocyte phagocytic activity in the peripheral blood and uterus of cows with endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzki, P; Kostro, K; Brodzki, A; Lisiecka, U; Kurek, L; Marczuk, J

    2014-08-01

    This study was a comparative evaluation of selected immunological parameters in peripheral blood and uterine wash samples from cows with a normal postpartum period compared with cows with endometritis. We aimed to determine the usefulness of these parameters in monitoring the puerperium. In total, 40 cows were included in the study: 20 had endometritis (experimental group), and 20 did not have uterine inflammation (control group). Animals were chosen on the basis of cytological and bacteriological test results. The tests were conducted 5, 22, and 40 days postpartum. In both groups, flow cytometric analysis of the surface molecules CD4, CD8, CD21, CD25, and CD14 in the peripheral blood and uterine washings was performed. Granulocyte and monocyte phagocytic activity was determined using a commercial Phagotest kit that was adapted for flow cytometry. The percentage of phagocytic granulocytes and monocytes in both the peripheral blood and the uterine washings was significantly lower for cows in the experimental group compared with the control group (P cows with endometritis. A significant decrease (P endometritis. Knowledge of the immunological mechanisms observed in cows with endometritis might aid in choosing the correct immunomodulating agent-based adjuvant therapy. PMID:24857644

  15. Effects of metals on blood oxidative stress biomarkers and acetylcholinesterase activity in dice snakes (Natrix tessellata from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrić Jelena P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of waterborne metals in water on the activities of blood copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE, and on the concentrations of total glutathione (GSH and lipid peroxides (TBARS in the blood of dice snakes (Natrix tessellata caught in Obedska Bara, Sebia (control area, with snakes caught in Pančevački Rit, a contaminated area in Serbia were examined. The activities of CAT, GSH-Px, GR and AChE, and the concentration of TBARS were significantly decreased, while GST activity and GSH concentration were significantly increased in snakes from the contaminated area compared to specimens from the control area. Significantly increased concentrations of Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mn, Na, Ni and Zn in the water at the contaminated area as compared to control area were detected. The metals Ag, Bi, Cd, Co, Hg, In and Tl were not observed in any of the localities. Cr, Mo and Pb were not detected at the control area but were observed at the contaminated area. The concentrations of Sr were similar at both sites. The concentration of Mg was 2-fold higher at the control site than at the contaminated area. The obtained results show that most of the investigated blood biomarkers correlate with concentrations of metals present in the environment. These findings suggest that dice snakes are sensitive bioindicator species for monitoring the effects of increased metal concentrations in the environment. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173041 i br. 173043

  16. Effect of high levels of organic selenium on glutation-peroxidase (GSH-Px activity in blood plasma of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović-Todorović Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment lasting 45 days was performed on 125 Hybro broilers divided into five groups. All compounds for broiler feed mixes used in the experiment contained 0.15 mg Se/kg, in the form of sodium selenite. The control group (K-group of broilers was fed mixes without added organic selenium, and the experimental groups with mixes to which selenium, in the form of selenized-yeast, was added in quantities of 2, 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg. Selenized yeast (ICN - Gaienika was obtained from beer yeast and contained 1.51, or 1.45 mg/g total, or organically bound selenium. At the beginning of the fattening period, GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of the K-group ranged around 16.55 μkat/L, while GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of experimental groups was statistically significantly higher, but without any major differences among the individual groups (on the average 25.53fjkat/L. In the blood plasma of K-group, GSH-Px activity dropped already in the second week of life and was maintained at a relatively constant level (about 10 μkat/L until the end of the experiment. The same phenomenon was observed in the experimental groups, but the trend of declining GSH-Px activity in blood plasma was more expressed, and, contrary to the control group, was expressed also in the later phases of the experiment. In the 3rd week of the fattening period, GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of the control and experimental groups was relatively equal, and then the plasma activity of GSH-Px in broilers of the experimental groups decreased, but there were no major differences among the individual groups.

  17. Blood Coagulation Induced by Iranian Saw-Scaled Viper (Echis Carinatus Venom: Identification, Purification and Characterization of a Prothrombin Activator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Babaie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Echis carinatus is one of the venomous snakes in Iran. The venom of Iranian Echis carinatus is a rich source of protein with various factors affecting the plasma protein and blood coagulation factor. Some of these proteins exhibit types of enzymatic activities. However, other items are proteins with no enzymatic activity.   Materials and Methods: In order to study the mechanism and effect of the venom on human plasma proteins, the present study has evaluated the effect of crude venom and all fractions. A procoagulant factor (prothrombin activator was isolated from the venom of the Iranian snake Echis carinatus with a combination of gel filtration (Sephadex G-75, ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE- Sepharose and reverse phase HPLC. Furthermore, proteolytic activity of the crude venom and all fractions on blood coagulation factors such as prothrombin time (PT was studied. Results: In the present study, the PT test was reduced from 13.4 s to 8.6 s when human plasma was treated with crude venom (concentraion of venom was 1 mg/ml. The purified procoagulant factor revealed a single protein band in SDS polyacrylamide electrophoresis under reducing conditions and its molecular weight was estimated at about 65 kDa. A single-band protein showed fragment patterns similar to those generated by the group A prothrombin activators, which convert prothrombin into meizothrombin independent of the prothrombinase complex. Conclusion: This study showed that the fraction which separated from Iranian snake Echis carinatus venom can be a prothrombin activators. It can be concluded that this fraction is a procoagulant factor.

  18. Blood Picture and Enzymatic Activities in Common Crap Cyprinus carpio Influenced by Sodium Chloride (NaCl)

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Taee, Shahba Kale Al-Taee; Al-Hamdani, Alaa Hussain

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Sodium Chloride NaCl on blood picture as hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) and lymphocyte count also the activity of both enzymes Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT) and Creatine Phospho Kinase (CPK) in Cyprinus carpio. NaCl was used at different concentration (0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 mg\\L) for 7 day. The concentration 1.5 mg\\L was toxic to the fish and caused death after 48 hour of exposure, while in the fish that were exposure separately to bot...

