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Sample records for blood alcohol levels

  1. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine.

  2. [Beta-endorphin and endogenous alcohol level of the blood in alcoholic patients].

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    Burov, Iu V; Treskov, V G; Iukhananov, R Iu; Kovalenko, A K

    1984-11-01

    Radioimmunoassay was used to measure the blood content of beta-endorphines in patients with chronic alcoholism. The concentration of endogenous ethanol in these patients was determined by gas chromatography. The blood concentration of beta-endorphines was found to be high in patients who showed atypical affective disorders off the period of abstinence. It is assumed that peripheral beta-endorphine is not linked with the development of the narcomanic syndrome proper but mirrors the pathogenetic mechanisms of psychopathological disorders. The levels of endogenous ethanol vary in alcoholics and healthy subjects within the same ranges. However, the percentage distribution indicates that in patients, they are shifted toward lower concentrations, which is likely to be conditioned by the induction of enzymatic systems that metabolize ethanol.

  3. Alcohol levels in cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples from patients under pathological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapejev, S; Vassilieff, I; Curi, P R

    1992-11-01

    We measured alcohol levels by the Cordebard method in 148 CSF samples from individuals who had abstained from alcohol for at least 7 days prior to the beginning of the study. Each blood sample was accompanied by a CSF sample from the same patient. CSF samples found to be normal after analysis were used as controls. Mean alcohol concentration in blood did not differ significantly between the control group and the groups with altered CSF. The group with altered CSF had statistically higher alcohol levels in CSF than in blood. CSF lactate, glucose and protein levels were not correlated with alcohol level. The results suggest the presence of endogenous alcohol in the CSF, with levels increasing in the presence of pathological processes involving the nervous system.

  4. Attenuation of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and blood cortisol level with forced exercise in comparison with diazepam.

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    Majid Motaghinejad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Relieving withdrawal and post-abstinence syndrome of alcoholism is one of the major strategies in the treatment of alcohol addicted patients. Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and topiramate are the approved medications that were used for this object. To assess the role of non-pharmacologic therapy in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, we analyzed effects of forced exercise by treadmill on alcohol dependent mice as an animal model. A total of 60 adult male mice were divided into 5 groups, from which 4 groups became dependent to alcohol (2 g/kg/day for 15 days. From day 16, treatment groups were treated by diazepam (0.5mg/kg, forced exercise, and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg concurrent with forced exercise for two weeks; And the positive control group received same dose of alcohol (2 g/kg/day for two weeks. The negative control group received normal saline for four weeks. Finally, on day 31, all animals were observed for withdrawal signs, and Alcohol Total Withdrawal Score (ATWS was determined. Blood cortisol levels were measured in non-fasting situations as well. Present findings showed that ATWS significantly decrease in all treatment groups in comparison with positive control group (P<0.05 for groups received diazepam and treated by forced exercise and P<0.001 for group under treatment diazepam + forced exercise. Moreover, blood cortisol level significantly decreased in all treatment groups (P<0.001. This study suggested that forced exercise and physical activity can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism and can ameliorate side effects and stress situation of withdrawal syndrome periods.

  5. Attenuation of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and blood cortisol level with forced exercise in comparison with diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Bangash, Mohammad Yasan; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2015-01-01

    Relieving withdrawal and post-abstinence syndrome of alcoholism is one of the major strategies in the treatment of alcohol addicted patients. Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and topiramate are the approved medications that were used for this object. To assess the role of non-pharmacologic therapy in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, we analyzed effects of forced exercise by treadmill on alcohol dependent mice as an animal model. A total of 60 adult male mice were divided into 5 groups, from which 4 groups became dependent to alcohol (2 g/kg/day) for 15 days. From day 16, treatment groups were treated by diazepam (0.5mg/kg), forced exercise, and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) concurrent with forced exercise for two weeks; And the positive control group received same dose of alcohol (2 g/kg/day) for two weeks. The negative control group received normal saline for four weeks. Finally, on day 31, all animals were observed for withdrawal signs, and Alcohol Total Withdrawal Score (ATWS) was determined. Blood cortisol levels were measured in non-fasting situations as well. Present findings showed that ATWS significantly decrease in all treatment groups in comparison with positive control group (Pdiazepam and treated by forced exercise and Pdiazepam + forced exercise). Moreover, blood cortisol level significantly decreased in all treatment groups (P<0.001). This study suggested that forced exercise and physical activity can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism and can ameliorate side effects and stress situation of withdrawal syndrome periods.

  6. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

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    Megumi Kido

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2 consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into

  7. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K.; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T.; Sameshima, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  8. Alcohol: Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Does drinking alcohol affect your blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure to unhealthy levels. Having ...

  9. Daidzin, an antioxidant isoflavonoid, decreases blood alcohol levels and shortens sleep time induced by ethanol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, C I; Lin, R C; Antony, V; Lumeng, L; Li, T K; Mai, K; Liu, C; Wang, Q D; Zhao, Z H; Wang, G F

    1994-12-01

    The extract from an edible vine, Pueraria lebata, has been reported to be efficacious in lessening alcohol intoxication. In this study, we have tested the efficacy of one of the major components, daidzin, from this plant extract. When ethanol (40% solution, 3 g/kg body weight) was given to fasted rats intragastrically, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) peaked at 30 min after alcohol ingestion and reached 1.77 +/- 0.14 mg/ml (mean values +/- SD, n = 6). If daidzin (30 mg/kg) was mixed with the ethanol solution and given to animals intragastrically, BAC was found to peak at 90 min after alcohol ingestion and reached only 1.20 +/- 0.30 mg/ml (n = 6) (p daidzin to delay and decrease peak BAC level after ethanol ingestion was also observed in fed animals. In both fasted and fed rats given alcohol without daidzin, BAC quickly declined after reaching its peak at 30 min. By contrast, BAC levels receded more slowly if daidzin was also fed to the animals. Daidzin showed a chronic effect. Rats fed daidzin for 7 days before ethanol challenge, but not on the day of challenge, also produced lower and later peak BAC levels. Interestingly, daidzin, whether fed to rats only once or chronically for 7 days, did not significantly alter activities of either alcohol dehydrogenase or mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase in the liver. Further experiments demonstrated that daidzin shortened sleep time for rats receiving ethanol intragastrically (7 g/kg) but not intraperitoneally (2 g/kg). To test whether daidzin delayed stomach-emptying, [14C]polyethylene glycol was mixed with ethanol and fed to rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. [Effect of tranquilizing agents on the blood level of endogenous ethanol in alcoholics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Iu V; Treskov, V G; Drozdov, E S; Kovalenko, A E

    1983-01-01

    Experiments on alcohol addicts blood were made to study the time course of the endogenous ethanol level after a single administration of mebicar (1.5 g), a derivative of bicyclic bisuria, 50 ml of 5% sodium hydroxybutyric syrup, a derivative of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, and 20 mg diazepam, a derivative of 1,4-benzodiazepines. The clinical effect was recorded simultaneously. It was established that different tranquilizers stimulate the increase in the endogenous ethanol level as regards the spectrum of psychotropic activity. This effect was the most pronounced with mebicar and to a less measure with diazepam.

  11. Prevalence and consequences of positive blood alcohol levels among patients injured at work

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    Caitlin A Foster

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to characterize positive blood alcohol among patients injured at work, and to compare the severity of injury and outcome of blood alcohol concentration (BAC positive and negative patients. Settings and Design: A retrospective cohort study was performed at a Level 1 academic trauma center. Patients injured at work between 01/01/07 and 01/01/12 and admitted with positive (BAC+ vs negative (BAC- blood alcohol were compared using bivariate analysis. Results: Out of 823, 319 subjects were tested for BAC (38.8%, of whom 37 were BAC+ (mean 0.151 g/dL, range 0.015-0.371 g/dL. Age (41 years, sex (97.2% men, race, intensive care unit (ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS, and mortality were similar between groups. Nearly half of BAC+ cases were farming injuries (18, 48.6%: Eight involved livestock, five involved all-terrain vehicles (ATVs, three involved heavy equipment, one fell, and one had a firearm injury. Eight (21.6% were construction site injuries involving falls from a roof or scaffolding, five (13.5% were semi-truck collisions, four (10.8% involved falls from a vehicle in various settings, and two (5.4% were crush injuries at an oilfield. BAC+ subjects were less likely to be injured in construction sites and oilfields, including vehicle-related falls (2.3 vs 33.9%, P < 0.0001. Over half of BAC+ (n = 20, 54% subjects were alcohol dependent; three (8.1% also tested positive for cocaine on admission. No BAC+ subjects were admitted to rehabilitation compared to 33 (11.7% of BAC- subjects. Workers′ compensation covered a significantly smaller proportion of BAC+ patients (16.2 vs 61.0%, P < 0.0001. Conclusions: Alcohol use in the workplace is more prevalent than commonly suspected, especially in farming and other less regulated industries. BAC+ is associated with less insurance coverage, which probably affects resources available for post-discharge rehabilitation and hospital reimbursement.

  12. Phytophenols in whisky lower blood acetaldehyde level by depressing alcohol metabolism through inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (class I) in mice.

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    Haseba, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Junichi; Sato, Shigeo; Abe, Yuko; Ohno, Youkichi

    2008-12-01

    We recently reported that the maturation of whisky prolongs the exposure of the body to a given dose of alcohol by reducing the rate of alcohol metabolism and thus lowers the blood acetaldehyde level (Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007;31:77s-82s). In this study, administration of the nonvolatile fraction of whisky was found to lower the concentration of acetaldehyde in the blood of mice by depressing alcohol metabolism through the inhibition of liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Four of the 12 phenolic compounds detected in the nonvolatile fraction (caffeic acid, vanillin, syringaldehyde, ellagic acid), the amounts of which increase during the maturation of whisky, were found to strongly inhibit mouse ADH 1 (class I). Their inhibition constant values for ADH 1 were 0.08, 7.9, 15.6, and 22.0 mumol/L, respectively, whereas that for pyrazole, a well-known ADH inhibitor, was 5.1 mumol/L. The 2 phenolic aldehydes and ellagic acid exhibited a mixed type of inhibition, whereas caffeic acid showed the competitive type. When individually administered to mice together with ethanol, each of these phytophenols depressed the elimination of ethanol, thereby lowering the acetaldehyde concentration of blood. Thus, it was demonstrated that the enhanced inhibition of liver ADH 1 due to the increased amounts of these phytophenols in mature whisky caused the depression of alcohol metabolism and a consequent lowering of blood acetaldehyde level. These substances are commonly found in various food plants and act as antioxidants and/or anticarcinogens. Therefore, the intake of foods rich in them together with alcohol may not only diminish the metabolic toxicity of alcohol by reducing both the blood acetaldehyde level and oxidative stress, but also help limit the amount of alcohol a person drinks by depressing alcohol metabolism.

  13. Alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration level and guideline compliance in hospital referred patients with minimal, mild and moderate head injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harr, Marianne Efskind; Heskestad, Ben; Ingebrigtsen, Tor;

    2011-01-01

    In 2000 the Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee published guidelines for safe and cost-effective management of minimal, mild and moderate head injured patients.The aims of this study were to investigate to what extent the head injury population is under the influence of alcohol, and to evaluate...... whether the physicians' compliance to the guidelines is affected when patients are influenced by alcohol....

  14. Attenuation of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and blood cortisol level with forced exercise in comparison with diazepam.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Relieving withdrawal and post-abstinence syndrome of alcoholism is one of the major strategies in the treatment of alcohol addicted patients. Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and topiramate are the approved medications that were used for this object. To assess the role of non-pharmacologic therapy in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, we analyzed effects of forced exercise by treadmill on alcohol dependent mice as an animal model. A total of 60 adult male mice were divided into 5 group...

  15. Alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration level and guideline compliance in hospital referred patients with minimal, mild and moderate head injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harr, Marianne Efskind; Heskestad, Ben; Ingebrigtsen, Tor;

    2011-01-01

    In 2000 the Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee published guidelines for safe and cost-effective management of minimal, mild and moderate head injured patients.The aims of this study were to investigate to what extent the head injury population is under the influence of alcohol, and to evaluate...

  16. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Megumi Kido; Akihiro Asakawa; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K.; Toshio Takaoka; Aya Tajima; Shigeru Takaoka; Yumiko Yoshizaki; Kayu Okutsu; Kazunori T. Takamine; Yoshihiro Sameshima; Akio Inui

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2) consumed three different types ...

  17. Modulatory effect of pineapple peel extract on lipid peroxidation, catalase activity and hepatic biomarker levels in blood plasma of alcohol-induced oxidative stressed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okafor OY; Erukainure OL; Ajiboye JA; Adejobi RO; Owolabi FO; Kosoko SB

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ability of the methanolic extract of pineapple peel to modulate alcohol-induced lipid peroxidation, changes in catalase activities and hepatic biochemical marker levels in blood plasma. Methods: Oxidative stress was induced by oral administration of ethanol (20% w/v) at a dosage of 5 mL/kg bw in rats. After 28 days of treatment, the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood was collected with a 2 mL syringe by cardiac puncture and was centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min. The plasma was analyzed to evaluate malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase activity, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations. Results: Administration of alcohol caused a drastic increase (87.74%) in MDA level compared with the control. Pineapple peel extract significantly reduced the MDA level by 60.16% at 2.5 mL/kg bw. Rats fed alcohol only had the highest catalase activity, treatment with pineapple peel extract at 2.5 mL/kg bw however, reduced the activity. Increased AST, ALP and ALT activities were observed in rats fed alcohol only respectively, treatment with pineapple peel extract drastically reduced their activities. Conclusions: The positive modulation of lipid peroxidation, catalase activities as well as hepatic biomarker levels of blood plasma by the methanolic extract of pineapple peels under alcohol-induced oxidative stress is an indication of its protective ability in the management of alcohol-induced toxicity.

  18. Cross-sectional measures and modelled estimates of blood alcohol levels in UK nightlife and their relationships with drinking behaviours and observed signs of inebriation

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    Jarman Ian

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of nightlife in UK cities focuses on creating safe places for individuals to drink. Little is known about intoxication levels as measuring total alcohol consumption on nights out is complicated by early evening interviews missing subsequent consumption and later interviews risking individuals being too drunk to recall consumption or participate at all. Here we assess mixed survey and modelling techniques as a methodological approach to examining these issues. Methods Interviews with a cross sectional sample of nightlife patrons (n = 214 recruited at different locations in three cities established alcohol consumption patterns up to the point of interview, self-assessed drunkenness and intended drinking patterns throughout the remaining night out. Researchers observed individuals' behaviours to independently assess drunkenness. Breath alcohol tests and general linear modelling were used to model blood alcohol levels at participants' expected time of leaving nightlife settings. Results At interview 49.53% of individuals regarded themselves as drunk and 79.43% intended to consume more alcohol before returning home, with around one in ten individuals (15.38% males; 4.35% females intending to consume >40 units (equal to 400 mls of pure alcohol. Self-assessed drunkenness, researcher observed measures of sobriety and blood alcohol levels all correlated well. Modelled estimates for blood alcohol at time of going home suggested that 71.68% of males would be over 0.15%BAC (gms alcohol/100 mls blood. Higher blood alcohol levels were related to drinking later into the night. Conclusions UK nightlife has used substantive health and judicial resources with the aim of creating safer and later drinking environments. Survey and modelling techniques together can help characterise the condition of drinkers when using and leaving these settings. Here such methods identified patrons as routinely getting drunk, with risks of drunkenness

  19. The lack of influence of food and local alcoholic brew on the blood level of Mectizan(®) (ivermectin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeida, Mamoun M; Malcolm, Stephen B; ElTayeb, A Z; Eversole, Rob R; Elassad, Asma S; Geary, Timothy G; Ali, Magdi M; Mackenzie, Charles D

    2013-08-01

    There is concern that extraneous factors, such as food and drink, may alter the pharmacodynamics of Mectizan(®) (ivermectin) in patients receiving this important anti-parasitic drug, and thus might put such individuals in danger of serious adverse events. The effects of a common local alcohol-containing beverage and a local food on plasma levels of ivermectin were studied in Sudanese volunteers after administration of the standard dose used in mass drug administration programs for onchocerciasis and filariasis. Plasma levels of ivermectin at various time points (0-48h) after administration of ivermectin were ascertained by HPLC assay in ten volunteers given 150μgkg(-1) ivermectin together with either a local sorghum-based food ('assida'), or a locally brewed alcoholic beverage ('arangi' made from sorghum grain) or in those who were fasting. Maximum mean (±SD) plasma levels of ivermectin (67±49ngml(-1)) were reached within 2h in fasting patients, and had dropped to 26±20ngml(-1) after 30h. The coadministration of local food or alcoholic beverage did not cause an increase in ivermectin plasma levels above those observed in people who were fasting. However, at 2h after ivermectin administration, patients given alcohol had significantly lower plasma ivermectin levels than fed patients or fasting patients. There were no significant differences among treatments for AUC0-30, Cmax, or tmax, and so the coadministration of local food or alcoholic beverage did not cause any change in pharmacokinetic parameters of ivermectin in the plasma in comparison with fasting. None of the measured levels of plasma ivermectin were greater than those reported in previous studies with this compound. These findings do not support the hypothesis that acute intake of alcohol is an important factor in the development of the serious adverse reactions that can occur during the treatment of loaisis patients with ivermectin (Mectizan(®)).

  20. Lead levels - blood

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    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  1. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features ... stroke, and other problems. The medical term for high blood cholesterol is lipid disorder, hyperlipidemia, or hypercholesterolemia. ...

  2. Gender, age, and educational level attribute to blood alcohol concentration in hospitalized intoxicated adolescents: A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van E.; Ploeg, van der T.; Van Hoof, Joris J.; Lely, van der Nicolaas

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of adolescents hospitalized with acute alcohol intoxication, mainly because of severe reduced consciousness, is increasing. However, the characteristics of these adolescents are mainly unidentified. In this clinical research, we aimed to identify factors that attribute to h

  3. Decreased MiR-155 Level in the Peripheral Blood of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients may Serve as a Biomarker and may Influence LXR Activity

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    Lei Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is now a common risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Thus, it is important to explore its underlying mechanisms. Methods: Total RNA was extracted from peripheral whole blood samples from 50 NAFLD patients and 50 healthy controls. In addition, human liver specimens were obtained through liver biopsies from NAFLD patients and healthy controls. The level of miRNA was studied using real-time PCR. The expression of lipogenic genes was analyzed using western blot, and a dual luciferase reporter assay was conducted to identify the possible target gene. Adenovirus vectors were injected into the tail vein of the high fat diet (HFD-fed mice to study the role of miR-155 on lipid accumulation in vivo. Results: The level of miR-155 was markedly reduced in the livers and peripheral blood of NAFLD patients compared with healthy controls. Upregulation of miR-155 decreased intracellular lipid content and the SREBP1 and FAS protein levels, while inhibition of miR-155 enhanced the intracellular lipid content. The dual luciferase reporter assay showed that Liver X receptor (LXRα was the target gene of miR-155, and silencing miR-155 reduced the expression of SREBP1 and FAS. An in vivo study showed that upregulation of miR-155 decreased the hepatic lipid accumulation mainly by suppressing the LXRα-dependent lipogenic signaling pathway. Conclusions: In summary, decreased expression of miR-155 in the peripheral blood may be utilized as a potential novel biomarker for NAFLD screening mainly by targeting LXRα.

  4. As Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Increases, So Does Impairment

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    ... on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking As Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Increases, So Does Impairment Past Issues / Spring 2014 ... For purposes of law enforcement, blood alcohol content (BAC) is used to define intoxication and provides a ...

  5. Blood Glucose Levels

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    Carlos Estela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish a mathematical model which can be used to estimate glucose levels in the blood over time. The equations governing this process were manipulated with the use of techniques such as separation of variables and integration of first order differential equations, which resulted in a function that described the glucose concentration in terms of time. This function was then plotted, which allowed us to find when glucose concentration was at its highest. The model was then used to analyze two cases where the maximum glucose level could not exceed a certain level while the amount of carbohydrates and glycemic index were varied, independently.

  6. Características de los lesionados por accidente de tráfico con alcoholemia positiva Characteristics of road accident victims with positive blood alcohol levels

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    Xavier Martínez

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar de las características diferenciales de positividad a alcohol en lesionados en accidentes de tráfico atendidos en un servicio de urgencias hospitalario. Métodos: Estudio transversal con sujetos de 18 años o mayores, lesionados en accidentes de tráfico, atendidos en el servicio de urgencias del Área de Traumatología del Hospital Vall d'Hebron, entre julio de 2001 y febrero de 2002. Resultados: La muestra incluyó a 431 pacientes. El 13,7% resultó positivo a la determinación de alcohol: se hallaron diferencias en los varones (odds ratio [OR] = 2,5; IC del 95%, 1,3-5,4 y los lesionados ingresados (OR = 2,7; IC del 95%, 1,3-5,4 y en los que fueron asistidos en fin de semana o festivo (OR = 3,7; IC del 95%, 2,0-6,9, de noche y madrugada (OR = 4,6; IC del 95%, 2,0-10,3 o durante la mañana (OR = 3,6; IC del 95%, 1,5-8,4. Conclusiones: Se ha determinado la existencia de subgrupos de lesionados en accidentes de tráfico con una mayor probabilidad de alcoholemia positiva, en los cuales deberían aplicarse programas de cribado y prevención secundaria más activos desde los servicios de urgencias y de traumatología.Objective: To identify the differential features of positive blood alcohol level (BAL in people injured in road crashes who were attended an acute care service. Methods: Cross-sectional study of persons aged 18 years old or older injured in motor vehicle crashes who were attended in the Traumatology Emergency Department of Vall d'Hebron Hospital (Spain between July 2001 and February 2002. Results: The study sample included 431 patients. A positive alcohol test was found in 13.7% of the sample. A statistically significant and independent association was found between positive BAL and male sex (odds ratio [OR] = 2.5 [95% CI, 1.3-5.4], hospital admission (OR = 2.7 [95% CI, 1.3-5.4], being attended on a weekend (OR = 3.7 [95% CI, 2.0-6.9] and being attended during the night and early morning (OR = 4.6 [95% CI, 2

  7. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  8. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar Print A ... Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar levels ( ...

  9. Bacterial reduction of alcohol-based liquid and gel products on hands soiled with blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagoe, Julia Y; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Martino, Marines Dalla Valle; Siqueira, Itacy; Correa, Luci

    2011-11-01

    The antibacterial efficacy of three alcohol-based products (liquid and gel) were tested on the hands with blood and contaminated with Serratia marcescens (ATCC 14756), using EN 1500 procedures in 14 healthy volunteers. The alcohol-based products tested, either gel or liquid-based, reached bacterial reduction levels higher than 99.9% in the presence of blood and did not differ significantly (ANOVA test; P = 0.614).

  10. Alcohol consumption and blood lipids in elderly coronary patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de H.J.I.; Goede, de J.; Oude Griep, L.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol may have a beneficial effect on coronary heart disease (CHD) that could be mediated by elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC). Data on alcohol consumption and blood lipids in coronary patients are scarce. We studied whether total ethanol intake and consumption of specific t

  11. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar A ... Other Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar ...

  12. Predicting DUI recidivism: blood alcohol concentration and driver record factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marowitz, L A

    1998-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at arrest, driving history and other demographic factors, and the 1-year post-arrest probability of recidivism for drunk driving (DUI) convictees. Complex and simple prediction models were developed. All models found a statistically significant cubic relationship between BAC and recidivism, reflecting a relatively high rate of recidivism at a BAC of 0.00%, decreasing to a minimum at ca 0.09% BAC, then increasing to another relatively high rate at a BAC of ca 0.29%, followed by a decline in recidivism to BAC levels of 0.35% and beyond. High rates of recidivism at high BACs suggest alcohol dependency, while high rates at low BACs suggest the involvement of other impairing substances. The rate of DUI recidivism for offenders who refused alcohol testing was the same as for aggregated BAC-tested offenders who had prior DUIs at the time of the arrest. The probability of DUI recidivism predicted by a simple model using BAC, prior 2-year traffic convictions, and offender level (first or repeat offender) could be used along with other factors by presentence investigators, judges or in administrative settings to determine appropriate sanctions, treatment or other remedial measures. The findings support the notion that first offenders with high BAC levels and prior 2-year traffic convictions are at as high a risk of recidivating as many repeat offenders, and might therefore benefit from similar sanctions and/or remedial treatment. The findings also support viewing DUI arrestees with very low BACs as probable drug users with relatively high probabilities of recidivating.

  13. Variability in the blood/breath alcohol ratio and implications for evidentiary purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Dena H; Siman-Tov, Maya; Gopher, Asher; Peleg, Kobi

    2013-09-01

    The breath analyzer is an indispensable tool for identifying alcohol levels among drivers. While numerous studies have shown high correlations between blood and breath alcohol concentrations, most are limited by the study design. This study seeks to assess this relationship by minimizing potential measurement bias, document time from alcohol consumption to testing, and adjusting for potential confounders. A blinded study was performed using conditions closely resembling those in the field. The Draeger 7110 MKIII IL breath analyzer was used to assess breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC). Participants were 61 healthy volunteers aged 21-37 years with body mass index ≤30 and no history of alcoholism. A total of 242 valid blood/breath tests were performed in four test sets. The study results showed a high correlation coefficient between BrAC and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels (r = 0.983) with high sensitivity (97%) and specificity (93%). This strong association between the breath analyzer and BAC persisted even after adjustment for various stages of alcohol absorption. These results illustrate the high diagnostic sensitivity of the breath analyzer in field-tested conditions.

  14. Estimating the measurement uncertainty in forensic blood alcohol analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullberg, Rod G

    2012-04-01

    For many reasons, forensic toxicologists are being asked to determine and report their measurement uncertainty in blood alcohol analysis. While understood conceptually, the elements and computations involved in determining measurement uncertainty are generally foreign to most forensic toxicologists. Several established and well-documented methods are available to determine and report the uncertainty in blood alcohol measurement. A straightforward bottom-up approach is presented that includes: (1) specifying the measurand, (2) identifying the major components of uncertainty, (3) quantifying the components, (4) statistically combining the components and (5) reporting the results. A hypothetical example is presented that employs reasonable estimates for forensic blood alcohol analysis assuming headspace gas chromatography. These computations are easily employed in spreadsheet programs as well. Determining and reporting measurement uncertainty is an important element in establishing fitness-for-purpose. Indeed, the demand for such computations and information from the forensic toxicologist will continue to increase.

  15. Does Moderate Level of Alcohol Consumption Produce a Relaxation Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, William; Lockhart, Judy O.

    Although many individuals use alcohol to cope with stress (their behavior being based on the belief that alcohol can produce a relaxation effect), research has reported conflicting results on the effects of alcohol on tension reduction. A study was conducted to examine the psychophysiological effects of moderate levels of alcohol consumption under…

  16. Potential Biomarker Peptides Associated with Acute Alcohol-Induced Reduction of Blood Pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Wakabayashi

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the peptides that are related to acute reduction of blood pressure after alcohol drinking. Venous blood was collected from male healthy volunteers before and after drinking white wine (3 ml/kg weight containing 13% of ethanol. Peptidome analysis for serum samples was performed using a new target plate, BLOTCHIP®. Alcohol caused significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at 45 min. The peptidome analysis showed that the levels of three peptides of m/z 1467, 2380 and 2662 changed significantly after drinking. The m/z 1467 and 2662 peptides were identified to be fragments of fibrinogen alpha chain, and the m/z 2380 peptide was identified to be a fragment of complement C4. The intensities of the m/z 2380 and m/z 1467 peptides before drinking were associated with % decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at 45 min after drinking compared with the levels before drinking, while there were no significant correlations between the intensity of the m/z 2662 peptide and % decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels after drinking. The m/z 1467 and 2380 peptides are suggested to be markers for acute reduction of blood pressure after drinking alcohol.

  17. Effect of alcohol on blood glucose and antioxidant enzymes in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K R Shanmugam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus affects every organ in the man including eyes, kidney, heart, and nervous system. Alcohol consumption is a widespread practice. As the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on diabetic state have been little studied, this study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of alcohol in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, the rats were divided into five groups (n = 6 in each group: normal control (NC, alcohol treatment (At, diabetic control (DC, diabetic plus alcohol treatment (D + At, diabetic plus glibenclamide treatment (D + Gli. Alcohol treatment was given to the diabetic rats for 30 days. During the period the blood glucose levels, and body weight changes were observed at regular intervals. The antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were assayed in the liver and kidney tissues. Results: The blood glucose levels were significantly (P < 0.001 elevated and body weight significantly (P < 0.001 decreased in alcohol-treated diabetic rats. SOD and CAT activities were decreased and the MDA level increased significantly (P < 0.001 in alcohol-treated diabetic rats. Histopathological studies showed that alcohol damages the liver and kidney tissues in diabetic rats. Conclusion: These finddings concluded that the consumption of alcohol in diabetic rats worsens the condition. So the consumption of alcohol by diabetic subjects may be potentially harmful.

  18. Why control blood glucose levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, A A

    1976-03-01

    The controversy as to the relationship between the degree of control of diabetes and the progression of the complications of the disease has not been solved. However, in this review, various studies suggesting a relationship between the metabolic abnormality and the diabetic complications are examined. The disadvantages of the uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can be divided into two major categories-short-term and long-term. The short-term disadvantages of controlled diabetes mellitus include the following: (1) ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma; (2) intracellular dehydration; (3) electrolyte imbalance; (4) decreased phagocytosis; (5) immunologic and lymphocyte activity; (6) impairment of wound healing; and (7) abnormality of lipids. The long-term disadvantages of uncontrolled diabetes melitus include the following: (1) nephropathy; (2) neuropathy; (3) retinopathy; (4) cataract formation; (5) effect on perinatal mortality; (6) complications of vascular disease; and (7) the evaluation of various clinical studies suggesting the relationship of elevated blood glucose levels and complications of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that until the question of control can absolutely be resolved, the recommendation is that the blood glucose levels should be controlled as close to the normal as possible.

  19. Changes in blood alcohol concentration and driving ability after alcohol intake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃华丽; 张岫竹; 赵新才; 朱秉忠; 周继红; 王正国

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the amount of consumed alcohol, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), and driving ability among a part of the population in Southwest China and to provide reference for the formulation of the legal limits for safe driving. Methods: Seventy-six randomly selected volunteer drivers each had three times of alcohol intake ( 100 fl each time). After each drank, BAC was measured with gas chromatograph and driving ability was evaluated.The drivers were grouped according to age, weight, alcohol tolerance and driving experience respectively and changes in BAC and driving ability were analyzed. Results: Average BAC and the percentage of drivers showing impaired driving ability in the groups increased after each intake of 100 ml alcohol. BAC in Group≤60 kg was more susceptible to alcohol than that in Group > 60 kg. When each drank, alcohol had greater influence on drivers who had comparatively shorter driving experience. Conclusion: Volume of consumed alcohol, BAC and driving ability have direct associations among one another and are all under the influence of various factors including individual conditions. To set an appropriate legal BAC limit for safe driving should take an overall consideration of all factors.

  20. Alterations of BDNF and GDNF serum levels in alcohol-addicted patients during alcohol withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Bülent Sönmez

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF are neurotrophic neuropeptides that play important roles in the synaptic plasticity, neuronal growth, survival and function. A possible neuroprotective role of neurotrophic factors against alcohol-induced cell damage has been suggested, and dysregulations in neurotrophic factors may be involved in the vulnerability to addiction. The aim of this study was to investigate the alterations of BDNF and GDNF serum levels in alcohol-addicted patients during alcohol withdrawal compared to healthy controls. Methods: BDNF and GDNF serum levels of 34 male inpatients diagnosed with alcohol addiction according to DSM-IV-TR were investigated during alcohol withdrawal (day 1, 7 and 14 in comparison to 32 healthy controls using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Severity of alcohol withdrawal was measured by Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol (CIWA-Ar, and intensity of alcohol craving was measured by Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS during alcohol withdrawal (day 1, 7 and 14. Results: BDNF serum levels increased significantly during alcohol withdrawal (p = 0.020. They were negatively correlated to the severity of alcohol withdrawal, and the correlation was close to being statistically significant (p = 0.058. BDNF and GDNF serum levels did not differ significantly between the patient and control groups. GDNF serum levels did not change significantly during alcohol withdrawal. Conclusions: Our results may provide support for the previously hypothesized role of BDNF in the neuroadaptation during alcohol withdrawal.

  1. An attempt to evaluate diagnostic and prognostic significance of blood endogenous ethanol in alcoholics and their relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Y M; Pronko, P S; Shishkin, S N; Kolesnikov, V B; Volynets, S I

    1989-01-01

    Endogenous ethanol in the blood of human subjects was measured by gas chromatography. In healthy males, 12-13-year-old boys (sons of alcoholic and nonalcoholic fathers), and alcoholic inpatients (after cessation of all drugs), the endogenous ethanol levels ranged from 0 to 4.3 mg/l. The results showed no significant differences between the groups. At the period of alcohol withdrawal reactions the concentrations of endogenous ethanol were minimal in patients with delirium tremens and maximal in patients with mild alcohol withdrawal syndrome, the dynamics of this parameter being dependent on the severity of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the nature of the drugs prescribed.

  2. [The comparison of concentration of endogenous ethanol blood serum in alcoholics and in non-alcoholics at different stages of abstinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszewicz, A; Markowski, T; Pawlak, D

    1997-01-01

    In this report the concentration of endogenous ethanol in blood serum in alcoholics at different stages of abstinence and in non-alcoholics was studied. 36 people--26 alcoholics and 10 non-alcoholics were examined and gas chromatography was used. It was revealed that the longer the period of abstinence in alcoholics, the lower the concentration of endogenous ethanol in blood serum. Moreover, the alcoholics showed a higher concentration of endogenous ethanol in blood serum as compared to non-alcoholics.

  3. Blood creatinine level in postmortem cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Atsushi; Funaki, Hironao; Kobayashi, Masaki; Tanaka, Yuka; Akasaka, Yoshihisa; Kubo, Toshikazu; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Blood chemical analysis for the diagnosis of diseases in forensic cases should be conducted in the same way as for clinical cases. However, it is sometimes difficult to obtain serum samples in forensic cases because of postmortem changes such as hemolysis and putrefaction. This study aimed to evaluate renal function in postmortem cases by blood creatinine analysis. The blood creatinine level was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using whole blood samples taken from 77 postmortem cases, and the relationships between blood creatinine level, postmortem interval, and cause of death were examined. The median blood creatinine level was found to be 1.15 mg/dL, with no significant differences between blood samples taken from different parts of the body. The blood creatinine level was stable for 3 days after death and gradually increased after that period, in line with a previous study using enzymatic analysis that found the serum creatinine level was stable in the early postmortem period. The blood creatinine level was high in the cases of blunt injury, intoxication, and in deaths caused by fire. This was considered to reflect acute renal dysfunction. However, the postmortem blood creatinine level remained higher than the clinical normal value despite omitting cases with renal dysfunction from the analysis. Therefore, we next investigated the change in postmortem creatinine levels in mice and found that the blood creatinine level increased with the emergence of rigor mortis. Our findings indicate that HPLC is useful in the postmortem evaluation of renal function even in the cases where serum cannot be obtained. However, the presence of rigor mortis should be considered in the evaluation of blood creatinine values.

  4. Adolescent alcohol use reflects community-level alcohol consumption irrespective of parental drinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Pernille; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann;

    2013-01-01

    Risk factors for adolescent alcohol use are typically conceptualized at the individual level, and school- and community-level risk factors have received little attention. Based on the theoretical understanding of youth alcohol consumption as a reflection of community social practice, we analyzed...... whether adolescent drunkenness was related to community-level adult alcohol use (AAC), when taking individual and school-level risk factors for drunkenness into account. Furthermore, we investigated whether the association between community-level AAC and adolescent drunkenness was attenuated after...

  5. Hyperestrogenemia and increased blood mercury level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2012-01-01

    Hyperestrogenemia is an important reproductive hormone abnormality. This condition is not common in male patients. In this report, the author presents a case study on hyperestrogenemia with increased blood mercury level. The metalloestrogen phenomenon is discussed.

  6. Sex Difference in the Association between Serum Homocysteine Level and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Bo-Youn; Lee, Soo-Hyun; Yun, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Moon-Jong; Park, Kye-Seon; Kim, Young-Sang; Haam, Ji-Hee; Kim, Hyung-Yuk; Kim, Hye-Jung; Park, Ki-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between serum homocysteine levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the sex-specific relationship between serum homocysteine level and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study included 150 men and 132 women who participated in medical examination programs in Korea from January 2014 to December 2014. Patients were screened for fatty liver by abdominal ultrasound and patient blood samples were collected to measure homocysteine levels. Patients that consumed more than 20 grams of alcohol per day were excluded from this study. Results The homocysteine level (11.56 vs. 8.05 nmol/L) and the proportion of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (60.7% vs. 19.7%) were significantly higher in men than in women. In men, elevated serum homocysteine levels were associated with a greater prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (quartile 1, 43.6%; quartile 4, 80.6%; P=0.01); however, in females, there was no significant association between serum homocysteine levels and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In the logistic regression model adjusted for age and potential confounding parameters, the odds ratio for men was significantly higher in the uppermost quartile (model 3, quartile 4: odds ratio, 6.78; 95% confidential interval, 1.67 to 27.56); however, serum homocysteine levels in women were not associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the crude model or in models adjusted for confounders. Conclusion Serum homocysteine levels were associated with the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in men. PMID:27468343

  7. Functional significance of subjective response to alcohol across levels of alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarski, Spencer; Hutchison, Kent E; Prause, Nicole; Ray, Lara A

    2017-01-01

    Pre-clinical neurobiological models of addiction etiology including both the allostatic model and incentive sensitization theory suggest that alcohol consumption among alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals will be dissociated from hedonic reward as positive reinforcement mechanisms wane in later stage dependence. The aims of this study are to test this claim in humans by examining the relationship between dimensions of subjective responses to alcohol (SR) and alcohol craving across levels of alcohol exposure. Non-treatment-seeking drinkers (n = 205) completed an i.v. alcohol challenge (final target breath alcohol concentration = 0.06 g/dl) and reported on SR and craving. Participants were classified as light-to-moderate drinkers (LMD), heavy drinkers (HD) or AD. Analyses examined group differences in SR and craving response magnitude, as well as concurrent and predictive associations between SR domains and craving. At baseline, LMD and AD reported greater stimulation than HD, which carried over post-alcohol administration. However, stimulation was dose-dependently associated with alcohol craving in HD only. Furthermore, lagged models found that stimulation preceded craving among HD only, whereas this hypothesized pattern of results was not observed for craving preceding stimulation. Sedation was also positively associated with craving, yet no group differences were observed. In agreement with the prediction of diminished positive reinforcement in alcohol dependence, this study showed that stimulation/hedonic reward from alcohol did not precede craving in AD, whereas stimulation was dose-dependently associated with and preceded craving among non-dependent HD.

  8. [Confrontation of knowledge on alcohol concentration in blood and in exhaled air].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Miroslav; Bauerová, Jiřina; Šikuta, Ján; Šidlo, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    The authors of the paper give a brief historical overview of the development of experimental alcohology in the former Czechoslovakia. Enhanced attention is paid to tests of work quality control of toxicological laboratories. Information on results of control tests of blood samples using the method of gas chromatography in Slovakia and within a world-wide study "Eurotox 1990" is presented. There are pointed out the pitfalls related to objective evaluation of the analysis results interpreting alcohol concentration in biological materials and the associated need to eliminate a negative influence of the human factor. The authors recommend performing analyses of alcohol in biological materials only at accredited workplaces and in the case of samples storage to secure a mandatory inhibition of phosphorylation process. There are analysed the reasons of numerical differences of analyses while taking evidence of alcohol in blood and in exhaled air. The authors confirm analysis accuracy using the method of gas chromatography along with breath analysers of exhaled air. They highlight the need for making the analysis results more objective also through confrontation with the results of clinical examination and with examined circumstances. The authors suggest a method of elimination of the human factor, the most frequently responsible for inaccuracy, to a tolerable level (safety factor) and the need of sample analysis by two methods independent of each other or the need of analysis of two biological materials.

  9. Personality and alcohol metacognitions as predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ailsa; Tran, Cathy; Weiss, Alexander; Caselli, Gabriele; Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the relative contribution of the Big 5 personality factors and alcohol metacognitions in predicting weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. No research to date has investigated whether either of these constructs predicts levels of weekly alcohol use in binge drinkers. A sample of university students (n=142) who were classified as binge drinkers were administered the following self-report instruments: NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992), Positive Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (PAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), Negative Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (NAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), and Khavari Alcohol Test (KAT; Khavari & Farber, 1978). Pearson product-moment correlations showed that weekly levels of alcohol use were negatively correlated with agreeableness and conscientiousness and positively correlated with positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation, negative alcohol metacognitions about uncontrollability and negative alcohol metacognitions about cognitive harm. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that conscientiousness and positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation were the only two significant predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use when controlling for gender. These findings show that being male, low on conscientiousness and high on positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation raises the risk for increased weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Blood alcohol concentration at 0.06 and 0.10% causes a complex multifaceted deterioration of body movement control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modig, Fredrik; Fransson, Per-Anders; Magnusson, Måns; Patel, Mitesh

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol-related falls are recognized as a major contributor to the occurrence of traumatic brain injury. The control of upright standing balance is complex and composes of contributions from several partly independent mechanisms such as appropriate information from multiple sensory systems and correct feedback and feed forward movement control. Analysis of multisegmented body movement offers a rarely used option for detecting the fine motor problems associated with alcohol intoxication. The study aims were to investigate whether (1) alcohol intoxication at 0.06 and 0.10% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) affected the body movements under unperturbed and perturbed standing; and (2) alcohol affected the ability for sensorimotor adaptation. Body movements were recorded in 25 participants (13 women and 12 men, mean age 25.1 years) at five locations (ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, and head) during quiet standing and during balance perturbations from pseudorandom pulses of calf muscle vibration over 200s with eyes closed or open. Tests were performed at 0.00, 0.06, and 0.10% BAC. The study revealed several significant findings: (1) an alcohol dose-specific effect; (2) a direction-specific stability decrease from alcohol intoxication; (3) a movement pattern change related to the level of alcohol intoxication during unperturbed standing and perturbed standing; (4) a sensorimotor adaptation deterioration with increased alcohol intoxication; and (5) that vision provided a weaker contribution to postural control during alcohol intoxication. Hence, alcohol intoxication at 0.06 and 0.10% BAC causes a complex multifaceted deterioration of human postural control.

  11. Umbilical cord blood mercury levels in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiqin Wu,; Chonghuai Yan; Jian Xu; Wei Wu; Hui Li; Xin Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a well-known neurotoxicant.Hg exposure at high levels can harm individuals of all ages.Even low level exposure to Hg can damage the brain of fetuses and young children,and affect their central nervous system and cognitive development.The aims of our study were to measure total Hg levels in infant umbilical cord blood and to investigate the risk factors associated with total Hg cord blood levels in various cities in China.Our goal was to provide clues for the prevention of Hg exposure in utero.The results indicated that the average cord blood mercury levels (CBMLs) were (1.81 ± 1.93) μg/L,which were lower than those found in most previous studies.The concentrations also differed according to geographic region.The CBMLs were not only associated with family economic and living conditions,but also with diet in pregnant women,especially the intake of marine fish,shellfish,poultry,formula milk and fruits.

  12. ALCOHOL AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the questions of the relationship between the amount of the consumed alcohol, the type of alcoholic beverage, pattern of alcohol consumption and the blood pressure level. The article presents data on the positive effect of alcohol intake restrictions and recommendations for permissible limits of alcohol consumption. New possibilities of drug therapy aimed at limiting alcohol consumption are being reported.

  13. Can the blood alcohol concentration be a predictor for increased hospital complications in trauma patients involved in motor vehicle crashes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Jaime H; Rajamanickam, Victoria; Fleming, Michael F

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this report is to assess the relationship of varying levels of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and hospital complications in patients admitted after motor vehicle crashes. Data for the study was collected by a retrospective review of the University of Wisconsin Hospital trauma registry between 1999 and 2007 using the National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons (NTRACS). Of 3729 patients, 2210 (59%) had a negative BAC, 338 (9%) 200 mg/dL. Forty-six percent of patients had one or more hospital related complications. The odds ratio (OR) for the occurrence of alcohol withdrawal in the three alcohol groups compared to the no alcohol group was 12.02 (CI 7.0-20.7), 16.81 (CI 10.4-27.2), and 30.96 (CI 19.5-49.2) as BAC increased with a clear dose response effect. While there were no significant differences in the frequency of the total hospital events following trauma across the four groups, rates of infections, coagulopathies, central nervous system events and renal complications were lower in the high BAC group. Prospective studies are needed to more precisely estimate the frequency of hospital complications in patients with alcohol use disorders and in persons intoxicated at the time of the motor vehicle accident. The study supports the use of routine BAC to predict patients at high risk for alcohol withdrawal and the early initiation of alcohol detoxification.

  14. Blood lead levels of British competitive cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G; Maclaren, D; Taylor, C

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the potentially toxic lead particulates emitted from motor vehicles are absorbed by competitive cyclists. A time trial (n = 5), a road race (n = 5), and a sedentary control group (n = 5) were examined with respect to blood lead (PbB) levels. In the two cycling groups, the PbB levels were measured before and after (1) a time trial (80 km) held on a dual carriageway; and (2) a road race (120 km) which took place in a rural area. Mean (+/- SE) resting PbB levels for the sedentary subjects, time trialists, and road racers were 0.442 +/- 0.041, 0.490 +/- 0.111 and 0.384 +/- 0.061 mumol l-1 respectively (p > 0.05). Mean post-race PbB levels of the time trialists (0.528 +/- 0.046 mumol l-1) and road racers (0.346 +/- 0.024 mumol l-1) did not differ significantly from the pre-race levels (p > 0.05). However, after their respective races, the mean PbB level of the time trialists was higher than that of the road racers (p cycling (70% VO2 max) in a laboratory containing approximately 1 microgram m3 of airborne lead did not affect blood lead levels. All PbB levels compiled with EC regulations regarding lead exposure. Despite a positive relationship between the amount of training and the PbB levels (r = 0.64, p road racing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Voluntary alcohol consumption and plasma beta-endorphin levels in alcohol preferring rats chronically treated with lamotrigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska-Kaszubska, Jadwiga; Bajer, Bartosz; Gorska, Dorota; Andrzejczak, Dariusz; Dyr, Wanda; Bieńkowski, Przemysław

    2015-02-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that lamotrigine, similarly to other antiepileptic drugs, may be useful in the therapy of alcohol dependence. The rationale for using lamotrigine in the treatment of alcohol addiction is based on its multiple mechanisms of action which include inhibition of voltage-sensitive sodium channels, modulation voltage-gated calcium currents and transient potassium outward current. However, the known mechanism of lamotrigine does not fully explain its efficacy in alcohol addiction therapy. For this reason we have decided to examine the effect of lamotrigine on the opioid system. Our previous studies showed that topiramate and levetiracetam (antiepileptic drugs) as well as the most effective drugs in alcohol addiction therapy i.e. naltrexone and acamprosate, when given repeatedly, all increased plasma beta endorphin (an endogenous opioid peptide) level, despite operating through different pharmacological mechanisms. It is known that low beta-endorphin level is often associated with alcohol addiction and also that alcohol consumption elevates the level of this peptide. This study aims to assess the effect of repeated treatment with lamotrigine on voluntary alcohol intake and beta-endorphin plasma level in alcohol preferring rats (Warsaw high preferring (WHP) rats). We observed a decrease in alcohol consumption in rats treated with lamotrigine. However we didn't observe significant changes in beta-endorphin level during withdrawal of alcohol, which may indicate that the drug does not affect the opioid system. We suppose that lamotrigine may be useful in alcohol dependence therapy and presents a potential area for further study.

  16. Comparison of breath-alcohol screening test results with venous blood alcohol concentration in suspected drunken drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriikku, Pirkko; Wilhelm, Lars; Jenckel, Stefan; Rintatalo, Janne; Hurme, Jukka; Kramer, Jan; Jones, A Wayne; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2014-06-01

    Hand-held electronic breath-alcohol analyzers are widely used by police authorities in their efforts to detect drunken drivers and to improve road-traffic safety. Over a three month period, the results of roadside breath-alcohol tests of drivers apprehended in Finland were compared with venous blood alcohol concentration (BAC). The mean (median) time between sampling blood and breath was 0.71h (0.58h) with a range from 0 to 6h. Some hand-held instruments gave results as the concentration of alcohol in breath and were converted into BAC assuming a blood-breath alcohol ratio (BBR) of 2260. The mean venous BAC (1.82g/kg) in traffic offenders was higher than the result predicted by the hand-held breath analyzers (1.72g/kg). In 1875 roadside tests, the relationship between venous BAC (x) and BrAC (y) was defined by the regression equation y=0.18+0.85x. The coefficients show both a constant bias (y-intercept 0.18g/kg) and a proportional bias (slope=0.85). The residual standard deviation (SD), an indicator of random variation, was ±0.40g/kg. After BAC results were corrected for the time elapsed between sampling blood and breath, the y-intercept decreased to 0.10g/kg and 0.004g/kg, respectively, when low (0.1g/kg/h) and high (0.25g/kg/h) rates of alcohol elimination were used. The proportional bias of 0.85 shows that the breath-alcohol test result reads lower than the actual BAC by 15% on average. This suggests that the BBR of 2260 used for calibration should be increased by about 15% to give closer agreement between BAC and BrAC. Because of the large random variation (SD±0.40g/kg), there is considerable uncertainty if and when results from the roadside screening test are used to estimate venous BAC. The roadside breath-alcohol screening instruments worked well for the purpose of selecting drivers above the statutory limit of 0.50g/kg.

  17. [Endogenous blood ethanol in alcoholic patients and healthy subjects with and without a family history of alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pron'ko, P S; Shishkin, S N; Kolesnikov, V B; Volynets, S I; Ostrovskiĭ, Iu M

    1987-01-01

    Levels of endogenous ethanol were studied in healthy males, 12-13-year-old boys (sons of alcoholics and normal fathers) and alcoholic patients (after discontinuation of all drugs). The results showed no significant differences between the groups. On the other hand endogenous ethanol concentrations were higher than normal in oligophrenic boys irrespective of whether their fathers were alcoholics or healthy subjects. In the abstinence period endogenic ethanol concentrations were the minimal in patients with delirium tremens and a severe abstinence syndrome, the dynamics of this parameter in the process of treatment being dependent on the severity of the abstinence syndrome and on the nature of treatment.

  18. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  19. [Actomyosin ATPase activity of skeletal muscles and the markers of tissue damage in the blood of rats under prolonged chronic alcoholization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseĭslier, Iu V; Podpalova, O M; Nuryshchenko, N Ie; Martyniuk, V S

    2014-01-01

    The activity of creatine kinase and indices of lipid metabolism in the blood and also actomyosin ATPase activity of skeletal muscles of rats under chronic 8-month alcohol abuse were investigated. It is shown that actomyosin K+-ATPase activity of skeletal muscles increases from two months of ethanol use, but actomyosin Mg2+-ATPase activity decreases during 6-8 months of alcoholization. From two months of ethanol use the creatine kinase activity, as an enzyme marker of muscle tissue damage, statistically significantly increases during all the period of the animals alcoholization. The level of total lipid increases after two months of alcohol consumption (in blood plasma by 30% and in erythrocyte mass by 65%). For longer periods of alcoholization (4-8 months) the level of lipids remains almost the same, whereas in erythrocyte mass it does not differ from control values. The level of diene conjugates in the blood plasma reduces and the amount of ketone derivatives of fatty acid residues increases that points to the inhibition of some components of the antioxidant system that control detoxification of hydroperoxides of fatty acids and also to activation of free radical damage of tissues. There were no significant changes of lipid peroxidation level in erythrocyte mass at any stage of alcoholization.

  20. Alcohol-positive multiple trauma patients with and without blood transfusion: an outcome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuttmann Ralph

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood transfusion is a common therapy for multiple trauma patients, and is often performed soon after hospital admission. It is unclear whether the need for a blood transfusion in multiply injured patients presenting with a positive blood alcohol concentration (BAC is associated with increased morbidity/mortality, since their risk behavior differs significantly from patients with a negative BAC. In this study, we evaluated the role of blood transfusion in the treatment of BAC-positive multiple trauma patients. Patients In a three-year period, 164 patients at a single trauma center presented with a positive BAC, and 145 met the inclusion criteria for further evaluation and regression analysis. We compared patients who were transfused (n = 76 with those who were not transfused (n = 69. Results In both groups, the most common causes of trauma were traffic accidents and falls. Most patients were admitted to the hospital from the scene of the accident (77.2% and were male (89.0%. Transfused patients had a lower GCS (p ≤ .001 and her ISS (p ≤ .001, were more likely to have severe head injuries (p ≤ .001, tended to have higher BACs (p = .053, had lower hemoglobin levels and prothrombin times in the first 24 hours (p ≤ .001, had lower lactate levels, had higher rates of intubation (p ≤ .001 and ICU admission, and had longer ICU stays and artificial ventilation times (p ≤ .001. Mortality was significantly higher in transfused patients (n = 15 vs. n = 3, p ≤ .001. Non-survivors were more likely to have severe head injuries; be intubated and ventilated; be older; have higher ISS scores, lactate levels, and numbers of transfusions in the first 24 hours; and have lower GCS scores, hemoglobin measurements, and prothrombin levels. In a binary logistic regression model, only age (p = .009 and ISS (p = .004 independently predicted mortality. Conclusion In our single-center study, the BAC of multiple trauma patients and the

  1. High alcohol consumption causes high IgE levels but not high risk of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Frederikke K; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-01-01

    disease. Genetically, we explored potential causal relationships between alcohol consumption and IgE levels and allergic disease. RESULTS: The multivariable adjusted odds ratio for IgE levels greater than versus less than 150 kU/L and compared with subjects without allergic disease was 2.3 (95% CI, 2......BACKGROUND: High alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels in observational studies; however, whether high alcohol consumption leads to high IgE levels and allergic disease is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that high alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels...... for the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH-1B; rs1229984) and alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH-1C; rs698). Observationally, we investigated associations between IgE levels and allergic disease (allergic asthma, rhinitis, and eczema) and between alcohol consumption and IgE levels and allergic...

  2. [Blood alcohol in automobile drivers--a comparison between Saarland and West Saxony].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, M R; Müller, R K

    1991-01-01

    The Saarland and Saxony have not only been located at the western respectively at the eastern border of Germany (or of the then separated both German states). Different law regulations and lifestyles seemed to be an additional reason for different incidences of blood alcohol. Therefore, the blood alcohol cases of the university institutes for legal medicine of both provinces were statistically compared for 1989. Beyond some difficulties in the comparison itself due to different definitions and managements, equal or similar patterns dominated by far against discrepancies. The slightly different regulations for quality assurance were also compared with the expectation of their equalisation during the next future.

  3. A field investigation of perceived behavioral control and blood alcohol content: a pattern-oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Coyle, Patrick T; Baldner, Conrad; Bray, Bethany C; Geller, E Scott

    2013-04-01

    As the first field study of perceived behavioral control (PBC) to assess alcohol consumption with a physiological measure (i.e., blood alcohol content; BAC), the research examined the impact of intoxication on alcohol-specific PBC (APBC). In total, 665 passersby were recruited into the study at several late-night drinking locations near a large university campus. After answering questions regarding personal demographics and APBC, participants were administered a breath alcohol test (Lifeloc FC-20; ±.005mL/L). The average BAC of drinking participants was .096mL/L. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to classify participants based on APBC responses. Three classes emerged: high PBC, high controllability, and low controllability. Class membership varied as a function of gender and Greek-life membership. Blood alcohol content was a significant predictor of class membership. Results show a link between alcohol consumption and APBC that varies based on gender and Greek-life status. These findings are discussed with regard to their implications for a variety of prevention interventions.

  4. The evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow in the chronic alcohol abuse patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. A.; Kim, D. J.; Oh, J. H.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K. [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The use of alcohol is increasingly prevalent in our country and remains associated with innumerable social and economic problems. In addition, brain abnormalities have been proved by means of neuroimaging techniques not only in the first days of withdrawal, but also months after the last use of the substance in the patients. The purpose of the present study was to investigate patterns of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in alcoholic dementia. Six patients (all men; 44-67 years, mean age = 57.5 years) who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for alcoholic dementia were enrolled in the study. RCBF measurements of resting state using Tc-99m ethyl cysteinate dimmer (ECD) SPECT were performed. The SPECT image was obtained 40 minutes after intravenous injection of 1110 MBq of Tc-99m ECD using a dual-head gamma camera (ECAM plus; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The normalized SPECT data from the alcoholic dementia group were compared with those from 12 healthy subjects. Alcoholic dementia patients showed significant decrement of rCBF in the left thalamus, superior frontal gyrus of left frontal lobe, left insula, postcentral gyrus of left parietal lobe, parahippocapal gyrus of left limbic lobe, right caudate, and cingulate gyrus of right limbic lobe than age-matched healthy subjects. Despite the small number of patients examined, the study supports the belief that patients with alcohol induced cognitive dysfunction have the neuro pathophysiology as those with classical alcoholic dementia.

  5. Estimation of benchmark dose as the threshold amount of alcohol consumption for blood pressure in Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwazono, Yasushi; Sakata, Kouichi; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Okubo, Yasushi; Dochi, Mirei; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Kido, Teruhiko; Nogawa, Koji

    2007-12-01

    In order to determine the threshold amount of alcohol consumption for blood pressure, we calculated the benchmark dose (BMD) of alcohol consumption and its 95% lower confidence interval (BMDL) in Japanese workers. The subjects consisted of 4,383 males and 387 females in a Japanese steel company. The target variables were systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures. The effects of other potential covariates such as age and body mass index were adjusted by including these covariates in the multiple linear regression models. In male workers, BMD/BMDL for alcohol consumption (g/week) at which the probability of an adverse response was estimated to increase by 5% relative to no alcohol consumption, were 396/315 (systolic blood pressure), 321/265 (diastolic blood pressure), and 326/269 (mean arterial pressures). These values were based on significant regression coefficients of alcohol consumption. In female workers, BMD/BMDL for alcohol consumption based on insignificant regression coefficients were 693/134 (systolic blood pressure), 199/90 (diastolic blood pressure), and 267/77 (mean arterial pressure). Therefore, BMDs/BMDLs in males were more informative than those in females as there was no significant relationship between alcohol and blood pressure in females. The threshold amount of alcohol consumption determined in this study provides valuable information for preventing alcohol-induced hypertension.

  6. Evaluation of blood zinc, calcium and blood lead levels among children aged 1-36 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xiaojun

    Full Text Available Background: Early childhood lead exposure is associated with numerous adverse health effects. Biomonitoring among susceptible populations, such as children, has not been previously conducted. The aim of the study is to evaluate the blood lead (Pb and total blood calcium (Ca levels; blood zinc (Zn levels. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to collect healthy children age 1-36 months (Mean ± SD: 1.5 ± 0.6 age, 60% boys in the study from January 2010 to September 2011. Results: The overall mean blood Pb levels were 42.18 ± 12.13 μg/L, the overall mean blood Zn and total blood Ca concentrations were 62.18 ± 12.33 μmol/L and 1.78 ± 0.13 mmol/L, respectively. The prevalence of elevated blood Pb levels in all children was 1.3%. A significant difference was found between female and male subjects for the blood Pb and Zn. After controlling for gender and age, there was a weak positive correlation between total blood Ca and Zn level. Conclusions: The blood Pb levels had a significant negative correlation with total blood Ca level after adjusting for age and gender, and these findings suggest that Pb had effect on positive blood Zn and total blood Ca levels; parents should pay more attention to the nutrition of girls.

  7. Relationships between alcoholic beverages and cardiovascular risk factor levels in middle-aged men, the PRIME Study. Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, P; Montaye, M; Haas, B; Bingham, A; Evans, A; Juhan-Vague, I; Ferrières, J; Luc, G; Amouyel, P; Arveiler, D; Yarnell, J; Ruidavets, J B; Scarabin, P Y; Ducimetière, P

    2001-08-01

    The relationships between alcoholic beverages and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in 6730 men living in France or Northern Ireland. In France, all alcoholic beverages were significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), high density lipoprotein (HDL) parameters, PAI-1 and Factor VII, whereas only wine was negatively related with fibrinogen levels. After adjusting for center, age, BMI, educational level, smoking and marital status, wine had a lesser effect on blood pressure, triglyceride, apo B and LpE:B levels than beer. Wine was associated with lower fibrinogen levels and beer with higher PAI-1 activity levels independent of the amount of alcohol consumed. In Northern Ireland, wine was negatively correlated with BMI, triglycerides, LpE:B and fibrinogen, whereas beer was positively correlated with SBP and DBP, triglycerides, HDL, apoprotein A-I and fibrinogen. Multivariate analysis showed wine to be positively associated with HDL parameters, and negatively with fibrinogen levels. Wine was also associated with higher LpA-I levels and lower fibrinogen levels independent of the amount of alcohol consumed. We conclude that alcohol consumption is related to lipid, lipoprotein and haemostatic variables, but the magnitude of the relationships depends on the type of alcoholic beverage. Also, some effects might be related to non-alcoholic components.

  8. Alcohol consumption among university students: applying a social ecological approach for multi-level preventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantamay, Somphol

    2009-03-01

    This study investigates factors affecting alcohol consumption among university students through a social ecological approach as a theoretical framework. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 1,200 university students in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis at the 0.05 level of statistical significance were used to analyze the data. The results showed that all 22 independent variables can copredict alcohol consumption among university students at 41.2% (Adjusted = 40.1%). However, there were only 13 variables that affected alcohol consumption significantly: gender, age, monthly income, living arrangement, attitude toward alcohol use, perceived susceptibility of alcohol use, perceived self-efficacy, peer drinking, relatives drinking, accessibility of alcohol around university, accessibility of alcohol around community, exposure to anti-alcohol campaign, and exposure to alcohol advertising. The findings suggested that alcohol consumption was not only affected by the individual-level factor, but it was also affected by multi-level environmental factors, including interpersonal-level, institutional-level, community-level, and societal-level factors. Consequently, multi-level preventions should be urgently considered to prevent alcohol use among university students in Thailand.

  9. Blood thiamine, zinc, selenium, lead and oxidative stress in a population of male and female alcoholics: clinical evidence and gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Mancinelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. Long term alcohol abuse is associated with deficiencies in essential nutrients and minerals that can cause a variety of medical consequences including accumulation of toxic metals. Aim. The aim of this research is to get evidence-based data to evaluate alcohol damage and to optimize treatment. Thiamine and thiamine diphosphate (T/TDP, zinc (Zn, selenium (Se, lead (Pb and oxidative stress in terms of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs were examined in blood samples from 58 alcohol dependent patients (17 females and 41 males. RESULTS. T/TDP concentration in alcoholics resulted significantly lower than controls (p < 0.005 for both sexes. Serum Zn and Se did not significantly differ from reference values. Levels of blood Pb in alcoholics resulted significantly higher (p < 0.0001 than Italian reference values and were higher in females than in males. ROMs concentration was significantly higher than healthy population only in female abusers (p = 0.005. CONCLUSION. Alcoholics show a significant increase in blood oxidative stress and Pb and decrease in thiamine. Impairment occurs mainly in female abusers confirming a gender specific vulnerability.

  10. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  11. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  12. Voluntary alcohol consumption and plasma beta-endorphin levels in alcohol preferring rats chronically treated with levetiracetam: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska-Kaszubska, Jadwiga; Bajer, Bartosz; Czarnecka, Elżbieta; Dyr, Wanda; Gorska, Dorota

    2011-03-28

    Many recent researches have confirmed the effectiveness of antiepileptic drugs in preventing alcohol dependency, whereas our previous study showed that repeated treatment with topiramate, a new antiepileptic drug, was effective in increasing the plasma levels of beta-endorphin (an endogenous opioid peptide) in rats. It is well documented that in humans a genetic deficit of beta-endorphin is often associated with alcohol addiction as alcohol consumption elevates the level of this peptide. The aim of the present study is multifaceted: to investigate the effect of repeated treatment of levetiracetam (50 or 100mg/kg b.w., twice daily) on voluntary alcohol intake in alcohol preferring rats (Warsaw High Preferring; WHP) and to assess changes in plasma beta-endorphin levels while alcohol is available and when it is not available for an extended period of time. We observed a noticeable increase in the levels of beta-endorphin in rats with free access to alcohol whether in a prolonged levetiracetam-treated or vehicle-treated group. However, in the levetiracetam group, a voluntary intake of alcohol diminished in comparison with both the pretreatment period and in comparison with the vehicle-treated rats. A similar increase in the plasma beta-endorphin levels was observed in levetiracetam-treated rats that did not have access to ethanol. This finding lets us to believe that levetiracetam may be a promising medication in treatment of alcohol dependency as its application leads to the increase in the beta-endorphin concentration and ultimately results in reducing deficiency of this peptide.

  13. The effect of alcohols on red blood cell mechanical properties and membrane fluidity depends on their molecular size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melda Sonmez

    Full Text Available The role of membrane fluidity in determining red blood cell (RBC deformability has been suggested by a number of studies. The present investigation evaluated alterations of RBC membrane fluidity, deformability and stability in the presence of four linear alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol using ektacytometry and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy. All alcohols had a biphasic effect on deformability such that it increased then decreased with increasing concentration; the critical concentration for reversal was an inverse function of molecular size. EPR results showed biphasic changes of near-surface fluidity (i.e., increase then decrease and a decreased fluidity of the lipid core; rank order of effectiveness was butanol > propanol > ethanol > methanol, with a significant correlation between near-surface fluidity and deformability (r = 0.697; p<0.01. The presence of alcohol enhanced the impairment of RBC deformability caused by subjecting cells to 100 Pa shear stress for 300 s, with significant differences from control being observed at higher concentrations of all four alcohols. The level of hemolysis was dependent on molecular size and concentration, whereas echinocytic shape transformation (i.e., biconcave disc to crenated morphology was observed only for ethanol and propanol. These results are in accordance with available data obtained on model membranes. They document the presence of mechanical links between RBC deformability and near-surface membrane fluidity, chain length-dependence of the ability of alcohols to alter RBC mechanical behavior, and the biphasic response of RBC deformability and near-surface membrane fluidity to increasing alcohol concentrations.

  14. The effect of chronic alcohol consumption on mitochondrial DNA mutagenesis in human blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurmb-Schwark, N. von [Institute of Legal Medicine, Christian Albrecht University of Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 12, 24105 Kiel (Germany)], E-mail: nvonwurmb@rechtsmedizin.uni-kiel.de; Ringleb, A.; Schwark, T. [Institute of Legal Medicine, Christian Albrecht University of Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 12, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Broese, T.; Weirich, S.; Schlaefke, D. [Clinic of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Rostock, Gehlsheimer Str. 20, Rostock (Germany); Wegener, R. [Institute of Legal Medicine, St-Georg-Str. 108, University of Rostock, 18055 Rostock (Germany); Oehmichen, M. [Institute of Legal Medicine, Christian Albrecht University of Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 12, 24105 Kiel (Germany)

    2008-01-01

    The 4977 bp deletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is known to accumulate with increasing age in post mitotic tissues. Recently, studies came out detecting this specific alteration also in fast replicating cells, e.g. in blood or skin tissue, often in correlation to specific diseases or - specifically in skin - external stressors such as UV radiation. In this study, we investigated mitochondrial mutagenesis in 69 patients with a chronic alcoholic disease and 46 age matched controls with a moderate drinking behavior. Two different fragments, specific for total and for deleted mtDNA (dmtDNA) were amplified in a duplex-PCR. A subsequent fragment analysis was performed and for relative quantification, the quotient of the peak areas of amplification products specific for deleted and total mtDNA was determined. Additionally, a real time PCR was performed to quantify mtDNA copy number. The relative amount of 4977 bp deleted mtDNA in alcoholics was significantly increased compared to controls. On the other hand, no difference regarding the mtDNA/nuclear DNA ratio in both investigated groups was detected. Additionally, no age dependence could be found nor in alcoholics, neither in the control group. These findings indicate that mtDNA mutagenesis in blood can be influenced by stressors such as alcohol. Ethanol seems to be a significant factor to alter mitochondrial DNA in blood and might be an additional contributor for the cellular aging process.

  15. [Effects of the histamine H2 receptor antagonist roxatidine acetate on stomach and liver alcohol dehydrogenase and serum alcohol level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beil, W; Sewing, K F

    1993-11-01

    Some histamine-H2-receptor antagonists block gastric first-pass metabolism of ethanol and lead to increased blood alcohol concentrations after ingestion of a low dose (0.15 and 0.3 g/kg) of alcohol. To investigate whether the histamine-H2-receptor antagonist roxatidine acetate has a similar effect, we administered a low dose (0.3 g/kg) of ethanol to eleven volunteers before and after seven days treatment with roxatidine acetate (150 mg once daily). No effect of the drug on mean peak serum alcohol concentrations or on areas under the serum alcohol curves was found. In vitro, roxatidine acetate and its active metabolite roxatidine had almost no effect on guinea-pig gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity. We conclude that roxatidine acetate does not block gastric first-pass metabolism of ethanol and can be considered as a safe histamine-H2-receptor antagonist in individuals who do not refrain from alcohol consumption under treatment for gastric or duodenal ulcer disease.

  16. Blood lead levels in preschool children in Cape Town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deveaux, P.; Kibel, M.A.; Dempster, W.S.; Pocock, F.; Formenti, K.

    1986-03-29

    Blood lead levels were assessed in 293 children aged between 4 and 6 years attending preschool centers in metropolitan Cape Town in order to establish the degree of lead absorption. Anthropometric data, blood count, zinc protoporphyrin and blood lead level were obtained for each child. A questionnaire was used to determine socio-economic status, dietary habits and history of pica. Thirteen children, or 4,4% of those sampled, had blood levels of greater than or equal to 30 micrograms/dl. The majority of these children lived in close proximity to one another in a socially deprived inner urban environment. Environmental sampling for lead was carried out in the homes of children with the highest blood levels as well as in the homes of a matched control group with low levels living in the same area. The only difference was a significantly higher incidence of pica in the children with high levels.

  17. Whole blood viscosity issues VI: Association with blood salicylate level and gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel Uba Nwose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : This series on whole blood viscosity issues has been trying to elucidate the sensitivity, specificity and usefulness of the laboratory parameter in clinical practice. The postulation has been that since antiplatelet is used in the management of stasis, of which blood viscosity is an index, the latter would be useful laboratory indication and/or contraindication. Aim : The aim of this study was to observe whether blood level of acetylsalicylic acid differs with the level of whole blood viscosity. Patients and Methods : Out of the ten years database, 538 cases that were concomitantly tested for haematocrit, total proteins and blood level of salicylate were selected for this study. A separate nine cases of positive faecal occult blood tests were audited for blood viscosity and reviewed. Results : A statistically significant difference is observed with lower blood viscosity being associated with higher salicylate level in comparison of the former between the highest vs. lowest quartiles (p < 0.002. This observation demonstrates the effect of aspirin in lowering blood stasis. Reviewing the positive faecal occult blood cases indicate that gastrointestinal bleeding is characterized by relative hypoviscosity and that hyperviscosity is not present during bleeding complications. Conclusion : The findings affirm that whole blood viscosity is a valid clinical laboratory parameter for evidence-based contraindication, indication and monitoring of antiplatelet medication. It calls for better appreciation and clinical utility of whole blood viscosity, which (in the absence of viscometer can now be extrapolated from haematocrit and total proteins.

  18. Blood (Breath) Alcohol Concentration Rates of College Football Fans on Game Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis; Braun, Robert; Reindl, Diana M.; Whewell, Aubrey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the Blood (breath) Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) rates of college football fans on game day. Researchers employed a time-series study design, collecting data at home football games at a large university in the Midwest. Participants included 536 individuals (64.4% male) ages 18-83 (M = 28.44, SD = 12.32).…

  19. An Investigation on the Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Physalis alkekengi on Blood Indexes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Yarmahmoudi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physalis alkekengi by effective ingredients such as alkaloids, glucocorticoids and because of antioxidant property can play a role in homeostasis. The aim of this study was to examine the possible effects of fruit extract of P. alkekengi on blood homogram. Materials and Methods: Forty male rats were divided to control, sham (normal saline and experimental groups (highest, moderate and minimum doses of alcoholic extract. Then, the blood samples were taken in order to perform laboratory test by Sysmex analyzer, and were analyzed using ANOVA. Results: Results showed that the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit increased and white blood cells decreased. Conclusion: Fruit extract of P. alkekensi is probably effective in treatment of anemia.

  20. Dopamine receptor agonists modulate voluntary alcohol intake independently of individual levels of alcohol intake in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelder, Marcia; Baars, Annemarie M; Rotte, Marthe D; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Lesscher, Heidi M B

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Individual susceptibility to alcohol use disorder has been related to functional changes in dopaminergic neurotransmission. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current work was to assess the effects of selective dopamine D1 and D2 receptor agonists and antagonists on alcohol consumption in rats th

  1. Leptin levels are reduced by intravenous ghrelin administration and correlated with cue-induced alcohol craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haass-Koffler, C L; Aoun, E G; Swift, R M; de la Monte, S M; Kenna, G A; Leggio, L

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the role of appetite-regulating pathways, including ghrelin and leptin, in alcoholism. This study tested the hypothesis that intravenous exogenous ghrelin administration acutely decreases endogenous serum leptin levels, and that changes in leptin levels negatively correlate with alcohol craving. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study. Non-treatment-seeking, alcohol-dependent, heavy drinkers (n=45) were randomized to receive intravenous ghrelin or placebo, followed by a cue-reactivity procedure, during which participants were exposed to neutral (juice) and alcohol trial cues. There was a main effect for intravenous ghrelin administration, compared with placebo, in reducing serum leptin levels (Pcraving.

  2. The Association Between Blood Alcohol Content and Cheerfulness, Focus Distraction, and Sluggishness Among Young Adults Attending High School Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Rod, Morten H; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine;

    2014-01-01

    The belief that alcohol makes you cheerful is one of the main reasons for engaging in high-risk drinking, especially among young adults. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between blood alcohol content (BAC) and cheerfulness, focus distraction, and sluggishness among students...

  3. Elevated endotoxin levels in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sudhesh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging data indicate that gut-derived endotoxin may contribute to low-grade systemic inflammation in insulin resistant states. This study aimed to examine the importance of serum endotoxin and inflammatory markers in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD patients, with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and to explore the effect of treatment with a lipase inhibitor, Orlistat, on their inflammatory status. Methods Fasted serum from 155 patients with biopsy proven NAFLD and 23 control subjects were analysed for endotoxin, soluble CD14 (sCD14, soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor II (sTNFRII and various metabolic parameters. A subgroup of NAFLD patients were re-assessed 6 and 12 months after treatment with diet alone (n = 6 or diet plus Orlistat (n = 8. Results Endotoxin levels were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD compared with controls (NAFLD: 10.6(7.8, 14.8 EU/mL; controls: 3.9(3.2, 5.2 EU/mL, p Sub-cohort treatment with Orlistat in patients with NAFLD showed significant decreases in ALT (p = 0.006, weight (p = 0.005 and endotoxin (p = 0.004 compared with the NAFLD, non-Orlistat treated control cohort at 6 and 12 months post therapy, respectively. Conclusions Endotoxin levels were considerably increased in NAFLD patients, with marked increases noted in early stage fibrosis compared with controls. These results suggest elevated endotoxin may serve as an early indicator of potential liver damage, perhaps negating the need for invasive liver biopsy. As endotoxin may promote insulin resistance and inflammation, interventions aimed at reducing endotoxin levels in NAFLD patients may prove beneficial in reducing inflammatory burden.

  4. Feasibility of matching alcohol patients to ASAM levels of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanke, Nicole; Magura, Stephen; Staines, Graham; Foote, Jeffrey; DeLuca, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    The study examined the feasibility of implementing treatment recommendations derived from the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) Patient Placement Criteria in an urban addiction treatment program that offered a continuum of levels of care (LOC). A cohort of 281 applicants for alcoholism treatment were evaluated and the reasons for observed differences ("mismatches") between recommended and actual LOC placements were determined. Overall, 88% of the applicants entered treatment, and 72% of these were matched to LOC vs. 28% who were mismatched. Presumptive overtreatment (59%) was more common than undertreatment (41%) among the mismatched patients. The reasons for overtreatment were availability of Medicaid coverage for inpatient rehabilitation (93%), referral sources' treatment philosophy of gradually "stepping down" from inpatient detoxification (59%), social pressures on patients (28%), and mandated treatment (8%). The reasons for presumptive undertreatment were work schedule conflicts (72%), patient reluctance (48%), insurance coverage (15%), and interference with family or personal responsibilities (9%). These results indicate multiple barriers that need to be overcome to enable full implementation of the ASAM Criteria in real world program settings, even when a continuum of care is available.

  5. A retrospective cohort study of blood hemoglobin levels in blood donors and competitive rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, P. I.; Ullum, H.; Jensen, Kurt;

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of blood hemoglobin levels in healthy blood donors and elite athletes, a retrospective cohort study from 2001 to 2005 of candidate blood donors and elite rowers in Denmark was performed. Eighty-five thousand eight hundred and forty-six blood donors were identified.......3% of the females demonstrated values above the recommended limit for athletic competition. Thus, the prevalence of a high hemoglobin value was greater in the rowers, of both gender, than in the candidate blood donors (P... people and especially in competition athletes....

  6. Forensic-metrological considerations on assessment of compliance (or non-compliance) in forensic blood alcohol content determinations: A case study with software application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Tedeschi, Gianpaola; Frasson, Samuela

    2016-08-01

    Blood alcohol concentration is the most frequent analytical determination carried out in forensic toxicology laboratories worldwide. It is usually required to assess if an offence has been committed by comparing blood alcohol levels with specified legal limits, which can vary widely among countries. Due to possible serious legal consequences associated with non-compliant alcohol levels, measurement uncertainty should be carefully evaluated, along with other metrological aspects which can influence the final result. The whole procedure can be time-consuming and error-generating in routine practice, increasing the risks for unreliable assessments. A software application named Ethanol WorkBook (EtWB) was developed at the author's laboratory by using Visual Basic for Application language and MS Excel(®), with the aim of providing help to forensic analysts involved in blood alcohol determinations. The program can (i) calculate measurement uncertainties and decision limits with different methodologies; (ii) assess compliance to specification limits with a guard-band approach; (iii) manage quality control (QC) data and create control charts for QC samples; (iv) create control maps from real cases data archives; (v) provide laboratory reports with graphical outputs for elaborated data and (vi) create comprehensive searchable case archives. A typical example of drink driving case is presented and discussed to illustrate the importance of a metrological approach for reliable compliance assessment and to demonstrate software application in routine practice. The tool is made freely available to the scientific community at request.

  7. New Zealand's breath and blood alcohol testing programs: further data analysis and forensic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, A R; Gainsford, A R; Gullberg, R G

    2008-07-01

    Paired blood and breath alcohol concentrations (BAC, in g/dL, and BrAC, in g/210 L), were determined for 11,837 drivers apprehended by the New Zealand Police. For each driver, duplicate BAC measurements were made using headspace gas chromatography and duplicate BrAC measurements were made with either Intoxilyzer 5000, Seres 679T or Seres 679ENZ Ethylometre infrared analysers. The variability of differences between duplicate results is described in detail, as well as the variability of differences between the paired BrAC and BAC results. The mean delay between breath and blood sampling was 0.73 h, ranging from 0.17 to 3.1 8h. BAC values at the time of breath testing were estimated by adjusting BAC results using an assumed blood alcohol clearance rate. The paired BrAC and time-adjusted BAC results were analysed with the aim of estimating the proportion of false-positive BrAC results, using the time-adjusted BAC results as references. When BAC results were not time-adjusted, the false-positive rate (BrAC>BAC) was 31.3% but after time-adjustment using 0.019 g/dL/h as the blood alcohol clearance rate, the false-positive rate was only 2.8%. However, harmful false-positives (defined as cases where BrAC>0.1 g/210L, while BACtest results were used as the evidential results instead of the means, the harmful false-positive rate dropped to 0.04%.

  8. Long-term Administration of Alcohol in Rats: Effects on Glucagon and Insulin Levels in Sera During Pre-Pregnancy, Pregnancy and Lactation Periods

    OpenAIRE

    ZEYBEK, Birsen; TÜRKMEN, Gülhan

    2002-01-01

    The effects of long-term administration of ethyl alcohol on insulin and glucagon hormone levels during pregnancy and lactation periods of rats were investigated. Female wistar albinos, 200±20 g, were used in this study. The control group consisted of 15 rats, and the experimental group consist of 25 ethyl-alcohol-addicted rats. While 0.9% saline (with sucrose) was to the control group, a 5 g kg perday dose of 20% ethyl alcohol was given to the experimental group. Blood samples were taken fiv...

  9. Synergistic effects of elevated homocysteine level and abnormal blood lipids on the onset of stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Hao; Zhenzhen Cheng; Qiang Wu; Shuzhang Li; Liming Chen; Xiaoyong Sai; Zhefeng Liu; Guang Yang; Rongzeng Yan; Lili Wang; Caiyun Fu; Xuan Xu

    2013-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia and abnormal blood lipids are independent risk factors for stroke. However, whether both factors exert a synergistic effect in the onset of stroke remains unclear. The present study is a retrospective analysis of 2 089 cases of stroke and 2 089 control cases of simple inter-vertebral disk protrusion using a paired multivariate logistic regression method. Adjusting for known confounding variables including the patients’ age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumption status, patient and family medical history, and clinical biochemical indices, elevated homocysteine level was related to the onset of stroke. Patients with elevated homocysteine levels and abnormal blood lipids showed a 40.9%increase in the risk for stroke compared to patients with normal ho-mocysteine levels and blood lipids (odds ratio 1.409;95%confidence interval 1.127-1.761). These results indicate that elevated homocysteine and abnormal blood lipids exert synergistic effects in the onset of stroke. Patients with elevated homocysteine levels and abnormal blood lipids are predis-posed to stroke.

  10. Macro-level gender equality and alcohol consumption: a multi-level analysis across U.S. States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah C M

    2012-07-01

    Higher levels of women's alcohol consumption have long been attributed to increases in gender equality. However, only limited research examines the relationship between gender equality and alcohol consumption. This study examined associations between five measures of state-level gender equality and five alcohol consumption measures in the United States. Survey data regarding men's and women's alcohol consumption from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were linked to state-level indicators of gender equality. Gender equality indicators included state-level women's socioeconomic status, gender equality in socioeconomic status, reproductive rights, policies relating to violence against women, and women's political participation. Alcohol consumption measures included past 30-day drinker status, drinking frequency, binge drinking, volume, and risky drinking. Other than drinker status, consumption is measured for drinkers only. Multi-level linear and logistic regression models adjusted for individual demographics as well as state-level income inequality, median income, and % Evangelical Protestant/Mormon. All gender equality indicators were positively associated with both women's and men's drinker status in models adjusting only for individual-level covariates; associations were not significant in models adjusting for other state-level characteristics. All other associations between gender equality and alcohol consumption were either negative or non-significant for both women and men in models adjusting for other state-level factors. Findings do not support the hypothesis that higher levels of gender equality are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption by women or by men. In fact, most significant findings suggest that higher levels of equality are associated with less alcohol consumption overall.

  11. Blood haemoglobin concentrations are higher in smokers and heavy alcohol consumers than in non-smokers and abstainers-should we adjust the reference range?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Pedersen, Agnes N.

    2009-01-01

    The blood haemoglobin concentration is one of the most frequently used laboratory parameters in clinical practice. There is evidence that haemoglobin levels are influenced by tobacco smoking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on haemoglobin...... or equal to seven drinks/week. Smokers displayed similar results. Body mass index per se had no direct influence on haemoglobin levels but had indirect positive influence in men through its correlation with tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Tobacco smoking has an increasing effect on haemoglobin...... concentrations in both genders, which is proportional to the amount of tobacco smoked. The effect appears to be more pronounced in women. Likewise, high alcohol consumption has an increasing effect on haemoglobin in both genders, being most pronounced in women. However, in clinical biochemistry, the relatively...

  12. Measurements of Dynamic Viscoelasticity of Poly (vinyl alcohol) Hydrogel for the Development of Blood Vessel Biomodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosukegawa, Hiroyuki; Mamada, Keisuke; Kuroki, Kanju; Liu, Lei; Inoue, Kosuke; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Ohta, Makoto

    In vitro blood vessel biomodeling with realistic mechanical properties and geometrical structures is helpful for training in surgical procedures, especial those used in endovascular treatment. Poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel (PVA-H), which is made of Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and water, may be useful as a material for blood vessel biomodeling due to its low surface friction resistance and good transparency. In order to simulate the mechanical properties of blood vessels, measurements of mechanical properties of PVA-H were carried out with a dynamic mechanical analyzer, and the storage modulus (G’) and loss modulus (G”) of PVA-H were obtained. PVA-Hs were prepared by the low-temperature crystallization method. They were made of PVA with various concentrations (C) and degrees of polymerization (DP), and made by blending two kinds of PVA having different DP or saponification values (SV). The G’ and G” of PVA-H increased, as the C or DP of PVA increased, or as the proportion of PVA with higher DP or SV increased. These results indicate that it is possible to obtain PVA-H with desirable dynamic viscoelasticity. Furthermore, it is suggested that PVA-H is stable in the temperature range of 0°C to 40°C, indicating that biomodeling made of PVA-H should be available at 37°C, the physiological temperature. The dynamic viscoelasticity of PVA-H obtained was similar to that of the dog blood vessel measured in previous reports. In conclusion, PVA-H is suggested to be useful as a material of blood vessel biomodeling.

  13. Structural and diffusional brain abnormality related to relatively low level alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroki; Abe, Osamu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Fukuda, Rin; Yamada, Haruyasu; Takei, Kunio; Suga, Motomu; Takao, Hidemasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Aoki, Shigeki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2009-06-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol intake results in alcohol-related brain damage. Many previous reports have documented alcohol-related global or local brain shrinkage or diffusional abnormalities among alcoholics and heavy to moderate drinkers; however, the influence of relatively low levels of alcohol consumption on brain structural or diffusional abnormality is unclear. We investigated structural or diffusional abnormalities related to lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) among Japanese non-alcohol-dependent individuals (114 males, 97 females). High-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance images and diffusion tensor imaging were acquired in all subjects. The collected images were normalized, segmented, and smoothed using SPM 5. Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) were normalized for each total intracranial volume (TIV), and partial correlation coefficients were estimated between normalized GMV or WMV and lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC) adjusted for age. To investigate regional GMV or WMV abnormalities related to LAC, multiple regression analyses were performed among regional GMV or WMV and LAC, age, and TIV. To investigate subtle regional abnormalities, multiple regression analyses were performed among fractional anisotropy (FA) or mean diffusivity (MD), and LAC and age. No LAC-related global or regional GMV or WMV abnormality or LAC-related regional FA abnormality was found among male or female subjects. Significant LAC-related MD increase was found in the right amygdala among female subjects only. The current results suggest female brain vulnerability to alcohol, and a relation between subtle abnormality in the right amygdala and alcohol misuse.

  14. Blood lead levels following consumption of game meat in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Sucato, Sabrina; Consonni, Dario; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Moretto, Angelo

    2017-02-08

    The aim of this study was to measure lead (Pb) levels in blood (Pb-blood) in consumers of game meat, taking into account other possible sources of lead exposure. A spot blood sample was obtained from 95 subjects, and a questionnaire was used to collect general information and data on game meat consumption, hunting, wine drinking and other possible sources of lead exposure. Pb-blood was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Pb-blood was not influenced by age, sex, residence in an urban or rural area, consumption of game meat, tobacco smoking or hobbies associated with potential exposure to lead, and median Pb-blood was 1.7 (5th-95th percentile 1.0-5.3)µg/dL and 3.4 (0.9-6.1)µg/dL for game meat non-eaters and eater, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis (containing the covariates sex, age, hunting, wine drinking, game meat consumption, tobacco smoking, shooting range, and occupational exposure) found an association with hunting (Pb-blood almost double in hunters) and wine drinking (40% higher in drinkers) but not with consumption of game meat or other parameters. Whether the higher Pb-blood level was due to inhalation of lead fumes while shooting with lead ammunition, to handling lead ammunition or both could not be ascertained.

  15. The Bac(chus experiment: blood alcohol concentrations after wine tasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert van de Wiel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs were measured in ten volunteers after a wine tasting event with and without the swallowing of 15 mL of each wine. In case ten wines were tasted within one hour without swallowing, buccal mucosa absorption did not result in problematic BAC’s; however in case 15 mL of each wine was swallowed, BAC’s may exceed the legal driving limit of most countries. It is recommended to eat beforehand, but also to wait at least one hour after the session before driving back home.

  16. Alcohol on College Campuses in North Dakota: Levels of Consumption, Gender, and Negative Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lory M.

    2009-01-01

    It is common knowledge that many college students consume alcohol and/or binge drink. North Dakota colleges and universities are not immune to high levels of alcohol consumption, as they are among the leaders for binge drinking for people aged 18 to 25. Any number of reasons could explain this behavior, including new freedoms enjoyed by many 18 to…

  17. Serum alcohol dehydrogenase levels in patients with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravos, Matej; Malesic, Ivan; Levanic, Suzana

    2005-11-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was assessed in 81 patients admitted to hospital for treatment for alcohol dependence with or without liver cirrhosis, 20 patients with bipolar disorder treated with lithium carbonate and 41 patients with various mental disorders treated with psychopharmacologic agents. Testing the hypothesis of the arithmetic mean showed that in alcohol dependents the arithmetic mean of ADH activity (12.19 nkat/l+/-5.61) differs significantly from that in healthy subjects (4.45 nkat/l+/-2.31) and in the group with ethanol poisoning (6.24 nkat/l+/-3.65) there is none. In the group with bipolar disorder, treated with lithium (7.39 nkat/l+/-3.11) and, in the group of patients treated with psychiatric drugs because of various mental disorders (7.79 nkat/l+/-8.51), the differences are statistically significant. In our opinion, assessing ADH activity in the sera of alcohol dependents could be an additional marker advantageous to the diagnostics, course and monitoring of therapy in such patients. In the groups of patients with mental disorders treated with psychotropic drugs, the increased ADH activity was found to be a more sensitive marker for the detection of drug hepatotoxicity.