  19. Trace element determination in fingernails, hair and blood serum in patients with Crohn's disease using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of trace elements and electrolyte concentrations in blood serum, hair and fingernails of 16 patients with Crohn's disease was carried out by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis. In the serum a significant decline in the zinc content could be registered, while the remaining trace elements remained in the normal range. The parenteral nutrition also showed a zinc deficiency. There was, however, also an iron deficiency. The studies of the hair and fingernails gave the following results: Rubidium and antimony in the normal range; zinc, selenium, iron and cobalt below normal values. (orig./PW)

  20. Transcriptional activity of telomerase complex in CD34- stem cells of cord blood in dependence of preparation time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bojdys-Szyndlar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether the expression of telomerase subunits encoding genes changes during the process of cord blood preparation. It should establish if the commonly accepted 24 hours time interval in stem cells kriopreservation procedure significantly influences their immortalization and so decreases the "quality" of cord blood stem cells. Investigation includes 69 women. Spontaneous labour was the inclusion condition. The material was collected at birth after clamping of umbilical cord by direct vasopuncture. CD34- cells were extracted from cord blood (MACS, Miltenyi Biotec; Bisley, Surrey, UK. The expression profile of telomerase activators and inhibitors encoding genes was determined using HG_U133A oligonucleotide microarray (Affymetrix. We used a real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay to quantify the telomerase TERT, hTR and TP1 subunits mRNA copy numbers in CD34- cells in 0, 6, 12 and 24 hours after cord blood collection. We observed significant decrease of numbers of copies of TERTA+B mRNA within the successive hours of observation. Significant decrease of numbers of TERTA mRNA copies was confirmed after 24 hours. However, we observed significant increase of numbers of copies of TERTB mRNA after 6 hours of observation. Similar level was maintained during another 6h. The significantly lower number of copies of TERTB mRNA was observed after 24h. We also observed significant increase of number of copies of TERT mRNA after 6 hours. Number of copies of TERT mRNA significantly decreased after another 6h, remaining, however, on a higher then initial one. The significant lower number of copies of TERT mRNA was observed 24h after delivery. The possible explanation of those results is discussed in the paper.

  1. The Changes of Protein Kinase C Activity in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes in the Patients with Obstructive Jaundice and the Implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The roles of protein kinase C (PKC) signal pathway in the pathogenesis of obstructive jaundice were studied. PKC from cytosolic and membrane fractions of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in 51 patients with obstructive jaundice and 16 cases of normal controls was isolated and purified. The activities of PKC were determined by radioactive isotope γ-32P-ATP-catalyzing assay. The results showed that the total PKC activities in PBL in the patients with obstructive jaundice were significantly increased as compared with those in the normal controls (P<0.01). Moreover, the membrane PKC activities and their percentages of the total PKC activities were higher in obstructive jaundice group than in those in the normal controls (P<0.05). The total PKC activities in PBL in the patients with obstructive jaundice were significantly positively correlated with the levels of soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R) (r=0.58, P<0.01) and the degree of jaundice (T-BIL) (r=0.67, P<0.01) in serum. It was concluded that the activities of PKC signal pathway was related with the degree of T-BIL. PKC signal pathway might took part in the activation of T-lymphocytes in the patients with obstructive jaundice and play an important role in the immune regulation and the assessment of pathosis in the patients with obstructive jaundice.

  2. Study of the correlation between blood cholinesterases activity, urinary dialkyl phosphates, and the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in rats exposed to disulfoton

    OpenAIRE

    Mariane Gonçalves Santos; Ricardo Vilela Vitor; Maurício Gustavo Nakamura; Luana de Souza Morelini; Rafaela Scalco Ferreira; Alexandre Giusti Paiva; Luciana Azevedo; Vanessa Bergamin Boralli Marques; Isarita Martins; Eduardo Costa Figueiredo

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) are widely used as pesticides, and its urinary metabolites as well as the blood cholinesterases (ChEs) activity have been reported as possible biomarkers for the assessment of this pesticide exposure. Moreover, the OPs can induce mutagenesis, and the bone marrow micronucleus test is an efficient way to assess this chromosomal damage. This paper reports a study carried out to verify the correlation among the disulfoton exposure, blood ChEs activity, urinary diethyl thiop...

  3. Whole blood coagulation and platelet activation in the athlete: A comparison of marathon, triathlon and long distance cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanke AA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Serious thrombembolic events occur in otherwise healthy marathon athletes during competition. We tested the hypothesis that during heavy endurance sports coagulation and platelets are activated depending on the type of endurance sport with respect to its running fraction. Materials and Methods 68 healthy athletes participating in marathon (MAR, running 42 km, n = 24, triathlon (TRI, swimming 2.5 km + cycling 90 km + running 21 km, n = 22, and long distance cycling (CYC, 151 km, n = 22 were included in the study. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after completion of competition to perform rotational thrombelastometry. We assessed coagulation time (CT, maximum clot firmness (MCF after intrinsically activation and fibrin polymerization (FIBTEM. Furthermore, platelet aggregation was tested after activation with ADP and thrombin activating peptide 6 (TRAP by using multiple platelet function analyzer. Results Complete data sets were obtained in 58 athletes (MAR: n = 20, TRI: n = 19, CYC: n = 19. CT significantly decreased in all groups (MAR -9.9%, TRI -8.3%, CYC -7.4% without differences between groups. In parallel, MCF (MAR +7.4%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3% and fibrin polymerization (MAR +14.7%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3% were significantly increased in all groups. However, platelets were only activated during MAR and TRI as indicated by increased AUC during TRAP-activation (MAR +15.8% and increased AUC during ADP-activation in MAR (+50.3% and TRI (+57.5%. Discussion While coagulation is activated during physical activity irrespective of type we observed significant platelet activation only during marathon and to a lesser extent during triathlon. We speculate that prolonged running may increase platelet activity, possibly, due to mechanical alteration. Thus, particularly prolonged running may increase the risk of thrombembolic incidents in running athletes.