  18. Electrolytes Disturbance and Cyclosporine Blood Levels among Kidney Transplant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einollahi, B.; Nemati, E.; Rostami, Z.; Teimoori, M.; Ghadian, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Kidney transplantation is associated with various biochemical abnormalities such as changes in serum blood level of sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and phosphorous (P). Although cyclosporine (CsA) is used commonly, the prevalence of its side effects, including electrolytes disturbance, is not well understood. Objective: To find the prevalence of electrolytes disturbance and its relation to CsA blood levels. Methods: In a retrospective study, 3308 kidney transplant recipients transplanted between 2008 and 2011 were studied. We evaluated the relation between serum Ca, P, Na, K and CsA trough (C0) and 2-hour post-dose (C2) levels. Results: The mean±SD age of recipients was 37±15 years; 63% of patients were male. Overall, C2 levels had correlation with Ca blood level (p=0.018; OR: 1.13, 95%CI: 1.02–1.25), C0 levels had also correlation with blood levels of P and Cr (p<0.001; OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.59–2.11). Conclusion: Electrolyte disturbances are prevalent. Higher serum levels of CsA can worsen the allograft function by disturbing the serum P and Ca levels. PMID:25013642

  19. Pregnancy hypertension and umbilical cord blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinowitz, M.; Bellinger, D.; Leviton, A. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (USA)); Needleman, H. (Children' s Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Schoenbaum, S. (Harvard Community Health Plan, Brookline Village, MA (USA))

    Pregnancy hypertension, blood pressure during labor, and the umbilical cord blood lead concentration were assessed in 3,851 women for whom additional demographic, medical, and personal information was available. Lead levels correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure during labor. The incidence of clinically defined pregnancy hypertension, nearly 11% overall, increased with lead level. A series of multivariate models of pregnancy hypertension and of systolic blood pressure as a function of maternal age, parity, hematocrit, ponderal index, race, season, and diabetes were improved by including lead as a predictor variable. These other risk factors are not affected by the lead term. The relative risk for pregnancy hypertension doubles when lead increases from 2 to 15 {mu}g/dl. The effect is statistically strong, with a magnitude of about 3 mm for a 10 {mu}g/dl range, about the same magnitude associated with diabetes. At these observed levels (mean blood lead = 6.0 {mu}g/dl, SD = 3.3, range 0 > 35), not currently recognized as overtly toxic, lead has a small but demonstrable association with pregnancy hypertension and blood pressure at the time of delivery, but not with pre-eclampsia nor toxemia. Although this association is not likely to influence the clinical management of hypertension, it indicates that lead at typical contemporary urban levels, does effect multiple physiological functions.

  20. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases an

  1. Maternal blood metal levels and fetal markers of metabolic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian [Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Dodds, Linda, E-mail: l.dodds@dal.ca [Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Arbuckle, Tye E. [Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Ettinger, Adrienne S. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Shapiro, Gabriel D. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Fisher, Mandy [Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Taback, Shayne [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Bouchard, Maryse F. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Monnier, Patricia [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Dallaire, Renee [Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Fraser, William D. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Exposure to metals commonly found in the environment has been hypothesized to be associated with measures of fetal growth but the epidemiological literature is limited. The Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study recruited 2001 women during the first trimester of pregnancy from 10 Canadian sites. Our objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to metals (lead, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury) and fetal metabolic function. Average maternal metal concentrations in 1st and 3rd trimester blood samples were used to represent prenatal metals exposure. Leptin and adiponectin were measured in 1363 cord blood samples and served as markers of fetal metabolic function. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between metals and both high (≥90%) and low (≤10%) fetal adiponectin and leptin levels. Leptin levels were significantly higher in female infants compared to males. A significant relationship between maternal blood cadmium and odds of high leptin was observed among males but not females in adjusted models. When adjusting for birth weight z-score, lead was associated with an increased odd of high leptin. No other significant associations were found at the top or bottom 10th percentile in either leptin or adiponectin models. This study supports the proposition that maternal levels of cadmium influence cord blood adipokine levels in a sex-dependent manner. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and to determine how such findings at birth will translate into childhood anthropometric measures. - Highlights: • We determined relationships between maternal metal levels and cord blood adipokines. • Cord blood leptin levels were higher among female than male infants. • Maternal cadmium was associated with elevated leptin in male, not female infants. • No significant associations were observed between metals and

  2. Relationship of blood lead levels to obstetric outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angell, N.F.; Lavery, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Lead represents a significant environmental hazard to pregnant women and their offspring. Exposure to high environmental levels of lead has been associated with spontaneous abortion, premature rupture of fetal membranes (PROM), and preterm delivery. The relationship between lower exposures and obstetric complications is unknown. The concentration of lead in the blood was measured in 635 specimens of umbilical cord blood collected at delivery. No relationship was found between concentrations of lead in cord blood and the incidence of PROM, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, or meconium staining. Maternal and infant capillary blood was collected 24 hours post partum from 154 of these deliveries. The concentrations of lead in the blood did not vary significantly among cord, infant, and maternal samples, and the three measurements were highly correlated. Levels of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnP) were increased in cord blood as compared with mothers' blood, but no concentration-response relationships between the ratio of cord ZnP to maternal ZnP and lead were found.

  3. Demographic Predictors of Event-Level Associations between Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Brooke E; Rendina, H Jonathon; Kelly, Brian C; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with sexual behavior and outcomes, though research indicates a variety of moderating factors, including demographic characteristics. To better target interventions aimed at alcohol-related sexual risk behavior, our analyses simultaneously examine demographic predictors of both day- and event-level associations between alcohol consumption and sexual behavior in a sample of young adults (N = 301) who are sexually active and consume alcohol. Young adults (aged 18-29) recruited using time-space sampling and incentivized snowball sampling completed a survey and a timeline follow-back calendar reporting alcohol consumption and sexual behavior in the past 30 days. On a given day, a greater number of drinks consumed was associated with higher likelihood of sex occurring, particularly for women and single participants. During a given sexual event, number of drinks consumed was not associated with condom use, nor did any demographic predictors predict that association. Findings highlight associations between alcohol and sexual behavior, though not between alcohol and sexual risk behavior, highlighting the need for additional research exploring the complex role of alcohol in sexual risk behavior and the need to develop prevention efforts to minimize the role of alcohol in the initiation of sexual encounters.

  4. Feather growth influences blood mercury level of young songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Anne M; Cristol, Daniel A

    2009-02-01

    Dynamics of mercury in feathers and blood of free-living songbirds is poorly understood. Nestling eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) living along the mercury-contaminated South River (Virginia, USA) had blood mercury levels an order of magnitude lower than their parents (nestling: 0.09 +/- 0.06 mg/kg [mean +/- standard deviation], n = 156; adult: 1.21 +/- 0.57 mg/kg, n = 86). To test whether this low blood mercury was the result of mercury sequestration in rapidly growing feathers, we repeatedly sampled free-living juveniles throughout the period of feather growth and molt. Mean blood mercury concentrations increased to 0.52 +/- 0.36 mg/kg (n = 44) after the completion of feather growth. Some individuals had reached adult blood mercury levels within three months of leaving the nest, but levels dropped to 0.20 +/- 0.09 mg/kg (n = 11) once the autumn molt had begun. Most studies of mercury contamination in juvenile birds have focused on recently hatched young with thousands of rapidly growing feathers. However, the highest risk period for mercury intoxication in young birds may be during the vulnerable period after fledging, when feathers no longer serve as a buffer against dietary mercury. We found that nestling blood mercury levels were not indicative of the extent of contamination because a large portion of the ingested mercury ended up in feathers. The present study demonstrates unequivocally that in songbirds blood mercury level is influenced strongly by the growth and molt of feathers.

  5. Association of low-level blood lead and blood pressure in NHANES 1999-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Abadin, Henry G.; Edward Murray, H. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    This study investigated whether low blood-lead levels ({<=}10 {mu}g/dL) were associated with blood pressure (BP) outcomes. The authors analyzed data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006 and participants aged 20 years or older. Outcome variables were systolic and diastolic BP measurements, pulse pressure, and hypertension status. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions stratified by race/ethnicity and gender were performed. Blood lead levels (BLL) were significantly correlated with higher systolic BP among black men and women, but not white or Mexican-American participants. BLLs were significantly associated with higher diastolic BPs among white men and women and black men, whereas, a negative association was observed in Mexican-American men that had, also, a wider pulse pressure. Black men in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{>=}3.50 {mu}g/dL) compared to black men in the 10th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{<=}0.7 {mu}g/dL) had a significant increase of risk of having hypertension (adjusted POR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.08-6.72). In addition, blood cadmium was significantly associated with hypertension and systolic and diastolic blood. This study found that, despite the continuous decline in blood lead in the U.S. population, lead exposure disparities among race and gender still exist.

  6. Dose-response relationship between alcohol use and blood pressure among drivers of commercial vehicles in Calabar, Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segun Bello

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is a sedative/hypnotic with effects similar to those of barbiturates.1 The type of alcoholic beverages consumed depends on the social context and financial capability. Alcoholic beverages may be in form of beer, wine, dry gin. Drinking alcohol is an activity that many people enjoy; taking a few drinks occasionally is generally harmless. Most people do not have problems as a result of drinking alcohol in this manner, although this may predispose to heavy use. Heavy alcohol consumption has been shown in observational studies to have a strong positive association with elevated blood pressure.2-4 Further evidence have been shown by clinical trials5,6 that have demonstrated that reduction in alcohol intake among individuals who drink heavily (i.e. three or more drinks per day can lower blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive men. Some studies have recorded a linear dose-response relationship sometimes starting with a consumption threshold of three drinks per day (30 g of ethanol.7-13 In others, the relationship has been non-linear especially in women, and some authors have speculated that ingestion of small quantities may reduce blood pressure.14-22 These discrepancies may reflect differences in investigational design, methods and populations.23 Many studies have been done in this area in developed countries like the United States, United Kingdom and Australia. This is however, not a commonly researched area in this part of the world. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between alcohol consumption and blood pressure of drivers of commercial vehicles.

  7. Benznidazole levels in blood vary with age in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Fernanda Bulffer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Benznidazole (Bz exhibits toxic side effects in animal studies and clinical use. Reductive metabolism of Bz in liver microsomes modulates the duration of its chemotherapeutic effect and its toxicity. The rate of this metabolism depends on age and is less intense in newborns and youngsters than in adults. In the present study, we determined Bz blood levels in rats of different ages that received Bz intragastrically (100 mg/kg. We developed and validated a high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detector method for determination of Bz levels in whole blood. Bz levels were significantly higher and persisted for longer periods of time in the blood of young rats when compared to that of adult animals.

  8. Cubilin maintains blood levels of HDL and albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseem, Obaidullah; Smith, Brian T; Cooley, Marion A; Wilkerson, Brent A; Argraves, Kelley M; Remaley, Alan T; Argraves, W Scott

    2014-05-01

    Cubilin is an endocytic receptor highly expressed in renal proximal tubules, where it mediates uptake of albumin and filtered forms of apoA-I/HDL. Cubilin deficiency leads to urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I; however, the consequences of cubilin loss on the homeostasis of blood albumin and apoA-I/HDL have not been studied. Using mice heterozygous for cubilin gene deletion (cubilin HT mice), we show that cubilin haploinsufficiency leads to reduced renal proximal tubular uptake of albumin and apoA-I and significantly increased urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I. Moreover, cubilin HT mice displayed significantly decreased blood levels of albumin, apoA-I, and HDL. The levels of albumin and apoA-I protein or mRNA expressed in the liver, kidney, or intestine of cubilin HT mice did not change significantly. The clearance rate of small HDL3 particles (density>1.13 g/ml) from the blood increased significantly in cubilin HT mice. In contrast, the rate of clearance of larger HDL2 particles from the blood did not change significantly, indicating a decreased half-life for HDL particles capable of filtering through the glomerulus. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that cubilin deficiency reduces renal salvage and delivery back to the blood of albumin and apoA-I, which decreases blood levels of albumin and apoA-I/HDL. These findings raise the possibility that therapeutic increase of renal cubilin expression might reduce proteinuria and increase blood levels of albumin and HDL.

  9. Association between serum irisin levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in health screen examinees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Sung Choi

    Full Text Available Irisin is a recently found myokine that aids obesity control and improves glucose homeostasis by acting on white adipose tissue cells and increases total energy consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum irisin levels in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and to compare these levels with those of normal controls. Among 595 health screen examinees who had visited our institute between January 2013 to March 2013, 355 patients (84 NAFLD patients and 271 normal controls were enrolled depending on whether they gave written informed consents and their history of alcohol intake, blood tests, and abdominal ultrasonographic findings. Age; sex; laboratory test parameters; homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance; and levels of leptin, adiponectin, and irisin were assessed. Serum irisin levels (ng/ml were significantly higher in the NAFLD group than in normal controls (63.4 ± 32.6 vs. 43.0 ± 29.7, p<0.001 and higher in the mild fatty liver group than in the moderate-to-severe fatty liver group (68.3 ± 38.2 vs. 56.6 ± 21.2, p<0.001. Additionally, serum irisin levels were not different between the non-obese and obese groups (48.4 ± 34.2 vs. 45.8 ± 22.9, p = 0.492; however, the levels were significantly lowest in normal controls and highest in the mild fatty liver group in the non-obese (44.9 ± 31.7 vs. 73.1 ± 48.5 vs 59.7 ± 18.0, p<0.001 and obese groups (35.0 ± 17.0 vs. 62.9 ± 21.2 vs. 54.6 ± 23.3, p<0.001. Serum irisin levels were significantly higher in NAFLD patients, which is not consistent with the results of previously published studies. Therefore, more studies are needed to confirm the role of irisin in NAFLD.

  10. Umbilical Cord Blood Lead Levels and Neonatal Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. de Cáceres

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative correlations have been found between cord blood lead levels and scores on the Brazelton Neonatal Behaviour Assessment in 30 otherwise healthy newborns. Items in the Habituation, Orientation and Regulation of state clusters, particularly those items related to self-regulatory, self-quieting and auditory habituation, showed lower scores (worse performance in those newborns with higher cord blood lead levels. These disturbances are potentially important since this type of behavior may interfere with the normal process of adaptation to their environment, leading to a less than optimal bonding between newborns and their carers.

  11. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes that come from drinking alcohol can make people do stupid or embarrassing things, like throwing up or peeing on themselves. Drinking also gives people bad breath, and no one enjoys a hangover. ...

  12. Relation between blood lead levels and childhood anemia in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nitin B; Laden, Francine; Guller, Ulrich; Shankar, Anoop; Kazani, Shamsah; Garshick, Eric

    2005-05-15

    Lead pollution is a substantial problem in developing countries such as India. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has defined an elevated blood lead level in children as > or = 10 microg/dl, on the basis of neurologic toxicity. The US Environmental Protection Agency suggests a threshold lead level of 20-40 microg/dl for risk of childhood anemia, but there is little information relating lead levels anemia. Therefore, the authors examined the association between lead levels as low as 10 mug/dl and anemia in Indian children under 3 years of age. Anemia was divided into categories of mild (hemoglobin level 10-10.9 g/dl), moderate (hemoglobin level 8-9.9 g/dl), and severe (hemoglobin level Lead levels lead levels > or = 10-19.9 microg/dl and 97 (9%) had levels > or = 20 microg/dl. After adjustment for child's age, duration of breastfeeding, standard of living, parent's education, father's occupation, maternal anemia, and number of children in the immediate family, children with lead levels > or = 10 microg/dl were 1.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 1.7) times as likely to have moderate anemia as children with lead levels anemia was 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.6). Health agencies in India should note the association of elevated blood lead levels with anemia and make further efforts to curb lead pollution and childhood anemia.

  13. Multiplex Immunoassay of Plasma Cytokine Levels in Men with Alcoholism and the Relationship to Psychiatric Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzardo, Ann M; Poje, Albert B; Penick, Elizabeth C; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-03-29

    Chronic alcohol use alters adaptive immunity and cytokine activity influencing immunological and hormone responses, inflammation, and wound healing. Brain cytokine disturbances may impact neurological function, mood, cognition and traits related to alcoholism including impulsiveness. We examined the relationship between plasma cytokine levels and self-rated psychiatric symptoms in 40 adult males (mean age 51 ± 6 years; range 33-58 years) with current alcohol dependence and 30 control males (mean age 48 ± 6 years; range 40-58 years) with no history of alcoholism using multiplex sandwich immunoassays with the Luminex magnetic-bead based platform. Log-transformed cytokine levels were analyzed for their relationship with the Symptom Checklist-90R (SCL-90R), Barratt Impulsivity Scales (BIS) and Alcoholism Severity Scale (ASS). Inflammatory cytokines (interferon γ-induced protein-10 (IP-10); monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1); regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES)) were significantly elevated in alcoholism compared to controls while bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cytokines and chemokines (granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF); soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L); growth-related oncogene (GRO)) were significantly reduced. GRO and RANTES levels were positively correlated with BIS scales; and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) levels were positively correlated with SCL-90R scale scores (p alcoholism may influence brain function leading to increased impulsiveness and/or phobia. The novel association between RANTES and GRO and impulsivity phenotype in alcoholism should be further investigated in alcoholism and psychiatric conditions with core impulsivity and anxiety phenotypes lending support for therapeutic intervention.

  14. Relation of blood pressure to reported intake of salt, saturated fats, and alcohol in healthy middle-aged population.

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, J.T.; Tuomilehto, J; A. Tanskanen

    1983-01-01

    The association of blood pressure with reported intake of salt, saturated fats, and alcohol was studied in a sample of 8479 subjects based on a cross sectional survey in a population aged 30 to 64 years. A consistent association was found between the mean arterial pressure and the intake of alcohol (p less than 0.001) and saturated fats (p less than 0.01). There was also a weak association between blood pressure and dietary salt intake, but this association was mostly explained by the correla...

  15. Risks of alcoholic energy drinks for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldy, David L

    2010-01-01

    Ingesting alcohol and energy drinks together is associated with a decreased awareness of the physical and mental impairment caused by the alcohol without reducing the actual impairment. This is of particular concern for youth who have a baseline of less mature judgment. Adding energy drinks to alcohol tends to increase the rate of absorption through its carbonation and dilution of the alcohol, and keep a person awake longer allowing ingestion of a greater volume of alcohol. At low blood alcohol levels, caffeine appears to decrease some of the impairment from the alcohol, but at higher blood alcohol levels, caffeine does not appear to have a modifying effect on either the physical or mental impairment induced by the alcohol. Obtaining this combination is made easier and more affordable for under aged persons by manufacturers of premixed alcoholic energy drink combination beverages. Awareness by medical and educational personnel and parents of this activity and its potential for harm is unknown.

  16. Levels of perfluoroalkylated compounds in whole blood from Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerrman, A.; Bavel, B. van; Hardell, L.; Lindstroem, G. [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology-Environmental Research Centre; Jaernberg, U. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Applied Environmental Research

    2004-09-15

    Historically the reports on perfluoroalkylated (PFA) compounds have been limited to mainly perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) but recently a number of other, potentially bioaccumulating, perfluorinated acids were reported in wildlife and in human blood. PFOS is the PFA compound that has been reported most frequently and in the < 1-82 pg/{mu}l range in human serum from the general population of several countries. PFOS and its salts represents only a fraction of the total fluoroproduction but can occur as an impurity in other products and is suspected to be the stable degradation product from other perfluorinated compounds, for example derivatives of perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). Recent studies indicate that more volatile fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and sulfonamidethanols can degrade biotic to different PFA compounds. FTOHs and sulfonamidoalcohols are used in both industrial and household applications and have been found in the trophosphere. Since possible degradation pathways, distribution and exposure routes for this group of compounds are still under investigation; information of human exposure to a larger number of PFAs is valuable. In this study we analysed 66 whole blood samples from the Swedish general population with respect to 12 perfluorinated sulfonates and carboxylates (including perfluorooctane sulfonamide) with carbon chain length between 4 and 14.

  17. Effects of alcohol consumption and other lifestyle behaviors on blood pressure for the middle-aged and elderly in the Guangxi Hei Yi Zhuang and Han populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ruixing; Li, Hui; Wu, Jinzhen; Lin, Weixiong; Yang, Dezhai; Pan, Shangling; Huang, Jiandong; Long, Xiuyan

    2007-12-01

    Han is the largest group and Zhuang is the largest minority among the 56 ethnic groups in China. Geographically and linguistically, Zhuang can be classified into 43 ethnic subgroups, in which Hei Yi Zhuang is proved to be the most conservative subgroup. Little is known about the relationship between alcohol consumption and blood pressure levels in this population. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to compare the effects of alcohol consumption and other lifestyle behaviors on blood pressure levels for the middle-aged and elderly in the Guangxi Hei Yi Zhuang and Han populations. A total of 657 subjects of Hei Yi Zhuang aged 40 and older were surveyed by a stratified randomized cluster sampling. Information on demography, diet, and other lifestyle factors was collected by standard questionnaires. Anthropometric parameters and serum lipid levels were also obtained in all subjects. The results were compared with those in 520 participants of Han Chinese from the same region. The levels of systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure in Hei Yi Zhuang were higher than those in Han (P sodium intake, educational level, physical activity, and even genetic factors.

  18. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Antibody Levels in Blood Supply of Shiraz Blood Transfusion Institute, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Shaddel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the blood donors has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis in blood products.A total of 250 blood products (112 fresh frozen plasma and 138 packed cells in the Blood Transfusion Institute, Shiraz, Iran were tested for specific T. gondii antibodies (IgG and IgM by ELISA method in 2013. Positive IgG anti-T. gondii samples were further tested for IgM anti-T. gondii antibody. A positive IgG test with the negative and positive IgM test was interpreted as a chronic and acute toxoplasmosis, respectively. The relationship of jobs, blood types, sex, marital status and residency of participants with chronic toxoplasmosis prevalence were statistically analyzed by χ(2.Of 250 samples, 58 (23.2% and one were positive for IgG anti-T. T. gondii (chronic and IgM anti-T. T. gondii (acute antibodies levels, respectively. Twenty nine (25.9% of fresh frozen plasma (FFP samples were positive for IgG anti-T. gondiiiand 1(0.89% of them was positive for IgM anti-T. gondiii antibody. Thirty (21.74% of packed cell samples were positive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibody. The prevalence of chronic toxoplasmosis was significantly higher in workers, farmers, house wives, unemployed and free jobs (P=0.007, people with low education levels (P=0.035 and B type of blood ABO system (P=0.0001. However, there were no significant differences regarding to age, sex, marital status, residency and type of blood products.There were chronic and acute toxoplasmosis in blood products and the prevalence of toxoplasmosis especially chronic form was high. Therefore screening of blood for T. gondii antibodies may be considered.

  19. [Analysis of blood glucose levels in 746 cases of schistosomiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, An-Ming; Wu, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Gui-Lin

    2011-04-01

    The levels of blood glucose of 746 inpatients with chronic or advanced schistosomiasis were assayed last 3 years and the results were analyzed. There was no significant difference between the pure chronic or advanced schistosomiasis patients and normal population. However, there was a significant difference between the chronic or advanced schistosomiasis patients with viral hepatitis and normal population.

  20. Blood and Brain Glutamate Levels in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Tamer H.; Abdelrahman, Hadeel M.; Fattah, Nelly R. Abdel; El-Masry, Nagda M.; Hashim, Haitham M.; El-Gerby, Khaled M.; Fattah, Nermin R. Abdel

    2013-01-01

    Despite of the great efforts that move forward to clarify the pathophysiologic mechanisms in autism, the cause of this disorder, however, remains largely unknown. There is an increasing body of literature concerning neurochemical contributions to the pathophysiology of autism. We aimed to determine blood and brain levels of glutamate in children…

  1. [Concentration of endogenous ethanol and alcoholic motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Iu V; Treskov, V G; Kampov-Polevoĭ, A B; Kovalenko, A E; Rodionov, A P

    1983-11-01

    Trials with patients suffering from stage II chronic alcoholism and normal test subjects as well as experiments made on male C57BL mice (with genetically determined alcoholic motivation) and CBA mice (with genetically determined alcoholic aversion) and random-bred male rats with different levels of initial alcoholic motivation have shown the presence of reverse proportional dependence between blood plasma endogenous ethanol and alcoholic motivation.

  2. The Effect of Taraxacum Officinale Hydro Alcoholic Extract on the Blood Cell Counts in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Modaresi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Taraxacum officinaleis a herbaceous perennial plant which has many pharmaceutical effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of this plant on blood cell counts in mice. Methods: In this experimental study, 50 mature female mice were divided into 5 groups, each group including ten adult female Balb/C mice. The control group did not receive any extract.while the placebo group received 0.5 cc of normal saline, every other day. The three treatment groups intraperitoneally received 50, 100, 200 mg/kg /2day doses of hydro alcoholic extract for 20 days. Normal saline was administered to the control group.WBC, RBC, HB, HCT, platelet and other cells of the animals were counted using full automated cell counter. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: The number of RBC and the rate of Hb in three doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg were significantly increased (p<0.05 in all three treatment groups as compared with the control group. The number of WBC in three doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg increased, but it was significant in 200 mg/kg dandelion treated group as compared with the control group (p<0.05.The rate of platelet in three doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly decreased as compared with the control group (p<0.01. Conclusion: The study confirmed the dose dependent efficacy of dandelion extract on RBC and WBC. Keywords: Dandelion, Blood Cell, mice

  3. An international study of the relationship between alcohol consumption and postmenopausal estradiol levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavaler, J S; Love, K; Van Thiel, D

    1991-01-01

    Because of the beneficial effect of estrogens on the risk of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, the factors which influence endogenous postmenopausal estrogen levels are of substantial importance. The major source of postmenopausal estrogen is the aromatization...... of androgens to estrogens. Because alcohol is reported to increase aromatization rates, the relationship between serum estradiol and moderate alcohol consumption was examined in a group of 128 healthy Pittsburgh postmenopausal women, and a significant direct association was found. In order to address...

  4. Menopause and blood mercury levels: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Jin-Sung; Lee, Jung Hun; Jeon, Jin-Dong; Kim, Tai June; Lee, Myung-Hwa; Park, Won I

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between menopause and blood mercury concentrations in South Korean women. Women aged ≥20 years who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011 were included in this study. Primary and secondary analyses included women aged ≥20 years (n = 1,642) and 45-55 years (i.e., perimenopausal; n = 325), respectively. For all analyses, the mercury levels were log-transformed. The linear regression model for mercury levels was adjusted for age, body mass index, household income, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, use of oral contraceptives, smoking history, alcohol intake, physical activity, number of pregnancies, serum ferritin levels, and fish consumption. After adjusting for covariates, log-transformed blood mercury levels were significantly lower in women who were menopausal [β-coefficient -0.1488; 95 % confidence interval -0.2586, -0.0389; P = 0.01) than in those who were premenopausal. A similar relationship was identified in perimenopausal women (β-coefficient -0.1753; 95 % confidence interval -0.3357, -0.015; P = 0.03). The blood mercury concentration was lower in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. There was a significant positive correlation between blood mercury concentrations and both the frequency of alcohol intake and serum ferritin levels.

  5. Expression level of miR-155 in peripheral blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Hui Zhang; Liang-Hua Xia; Jia-Mei Jin; Ming Zong; Ming Chen; Bo Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between the expression level of miR-155 and the severity of coronary lesion, and explore the action mechanism.Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated form blood simple from patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), unstable angina (UAP), stable angina (SAP) and chest pain syndrome (CPS). RT-PCR was performed to analysis the expression level of miR-155 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, plasma and RAW264.7 macrophagocyte. MTT was used to analyze the cell viability of OxLDL treated RAW264.7 macrophagocyte.Results: The expression level of miR-155 in blood sample from coronary heart disease patients was much lower than in the blood sample of non-coronary heart disease (P<0.05). The level of miR-155 in PBMCs was much higher in the blood sample from CPS group than the other three group, and the level of miR-155 in plasma was higher in the CPS group than in the UAP and the AMI group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The expression level of miR-155 in PBMCs is positively associated with the level in the plasma (r=0.861,P=0.000). OxLDL can induce the expression of miR-155 in RAW264.7 macrophagocyte, decrease the cell viability of RAW264.7 macrophagocyte, and with the concentration and the treatment time of OxLDL increased, the effort become more obvious. The inhibition effort of OxLDL to RAW264.7 macrophagocyte with high miR-155 expression is much lower than the control group, and it is statistically significant after treated for 12, 24 and 48 h.Conclusions: miR-155 plays a protective role in the progression of atherosclerosis, and it may be achieved by reducing the apoptosis effort of OxLDL to RAW264.7 macrophagocyte.

  6. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlstam Erika

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and a 3–4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1 the blood lactate levels of female dogs with pyometra by a hand-held analyser and 2 if these levels are related with the clinical status or other biochemical or hematological disorders. Methods In total 31 female dogs with pyometra admitted for surgical ovariohysterectomy and 16 healthy female control dogs were included in the present study. A complete physical examination including SIRS-status determination was performed. Blood samples for lactate concentrations, hematological and biochemical parameters, acid-base and blood gas analysis and other laboratory parameters were collected and subsequently analysed. The diagnosis pyometra was verified with histopathological examination of the uterus and ovaries. Increased hospitalisation length and presence of SIRS were used as indicators of outcome. Results In the pyometra group the median blood lactate level was 1,6 mmol l-1 (range -1. In the control group the median lactate level was 1,2 mmol l-1 (range -1. Of the 31 bitches 19 (61% fulfilled 2 or more criteria for SIRS at inclusion, 10 bitches (32% fulfilled 3 of the SIRS criteria whereas none accomplished more than 3 criteria. Lactate levels did not differ significantly between the pyometra and control group, or between the SIRS positive and SIRS negative dogs with pyometra. Increased lactate concentration (>2.5 mmol l-1 was demonstrated in one female dog with pyometra (3%, and was not associated with longer hospitalisation or presence of SIRS. Lactate

  7. Serum levels of YKL-40 and PIIINP as prognostic markers in patients with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Johansen, Julia S; Christensen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: YKL-40 (growth factor) and PIIINP (N-terminal propeptide of Type III procollagen) are potential markers of liver fibrosis. The aim was to evaluate the prognostic value of serum YKL-40 and PIIINP levels in patients with alcoholic liver disease. METHODS: Three hundred and seventy...... patients with alcoholic liver disease were studied in a trial of malotilate with a median follow-up period of 470 days; 75 patients died; 336 patients had a liver biopsy on entry. Serum levels of YKL-40 and PIIINP were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). RESULTS: Serum YKL-40 and PIIINP were elevated...... in the patients compared to controls. Patients with steatosis or no fibrosis had the lowest serum levels of YKL-40 and PIIINP, whereas patients with alcoholic hepatitis and/or cirrhosis had the highest levels. Serum YKL-40 was associated with the presence of fibrosis, and serum PIIINP was also associated...

  8. Blood pressure load does not add to ambulatory blood pressure level for cardiovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José

    2014-01-01

    Experts proposed blood pressure (BP) load derived from 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings as a more accurate predictor of outcome than level, in particular in normotensive people. We analyzed 8711 subjects (mean age, 54.8 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations. We expressed BP...

  9. LEVELS OF BRAIN-SPECIFIC S-100B PROTEIN, SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES AND CYTOKINE PROFILE IN THE PATIENTS WITH ALCOHOL-INDUCED DELIRIUM STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Tsybikov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Present article deals with our results concerning brain-specific S-100B protein levels, anti-S-100B autoantibodies of IgM and IgG classes, like as cytokine profiles of blood serum and cerebrospinal fluid in the patients with alcohol-induced delirium state. The results obtained provide an evidence of association between alcoholic psychosis and destruction of brain tissue, development of autoimmune reactions and altered cytokine status, thus, probably, resulting into disintegration of immune and neuroendocrine systems.

  10. An Examination of State and Trait Anxiety Levels among College Students Based on the Students' Alcohol Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalesky, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This study examines anxiety and level of alcohol consumption among college freshman and sophomore student's to determine if state and trait anxiety are significant factors in high risk alcohol consumption or binge drinking. The State Trait Personality Inventory (STPI) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were administered to…

  11. Toward an Inexpensive Test for Vitamin D Levels in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Various synthetic redox mediators were tried and cobalt sepulchrate trichloride (Co(sep)3+/2+) was found to...25(OH)D (circulating form of vitamin D in blood) levels. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cytochrome P450, mediated electrochemistry, direct electron chemistry...activity of the enzyme using non-natural redox mediators . This work provides a path forward for developing this enzyme into a biosensor for Vitamin D

  12. Blood pressure levels and longitudinal changes in relation to social network factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Eriksson Sörman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between social network variables andlevels of and longitudinal changes in blood pressure in a middle-aged/older sample. Theparticipants (50-75 years at baseline; n=1097 responded to questions concerning socialrelationships at baseline and their blood pressure (diastolic, systolic was measured. Bloodpressure levels were reassessed 5, 10, and 15 years later. Latent growth models with responses toquestions concerning social relationships as predictors and basic demographic factors (age, sex ascovariates, unexpectedly indicated that a more limited social network (no close friend, few visits,little contact with friends in other ways, not living with someone, and a composite index based onall questions was associated with significantly lower diastolic blood pressure levels. For systolicblood pressure a similar result was observed for one of the variables (lack of a close friend. Ingeneral, these effects diminished over time, as indexed by the positive relationship between severalof the social variables and slope. The results were little affected by inclusion of additionalcovariates (e.g. measures of psychological distress, smoking/alcohol habits, and BMI suggestingthat the origins of this unexpected pattern of findings must probably be sought for in other subjectrelatedfactors, such as, for example, increased help seeking. Future studies should considerqualitative aspects (e.g. feelings of loneliness, quality of social relationships in addition tostructural aspects to provide a better understanding of these associations.

  13. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Reezigt, Bert Jan; Bergström Ledin, Hanna; Karlstam, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Background Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and a 3–4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1) the blood lactate levels of female dogs with pyometra by a hand-held analyser and 2) if these levels are related with the clinical status or other biochemical or hematological disorders. Methods In total 31 female dogs with pyometra admitted for surgical ovariohysterectomy and 16 healthy female control dogs were included in the present study. A complete physical examination including SIRS-status determination was performed. Blood samples for lactate concentrations, hematological and biochemical parameters, acid-base and blood gas analysis and other laboratory parameters were collected and subsequently analysed. The diagnosis pyometra was verified with histopathological examination of the uterus and ovaries. Increased hospitalisation length and presence of SIRS were used as indicators of outcome. Results In the pyometra group the median blood lactate level was 1,6 mmol l-1 (range 2.5 mmol l-1) was demonstrated in one female dog with pyometra (3%), and was not associated with longer hospitalisation or presence of SIRS. Lactate measurement was not indicative of peritonitis. None of the bitches died during or within two months of the hospital stay. The measurements of temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, percentage bandforms of neutrophilic granulocytes, α2-globulins, creatinin, pvCO2, TCO2 and base excess showed significant differences between the SIRS positive and the SIRS negative pyometra cases. Conclusion Increased blood lactate concentrations were demonstrated in 3% (1

  14. Science of Alcohol Curriculum for American Indians (SACAI): An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Study of the Science of Alcohol for Upper Elementary and Middle Level Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian Science and Engineering Society, Boulder, CO.

    This curriculum provides American Indian youth with a framework for learning about the effects of alcohol on the body and the community. The curriculum stresses the development of scientific thinking skills and was designed for upper elementary and middle level students. The guide consists of four units: How Does Alcohol Circulate through the Body…

  15. Features Of Daily Dynamics Of Catecholamine Level In Myocardium Under The Influence Of Low Alcohol Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Kostin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The research goal was to study the features of daily dynamics of adrenaline and noradrenaline content in various parts of myocardium at the rats receiving nonalcoholic and alcohol-containing beer at ordinary light regimen. Substantial increase of level of adrenaline and noradrenaline in all parts of myocardium at the rats received nonalcoholic and spirit-based beer in comparison with the control. At the rats received nonalcoholic beer, authentically higher content of adrenaline and low noradrenaline in myocardium in comparison with animals received alcohol-containing beer was observed. The circadian dynamics of catecholamine level in all parts of heart myocardium was disturbed at animals of both experimental groups in comparison with the control. The revealed disturbances of level of daily catecholamine dynamics in myocardium under the influence of beer, undoubtedly, are bound with negative action of nonalcoholic nature ingredients present in beer. Key words: adrenaline, noradrenaline, myocardium, low alcohol drinks.

  16. Study of the Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Lactuca sativa on Arterial Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dehbooreh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Cardiovascular diseases are main causes of mortality and morbidity in the current world. Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for the cardiovas-cular diseases. Herbal medicine is much regarded because of their natural source and less side effects. This study was done to evaluate the effects of hydro- alcoholic extract of Luc-tuca-Sativa (LS on blood pressure in rats. Materials & Methods: Hypertension was induced in the rats by Desoxycorticosterone (DOCA-Salt then the hypertension induction was confirmed by tail-cuff method before treatment. The effects of one week treatment by LS hydro-alcoholic extract (100 mg/kg/day on blood pressure; Heart Rate (HR and Plasma Renin Activity (PRA were investigated and compared with the control groups. Under anesthesia (urethane 1gr/kg Mean Arterial blood Pressure (MAP and HR were measured directly from Femoral Artery. In order to investigate the extract effects on MAP and HR, also possible mechanisms of these effects, intravenous injection of differ-ent concentrations of extract with and without pretreatment with histamine H1 receptor an-tagonist (Chlorpheniramine 10 mg/kg were performed. PRA was measured by radio-immuonoassay method. Urine volume was also measured during the treatment Results: The results of this study show that DOCA-Salt induced hypertension and decreased PRA in the rats. LS hydro- alcoholic extract treatment causes significant decrease of MAP in hypertension- treated group in comparison with non-treated group and also the level of PRA and urine volume increased by extract treatment. Our Findings showed that LS extract has no significant effect on HR. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated hat LS hydro- alcoholic extract due to interac-tion with kidney and diuretic effects decreased MAP and normalized PRA in the DOCA- Salt hypertensive. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (1:66-76

  17. Alcohol use in college students: effects of level of self-esteem, narcissism, and contingencies of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhtanen, Riia K; Crocker, Jennifer

    2005-03-01

    The unique effects of level of self-esteem, narcissism, and contingencies of self-worth assessed prior to college on alcohol use during the freshman year were examined in a longitudinal study of 620 college students. Narcissism predicted alcohol use, but level of self-esteem did not. Basing self-worth on appearance predicted more alcohol use, whereas the virtue, God's love, and academic competence contingencies predicted less alcohol use, independent of other personality measures and joining a sorority or a fraternity. Further, the virtue and academic competence contingencies were associated with decreases in alcohol use from the 1st to the 2nd semester.

  18. An immune response network associated with blood lipid levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Inouye

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available While recent scans for genetic variation associated with human disease have been immensely successful in uncovering large numbers of loci, far fewer studies have focused on the underlying pathways of disease pathogenesis. Many loci which are associated with disease and complex phenotypes map to non-coding, regulatory regions of the genome, indicating that modulation of gene transcription plays a key role. Thus, this study generated genome-wide profiles of both genetic and transcriptional variation from the total blood extracts of over 500 randomly-selected, unrelated individuals. Using measurements of blood lipids, key players in the progression of atherosclerosis, three levels of biological information are integrated in order to investigate the interactions between circulating leukocytes and proximal lipid compounds. Pair-wise correlations between gene expression and lipid concentration indicate a prominent role for basophil granulocytes and mast cells, cell types central to powerful allergic and inflammatory responses. Network analysis of gene co-expression showed that the top associations function as part of a single, previously unknown gene module, the Lipid Leukocyte (LL module. This module replicated in T cells from an independent cohort while also displaying potential tissue specificity. Further, genetic variation driving LL module expression included the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP most strongly associated with serum immunoglobulin E (IgE levels, a key antibody in allergy. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM indicated that LL module is at least partially reactive to blood lipid levels. Taken together, this study uncovers a gene network linking blood lipids and circulating cell types and offers insight into the hypothesis that the inflammatory response plays a prominent role in metabolism and the potential control of atherogenesis.

  19. Blood Triglycerides Levels and Dietary Carbohydrate Indices in Healthy Koreans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding possible associations between indices measuring carbohydrate intake and dyslipidemia, which is an established risk factor of coronary heart disease. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate indices, including the dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), total amount of carbohydrates, and the percentage of energy from carbohydrates, and a range of blood lipid parameters. Methods: This study included 1530 participants (554 men and 976 women) from 246 families within the Healthy Twin Study. We analyzed the associations using a generalized linear mixed model to control for familial relationships. Results: Levels of the Apo B were inversely associated with dietary GI, GL, and the amount of carbohydrate intake for men, but these relationships were not significant when fat-adjusted values of the carbohydrate indices were used. Triglyceride levels were positively associated with dietary GI and GL in women, and this pattern was more notable in overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2). However, total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly related with carbohydrate intake overall. Conclusions: Of the blood lipid parameters we investigated, only triglyceride levels were positively related with dietary carbohydrate indices among women participants in the Healthy Twin Study, with an interactive role observed for BMI. However, these associations were not observed in men, suggesting that the association between blood lipid levels and carbohydrate intake depends on the type of lipid, specific carbohydrate indices, gender, and BMI. PMID:27255074

  20. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  1. Exclusion of linkage between alcoholism and the MNS blood group region on chromosome 4q in multiplex families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiswanger, K.; Kaplan, B.; Hill, S.Y. [Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (United States)

    1995-02-27

    Polymorphic DNA markers on the long arm of chromosome 4 were used to examine linkage to alcoholism in 20 multiplex pedigrees. Fifteen loci were determined for 124 individuals. Lod scores were calculated assuming both dominant and recessive disease modes of inheritance, utilizing incidence data by age and gender that allow for correction for variable age of onset and frequency of the disorder by gender. Under the assumption that alcoholism is homogeneous in this set of pedigrees, and that a recessive mode with age and gender correction is the most appropriate, the total lod scores for all families combined were uniformly lower than -2.0. This suggests an absence of linkage between the putative alcoholism susceptibility gene and markers in the region of the MNS blood group (4q28-31), a region for which we had previously found suggestive evidence of linkage to alcoholism. The 100 cM span of chromosome 4 studied includes the class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) loci. Using the recessive mode, no evidence for linkage to alcoholism was found for the markers tested, which spanned almost the entire long arm of chromosome 4. Under the dominant mode, no evidence for linkage could be found for several of the markers. 36 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. Increased Blood-Reelin-Levels in First Episode Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hornig

    Full Text Available Reelin is an extracellular glycoprotein involved in several functions of brain development, synaptogenesis and dendritic proliferation. Numerous studies found perturbation in the reelin system and altered serum reelin levels in neuropsychiatric patients using the western blot procedure. In the international literature, this is the first study that made use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to analyze serum reelin protein concentration quantitatively.In order to study possible alterations in reelin blood levels in schizophrenia, we analyzed this signal in schizophrenic patients with a first episode hallucinatory and paranoid syndrome and control subjects in a pilot study design.We found increased blood reelin protein concentration in schizophrenic patients compared to healthy controls.Our findings point to a relevant role of reelin metabolism in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.Reelin could be a biomarker for the course of disease or psychopharmacological treatment.We conclude that the reelin protein blood concentration might be a relevant signal with respect to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  3. Glycated hemoglobin in camel: Minimal correlation with blood glucose level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzi Mohammad D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose and glycated hemoglobin (Hb in the blood of camel (Camelus dromedarius and cow (Bos taurus were analyzed and compared with human values. Camel displayed high blood glucose concentration (9.7±2.8 mM but a low level of glycated-Hb (3.4± 0.23%.Cow blood samples did not show sufficient variations in glucose concentrations (5.7±0.73 mM or glycated Hb levels (3.2± 0.11% compared to human values. The low glycation of camel Hb at higher glucose concentrations suggest that certain factors protect the Hb from glycation at high glucose concentrations. Camel Hb also exhibited a higher electrophoretic mobility than normal hemoglobin of human or cow. Camel Hb migrated at a rate corresponding to that of human Hb-C. Bioinformatics tools were used to explore the biochemical basis for the difference in camel Hb migratory position and its apparent resistance to glycation.

  4. Alcohol and polyphenolic grape extract inhibit platelet adhesion in flowing blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, DW; Scholman, WLG; Kraaijenhagen, RJ; Akkerman, JWN; van de Wiel, A

    2004-01-01

    Background Moderate and prolonged alcohol consumption has been associated with decreased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Inhibition of platelet function in suspension attributes to these effects. Whether alcohol, red wine, or polyphenolic grape extracts (PGE) inhibit platelet adhesion is not

  5. Gene-alcohol interactions identify several novel blood pressure loci including a promising locus near SLC16A9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette eSimino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for hypertension, with recent candidate studies implicating gene-alcohol interactions in blood pressure (BP regulation. We used 6,882 (predominantly Caucasian participants aged 20 to 80 years from the Framingham SHARe (SNP Health Association Resource to perform a genome-wide analysis of SNP-alcohol interactions on BP traits. We used a two-step approach in the ABEL suite to examine genetic interactions with three alcohol measures [ounces of alcohol consumed per week, drinks consumed per week, and the number of days drinking alcohol per week] on four BP traits [systolic (SBP, diastolic (DBP, mean arterial (MAP, and pulse (PP pressure]. In the first step, we fit a linear mixed model of each BP trait onto age, sex, BMI, and antihypertensive medication while accounting for the phenotypic correlation among relatives. In the second step, we conducted 1 degree-of-freedom (df score tests of the SNP main effect, alcohol main effect, and SNP-alcohol interaction using the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters from the first step. We then calculated the joint 2 df score test of the SNP main effect and SNP-alcohol interaction using MixABEL. The effect of SNP rs10826334 (near SLC16A9 on SBP was significantly modulated by both the number of alcoholic drinks and the ounces of alcohol consumed per week (p-values of 1.27E-08 and 3.92E-08, respectively. Each copy of the G-allele decreased SBP by 3.79 mmHg in those consuming 14 drinks per week versus a 0.461 mmHg decrease in non-drinkers. Index SNPs in 20 other loci exhibited suggestive (p-value≤1E-06 associations with BP traits by the 1 df interaction test or joint 2df test, including 3 rare variants, one low-frequency variant, and SNPs near/in genes ESRRG, FAM179A, CRIPT-SOCS5, KAT2B,ADCY2, GLI3, ZNF716, SLIT1, PDE3A, KERA-LUM, RNF219-AS1, CLEC3A , FBX015, and IGSF5. SNP -alcohol interactions may enhance discovery of novel variants with large effects that can

  6. Relationship between blood alcohol concentration on admission and outcome in dimethoate organophosphorus self-poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Eddleston, Michael; Gunnell, David; von Meyer, Ludwig; Eyer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    center dot Acute alcohol intoxication often complicates acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.center dot No data are available on how alcohol intoxication affects outcome in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.center dot In particular, the relationships between plasma alcohol concentration and plasma organophosphorus concentration or outcome are unclear.WHAT THIS STUDY ADDScenter dot Alcohol co-ingestion is associated with higher concentrations of the organophosphorus insecticide ...

  7. Correlation Between Blood Lead Level and Hemoglobin Level in Mitrovica Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutllovci-Zogaj, Drita; Krasniqi, Selvete; Elezaj, Isa; Ramadani, Naser; Gjergji, Tahire; Zogaj, Dukagjin; Kutllovci, Arben; Jaka, Arbëresha; Ukëhaxhaj, Antigona; Gashi, Sanije; Bince, Ergyl

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Lead toxicity is a serious health threat, especially in developing countries due to environmental pollution. It was thus aimed to investigate correlation between blood lead level and concentration level of hemoglobin in the blood of children involved in research. Material and methods: The research included 250 children of which 31(12.4%) kindergarten children, 166 (66.4%) of primary school pupils in Mitrovica and 53(21.2%) of primary school pupils in Shtime as control group. From the 250 children included in the survey 129 or 51.6% were female children and 48.4% male children. Children were selected randomly, while tests for concentration of Pb and blood hemoglobin were done at the National Institute of Public Health. Results: The average value of blood lead level of Mitrovica pupils was 2.4 µg/dL (SD±1.9µg/dL), range 0.5 to 16.3µg/dL. The average value of blood lead level of Shtime pupils was 2.3µg/dL (SD±0.7µg/dL), range 1.2 to 5.2 µg/dL with no statistical difference (P = 0.191). The average value of blood lead level in kindergarten children of Mitrovica was 3.8µg/dL (SD±1.3µg/dL), range 2.2 to 7.7µg/dL with significant difference between the average values of blood lead levels of pupils and kindergarten children of Mitrovica (P <0.0001). The average value of hemoglobin in the pupils of Mitrovica was 14.0g/dL(SD± 3.7g/dL), range 9.4 to 25.6 g/dL. The average value of hemoglobin to pupils of Shtime was 11.4g/dl(SD±0.8 g/dl), range 9.2 to 13.0 g/dl with significant difference between mean values of hemoglobin pupils of Mitrovica and Shtime (U ‘= 6440.0, P <0.0001). With Spearman correlation is found significant correlation of a medium scale (r = -0.305, df = 248, p <0.0001) between blood lead levels and hemoglobin level in the blood. PMID:25568564

  8. Serum levels of YKL-40 and PIIINP as prognostic markers in patients with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Johansen, Julia S; Christensen, Erik;

    2003-01-01

    patients with alcoholic liver disease were studied in a trial of malotilate with a median follow-up period of 470 days; 75 patients died; 336 patients had a liver biopsy on entry. Serum levels of YKL-40 and PIIINP were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). RESULTS: Serum YKL-40 and PIIINP were elevated......BACKGROUND/AIMS: YKL-40 (growth factor) and PIIINP (N-terminal propeptide of Type III procollagen) are potential markers of liver fibrosis. The aim was to evaluate the prognostic value of serum YKL-40 and PIIINP levels in patients with alcoholic liver disease. METHODS: Three hundred and seventy...... in alcoholic patients, related to the presence of liver fibrosis and may provide prognostic information....

  9. Chronic Ethanol Exposure Effects on Vitamin D Levels Among Subjects with Alcohol Use Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsakin, Olalekan; Hottor, Tete; Mehta, Ashish; Lichtveld, Maureen; McCaskill, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D has been previously recognized to play important roles in human immune system and function. In the pulmonary system, vitamin D regulates the function of antimicrobial peptides, especially cathelicidin/LL-37. Human cathelicidin/LL-37 is a bactericidal, bacteriostatic, and antiviral endogenous peptide with protective immune functions. Chronic exposure to excessive alcohol has the potential to reduce levels of vitamin D (inactive vitamin D [25(OH)D3] and active vitamin D [1, 25(OH)2D3]) and leads to downregulation of cathelicidin/LL-37. Alcohol-mediated reduction of LL-37 may be partly responsible for increased incidence of more frequent and severe respiratory infections among subjects with alcohol use disorder (AUD). The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which alcohol exerts its influence on vitamin D metabolism. In addition, the aim was to establish associations between chronic alcohol exposures, levels of pulmonary vitamin D, and cathelicidin/LL-37 using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid samples of subjects with AUD and healthy controls. Findings from the experiment showed that levels of inactive vitamin D (25(OH)D3), active vitamin D (1, 25(OH)2D3), cathelicidin/LL-37, and CYP27B1 proteins were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) when compared with the matched healthy control group. However, CYP2E1 was elevated in all the samples examined. Chronic exposure to alcohol has the potential to reduce the levels of pulmonary vitamin D and results in subsequent downregulation of the antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, in the human pulmonary system. PMID:27795667

  10. Smoking, alcoholism and genetic polymorphisms alter CYP2B6 levels in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksys, Sharon; Lerman, Caryn; Shields, Peter G; Mash, Deborah C; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2003-07-01

    CYP2B6 metabolizes drugs such as nicotine and bupropion, and many toxins and carcinogens. Nicotine induces CYP2B1 in rat brain and in humans polymorphic variation in CYP2B6 affects smoking cessation rates. The aim of this study was to compare CYP2B6 expression in brains of human smokers and non-smokers and alcoholics and non-alcoholics (n=26). CYP2B6 expression was brain region-specific, and was observed in both neurons and astrocytes. CYP2B6 levels were higher in brains of smokers and alcoholics, particularly in cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal pyramidal neurons, cells known to be damaged in alcoholics. Significantly more (penzyme levels, stability and activity. Preliminary genotyping of this small sample (n=24) suggested that individuals with the CC genotype had higher brain CYP2B6 than those with the CT or TT genotype. Higher brain CYP2B6 activity in smokers and alcoholics may cause altered sensitivity to centrally acting drugs, increased susceptibility to neurotoxins and carcinogenic xenobiotics and contribute to central tolerance to nicotine.

  11. Blood vitamin levels in dogs with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, A; Tran, J L; Krammer-Lukas, S; Höller, U; Thalhammer, J G; Zentek, J; Willmann, M

    2012-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) may affect excretion and metabolism of vitamins but data for dogs are limited. In this study, blood vitamin levels were investigated in 19 dogs with chronic renal failure. High performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherol, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, ascorbic acid and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations, whereas cobalamin, folate, biotin and pantothenic acid were measured by microbiological methods. Levels of retinol, retinyl palmitate, ascorbic acid, and vitamins B1, B2 and B6 were increased compared to healthy dogs. Dogs with CKD showed decreased concentrations of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and folate. Alpha-tocopherol, biotin, pantothenate and cobalamin levels were not significantly different between controls and dogs with CKD. Whether lower vitamin D and folate concentrations in dogs with CKD justify supplementation has to be evaluated in future studies.

  12. Correlation of Salivary Glucose Level with Blood Glucose Level in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arati S. Panchbhai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is alarming rise in number of people with diabetes mellitus over these years. If glucose in saliva is linked to glucose in blood it can be used to detect diabetes mellitus at an early stage. The present study is undertaken with the aim to assess the correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in people with diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods: For investigations, 2 sets of samples of people with diabetes and the age and sex matched non-diabetic subjects were recruited. The salivary glucose was analyzed in unstimulated whole saliva samples using glucose oxidase method. Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was applied to assess the correlation between salivary glucose level and blood glucose level. Results: The significant (P < 0.05 positive correlation of salivary glucose level and fasting blood glucose level was observed in people with uncontrolled diabetes in both the sets of samples.Conclusions: Although study suggests some potential for saliva as a marker in monitoring of diabetes mellitus, there are many aspects that need clarification before we reach to a conclusion.

  13. Left ventricular dysfunction and blood glycohemoglobin levels in young diabetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydiner, A.; Oto, A.; Oram, E.; Oram, A.; Ugurlu, S.; Karamehmetoglu, A. (Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Cardiology); Aras, T.; Bekdik, C.F. (Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Gedik, O. (Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Endocrinology)

    1991-10-01

    Left ventricular function including regional wall motion (RWM) was evaluated by {sup 99m}Tc first-pass and equilibrium gated blood pool ventriculography and glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) blood levels determined by a quantitative column technique in 25 young patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus without clinical evidence of heart diesease, and in healthy controls matched for age and sex. Phase analysis revealed abnormal RWM in 19 of 21 diabetic patients. The mean left ventricular global ejection fraction, the mean regional ejection fraction and the mean 1/3 filling fraction were lower and the time to peak ejection, the time to peak filling and the time to peak ejection/cardiac cycle were longer in diabetics than in controls. We found high HbA1c levels in all diabetics. There was no significant difference between patients with and without retinopathy and with and without peripheral neuropathy in terms of left ventricular function and HbA1c levels. (orig.).

  14. Two Generations of Maternal Alcohol Abuse: Impact on Cognitive Levels in Mothers and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumaret, Annick-Camille; Cousin, Melanie; Titran, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Transgenerational effects of alcohol on mothers' and children's intellectual functioning has been examined in 22 families from very deprived environments. Their psychosocial outcomes and IQ level were evaluated in a follow-up study on average seven years after they left the support group of a day-care centre for young children; school data were…

  15. The Relationship Between Blood Lead Level and Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Fatemeh; Akbari, Sedigheh Amir Ali; Dabirioskoei, Atousa; Nasiri, Malihe; Mellati, Aliosat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lead is a heavy metal to which people are commonly exposed. One of the possible mechanisms of tissue damages caused by this toxic metal is oxidative stress, which in turn may cause numerous pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia. The present study was conducted to determine the relationship between maternal Blood Lead Level (BLL) and preeclampsia. Methods The present case-control study was conducted on 158 pregnant women admitted to a hospital in Zanjan, Iran, from August 2015 to March 2016. To measure their BLL, 1.5 cc of blood was drawn from each participant. The demographic and obstetric details of the patients were recorded in a form. The potentiometric method was used to test the samples. The data obtained were analyzed by SPSS version 22, using Mann-Whitney U test, the Chi square, independent-samples t-test, Pearson product-moment correlation, and simple linear regression analysis. Results The mean BLL was 6.24±1.74 μg/dl in the control group and 8.04±3.4 μg/dl in the preeclampsia group. The two groups were matching in terms of the mother’s age and education and the household income. A significant relationship was observed between BLL and preeclampsia (p=0.028), as per every unit of increase (1 μg/dl) in BLL, systolic blood pressure increased by 0.014 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure by 0.013 mm Hg (p=0.004). Conclusion The results obtained suggest a relationship between BLL and preeclampsia. Global health measures should be taken to remove the exposure to lead so as to reduce its absorption by pregnant women. PMID:28163864

  16. [Studies on the mechanism of elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in alcoholic liver cirrhosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakizono, Kenji; Oita, Tatsuo; Eto, Masaaki; Bito, Sanae; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Kasakura, Shinpei

    2002-03-01

    We measured serum PIVKA-II concentrations in 18 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Alcoholic liver disease was diagnosed by the history of ethanol intake of more than 900 ml/day for over 10 years. Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed histologically. Infections with hepatitis B and C viruses were ruled out by assaying serum virus markers. No tumor was detected in liver by ultrasonography and computed tomography during observation period. None of the patients studied were positive for alpafetoprotein (AFP). Eight out of 18 (44.4%) patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis showed elevated serum PIVKA-II levels. In contrast, only eight out of 93 (8.6%) patients with nonalcholic liver cirrhosis had elevated serum PIVKA-II levels. PIVKA-II is well known as a tumor marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The rates of positive PIVKA-II found in alcoholic liver cirrhosis approached its rates in HCC. However, the time course for the elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels was different each other in alcoholic liver cirrhosis and HCC. In HCC, serum PIVKA-II "levels" continued to elevate until therapy. In contrast, its elevation was transient and its levels returned to baseline in alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The values of ALT (GPT), gamma-GTP, and ALP correlated poorly with serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. To investigate the mechanism by which elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis occurred, we studied the effect of vitamin K on production of PIVKA-II and AFP by hepatocytes. Hepatocytes(Alexander PLC/PRF/F cell line) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of vitamin K (Kaytwo, Eisai, Tokyo). Vitamin K had no effect on AFP production. In contrast, PIVKA-II production was inhibited by addition of vitamin K in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was suppressed by administration of vitamin K (Kaytwo) to these patients. Taken

  17. Reduced blood clearance and increased urinary excretion of N-nitrosodimethylamine in patas monkeys exposed to ethanol or isopropyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L M; Koseniauskas, R; Burak, E S; Moskal, T J; Gombar, C T; Phillips, J M; Sansone, E B; Keimig, S; Magee, P N; Rice, J M

    1992-03-15

    Low concentrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine are metabolized in rodent and human liver by cytochrome P450IIE1, an activity competitively inhibitable by ethanol. In rodents coadministration of ethanol with N-nitrosodimethylamine results in increased tumorigenicity in extrahepatic organs, probably as a result of reduced hepatic clearance. To test this concept in a primate, the effects of ethanol cotreatment on the pharmacokinetics of N-nitrosodimethylamine were measured in male patas monkeys. Ethanol, 1.2 g/kg given p.o. before i.v. N-nitrosodimethylamine (1 mg/kg) or concurrently with an intragastric dose resulted in a 10-50-fold increase in the area under the blood concentration versus time curves and a 4-13-fold increase in mean residence times for N-nitrosodimethylamine. Isopropyl alcohol, 3.2 g/kg 24 h before N-nitrosodimethylamine, also increased these parameters 7-10-fold; this effect was associated with persistence of isopropyl alcohol and its metabolic product acetone, both IIE1 inhibitors, in the blood. While no N-nitrosodimethylamine was detected in expired air, trace amounts were found in urine. Ethanol and isopropyl alcohol pretreatment increased the maximum urinary N-nitrosodimethylamine concentration 15-50-fold and the percentage of the dose excreted in the urine by 100-800-fold. Thus ethanol and isopropyl alcohol greatly increase systemic exposure of extrahepatic organs to N-nitrosodimethylamine in a primate.

  18. High plasma corticosterone levels persist during frequent automatic blood sampling in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Adem, Bashir; Royo, Felix

    2005-01-01

    Corticosterone levels in blood may be used as a marker of stress in rodents, provided that the blood sampling procedure itself is non-stressful. Automated blood sampling equipment (Accusampler) allows blood sampling without any interference with the animal and might be useful as a tool for an on...... the importance of considering the frequency of blood withdrawal during automated blood sampling. This parameter may have an impact on the experimental results when using blood corticosterone levels as a stress marker, but also during any in vivo study where blood is collected, since high corticosterone levels...... may affect the normal physiology of the animals....

  19. Influence of alcohol consumption on alveolar bone level associated with ligature-induced periodontitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Martins de Souza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is a risk indicator for periodontal disease. The purpose of this study was to morphometrically evaluate the influence of alcohol consumption on alveolar bone level associated with ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. Thirty-six female rats (Wistar, 120 days-old were randomly divided into three groups that received a daily administration of a water diet (control, n = 12, a 10% alcohol diet (10% ethanol, n = 12 or a 20% alcohol diet (20% ethanol, n = 12. Four weeks after the onset of the experiment, cotton ligatures were placed around the cervix of the upper right second molar in six rats. The other 6 rats in each group remained unligated. The rats were sacrificed four weeks after ligature placement. The maxillary bones were removed and alveolar bone loss was analyzed by measuring the distance between the cementoenamel junction and the alveolar bone crest at 2 buccal and 2 palatal sites on the upper right second molar. Analyses between the ligated and unligated groups showed that the presence of ligature induced alveolar bone loss (p 0.05. In the ligated groups, rats receiving 20% ethanol showed significantly greater bone loss compared to control rats or rats receiving 10% ethanol. These results demonstrate that alcohol consumption may increase alveolar bone loss in female rats in a dose-dependent manner.

  20. Decreased serum level of NGF in alcohol-dependent patients with declined executive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae H

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hwallip Bae,1 Youngsun Ra,1 Changwoo Han,2 Dai-Jin Kim3 1Department of Psychiatry, Myongji Hospital, Goyang, 2Department of Psychiatry, Keyo Hospital, Uiwang, 3Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: The role of neurotrophic factors has been highlighted as a cause of decline in the cognitive function of alcohol-dependent patients. It is known that nerve-growth factor (NGF, one of the neurotrophins, is related to the growth and differentiation of nerve cells, as well as to a decline in cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between decreased NGF levels and cognitive decline in alcohol-dependent patients. The serum concentration of NGF was measured in 38 patients with chronic alcohol dependence, and several neuropsychological tests were also performed for cognitive function assessment. The results indicated a significant correlation between serum NGF level and the trail-making test part B, which evaluates executive function, but did not show a significant correlation with other cognitive function tests. An increased serum level of NGF was associated with a decreased completion time in the trail-making test B, and this finding indicates that a high serum level of NGF is related to greater executive function. This finding may imply a protective role of NGF in preventing neuron damage among patients with alcohol dependence. Larger controlled studies will be necessary in the future to investigate this issue further. Keywords: nerve-growth factor, alcohol dependence, executive function, trail-making test

  1. Self-reported alcohol intake is a better estimate of 5-year change in blood pressure than biochemical markers in low resource settings: the PURE study

    OpenAIRE

    Zatu, Mandlenkosi C.; Van Rooyen, Johannes M.; Du Toit, Loots; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Greeff, Minrie; Schutte, Aletta E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite criticism of self-reported alcohol intake, it is a valuable tool to screen for alcohol abuse as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to compare various self-reported estimates of alcohol use with γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and percentage carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT) considering their relationship with blood pressure changes (%BP) over a 5-year period in black South Africans. Method: We recruited 1994 participants and collected 5-year followe...

  2. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, T; Skoog, [No Value; Oudkerk, M; de Leeuw, FE; de Groot, JC; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  3. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, T.; Skoog, I.; Oudkerk, M.; Leeuw, H.F. de; Groot, J.C. de; Hofman, A.W.I.M.; Breteler, M.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  4. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Sawada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus. Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

  5. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Kazutaka; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus). Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

  6. Elevated nitric oxide and 3',5' cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C(i)ntia Siqueira; Miguel Carneiro de Moura; Ana J(u)lia Pedro; Paula Rocha

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether serum levels of nitric oxide (NO') and plasma levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (Cgmp) and total glutathione (GSH) are altered in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and to examine their correlation with the severity of liver disease.METHODS: Twenty-six patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis were studied. Serum levels of NO· and plasma levels of cGMP and GSH were measured in 7 patients with compensated alcoholic cirrhosis (Child-Pugh A) and 19 patients with advanced cirrhosis (Child-Pugh B and C).The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score was evaluated. Sixteen healthy volunteers served as controls.Liver enzymes and creatinine levels were also tested.RESULTS: NO· and cGMP levels were higher in patients with Child-Pugh B and C cirrhosis than in Child-Pugh A cirrhosis or controls (NO·: 21.70 ± 8.07 vs 11.70 ± 2.74; 21.70 ± 8.07 vs 7.26 ± 2.47 μmol/L, respectively;P < 0.001) and (cGMP: 20.12 ± 6.62 vs 10.14 ± 2.78;20.12 ± 6.62 vs 4.95 ± 1.21 pmol/L, respectively; P <0.001). Total glutathione levels were lower in patients with Child-Pugh B and C cirrhosis than in patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis or controls (16.04 ± 6.06 vs 23.01 ± 4.38 or 16.04 ± 6.06 vs 66.57 ± 26.23 μmol/L,respectively; P < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between NO· and cGMP levels in all patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. A significant negative correlation between reduced glutathione/glutathione disulfide and the MELD score was found in all cirrhotic patients. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a role for oxidative stress in alcoholic liver cirrhosis, which is more significant in decompensated patients with higher levels of NO· and cGMP and lower GSH levels than in compensated and control patients. Altered mediator levels in decompensated patients may influence the hemodynamic changes in and progression of liver disease.

  7. Study of blood pressure and blood sugar levels in adolescence and comparison with body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Borade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and its consequences prompted the WHO to designate obesity as a global epidemic in 2002. Being overweight is a risk factor for significant illness, especially diabetes and hypertension in adult life. Objectives : To study the blood pressure and blood sugar levels and lifestyle parameters in adolescence and comparison with body mass index. Materials and Methods: In a prospective case control study, out of the 1000 screened, a total of 200 adolescents were considered out of which 100 were with high body mass index (BMI and the other 100 were with normal BMI. Height, weight, BMI, waist hip ratio (WHR, blood pressure (BP, BSL, and associated risk factors like physical activity, fast food consumption, and computer/television watching were measured and screened. Results and Observations: 109 (54.5% males and 91 (45.5% females were included. Maximum number [90 (45%] of adolescents screened were in the age group of 17-19 years, while 54 (27% and 56 (28% adolescents were in the age group of 10-13 years and 14-16 years, respectively. According to CDC charts 2000, prevalence of overweight was 24% which was double when compared to WHO charts 2007. There was significant difference in prevalence of obesity; according to CDC chart it was 26%, whereas according to WHO chart it was 39%. The difference in blood pressures between cases and controls as per both CDC and WHO charts was found to be statistically significant (P 0.05 with BMI. Conclusion: The adolescents seem to have become heavier owing to environmental influences on growth patterns. So, a consideration should be given to shift the cut-offs for overweight and obesity to higher BMI percentiles if recent growth charts are to be followed. Adolescents with a BMI above the 95 >th percentile (obese are most likely to have obesity-related health risks.

  8. Elevation of blood ciclosporin levels by voriconazole leading to leukoencephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Caihong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report that one 18-year-old female patient with no epilepsia history developed severe epileptiform seizures while she was receiving "ciclosporin A (CsA-mycophenolate-methylprednisolone" antirejection therapy after combining one week′s voriconazole administration following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. Her blood concentration of CsA was 378 ng/ml (elevated ↑64%, contrasted with the level before the addition of voriconazole on the second day of admission, and the MRI of head showed leukoencephalopathy in bilateral occipital and left frontal lobe on the 4 th day of admission. The most likely mechanism is that because of voriconazole′s enzyme inhibition and CsA as the substrate of hepatic enzymes, voriconazole elevated the blood concentration of CsA and enhanced its toxicity. This case highlights the importance of clinical pharmacists joining the medical team and optimizing the patients′ treatment protocols by performing a systematic literature research, accumulating the knowledge of the potential drug interaction and examining prescriptions.

  9. Increasing serum pre-adipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) correlates with decreased body fat, increased free fatty acids, and level of recent alcohol consumption in excessive alcohol drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Bennett, Rachel; Westerhold, Chi; Ross, Ruth A; Crabb, David W; Lai, Xianyin; Witzmann, Frank A

    2014-12-01

    Patients with alcoholic liver disease have been reported to have a significantly lower percentage of body fat (%BF) than controls. The mechanism for the reduction in %BF in heavy alcohol users has not been elucidated. In adipose tissue, Pref-1 is specifically expressed in pre-adipocytes but not in adipocytes. Pref-1 inhibits adipogenesis and elevated levels are associated with reduced adipose tissue mass. We investigated the association between serum Pref-1 and %BF, alcohol consumption, and serum free fatty acids (FFA) in a well-characterized cohort of heavy alcohol users compared to controls. One hundred forty-eight subjects were prospectively recruited. The Time Line Follow-Back (TLFB) questionnaire was used to quantify the amount of alcohol consumed over the 30-day period before their enrollment. Anthropometric measurements were performed to calculate %BF. Serum Pref-1 and FFA were measured. Fifty-one subjects (mean age 32 ± 9 years, 88% men) were non-excessive drinkers whereas 97 were excessive drinkers (mean age 41 ± 18 years, 69% men). Compared to non-excessive drinkers, individuals with excessive drinking had significantly higher levels of Pref-1 (p<0.01), FFA (p < 0.001), and lower %BF (p = 0.03). Serum levels of Pref-1 were associated with the amount of alcohol consumed during the previous 30 days. Serum Pref-1 was negatively correlated with %BF, but positively associated with serum FFA. Our data suggest that elevated Pref-1 levels in excessive drinkers might inhibit the expansion of adipose tissue, decreasing %BF in alcoholics. Further work is needed to validate these findings and to better understand the role of Pref-1 and its clinical significance in subjects with heavy alcohol use.

  10. Physical Activity- and Alcohol-dependent Association Between Air Pollution Exposure and Elevated Liver Enzyme Levels: An Elderly Panel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lee, Hyemi; Kim, Jin Hee; Jung, Kweon; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The deleterious effects of air pollution on various health outcomes have been demonstrated. However, few studies have examined the effects of air pollution on liver enzyme levels. Methods: Blood samples were drawn up to three times between 2008 and 2010 from 545 elderly individuals who regularly visited a community welfare center in Seoul, Korea. Data regarding ambient air pollutants (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm [PM2.5], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], ozone [O3], carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide) from monitoring stations were used to estimate air pollution exposure. The effects of the air pollutants on the concentrations of three liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase [γ-GTP)]) were evaluated using generalized additive and linear mixed models. Results: Interquartile range increases in the concentrations of the pollutants showed significant associations of PM2.5 with AST (3.0% increase, p=0.0052), ALT (3.2% increase, p=0.0313), and γ-GTP (5.0% increase, p=0.0051) levels; NO2 with AST (3.5% increase, p=0.0060) and ALT (3.8% increase, p=0.0179) levels; and O3 with γ-GTP (5.3% increase, p=0.0324) levels. Significant modification of these effects by exercise and alcohol consumption was found (p for interaction <0.05). The effects of air pollutants were greater in non-exercisers and heavy drinkers. Conclusions: Short-term exposure to air pollutants such as PM2.5, NO2, and O3 is associated with increased liver enzyme levels in the elderly. These adverse effects can be reduced by exercising regularly and abstinence from alcohol. PMID:26081652

  11. Amyloid β levels in human red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Kiko

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ is hypothesized to play a key role by oxidatively impairing the capacity of red blood cells (RBCs to deliver oxygen to the brain. These processes are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Although plasma Aβ has been investigated thoroughly, the presence and distribution of Aβ in human RBCs are still unclear. In this study, we quantitated Aβ40 and Aβ42 in human RBCs with ELISA assays, and provided evidence that significant amounts of Aβ could be detected in RBCs and that the RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. The RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. On the other hand, providing an antioxidant supplement (astaxanthin, a polar carotenoid to humans was found to decrease RBC Aβ as well as oxidative stress marker levels. These results suggest that plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 bind to RBCs (possibly with aging, implying a pathogenic role of RBC Aβ. Moreover, the data indicate that RBC Aβ40 and Aβ42 may constitute biomarkers of AD. As a preventive strategy, therapeutic application of astaxanthin as an Aβ-lowering agent in RBCs could be considered as a possible anti-dementia agent. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN42483402.

  12. The relationship between blood lead levels and morbidities among workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalahasthi, Ravi Babu; Barman, Tapu; Rajmohan, H R

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find the relationship between blood lead levels (BLLs) and morbidities among 391 male workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage batteries. A predesigned questionnaire was used to collect information on subjective health complaints and clinical observation made during a clinical examination. In addition to monitoring of BLL, other laboratory parameters investigated included hematological and urine-δ-aminolevulinic acid levels. Logistic regression method was used to evaluate the relationship between BLL and morbidities. The BLL among workers was associated with an odd ratio of respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI), and musculoskeletal (MSD) morbidities. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin and packed cell volume variables were associated with respiratory problems. The variables of alcohol consumption and hematological parameters were associated with GI complaints. Systolic blood pressure was related to MSD in workers exposed to Pb during the manufacturing process.

  13. Cognitive biases for social alcohol-related pictures and alcohol use in specific social settings: An event-level study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groefsema, M.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Smit, K.; Luijten, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alcohol use occurs mainly among friends, in social contexts, and for social reasons. Moreover, cognitive biases, such as attentional and approach biases, have repeatedly been associated with alcohol use. This study aimed to test whether nondependent drinkers display cognitive biases for

  14. Nucleus accumbens response to rewards and testosterone levels are related to alcohol use in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara R. Braams

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During adolescence there is a normative increase in risk-taking behavior, which is reflected in, for example, increases in alcohol consumption. Prior research has demonstrated a link between testosterone and alcohol consumption, and between testosterone and neural responses to rewards. Yet, no study to date tested how testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards relate to and predict individual differences in alcohol use. The current study aimed to investigate this by assessing alcohol use, testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards in adolescents (12–17 years old and young adults (18–26 years old. Participants were measured twice with a two-year interval between testing sessions. Cross-sectional analysis showed that at the second time point higher neural activity to rewards, but not testosterone levels, explained significant variance above age in reported alcohol use. Predictive analyses showed that, higher testosterone level at the first time point, but not neural activity to rewards at the first time point, was predictive of more alcohol use at the second time point. These results suggest that neural responses to rewards are correlated with current alcohol consumption, and that testosterone level is predictive of future alcohol consumption. These results are interpreted in the context of trajectory models of adolescent development.

  15. Nucleus accumbens response to rewards and testosterone levels are related to alcohol use in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braams, Barbara R; Peper, Jiska S; van der Heide, Dianne; Peters, Sabine; Crone, Eveline A

    2016-02-01

    During adolescence there is a normative increase in risk-taking behavior, which is reflected in, for example, increases in alcohol consumption. Prior research has demonstrated a link between testosterone and alcohol consumption, and between testosterone and neural responses to rewards. Yet, no study to date tested how testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards relate to and predict individual differences in alcohol use. The current study aimed to investigate this by assessing alcohol use, testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards in adolescents (12-17 years old) and young adults (18-26 years old). Participants were measured twice with a two-year interval between testing sessions. Cross-sectional analysis showed that at the second time point higher neural activity to rewards, but not testosterone levels, explained significant variance above age in reported alcohol use. Predictive analyses showed that, higher testosterone level at the first time point, but not neural activity to rewards at the first time point, was predictive of more alcohol use at the second time point. These results suggest that neural responses to rewards are correlated with current alcohol consumption, and that testosterone level is predictive of future alcohol consumption. These results are interpreted in the context of trajectory models of adolescent development.

  16. Detection of Alcohol Concentration in blood%血液中乙醇浓度的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云平

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The purpose ofthis study was to establish gas chromatographic method for the determination of alcohol in blood.Methods: Alcohol Concentration were quantitatively determined by headspace gas chromatography, tert-butanol was internal standard. Results: In the range of 8.12~97.44μgöml-1 had a good linear(r=0.9999). The average recoveries were 99.8%,RSD=0.3%. Conclusion:The method is simple, reliable, accurate, reproducible and can be used for quality control of Alcohol Concentration in blood.%目的建立在血液中检测乙醇含量的气相色谱法。方法 采用顶空进样毛细管气相色谱法,以叔丁醇为内标物。结果 乙醇在8.12~97.44μg•ml-1浓度范围内线性良好,相关系数为0.9999,平均回收率为99.8%,RSD为0.3%。结论 本方法操作简便、可靠,结果准确,重现性好,可用于血液中乙醇浓度的检测。

  17. Alcohol modulates circulating levels of interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N; Larsen, S; Seidelin, J B;

    2004-01-01

    Cytokines are markers of acute pancreatic inflammation and essential for distant organ injury, but they also stimulate pancreatic fibrogenesis and are thus involved in the progression from acute pancreatitis to chronic pancreatic injury and fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate...... the circulating levels of IL-6, MCP-1, TGF-beta1, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (CP)....

  18. Lack of correlation of glucose levels in filtered blood plasma to density and conductivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David M; Ash, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to determine whether the glucose level of a blood plasma sample from a diabetic patient could be predicted by measuring the density and conductivity of ultrafiltrate of plasma created by a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. Conductivity of the plasma filtrate measures electrolyte concentration and should correct density measurements for changes in electrolytes and water concentration. In vitro studies were performed measuring conductivity and density of solutions of varying glucose and sodium chloride concentrations. Plasma from seven hospitalized patients with diabetes was filtered across a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. The filtrate density and conductivity were measured and correlated to glucose levels. In vitro studies confirmed the ability to predict glucose from density and conductivity measurements, in varying concentrations of glucose and saline. In plasma filtrate, the conductivity and density measurements of ultrafiltrate allowed estimation of glucose in some patients with diabetes but not others. The correlation coefficient for the combined patient data was 0.45 which was significant but only explained 20% of the variability in the glucose levels. Individually, the correlation was significant in only two of the seven patients with correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.88. The reasons for lack of correlation are not clear, and cannot be explained by generation of idiogenic osmoles, effects of alcohol dehydrogenase, water intake, etc. This combination of physical methods for glucose measurement is not a feasible approach to measuring glucose in plasma filtrate.

  19. Effect of alcohol fermented feed on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk Fatty Acid profile and cholesterol content in holstein lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Z; Park, B K; Yan, C G; Choi, J G; Ahn, J S; Shin, J S

    2012-11-01

    A feeding experiment with 40 lactating Holstein cows and 4 dietary treatments was conducted to investigate supplementation with different levels of alcohol fermented feed to the TMR on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol concentration of blood and milk. Forty Holstein lactating cows (106±24 d post-partum; mean±SD) were distributed into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with each containing 10 cows per treatment. The treatment supplemented with TMR (DM basis) as the control (CON), and CON mixed with alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF) at a level of 5%, 10% and 15% of the TMR as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by supplementation of AFF. An increased 4% FCM in the milk occurred in cows fed T3 diet compared with CON, while T1 and T2 diets decreased 4% FCM in a dose dependent manner. Supplementation of AFF increased the concentration of albumin, total protein (TP), ammonia, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum compared with CON. In contrast, supplementation with AFF clearly decreased concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total cholesterol (TC) compare with CON. AFF supplementation increased the proportion of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 compared to CON. A decrease in the concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA) for T1, T2 and T3 resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) to SFA ratio compared to CON. Concentration of cholesterol in milk fat was reduced in proportion to the supplemental level of AFF. Feeding a diet supplemented with a moderate level AFF to lactating cows could be a way to alter the feed efficiency and fatty acid profile of milk by increasing potentially human consumer healthy fatty acid without detrimental effects on feed intake and milk production. A substantially decreased cholesterol proportion in milk induced by supplementation AFF suggests that alcohol fermented feed may improve milk cholesterol levels

  20. Elevated red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in black blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallas, C H

    1978-01-01

    Mean levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) were significantly increased in erythrocytes (RBC) from 43 nonanemic black blood donors (4.80 +/- 0.06 micromoles/l RBC) compared with 22 white donors 4.47 +/- 0.08 micromoles/l RBCs from eight of the 12 black donors with DPG levels greater than 5 micromoles/l RBC. Although a potentially hemolytic disorder could be defined in four (AS hemoglobin, beta-Thalassemia minor, G6PD deficiency), reticulocyte counts were normal. However, when RBCs from the subgroup were compared to RBCs from an additional 25 unselected white donors, the following suggested an abnormally large population of young RBCs in the subgroup: 1) normal or elevated RBC-ATP with normal serum phosphate level; 2) significantly increased activities of RBC age-dependent enzymes hexokinase (p less than 0.02), pyruvate kinase (p less than 0.05), and glutamicoxaloacetic transaminase (p less than 0.01), with normal activity of phosphoglycerate kinase, an age-independent enzyme; 3) decreased dense (older) RBCs as determined by sedimentation in phthalate esters. Since DPG is increased in young RBCs and falls as the RBC ages, loss of older relatively DPG depleted RBCs due to shortened survival could account for the elevated DPG levels seen in the subgroup.

  1. Evaluation of Self Body Physical Perception Level of Elite University Footballers due to Cigarette and Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla PULUR

    Full Text Available Our study was aimed to research the level of multi-dimensional physical self-perception by elite footballers, who engage ininter-universities sports activities, due to cigarette and alcohol consumption. The sample of the study included a total of 81volunteers’ male athletes; from 7 universities. The Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ; has beenemployed. Then the data obtained from questionnaire has been analyzed by a statistical perspective way of percentage frequencyand the t-test. The findings were tabulated, and found significant differences between the self-image assessment (t=-2.473:p<0,05 and health assessment (t=-2.880: p<0,05 identified in reference to the cigarette consumption by footballers. It hasbeen concluded that the number of footballers, who did not consume cigarettes and alcohol, was higher than the consumers.No meaningful difference was observed among the subjects that consume alcohol in terms of physical perceptions. However, ithas been noted that the smokers had a higher level of physical self-perception when compared with the nonsmokers.Generally, it has been determined that the footballers have a positive level of physical self-perception.

  2. Comparisons of polybrominated diphenyl ethers levels in paired South Korean cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyung; Bang, Du Yeon; Lim, Hyun Jung; Won, A Jin; Ahn, Mee Young; Patra, Nabanita; Chung, Ki Kyung; Kwack, Seung Jun; Park, Kui Lea; Han, Soon Young; Choi, Wahn Soo; Han, Jung Yeol; Lee, Byung Mu; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Jaewon; Kim, Hyung Sik

    2012-03-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), commonly used flame retardants, have been reported as potential endocrine disruptor and neurodevelopmental toxicants, thus giving rise to the public health concern. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between umbilical cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk concentrations of PBDEs in South Korean. We assessed PBDE levels in paired samples of umbilical cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk. The levels of seven PBDE congeners were measured in 21 paired samples collected from the Cheil Woman's Hospital (Seoul, Korea) in 2008. We also measured thyroid hormones levels in maternal and cord blood to assess the association between PBDEs exposure and thyroid hormone levels. However, there was no correlation between serum thyroxin (T4) and total PBDEs concentrations. The total PBDEs concentrations in the umbilical cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk were 10.7±5.1 ng g(-1) lipid, 7.7±4.2 ng g(-1) lipid, and 3.0±1.8 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively. The ranges of total PBDE concentrations observed were 2.28-30.94 ng g(-1) lipid in umbilical cord blood, 1.8-17.66 ng g(-1) lipid in maternal blood, and 1.08-8.66 ng g(-1) lipid in breast milk. BDE-47 (45-73% of total PBDEs) was observed to be present dominantly in all samples, followed by BDE-153. A strong correlation was found for major BDE-congeners between breast milk and cord blood or maternal blood and cord blood samples. The measurement of PBDEs concentrations in maternal blood or breast milk may help to determine the concentration of PBDEs in infant.

  3. An Analysis of Prospective Teachers’ Understanding Levels and Misconceptions in The Subjects of Organic Chemistry: The Case of Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulten Sendur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic chemistry which is called as chemistry of carbon compounds has an important place in chemistry and other fields of science. The fact that the subject of alcohols in organic chemistry is related to organic compounds such as aldehyde, ketone and carboxylic acid made this subject one of the basic subjects of organic chemistry. For this reason, it was aimed to describe prospective science teachers’ understanding levels and misconceptions about alcohols with this study. In this study, alcohol concept test which includes 16 multiple choice items was applied to 77 prospective science teachers to collect data. In addition, semi-structured interview was conducted with 12 prospective science teachers. At the end of study, it was determined that prospective science teachers had difficulties in understanding some topics such as physical properties of alcohols, structural isomerism, oxidation of alcohols and synthesis of alcohols and they had some misconceptions about these topics.

  4. Environmental factors predicting blood lead levels in pregnant women in the UK: the ALSPAC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M Taylor

    Full Text Available Lead is a widespread environmental toxin. The behaviour and academic performance of children can be adversely affected even at low blood lead levels (BLL of 5-10 µg/dl. An important contribution to the infant's lead load is provided by maternal transfer during pregnancy.Our aim was to determine BLL in a large cohort of pregnant women in the UK and to identify the factors that contribute to BLL in pregnant women.Pregnant women resident in the Avon area of the UK were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC in 1991-1992. Whole blood samples were collected at median gestational age of 11 weeks and analysed by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n = 4285. Self-completion postal questionnaires were used to collect data during pregnancy on lifestyle, diet and other environmental exposures. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS v19.The mean±SD BLL was 3.67±1.47 (median 3.41, range 0.41-19.14 µg/dl. Higher educational qualification was found to be one of the strongest independent predictor of BLL in an adjusted backwards stepwise logistic regression to predict maternal BLL <5 or ≥5 µg/dl (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.42; p<0.001. Other predictive factors included cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee drinking, and heating the home with a coal fire, with some evidence for iron and calcium intake having protective effects.The mean BLL in this group of pregnant women is higher than has been found in similar populations in developed countries. The finding that high education attainment was independently associated with higher BLL was unexpected and currently unexplained. Reduction in maternal lead levels can best be undertaken by reducing intake of the social drugs cigarettes, alcohol and caffeine, although further investigation of the effect of calcium on lead levels is needed.

  5. Individual and district-level predictors of alcohol use: cross sectional findings from a rural mental health survey in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inder Kerry J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive alcohol use is a significant problem in rural and remote Australia. The factors contributing to patterns of alcohol use have not been adequately explained, yet the geographic variation in rates suggests a potential contribution of district-level factors, such as socio-economic disadvantage, rates of population change, environmental adversity, and remoteness from services/population centres. This paper aims to investigate individual-level and district-level predictors of alcohol use in a sample of rural adults. Methods Using baseline survey data (N = 1,981 from the population-based Australian Rural Mental Health Study of community dwelling residents randomly selected from the Australia electoral roll, hierarchal logistic regression models were fitted for three outcomes: 1 at-risk alcohol use, indicated by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores ≥8; 2 high alcohol consumption (> 40 drinks per month; and 3 lifetime consequences of alcohol use. Predictor variables included demographic factors, pre-dispositional factors, recent difficulties and support, mental health, rural exposure and district-level contextual factors. Results Gender, age, marital status, and personality made the largest contribution to at-risk alcohol use. Five or more adverse life events in the past 12 months were also independently associated with at-risk alcohol use (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 3.3, 99%CI 1.2, 8.9. When these individual-level factors were controlled for, at-risk alcohol use was associated with having spent a lower proportion of time living in a rural district (AOR 1.7, 99%CI 1.3, 2.9. Higher alcohol consumption per month was associated with higher district-level socio-economic ranking, indicating less disadvantage (AOR 1.2, 99%CI 1.02, 1.4. Rural exposure and district-level contextual factors were not significantly associated with lifetime consequences of alcohol use. Conclusions Although recent attention has been

  6. Increased neurofilament light chain blood levels in neurodegenerative neurological diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Gaiottino

    Full Text Available Neuronal damage is the morphological substrate of persisting neurological disability. Neurofilaments (Nf are cytoskeletal proteins of neurons and their release into cerebrospinal fluid has shown encouraging results as a biomarker for neurodegeneration. This study aimed to validate the quantification of the Nf light chain (NfL in blood samples, as a biofluid source easily accessible for longitudinal studies.We developed and applied a highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL based immunoassay for quantification of NfL in blood and CSF.Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD (30.8 pg/ml, n=20, Guillain-Barré-syndrome (GBS (79.4 pg/ml, n=19 or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS (95.4 pg/ml, n=46 had higher serum NfL values than a control group of neurological patients without evidence of structural CNS damage (control patients, CP (4.4 pg/ml, n=68, p<0.0001 for each comparison, p=0.002 for AD patients and healthy controls (HC (3.3 pg/ml, n=67, p<0.0001. Similar differences were seen in corresponding CSF samples. CSF and serum levels correlated in AD (r=0.48, p=0.033, GBS (r=0.79, p<0.0001 and ALS (r=0.70, p<0.0001, but not in CP (r=0.11, p=0.3739. The sensitivity and specificity of serum NfL for separating ALS from healthy controls was 91.3% and 91.0%.We developed and validated a novel ECL based sandwich immunoassay for the NfL protein in serum (NfL(Umea47:3; levels in ALS were more than 20-fold higher than in controls. Our data supports further longitudinal studies of serum NfL in neurodegenerative diseases as a potential biomarker of on-going disease progression, and as a potential surrogate to quantify effects of neuroprotective drugs in clinical trials.

  7. Surfactant protein D levels in umbilical cord blood and capillary blood of premature infants. The influence of perinatal factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Marianne; Holmskov, Uffe; Husby, Steffen

    2006-01-01

    of SP-D in capillary blood day 1 was 1,466 ng/mL (range 410-5,051 ng/mL), with lowest values in infants born with ROM and delivered vaginally. High SP-D levels in umbilical cord blood and capillary blood on day 1 were found to be more likely in infants in need for respiratory support or surfactant...

  8. Association between blood cholesterol level with periodontal status of coronary heart disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valensia, Rosy; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Lessang, Robert; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is an abnormal narrowing of heart arteries associated with local accumulation of lipids, in the form of cholesterol and triglycerides. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory that suggests link to the development of CHD. In periodontitis have been reported changes in lipid profile, include increased of cholesterol levels of blood. Objective: to analyse correlation between blood cholesterol level with periodontal status of CHD and non CHD subjects. Methods: Periodontal status and blood cholesterol level of 60 CHD and 40 non CHD subjects was measured. Result: Blood cholesterol level in CHD subjects differs from non CHD subjects (p=0.032). Blood cholesterol level correlates with pocket depth (p=0.003) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) (p=0.000) in CHD subjects. Blood cholesterol level correlates with pocket depth (p=0.010) in non CHD subjects. There is no significant correlation between blood cholesterol level and bleeding on probing (BOP) in CHD subjects. There is no significant correlation between blood cholesterol level with BOP and CAL in non CHD subjects. Conclusion: Blood cholesterol level in control group is higher than CHD patients. Blood cholesterol level positively associated with pocket depth (r=0.375) and CAL (r=0.450) in CHD patients. Blood cholesterol level is positively associated with pocket depth (r=0.404) in control group.