  4. The increase in the cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration in the sella turcica venous blood during vagal afferents stimulation or after angiotensin II infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goraca, A.; Orlowska-Majdak, M.; Traczyk, W.Z. [Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland). Katedra Fizjologii

    1996-12-31

    It has previously been demonstrated that the cardiodepressant activity is present in the bovine hypothalamic extract and in the fluid incubating the posterior pituitary lobe {sup i}n situ{sup .} The present study was an attempt to reveal if the cardiodepressant factor and vasopressin were simultaneously released from the pituitary into blood. The samples of venous blood flowing from the sella turcica and, for comparison, from the posterior paw were collected in anesthetized rats. Blood from the sella turcica was collected with a fine cannula inserted into the internal maxillary vein. The concentration of vasopressin in blood plasma was determined by radioimmunoassay and cardiodepressant activity-using a biological test on a spontaneously discharged pacemaker tissue of the right auricle of the right heart atrium. Stimulation of the central ends of the cut vagus nerves or intra-arterial infusion of angiotensin II simultaneously caused an increase in the cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration in the sella turcica venous blood. The cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration was also enhanced to some degree in blood outflowing from the posterior paw. Present results indicate that both vasopressin and the cardiodepressant factor are released into blood from the posterior pituitary lobe. (author). 37 refs, 4 figs.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF ERYTHROCYTE PERIPHERAL BLOOD AND ACTIVITY OF HEMOST ASIS IN PATIENTS WITH CER VICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Stuklov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability and informative value of methods that facilitate the diagnosis, cervical cancer (CC does not lose its leading position as one of the most common cancers of the reproductive system in women worldwide. High prevalence of anemia and thrombotic complications in this group determines not only the quality of life of patients, but the outcome of the underlying disease. The purpose of the study was to determine the patterns of change in erythrocyte of peripheral blood and the state of vascular-platelet and coagulation hemostasis in patients with cervical cancer depending on the stage of disease and histological variant of the tumor.Materials and methods. We investigated the performance of erythron, thrombocytic and coagulation hemostasis in 74 patients with cervical cancer (mean age 46,49 ± 11,78 years. Blood analysis was performed in the initial evaluation of patients in the prehospital phase.Results. It is proved that the spread of the tumor outside the cervix exerts a systemic influence on hematopoiesis, hemostasis, significantly increasing the risk of venous thromboembolism and hematogenous dissemination of the disease (metastasis. In the case of adenocarcinoma and dimorphic (glandular-squamous cervical cancer we proved the significant increase in soluble fibrin-monomer complexes, fibrinogen, and with glandular-squamous-cell cervical cancer and hypercoagulability (decrease thrombin time, which requires mandatory and differentiated prevention of venous thromboembolism even in the early stages of these morphological variants of the disease.Conclusions. Cervical cancer has a systemic effect on the blood and hemostasis. A statistically significant decrease in the concentration of hemoglobin and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate is determined in the second stage of the disease. The increase in the prevalence of cervical cancer and the presence of glandular component in the morphological

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any ... blood clots or blood clotting disorders in your family. Remain active, with your doctor's approval. Be aware ...

  9. Effects of stunning and decapitation on broiler activity during bleeding, blood loss, carcass, and breast meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, W D; Fletcher, D L; Buhr, R J

    2003-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine the effects of electrical stunning and decapitation on bird activity as well as carcass and meat quality. In Experiment 1, broilers were subjected to one of four stunning and killing methods: no stun and neck cut, stun and neck cut, no stun and decapitation, and stun and decapitation. Birds were scored for severity of physical activity on a scale of 1 to 4 with 1 being no activity and 4 being severe wing flapping and muscular contractions. Carcasses were also scored for red wing tips and broken bones. In Experiments 2 to 4, all birds were stunned prior to neck cut or decapitation. Carcasses were scored as described in Experiment 1 as well as measurements of blood loss, feather removal, and breast meat pH, color, cook loss, and tenderness. Based on carcass activity in Experiment 1, decapitation following stunning was similar to a conventional stun and unilateral neck cut, except there was almost no late activity (after 60 s) observed in the decapitated birds. Decapitation following stunning did not result in any consistent carcass quality defects compared to conventional killing in the four experiments. No differences were found in 24-h lightness values, yellowness, cook yield, tenderness, and ultimate pH between conventionally killed and decapitated birds. Blood loss and breast meat redness were inconsistent. These results indicate that high frequency stunning and decapitation may be an acceptable alternative to conventional slaughter based on carcass and meat quality and by ensuring an irreversible loss of consciousness. PMID:12580261

  10. Xenoestrogenic and dioxin-like activity in blood of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Simon E; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Bechshøft, Thea Ø; Vorkamp, Katrin; Letcher, Robert J; Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C

    2013-07-01

    The aims of the project were to (i) extract the lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the blood of 99 East Greenland polar bears and assess the combined mixture effect on the estrogen receptor (ER) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated transactivity; (ii) To evaluate whether the receptor transactivities were associated with selected POP markers, and (iii) compare the receptor transactivities in polar bears with earlier studies on Greenlandic Inuit. Lipophilic POPs were extracted using a combination of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). ER mediated transactivity was determined using the ER luciferase reporter MVLN cell assay. The extracts were tested alone (XER) and together with 17β-estradiol (E2) as a physiological mimic (XERcomp). Dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) compounds were extracted by a combination of SPE and the Supelco Dioxin Prep System®. AhR mediated dioxin-like transactivity was determined using the AhR luciferase reporter Hepa 1.12cR cell assay. Agonistic ER transactivity was elicited by 19% of the samples, and a further increased E2 induced ER response was found for 52%, whereas 17% antagonized the E2 induced ER response. Positive correlations were found in subadult bears between XER and several POP biomarkers. XER and XERcomp correlated positively to each other. A total of 91% of the polar bear blood extracts elicited agonistic AhR transactivity. The AhR-TCDD equivalent (AhR-TEQ) median levels were higher among adult bears compared to subadult bears, but not significantly. PMID:23648332

  11. Salivary gland and peripheral blood T helper 1 and 2 cell activity in Sjögren's syndrome compared with non-Sjögren's sicca syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    van Woerkom, J M; Kruize, A.; Wenting, -; Knol, E.; Bihari, I; Jacobs, J.; Bijlsma, J; Lafeber, F.; van Roon, J A G

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether differences in T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 cell activity in salivary glands ("local") or ("peripheral") blood can discriminate between Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and non-Sjögren's sicca syndrome (nSS-sicca). Additionally, to study relationships of local and peripheral Th cell activities with each other and with disease activity measures.

  12. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitencourt, C.S. [Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I. [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-02

    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production.

  13. The Effects of Ramadan Fasting and Physical Activity on Blood Hematological-Biochemical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    Fasting during the month of Ramadan by regular physical activity caused positive alterations in Hematological-Biochemical Index. These changes may be due to the alterations in diet, biology response of the body to the starving and physical activity during this month.

  14. HPRT Enzyme Activity of Blood Cells From Patients With Downs Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) enzyme activity was determined in erythrocytes from 16 children (aged below one year to 11 year) with down s syndrome using 8-C14 Hypoxanthine and radioeleelrophorsis techniques. Significant (P<0.01) reduction in HPRT enzyme activity was seen in D S children compared to that of 18 (age and sex matched) healthy children. Pure 21 - trisomic erythrocytes expressed lower enzyme activity than mosaic cell. Mothers of D S children showed significantly (P<0.01) lower enzyme activity than mothers of normal children . Reduced activity of HPRT enzyme was also observed in PHA-stimulated lymphocytes of DS children and their mothers. These results indicated that deficiency of HPRT in D S patients may contribute to the abnormal purine metabolism associated with the symptomatology of this syndrome

  15. Divergent Response Profile in Activated Cord Blood T cells from First-born Child Implies Birth-order-associated in Utero Immune Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Marie; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Thysen, Anna Hammerich;

    2016-01-01

    Background: First-born children are at higher risk for development of a range of immune-mediated diseases. The underlying mechanism of ‘birth-order-effects’ on disease risk is largely unknown, but in utero programming of the child's immune system may play a role. Objective: We studied the...... association between birth-order and the functional response of stimulated cord blood T cells. Method: Purified cord blood T cells were polyclonally activated with anti-CD3/CD28-coated beads in a subgroup of 28 children enrolled in the COPSAC2010 birth cohort. Expression levels of seven activation markers on...... activated cord blood T cells were selectively reduced in first-born children, while the percentage of CD4+CD25+ cord blood T cells was independent of birth-order. Conclusion: First-born infants display a reduced anti-inflammatory profile in T cells at birth. This possible in utero ‘birth-order’ T cell...

  16. Antioxidant activity from the leaf extracts of Jacaranda puberula Cham., Bignoniaceae, a Brazilian medicinal plant used for blood depuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Macedo Lessa dos Santos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts from Jacaranda puberula Cham., Bignoniaceae, was assayed by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl free radical scavenging method. Three phytomedicines (F1, F2, and F3 used as blood depurative, were tested by the same method. The free radical scavenger potential was measured by the discoloration of the solution. The EC50 values from Gingko bilobaEGb 761® extract and rutin, used as antioxidant for medical purposes, were used as reference. The ethanol extract (EE, ethyl acetate (EA, butanol (EB, aqueous (EAq and the sample A (obtained from extract EB, showed lower EC50 values than other extracts and phytomedicines. The antioxidant activity (AA of the extracts was related with the presence of the polyphenol compounds such as verbascoside (1 and cis-caffeoyl aldehyde (2. These structures were determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods and comparison with literature data.

  17. Seasonal changes in the white blood cell system, lyzozyme activity and cortisol level in Arabian brood mares and their foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, J; Kompanowska-Jezierska, E; Jakubow, K; Kott, A; Szumska, D

    1985-01-01

    In 34 pure-breed Arabian horses divided into four groups (Gr. I, ten pregnant mares; Gr. II, seven barren mares; Gr. III, ten foals born in 1981; Gr. IV, seven foals born in 1982) seasonal changes in the white blood cell system, cortisol level and lyzozyme activity were studied. Seasonal periodicity was found in all groups for the number of lymphocytes, segmented neutrophils and eosinophils and cortisol level. Leukocyte periodicity was found in three groups, but not in the barren mares. In lyzozyme activity there was periodicity in three groups but not in the youngest foals. In the stab neutrophils, basophils and monocytes no cycle was observed. The behaviour of the indices studied showed the influence of age of the horses (mature vs young) and the physiological state of the mares (pregnancy or barrenness). PMID:2863038

  18. Antiplasmodial activity of iron(II) and ruthenium(II) organometallic complexes against Plasmodium falciparum blood parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Nicolli Bellotti de; Aguiar, Anna Caroline Campos; Oliveira, Alane Cabral de; Top, Siden; Pigeon, Pascal; Jaouen, Gérard; Goulart, Marilia Oliveira Fonseca; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine

    2015-12-01

    This work reports the in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum blood forms (W2 clone, chloroquine-resistant) of tamoxifen-based compounds and their ferrocenyl (ferrocifens) and ruthenocenyl (ruthenocifens) derivatives, as well as their cytotoxicity against HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Surprisingly with these series, results indicate that the biological activity of ruthenocifens is better than that of ferrocifens and other tamoxifen-like compounds. The synthesis of a new metal-based compound is also described. It was shown, for the first time, that ruthenocifens are good antiplasmodial prototypes. Further studies will be conducted aiming at a better understanding of their mechanism of action and at obtaining new compounds with better therapeutic profile. PMID:26602875

  19. Assessment of the influence of the inflammatory process on the activation of blood platelets and morphological parameters in patients with ulcerative colitis (colitis ulcerosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Polińska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (colitis ulcerosa is a non-specific inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. Thesymptoms which are observed in the course of ulcerative colitis are: an increase in the number of leukocytes andblood platelets, an increase in the concentration of IL-6 and anemia. Blood platelets are the key element, linkingthe processes of hemostasis, inflammation and the repair of damaged tissues. Activation of blood platelets is connectedwith changes in their shape and the occurrence of the reaction of release. P-selectin appears on the surfacesof activated blood platelets and the concentration level of soluble P-selectin increases in the blood plasma. The aimof this study was to define whether the increased number of blood platelets in patients with ulcerative colitisaccompanies changes in their activation and morphology. A total of 16 subjects with ulcerative colitis and 32healthy subjects were studied. Mean platelet count, morphological parameters of platelets and MPC were measuredusing an ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer. Concentrations of sP-selectin and IL-6 in serum were marked byimmunoassay (ELISA. MPC, concentration of sP-selectin and IL-6 were significantly higher in subjects with ulcerativecolitis compared to those in the healthy group. There was a decrease of MPV in patients with ulcerativecolitis, which is statistically significant. Chronic inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis causes an increase inthe number of blood platelets, a change in their morphology and activation. Decreased MPV value reflects activationand the role blood platelets play in the inflammatory process of the mucous membrane of the colon. A highconcentration of sP-selectin, which is a marker of blood platelet activation, demonstrates their part in the inflammatoryprocess. The increase in the concentration of sP-selectin correlated positively with the increase in concentrationof IL-6. This is why it may be a useful marker of the activity of

  20. Kinetics of the Factor XIa catalyzed activation of human blood coagulation Factor IX.

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, P N; Bradford, H; Sinha, D.; Piperno, J R; Tuszynski, G P

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of activation of human Factor IX by human Factor XIa was studied by measuring the release of a trichloroacetic acid-soluble tritium-labeled activation peptide from Factor IX by a modification of a method described for bovine Factor IX activation by Zur and Nemerson (Zur, M., and Y. Nemerson, 1980, J. Biol. Chem., 255:5703-5707). Initial rates of trichloroacetic acid-soluble 3H-release were linear over 10-30 min of incubation of Factor IX (88 nM) with CaCl2 (5 mM) and with pure (g...