  9. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  10. Negative blood oxygen level dependent signals during speech comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Moreno, Diana; Schiff, Nicholas D; Hirsch, Joy

    2015-05-01

    Speech comprehension studies have generally focused on the isolation and function of regions with positive blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals with respect to a resting baseline. Although regions with negative BOLD signals in comparison to a resting baseline have been reported in language-related tasks, their relationship to regions of positive signals is not fully appreciated. Based on the emerging notion that the negative signals may represent an active function in language tasks, the authors test the hypothesis that negative BOLD signals during receptive language are more associated with comprehension than content-free versions of the same stimuli. Regions associated with comprehension of speech were isolated by comparing responses to passive listening to natural speech to two incomprehensible versions of the same speech: one that was digitally time reversed and one that was muffled by removal of high frequencies. The signal polarity was determined by comparing the BOLD signal during each speech condition to the BOLD signal during a resting baseline. As expected, stimulation-induced positive signals relative to resting baseline were observed in the canonical language areas with varying signal amplitudes for each condition. Negative BOLD responses relative to resting baseline were observed primarily in frontoparietal regions and were specific to the natural speech condition. However, the BOLD signal remained indistinguishable from baseline for the unintelligible speech conditions. Variations in connectivity between brain regions with positive and negative signals were also specifically related to the comprehension of natural speech. These observations of anticorrelated signals related to speech comprehension are consistent with emerging models of cooperative roles represented by BOLD signals of opposite polarity.

  11. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to Assess Situation-Level Predictors of Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Tyler B; Merrill, Jennifer E; Monti, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has afforded several important advances in the field of alcohol research, including testing prominent models of alcohol abuse etiology in "high resolution." Using high-tech methods for signaling and/or assessment, such as mobile electronic diaries, personal data assistants, and smartphones, EMA approaches potentially can improve understanding of precipitants of drinking, drinking patterns, and consequences. For example, EMA has been used to study complex drinking patterns and dynamic predictors of drinking in near-real time. Compared with other methods, EMA can better sample and capture changes in these phenomena that occur in relatively short time frames. EMA also has several potential applications in studying the consequences of alcohol use, including physical, interpersonal, behavioral, and legal problems. However, even with all these potential capabilities, EMA research in the alcohol field still is associated with some limitations, including the potential for measurement reactivity and problems with acceptability and compliance. Despite these limitations, electronically based EMA methods are versatile and are capable of capturing data relevant to a variety of momentary influences on both alcohol use and consequences. Therefore, it will be exciting to fully realize the potential of future applications of EMA technologies, particularly if the associated costs can be reduced.

  12. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10

  13. Blind Deconvolution for Distributed Parameter Systems with Unbounded Input and Output and Determining Blood Alcohol Concentration from Transdermal Biosensor Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, I G; Luczak, Susan E; Weiss, Jordan

    2014-03-15

    We develop a blind deconvolution scheme for input-output systems described by distributed parameter systems with boundary input and output. An abstract functional analytic theory based on results for the linear quadratic control of infinite dimensional systems with unbounded input and output operators is presented. The blind deconvolution problem is then reformulated as a series of constrained linear and nonlinear optimization problems involving infinite dimensional dynamical systems. A finite dimensional approximation and convergence theory is developed. The theory is applied to the problem of estimating blood or breath alcohol concentration (respectively, BAC or BrAC) from biosensor-measured transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) in the field. A distributed parameter model with boundary input and output is proposed for the transdermal transport of ethanol from the blood through the skin to the sensor. The problem of estimating BAC or BrAC from the TAC data is formulated as a blind deconvolution problem. A scheme to identify distinct drinking episodes in TAC data based on a Hodrick Prescott filter is discussed. Numerical results involving actual patient data are presented.

  14. Phosphatidylethanol in Blood as a Marker of Chronic Alcohol Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo Davide Ferrara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at a systematic review of the current knowledge on phosphatidylethanol (PEth in blood as a direct marker of chronic alcohol use and abuse. In March 2012, the search through “MeSH” and “free-text” protocols in the databases Medline/PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Ovid/Embase, combining the terms phosphatidylethanol and alcohol, provided 444 records, 58 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were used to summarize the current evidence on the formation, distribution and degradation of PEth in human blood: (1, the presence and distribution of different PEth molecular species (2, the most diffused analytical methods devoted to PEth identification and quantization (3, the clinical efficiency of total PEth quantification as a marker of chronic excessive drinking (4, and the potential utility of this marker for identifying binge drinking behaviors (5. Twelve papers were included in the meta-analysis and the mean (M and 95% confidence interval (CI of total PEth concentrations in social drinkers (DAI ≤ 60 g/die; M = 0.288 µM; CI 0.208–0.367 µM and heavy drinkers (DAI > 60 g/die; M = 3.897 µM; CI 2.404–5.391 µM were calculated. The present analysis demonstrates a good clinical efficiency of PEth for detecting chronic heavy drinking.

  15. Relationship between leptin levels in maternal blood,amniotic fluid,arterial and venous cord blood and fetal growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽莎; 薛昭卿; 宋岩峰; 何晓宇

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship between leptin concentration and fetal growth.Methods: Levels of leptin in maternal serum, amniotic fluid, arterial and venouscord blood of 65 normal parturients (gestational age 37-42weeks) were measured by ra-dioimmunoassay (RIA) method. At the same time, maternal blood lipids were detected.Neonates were divided into three groups: small for gestational age (SGA) group (n=10), appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group (n=45), large for gestational age(LGA) group (n= 10). Statistical analysis was performed by t test, variance analysisand correlation analysis.Results: (1) There was no obvious correlation between leptin concentrations in ma-ternal serum and arterial/ venous cord blood, amniotic fluid, and also no correlationwith birth weight and placental weight (P>0.05). Maternal body mass index signifi-cantly correlated with birth weight and neonatal length and leptin levels in arterial andvenous cord blood (P<0.01). Leptin levels in arterial and venous cord blood positivelycorrelated significantly with placental and neonatal weight and body length (P<0.01)and negatively correlated with high density lipoprotein (P<0. 01). There was no obvi-ous correlation between fetal gender and leptin concentrations in maternal serum, arteri-al and venous cord blood and amniotic fluid; (2) Leptin levels in arterial and venouscord blood , placental weight in LGA group were significantly higher than those in SGAand AGA group (P<0.05). Among three groups, leptin concentrations in maternalblood were significantly higher than those in arterial and venous cord blood (P<0.05).Conclusions: (1)Fetal leptin is synthesized in uterus, born of itself and placenta.Leptin levels in arterial and venous cord blood are related to the intrauterine growthpattern. It might positively regulate birth weight and body fat content. (2)Either mater-nal or fetal leptin was not correlated with fetal gender. There is no gender difference infetal leptin

  16. Alcohol consumption as self-medication against blood-borne parasites in the fruit fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Neil F; Kacsoh, Balint Z; Schlenke, Todd A

    2012-03-20

    Plants and fungi often produce toxic secondary metabolites that limit their consumption, but herbivores and fungivores that evolve resistance gain access to these resources and can also gain protection against nonresistant predators and parasites. Given that Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly larvae consume yeasts growing on rotting fruit and have evolved resistance to fermentation products, we decided to test whether alcohol protects flies from one of their common natural parasites, endoparasitoid wasps. Here, we show that exposure to ethanol reduces wasp oviposition into fruit fly larvae. Furthermore, if infected, ethanol consumption by fruit fly larvae causes increased death of wasp larvae growing in the hemocoel and increased fly survival without need of the stereotypical antiwasp immune response. This multifaceted protection afforded to fly larvae by ethanol is significantly more effective against a generalist wasp than a wasp that specializes on D. melanogaster. Finally, fly larvae seek out ethanol-containing food when infected, indicating that they use alcohol as an antiwasp medicine. Although the high resistance of D. melanogaster may make it uniquely suited to exploit curative properties of alcohol, it is possible that alcohol consumption may have similar protective effects in other organisms.

  17. Driving performance on the descending limb of blood alcohol concentration (BAC in undergraduate students: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Tremblay

    Full Text Available Young drivers are overrepresented in collisions resulting in fatalities. It is not uncommon for young drivers to socially binge drink and decide to drive a vehicle a few hours after consumption. To better understand the risks that may be associated with this behaviour, the present study has examined the effects of a social drinking bout followed by a simulated drive in undergraduate students on the descending limb of their BAC (blood alcohol concentration curve. Two groups of eight undergraduate students (n = 16 took part in this study. Participants in the alcohol group were assessed before drinking, then at moderate and low BAC as well as 24 hours post-acute consumption. This group consumed an average of 5.3 ± 1.4 (mean ± SD drinks in an hour in a social context and were then submitted to a driving and a predicted crash risk assessment. The control group was assessed at the same time points without alcohol intake or social context.; at 8 a.m., noon, 3 p.m. and 8 a.m. the next morning. These multiple time points were used to measure any potential learning effects from the assessment tools (i.e. driving simulator and useful field of view test (UFOV. Diminished driving performance at moderate BAC was observed with no increases in predicted crash risk. Moderate correlations between driving variables were observed. No association exists between driving variables and UFOV variables. The control group improved measures of selective attention after the third assessment. No learning effect was observed from multiple sessions with the driving simulator. Our results show that a moderate BAC, although legal, increases the risky behaviour. Effects of alcohol expectancy could have been displayed by the experimental group. UFOV measures and predicted crash risk categories were not sensitive enough to predict crash risk for young drivers, even when intoxicated.

  18. Relationship of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism with blood pressure,lipid profile and blood glucose level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship of the polymorphism of endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS)gene and blood pressure,lipid profiles and blood glucose level.By using PCR-RFLP,the eNOS Glu298Asp gene polymorphism was detected in 184 patients with essential hypertension and 196 matched healthy individuals with normal blood pressure.Taking into account eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphisms,the relationship of blood pressure with triglycerides(TG),total cholesterol(TC),high density lipoprotein(HDL),low density lipoprotein(LDL)and blood glucose level was analyzed.The distribution of eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism had no significant difference between different blood pressure groups and gender groups,but there was a significant difference between different age groups,diastolic blood pressure groups or BMI groups(P<0.05).Asp/Asp genotype significantly increased the risk of hypertension in individuals with serum TC above 5.4 mmol/L(P=0.03,OR=2.65).eNOSGlu298Asp polymorphism and serum lipid could synergistically modulate the blood pressure,eNOS Asp/Asp genotype could significantly increase the risk of hypertension in individuals with serum TC over 5.4 mmol/L,eNOS Glu298Asp in combination with serum TC could be used to predict the risk of hypertension.

  19. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  20. Effect of the allelic variants of aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2*2 and alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1B*2 on blood acetaldehyde concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Giia-Sheun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alcoholism is a complex behavioural disorder. Molecular genetics studies have identified numerous candidate genes associated with alcoholism. It is crucial to verify the disease susceptibility genes by correlating the pinpointed allelic variations to the causal phenotypes. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH are the principal enzymes responsible for ethanol metabolism in humans. Both ADH and ALDH exhibit functional polymorphisms among racial populations; these polymorphisms have been shown to be the important genetic determinants in ethanol metabolism and alcoholism. Here, we briefly review recent advances in genomic studies of human ADH/ALDH families and alcoholism, with an emphasis on the pharmacogenetic consequences of venous blood acetaldehyde in the different ALDH2 genotypes following the intake of various doses of ethanol. This paper illustrates a paradigmatic example of phenotypic verifications in a protective disease gene for substance abuse.

  1. Level of Mercury Manometer With Respect to Heart: Does it Affect Blood Pressure Measurement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Raj; Roy, V K; Manna, S; Bhattacharjee, M

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of blood pressure is an integral part of clinical examination. Over the years various types of instruments have been used to measure blood pressure but till date the mercury sphygmomanometer is regarded as the gold standard. However, there is a myth prevalent among health professionals regarding the level of the manometer in relation to heart at the time of measuring of blood pressure. Many professionals insist that it has to be placed at the level of the heart. We argue that the limb from which pressure is measured must be at the heart level rather than the manometer. We conducted a study in which we measured the blood pressure in adults by placing the manometer at three different levels with respect to the heart. The values of blood pressure obtained at all levels were similar and did not show any statistically significant difference. We therefore conclude that the level of sphygmomanometer per se does not affect blood pressure measurement.

  2. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A;

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... no studies directly comparing blood BDNF levels to brain BDNF levels in different species. We examined blood, serum, plasma and brain-tissue BDNF levels in three different mammalian species: rat, pig, and mouse, using an ELISA method. As a control, we included an analysis of blood and brain tissue from...... conditional BDNF knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Whereas BDNF could readily be measured in rat blood, plasma and brain tissue, it was undetectable in mouse blood. In pigs, whole-blood levels of BDNF could not be measured with a commercially available ELISA kit, but pig plasma BDNF levels (mean...

  3. Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels in Blood and Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Children: Is There a Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassandro, Carlotta; Banderali, Giuseppe; Radaelli, Giovanni; Borghi, Elisa; Moretti, Francesca; Verduci, Elvira

    2015-08-21

    Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in the pediatric population. Considering the different existing criteria to define metabolic syndrome, the use of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria has been suggested in children. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been associated with beneficial effects on health. The evidence about the relationship of DHA status in blood and components of the metabolic syndrome is unclear. This review discusses the possible association between DHA content in plasma and erythrocytes and components of the metabolic syndrome included in the IDF criteria (obesity, alteration of glucose metabolism, blood lipid profile, and blood pressure) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. The current evidence is inconsistent and no definitive conclusion can be drawn in the pediatric population. Well-designed longitudinal and powered trials need to clarify the possible association between blood DHA status and metabolic syndrome.

  4. Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels in Blood and Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Children: Is There a Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Lassandro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in the pediatric population. Considering the different existing criteria to define metabolic syndrome, the use of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria has been suggested in children. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA has been associated with beneficial effects on health. The evidence about the relationship of DHA status in blood and components of the metabolic syndrome is unclear. This review discusses the possible association between DHA content in plasma and erythrocytes and components of the metabolic syndrome included in the IDF criteria (obesity, alteration of glucose metabolism, blood lipid profile, and blood pressure and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. The current evidence is inconsistent and no definitive conclusion can be drawn in the pediatric population. Well-designed longitudinal and powered trials need to clarify the possible association between blood DHA status and metabolic syndrome.

  5. Dextrose in the banked blood products does not seem to affect the blood glucose levels in patients undergoing liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwok-Wai Cheng; King-Wah Chiu; Shih-Hor Wang; Chih-Che Lin; Tsan-Shiun Lin; Yueh-Wei Liu; Bruno Jawan; Chao-Long Chen; Yu-Fan Cheng; Chia-chih Tseng; Chih-Hsien Wang; Yaw-Sen Chen; Chih-Chi Wang; Tung Liang Huang; Hock-Liew Eng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Hyperglycemia commonly seen in liver transplantation (LT) has often been attributed to the dextrose in the storage solution of blood transfusion products. The purpose of the study is to compare the changes of the blood glucose levels in transfused and non-transfused patients during LT. METHODS: A retrospective study on 60 biliary pediatric patients and 16 adult patients undergoing LT was carried out. Transfused pediatric patients were included in Group Ⅰ (GI), those not transfused in Group Ⅱ (GⅡ). Twelve adult patients were not given transfusion and assigned to Group Ⅲ (GⅢ); whereas, four adult patients who received massive transfusion were assigned to Group Ⅳ (GⅣ). The blood glucose levels, volume of blood transfused, and the volume of crystalloid infused were recorded, compared and analyzed. RESULTS: Results showed that the changes in bloodglucose levels during LT for both non-transfused and minimally transfused pediatric groups and non-transfused and massively-transfused adult groups were almost the same. CONCLUSION: We conclude that blood transfusion does not cause significant changes in the blood glucose levels inthis study.

  6. Young people's blood alcohol concentration and the alcohol consumption city law, Brazil Alcoholemia de jóvenes y la ley contra consumo de alcohol, Brasil Alcoolemia de jovens e lei contra o consumo de álcool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel De Boni

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses blood alcohol concentration and risk behaviors for traffic accidents before and after the implementation of a law which prohibits the use of alcoholic beverages on city gas stations. In Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, young people go out at night and drive to gas station convenience stores to buy alcoholic beverages which are consumed on the premises of parking lots in gas stations. Data were obtained from self-administered questionnaires and breath analyzers in two cross-sectional collections with purposive samples of youngsters in May and July 2006 (n=62, and n=50, respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups before and after the city law was passed. Blood alcohol concentration greater than 0.06% was found in 35.5% of pre-law group and 40% of post-law group (p=0.62. Results point out heavy alcohol use in both groups, which did not change after the law was passed.En el artículo se analizaron la alcoholemia y los comportamientos de riesgo de accidentes de transito en jóvenes antes y después de la implementación de la ley que prohíbe el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas en puestos de gasolina. En Puerto Alegre (Sur de Brasil, los jóvenes acostumbran salir de noche y conducir hasta las tiendas de conveniencia de puestos de gasolina para comprar y consumir bebidas alcohólicas en los estacionamientos dentro de los puestos. Los datos fueron obtenidos de encuestas auto-aplicables y alcoholímetro en dos colectas transversales realizadas con jóvenes, abordados en mayo y julio de 2006 con muestreo intencional (n=62 y n=50, respectivamente. No hubo diferencia significativa entre los grupos entrevistados. Alcoholemia > 0,06% fue encontrada en 35,5% y 40% de los individuos antes y después de la ley, respectivamente (p=0,62. Los resultados señalan el uso pesado de alcohol en ambos grupos, inalterado por la implementación de la ley.No artigo foram analisados a alcoolemia e comportamentos de risco para

  7. Rapid evaluation of fibrinogen levels using the CG02N whole blood coagulation analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Mineji; Gando, Satoshi; Ono, Yuichi; Mizugaki, Asumi; Katabami, Kenichi; Maekawa, Kunihiko; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Wada, Takeshi; Yanagida, Yuichiro; Sawamura, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    Rapid evaluation of fibrinogen (Fbg) levels is essential for maintaining homeostasis in patients with massive bleeding during severe trauma and major surgery. This study evaluated the accuracy of fibrinogen levels measured by the CG02N whole blood coagulation analyzer (A&T Corporation, Kanagawa, Japan) using heparinized blood drawn for blood gas analysis (whole blood-Fbg). A total of 100 matched pairs of heparinized blood samples and citrated blood samples were simultaneously collected from patients in the intensive care unit. Whole blood-Fbg results were compared with those of citrated plasma (standard-Fbg). The whole blood coagulation analyzer measured fibrinogen levels within 2 minutes. Strong correlations between standard-Fbg and whole blood-Fbg were observed (ρ = 0.91, p blood-Fbg was 0.980 (95% confidence interval 0.951-1.000, p blood coagulation analyzer can rapidly measure fibrinogen levels in heparinized blood and could be useful in critical care settings where excessive bleeding is a concern.

  8. Serum type IV collagen level is predictive for esophageal varices in patients with severe alcoholic disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satoshi Mamori; Yasuyuki Searashi; Masato Matsushima; Kenichi Hashimoto; Shinichiro Uetake; Hiroshi Matsudaira; Shuji Ito; Hisato Nakajima; Hisao Tajiri

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine factors predictive for esophageal varices in severe alcoholic disease (SAD).METHODS: Abdominal ultrasonography (US) was performed on 444 patients suffering from alcoholism. Forty-four patients found to have splenomegaly and/ or withering of the right liver lobe were defined as those with SAD. SAD patients were examined by upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy for the presence of esophageal varices. The existence of esophageal varices was then related to clinical variables.RESULTS: Twenty-five patients (56.8%) had esophageal varices. A univariate analysis revealed a significant difference in age and type IV collagen levels between patients with and without esophageal varices. A logistic regression analysis identified type IV collagen as the only independent variable predictive for esophageal varices (P = 0.017). The area under the curve (AUC) for type IV collagen as determined by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) for predicting esophageal varices was 0.78.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the level of type IV collagen has a high diagnostic accuracy for the detection of esophageal varices in SAD.

  9. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long-Lian, E-mail: Longlian57@163.com [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Lu, Ling [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Xu, Da-Yong [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  10. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

    OpenAIRE

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-01-01

    The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma), for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma ...

  11. Comparing Effects of Medication Therapy and Exercise Training with Diet on Liver enzyme Levels and Liver Sonography in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Nabizadeh Haghighi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by the deposition of fat in liver cells, can cause fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cell damage if not controlled. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of medication therapy and exercise training with diet on liver enzyme levels and liver sonography in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Materials & Methods :In this quasi-experimental study, female patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver were randomly divided into two groups: medication therapy (n = 10 and exercise therapy (n = 10 for 8 weeks. During this period, the exercise group performed exercise training three days a week for 90 minutes per session. The drug was given to the medication group. In both groups, the diet was 500 calories less than their daily energy. Before and after intervention, blood tests and liver sonography were executed. All statistical analyses were done using SPSS for Windows version 20. Comparisons between and within groups were performed by Student's t-test and Wilcoxon test on paired and unpaired data. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results :In both groups, liver enzyme levels and disease severity in sonography reduced significantly (p<0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present research showed that both methods of therapy have the same effect on reducing the severity of NAFLD.

  12. Relation between anemia and blood levels of lead, copper, zinc and iron among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morsy Amal A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anemia is a health problem among infants and children. It is often associated with a decrease in some trace elements (iron, zinc, copper and an increase in heavy metals as lead. This study was done to determine the association of blood lead level > 10 μg/dl, with the increased risk to anemia, also, to investigate the relationship between anemia and changes in blood iron, zinc and copper levels, and measure lead level in drinking water. The study is a cross-sectional performed on 60 children. Venous blood samples were taken from the studied population for estimating hematological parameters as well as iron and ferritin levels. The concentrations of zinc, copper, and lead were measured. The studied population was divided into anemic and non-anemic (control groups. The anemic group was further classified into mild, moderate and severe anemia. The study subjects were also categorized into low and high blood lead level groups. Findings Approximately 63.33% of children had blood lead levels ≥ 10 μg/dl. At the blood lead level range of 10-20 μg/dl, a significant association was found for mild and severe anemia. The blood level of iron and ferritin was found to be significantly lower in high blood lead level and anemic groups than those of the low blood lead level and control groups. Lead level in drinking water was higher than the permissible limit. Conclusion Lead level ≥ 10 μg/dl was significantly associated with anemia, decreased iron absorption and hematological parameters affection. High blood lead levels were associated with low serum iron and ferritin. Lead level in drinking water was found to be higher than the permissible limits.

  13. Blood pressure response to low level static contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallentin, Nils; Jørgensen, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    The present study re-examines the 15% MVC concept, i.e. the existence of a circulatory steady-state in low intensity static contractions below 15% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Mean arterial blood pressure was studied during static endurance contractions of the elbow flexor and extensor...... muscles at forces corresponding to 10% and 40% MVC. Mean value for endurance time at 10% MVC was significantly longer for flexion [111.3 (SD 56.1) min] than for extension [18.1 (SD 7.5) min;n = 7]. At 40% MVC the difference in mean endurance time disappeared [2.3 (SD 0.7) min for elbow flexion and 2.3 (SD...... 0.7) min for elbow extension]. Mean arterial blood pressure exhibited a continuous and progressive increase during the 10% MVC contractions indicating that the 15% MVC concept would not appear to be valid. The terminal blood pressure value recorded at the point of exhaustion in the 10% MVC elbow...

  14. Association between the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and blood lipids in healthy individuals

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, SI-PING; Chen, Yan-Hong; Li, Hong

    2012-01-01

    The levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in blood is closely associated with the status of the health of individuals; in particular, the lack of ω-3 fatty acids may lead to the development of numerous diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of PUFAs, and their correlation with triglycerides and other factors in blood. The levels of PUFAs and blood lipids were detected in 156 healthy individuals; the blood samples were tested by combined thin-layer and gas liquid...

  15. Zinc and copper levels in plasma, erythrocytes, and whole blood in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldor, Y; Walach, N; Modai, D; Horn, Y

    1982-04-01

    Zinc and copper levels in erythrocytes, plasma, and whole blood were determined in 35 cancer patients and compared with 24 normal individuals. A decrease in zinc was found in all three blood constituents of the cancer patients. The decrease was significant in plasma and whole blood and nonsignificant in erythrocytes. Copper levels in the cancer group showed a slight and nonsignificant increase in erythrocytes, plasma, and whole blood. The copper to zinc ratio revealed a significant increase only for plasma levels. Further investigations are indicated to determine whether these two elements could serve as indicators for diagnosis or prognosis in cancer patients.

  16. Modulatory effect of pineapple peel extract on lipid peroxidation,catalase activity and hepatic biomarker levels in blood plasma of alcoholinduced oxidative stressed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okafor; OY; Erukainure; OL; Ajiboye; JA; Adejobi; RO; Owolabi; FO; Kosoko; SB

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the ability of the methanolic extract of pineapple peel to modulate alcohol-induced lipid peroxidation,changes in catalase activities and hepatic biochemical marker levels in blood plasma.Methods:Oxidative stress was induced by oral administration of ethanol(20%w/v) at a dosage of 5 niL/kg bw in rats.After 28 days of treatment,the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed by cervical dislocation.Blood was collected with a 2 mL syringe by cardiac puncture and was centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min.The plasma was analyzed to evaluate malondialdehyde(MDA),catalase activity,aspartate aminotransferase(AST),alkaline phosphatase(ALP) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) concentrations.Results:Administration of alcohol caused a drastic increase(87.74%) in MDA level compared with the control.Pineapple peel extract significantly reduced the MDA level by 60.16%at 2.S mL/kg bw.Rats fed alcohol only had the highest catalase activity,treatment with pineapple peel extract at 2.5 mL/kg bw however, reduced the activity.Increased AST,ALP and ALT activities were observed in rats fed alcohol only respectively,treatment with pineapple peel extract drastically reduced their activities. Conclusions:The positive modulation of lipid peroxidation,catalase activities as well as hepatic biomarker levels of blood plasma by the methanolic extract of pineapple peels under alcoholinduced oxidative stress is an indication of its protective ability in the management of alcoholinduced toxicity.

  17. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984 and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671 Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yokoyama

    Full Text Available Elevated serum triglyceride (TG and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics.The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission.High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl, HDL-C (>80 mg/dl, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67-2.94] and 1.39 [0.99-1.96], respectively, and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28-0.49] and 0.51 [0.37-0.69], respectively. The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45-0.80]. The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl.The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast-metabolizing ADH1B was associated with lower serum LDL

  18. Whole blood BDNF levels in healthy twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trajkovska, Viktorija; Vinberg, Maj; Aznar, Susana

    2008-01-01

    and protected against affective disorder. Whole blood assessed for BDNF concentrations and correlated to risk status, neuroticism, and number of stressful life events. RESULTS: Between the groups, we found no significant difference in whole blood BDNF levels. Women at high-risk for depression who had...... neuroticism scores and two or less recent stressful events were associated with decreased whole blood BDNF levels (n=50, p

  19. Effects of Urtica dioica supplementation on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in type 2 diabetic patients: A double blind, randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri Behzadi, Alidad; Kalalian-Moghaddam, Hamid; Ahmadi, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of diabetic complications including metabolic abnormality-induced diabetic micro-vascular and macro-vascular complications. Urtica dioica L. (U. dioica) has been traditionally used in Iranian medicine as an herbal remedy for hypoglycemic or due to its anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: 50 women with type 2 diabetes participated in this study and were randomly divided into two groups namely, control and intervention groups. Control group received placebo and intervention group received hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica. Before and after 8 weeks of continuous treatment, some biochemical serum levels including FPG, TG, SGPT, SGOT, HDL, LDL, SOD and NO were measured. Results: The results indicated that after 8 weeks, in the intervention group, FPG, TG, and SGPT levels significantly decreased and HDL, NO and SOD levels significantly increased as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our results encourage the use of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica as an antioxidant agent for additional therapy of diabetes as hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica may decrease risk factors of cardiovascular incidence and other complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:28078249

  20. Heritability of Level of Response and Association with Recent Drinking History in Non-Alcohol Dependent Drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, Nnenna; Ramchandani, Vijay A.; Marshall, Vanessa; Scott, Denise; Ferguson, Clifford; Cain, Gloria; Taylor, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background Level of response to alcohol (LR) has been shown to be associated with the risk for developing alcohol dependence and can be measured using the Self-Rating of the Effects of Alcohol (SRE) questionnaire. This study examined the heritability of the SRE-measured level of response and the relationship between LR and recent alcohol drinking history (RDH) in a predominantly African American non-alcohol dependent population. Methods This was a sibling study of 101 social drinkers aged 21–35 years recruited from the Washington DC metropolitan area. Participants were administered the SRE to assess LR and the Timeline Followback (TLFB) to assess RDH. The indices of SRE used were Total SRE score (SRTT), Early Drinking SRE score (SRED), Regular Drinking SRE score (SRRD), and Heavy Drinking SRE score (SRHD). Pearson’s product-moment correlation and linear regression was used to analyze SRE indices and RDH variables (quantity and drinks per drinking occasion). Heritability analysis was conducted using Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR) software with SRE indices as traits of interest. Results There was a significant relationship between SRE and RDH measures. Drinks per drinking day, maximum drinks, and quantity of drinks were significantly associated with SRTT, SRHD and SRRD (all pSRED, SRRD, SRHD) were not significantly heritable. Analysis performed in the subset consisting of only African Americans (n=86) showed similar trends. Conclusion Level of response, as measured by the SRE, is associated with recent alcohol drinking history. The high level of heritability of the SRE total score suggests that genetics accounts for a significant proportion of the variation in the level of response to alcohol in social drinkers. PMID:22235947

  1. Cubilin Maintains Blood Levels of HDL and Albumin

    OpenAIRE

    Aseem, Obaidullah; Smith, Brian T; Cooley, Marion A.; Wilkerson, Brent A.; Argraves, Kelley M.; Remaley, Alan T.; Argraves, W Scott

    2013-01-01

    Cubilin is an endocytic receptor highly expressed in renal proximal tubules, where it mediates uptake of albumin and filtered forms of apoA-I/HDL. Cubilin deficiency leads to urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I; however, the consequences of cubilin loss on the homeostasis of blood albumin and apoA-I/HDL have not been studied. Using mice heterozygous for cubilin gene deletion (cubilin HT mice), we show that cubilin haploinsufficiency leads to reduced renal proximal tubular uptake of albumin and...

  2. Effect of dissolved oxygen in alcoholic beverages and drinking water on alcohol elimination in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Su-jin; Chae, Jung-woo; Song, Byung-jeong; Lee, Eun-sil; Kwon, Kwang-il

    2013-02-01

    Oxygen plays an important role in the metabolism of alcohol. An increased dissolved oxygen level in alcoholic beverages reportedly accelerates the elimination of alcohol. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen in alcohol and the supportive effect of oxygenated water on alcohol pharmacokinetics after the excessive consumption of alcohol, i.e., 540 ml of 19.5% alcohol (v/v). Fifteen healthy males were included in this randomized, 3 × 3 crossover study. Three combinations were tested: X, normal alcoholic beverage and normal water; Y, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and normal water; Z, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and oxygenated water. Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were determined by conversion of breath alcohol concentrations. Four pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), K(el), and AUCall) were obtained using non-compartmental analysis and the times to reach 0.05% and 0.03% BAC (T(0.05%) and T(0.03%)) were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's post hoc test. With combination Z, the BAC decreased to 0.05% significantly faster (p water augments the effect of oxygen in the alcoholic beverage in alcohol elimination. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the supportive effect of ingesting additional oxygenated water after heavy drinking of normal alcoholic beverages.

  3. Interference of anesthetics in blood alcohol analysis by HS-GC-FID: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, C; Proença, P; Tavares, C; Castañera, A; Corte Real, F

    2016-08-01

    One of the techniques most widely used in ethanol analysis in forensic laboratories is undoubtedly the headspace gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (HS-GC-FID) since the determination of this substance is carried out directly, without the need for additional purification procedures, which leads to increased productivity. This is a very important factor due to the high number of alcohol analysis requested to these laboratories. The presence of other volatile substances can cause a problem given the fact that they can be interferents in ethanol analysis by HS-GC-FID, which can have legal consequences related with driving under the influence of alcohol. The authors report a case of a routine analysis by HS-GC-FID for the determination of ethanol of a driver who has suffered an accident in which the use of two chromatographic columns with different polarities was essential to obtain an unequivocally identification of this substance in presence of an interfering volatile anesthetic administered in the hospital. The method was validated according to international recommendations before being introduced into routine laboratory in terms of selectivity, limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification (LOQ), linearity, repeatability, intermediate precision, accuracy, robustness and carryover.

  4. Characterization at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples of shear stress preventing red blood cells aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Kinnunen, M; Danilina, A V; Ustinov, V D; Shin, S; Meglinski, I; Priezzhev, A V

    2016-05-03

    The aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) is an intrinsic feature of blood that has a strong impact on its microcirculation. For a number of years it has been attracting a great attention in basic research and clinical studies. Here, we study a relationship between the RBC aggregation parameters measured at the individual cell level and in a whole blood sample. The home made optical tweezers were used to measure the aggregating and disaggregating forces for a pair of interacting RBCs, at the individual cell level, in order to evaluate the corresponding shear stresses. The RheoScan aggregometer was used for the measurements of critical shear stress (CSS) in whole blood samples. The correlation between CSS and the shear stress required to stop an RBC pair from aggregating was found. The shear stress required to disaggregate a pair of RBCs using the double channel optical tweezers appeared to be about 10 times higher than CSS. The correlation between shear stresses required to prevent RBCs from aggregation at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples was estimated and assessed quantitatively. The experimental approach developed has a high potential for advancing hemorheological studies.

  5. Diabetes mellitus and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wiel, Albert

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol influences glucose metabolism in several ways in diabetic patients as well as in non-diabetic patients. Since alcohol inhibits both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, its acute intake without food may provoke hypoglycaemia, especially in cases of depleted glycogen stores and in combination with sulphonylurea. Consumed with a meal including carbohydrates, it is the preferred fuel, which may initially lead to somewhat higher blood glucose levels and hence an insulin response in type 2 diabetic patients. Depending on the nature of the carbohydrates in the meal, this may be followed by reactive hypoglycaemia. Moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerotic disorders. Diabetic patients benefit from this favourable effect as much as non-diabetic patients. Apart from effects on lipid metabolism, haemostatic balance and blood pressure, alcohol improves insulin sensitivity. This improvement of insulin sensitivity may also be responsible for the lower incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus reported to be associated with light-to-moderate drinking. In case of moderate and sensible use, risks of disturbances in glycaemic control, weight and blood pressure are limited. Excessive intake of alcohol, however, may not only cause loss of metabolic control, but also annihilate the favourable effects on the cardiovascular system.

  6. Low zinc serum levels and high blood lead levels among school-age children in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Adriyan; Panunggal, Binar; Rahfiludin, M. Zen; Swastawati, Fronthea

    2017-02-01

    The coverage of environmental lead toxicant was quiet wide. Lead exposure recently has been expected to be associated with zinc deficiency and blood indices disturbance. Emphasizing on children, which could absorb more than 50 % of lead that enters the body. Lead became the issue on the coastal area due to it has polluted the environment and waters as the source of fisheries products. This was a cross sectional study to determined nutritional status, blood lead levels, zinc serum levels, blood indices levels, fish intake among school children in coastal region of Semarang. This study was carried out on the school children aged between 8 and 12 years old in coastal region of Semarang. Nutritional status was figured out using anthropometry measurement. Blood lead and zinc serum levels were analyzed using the Atomic Absorbent Spectrophotometry (AAS) at a wavelength of 213.9 nm for zinc serum and 283.3 nm for blood lead. Blood indices was measured using auto blood hematology analyzer. Fish intake was assessed using 3-non consecutive days 24-hours food recall. The children had high lead levels (median 34.86 μg/dl, range 11.46 - 58.86 μg/dl) compared to WHO cut off. Zinc serum levels was low (median 18.10 μg/dl, range 10.25 – 41.39 μg/dl) compared to the Joint WHO/UNICEF/IAEA/IZiNCG cut off. Approximately 26.4% of children were anemic. This study concluded that all school children had high blood lead levels, low zinc serum, and presented microcytic hypochromic anemia. This phenomenon should be considered as public health concern.

  7. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  8. Effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Hoon

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. [Subjects] Fifteen patients (8 males and 7 females) with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned to the control group or passive static stretching group. [Methods] Glycated hemoglobin was measured before and after the 8-week training period. [Results] Glycated hemoglobin levels decreased significantly in the passive static stretching group, and there were significant differences in blood glucose levels between the 2 groups. [Conclusion] Passive static stretching of the skeletal muscles may be an alternative to exercise to help regulate blood glucose levels in diabetes patients.

  9. An artificial pancreas provided a novel model of blood glucose level variability in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munekage, Masaya; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Takezaki, Yuka; Tamura, Takahiko; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects on prognosis of blood glucose level variability have gained increasing attention, it is unclear whether blood glucose level variability itself or the manifestation of pathological conditions that worsen prognosis. Then, previous reports have not been published on variability models of perioperative blood glucose levels. The aim of this study is to establish a novel variability model of blood glucose concentration using an artificial pancreas. We maintained six healthy, male beagles. After anesthesia induction, a 20-G venous catheter was inserted in the right femoral vein and an artificial pancreas (STG-22, Nikkiso Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was connected for continuous blood glucose monitoring and glucose management. After achieving muscle relaxation, total pancreatectomy was performed. After 1 h of stabilization, automatic blood glucose control was initiated using the artificial pancreas. Blood glucose level varied for 8 h, alternating between the target blood glucose values of 170 and 70 mg/dL. Eight hours later, the experiment was concluded. Total pancreatectomy was performed for 62 ± 13 min. Blood glucose swings were achieved 9.8 ± 2.3 times. The average blood glucose level was 128.1 ± 5.1 mg/dL with an SD of 44.6 ± 3.9 mg/dL. The potassium levels after stabilization and at the end of the experiment were 3.5 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that an artificial pancreas contributed to the establishment of a novel variability model of blood glucose levels in beagles.

  10. Sustained action tetracycline preparation--tetrabid-organon blood level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C R; Mugglestone, C J; Thomas, D R

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of the plasma levels of tetracycline obtained whilst taking standard therapeutic doses of Tetrabid-Organon was made in twelve healthy volunteers. Two standard production batches were used in the study which was conducted under double-blind conditions. Sampling 12 hours and 8 hours after dosing showed no significant differences in plasma levels, with each batch. Even at these lowest levels satisfactory concentrations were rapidly obtained following initial administration, and were maintained when the drug was given at 12-hourly intervals. No side-effects of the drug were noted.

  11. Alcohol Expectancies and Inhibition Conflict as Moderators of the Alcohol-Unprotected Sex Relationship: Event-Level Findings from a Daily Diary Study Among Individuals Living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Susan M; Simbayi, Leickness C; Abrams, Amber; Cloete, Allanise

    2016-01-01

    Literature from sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere supports a global association between alcohol and HIV risk. However, more rigorous studies using multiple event-level methods find mixed support for this association, suggesting the importance of examining potential moderators of this relationship. The present study explores the assumptions of alcohol expectancy theory and alcohol myopia theory as possible moderators that help elucidate the circumstances under which alcohol may affect individuals' ability to use a condom. Participants were 82 individuals (58 women, 24 men) living with HIV who completed daily phone interviews for 42 days which assessed daily sexual behavior and alcohol consumption. Logistic generalized estimating equation models were used to examine the potential moderating effects of inhibition conflict and sex-related alcohol outcome expectancies. The data provided some support for both theories and in some cases the moderation effects were stronger when both partners consumed alcohol.

  12. The Effects of Blood Glucose Levels on Cognitive Performance: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jolene; Barshi, Immanuel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to discuss the research literature on the effects of blood glucose levels on executive and non-executive functions in humans. The review begins with a brief description of blood glucose, how it has been studied, previous syntheses of prior studies, and basic results regarding the role of blood glucose on cognitive functioning. The following sections describe work that investigated the effect of blood glucose on both non-executive and executive functions (e.g., sensory processing, psychomotor functioning, attention, vigilance, memory, language and communication, judgement and decision-making, and complex task performance). Within each section, summaries of the findings and challenges to the literature are included. Measurement conversions of blood glucose levels, blood glucose values, and associated symptoms are depicted. References to the types of tests used to investigate blood glucose and cognitive performance are provided. For more detailed descriptions of references within (and in addition to) this paper, an annotated bibliography is also provided. Several moderator variables including individual differences and contextual variables related to the effects of blood glucose levels on performance (e.g., age, gender, time of day, familiarity with the task and symptom awareness, expectancy effects, dose dependent effects, time dependent effects, task specific effects, rising and falling blood glucose levels, and speed and/or accuracy trade-offs) are addressed later in the paper. Some suggestions for future experimental methodologies are also made.

  13. Blood Pressure Levels in Male Carriers of Arg82Cys in CD300LG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Julie; Grarup, Niels; Hørlyck, Arne

    2014-01-01

    (122 mmHg versus 115; p = 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (77 mmHg versus 72; pgroups. Metalloproteinase-9 level was higher in CT-carriers than in CC-carriers (P... found to be associated with fasting HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The polymorphism has not been detected in hypertension GWAS potentially due to its low frequency, but CD300LG has been linked to blood pressure as CD300LG knockout mice have changes in blood pressure. Twenty......-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure was obtained in human CD300LG CT-carriers to follow up on these observations. METHODS: Twenty healthy male CD300LG rs72836561 CT-carriers matched for age and BMI with 20 healthy male CC-carriers. Office blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, carotid intima...

  14. Interactions of the apolipoprotein C-III 3238C>G polymorphism and alcohol consumption on serum triglyceride levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixing Yin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both apolipoprotein (Apo C-III gene polymorphism and alcohol consumption have been associated with increased serum triglyceride (TG levels, but their interactions on serum TG levels are not well known. The present study was undertaken to detect the interactions of the ApoC-III 3238C>G (rs5128 polymorphism and alcohol consumption on serum TG levels. Methods A total of 516 unrelated nondrinkers and 514 drinkers aged 15-89 were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the ApoC-III 3238C>G was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Interactions of the ApoC-III 3238C>G genotype and alcohol consumption was assessed by using a cross-product term between genotypes and the aforementioned factor. Results Serum total cholesterol (TC, TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, ApoA-I and ApoB levels were higher in drinkers than in nondrinkers (P P P P P P P P Conclusions This study suggests that the ApoC-III 3238CG heterozygotes benefited more from alcohol consumption than CC and GG homozygotes in increasing serum levels of HDL-C, ApoA-I, and the ratio of ApoA-I to ApoB, and lowering serum levels of TC and TG.

  15. Association of food consumption during pregnancy with mercury and lead levels in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Su Young; Choi, Gyuyeon; Lee, Jeong Jae; Kim, Hai-Joong; Kim, Sungjoo; Park, Jeongim; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Soo Ran

    2016-09-01

    In utero exposure to mercury and lead has been linked to various adverse health effects related to growth and development. However, there was no evidence on the relationship between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood. Therefore we measured mercury and lead levels in bloods, urines, and cord bloods obtained from 302 pregnant women and estimated relationships between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood to identify perinatal mercury and lead exposures originated from foods during pregnancy. Relationship between food consumption and mercury or lead level was estimated using a generalized linear model after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), delivery experience, income, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for mercury and age, BMI, cesarean section, delivery experience, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for lead. Fish consumption was positively associated with mercury level in cord blood (p=0.0135), while cereal and vegetable consumptions were positively associated with lead level in cord blood (p=0.0517 for cereal and p=0.0504 for vegetable). Furthermore, tea consumption restrained increase of lead level in cord blood (p=0.0014). Our findings support that mercury or lead exposure in Korean pregnant women may come from frequent fish and cereal or vegetable consumption while tea consumption may decrease lead exposure in pregnant women. Therefore, careful intervention through food consumption should be considered.

  16. Dietary fiber stabilizes blood glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in sows (Sus scrofa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a diet with a high level of fermentable dietary fiber can stabilize interprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, prevent declines below basal levels, and reduce physical activity in limited-fed breeding sows. Stable levels of glucose and insulin may preve

  17. Brain docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] incorporation and blood flow are increased in chronic alcoholics: a positron emission tomography study corrected for cerebral atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Umhau

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic alcohol dependence has been associated with disturbed behavior, cerebral atrophy and a low plasma concentration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22∶6n-3, particularly if liver disease is present. In animal models, excessive alcohol consumption is reported to reduce brain DHA concentration, suggesting disturbed brain DHA metabolism. We hypothesized that brain DHA metabolism also is abnormal in chronic alcoholics. METHODS: We compared 15 non-smoking chronic alcoholics, studied within 7 days of their last drink, with 22 non-smoking healthy controls. Using published neuroimaging methods with positron emission tomography (PET, we measured regional coefficients (K* and rates (J(in of DHA incorporation from plasma into the brain of each group using [1-(11C]DHA, and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF using [(15O]water. Data were partial volume error corrected for brain atrophy. Plasma unesterified DHA concentration also was quantified. RESULTS: Mean K* for DHA was significantly and widely elevated by 10-20%, and rCBF was elevated by 7%-34%, in alcoholics compared with controls. Unesterified plasma DHA did not differ significantly between groups nor did whole brain J(in, the product of K* and unesterified plasma DHA concentration. DISCUSSION: Significantly higher values of K* for DHA in alcoholics indicate increased brain avidity for DHA, thus a brain DHA metabolic deficit vis-à-vis plasma DHA availability. Higher rCBF in alcoholics suggests increased energy consumption. These changes may reflect a hypermetabolic state related to early alcohol withdrawal, or a general brain metabolic change in chronic alcoholics.