  1. Dioxin-like activity of environmental compounds in human blood and environmental samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    and humans. We found that some pesticides, plasticizers and phytoestrogens can activate the AhR, and the combined effect of compounds with no or weak AhR potency cannot be ignored. The significant DL-activity in the wastewater effluent indicates the treatment is not sufficient to prevent contamination...... degradation of the high potent dioxin and/or the inhibitory effect of the high level of non-DL POPs. Selective bioaccumulation of PCBs in the food chain may contribute to the negative correlation between serum POPs and DL-activity observed in Greenlandic Inuit. Hence the AhR transactivation bioassay provides...

  2. beta-carotene does not change markers of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant activity in human blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Lauridsen, Søren T.; Dragsted, Lars O.; Hof, K.H.V.; Linssen, J.P.H.; West, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    = 12) or with a spinach product (n = 12 per group), i.e., whole-leaf, minced, liquefied or liquefied spinach plus added dietary fiber. After 3 wk of dietary intervention, changes in serum or plasma concentrations of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) and uric acid...... and erythrocyte enzyme activities were assessed, and differences among experimental groups were tested. Consumption of spinach resulted in greater (P <0.01) erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity and lower (P <0.05) erythrocyte catalase activity and serum alpha-tocopherol concentration compared...... with the control group. Consumption of the carotenoid supplement led to lower alpha-tocopherol responses (P = 0.02) compared with the basic diet only. Our data suggest that the short-term changes in erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity and serum alpha-tocopherol concentration can be attributed to...

  3. Rapid nontranscriptional activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates increased cerebral blood flow and stroke protection by corticosteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbourg, Florian P.; Huang, Zhihong; Plumier, Jean-Christophe; Simoncini, Tommaso; Fujioka, Masayuki; Tuckermann, Jan; Schütz, Günther; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Liao, James K.

    2002-01-01

    Many cellular responses to corticosteroids involve the transcriptional modulation of target genes by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). A rapid, non-nuclear effect of GR was found to mediate neuroprotection. High-dose corticosteroids (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally), given within 2 hours of transient cerebral ischemia, acutely increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, augmented regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) by 40% to 50%, and reduced cerebral infarct size by 32%. These neuroprotective effects of corticosteroids were abolished by the GR antagonist RU486 and by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and were absent in eNOS–/– mice. To determine the mechanism by which GR activated eNOS, we measured the effect of corticosteroids on PI3K and the protein kinase Akt. In a ligand-dependent manner, GR activated PI3K and Akt in vitro and in vivo caused NO-dependent vasodilation, which was blocked by cotreatment with RU486 or the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 but not by transcriptional inhibitors. Indeed, a mutant GR, which cannot dimerize and bind to DNA, still activated PI3K and Akt in response to corticosteroids. These findings indicate that non-nuclear GR rapidly activates eNOS through the PI3K/Akt pathway and suggest that this mechanism mediates the acute neuroprotective effects of corticosteroids through augmentation of CBF. PMID:12464678

  4. Mitochondrial activity and oxidative stress markers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubert, Carolina; Stertz, Laura; Pfaffenseller, Bianca; Panizzutti, Bruna Schilling; Rezin, Gislaine Tezza; Massuda, Raffael; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Gama, Clarissa Severino; Kapczinski, Flávio; Kunz, Maurício

    2013-10-01

    Evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, the exact mechanisms underlying this dysfunction are not well understood. Impaired activity of electron transport chain (ETC) complexes has been described in these disorders and may reflect changes in mitochondrial metabolism and oxidative stress markers. The objective of this study was to compare ETC complex activity and protein and lipid oxidation markers in 12 euthymic patients with BD type I, in 18 patients with stable chronic SZ, and in 30 matched healthy volunteers. Activity of complexes I, II, and III was determined by enzyme kinetics of mitochondria isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Protein oxidation was evaluated using the protein carbonyl content (PCC) method, and lipid peroxidation, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay kit. A significant decrease in complex I activity was observed (p = 0.02), as well as an increase in plasma levels of TBARS (p = 0.00617) in patients with SZ when compared to matched controls. Conversely, no significant differences were found in complex I activity (p = 0.17) or in plasma TBARS levels (p = 0.26) in patients with BD vs. matched controls. Our results suggest that mitochondrial complex I dysfunction and oxidative stress play important roles in the pathophysiology of SZ and may be used in potential novel adjunctive therapy for SZ, focusing primarily on cognitive impairment and disorder progression. PMID:23870796

  5. Equol increases cerebral blood flow in rats via activation of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Wang, Yan; Song, Zheng; Zhao, Li-Mei; Li, Gui-Rong; Deng, Xiu-Ling

    2016-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of equol on cerebral blood flow and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The regional cerebral blood flow in parietal lobe of rats was measured by using a laser Doppler flowmetry. Isolated cerebral basilar artery and mesenteric artery rings from rats were used for vascular reactivity measurement with a multi wire myography system. Outward K(+) current in smooth muscle cells of cerebral basilar artery, large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channel current in BK-HEK 293 cells stably expressing both human α (hSlo)- and β1-subunits, and hSlo channel current in hSlo-HEK 293 cells expressing only the α-subunit of BK channels were recorded with whole cell patch-clamp technique. The results showed that equol significantly increased regional cerebral blood flow in rats, and produced a concentration-dependent but endothelium-independent relaxation in rat cerebral basilar arteries. Both paxilline and iberiotoxin, two selective BK channel blockers, significantly inhibited equol-induced vasodilation in cerebral arteries. Outward K(+) currents in smooth muscle cells of cerebral basilar artery were increased by equol and fully reversed by washout or blockade of BK channels with iberiotoxin. Equol remarkably enhanced human BK current in BK-HEK 293 cells, but not hSlo current in hSlo-HEK 293 cells, and the increase was completely abolished by co-application of paxilline. Our findings provide the first information that equol selectively stimulates BK channel current by acting on its β1 subunit, which may in turn contribute to the equol-mediated vasodilation and cerebral blood flow increase. PMID:26995303

  6. [Antiatherogenic characteristics of korvitin: effect on proteasome activity of the aorta, heart, and blood cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashevin, D O; Dosenko, B Ie; Byts', Iu V; Moĭbenko, O O

    2009-01-01

    We studied the changes in proteasomal proteolisis during modelling of rabbit cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis. It was determined that in aorta the TL activity of proteasome increased 2.4-fold (P quercetine) followed by considerable decrease of proteasomal activity both in tissues (aorta and heart) and leucocytes. The intensity ofatherosclerotic changes in aorta was significantly smaller. Obtained data suggest that "Korvitin" reveales angioprotective properties mediated by it effect on proteasomal proteolisis. PMID:19827630

  7. The effects of shoulder load and pinch force on electromyographic activity and blood flow in the forearm during a pinch task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Bart; Kofoed Nielsen, Pernille; de Kraker, Heleen; Smits, Miriam; Jensen, Bente Rona; Veeger, Dirkjan; van Dieën, Jaap H.