  18. Achievement of Target Blood Pressure Levels among Japanese Workers with Hypertension and Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics Associated with Therapeutic Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagako Kudo

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined Japanese with regard to the achievement rates for target blood pressure levels, or the relationship between these rates and healthy lifestyle characteristics in patients with hypertension as defined by the newly established hypertension management guidelines (JSH2014. The aim of this study was to elucidate achievement rates and examine healthy lifestyle characteristics associated with achievement status among Japanese.This cross-sectional study, conducted in January-December 2012, examined blood pressure control and healthy lifestyle characteristics in 8,001 Japanese workers with hypertension (mean age, 57.0 years; 78.8% were men who participated in a workplace health checkup. Data were collected from workplace medical checkup records and participants' self-administered questionnaires. We divided into 5 groups [G1; young, middle-aged, and early-phase elderly patients (65-74 years old without diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease (CKD (<140/90 mmHg, G2; late-phase elderly patients (≥75 years old without diabetes mellitus or CKD (<150/90 mmHg, G3; diabetic patients (<130/80 mmHg, G4; patients with CKD (<130/80 mmHg, and G5; patients with cerebrovascular and/or coronary artery diseases (<140/90 mmHg] according to JSH2014. And then, achievement rates were calculated in each group. Multivariate analysis identified healthy lifestyle characteristics associated with "therapeutic failure" of target blood pressure.Target blood pressures were achieved by 60.2% of young, middle-aged, and early-phase elderly patients (G1, 71.4% of late-phase elderly patients (G2, 30.5% of diabetic patients (G3, 33.4% of those with chronic kidney disease (G4, and 66.0% of those with cerebrovascular and/or coronary artery diseases (G5. A body mass index of 18.5-24.9 and non-daily alcohol consumption were protective factors, and adequate sleep was found to contribute to therapeutic success.We found low achievement rates for treatment goals

  19. Elevated blood-lead levels in first nation people of Northern Ontario Canada: policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, L J S; Wainman, B C; Martin, I D; Weber, J-P; Sutherland, C; Liberda, E N; Nieboer, E

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the preliminary impact of the Canadian "non-toxic" shotshell policy, for the hunting of migratory game birds, by examining blood-lead levels of First Nations people living in sub-arctic Canada. If the use of lead shotshell was the major source of lead exposure as has been postulated and the ban on the use of lead shotshell for hunting migratory birds was immediately effective, we would expect that blood-lead levels would be typical of a geographic area remote from industrialization. Our findings present some concern in that approximately 18% of the 196 First Nations people examined had blood-lead levels > or =100 microg/L.

  20. Systemic Inflammatory Response and Serum Lipopolysaccharide Levels Predict Multiple Organ Failure and Death in Alcoholic Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelena, Javier; Altamirano, José; Abraldes, Juan G.; Affò, Silvia; Morales-Ibanez, Oriol; Sancho-Bru, Pau; Dominguez, Marlene; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Javier; Arroyo, Vicente; Ginès, Pere; Louvet, Alexandre; Mathurin, Philippe; Mehal, Wajahat Z.; Caballería, Juan; Bataller, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) frequently progresses to multiple organ failure (MOF) and death. However, the driving factors are largely unknown. At admission, patients with AH often show criteria of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) even in the absence of an infection. We hypothesize that the presence of SIRS may predispose to MOF and death. To test this hypothesis, we studied a cohort including 162 patients with biopsy-proven AH. The presence of SIRS and infections was assessed in all patients, and multivariate analyses identified variables independently associated with MOF and 90-day mortality. At admission, 32 (19.8%) patients were diagnosed with a bacterial infection, while 75 (46.3%) fulfilled SIRS criteria; 58 patients (35.8%) developed MOF during hospitalization. Short-term mortality was significantly higher among patients who developed MOF (62.1% versus 3.8%, P <0.001). The presence of SIRS was a major predictor of MOF (odds ratio = 2.69, P=0.025) and strongly correlated with mortality. Importantly, the course of patients with SIRS with and without infection was similar in terms of MOF development and short-term mortality. Finally, we sought to identify serum markers that differentiate SIRS with and without infection. We studied serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and lipopolysaccharide at admission. All of them predicted mortality. Procalcitonin, but not high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum levels identified those patients with SIRS and infection. Lipopolysaccharide serum levels predicted MOF and the response to prednisolone. Conclusion In the presence or absence of infections, SIRS is a major determinant of MOF and mortality in AH, and the mechanisms involved in the development of SIRS should be investigated; procalcitonin serum levels can help to identify patients with infection, and lipopolysaccharide levels may help to predict mortality and the response to steroids. PMID:25761863

  1. Serum procalcitonin and CRP levels in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoz Galip

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both C reactive protein (CRP and procalcitonin (PCT are well known acute phase reactant proteins. CRP was reported to increase in metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes. Similarly altered level of serum PCT was found in chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis. The liver is considered the main source of CRP and a source of PCT, however, the serum PCT and CRP levels in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD were not compared previously. Therefore we aimed to study the diagnostic and discriminative role of serum PCT and CRP in NAFLD. Methods Fifty NAFLD cases and 50 healthy controls were included to the study. Liver function tests were measured, body mass index was calculated, and insulin resistance was determined by using a homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR. Ultrasound evaluation was performed for each subject. Serum CRP was measured with nephalometric method. Serum PCT was measured with Kryptor based system. Results Serum PCT levels were similar in steatohepatitis (n 20 and simple steatosis (n 27 patients, and were not different than the control group (0.06 ± 0.01, 0.04 ± 0.01 versus 0.06 ± 0.01 ng/ml respectively. Serum CRP levels were significantly higher in simple steatosis, and steatohepatitis groups compared to healthy controls (7.5 ± 1.6 and 5.2 ± 2.5 versus 2.9 ± 0.5 mg/dl respectively p Conclusion Serum PCT was within normal ranges in patients with simple steatosis or steatohepatitis and has no diagnostic value. Serum CRP level was increased in NAFLD compared to controls. CRP can be used as an additional marker for diagnosis of NAFLD but it has no value in discrimination of steatohepatitis from simple steatosis.

  2. Magnesium blood levels and preterm labor: a prospective clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hantoushzadeh S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past two decades we have seen a marked increase in the survival of very low birth weight infants. This increase in survival has been attributed to increased use of corticosteroids, regionalization of perinatal care, improved methods of mechanical ventilation, availability of exogenous surfactant, and improved nutritional therapy. However, the reduction in mortality has not been accompanied by a reduction in neonatal morbidity or long-term handicaps. Preterm labor is a major issue in Iran. Besides various etiologies, preterm labor may be due to a biochemical alteration, such as magnesium. It is known that magnesium plasma levels fall during pregnancy. Since magnesium has an inhibitory role on myometrial contractions attention has been paid to the role of magnesium deficiency in preterm labor. Hypomagnesemia leads to neuromuscular hyperexcitability resulting in muscle cramps and uterine hyperactivity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between serum magnesium levels and preterm delivery in order to circumvent the high morbidity of preterm delivery by early diagnosis of this deficiency.Methods: Serum magnesium was measured in 42 cases of preterm labor of idiopathic etiology (28-37 weeks and 42 normal pregnancies at the same gestational age.Results: Hypomagnesemia was variable in preterm labor cases, with only slightly low values in normal pregnant women.Conclusion: Our study indicates that serum magnesium levels during pregnancy can be a valuable predictive tool for preterm labor. Hypomagnesemia must be considered in all pregnant women with preterm labor and supplementation must be provided effectively.

  3. Temporal pattern in the effect of postnatal blood lead level on intellectual development of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaas, L; Rothenberg, S J; Perroni, E; Martínez, S; Hernández, C; Hernández, R M

    2000-01-01

    To determine the temporal pattern of the effect of postnatal blood lead level on the General Cognitive Index (GCI) of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, we used data from 112 children of the Mexico City Prospective Lead Study with complete evaluations from 36 to 60 months of age at 6-month intervals. We measured blood lead level every 6 months from 6 to 54 months. We controlled for 5-min Apgar, birth weight, birth order, sex, socioeconomic level, maternal IQ, and maximum maternal educational level in a repeated measures ANCOVA using child blood lead level grouped by 6-18 month (geometric mean 10.1 microg/dl, range 3.5-37.0 microg/dl), 24-36 month (geometric mean 9.7 microg/dl, range 3.0-42.7 microg/dl), and 42-54 month (geometric mean 8.4 microg/dl, range 2.5-44.8 microg/dl) averages. There were significant interactions between the 6-18 month blood lead level and age with GCI as the endpoint and between 24-36 month blood lead level and age. The regression coefficient of blood lead at 6-18 months became more negative with age until 48 months, when the rate of decline moderated (linear polynomial contrast p=0. 047). The regression coefficient of blood lead at 24-36 months with CGI became more negative as well from 36 to 48 months but then started decreasing toward zero from 48 to 60 months (quadratic polynomial contrast p=0.019). Significant between-subjects lead effects on GCI were found for 24-36 month blood lead level at 48 months (p=0.021) and at 54 months (p=0.073). The greatest effect (at 48 months) was a 5.8-point GCI decrease with each natural log unit increase in blood lead. Significant between-subjects lead effects on GCI were found for 42-54 month blood lead level at 54 months (p=0. 040) and at 60 months (p=0.060). The effect of postnatal blood lead level on GCI reaches its maximum approximately 1-3 years later, and then becomes less evident. Four to five years of age appears to be a critical period for the manifestation of the earlier postnatal

  4. Blood levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites in Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica): emphasis on interspecies comparison, gender difference and association with blood thyroid hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaeda, Daisuke; Nomiyama, Kei; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Iwata, Hisato; Tsydenova, Oyuna; Amano, Masao; Petrov, Evgeny A; Batoev, Valeriy B; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated that Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica) are still being exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the population is at risk. In the present study, we measured the residue levels of PCBs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in the blood of Baikal seals and assessed the impact of OH-PCBs on the thyroid function. Blood concentrations of PCBs and OH-PCBs were in the range of 2.8-130 ng g(-1)wet wt. and 0.71-4.6 ng g(-1)wetwt., respectively. Concentrations of higher-chlorinated OH-PCBs (hexa- to octa-PCBs) were more than 70% to total OH-PCB concentrations, indicating Baikal seals are mostly risked by higher-chlorinated OH-PCBs. High levels of 4OH-CB146 and 4OH-CB187 and low levels of 4OH-CB107/4'OH-CB108 found in Baikal seals were different from those in other phocidae species, suggesting the unique drug-metabolizing enzyme activities and/or contamination sources in this species. Concentrations of some OH-PCBs in males were significantly higher than those in females. These results suggest that these isomers may be preferentially transferred from mother to pup via cord blood. However, concentrations of almost all the isomers were not significantly correlated with the levels of blood total T3 and T4, implying less impact of PCB-related compounds on the thyroid hormone circulation.

  5. [Effect of Bacillus natto-fermented product (BIOZYME) on blood alcohol, aldehyde concentrations after whisky drinking in human volunteers, and acute toxicity of acetaldehyde in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, H; Yatagai, C; Wada, H; Yoshida, E; Maruyama, M

    1995-04-01

    Effects of Bacillus natto-fermented product (BIOZYME) on blood alcohol and aldehyde concentrations after drinking whisky (corresponding to 30-65 ml ethanol) were studied in 21 healthy volunteers. When 100 ml of BIOZYME was orally administrated to the volunteers before drinking whisky, the time delay of both blood factors to attain maximum concentrations were observed. The maximum decrease in blood alcohol and aldehyde concentrations were about 23% and 45% (p whisky. The aldehyde lowering effect of BIOZYME was continued for at least 4 hr after whisky drinking. Concentration of the breath alcohol was also sharply decreased by BIOZYME administration. The breath alcohol concentration in the administered group (0.18 +/- 0.11 mg/l) was found to be lowered about 44% than that of the control group (0.32 +/- 0.11 mg/l) (p whisky. In acute toxicity experiments of aldehyde in mice (12 mmol AcH/mg), BIOZYME showed the survival effect as with alpha-D-Ala (134% increase of the living, at 40 min after i.p. administration) (p < 0.005, n = 22). These findings reveal the Bacillus natto produced BIOZYME as a reasonable, safety and useful anti-hangover agent.

  6. Moderate alcohol consumption and 24-hour urinary levels of melatonin in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low overnight urinary melatonin metabolite concentrations have been associated with increased risk for breast cancer among postmenopausal women. The Postmenopausal Women's Alcohol Study was a controlled feeding study to test the effects of low to moderate alcohol intake on potential risk factors for...

  7. Qualitative similarities in cognitive impairment associated with 24 h of sustained wakefulness and a blood alcohol concentration of 0.05%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falleti, Marina G; Maruff, Paul; Collie, Alexander; Darby, David G; McStephen, Michael

    2003-12-01

    Previous studies that have quantified fatigue-related cognitive impairment as blood alcohol concentration (BAC) equivalents have been limited by two issues: the effect of practice on tests of cognition and, more importantly, the statistic used to quantify change in cognitive performance. The current study addressed these issues by adopting an ABACA design, which allowed for the adequate control of practice effects, and by using effect size metrics, which enabled direct comparisons to be made in performance impairments as a result of fatigue (i.e. sustained wakefulness of 24 h) and alcohol (i.e. BAC of 0.05%). Cognitive performance under the fatigue and alcohol conditions required the use of the CogState battery. It was demonstrated that fatigue caused greater impairment than alcohol on the speed of continuous attention and memory and learning, and on the accuracy of complex matching. Alcohol was more detrimental than fatigue only on the accuracy of memory and learning. Performances on the remaining tasks were the same for both the fatigue and alcohol conditions. These differences and similarities in performance impairment are discussed emphasizing the deleterious cognitive effects of relatively short periods of sustained wakefulness.

  8. Influencing factors of human blood alcohol concentration detection%人体血液酒精浓度检测的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萱; 汪炜; 孟祥志

    2014-01-01

    In forensic identification,the blood alcohol concentration detection has to be conducted to get the evidence for drunk driving.Based on the fact that alcohol can be decomposed in human body and there are lots of factors that may affect the physicochemical properties of alcohol, this paper aims to review those factors that may influence the blood alcohol concentration detection, including blood specimen collection and preservation,detection methods, body corruption,diffusion of alcohol in the stomach and disease of the Decedent.It is suggested that all these factors should be considered in future forensic cases to detect accurately blood concentration of drivers.%在法医学鉴定中,为了给交通警察提供酒后驾车或醉酒驾车的证据,必须对驾驶员血液的乙醇浓度进行准确测定,酒精摄入人体后可以被转化分解,并且酒精的理化性质可受外界环境及诸多因素的影响。本文对影响血液酒精浓度测定的诸多因素进行综述,如:血液标本的采集、保存、检测方法,尸体的腐败、胃内酒精的弥散及死者生前罹患的疾病等因素,都可以影响血液乙醇浓度的数值,为了能真实反映当事人血液中的酒精浓度,在今后的日常工作中应该注意以上因素对血液乙醇浓度的影响。

  9. Sensitive and precise monitoring of phosphatidylethanol in human blood as a biomarker for alcohol intake by ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siming; Yang, Ruiyue; Ji, Fusui; Li, Hongxia; Dong, Jun; Chen, Wenxiang

    2017-05-01

    Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is a special phospholipid that is only formed in the presence of ethanol, and therefore, serves as a promising biomarker for alcohol intake. In this study, a simple, rapid and precise method based on LC-MS/MS combined with ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed and validated for the measurements of PEth (16:0/18:1, 16:0/18:2, 16:0/16:0, and 18:1/18:1) in human blood. The influences of several variables for sample extraction and MS detection were carefully investigated. The extraction efficiencies for all the four PEth species were markedly increased compared with the traditional extractions. A limit of detection below 0.56ngmL(-1) was obtained. This high sensitivity makes it possible to monitor various alcohol consumption levels in light to heavy drinkers. Good linearity was obtained for all the analytes without interference from the sample matrix. The imprecisions of the intra-run and total assays were lower than 3.1% and 6.5%, respectively, with an average recovery of 99.87%. In addition, the utility of the method was evaluated in an alcohol intake status study. The results indicate that the developed protocol is simple, precise, and sensitive, and can be easily adapted for objective and reliable assessments of alcohol intake in clinical research.

  10. The association of serum uric acid level with prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver in Uyghur and Han ethnicities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡雯

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the association of serum uric acid level with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) in Han and Uyghur ethnic groups. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in the population in 2011 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University.

  11. Assessing anxiety levels and empathic tendency in blood and platelet donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Suar Çakı; Doğan, Erdoğan; Sevimligül, Gülgün; Yücel, Birsen; Bolat, Fatih; Kavakçı, Onder; Sencan, Mehmet

    2013-06-01

    In spite of a constantly-increasing requirement for blood transfusion in the world, blood donation does not exhibit an increase at the same rate. In Turkey with a population of 74 million, only 15 per 10,000 people donate blood regularly and rate of voluntary blood donation is very low compared to developed countries. The aim of this study is to determine empathic level of donors and anxiety levels of blood and platelet donors and also to enable comfort and motivation of donors by taking precautions for reducing their anxieties. This prospective and descriptive study was conducted with 100 voluntary donors (50 blood donors, 50 platelet donors) who admitted to Blood Centre of Cumhuriyet University Hospital between 15 March 2012 and 30 April 2012. Average age of these donors was 27 (19-48)years. The mean scores of donors from Empathic Tendency Scale (ETS), State Anxiety Invertory (SAI) and Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI) were 70 (49-83), 40 (33-45) and 34 (30-44), respectively. ETS score of those donating blood/platelet for the first time was low, >1 is higher in those who donated previously. SAI and TAI scores of blood donors were higher than those of platelet donors (pempathy. Donation made during the continuous disclosure is an important factor for being a donor.

  12. Uncertainty of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC Results as Related to Instrumental Conditions: Optimization and Robustness of BAC Analysis Headspace Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleigh A. Boswell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of blood alcohol concentration is a routine analysis performed in many forensic laboratories. This analysis commonly utilizes static headspace sampling, followed by gas chromatography combined with flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Studies have shown several “optimal” methods for instrumental operating conditions, which are intended to yield accurate and precise data. Given that different instruments, sampling methods, application specific columns and parameters are often utilized, it is much less common to find information on the robustness of these reported conditions. A major problem can arise when these “optimal” conditions may not also be robust, thus producing data with higher than desired uncertainty or potentially inaccurate results. The goal of this research was to incorporate the principles of quality by design (QBD in the adjustment and determination of BAC (blood alcohol concentration instrumental headspace parameters, thereby ensuring that minor instrumental variations, which occur as a matter of normal work, do not appreciably affect the final results of this analysis. This study discusses both the QBD principles as well as the results of the experiments, which allow for determination of more favorable instrumental headspace conditions. Additionally, method detection limits will also be reported in order to determine a reporting threshold and the degree of uncertainty at the common threshold value of 0.08 g/dL. Furthermore, the comparison of two internal standards, n-propanol and t-butanol, will be investigated. The study showed that an altered parameter of 85 °C headspace oven temperature and 15 psi headspace vial pressurization produces the lowest percent relative standard deviation of 1.3% when t-butanol is implemented as an internal standard, at least for one very common platform. The study also showed that an altered parameter of 100 °C headspace oven temperature and 15-psi headspace vial pressurization

  13. Correlation Correlation of Blood Lead Levels, Anemia and Water Source in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gurukripa, Sowmya Sanjeeva; Shetty, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to lead and its consequences is a health risk frequently encountered in developing countries.Aims & Objectives: This study was undertaken to ascertain whether the source of water poses a risk for high blood levels and consequently anemia.Material & Methods: 30 children with proven anemia and an equal number of children without anemia were enrolled in the study and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to analyse and quantify their blood lead levels. Thei...

  14. Blood antioxidant enzyme levels in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jalali

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an autoimmune disorder with unknown etiology. In recent years, a great number of studies have investigated the possible role of reactive oxygen species in the etiology and pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis. The aim of this study was to analyze the level of activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidas (GSH-Px, Super oxide dismotase (SOD in patients with RA compared with the healthy subjects. Methods: In a case-control study sixty rheumatoid arthritis patients 18-75 years old and 60 healthy sex and age-matched controls were selected, Catalase activity was measured by determining the constant rate (k of hydrogen peroxide decomposition. GSH-Px activity of plasma was measured with spectrophotometer by Glutathione oxide generation due to GSH-Px. SOD activity is measured by degree of inhibition effect of SOD in generating super oxide radicals by xanthine and xanthine oxidase. C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor values were determined by agglutination and latex tests. Results: The plasma activity of catalase (p0.05. There was a negative significant relation between C reactive protein and Rheumatoid factor values with the erythrocyte activity of catalase and GSH-Px (p<0.01. Conclusion: These results suggested that oxidative stress plays a very important role in the inflammation and pathogenesis of RA.

  15. Blood lead levels of traffic- and gasoline-exposed professionals in the city of Athens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapaki, E N; Varelas, P N; Syrigou, A I; Spanaki, M V; Andreadou, E; Kakami, A E; Papageorgiou, C T

    1998-01-01

    During the past 10 y, blood lead levels in the population of Athens, Greece, have decreased steadily. This decrease has paralleled the reduction of tetraethyl lead in gasoline and the introduction of unleaded fuel. Blood lead levels and other parameters were studied in 42 gas-station employees, 47 taxi drivers, 47 bus drivers, and 36 controls, all of whom worked in Athens. The blood lead levels did not differ significantly among the four groups (5.64+/-1.7 microg/dl, 5.96+/-1.7 microg/dl, 5.88+/-1.3 microg/dl, and 5.76+/-1.7 microg/dl, respectively). Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (i.e., aspartate aminotransferase) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (i.e., alanine aminotransferase) were elevated in gas-station employees, and the former was elevated in taxi drivers. Gas-station employees who smoked had higher blood lead levels than their nonsmoking counterparts. The absence of any difference in the blood lead levels of individuals for whom physical examinations were either normal or abnormal suggests that either lead was not the cause of increased blood lead levels or that its contribution may have been important in the past.

  16. Storage and survival of red blood cells with elevated sodium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallas, C H; Harris, A S; Wetherall, N T

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 25 percent of black blood donors have an elevated red blood cell (RBC) sodium (Nai) level compared with white donors. This elevation results in a significant increase in the mean Nai from black (9.00 +/- 2.96 mmoles/l RBC) as compared to white blood donors (7.04 +/- 1.48 mmoles/l RBC, p less than 0.001). Red blood cells from four black donors with mean Nai levels of 15 +/- 2.8 mmoles/l RBC were stored for 35 days in citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine and compared to that of four donors with normal levels of Nai. Serial measurements of red blood cell adenosine triphosphate, diphosphoglycerate, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvic kinase, lactate production rates, and intracellular cations showed no differences between the two donor groups. Furthermore, the mean 24-hour posttransfusion survival was not significantly different for the high Nai group (83.2 +/- 5.6%) as compared with the control group (82.3 +/- 6.9%). Based on this study, it is not necessary to eliminate individuals with an elevated red blood cell Nai level as blood donors.

  17. Effect of metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 genotype on N-acetylaspartate levels and neurocognition in non-smoking, active alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (GRM3 gene on brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA concentrations and executive function (EF skills in non-smoking, active alcoholics, and evaluated associations between these variables. Methods SNPs (rs6465084, rs1468412, and rs2299225 in GRM3 were genotyped in 49 male, non-smoking, alcohol-dependent patients and 45 healthy control subjects using ligase detection reactions. NAA/creatine (Cr ratios in left prefrontal gray matter (GM and white matter (WM, left parietal GM, left parietal WM, and cerebellar vermis regions were measured by Proton 1 H Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. EF was measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. Results Compared to controls, alcoholics had lower NAA/Cr ratios in prefrontal GM and WM regions and performed more poorly on all EF tests (P P P P P P  Conclusions Our results provide evidence that glutamate system dysfunction may play a role in the prefrontal functional abnormalities seen in alcohol dependence. It is possible that certain GRM3 SNP genotypes (the A/A genotype of rs6465084 and the T allele of rs1468412 may further lower NAA/Cr levels and EF skills in addition to the effect of alcohol.

  18. SCREENING OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN FOR BLOOD LEAD LEVELS AT KIMS HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakala

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to screen preschool children for blood lead level with an objective to estimate ZPP levels among preschool children attending OPD and admitted to wards and to confirm blood lead levels in children whose ZPP is>_35ugm/dl. METHODS: hospital based descriptive study conducted at KIMS, BANGALORE from 1st July 2007 to 31st July 2008. 100 preschool children aged between 1 to 6 years who came to OPD and were admitted, were chosen randomly. Data was collected in a simple questionnaire which included demographic, clinical, investigations. Venous blood, 2 ml was drawn and estimated for ZPP. If ZPP >_ 35ugm/dl, then blood samples were estimated for blood lead levels. The data collected in this study was analyzed statistically using chi square test and standard normal variate (Z test for proportions. RESULTS: Out of 100 children, 37% of them had ZPP > 35 ugm/dl .Among these 20% had blood level more >10ugm/dl. Socio economic status affects lead exposure with poor socio economic status group being most prone for lead absorption. Among the 20% who had blood lead levels >10 ugm/dl, 15% of them belonged to urban area and 5% belonged to rural area. Location of the house of children in this study was observed that in industrial area were 85%, mechanic factory were 7%, battery factory were 3%, automobile and cottage industry were 2% . Among 100 children, 57 had hemoglobin % of > 10 gm and 43 were anemic having hemoglobin <10 gm%. CONCLUSION: As lead poisoning patients can be asymptomatic or symptomatic with only vague presentations, screening of blood lead levels should be made as a routine investigation. Awareness should be created regarding the sources of lead, its exposure and potential health effects

  19. Distribution of blood lead, blood cadmium, urinary cadmium, and urinary arsenic levels in employees of a copper smelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Weber, J.P.; Fischbein, A.; Nicholson, W.J.; Campbell, C.; Malkin, J.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1984-02-01

    A cross-sectional medical examination of a copper smelter work force included determination of blood lead (Pb-B), zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), blood cadmium (Cd-B), urinary cadmium (Cd-U), and urinary arsenic (As-U), since it was known that such metal impurities were present in the copper concentrate. A total of 776 copper smelter employees (680 active and 96 retirees and ex-employees) were examined. Another 144 men, never employed in the smelter, but who had worked in copper mines (and sometimes in gold mines) were also examined. Mean Pb-B, ZPP, Cd-B, and As-U were significantly higher in active copper smelter employees than in retirees or miners, indicating exposure and absorption in the copper smelter. Significant correlations between Pb-B and Cd-B, and Cd-U and As-U were present, confirming the common source of absorption. Although there was evidence for an increased lead absorption, this was very moderate, with practically no Pb-B levels in excess of 60 ..mu..g/dl. A marked effect of smoking on blood cadmium levels was present; nevertheless, for all smoking categories Cd-B levels were significantly higher in active employees, indicating the independent contribution of exposure to cadmium in the smelter. Cd-U did not exceed 10 ..mu..g/g creatinine, the generally accepted critical level for the kidney, but was higher than 2 ..mu..g/g cretinine, a level very rarely exceeded in the general population, in a sizable proportion of those examined. The highest Cd-U levels were found in retired copper smelter employees; age might have been a contributing factor, besides a longer duration of exposure in the smelter.

  20. Environmental lead exposure among preschool children in Shanghai, China: blood lead levels and risk factors.

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    Jia Cao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine blood lead levels and to identify related risk factors among children in Shanghai; to explore the lead change trend of children after industrial transformation and to provide data for policy development to control environmental lead pollution in Shanghai. METHODS: A stratified-clustered-random sampling method was used. A tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer was employed to determine blood lead levels. RESULTS: The arithmetic mean, geometric mean and median of blood lead levels of 0- to 6-year-old children from Shanghai were 22.49 µg/L, 19.65 µg/L and 19.5 µg/L, including 0.26% (6/2291 with concentrations ≥100 µg/L and 2.7% (61/2291 with concentrations ≥50 µg/L. Boys' levels (23.57 µg/L were greater than those of girls (21.2 µg/L. The blood lead levels increased with age. This survey showed that the Chongming district was the highest and Yangpu district was the lowest, this result is completely opposite with the earlier survey in Shanghai. Risk factors for lead contamination included housing environment, parents' education levels, social status, hobbies, and children's nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: The blood lead levels of children in Shanghai were lower than the earlier data of Shanghai and those of published studies in China, but higher than the blood lead levels of developed countries. The blood lead levels of urban districts are higher than the central districts with the industrial transformation. Society and the government should take an active interest in childhood lead poisoning of urban areas.

  1. Spontaneous evolution in bilirubin levels predicts liver-related mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjong Lee

    Full Text Available The accurate prognostic stratification of alcoholic hepatitis (AH is essential for individualized therapeutic decisions. The aim of this study was to develop a new prognostic model to predict liver-related mortality in Asian AH patients. We conducted a hospital-based, retrospective cohort study using 308 patients with AH between 1999 and 2011 (a derivation cohort and 106 patients with AH between 2005 and 2012 (a validation cohort. The Cox proportional hazards model was constructed to select significant predictors of liver-related death from the derivation cohort. A new prognostic model was internally validated using a bootstrap sampling method. The discriminative performance of this new model was compared with those of other prognostic models using a concordance index in the validation cohort. Bilirubin, prothrombin time, creatinine, potassium at admission, and a spontaneous change in bilirubin levels from day 0 to day 7 (SCBL were incorporated into a model for AH to grade the severity in an Asian patient cohort (MAGIC. For risk stratification, four risk groups were identified with cutoff scores of 29, 37, and 46 based on the different survival probabilities (P<0.001. In addition, MAGIC showed better discriminative performance for liver-related mortality than any other scoring system in the validation cohort. MAGIC can accurately predict liver-related mortality in Asian patients hospitalized for AH. Therefore, SCBL may help us decide whether patients with AH urgently require corticosteroid treatment.

  2. Population blood pressure and low to moderate alcohol intake in an untreated population followed over 20years. Copenhagen City heart study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2011-01-01

    make out the majority of the population. The Copenhagen City Heart Study is a prospective longitudinal epidemiological study. The untreated study population was followed over 20years. Specially trained technicians using a blinded sphygmomanometer measured BP once with the subject in the sitting......The aim of this study is to evaluate whether a changing population alcohol intake is capable of setting off a shift in the blood pressure distribution in the untreated part of a population. The focus is on subjects with an alcohol intake well below the limits of alcoholism because these subjects...... position. The BP measurement was fully standardised and the measurement method was unchanged throughout the observation period. A questionnaire concerning drinking habits was completed by the participants and double-checked by the technicians. The results were a decreasing population systolic BP...

  3. Total and antigen-specific Ige levels in umbilical cord blood

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    Sybilski AJ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study was conducted to learn whether the perinatal and environmental factors could influence the total and antigen-specific IgE levels in umbilical cord blood. Retrospective data were obtained from 173 mother-infant pairs. Total and specific (for children's food, wheat/grass and house dust mite-HDM cord blood IgE levels were determined using the immunoassay test. The total cord blood IgE was between 0.0-23.08 IU/ml (mean 0.55 ± 2.07 IU/ml; median 0.16 IU/ml. Total IgE levels were significantly higher in boys compared with girls (OR = 2.2; P = 0.007, and in newborns with complicated pregnancy (OR = 2.7; P = 0.003. A greater number of siblings correlated with increases in the total cord blood IgE (P

  4. Waist circumference as a predictor for blood glucose levels in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta L Hardiman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric indexes such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, hip ciucumference (HC, and waist–hip ratio (WHR, are all useful anthropometric measurements to provide important information on blood glucose concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine different anthropometric measurements, in particular BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, in their ability to predict the blood glucose levels in men and women 40 to 60. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 44 men and 127 women aged 40 to 50 who lived in Cipete Selatan subdistrict, South Jakarta. Blood glucose levels was assessed and anthropometric measurements comprising BMI, WC, HC, WHR were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the best predictor for blood glucose levels. The study showed that the prevalence of DM type 2 was 25.7% and the prevalence was higher in men (40.9% compared to women (23.5%. The significant predictive variables in the simple regression analysis were age and waist circumference. Multiple linear regression showed that after adjustment for age, WC was positively associated with blood glucose levels. Standardized a value was 0.172 (p=0.026. WC predict blood glucose levels, beyond that explained by traditional diabetic risk factors and BMI. These findings provide support for the recommendation that WC be a routine measure for identification of diabetes mellitus type 2 in men and women aged 40 to 60 years.

  5. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  6. EFFECT OF SAPPAN WOOD (Caesalpinnia sappan L EXTRACT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN WHITE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saefudin Saefudin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sappan wood or kayu secang (Caesalpinia sappan L. was reported of having medicinal properties, such as natural antioxidant, relieve vomiting of blood, and mix of ingredients for malaria drugs. The research was conducted to study the influence of ethanol extract from sappan wood on blood glucose level of white rats. The study of the blood glucose level in rats was carried out by using glucose tolerance method. It was measured by Refloluxs (Accutrend GC with Chloropropamide 50 mg/200 g BW (Body weight as positive control. The ethanol extracts were used in various concentrations 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/200 g BW per-oral and was observed every hour, beginning one hour before to 7 hours after the extract being administered. The results showed that treatment of ethanol extract of sappan wood by administer doses gave remarkable effect on the blood glucose level in white rat. It reduced the glucose level in the blood compared to the negative and positive control. Treatment of dose 30 mg/200 g BW gave similar effect to positive controls, while a dose of 50 mg/200 g BW gave lower blood glucose level (93 mg/dl than the positive controls.

  7. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  8. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); Carlos III Health Institute (ISCIII), 20220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Public Health Laboratory of Alava, Direccion de Salud Publica, Gobierno Vasco, Santiago 11, 01002, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country (Spain); Vioque, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Av de Alicante KM 87, 03550, Sant Joan d' Alacant (Spain); Ibarluzea, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Departamento de Sanidad Gobierno Vasco, Subdireccion de Salud Publica de Gipuzkoa, Avenida de Navarra 4, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Biodonostia, Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica, San Sebastian (Spain); Guxens, Monica [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Casas, Maribel [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Murcia, Mario [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Maria [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2011-05-01

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. {>=} vs < 2 {mu}g/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 {mu}g/dL and 19 {mu}g/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: {yields} Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. {yields} Cord blood Pb levels in

  9. Moderate Level Alcohol During Pregnancy, Prenatal Stress, or Both and Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Response to Stress in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Kraemer, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure, prenatal stress, and postnatal response to a challenging event in 6-month-old rhesus monkeys. Forty-one rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants were exposed prenatally to moderate level alcohol, maternal stress, or both. Offspring plasma cortisol and…

  10. Correlation between low neuraminidase blood levels and a predisposition toward family-related breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, R E; Laraja, R D; Imran-Ul-Hag; Saber, A A; Nadkarni, M

    1996-11-01

    It has been shown that high sialic acid levels are often found in conjunction with breast cancer, and these high concentrations are thought to be due to deficiency of the enzyme neuraminidase. The study proposes to elicit a relationship between low levels of blood neuraminidase and a family history of breast cancer. Neuraminidase blood levels were measured in 30 healthy women between the ages of 35 and 65 years with no evidence of a family history of breast cancer (control group), and in 33 healthy women between the ages of 35 to 65 years, all of whom had immediate members of their families with breast cancer (study group). The mean level of the blood neuraminidase was found to be 1.375 units in the control group. On the other hand, the mean level for the study group was 1.256 units. The difference between the two groups is statistically significant, (P value breast cancer.

  11. Effects of ovarian stimulation on blood pressure and plasma catecholamine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollan, A; Oian, P; Kjeldsen, S E; Holst, N; Eide, I

    1993-07-01

    Effects of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization on blood pressure and plasma catecholamine levels were studied in 10 women. The examinations were carried out before hormonal treatment with human menopausal gonadotropin (day three of the menstrual cycle, mean serum oestradiol concentration 0.2 nmol l-1, and on the day after ovulation induction with human chorionic gonadotropin (cycle days 10-12, mean serum oestradiol concentration 7.4 nmol l-1). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures (mean +/- SD) decreased 6.7 +/- 8.6 mm Hg, p = 0.049, and 5.3 +/- 4.7 mm Hg, p = 0.009, respectively), and venous plasma noradrenaline increased (42 +/- 44 pg ml-1, p = 0.02) during ovarian stimulation. No significant change was observed in either arterial noradrenaline, arterial adrenaline or venous adrenaline. After stimulation a positive correlation was observed between systolic blood pressure and arterial adrenaline (r = 0.73, p = 0.027), and between systolic blood pressure and the arterial-venous difference for adrenaline (r = 0.81, p = 0.007). The increased venous noradrenaline levels may be a reflex-mediated activation of the sympathetic nervous tone due to a decrease in blood pressure, or may indicate reduced neuronal re-uptake of released noradrenaline. The mechanisms behind the strong correlation between adrenaline and blood pressure are unclear, but may be induced by the supraphysiological oestradiol levels. Thus, adrenaline seems to be more important for blood pressure control in this particular setting.

  12. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kazutaka Sawada; Hiroshi Kitagaki

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked ...

  13. Detecting alcohol abuse: traditional blood alcohol markers compared to ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) measurement in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastedt, Martin; Büchner, Mara; Rothe, Michael; Gapert, René; Herre, Sieglinde; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Tsokos, Michael; Kienast, Thorsten; Heinz, Andreas; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol abuse is a common problem in society; however, the technical capabilities of evaluating individual alcohol consumption using objective biomarkers are rather limited at present. In recent years research has focused on alcohol markers using hair analysis but data on performance and reliable cut-off values are still lacking. In this study 169 candidates were tested to compare traditional biomarkers, such as carbohydrate-deficient-transferrin (CDT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase and the mean corpuscular volume of the erythrocytes, with alcohol markers detectable in hair such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). This study revealed that EtG, GGT and CDT showed the best results, demonstrating areas under the curve calculated from receiver operating characteristics of 0.941, 0.943 and 0.899 respectively. The lowest false-negative and false-positive rates were obtained by using a combined interpretation system for hair EtG and FAEEs. All markers demonstrated only low to moderate correlations. Optimum cut-off values for differentiation between social and chronic excessive drinking calculated for hair EtG and FAEEs were 28 pg/mg and 0.675 ng/mg, respectively. The critical values published in the "Consensus on Alcohol Markers 2012" by the Society of Hair Testing were confirmed.

  14. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  15. Effects of blood glucose level on FDG uptake by liver: a FDG-PET/CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Kazuo, E-mail: kkubota@cpost.plala.or.j [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshige; Murata, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Yukihiro, Masashi; Ito, Kimiteru; Morooka, Miyako; Minamimoto, Ryogo [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Hori, Ai [Department of Epidemiology and International Health, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    In FDG-PET for abdominal malignancy, the liver may be assumed as an internal standard for grading abnormal FDG uptake both in early images and in delayed images. However, physiological variables of FDG uptake by the liver, especially the effects of blood glucose level, have not yet been elucidated. Methods: FDG-PET studies of 70 patients examined at 50 to 70 min after injection (60{+-}10 min: early images) and of 68 patients examined at 80 to 100 min after injection (90{+-}10 min: delayed images) were analyzed for liver FDG uptake. Patients having lesions in the liver, spleen and pancreas; patients having bulk tumor in other areas; and patients early after chemotherapy or radiotherapy were excluded; also, patients with blood glucose level over 125 mg/dl were excluded. Results: Mean standardized uptake value (SUV) of the liver, blood glucose level and sex showed no significant differences between early images and delayed images. However, liver SUV in the delayed image showed a larger variation than that in the early image and showed significant correlation to blood glucose level. The partial correlation coefficient between liver SUV and blood glucose level in the delayed image with adjustment for sex and age was 0.73 (P<.0001). Multivariate regression coefficient (95% confidence interval) of blood glucose was 0.017 (0.013-0.021). Conclusion: Blood glucose level is an important factor affecting the normal liver FDG uptake in nondiabetic patients. In the case of higher glucose level, liver FDG uptake is elevated especially in the delayed image. This may be due to the fact that the liver is the key organ responsible for glucose metabolism through gluconeogenesis and glycogen storage.

  16. Effects of Different Exercise Intensities with Isoenergetic Expenditures on C-Reactive Protein and Blood Lipid Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Te Hung; Yang, Chang Bin; Hsu, Chin Hsing

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different exercise intensities on C-reactive protein (CRP), and whether changes in CRP levels correlated with blood lipid levels. Ten men exercised at 25%, 65%, and 85% of their maximum oxygen consumption rates. Participants' blood was analyzed for CRP and blood lipid levels before and after the exercise sessions.…

  17. Intraoperative blood glucose levels in neurosurgical patients : an evaluation of two fluid regimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swamy M

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the evidence that hyperglycaemia aggravates ischaemic cerebral injury, it has been suggested that blood glucose levels be kept within 200 mg/dL during intracranial neurosurgery. Hypoglycaemia, however, can be a serious problem if glucose-containing solutions are avoided during the first four hours, as suggested in some studies. In order to explore the possibility of administering glucose in moderation so that the blood glucose levels are within acceptable limits, but at the same time the risk of hyoglycaemia is eliminated, we compared two intraoperative fluid regimens. Of the 52 neurosurgical patients studied, 32 patients received alternately 500 ml of 5% dextrose in normal saline and Ringer′s lactate (DNS/RL Group and 18 patients received alternately 500 ml of Ringer′s lactate and normal saline (RL/NS Group. Blood glucose concentrations were determined at the end of each unit of fluid, until the patient received 4 units of fluid. In the DNS/RL group, blood glucose values peaked with the administration of each unit of DNS and tended to return towards the baseline with the subsequent RL, but remained higher than the previous control value. In the RL/NS group, there was a progressive increase in blood glucose values throughout the study period, but the increase was not statistically significant. The blood glucose levels were significantly different between the two groups after each unit of fluid except at the end of the fourth unit. Two patients in the RL/NS group had hypoglycaemia. In conclusion, the DNS/RL regimen maintains blood glucose levels within acceptable limits while avoiding the risk of hyperglycaemia. Withholding glucose completely, lowers blood glucose levels, but carries a risk of hypoglycaemia in some patients.

  18. Lead, mercury, and organochlorine compound levels in cord blood in Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhainds, M; Levallois, P; Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P

    1999-01-01

    We conducted this study to evaluate blood levels of lead, mercury, and organochlorine compounds in newborns in the Province of Quebec. During 1993 to 1995, we carried out a survey in 10 hospitals located in southern Quebec. During that time, umbilical cord blood samples were obtained from 1109 newborns, and we analyzed each for lead, mercury, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, and 11 chlorinated pesticides. We used the geometric mean and 95% confidence interval (CI) to describe the results. Mean concentrations of lead and mercury in cord blood were 0.076 micromol/l (95% CI = 0.074, 0.079) and 4.82 nmol/l (95% CI = 4.56, 5.08), respectively. The mean concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1260) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene were 0.514 microg/I (95% CI = .493, 0.536) and 0.412 microg/l (95% CI = 0.390, 0.435), respectively. We observed a statistically significant relationship between maternal age and cord blood concentrations of (a) lead, (b) mercury, (c) polychlorinated biphenyls, and (d) dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene. In addition, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with cord blood lead levels. The cord blood concentrations of lead, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene we measured in our study were the lowest levels recently reported in industrialized countries. The results of this study underline the role of public health authorities in the evaluation of biological levels of environmental contaminants among children for the assessment of risk of adverse health effects.

  19. Investigation and Evaluation of Children's Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-05-28

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents' occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant.

  20. Association between calcium intake, parathormone levels and blood pressure during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Nieto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the association between calcium intake from diet, calciotropic hormones (PTH, PTH-rp, vasoactive regulators (endothelin, nitric oxide and blood pressure levels during pregnancy, birth and puerperium.Method: In a prospective study 149 healthy normotensive primigravidas were followed-up from 15 weeks of gestation to puerperium. Daily calcium intake, calciuria, PTH, PTH-rp, endothelin, nitrite-nitrate, and Holter Test were assessed. Linear regression models were performed to evaluate the association between calcium intake, blood pressure levels and the laboratory tests. Multivariate regression models were performed to control potential confounders.Results: A significant increase of calcium intake during pregnancy was observed (931±301 mg/day to 1,195±467 mg/day, p<0.001. Plasma PTH-rp, endothelin, and nitrite-nitrate levels did not change during pregnancy. Among the women 38 (25.4% had low calcium intake (<800 mg/day with a larger increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure during pregnancy (p=0.04 birth (p=0.006 and puerperium (p=0.01. After adjusting for other factors the multivariate analyses showed statistical association between low calcium intake, high parathormone levels and high systolic blood pressure levels during pregnancy (p=0.002.Conclusion: Low calcium intake during pregnancy is associated with a larger increase of systolic blood pressure and high parathormone levels.

  1. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... positive correlation between frontal cortex and hippocampal BDNF levels in mice (r2=0.81, p=0.0139). Our data support the view that measures of blood and plasma BDNF levels reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels....

  2. Uso de álcool em vítimas de acidentes de trânsito: estudo do nível de alcoolemia Uso de alcohol en accidentes de tránsito: estudio del nivel de alcoholemia Alcohol use and traffic accidents: a study of alcohol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Maria Mendes Abreu

    2010-06-01

    sangre.This was an exploratory, descriptive study that aimed to correlate alcohol levels detected in fatal victims of traffic accidents, in Rio de Janeiro city, with the victim’s profile and the characteristics of the accident. The data were retrieved from the registers of the Legal Medicine Institute/IML, through the registers of the medical records of the fatal victims of traffic accidents. Compiled and tabulated using the Statistics Program SPSS, for the period between January and May 2005, 348 fatal victims of traffic accidents were reported. Of these victims, 94 had been tested for alcohol, of these, 83 had levels of alcohol detected, 60.2% presented levels above 0.6g/l blood. The use of alcohol was evident, at levels above and below 0.6g per liter of blood, in the cases of fatal victims of traffic accidents.