    2006-01-01

    loaded with 4.95 kg each) were combined with intermittent pinch forces at 0, 10 and 25% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Blood flow to the forearm was measured with Doppler ultrasound. Myoelectric activity of the forearm and neck-shoulder muscles was recorded to check for the workload levels......The object of the current study was to determine whether static contraction of proximal musculature has an effect on the blood flow more distally in the upper extremity. Static contractions of muscles in the neck shoulder region at three levels (relaxed, shoulders elevated and shoulders elevated....... Across all levels of shoulder load, blood flow increased significantly with increasing pinch force (21% at 10% MVC and by 44% at 25% MVC). Blood flow was significantly affected by shoulder load, with the lowest blood flow at the highest shoulder load. Interactions of pinch force and shoulder load were...

  8. Activities of new quinoline derivatives against genital pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    AZNAR;, J.; Caballero, M C; Lozano, M C; Miguel, C. de; Palomares, J C; Perea, E J

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro activities of four quinoline carboxylic acids against 48 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 10 of Chlamydia trachomatis, and 32 of Ureaplasma urealyticum were compared. Ciprofloxacin was the most active against N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis but had poor bactericidal activity against U. urealyticum, whereas ofloxacin showed the most bactericidal activity against U. urealyticum but was less active than ciprofloxacin against the two former pathogens. Norfloxacin and enoxacin were...

  9. Effect of advanced glycosylation end products on activity of protein kinase C in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objectives TO investigate the effect of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) on the activity of protein kinese C (PKC) in human peripheral bloodmononuclear Cells (PBMC) and to observe whether aminoguanidine (AG) can influence the effect of AGEs. Methods After PBMC were isoiated from human peripheral blood and incubated with different concentrations of AGEs-BSA for various periods, total PKC activity in PBMC was determined by measuring the incorporation of 32P from [γ-32P] ATP=into a special substrate using Prornega PKC assay kit. Results AGEs-BSA increased the total PKC activity in PBMC from 83.43±6.57 pmol/min/mg protein to 116.8±13.82 pmol/min/mg protein with a peak at 15 min.AGEs-BSA also increased the total PKC activity in a concentration-dependent manner from 83.1±6.4 pmol/min/mg protein(control) to 119.1±13.3 pmol/min/mg protein (control vs AGEs-BSA 400 mg/L, P<0.01). Furthermore, AGEs-BSA induced an elevation of PKC activity in a glycosylating time-related manner,from 80.9±8.2 (control) to 118.3±11.5 pmol/min/mg protein (glycasytation for 12 wk, P<0.01). The total PKC activity stimulated by AGEs-BSA pretreated with AG (100, 200 mg/L) was markedly lower than that of AGEs-BSA group not pretreated with AG ( P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusions AGEs-BSA increased the total PKC activity in PBMC in a concentration and incubation time dependent manner. The ability of AGEs-B.SA to stimulate PKC activity was markedly decreased by pretreatment of AGEs-BSA with AG.

  10. Do Cardiovascular Responses to Active and Passive Coping Tasks predict Future Blood Pressure over a 10-Month Later?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuenyongchaiwat, Kornanong; Baker, Ian; Maratos, Frankie; Sheffield, David

    2016-01-01

    The study examined whether cardiovascular responses to active or passive coping tasks and single or multiple tasks predicted changes in resting blood pressure (BP) over a ten-month period. Heart rate (HR), BP, cardiac output (CO), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were measured at rest, and during mental stress tests (mental arithmetic, speech, and cold pressor tasks). A total of 104 eligible participants participated in the initial study, and 77 (74.04%) normotensive adult participants' resting BP were re-evaluated at ten-month follow-up. Regression analyses indicated that after adjustment for baseline BP, initial age, gender, body mass index, family history of cardiovascular disease, and current cigarette smoking, heighted systolic blood pressure (SBP) and HR responses to an active coping task (mental arithmetic) were associated with increased future SBP (ΔR2 = .060, ΔR2 = .045, respectively). Further, aggregated SBP responsivity (over the three tasks) to the predictor models resulted in significant, but smaller increases in ΔR2 accounting for .040 of the variance of follow-up SBP. These findings suggest that cardiovascular responses to active coping tasks predict future SBP. Further, compared with single tasks, the findings revealed that SBP responses to three tasks were less predictive compared to an individual task (i.e., mental arithmetic). Of importance, hemodynamic reactivity (namely CO and TPR) did not predict future BP suggesting that more general psychophysiological processes (e.g., inflammation, platelet aggregation) may be implicated, or that BP, but not hemodynamic reactivity may be a marker of hypertension. PMID:26972632

  11. Alterations in blood-brain barrier ICAM-1 expression and brain microglial activation after λ-carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, J. D.; Campos, C. R.; Mark, K. S.; Davis, T. P.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies showed that peripheral inflammatory pain increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and altered tight junction protein expression and the delivery of opioid analgesics to the brain. What remains unknown is which pathways and mediators during peripheral inflammation affect BBB function and structure. The current study investigated effects of λ-carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain (CIP) on BBB expression of ICAM-1. We also examined the systemic contribution of a number of proinflammatory cytokines and microglial activation in the brain to elucidate pathways involved in BBB disruption during CIP. We investigated ICAM-1 RNA and protein expression levels in isolated rat brain microvessels after CIP using RT-PCR and Western blot analyses, screened inflammatory cytokines during the time course of inflammation, assessed white blood cell counts, and probed for BBB and central nervous system stimulation and leukocyte transmigration using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Results showed an early increase in ICAM-1 RNA and protein expression after CIP with no change in circulating levels of several proinflammatory cytokines. Changes in ICAM-1 protein expression were noted at 48 h. Immunohistochemistry showed that the induction of ICAM-1 was region specific with increased expression noted in the thalamus and frontal and parietal cortices, which directly correlated with increased expression of activated microglia. The findings of the present study were that CIP induces increased ICAM-1 mRNA and protein expression at the BBB and that systemic proinflammatory mediators play no apparent role in the early response (1–6 h); however, brain region-specific increases in micro-glial activation suggest a potential for a central-mediated response. PMID:16199477