  3. [Endogenous ethanol and its possible participation in the activity of the central nervous system in healthy subjects and alcoholics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudriavtsev, R V; Ushakova, M M; Nebarakova, T P; Valentik, Iu V; Ionova, K P

    1987-01-01

    Blood concentrations of endogenous ethanol (EE) reflects the effects of various psychic and medicinal impacts. EE levels in alcoholic patients depend on the severity of alcoholism, emotional status and efficacy of treatment. Actualization of the pathologic craving for alcohol and other types of emotional excitement are attended by reduced EE concentrations whereas the disactualization of the pathological craving for alcohol and relaxation increase the EE levels. Stabilization of alcoholic patients' clinical status is attended by stabilization of EE values. It is suggested that acetaldehyde acts as a modulator of catecholamine levels both in normal subjects and alcoholics ensuring connection between EE levels and the status of the central nervous system.

  4. Serum gamma-GTP levels by type and quantity of alcohol consumed--the 'whisky hypothesis' refuted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D; Takiwaki, S; Allaway, S; Sekihara, K

    1987-12-01

    Serum gamma-GTP measurements in 11,755 Japanese men were used to test the hypothesis that drinking whisky had little or no effect on the serum level of this enzyme. We found that regular drinking was associated with significantly increased mean levels and raised percentages of high values of gamma-GTP, irrespective of the type of alcohol consumed. Moreover, heavier and more frequent drinking were associated with proportionately greater increases in gamma-GTP levels. Our data therefore refute the hypothesis that whisky drinking is not accompanied by adverse changes in the level of serum gamma-GTP.

  5. Comparison of Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood Selenium Levels in Low and Normal Birth Weight Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyly Nazemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare the maternal and umbilical cord serum selenium concentrations in Low and normal birth weight neonates.Materials and methods:A case-control study was carried out in Vali-Asr and Akbarabadi Hospitals (Jan. to Dec. 2013. Two groups; case group; 91 mothers who delivered a low birth weight (LBW neonate and control group; 86 subjects who delivered a normal birth weight neonate were selected. Immediately after birth, 5 ml of maternal blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, and sent to laboratory to assay Se concentrations. To compare both groups' blood Se concentration, data were analyzed in SPSS 16.0.Results:Eighty six (48.6% mothers with normal birth weight neonates and 91 (51.4% mothers with low birth weight infants entered the study. Mean maternal mothers' age and mean maternal blood Se were 28.55+5.90 years and 79.3756+26.46915. A significant association was seen between maternal blood and cord blood Se level in control and case group (P value<0.0001, r = 0.69 and(P value<0.001, r = 0.79. On the other hand no differences were seen between 2 groups' maternal blood Se level (P Value = 0.65. Umbilical Cord blood Se concentration was not also different between case and control group (P value = 0.46.Conclusion:We found that maternal and umbilical cord blood Se concentrations were not different in low and adequate birth weight infants, however; umbilical cord Se concentrations were positively correlated with maternal blood Se concentrations.

  6. Relation between anemia and blood levels of lead, copper, zinc and iron among children

    OpenAIRE

    Morsy Amal A; Abd el-hafez Manal A; Zaher Manal M; Hegazy Amal A; Saleh Raya A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Anemia is a health problem among infants and children. It is often associated with a decrease in some trace elements (iron, zinc, copper) and an increase in heavy metals as lead. This study was done to determine the association of blood lead level > 10 μg/dl, with the increased risk to anemia, also, to investigate the relationship between anemia and changes in blood iron, zinc and copper levels, and measure lead level in drinking water. The study is a cross-sectional perfo...

  7. Genetic factors influencing ferritin levels in 14,126 blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Erik; Rigas, Andreas S; Thørner, Lise W;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many biologic functions depend on sufficient iron levels, and iron deficiency is especially common among blood donors. Genetic variants associated with iron levels have been identified, but the impact of genetic variation on iron levels among blood donors remains unclear. STUDY DESIGN...... AND METHODS: The effect of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on ferritin levels in 14,126 blood donors were investigated in four genes: in Human Hemochromatosis Protein gene (HFE; rs1800562 and rs179945); in Transmembrane Protease gene, Serine 6 (TMPRSS6-regulating hepcidin; rs855791); in BTB domain....../mL). RESULTS: In HFE, the G-allele of rs1800562 was associated with lower iron stores in both sexes. This was also true for the C-allele of rs179945, but in men only. Also, the T-allele of TMPRSS6 rs855791 was negatively associated with iron stores in men. Homozygocity for C in rs1799945 was associated...

  8. Seaweed intake and blood pressure levels in healthy pre-school Japanese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Keiko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined whether dietary factors might affect blood pressure in children. We purposed to investigate whether seaweed intake is associated with blood pressure level among Japanese preschool children. Methods The design of the study was cross-sectional and it was conducted in autumn 2006. Subjects were healthy preschoolers aged 3-6 years in Aichi, Japan. Blood pressure and pulse were measured once by an automated sphygmomanometer, which uses oscillometric methods. Dietary data, including seaweed intake, were assessed using 3-day dietary records covering 2 consecutive weekdays and 1 weekend day. Of a total of 533 children, 459 (86.1 percent agreed to be enrolled in our study. Finally, blood pressure measurement, complete dietary records and parent-reported height and weight were obtained for 223 boys and 194 girls. Results When we examined Spearman's correlation coefficients, seaweed intake was significantly negatively related to systolic blood pressure in girls (P = 0.008. In the one-way analysis of covariance for blood pressure and pulse after adjustments for age and BMI, the boys with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake had diastolic blood pressure readings of 62.8, 59.3 and 59.6 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.11, trend P = 0.038. Girls with higher seaweed intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure readings (102.4, 99.2 and 96.9 mmHg for girls with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake, respectively; P = 0.037, trend P = 0.030. Conclusion Our study showed that seaweed intake was negatively related to diastolic blood pressure in boys and to systolic blood pressure in girls. This suggests that seaweed might have beneficial effects on blood pressure among children.

  9. Epidemiology of high-level parvovirus B19 viraemia among Dutch blood donors, 2003-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Kooistra; H.J. Mesman; M. de Waal; M.H.G.M. Koppelman; H.L. Zaaijer

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Plasma derivatives and blood components with low levels of parvovirus B19 (B19) seem not infectious, but recently infected, highly viraemic donors may transmit B19. We studied the incidence of high-level B19 viraemia (B19 DNA > 106 IU/ml) in 6 center dot 5 million Dutch blo

  10. Variability of blood alcohol content (BAC) determinations: the role of measurement uncertainty, significant figures, and decision rules for compliance assessment in the frame of a multiple BAC threshold law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Tedeschi, Gianpaola; Frasson, Samuela; Zancanaro, Flavio; Sciarrone, Rocco

    2014-10-01

    The measurement of blood-alcohol content (BAC) is a crucial analytical determination required to assess if an offence (e.g. driving under the influence of alcohol) has been committed. For various reasons, results of forensic alcohol analysis are often challenged by the defence. As a consequence, measurement uncertainty becomes a critical topic when assessing compliance with specification limits for forensic purposes. The aims of this study were: (1) to investigate major sources of variability for BAC determinations; (2) to estimate measurement uncertainty for routine BAC determinations; (3) to discuss the role of measurement uncertainty in compliance assessment; (4) to set decision rules for a multiple BAC threshold law, as provided in the Italian Highway Code; (5) to address the topic of the zero-alcohol limit from the forensic toxicology point of view; and (6) to discuss the role of significant figures and rounding errors on measurement uncertainty and compliance assessment. Measurement variability was investigated by the analysis of data collected from real cases and internal quality control. The contribution of both pre-analytical and analytical processes to measurement variability was considered. The resulting expanded measurement uncertainty was 8.0%. Decision rules for the multiple BAC threshold Italian law were set by adopting a guard-banding approach. 0.1 g/L was chosen as cut-off level to assess compliance with the zero-alcohol limit. The role of significant figures and rounding errors in compliance assessment was discussed by providing examples which stressed the importance of these topics for forensic purposes.

  11. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, C. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: LY@sinap.ac.cn; Li, Y.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zou, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, G.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Normura, M. [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK, Oho, Tsukuba 305 (Japan); Zhu, G.Y. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 A and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N{sub {epsilon}} bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO{sub 2} decreases.

  12. Relation between Cord Blood Mercury Levels and Early Child Development in a World Trade Center Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Lederman, Sally Ann; Jones, Robert L.; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Rauh, Virginia; Sheets, Stephen E.; Tang, Deliang; Viswanathan, Sheila; Becker, Mark; Stein, Janet L.; Wang, Richard Y; Perera, Frederica P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to determine whether prenatal mercury exposure, including potential releases from the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster, adversely affects fetal growth and child development. Methods We determined maternal and umbilical cord blood total mercury of nonsmoking women who delivered at term in lower Manhattan after 11 September 2001, and measured birth outcomes and child development. Results Levels of total mercury in cord and maternal blood were not significantly...

  13. Device to determine the level of peripheral blood circulation and saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovska, Tetyana I.; Sander, Sergii V.; Zlepko, Sergii M.; Vasilenko, Valentina B.; Pavlov, Volodymyr S.; Dumenko, Victoria P.; Klapouschak, Andrii Yu.; Maciejewski, Marcin; DzierŻak, RóŻa; Surtel, Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    The paper evaluated the diagnostic value of laser photoplethysmography when examining patients with chronic lower limb ischemia. A statistical analysis of the research results was made, and diagrams of relationship between the degrees of ischemia and blood flow are presented. Development of the device to determine the level of peripheral blood circulation and saturation was presented. Also additional accessories in the form of optical fibers for different applications were suggested.

  14. Incense burning at home and the blood lead level of preschoolers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lin, Yi-Shuan; Lin, Chia-Yu; Wang, I-Jen

    2014-12-01

    The growth and intellectual development of children less than 6 years old may be affected by exposure to low levels of lead. To further reduce environmental lead exposure, this study examined possible household-related factors that affect the blood lead levels of Taiwanese children. In total, based on a stratified random sampling strategy, 934 kindergarten students were recruited throughout Taiwan from April to October 2011 after their parents signed a statement of consent. A venous blood sample was drawn from each participant and analyzed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Information on the demographics and household environment of the study subjects was collected by administering a questionnaire (Table 1). The geometric mean lead level in the blood samples of the study subjects was 1.84 μg/dL with a geometric standard deviation of 1.55. The blood lead level was negatively correlated with household income and parental educational levels (p Incense burning in the home, an ethnic tradition, was also identified as a significant factor for increased blood lead levels (p incense burning at home (p = 0.0022). Because the health effects of low levels of lead exposure have been reported in recent years and because no consensus has been reached regarding a safety threshold for blood lead level in children, any trivial factor is worth investigating to further prevent lead exposure in children. Incense burning at home is a common traditional religious activity in Taiwan; therefore, more study is warranted to further eliminate the lead content in incense and reduce lead exposure for the families who practice this activity.

  15. How Effective is Swedish Massage on Blood Glucose Level in Children with Diabetes Mellitus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Sajedi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available "nThis study was conducted to determine the effect of Swedish massage on blood glucose level in children with diabetes mellitus (DM. It was prospective randomized controlled trial study that conducted on 36 children, 6-12 years old with DM, recruited from a hospital in Qom City, Iran. The children were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Swedish massage was performed 15 minutes, 3 times a week, for 3 months in intervention group. The blood glucose levels were evaluated immediately after every session of massage in two groups. The mean ages of children in the intervention (n=18 and control (n=18 groups were 9.05 ± 1.55 and 9.83 ±2.03 years respectively. There was statistically no significant difference in blood glucose levels before intervention between two groups (P=0.586, but the blood glucose levels were lower significantly in intervention group in comparison with control group after intervention (P<0.0001. Addition of Swedish massage to daily routines; exercise, diet and medication regimens, is an effective intervention to reduce blood glucose level in diabetic children.

  16. Blood cholesterol levels of hypercholesterolemic rat (Rattus norvegicus after VCO treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKID PARAMA ASTIRIN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Harini M, Astirin OP. 2009. Blood cholesterol levels of hypercholesterolemic rat (Rattus norvegicus after VCO treatment. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 53-58. This study aims to determine treatment effect of VCO on blood cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic white rat (Rattus norvegicus L.. This study used 25 male rats of Wistar strain divided into five treatment groups, namely: control, simvastatin (1.3 mL/270 g BW, cholesterol (9:1 lard, VCO 1 (1 mL/270 g BW, and VCO 2 (1.3 mL/270 g BW. Treatment was given orally. Total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol levels were measured at day 1, day 14 and day 28. Cholesterol data (total cholesterol, LDL and HDL were analyzed by Ancova and followed by contrast test at significance level of 5%.. The results showed that treatment of VCO at different doses significantly affected the decrease in blood total cholesterol, blood LDL levels, increasing blood HDL in hipercholesterolemic white rat.

  17. Axillary versus peripheral blood levels of sialic acid, ferritin, and CEA in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, M; Catania, S; Locatelli, E; Gandini, R; Reggiani, A; Cunietti, E

    1990-12-01

    Serum levels of total sialic acid, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine phosphokinase were measured both in tumor drainage blood (axillary vein) and in peripheral blood obtained from 121 breast cancer patients during surgery. No significant differences between mean values in peripheral and tumor draining blood, between cancer patients and healthy controls, or between patients with or without axillary lymph node metastases were found for any of the markers. Both ferritin and CEA levels were higher in axillary and peripheral blood from patients with central breast cancer versus other sites but the difference was significant only for CEA (p less than 0.05). CEA levels were significantly higher (p less than 0.01) in patients with greater than 2 cm diameter carcinomas versus T1 stage patients in axillary but not in peripheral blood. When the cephalic vein was clamped before the axillary sample was taken, ferritin showed a significant increase (p less than 0.05). We conclude that measurement of sialic acid, CEA, and ferritin in axillary venous blood in breast cancer patients is not of clinical benefit, although further data are needed to clarify whether other advantages can be derived.

  18. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in alcohol-dependent patients receiving high-dose baclofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisel, Olga; Hellweg, Rainer; Müller, Christian A

    2016-06-30

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to be involved in the development and maintenance of addictive and other psychiatric disorders. Also, interactions of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic compounds and BDNF have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate serum levels of BDNF over time in alcohol-dependent patients receiving individually titrated high-dose treatment (30-270mg/d) with the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen or placebo for up to 20 weeks. Serum levels of BDNF were measured in patients of the baclofen/placebo group at baseline (t0), 2 weeks after reaching individual high-dose of baclofen/placebo treatment (t1) and after termination of study medication (t2) in comparison to carefully matched healthy controls. No significant differences in serum levels of BDNF between the baclofen and the placebo group or healthy controls were found at t0, t1, or at t2. Based on these findings, it seems unlikely that baclofen exerts a direct effect on serum levels of BDNF in alcohol-dependent patients. Future studies are needed to further explore the mechanism of action of baclofen and its possible relationship to BDNF in alcohol use disorders.

  19. The effects of low alcohol beers on the blood alcohol concentration. [Die Wirkung von Bier mit geringem Alkoholgehalt auf die Blutalkoholkonzentration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuteboom, W. & Vis, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    During the last decade the consumption of low alcohol beers has increased considerably in the Netherlands. The improved taste and appearance of these beers, compared to those of previous years, combined with a more general trend for a healthier life-style might explain this increase. The permanent p

  20. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  1. Remifentanil Prevents Increases of Blood Glucose and Lactate Levels during Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Tomohiro; Nawa, Yuko; Tamashiro, Keishi; Mizuno, Eri; Hirata, Naoyuki; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can cause stress response that increases levels of cytokine and catecholamine in plasma, resulting in hyperglycemia. In adults, it has been demonstrated that remifentanil infusion during CPB could prevent increases of cytokine, catecholamine, and blood glucose levels, but such effects of remifentanil in children have not been elucidated. Aim: In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of remifentanil on blood glucose and lactate levels during CPB in children. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included children who underwent ventricular septal defect or atrial septal defect closure. Data for patients who did not receive, during CPB period, remifentanil infusion (non-Remi group) and patients who received remifentanil infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/min (Remi group) during CPB were used for analysis. Primary outcomes were lactate and blood glucose levels just before and after CPB. Data are presented as medians and interquartile ranges. Data were analyzed by the Mann–Whitney U-test and Chi-square test. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: During CPB, 13 and 11 patients were allocated into Remi and non-Remi groups, respectively. Pre-CPB lactate and blood glucose levels were not significantly different between the two groups, but post-CPB lactate and blood glucose levels in the Remi group were significantly lower than that in the non-Remi group. Conclusion: 0.5 μg/kg/min remifentanil infusion during CPB suppresses the increases of blood glucose and lactate levels in children. PMID:28074792

  2. Translating evidence into policy: lessons learned from the case of lowering the legal blood alcohol limit for drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Shawna L; Sleet, David A; Elder, Randy W; Cole, Krista Hopkins; Shults, Ruth A; Nichols, James L

    2010-06-01

    This case study examines the translation of evidence on the effectiveness of laws to reduce the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of drivers into policy. It was reconstructed through discussions among individuals involved in the processes as well as a review of documentation and feedback on oral presentations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated extensively with federal and non-federal partners and stakeholders in conducting a rigorous systematic review, using the processes of the Guide to Community Preventive Services to evaluate the body of empirical evidence on 0.08% BAC laws. The timely dissemination of the findings and related policy recommendations-made by the independent Task Force on Community Preventive Services-to Congress very likely contributed to the inclusion of strong incentives to States to adopt 0.08 BAC laws by October 2003. Subsequent dissemination to partners and stakeholders informed decision-making about support for state legislative and policy action. This case study suggests the value of: clearly outlining the relationships between health problems, interventions and outcomes; systematically assessing and synthesizing the evidence; using a credible group and rigorous process to assess the evidence; having an impartial body make specific policy recommendations on the basis of the evidence; being ready to capitalize in briefly opening policy windows; engaging key partners and stakeholders throughout the production and dissemination of the evidence and recommendations; undertaking personalized, targeted and compelling dissemination of the evidence and recommendations; involving multiple stakeholders in encouraging uptake and adherence of policy recommendations; and addressing sustainability. These lessons learned may help others working to translate evidence into policy.

  3. Analysis of the origin and importance of acetone and isopropanol levels in the blood of the deceased for medico-legal testimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Borowska-Solonynko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the incidence of acetone and isopropanol in the blood of the deceased, and to assess cases in which the compounds have been detected with a focus on their origin and usefulness for medico-legal testimony. Material and methods: The study material consisted of results of tests detecting ethyl alcohol and reports of autopsies performed at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, from January 2008 to April 2009 – a total of 2,475 cases. The test group proper (group B comprised only those cases in which acetone was detected in blood, either with or without isopropanol [n = 202 (8.2%]. The blood levels of isopropanol varied depending on the cause of death. The need for differentiating the origin of isopropanol in the case of its presence in the blood of the deceased was pointed out. Results : The results of the present study show that the differentiation should be based on the isopropanol and acetone concentration ratio, as isopropanol concentration alone is not sufficient for preparing expert opinions. Even high concentrations of isopropanol, when accompanied by even higher concentrations of acetone, imply that isopropanol could have been formed as a result of acetone transformations. Isopropanol concentrations exceeding acetone levels strongly point to the exogenous origin of isopropanol, particularly when high levels of ethanol are concurrently detected.

  4. Effects of school district factors on alcohol consumption: results of a multi-level analysis among Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, Christiane; Ejstrud, Bo; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde

    2011-01-01

    performance at school, perceived peer group drinking and the perceived daily drinking of the father. On school district level, adolescents were more likely to initiate alcohol consumption in school districts with higher farming land use and less likely in those with higher proportion of private apartment...... buildings. Other school district factors were not associated with drinking initiation when controlled for individual level factors. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of socio-economic variables at school district level seems to be smaller in the welfare state of Denmark than known for other countries. However...

  5. Determinants of maternal and umbilical blood lead levels: a cross-sectional study, Mosul, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jomard Raghad A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The populations who are most sensitive to lead exposure from various sources are pregnant women and their newborns. Aiming to explore the presence of correlation between maternal and cord blood lead levels and to identify potential predictors that may influence both levels, the present study has been conducted. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted covering 350 full terms maternal-newborns pairs from Mosul maternity hospitals. Data were obtained directly from women just before delivery by the use of a detailed questionnaire form. Maternal and umbilical blood lead levels were estimated using LEADCARE® Blood Lead Testing System and Kits. Results A positive significant correlation was found between maternal and cord blood lead values (r = 0.856, p = 0.001. By backward stepwise logistic regression analysis the followings emerged as significant potential predictors of high maternal blood lead: low parity, smoking and Hb level Conclusion Study results have provided baseline data needed to be transformed to decision makers to implement measures to eliminate lead from the environment and protect future generation from its deleterious effects.

  6. Blood cadmium levels are associated with a decline in lung function in males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Chang-Mo [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); The Korea Central Cancer Registry, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Oh, In-Hwan; Lee, Jong-Keun [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yoon Hyung [Departments of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Bong-Keun; Yoon, Tai-Young [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Joong-Myung, E-mail: jmchoi@khu.ac.kr [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Background: Cadmium exposure was found to cause a decline in lung function among the general population, but these findings were limited to smokers and gender differences were not explored. Objectives: To examine the relationship between cadmium and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) according to gender and smoking status in Korea. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011 were analyzed. COPD was defined by a pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s divided by forced vital capacity of <0.70. A logistic regression model was used to elucidate the association between blood cadmium levels and COPD according to gender and smoking status. Results: Among 3861 eligible participants, 3622 were included in the analysis. The prevalence of COPD demonstrated an increasing trend in males (P for trend<0.001), but not in females (P for trend=0.67). After adjusting for covariates, a higher blood cadmium level, but within the normal range, was associated with COPD in males, including those who had never-smoked (P for trend <0.001 and P for trend=0.008). However, a higher blood cadmium level was not significantly associated with COPD in females, including those who had never smoked (P for trend=0.39 and P for trend=0.43). Conclusions: A higher blood cadmium level, within the normal range, was associated with COPD in males, including those who had never smoked. However, there was no significant association between blood cadmium levels and COPD in females. - Highlights: • Elevated blood cadmium level is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in male. • This association can be seen even in never smoked male. • However, this association is present only in male, but not in female.

  7. Blood serotonin levels in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Stefano; Sacco, Roberto; Persico, Antonio M

    2014-06-01

    Elevated blood serotonin (5-HT) levels were the first biomarker identified in autism research. Many studies have contrasted blood 5-HT levels in autistic patients and controls, but different measurement protocols, technologies, and biomaterials have been used through the years. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide an overall estimate of effect size and between-study heterogeneity, while verifying whether and to what extent different methodological approaches influence the strength of this association. Our literature search strategy identified 551 papers, from which 22 studies providing patient and control blood 5-HT values were selected for meta-analysis. Significantly higher 5-HT levels in autistic patients compared to controls were recorded both in whole blood (WB) [O.R.=4.6; (3.1-5.2); P=1.0×10(-12]), and in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) [O.R.=2.6 (1.8-3.9); P=2.7×10(-7)]. Predictably, studies measuring 5-HT levels in platelet-poor plasma (PPP) yielded no significant group difference [O.R.=0.54 (0.2-2-0); P=0.36]. Altogether, elevated 5-HT blood levels were recorded in 28.3% in WB and 22.5% in PRP samples of autistic individuals, as reported in 15 and 4 studies, respectively. Studies employing HPLC vs fluorometric assays yield similar cumulative effect sizes, but the former display much lower variability. In summary, despite some limitations mainly due to small study sample sizes, our results significantly reinforce the reliability of elevated 5-HT blood levels as a biomarker in ASD, providing practical indications potentially useful for its inclusion in multi-marker diagnostic panels for clinical use.

  8. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE ON BLOOD OXYGEN FREE RADICAL AND NO LEVELS IN TREATMENT OF APOPLECTIC SEQUELAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁青; 马瑞玲; 靳瑞

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of acupuncture on blood oxygen free radical (OFR) and nitric oxide(NO) levels in the treatment of apoplectic sequelae. Methods: A total of 61 cases of apoplectic patients were subject-ed into this study and randomly divided into "JIN San Zhen" group (n=30) and control group (n=31). Blood lipid per-oxidase (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px) and nitric oxide (NO) contents beforeand after acupuncture treatment were determined with radioimmunoassay. In both groups, acupuncture was given oncedaily, six times a week, with 4 weeks being a therapeutic course and with the interval between two weeks being aweek, 3 courses all together. In "JIN San Zhen" group, acupoints of "JIN San Zhen" were used predominately, whilein control group, scalp-point Motor Sensory Area (MS 8) was used as the main point. Results: Self-comparison showedthat after 3 courses of treatment, in both groups, LPO and NO levels decreased significantly ( P < 0.05 - 0.01 ), SODand GST-Px values increased considerably ( P< 0.05 - 0.01 ). Comparison between two groups indicated that the ef-fects of "JIN San Zhen" group are significantly superior to those of control group in raising blood SOD and GST-Px lev-els ( P< 0.05- 0.01 ) and in lowering blood NO content ( P< 0.01 ). Analysis on the correlation between the restora-tion of neural function and the changes of LPO, SOD and GST-Px levels suggested that the effect of acupuncture in im-proving neural function may be related to changes of the aforementioned indexes. Conclusion: Acupuncture therapy cansignificantly lower blood LPO and NO levels and evidently raise blood SOD and GST-Px levels in stroke patients.

  9. Nonfatal bicycle accident risk after an evening of alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, J.C.; van Herwijnen, J.; Volkerts, E.R.; Olivier, B.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: After an evening of alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) may reach intoxication levels above legal limits for operating a car or bicycle. In the Netherlands, legal limits for participating in traffic are 0.05% for experienced drivers and 0.02% for novice drivers. The

  10. Reduced levels of folate transporters (PCFT and RFC) in membrane lipid rafts result in colonic folate malabsorption in chronic alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Nissar Ahmad; Kaur, Jyotdeep

    2011-03-01

    We studied the effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on folate transport across the colonic apical membranes (CAM) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed 1 g/kg body weight/day ethanol (20%) solution orally for 3 months and folate transport was studied in the isolated colon apical membrane vesicles. The folate transport was found to be carrier mediated, saturable, with pH optima at 5.0. Chronic ethanol ingestion reduced the folate transport across the CAM by decreasing the affinity of transporters (high Km) for the substrate and by decreasing the number of transporter molecules (low Vmax) on the colon luminal surface. The decreased transport activity at the CAM was associated with down-regulation of the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) and the reduced folate carrier (RFC) which resulted in decreased PCFT and RFC protein levels in the colon of rats fed alcohol chronically. Moreover, the PCFT and the RFC were found to be distributed in detergent insoluble fraction of the CAM in rats. Floatation experiments on Optiprep density gradients demonstrated the association of the PCFT and the RFC protein with lipid rafts (LR). Chronic alcoholism decreased the PCFT and the RFC protein levels in the CAM LR in accordance with the decreased synthesis. Hence, we propose that downregulation in the expression of the PCFT and the RFC in colon results in reduced levels of these transporters in colon apical membrane LR as a mechanism of folate malabsorption during chronic alcoholism.

  11. Breaking Bad in Mississippi: Do County-Level Alcohol Sale Bans Encourage Crystal Methamphetamine Production and Consumption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granger Maury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available If alcohol has substitutes, changes in its relative price can encourage the production and consumption of other illicit and harmful drugs. This paper considers if county-level bans on the sale of alcohol in the state of Mississippi encourage the production and consumption of crystal methamphetamine. We estimate the parameters of a drug production function in which the inputs are the density of people and firms, underscoring the importance of learning and knowledge spillovers to production and consumption. Poisson and Negative Binomial parameter estimates reveal that county-level bans on hard liquor sales; but not on beer and wine, increase the number of crystal methamphetamine labs. In the absence of such laws, there would be approximately 308 fewer crystal methamphetamine labs in the state of Mississippi. Our findings suggest that in Mississippi, which is the least healthiest state in the nation, county-level bans on hard liquor sales are not welfare improving as they encourage substitution for a drug that is potentially more harmful to individual health than alcohol.

  12. Maternal-Cord Blood Vitamin D Correlations Vary by Maternal Levels

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D levels of pregnant women and their neonates tend to be related; however, it is unknown whether there are any subgroups in which they are not related. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured in prenatal maternal and child cord blood samples of participants (n = 241 pairs) in a birth cohort. Spearman correlations were examined within subgroups defined by prenatal and delivery factors. Cord blood as a percentage of prenatal 25(OH)D level was calculated and characteristics compared b...

  13. Differences in whole blood serotonin levels based on a typology of parasuicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilke, O; Safar, C; Israel, M; Barth, T; Felber, W; Oehler, J

    1998-01-01

    Suicidal behavior has to be considered as a multifactorial phenomenon, which can be analyzed in a classifying-phenomenological manner. We have examined the relation of parasuicide typology to whole blood concentrations of serotonin, HVA, and tryptophan in 58 patients classified into 4 groups of parasuicide typology compared to 22 nonsuicidal depressed patients and 20 healthy subjects. Suicidal patients classified as impetuous, desperate and ambivalent types had significantly reduced whole blood 5-HT levels in comparison with the appealing type as well as nonsuicidal subjects. No differences were detected in the HVA content, but whole blood tryptophan concentrations were significantly reduced in impetuous suicidal patients and depressed patients compared to healthy subjects. This study provides evidence for reduced whole blood serotonin content based on different types of parasuicide.

  14. Determinants of blood-lead levels in children in Callao and Lima metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinoza Rocío

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine blood lead levels in urban populations of children (n=2 510 and women (n=874 in the early postpartum in certain districts of Lima and Callao, and to correlate those levels with particular exposures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between July 1998 and January 1999 cross sectional study was conducted. The study population was selected using three sampling strategies in the government operated school system and from public pediatric and maternity hospitals at Lima and Callao, Peru. Study personnel were trained to collect finger stick blood samples with a protocol that minimizes external lead contamination. Lead determinations in blood and environmental samples were performed at the study site using portable anodic striping voltamenters. To determine the simultaneous effects of different predictors on blood lead levels, multivariate regression models were used to estimate adjusted mean differences. RESULTS: The mean blood lead level in the children studied was 9.9 µg/dl ranging from I µg/dl to 64 µg/dl with 29% of the children displaying values greater than 10 µg/dl and 9.4% at levels greater than 20 µg/dl. Among the women, the mean was 3.5 µg/dl (SD=2.4 µg/dl, and 2.4% (n=21 displayed levels greater than 10 µg/dl. Important differences were observed between the sample locations, and the highest levels were documented in the port region near Callao. The mean level of blood lead in this group was 25.6 µg/dl (SD=4.6 µg/dl, while among the rest of the sample it was 7.1 µg/dl (SD=5.1 µg/dl. The presence of a mineral storage area signified a difference in exposure in excess of 13 µg/dl for children living near the port area in contrast to the other children who were not as close to such fixed sources of lead exposure. For the participants in Lima, the risk of showing levels above 10 µg/dl was associated with exposure to high vehicular traffic. CONCLUSIONS: In metropolitan Lima, we conclude that the mean blood lead levels of

  15. Chronic alcoholism in rats induces a compensatory response, preserving brain thiamine diphosphate, but the brain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenases are inactivated despite unchanged coenzyme levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhomenko, Yulia M; Kudryavtsev, Pavel A; Pylypchuk, Svetlana Yu; Chekhivska, Lilia I; Stepanenko, Svetlana P; Sergiichuk, Andrej A; Bunik, Victoria I

    2011-06-01

    Thiamine-dependent changes in alcoholic brain were studied using a rat model. Brain thiamine and its mono- and diphosphates were not reduced after 20 weeks of alcohol exposure. However, alcoholism increased both synaptosomal thiamine uptake and thiamine diphosphate synthesis in brain, pointing to mechanisms preserving thiamine diphosphate in the alcoholic brain. In spite of the unchanged level of the coenzyme thiamine diphosphate, activities of the mitochondrial 2-oxoglutarate and pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes decreased in alcoholic brain. The inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was caused by its increased phosphorylation. The inactivation of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDHC) correlated with a decrease in free thiols resulting from an elevation of reactive oxygen species. Abstinence from alcohol following exposure to alcohol reactivated OGDHC along with restoration of the free thiol content. However, restoration of enzyme activity occurred before normalization of reactive oxygen species levels. Hence, the redox status of cellular thiols mediates the action of oxidative stress on OGDHC in alcoholic brain. As a result, upon chronic alcohol consumption, physiological mechanisms to counteract the thiamine deficiency and silence pyruvate dehydrogenase are activated in rat brain, whereas OGDHC is inactivated due to impaired antioxidant ability.

  16. Correlation of blood lead level with iron, zinc and calcium as well as neonatal neurobehavioral development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiguang Li; Guoping Wang; Shenghui Li; Xianguo Wu; Chunru Qi; Yingyi Liang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endothelial cell in brain of undeveloped fetus cannot inhibit entrance of lead so as to cause toxic effect. Over-accumulation of lead can cause toxic effect on children's growth and development, especially on development of nervous system. Lead in fetus body is mainly derived from its mother's; therefore, blood lead reflects the level of mother's lead.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlations among blood lead level, trace elements, mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) of 3-month-old children. DESIGN: Contrast observation. SETTING: Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Shanxi Provincial Children Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 128 neonates with spontaneous delivery were provided by Shanxi Maternity and Child Care Hospital and Jiexiu Municipal Maternity and Child Care Hospital from September 2004 to January 2005. There were 76 boys and 52 girls. All subjects did not have history of ischemia and hypoxia during perinatal period and umbilical blood was accepted to be used in experiments. METHODS: ① Levels of iron, calcium and zinc in umbilical blood: 0.5 mL umbilical blood and 2 mL blood samples were selected from neonates to measure lead content with graphite-oven atom absorption spectrum and contents of iron, calcium and zinc in umbilical blood with atom absorption spectrum. ② Grouping: According to level of blood lead, neonates were divided into high-dosage lead group (blood lead ≥ 0.24 μmol/L) and low-dosage lead group (blood lead < 0.24 μmol/L). ③ Evaluation of neurobehavioral development: Neurobehavioral development of 3-month-old neonates was evaluated with Bayley scale, which was consisted of intelligence scale, motor scale and behavioral scale. Intelligence scale, which was expressed as intelligence development index, contained 163 items, such as adaptability, behavior, language, pilot activities, etc. Motor scale, which was expressed as mental motor development index, contained 81 items, such as vulgar

  17. The level of Alexithymia in alcohol-dependent patients does not influence outcomes after inpatient treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de Hein A.; Schellekens, Arnt F.A.; Palen, van der Job; Verkes, Robbert-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Jong, de Cor A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The inability of individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) to recognize and describe their feelings and cravings may be due to alexithymia. Previous researches have shown evidence for a negative influence of alexithymia on treatment outcomes in patients with AUD. Therefore, it was hyp

  18. Implicit alcohol-relaxation associations in frequently drinking adolescents with high levels of neuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, E.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Meeus, W.; Raaijmakers, S.F.; Wiers, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Most individuals start drinking during adolescence, a period in which automatically activated or implicit cognitive processes play an important role in drinking behavior. The aim of this study was to examine personality-related antecedents of implicit associations between alcohol and p

  19. Impact of School Violence on Youth Alcohol Abuse: Differences Based on Gender and Grade Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Merianos, Ashley L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of school violence on recent alcohol use and episodic heavy drinking among seventh- through 12th-grade students. A total of 54,631 students completed a survey assessing substance use and other risky behaviors. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the research questions. Results…

  20. The level of alexithymia in alcohol-dependent patients does not influence outcomes after inpatient treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, H.A. de; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Palen, J. van der; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The inability of individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) to recognize and describe their feelings and cravings may be due to alexithymia. Previous researches have shown evidence for a negative influence of alexithymia on treatment outcomes in patients with AUD. Therefore, it was hyp

  1. The Level of Alexithymia in Alcohol-Dependent Patients Does Not Influence Outcomes after Inpatient Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, H.A. de; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Palen, J. van der; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2012-01-01

    Background: The inability of individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) to recognize and describe their feelings and cravings may be due to alexithymia. Previous researches have shown evidence for a negative influence of alexithymia on treatment outcomes in patients with AUD. Therefore, it was hyp

  2. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. Design: The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16–20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Results: Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90–208; nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P = 0.002 and r=0.22; P = 0.04, respectively while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. Conclusion: In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium.

  3. Prenatal caffeine exposure induced a lower level of fetal blood leptin mainly via placental mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Meng; Luo, Han-Wen; Kou, Hao; Wen, Yin-Xian; Shen, Lang; Pei, Ling-Guo; Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Yuan-Zhen; Wang, Hui

    2015-11-15

    It's known that blood leptin level is reduced in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) fetus, and placental leptin is the major source of fetal blood leptin. This study aimed to investigate the decreased fetal blood leptin level by prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) and its underlying placental mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered caffeine (30-120 mg/kg day) from gestational day 9 to 20. The level of fetal serum leptin and the expression of placental leptin-related genes were analyzed. Furthermore, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the reduced placental leptin's expression by treatment with caffeine (0.8-20 μM) in the BeWo cells. In vivo, PCE significantly decreased fetal serum leptin level in caffeine dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, placental mRNA expression of adenosine A2a receptor (Adora2a), cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), a short-type leptin receptor (Ob-Ra) and leptin was reduced in the PCE groups. In vitro, caffeine significantly decreased the mRNA expression of leptin, CREB and ADORA2A in concentration and time-dependent manners. The addition of ADORA2A agonist or adenylyl cyclase (AC) agonist reversed the inhibition of leptin expression induced by caffeine. PCE induced a lower level of fetal blood leptin, which the primary mechanism is that caffeine inhibited antagonized Adora2a and AC activities to decreased cAMP synthesis, thus inhibited the expression of the transcription factor CREB and target gene leptin in the placenta. Meantime, the reduced transportation of maternal leptin by placental Ob-Ra also contributed to the reduced fetal blood leptin. Together, PCE decreased fetal blood leptin mainly via reducing the expression and transportation of leptin in the placenta.

  4. Delicious Low GL space foods by using Low GI materials -Checked of blood sugar level-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Kuwayama, Akemi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Enough life-support systems are necessary to stay in space for a long term. The management of the meal for astronauts is in particular very important. When an astronaut gets sick in outer space, it means death. To astronauts, the delicious good balance space foods are essential for their work. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating space foods menu for the healthy space-life by measuring blood sugar level. We made space foods menu to referred to Japanese nutrition standard in 2010. We made space foods menu which are using "brown rice, wheat, soy bean, sweet potato and green-vegetable" and " loach and insects which are silkworm pupa, snail, mud snail, turmait, fly, grasshopper, bee". We use ten health adults as subjects. Ten subjects performed the sensory test of the questionnaire method. There was the sensuality examination in the item of "taste, a fragrance, color, the quantity" and acquired a mark at ten points of perfect scores. The blood sugar level was measured with peripheral blood, before and after a meal for each 15 minutesduring 120 minutes. Statistical analysis was analysed by Excel statistics. As a result of having measured blood sugar level, the space foods menu understood that hyperglycosemia value after a meal was hard to happen. As a result of sensuality exam-ination of the subject, ten points of evaluation of the taste exceeded eight points in a perfect score. The healthy space foods which were hard to go up of the blood sugar level were made deliciously. We can evaluate space foods leading to good health maintenance of the balance by measuring blood sugar level. An astronaut must be healthy to stay in the space for a long term. Therefore the development of the delicious space foods which increase of the health is essential. I devise a combination and the cooking method of the cooking ingredient and want to make healthier space foods menu.

  5. Water-insoluble fractions of botanical foods lower blood ethanol levels in rats by physically maintaining the ethanol solution after ethanol administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunji Oshima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have analyzed the functions of foods and dietary constituents in the dynamics of alcohol metabolism. However, few studies have reported the function of dietary fibers in the dynamics of alcohol metabolism. Objective: We assessed the effects of botanical foods that contain dietary fibers on alcohol metabolism. Methods: The ability of the water-insoluble fraction (WIF of 18 kinds of botanical foods to maintain 15% (v/v ethanol solution was examined using easily handled filtration. A simple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the correlation between the filtered volumes and blood ethanol concentration (BEC in F344 rats 4 h after the ingestion of 4.0 g/kg of ethanol following dosage of 2.5% (w/v WIF of the experimental botanical foods. Furthermore, the supernatant (6.3 Brix; water-soluble fraction and precipitate (WIF of tomato, with a strong ethanol-maintaining ability, were obtained and BEC and the residual gastric ethanol in rats were determined 2 h after the administration of 4.0 g/kg of ethanol and the individuals fractions. Results: The filtered volumes of dropped ethanol solutions containing all the botanical foods tested except green peas were decreased compared with the ethanol solution without WIF (control. There was a significant correlation between the filtered volumes and blood ethanol concentration (BEC. There was no significant difference in the residual gastric ethanol between controls and the supernatant group; however, it was increased significantly in the WIF group than in controls or the supernatant group. Consistent with this, BEC reached a similar level in controls and the supernatant group but significantly decreased in the WIF group compared with controls or the supernatant group. Conclusions: These findings suggest that WIFs of botanical foods, which are mostly water-insoluble dietary fibers, possess the ability to absorb ethanol-containing solutions, and this ability correlates

  6. The Methods of Committing and Alcohol Intoxication of Suicides in Southwestern Croatia from 1996 to 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Čoklo, Miran; Stemberga, Valter; Cuculić, Dražen; Šoša, Ivan; Jerković, Romana; Bosnar, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is the psychoactive substance most frequently associated with suicidal behavior.We hypothesized that the level of alcohol intoxication and the choice of specific methods of committing suicide are related. Suicides in the Southwestern Croatia in a 10-year period, especially regarding the method of committing and alcohol intoxication, were analyzed. Ten various methods of committing suicide were recorded. The average blood alcohol concentration at the moment of suicide was 0...

  7. Alcohol homograph priming in alcohol-dependent inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Salemink, E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Becker, E.S.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Rinck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Alcohol dependency is characterized by alcohol-related interpretation biases (IBs): Individuals with high levels of alcohol consumption generate more alcohol-related than alcohol-unrelated interpretations in response to ambiguous alcohol-related cues. However, a response bias could be an altern

  8. Comparative assessment of blood and urine analyses in patients with acute poisonings by medical, narcotic substances and alcohol in clinical toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapenko, Yury Nikolaevich; Lisovik, Zhanna Andreevna; Belova, Maria Vladimirovna; Luzhnikov, Evgeny Alekseevich; Livanov, Alexandr Sergeevich

    2005-01-01

    Acute poisonings by medical, narcotic substances and alcohol are actual in Russia in the recent years. Comparison of analytic facilities of modern analytical techniques: chromatographic (HPLC, GC, GC-MS) and immuno-chemical (FPIA) in clinical toxicology for urgent diagnostics, assessment of the severity of acute poisoning and the efficacy of the treatment in patients with acute poisonings by psychotropic drugs, narcotics and alcohol have been done. The object of the study were serum, blood, urine of 611 patients with acute poisonings by amitriptyline, clozapine, carbamazepine, opiates and also alcohol. Threshold concentrations (threshold, critical and lethal) of the toxicants and their active metabolites which corresponded to different degrees of poisoning severity have been determined. The most comfortable and informative screening method for express diagnostics and assessment of severity of acute poisonings by psychotropic drugs and narcotics showed the HPLC with using automatic analyzers. FPIA using the automatic analyzer could be applied for screening studies, if group identification is enough. GC-FID method is advisable in case of poisoning by medical substances and narcotics in view of repeated investigation for assessment of the efficacy of the therapy. GC-MS could be advisable for confirming the results of other methods. GC-TCD possess high sensitivity and specificity and is optimal for express differential diagnostics and quantitative assessment of acute poisoning by ethanol and other alcohols.

  9. Baseline blood Pb levels of black-necked stilts on the upper Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, Thomas V.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.

    2015-01-01

    There are no known biological requirements for lead (Pb), and elevated Pb levels in birds can cause a variety of sub-lethal effects and mortality. Historic and current levels of Pb in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) suggest that environmental sources of Pb remain available on the upper Texas coast. Because of potential risks of Pb exposure among coexisting marsh birds, black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) blood Pb concentrations were measured during the breeding season. Almost 80 % (n = 120) of 152 sampled stilts exceeded the background threshold (>20 μg/dL) for Pb exposure. However, blood Pb concentrations did not vary by age or gender, and toxic or potentially lethal concentrations were rare (blood Pb concentrations of black-necked stilts in this study suggest the presence of readily bioavailable sources of Pb, although potential impacts on local stilt populations remain unclear.

  10. Blood Glutamate Levels in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zheng

    Full Text Available Glutamate plays an important role in brain development, neuronal migration, differentiation, survival and synaptogenesis. Recent studies have explored the relationship between blood glutamate levels and autism spectrum disorder (ASD. However, the findings are inconsistent. We undertook the first systematic review with a meta-analysis of studies examining blood glutamate levels in ASD compared with controls.A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for studies published before March 2016. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled standardized mean difference (SMD of the outcomes. Subgroup analyses were used to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity, and the publication bias was estimated using Egger's tests.Twelve studies involving 880 participants and 446 incident cases were included in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis provided evidence for higher blood glutamate levels in ASD [SMD = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (95% CI = 0.58-1.40; P < 0.001] with high heterogeneity (I2 = 86%, P < 0.001 across studies. The subgroup analyses revealed higher glutamate levels in ASD compared with controls in plasma [SMD = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.58-1.50; P < 0.001] but not true in serum [SMD = 0.79, 95% CI = -0.41-1.99; P = 0.20]. Studies employing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS assays also revealed higher blood glutamate levels in ASD. A sensitivity analysis found that the results were stable, and there was no evidence of publication bias.Blood glutamate levels might be a potential biomarker of ASD.