  12. Creatine supplementation: effects on blood creatine kinase activity responses to resistance exercise and creatine kinase activity measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Machado

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of creatine supplementation and exercise on the integrity of muscle fiber, as well as the effect of the supplementation on the creatine kinase (CK assay measurement. Forty-nine sedentary individuals participated in a double-blind study and were divided into two groups: C (n=26 received 4x5-day packages of 0.6 g.kg-1 of body weight contained 50% of creatine + 50% of dextrose, and P (n=23 received packages containing only dextrose. On the first day the groups performed a 1RM test for bench press, seated row, leg extension, leg curl and leg press. On D7 they received the supplements. On the fourteenth day, they performed a training session of five exercises, each in three sets of ten repetitions at 75% of 1RM. Blood was collected before (D14 and after the exercise session (D15. Differing levels of blood creatine were tested to determine the influence on the assay measurements of CK. ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests were used to compare groups and different times of study protocol (PO objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar o efeito da suplementação de creatina e do exercício na integridade das fibras musculares e, também, o efeito da suplementação na técnica de mensuração da atividade da creatina kinase (CK. Quarenta e nove sedentários participaram de um estudo duplo-cego e foram divididos em dois grupos: C (n=26 que receberam 4x5 dias embalagens com 0,6 g.kg-1 de massa corporal com 50% de creatina + 50% de dextrose, e P (n=23 que receberam embalagens contendo apenas dextrose. No primeiro dia, eles realizaram o teste de 1RM para os exercícios supino reto, remada sentada, cadeira extensora, mesa flexora, e leg press. No D7 receberam os suplementos. No décimo quarto dia eles realizaram uma sessão de treinos com os cinco exercícios, cada um com 3x10 repetições a 75% de 1RM. Sangue foi coletado antes (D14 e depois da sessão de exercícios (D15. Diferentes concentrações de

  13. Bovine colostrum modulates immune activation cascades in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenny, Marcel; Pedersen, Ninfa R; Hidayat, Budi J; Schennach, Harald; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    factors and has a long history of use in traditional medicine. In an approach to evaluate the effects of bovine colostrum (BC) on the T-cell/macrophage interplay, we investigated and compared the capacity of BC containing low and high amounts of lactose and lactoferrin to modulate tryptophan degradation...... amount of lactose present in BC seems to diminish the activity of BC in our test system, since BC with higher amounts of lactose attenuated the stimulatory as well as the suppressive activity of BC....

  14. Activity profile of the CA125 antigen towards human red blood cells

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    Mitić N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the mucin nature of the CA125 antigen and conditions associated with high serum concentrations, this study is an attempt to gain insight into its activity profile towards human erythrocytes. Carcinomaassociated and pregnancy-associated CA125 antigens were tested in agglutination/aggregation, adhesion and hemolysis assays. The results obtained indicated that CA125 antigens increased agglutination/aggregation and inhibited erythrocyte adhesion, but differed in their effective concentrations. Galectin-1 slightly modulated the effects observed. CA125 antigens had no effect on hemolysis. The activity profile of the CA125 antigen towards erythrocytes may have biomedical consequences in different microenvironments in relevant physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

  15. SERS active colloidal nanoparticles for the detection of small blood biomarkers using aptamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Haley; Mabbott, Samuel; Jackson, George W.; Graham, Duncan; Cote, Gerard L.

    2015-03-01

    Functionalized colloidal nanoparticles for SERS serve as a promising multifunctional assay component for blood biomarker detection. Proper design of these nanoprobes through conjugation to spectral tags, protective polymers, and sensing ligands can provide experimental control over the sensitivity, range, reproducibility, particle stability, and integration with biorecognition assays. Additionally, the optical properties and degree of electromagnetic SERS signal enhancement can be altered and monitored through tuning the nanoparticle shape, size, material and the colloid's local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Aptamers, synthetic affinity ligands derived from nucleic acids, provide a number of advantages for biorecognition of small molecules and toxins with low immunogenicity. DNA aptamers are simpler and more economical to produce at large scale, are capable of greater specificity and affinity than antibodies, are easily tailored to specific functional groups, can be used to tune inter-particle distance and shift the LSPR, and their intrinsic negative charge can be utilized for additional particle stability.1,2 Herein, a "turn-off" competitive binding assay platform involving two different plasmonic nanoparticles for the detection of the toxin bisphenol A (BPA) using SERS is presented. A derivative of the toxin is immobilized onto a silver coated magnetic nanoparticle (Ag@MNP), and a second solid silver nanoparticle (AgNP) is functionalized with the BPA aptamer and a Raman reporter molecule (RRM). The capture (Ag@MNP) and probe (AgNP) particles are mixed and the aptamer binding interaction draws the nanoparticles closer together, forming an assembly that results in an increased SERS signal intensity. This aptamer mediated assembly of the two nanoparticles results in a 100x enhancement of the SERS signal intensity from the RRM. These pre-bound aptamer/nanoparticle conjugates were then exposed to BPA in free solution and the competitive binding event was monitored

  16. Association of Bactericidal Dysfunction of Paneth Cells in Streptozocin-Induced Diabetic Mice with Insulin Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Yang, Hong-Sheng; Lu, Xi-Ji; Xia, Zhong-Sheng; Ouyang, Hui; Shan, Ti-Dong; Huang, Can-Ze; Chen, Qi-Kui

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with increased risks of enteric infection. Paneth cells constitute the first line of the gut defense. Little is known about the impact of T1DM on the bactericidal function of intestinal Paneth cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS A T1DM mouse model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin. The analysis of intestinal microbiota and the mucosal bactericidal assay were conducted to evaluate intestinal innate defense. Numbers of Paneth cells and their expression of related antimicrobial peptides were analyzed. Expression of total insulin receptor (IR) mRNA and relative levels of IR-A/IR-B were analyzed. The primary mouse small intestinal crypt culture was used to analyze the effect of insulin and glucose on the expression of related antimicrobial peptides of Paneth cells. RESULTS In T1DM mice, bacterial loads were increased and there was an alteration in the composition of the intestinal microflora. Exogenous bacteria had better survival in the small bowel of the T1DM mice. The expression of Paneth cell-derived antimicrobial peptides was significantly decreased in the T1DM mice, although the number of Paneth cells was increased. Relative levels of IR-A/IR-B in Paneth cells of diabetic mice were elevated, but the total IR mRNA did not change. Insulin treatment restored the expression of antimicrobial peptides and normalized the microbiota in the gut of T1DM mice. Subsequently, in vitro culture assay demonstrated that insulin rather than glucose was essential for the optimal expression of Paneth cell-derived antimicrobial peptides. CONCLUSIONS The bactericidal function of intestinal Paneth cells was impaired in STZ-induced diabetic mice, resulting in the altered intestinal flora, and insulin was essential for the optimal expression of Paneth cell-derived antimicrobial peptides. PMID:27572949

  17. Electrochemical synthesis of multi-armed CuO nanoparticles and their remarkable bactericidal potential against waterborne bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper (II) oxide multi-armed nanoparticles composed of 500–1000 nm long radiating nanospicules with 100–200 nm width near the base and 50–100 nm width at the tapered ends and ∼25 nm thickness were synthesized by electrochemical deposition in the presence of an oxidant followed by calcination at 150 °C. The nanoparticles were characterized using SEM/EDX for morphology and composition, Raman spectroscopy for compound identification, and broth culture method for antibacterial efficacy. The CuO nanoparticles have shown remarkable bactericidal efficacy against Gram-positive and -negative waterborne disease causing bacteria like Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. E. coli has been chosen as representative species for waterborne disease causing bacteria. In antibacterial tests 500 μg/mL nano CuO killed 3 × 108 CFU/mL E. coli bacteria within 4 h of exposure. Moreover, 8.3 × 106 CFU/mL E. coli were killed by 100 and 10 μg/mL nano CuO within 15 min and 4 h of exposure, respectively. Antibacterial activity of nano CuO has been found many-fold compared with commercial bulk CuO. The fate of nanoparticles after antibacterial test has also been studied. The synthesized CuO nanoparticles are expected to have potential antibacterial applications in water purification and in paints and coatings used on frequently touched surfaces and fabrics in hospital settings.

  18. The Number of Endovascular Trophoblasts in Maternal Blood Increases Overnight and after Physical Activity: An Experimental Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Kirkegaard, Ida; Ferreira, Anne Sigaard;

    2016-01-01

    -to-day variation affect the number of isolated fetal cells, more specifically the presumed endovascular trophoblast (pEVT). Material and Methods: In each of 3 different experiments, 10 normal singleton pregnant women (gestational age 10+4-14+4 weeks) participated. The number of pEVTs was assessed in 30-36 ml blood...... using specific markers for enrichment and identification. Results: The number of pEVTs increased overnight (p = 0.001) from a median of 1.5 to 3.5 and even further to a median of 6.0 after 30 min of physical activity (p = 0.04) but was not affected by transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound scans....... Repeated sampling showed that the interindividual variation of pEVTs was higher than the intraindividual variation (p < 0.001). However, even in pregnant women with a consistently low number of pEVTs, isolation of the pEVTs for prenatal diagnoses was possible in all cases by doing 2 separate blood...

  19. Fibrinolytic Activity and Dose-Dependent Effect of Incubating Human Blood Clots in Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester: In Vitro Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuzar Elnager

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE has been reported to possess time-dependent fibrinolytic activity by in vitro assay. This study is aimed at investigating fibrinolytic dose-dependent activity of CAPE using in vitro assays. Methods. Standardized human whole blood (WB clots were incubated in either blank controls or different concentrations of CAPE (3.75, 7.50, 15.00, 22.50, and 30.00 mM. After 3 hours, D-dimer (DD levels and WB clot weights were measured for each concentration. Thromboelastography (TEG parameters were recorded following CAPE incubation, and fibrin morphology was examined under a confocal microscope. Results. Overall, mean DD (μg/mL levels were significantly different across samples incubated with different CAPE concentrations, and the median pre- and postincubation WB clot weights (grams were significantly decreased for each CAPE concentration. Fibrin removal was observed microscopically and indicated dose-dependent effects. Based on the TEG test, the Ly30 fibrinolytic parameter was significantly different between samples incubated with two different CAPE concentrations (15.0 and 22.50 mM. The 50% effective dose (ED50 of CAPE (based on DD was 1.99 mg/mL. Conclusions. This study suggests that CAPE possesses fibrinolytic activity following in vitro incubation and that it has dose-dependent activities. Therefore, further investigation into CAPE as a potential alternative thrombolytic agent should be conducted.

  20. Clinical-scale cultures of cord blood CD34(+) cells to amplify committed progenitors and maintain stem cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovic, Zoran; Duchez, Pascale; Chevaleyre, Jean; Vlaski, Marija; Lafarge, Xavier; Dazey, Bernard; Robert-Richard, Elodie; Mazurier, Frédéric; Boiron, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    We developed a clinical-scale cord blood (CB) cell ex vivo procedure to enable an extensive expansion of committed progenitors--colony-forming cells (CFCs) without impairing very primitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). CD34(++) cells, selected from previously cryopreserved and thawed CB units, were cultured in two steps (diluted 1:4 after 6 days) in the presence of stem cell factor (SCF), fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt-3L), megakaryocyte growth and development factor (MGDF) (100 ng/ml each), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) (10 ng/ml) in HP01 serum-free medium. HSC activity was evaluated in a serial transplantation assay, by detection of human cells (CD45, CD33, CD19 and CFC of human origin) in bone marrow (BM) of primary and secondary recipient NOD/SCID mice 6-8 weeks after transplantation. A wide amplification of total cells (∼350-fold), CD34(+) cells (∼100-fold), and CFC (∼130-fold) without impairing the HSC activity was obtained. The activity of a particular HSC subpopulation (SRC(CFC)) was even enhanced.Thus, an extensive ex vivo expansion of CFCs is feasible without impairing the activity of HSCs. This result was enabled by associating antioxidant power of medium with an appropriate cytokine cocktail (i.e., mimicking physiologic effects of a weak oxygenation in hematopoietic environment). PMID:21294956