  11. Saturated fat consumption may not be the main cause of increased blood lipid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, C B; Garg, R; Wood, L G; Garg, M L

    2014-02-01

    Consumption of foods rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) has often been associated with elevated blood lipid levels and consequently with risk for chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease. However, epidemiological and interventional studies on this topic are contradictory. While some studies have established a positive link, other studies have failed to show a significant association between saturated fat consumption and blood lipid levels, and others have even found an inverse association. Moreover, studies using animal models have demonstrated that dietary saturated fats raise blood lipid (cholesterol and triglycerides) levels only when the diet is deficient in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA). The n-3PUFA are known for their potential in the management of hyperlipidaemia for the prevention of coronary heart disease, as well as for their anti-arrhythmic, anti-aggregatory and anti-inflammatory potential. We believe that with an adequate consumption of n-3PUFA dietary saturated fat may not result in elevated blood lipid levels. Therefore, we critically evaluated the literature regarding saturated fat and blood lipid level, with an emphasis on the role of n-3PUFA on this relationship. Evidence from animal studies and few clinical trials lead to the hypothesis that there are beneficial or neutral effects of saturated fatty acids when combined with recommended levels of n-3PUFA in the diet. However, an intervention focusing on the background fat when the volunteers' diet is supplemented with n-3PUFA is yet to be done. Proving the authenticity of this hypothesis would mean a substantial change in public health messages regarding saturated fats and their health effects; and also a change in the strategies related to prevention of chronic cardiac and artery diseases.

  12. Relationship between androgen levels and blood pressure in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Jou; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Yang, Jehn-Hsiahn; Chen, Chi-Ling; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Yang, Yu-Shih

    2007-06-01

    The role of testosterone on the development of hypertension is controversial, especially in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who have higher prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance than women without PCOS. Little is known about the association between serum testosterone level and blood pressure in young women with PCOS. In the 151 young Taiwanese women with PCOS enrolled in this cross-sectional study, we measured the body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, lipid profile, and hormone profiles. The free androgen index, total testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin, but not the level of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, significantly correlated with both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, body mass index, and other anthropometric, metabolic, and hormonal variables, the level of serum free androgen index or total testosterone, but not the sex hormone-binding globulin, were independently related to SBP and DBP. The age- and body mass index-adjusted least-square mean of serum-free androgen index levels were significantly different between the highest quartile and other quartiles of the SBP and DBP levels. The high bioavailable testosterone levels (free androgen index: >or=19%) in women with PCOS increased the risk of elevated blood pressure (SBP >or=130 mm Hg and/or DBP >or=85 mm Hg) with an odds ratio of 3.817 (P=0.029; 95% CI: 1.14 to 12.74) after adjustment for age, anthropometric measures, and metabolic profiles. Our results suggest that the characteristic hyperandrogenemia in young women with PCOS was associated with an elevated SBP and DBP independent of age, insulin resistance, obesity, or dyslipidemia.

  13. Systematic review and meta-analysis of circulating S100B blood levels in schizophrenia.

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    Katina Aleksovska

    Full Text Available S100B is a calcium-binding protein secreted in central nervous system from astrocytes and other glia cells. High blood S100B levels have been linked to brain damage and psychiatric disorders. S100B levels have been reported to be higher in schizophrenics than healthy controls. To quantify the relationship between S100B blood levels and schizophrenia a systematic literature review of case-control studies published on this topic within July 3rd 2014 was carried out using three bibliographic databases: Medline, Scopus and Web of Science. Studies reporting mean and standard deviation of S100B blood levels both in cases and controls were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-Mean Ratio (mMR of S100B blood levels in cases compared to controls was used as a measure of effect along with its 95% Confidence Intervals (CI. 20 studies were included totaling for 994 cases and 785 controls. Schizophrenia patients showed 76% higher S100B blood levels than controls with mMR = 1.76 95% CI: 1.44-2.15. No difference could be found between drug-free patients with mMR = 1.84 95%CI: 1.24-2.74 and patients on antipsychotic medication with mMR = 1.75 95% CI: 1.41-2.16. Similarly, ethnicity and stage of disease didn't affect results. Although S100B could be regarded as a possible biomarker of schizophrenia, limitations should be accounted when interpreting results, especially because of the high heterogeneity that remained >70%, even after carrying out subgroups analyses. These results point out that approaches based on traditional categorical diagnoses may be too restrictive and new approaches based on the characterization of new complex phenotypes should be considered.

  14. Blood optical properties at various glucose level values in THz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, S. I.; Borovkova, M. A.; Strepitov, M. A.; Khodzitsky, M. K.

    2015-07-01

    The number of diabetics is rapidly growing every day in all parts of the world. By the year 2010, the number of patients suffering from diabetes had amounted to more than 230 million people, which is estimated as 3.5% of the whole world adult population [1]. According to expert forecasts, this number is projected to double by the year 2025, which is going to be 7% of whole Earth population. It was calculated that every 10 seconds someone in the world dies due to diabetes and its complications, which is 3 million people per year. The average life expectancy of children with diabetes is less than 28.3 years of onset. Diabetes is considered to be the fourth most common cause of death in industrialized countries. Vascular complications due to diabetes cause early disability and high mortality. Mortality from heart diseases and strokes is 2-3 times more likely for patients suffering from diabetes, whereas blindness, nephropathy and lower limbs gangrene happen respectively 10, 12-15 times, and almost 20 times more often for diabetics than general population. The number and strength of complications depend directly on the blood glucose level control quality. At the moment, the blood glucose level measurements are performed by glucometers [2,3]. This method requires that a patient makes a finger puncture for every measurement. About five punctures per day should be done for proper glucose monitoring, which is about 1,800 punctures per year. Besides, each measurement by glucometer requires a distinct test strip. Expenses for 1,800 test strips could be estimated as about 450 euros per year. It is also necessary to take into account that each puncture has a risk of blood poisoning. Using non-invasive techniques for glucose level control could reduce the amount of possible risky manipulations by 1800 per year. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that only eight of ten fingers are suitable for puncturing, and the constant skin damage which cannot be avoided is quite annoying for

  15. The effect of food with different glycaemic index on the blood glucose level

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    Lenka Kouřimská

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose levels are affected by many factors including the type of foods consumed, processing technology and cooking method. Hormone insulin lowers blood glucose to its constant level, while glucagon, growth hormone, adrenalin and glucocorticoids have the opposite effect. High steepness of the blood glucose level rise after meals may be unfavourable for the organism. Sugars are transferred into the blood at different speeds according to the type of food. Therefore the aim of this study was to confirm experimentally the effect of food on blood glucose levels in men and women of different ages. Two types of low, medium and high-glycaemic index (GI foods were given to 4 men and 4 women of different age (from 35 to 65 years. All volunteers were healthy, slightly overweight, and without any regular sporting activity. None of them had any idea about their daily carbohydrates consumption and what the term glycaemic index meant. The volunteers came to the GI determination fasted in the morning. Their rise in blood glucose level was monitored by glucometer before the meal and after 1 and 2 hours of the consumption of baked potatoes (GI 85, white bread bun (GI 70, boiled potatoes (GI 64, rye bread (GI 62, potato dumplings (GI 52 and white cooked spaghetti (GI 41. Fasting blood sugar levels of volunteers highly depended on their age (p <0.0001 and gender (p <0.0001. The blood glucose values increased with age and were higher in men than in women. Significant influence of food GI on blood glucose levels in both men and women in all the age categories was observed (p <0.0001. An interaction between age and gender was also statistically highly significant (p <0.0001. One hour after consuming food the blood glucose values were significantly different from the values of fasting (p = 0.0035. The differences of these values did not depend on the age (p = 0.0574 and sex (p = 0.8256 of volunteers, but there was a significant difference on the GI value of food

  16. [Relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetes patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkafri, I H; Mashlah, A; Shaqifa, A

    2014-03-13

    This study was evaluated the relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetic patients. The sample comprised 210 participants (age ranged 40-60 years). Based on fasting blood glucose levels the participants were divided into 3 groups: controls with normal blood glucose levels; diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL; and diabetic patients with levels > 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH and buffering capacity were determined in a sample of resting (non-stimulated) saliva taken from each participant. Salivary pH levels in diabetic patients with blood glucose levels > 200 mg/dL were lower than in the controls and diabetic patients with levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary pH levels were comparable in controls and diabetic patients with blood glucose levels ≤ 200 mg/dL. Salivary buffering capacity in the 3 groups was comparable.

  17. Starmerella bombicola influences the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase level during mixed wine fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanovic Vesna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of a multistarter fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts has been proposed to simulate natural must fermentation and to confer greater complexity and specificity to wine. In this context, the combined use of S. cerevisiae and immobilized Starmerella bombicola cells (formerly Candida stellata was assayed to enhance glycerol concentration, reduce ethanol content and to improve the analytical composition of wine. In order to investigate yeast metabolic interaction during controlled mixed fermentation and to evaluate the influence of S. bombicola on S. cerevisiae, the gene expression and enzymatic activity of two key enzymes of the alcoholic fermentation pathway such as pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc1 and alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1 were studied. Results The presence of S. bombicola immobilized cells in a mixed fermentation trial confirmed an increase in fermentation rate, a combined consumption of glucose and fructose, an increase in glycerol and a reduction in the production of ethanol as well as a modification in the fermentation of by products. The alcoholic fermentation of S. cerevisiae was also influenced by S. bombicola immobilized cells. Indeed, Pdc1 activity in mixed fermentation was lower than that exhibited in pure culture while Adh1 activity showed an opposite behavior. The expression of both PDC1 and ADH1 genes was highly induced at the initial phase of fermentation. The expression level of PDC1 at the end of fermentation was much higher in pure culture while ADH1 level was similar in both pure and mixed fermentations. Conclusion In mixed fermentation, S. bombicola immobilized cells greatly affected the fermentation behavior of S. cerevisiae and the analytical composition of wine. The influence of S. bombicola on S. cerevisiae was not limited to a simple additive contribution. Indeed, its presence caused metabolic modifications during S. cerevisiae fermentation

  18. Starmerella bombicola influences the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase level during mixed wine fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of a multistarter fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts has been proposed to simulate natural must fermentation and to confer greater complexity and specificity to wine. In this context, the combined use of S. cerevisiae and immobilized Starmerella bombicola cells (formerly Candida stellata) was assayed to enhance glycerol concentration, reduce ethanol content and to improve the analytical composition of wine. In order to investigate yeast metabolic interaction during controlled mixed fermentation and to evaluate the influence of S. bombicola on S. cerevisiae, the gene expression and enzymatic activity of two key enzymes of the alcoholic fermentation pathway such as pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc1) and alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1) were studied. Results The presence of S. bombicola immobilized cells in a mixed fermentation trial confirmed an increase in fermentation rate, a combined consumption of glucose and fructose, an increase in glycerol and a reduction in the production of ethanol as well as a modification in the fermentation of by products. The alcoholic fermentation of S. cerevisiae was also influenced by S. bombicola immobilized cells. Indeed, Pdc1 activity in mixed fermentation was lower than that exhibited in pure culture while Adh1 activity showed an opposite behavior. The expression of both PDC1 and ADH1 genes was highly induced at the initial phase of fermentation. The expression level of PDC1 at the end of fermentation was much higher in pure culture while ADH1 level was similar in both pure and mixed fermentations. Conclusion In mixed fermentation, S. bombicola immobilized cells greatly affected the fermentation behavior of S. cerevisiae and the analytical composition of wine. The influence of S. bombicola on S. cerevisiae was not limited to a simple additive contribution. Indeed, its presence caused metabolic modifications during S. cerevisiae fermentation causing variation in the gene

  19. A report of high triglyceride level in cord blood of Iranian newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Naghi Kazemi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The mean and 95 th percentiles of triglyceride levels in cord blood of our newborn infants were higher than other reports. We recommend that larger studies should be conducted in this area to establish preventive ways for increasing epidemic of the metabolic syndrome.

  20. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  1. [Blood plasma level of endothelin in miners of a deep coal mine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, V Ia; Rebrov, B A; Nikitina, I V

    2000-09-01

    In 60 miners working in a deep coal mine the blood plasma level of endoteline-1 (E-1) was measured by the immunoenzyme technique immediately after working shift. Those in the mining where the working conditions are especially harsh were found to have the highest level of E-1 exceeding the control values. In studying the age-related content of E-1 in blood plasma of coal miners the highest levels of E-1 were recordable in workers 20 to 30 years old, declining and differing in age groups 20-30 and 41-50 years old. The level of E-1 was at its greatest in those workers with minimum length of service in the underground conditions, declining with the service more than 10 years in duration.

  2. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Moya-Alvarez

    Full Text Available Elevated blood lead levels (BLL and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far.Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed.At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83, and 128 infants (63% had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%. Twenty-five infants (12.5% had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobin<110 g/L. Elevated blood lead levels were significantly associated with reduced risk of a positive blood smear (AOR = 0.38, P-value = 0.048 and P. falciparum parasite density (beta-estimate = -1.42, P-value = 0.03 in logistic and negative binomial regression multivariate models, respectively, adjusted on clinical and environmental indicators.Our study shows for the first time that BLL are negatively associated with malarial risk considering other risk factors. Malaria is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in infants under 5 years worldwide, and lead poisoning is the 6th most important contributor to the global burden of diseases measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs according to the Institute of Health Metrics. In conclusion, due

  3. Effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. [Subjects] Fifteen patients (8 males and 7 females) with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned to the control group or passive static stretching group. [Methods] Glycated hemoglobin was measured before and after the 8-week training period. [Results] Glycated hemoglobin levels decreased significantly in the passive static stretching group, and there ...

  4. Data on copper level in the blood of patients with normal and abnormal angiography

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    Leila Amiri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, we measured the levels of copper in the blood of patients undergoing coronary angiography. The samples were taken from patients with cardiovascular disease in Bushehr׳s university hospital, Iran. Patients were divided in two groups: normal angiography and abnormal angiography. After the chemical digestion of samples, the concentration levels of Cu in both groups were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry (ICP-OES.

  5. Data on copper level in the blood of patients with normal and abnormal angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Leila; Movahed, Ali; Iranpour, Dariush; Ostovar, Afshin; Raeisi, Alireza; Keshtkar, Mozhgan; Hajian, Najmeh; Dobaradaran, Sina

    2016-12-01

    In this data article, we measured the levels of copper in the blood of patients undergoing coronary angiography. The samples were taken from patients with cardiovascular disease in Bushehr׳s university hospital, Iran. Patients were divided in two groups: normal angiography and abnormal angiography. After the chemical digestion of samples, the concentration levels of Cu in both groups were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry (ICP-OES).

  6. Reduced sensitivity of red blood cell (Na+,K+)-ATPase to ethanol in vitro in male alcoholic patients: relationship to clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, A C; Reilly, E; Overall, J E

    1986-10-01

    We examined red blood cell (Na+,K+)-ATPase, its sensitivity to inhibition by ethanol in vitro, and its relationship to clinical characteristics and history in 41 newly admitted alcoholic patients and 14 age-matched healthy controls. Sensitivity to ethanol was significantly lower in the alcoholic patients and correlated negatively with ethanol intake. In addition, sensitivity of enzyme to ethanol was lower in patients with high agitation-anxiety ratings and correlated negatively with agitation and anxiety scores on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. There were no relationships between (Na+,K+)-ATPase measures and depressive symptoms, history of treatment for depression, or family history of depression. These data suggest that tolerance to the effects of ethanol on (Na+,K+)-ATPase occurs in man and may be related to the severity of ethanol dependence or withdrawal.

  7. Level changes of serum indicators in long-term alcohol users before and after alcohol withdrawal%长期饮酒者戒酒前后血清指标检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小琼; 邹晓静; 郝燕燕

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨长期问题饮酒患者戒酒前后血清生化指标变化趋势.方法 对53例长期饮酒并成功戒酒的患者戒酒前和戒酒3、6、12周时血清铁蛋白(FER)、糖缺失转铁蛋白(CDT)、转铁蛋白(Tf)、γ-谷氨酰转肽酶(GGT)、丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)和天冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)水平,并计算CDT在Tf中所占百分比(CDT%).对结果 进行统计学分析.结果 随着患者戒酒时间的延长,血清CDT、CDT%、GGT水平下降(P<0.05).与戒酒前相比,戒酒6周和戒酒12周血清FER水平降低(P<0.05).结论 长期饮酒者血清GGT、CDT、CDT%、FER水平随戒酒时间延长降低,但FER水平下降速度缓慢,GGT水平易受其他因素影响.因此,血清CDT及CDT%水平可以用于问题饮酒患者戒酒情况的长期监控.%Objective To explore the level changes of serum biochemical indicators in long-term alcohol users before and after alcohol withdrawal. Methods Serum levels of ferritin(FER) ,carbohydrate-deficient transferrin(CDT) , transferrin(Tf) ,y-glutamyl transpeptidase(GGT) ,alanine aminotransferase(ALT)and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) were detected in 53 cases of long-term alcohol users before and 3,6 and 12 weeks after alcohol withdrawal. The CDT% level was calculated. And all results were statistically analyzed. Results Serum levels of CDT,CDT% and GGT gradually decreased with the prolonging of alcohol withdrawal(P< 0. 05). Compared with before alcohol withdrawal,serum level of FER decreased 6 weeks after alcohol withdrawal(P<0. 05). Conclusion Serum levels of CDT,CDT% ,GGT and FER could be gradually decreased with the prolonging of alcohol withdrawal, but the rate of decay of FER might be slow and serum level of GGT might be influenced by other factors. Therefore, serum levels of CDT and CDT% could be used for long-term monitoring of alcohol withdrawal in alcohol users.

  8. Increased chromosome fragility as a consequence of blood folate levels, smoking status, and coffee consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, A.T.L.; Reidy, J.A.; Annest, J.L.; Welty, T.K.; Zhou, H. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Chromosome fragility in 96 h, low-folate cultures was found to be associated with smoking status, coffee consumption, and blood folate level. The higher proportion of cells with chromosome aberrations in cigarette smokers was attributable to lower red cell folate levels in smokers compared with nonsmokers. There was a positive linear relationship between the average cups of coffee consumed per day and the proportion of cells with aberrations. This association was independent of the effects of smoking and red cell folate level. These data suggest that smoking history, coffee consumption, and red cell folate level are important considerations for the design and interpretation of fragile site studies in cancer cytogenetics.

  9. Lithium modulates the chronic stress-induced effect on blood glucose level of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Nataša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined gross changes in the mass of whole adrenal glands and that of the adrenal cortex, as well as the serum corticosterone and glucose level of mature male Wistar rats subjected to three different treatments: animals subjected to chronic restraint-stress, animals injected with lithium (Li and chronically stressed rats treated with Li. Under all three conditions we observed hypertrophy of whole adrenals, as well as the adrenal cortices. Chronic restraint stress, solely or in combination with Li treatment, significantly elevated the corticosterone level, but did not change the blood glucose level. Animals treated only with Li exhibited an elevated serum corticosterone level and blood glucose level. The aim of our study was to investigate the modulation of the chronic stress-induced effect on the blood glucose level by lithium, as a possible mechanism of avoiding the damage caused by chronic stress. Our results showed that lithium is an agent of choice which may help to reduce stress-elevated corticosterone and replenish exhausted glucose storages in an organism.

  10. The effects of Curcuma zedoaria oil on high blood sugar level and gingivitis

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    Juni Handajani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperglycemia is a condition when blood sugar level is higher than normal. Hyperglycemia is also one of diabetes mellitus (DM symptoms. Hyperglycemia has a correlation with the occurrence of periodontal disease. Curcuma zedoaria oil is known to decrease concentration of serum glucose. Purpose: This study was aimed to determine the effects of Curcuma zedoaria oil on high blood sugar level and gingivitis in rats. Method: This study used twenty-five male Wistar rats, divided into two groups, namely the treatment group and the control group. In the treatment group, fifteen rats were divided into three subgroups (each of which was induced with 10 μl/ml, 30 μl/ml and 50 μl/ml of Curcuma zedoaria oil. The control group was consisted often rats, divided into two subgroups, as the positive control group (induced with 10 mg/kg of Glibenclamide and the negative control group (induced with propylene glycol. Streptozotocin (STZ (Naclai tesque, Kyoto Japan with a dose of 40 mg/kg was used to create hyperglycemia condition in those rats. Gingivitis was then made by using silk ligature in those hyperglycemia rats. Silk ligature was twisted at the margin of gingiva anterior mandibular incisors for seven days. After the rats had gingivitis, Curcuma zedoaria oil, glibenclamide and propylene glycol were orally administered for seven days. Their gingivitis condition was observed, and their blood sugar level was measured before and after the induction of STZ and during the treatment. The data obtained were analyzed by using Manova. Result: There were significant differences of blood sugar levels between the treatment group before and after the administration of Curcuma zedoaria oil and the positive control group (p<0.05. Healthy gingiva was then found in the treatment group and the positive control group. Conclusion: Curcuma zedoaria oil can decrease blood sugar level and gingivitis.

  11. Efficient Quantitative Analysis of Carboxyalkylpyrrole Ethanolamine Phospholipids: Elevated Levels in Sickle Cell Disease Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junhong; Wang, Hua; Hrinczenko, Borys; Salomon, Robert G

    2016-07-18

    γ-Hydroxy-α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, generated by oxidative damage of polyunsaturated phospholipids, form pyrrole derivatives that incorporate the ethanolamine phospholipid (EP) amino group such as 2-pentylpyrrole (PP)-EP and 2-(ω-carboxyalkyl)pyrrole (CAP)-EP derivatives: 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP)-EP, 2-(ω-carboxypropyl)pyrrole (CPP)-EP, and 2-(ω-carboxyheptyl)pyrrole (CHP)-EP. Because EPs occur in vivo in various forms, a complex mixture of pyrrole-modified EPs with different molecular weights is expected to be generated. To provide a sensitive index of oxidative stress, all of the differences in mass related to the glycerophospholipid moieties were removed by releasing a single CAP-ethanolamine (ETN) or PP-ETN from each mixture by treatment with phospholipase D. Accurate quantization was achieved using the corresponding ethanolamine-d4 pyrroles as internal standards. The product mixture obtained by phospholipolysis of total blood phospholipids from sickle cell disease (SCD) patients was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The method was applied to measure CAP-EP and PP-EP levels in blood plasma from clinical monitoring of SCD patients. We found uniformly elevated blood levels of CEP-EP (63.9 ± 9.7 nM) similar to mean levels in blood from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients (56.3 ± 37.1 nM), and 2-fold lower levels (27.6 ± 3.6 nM, n = 5) were detected in plasma from SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis, although mean levels remain higher than those (12.1 ± 10.5 nM) detected in blood from healthy controls. Plasma levels of CPP-EPs from SCD clinic patients were 4-fold higher than those of SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis (45.1 ± 10.9 nM, n = 5 versus 10.9 ± 3.4 nM, n = 6; p < 0.002). PP-EP concentration in plasma from SCD clinic patients is nearly 4.8-fold higher than its level in plasma samples from SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis (7.06 ± 4.05 vs 1.48 ± 0.92 nM; p < 0.05). Because

  12. The Association between the Lipids Levels in Blood and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

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    Yafeng Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipid metabolism may be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. However, conflicting results have been reported in the associations of AMD with blood lipids. We performed a meta-analysis including a total of 19 studies to evaluate associations between blood lipids and this disease. The result reported that the high level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C obtained with an increment of 1 mmol/L could result in a significantly increase in the AMD risk of approximately 18% (relative risk (RR, 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.01 to 1.35; I2 = 53.8%; p = 0.007. High levels of total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG were significantly associated with a decreased risk of AMD (RRs ranging from 0.92 to 0.95; all p < 0.05. The stratified analysis based on AMD subtypes showed that these blood lipids were only significantly associated with the risk of early AMD (all p < 0.05. The association between the blood lipids and AMD risk did not differ substantially based on the other characteristics of the participants. A high HDL-C level was associated with an increased AMD risk, whereas participants with high TC, LDL-C, and TG concentrations may show a decreased risk for this disease. Further well-designed large studies are warranted to confirm the conclusions.

  13. Comparative study of different control techniques for the regulation of blood glucose level in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbini, Mohammed S

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose regulation is of a great concern for insulin-dependant patients with excessive glucose in blood (hyperglycaemia), or low glucose profile (hypoglycaemia) due to excess insulin delivery. Both conditions can cause dangerous complications for diabetic patients, and hence glucose regulation in blood is of prime importance. Insulin pumps are used to deliver insulin in small quantities, allowing the glucose level to remain as close as possible to that of non-diabetics (near 100 mg dl(-1)). Different control techniques are used to maintain the glucose level and most of them depend on an exact mathematical or empirical model of insulin-glucose interaction. Recently, we have proposed different controllers that are based on fuzzy logic and so do not use mathematical modelling, which in general is nonlinear, complex and suffers from uncertainties. PI fuzzy controllers are physically related to classical PI and PID controllers, which are extremely popular. The parameter settings of classical and fuzzy logic controllers are based on deep common physical background. In this manuscript, a comparative study is proposed to evaluate the use of fuzzy logic controllers over other conventional controllers such as PI and PID controllers to maintain the blood glucose level within a normoglycaemic average especially when a diabetic patient is subjected to different conditions.

  14. Examination of blood clobazam levels and several pupillary measures in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzan, J A; Needham, T E; Honigberg, I L; Vallner, J J; Stewart, J T; Brown, W J; Jun, H W

    1979-08-01

    The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was administered to 15 subjects before initiation of the experiment. Three subgroups of five subjects were defined by computing the unweighted sum of the state and trait anxiety scores. A 40-mg dose of clobazam, a 1.5-benzodiazepine, was administered to each subject and repeated with two additional dosage forms following a 2-week washout period. Blood samples were withdrawn, and blood levels were determined by fluorometric analysis. Additionally, pupillary measures of critical flicker fusion, constriction, and dilation in response to a cognitive task were obtained at 0, 2, 4, and 6 hr. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that blood levels were, as expected, statistically different over time and dosage form. The pupillary constriction mirrored the blood levels in statistical patterns. The pupillary measure of cognition related to the anxiety state after the performance effects of the cognitive task were statistically removed. The results suggest that clobazam has less immediate human effect than does diazepam.

  15. Analysis of ochratoxin A blood levels in bladder cancer cases and healthy persons from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad; Rivzi, S Abidul Hassan; Beg, Anwer Ejaz; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Golka, Klaus; Degen, Gisela H

    2012-01-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA), a well-known human nephrotoxic and carcinogenic agent, is a public health concern in many countries. Exposure is assessed by means of mycotoxin analysis in food commodities and by human biomonitoring of OTA in blood samples. Data available from several European countries and some studies in Africa, Asia, and the Americas indicate frequent detection of OTA. Thus far, data from developing countries that compare blood levels in healthy and diseased individuals are scarce. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to determine OTA levels in blood samples of bladder cancer patients (n = 96) and healthy controls (n = 31) from Pakistan. OTA in blood plasma was analyzed after extraction by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Among samples of 87 cancer patients and 30 controls, 92% in total contained quantifiable amounts of OTA. In bladder cancer cases the median OTA concentration was 0.19 ng/ml (mean 0.296; range: 0.03 to 3.41 ng/ml), and in healthy controls the median OTA was 0.19 ng/ml (mean 0.3; range: 0.04 to 1.24 ng/ml). The OTA levels found in the Pakistanian cohorts were comparable to those reported previously for the general population in the European Union. In conclusion, OTA is not likely to play a major role in the etiology of bladder cancer in the Karachi cohort, at least as the sole risk factor.

  16. Blood lipid levels associate with childhood asthma, airway obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and aeroallergen sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Rebecca K; Stokholm, Jakob; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of children's blood lipid profiles in relation to asthma are few, and the results are ambiguous. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine whether the lipid profile is associated with concurrent asthma, altered lung function, and allergic sensitization in children. METHODS: High...... with assessments of lung function, bronchial responsiveness, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (Feno), and allergic sensitization. Associations between lipid levels and clinical outcomes were adjusted for sex, passive smoking, and body mass index. RESULTS: High levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were...... of increased Feno levels (aβ coefficient, 0.14 log-ppb; 95% CI, -0.02 to 0.30 log-ppb; P = .08). CONCLUSION: The blood lipid profile is associated with asthma, airway obstruction, bronchial responsiveness, and aeroallergen sensitization in 7-year-old children. These findings suggest that asthma and allergy...

  17. Children's blood lead levels in the lead smelting town of Port Pirie, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D; Esterman, A; Lewis, M; Roder, D; Calder, I

    1986-01-01

    This survey included 1,239 children, representing 50% of the elementary school population of the lead smelting town of Port Pirie. Of these children, 7% had a capillary blood lead level equal to or greater than 30 micrograms/dl, which is the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council's "level of concern." There was a statistically significant difference in capillary lead levels by area of residence that was independent of age, sex, soil lead, rainwater tank lead, and school attended. A case-control study indicated that the following subset of factors was most predictive of an elevated blood lead level: household members who worked with lead in their occupations; living in a house with flaking paint on the outside walls; biting finger nails; eating lunch at home on school days; when at school, appearing to have relatively dirty clothing; when at school, appearing to have relatively dirty hands; and living on a household block with a large area of exposed dirt. A program to reduce the risk of elevated blood lead levels in Port Pirie children has been introduced.

  18. Meta-analysis of peripheral blood apolipoprotein E levels in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peripheral blood Apolipoprotein E (ApoE levels have been proposed as biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD, but previous studies on levels of ApoE in blood remain inconsistent. This meta-analysis was designed to re-examine the potential role of peripheral ApoE in AD diagnosis and its potential value as a candidate biomarker. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, and BIOSIS previews for case-control studies measuring ApoE levels in serum or plasma from AD subjects and healthy controls. The pooled weighted mean difference (WMD and 95% confidence interval (CI were used to estimate the association between ApoE levels and AD risk. RESULTS: Eight studies with a total of 2250 controls and 1498 AD cases were identified and analyzed. The pooled WMD from a random-effect model of AD participants compared with the healthy controls was -5.59 mg/l (95% CI: [-8.12, -3.06]. The overall pattern in WMD was not varied by characteristics of study, including age, country, assay method, publication year, and sample type. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis supports a lowered level of blood ApoE in AD patients, and indicates its potential value as an important risk factor for AD. Further investigation employing standardized assay for ApoE measurement are still warranted to uncover the precise role of ApoE in the pathophysiology of AD.

  19. [Blood lead levels during pregnancy in th the newborn period. Study of the population of Bari].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, R; Laforgia, N; Crollo, E; Mautone, A; Iolascon, A

    1998-01-01

    Blood lead levels during pregnancy and in neonates immediately after birth have been evaluated, showing higher values in mothers compared to neonates (5.81 +/- 3.05 vs 4.87 +/- 3.60 micrograms/100 ml) and a positive correlation between maternal and neonatal levels (r = 0.82). On the basis of the results derived from the population examined, it has been observed that 6% of newborns have blood lead levels higher than 10 micrograms/100 ml a value recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC, Atlanta, USA) as a limit for toxicity in children. Moreover, neonatal Pb levels were higher than those found in infants from 6 to 12 months (4.87 +/- 3.60 vs 2.24 +/- 0.54 micrograms/100 ml). During the first week of life there is a steady decrease of blood lead levels, together with increasing renal lead excretion. This study was carried out at the "Dipartimento di Biomedicina dell'Età Evolutiva" University of Bari, southern Italy.

  20. The relationship between levels of PCBs and pesticides in human hair and blood: preliminary result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshul, Larisa; Covaci, Adrian; Hauser, Russ

    2004-08-01

    Human hair as a biologic measure of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has some advantages over the more commonly used blood and adipose tissue samples. However, one of the primary limitations is the difficulty in distinguishing between exogenous and endogenous contamination. In addition, there are currently no standardized methods for hair sample collection, washing, and chemical analysis. There is also very limited information describing the correlation between levels of organic contaminants in hair and other body compartments. To explore levels of POPs in blood and hair, samples from 10 volunteers were collected and analyzed for select organochlorine pesticides and 57 individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. We demonstrated that the method for analyzing organic contaminants in human hair was reliable and reproducible. Washing hair with shampoo decreased levels of PCBs, pesticides, and lipids by 25-33% on average and up to 62% for low-chlorinated congeners. The percentage of lipids and the levels of organochlorines in hair were higher than in serum. We found strong correlation (r = 0.8) between p,p -DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) levels in hair and blood and moderate correlations for the more persistent PCB congeners, but no correlations or weak correlations for other organochlorines. The present study provides preliminary evidence on the utility of hair analysis for POPs; however, further larger studies are recommended before hair analysis can be successfully applied in epidemiologic studies on POPs.

  1. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets......, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver funtion were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended...... to increase (P = 0.07) with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters....

  2. Determination of GHB levels in breast milk and correlation with blood concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Mannocchi, Giulio; Tittarelli, Roberta; Pantano, Flaminia; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Marinelli, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    The sodium salt of GHB or sodium oxybate is approved and registered in some countries as a therapeutic substance (Xyrem(®)) for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy. This study was designed to measure the GHB endogenous levels in blood and breast milk of 20 breastfeeding women. In addition, blood and breast milk samples of a 32-year-old narcoleptic nursing mother, who was on sodium oxybate treatment, were simultaneously collected at 0.5, 1, 3, 4 and 5h following a 4.5g GHB dose and analyzed, in order to establish the safety interval of time to breastfeed. A GC-MS method for the detection and quantification of GHB in blood and breast milk was developed and fully validated. The geometric mean of endogenous GHB levels in blood and breast milk detected at time 0 were 0.57mg/L; 95% Reference Interval (RI): 0.21-1.52mg/L and 0.36mg/L; 95% RI: 0.13-1.03mg/L, respectively. The geometric mean of the concentration of GHB in milk was 37% less (95% RI: from 14 to 53%) compared to that found in the blood. The analysis of blood and breast milk samples collected from the 32 years-old female showed the following results: GHB blood concentration 0.5h after medication intake was 80.10mg/L, reaching the peak 1h after the drug administration (108.34mg/L) and it steadily decreased to reach a level of 1.75mg/L, 5h after the medication intake. The GHB concentration found in breast milk followed the same pattern as for the blood, with the highest concentration being 23.19mg/L, 1h after sodium oxybate administration and the lowest 0.99mg/L, 5h after the medication's intake. The comparison between blood and breast milk GHB levels in the 32-year-old woman, showed significant lower GHB levels in milk at 0.5, 1 and 3h, ranging from 71 to 80% less. It is interesting to note that only at 4 and 5h the difference between blood and breast milk GHB levels fell within the 95% RI (14-53%) of endogenous levels. Taking into consideration the absence of reference values for endogenous GHB in

  3. Increased Blood Lactate Level Deteriorates Running Economy in World Class Endurance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Jan; Støren, Øyvind; Finstad, Arnstein; Wang, Eivind; Helgerud, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Blood lactate accumulation is associated with development of muscle fatigue and negatively correlated to endurance performance. No research has quantified the effects of lactate presence at moderate levels of lactate accumulation. The purpose of this study was to test whether 2 moderate blood lactate concentration levels affect running economy (RE) when running at the individual lactate threshold (LT). Seven male world class endurance athletes with an average V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 80.7 ± 2.7 ml·kg·min or 5.8 ± 0.5 L·min participated in this study. After the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max test, the subjects were resting or walking and in a random order tested for RE at their LT velocity when the blood lactate level reached either 3 mmol·L or 5 mmol·L. After a new 5-minute exercising period at maximal aerobic velocity, the crossover lactate value RE testing was performed. Running economy was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) deteriorated from 0.668 ± 0.044 to 0.705 ± 0.056 ml·kg·m or 5.5% (p ≤ 0.05) for blood lactate level of 3 mmol·L compared with 5 mmol·L, respectively. Increased lactate level from 3 to 5 mmol·L is thus accompanied by deteriorated RE at LT running velocity. The deteriorated RE at moderate levels of lactate concentration emphasizes the importance of avoiding intensities above LT in the early parts of a dominantly aerobic endurance competition. It also emphasizes the importance of a high V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for aerobic endurance athletes and may partly explain the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component as impaired RE.

  4. Role of γ-glutamyl transferase levels in prediction of high cardiovascular risk among patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benan Kasapoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is an important cause of elevated liver functions. There is evidence showing an association between NAFLD and subclinical atherosclerosis independent of traditional risk factors. We undertook this retrospective study to determine the association of Framingham cardiovascular risk scoring system with liver function tests and inflammatory markers and to find the role of liver function tests in determination of CVD risk among non-obese and non-diabetic subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Methods: A total of 2058 patients were included in the study. Framingham cardiovascular risk scoring was done of all patients according to the age, gender, systolic blood pressure, serum total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels, smoking and antihypertensive medication history. Liver function test, lipid profile, insulin, uric acid, ferritin levels, etc. were determined. Results: According to the ultrasonography findings, patients were grouped as without any fatty infiltration of the liver (control group (n=982, mild (n= 473, moderate (n=363 and severe fatty liver disease (n= 240 groups. In severe fatty liver disease group, the mean Framingham cardiovascular risk score was significantly higher than that of other groups. t0 here was a positive correlation between GGT, uric acid and ferritin levels with Framingham cardiovascular score. In multivariate analysis, high GGT levels were positively associated with high-risk disease presence (OR: 3.02, 95% CI: 2.62-3.42 compared to low GGT levels independent of the age and sex. Interpretation & conclusions: Cardiovascular disease risk increases with the presence and stage of fatty liver disease. Our findings showed a positive correlation between elevated GGT levels and Framingham cardiovascular risk scoring system among non-diabetic, non-obese adults which could be important in clinical practice. Though in normal limits, elevated GGT levels

  5. High Blood caffeine levels in MCI linked to lack of progression to dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chuanhai; Loewenstein, David A; Lin, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Li; Duara, Ranjan; Wu, Yougui; Giannini, Alessandra; Bai, Ge; Cai, Jianfeng; Greig, Maria; Schofield, Elizabeth; Ashok, Raj; Small, Brent; Potter, Huntington; Arendash, Gary W

    2012-01-01

    Although both human epidemiologic and animal model studies have suggested that caffeine/coffee protects against Alzheimer's disease, direct human evidence for this premise has been lacking. In the present case-control study, two separate cohorts consisting of 124 total individuals (65-88 years old) were cognitively assessed and a blood sample taken for caffeine/biomarker analysis. Subjects were then monitored for cognitive status over the ensuing 2-4 year period to determine the extent to which initial plasma caffeine/biomarkers levels would be predictive of changes in cognitive status. Plasma caffeine levels at study onset were substantially lower (-51%) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects who later progressed to dementia (MCI→DEM) compared to levels in stable MCI subjects (MCI→MCI). Moreover, none of the MCI→DEM subjects had initial blood caffeine levels that were above a critical level of 1200 ng/ml, while half of stable MCI→MCI subjects had blood caffeine levels higher than that critical level. Thus, plasma caffeine levels greater than 1200 ng/ml (≈6 μM) in MCI subjects were associated with no conversion to dementia during the ensuing 2-4 year follow-up period. Among the 11 cytokines measured in plasma, three of them (GCSF, IL-10, and IL-6) were decreased in MCI→DEM subjects, but not in stable MCI→MCI subjects with high plasma caffeine levels. Coffee would appear to be the major or perhaps only source of caffeine for such stable MCI patients. This case-control study provides the first direct evidence that caffeine/coffee intake is associated with a reduced risk of dementia or delayed onset, particularly for those who already have MCI.

  6. [Use of urine lead level as an exposure indicator and its relationship to blood lead].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Maria de Fátima Ramos; Neves, Eduardo Borba

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this work was to verify whether there are statistically significant correlation between the concentrations of lead in blood (Pb-B) and urine (Pb-U). Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was used in the determination of lead concentration in biological material. Venous blood and spot urine were collected from workers occupationally exposed (95), adults (130) and children up to 15 years old (22) environmentally exposed. After a test showing significant differences between Pb-U and the three categories previously determined, cutting points for Pb-U were established to predict Pb-B values by the ROC curve. Thus, it is expected that Pb-B is lower than 10 microg.dL-(1) with Pb-U up to 0.55 microg.dL-(1), whereas lead levels in blood below 27.6 microg.dL-(1) are expected when the amount of the metal in urine is lower than 2.05 microg.dL-(1). So, urine can be used to replace blood for the assessment of the occupational exposure to lead. However, caution is advised in the case of environmental exposure, since urinary lead should be used just as an estimation of the metal content in blood.

  7. The relation between serum vitamin D levels and blood pressure: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ardeshir Larijani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has been proposed as an associating factor with increased blood pressure. We studied the relationship between serum vitamin D and blood pressure in a large representative sample of Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, based on the data of 2508 adults (aged between 20 and 70 years from the Iran Multicenter Osteoporosis Study (IMOS, the association between serum vitamin D and blood pressure was investigated. There was a significant difference between mean (±SD vitamin D levels of the individuals with stage I hypertension and that of the three other groups (Normal: 32.9 (±27.5; Prehypertension: 34.4 (±27.2; Stage-I: 38.7 (±29.2; Stage-II: 34.7 (±24.0 ng/ml; P<0.05. In multivariate regression models, the weak positive association of vitamin D and systolic blood pressure values disappeared after age and Body Mass Index (BMI adjustment. We found a statistically positive but weak association between vitamin D serum concentration and systolic blood pressure. Considering the difference noted between our results and previous studies, further research is needed to assess the potential effect of ethnicity and genetic factors on these findings.

  8. The relation between serum vitamin D levels and blood pressure: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardeshir Larijani, Fatemeh; Kalantar Motamedi, Seyed Mohammad; Keshtkar, Abbas Ali; Khashayar, Patricia; Koleini, Zahra; Rahim, Fakher; Larijani, Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been proposed as an associating factor with increased blood pressure. We studied the relationship between serum vitamin D and blood pressure in a large representative sample of Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, based on the data of 2508 adults (aged between 20 and 70 years) from the Iran Multicenter Osteoporosis Study (IMOS), the association between serum vitamin D and blood pressure was investigated. There was a significant difference between mean (±SD) vitamin D levels of the individuals with stage I hypertension and that of the three other groups (Normal: 32.9 (±27.5); Prehypertension: 34.4 (±27.2); Stage-I: 38.7 (±29.2); Stage-II: 34.7 (±24.0) ng/ml; P<0.05. In multivariate regression models, the weak positive association of vitamin D and systolic blood pressure values disappeared after age and Body Mass Index (BMI) adjustment. We found a statistically positive but weak association between vitamin D serum concentration and systolic blood pressure. Considering the difference noted between our results and previous studies, further research is needed to assess the potential effect of ethnicity and genetic factors on these findings.

  9. Observations of Interrank Conflicts at the Company Level: Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    N L (N N Marihuana 40.3 (683) 26.7 (452) 30.0 (508) 3.0 (51) 100.0 (1694) Hashish 26.9 (455) 27.9 (473) 42.0 (712) 3.2 (54) i00.0 (1694) Cocaine 5.6...7) (5) free time Legalize soft drugs, allow 0 0 5 9 8 10 alcohol in the barracks (0) (0) (1) (2) (3) (4) Don’t open clubs until 0 0 5 0 0 2 Beatter

  10. Breath and Urine Alcohol Level Analysis to Increase Student Awareness of Road Safety.

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Kim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project was to increase student’s awareness of road safety and the relationship between alcohol and driving. This was carried out in conjunction with the Garda Road Safety Unit and the DIT interdisciplinary project known as CARS, College Awareness of Road Safety. This project was carried out last year by another student therefore the aim this year was to build and expand on the work that had been done so far. Increasing the student’s awareness was achieved by speaking to class...

  11. Effects of aging on cerebral blood flow, oxygen metabolism, and blood oxygenation level dependent responses to visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ances, Beau M; Liang, Christine L; Leontiev, Oleg; Perthen, Joanna E; Fleisher, Adam S; Lansing, Amy E; Buxton, Richard B

    2009-04-01

    Calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a noninvasive technique to assess functional metabolic changes associated with normal aging. We simultaneously measured both the magnitude of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses in the visual cortex for separate conditions of mild hypercapnia (5% CO(2)) and a simple checkerboard stimulus in healthy younger (n = 10, mean: 28-years-old) and older (n = 10, mean: 53-years-old) adults. From these data we derived baseline CBF, the BOLD scaling parameter M, the fractional change in the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) with activation, and the coupling ratio n of the fractional changes in CBF and CMRO(2). For the functional activation paradigm, the magnitude of the BOLD response was significantly lower for the older group (0.57 +/- 0.07%) compared to the younger group (0.95 +/- 0.14%), despite the finding that the fractional CBF and CMRO(2) changes were similar for both groups. The weaker BOLD response for the older group was due to a reduction in the parameter M, which was significantly lower for older (4.6 +/- 0.4%) than younger subjects (6.5 +/- 0.8%), most likely reflecting a reduction in baseline CBF for older (41.7 +/- 4.8 mL/100 mL/min) compared to younger (59.6 +/- 9.1 mL/100 mL/min) subjects. In addition to these primary responses, for both groups the BOLD response exhibited a post-stimulus undershoot with no significant difference in this magnitude. However, the post-undershoot period of the CBF response was significantly greater for older compared to younger subjects. We conclude that when comparing two populations, the BOLD response can provide misleading reflections of underlying physiological changes. A calibrated approach provides a more quantitative reflection of underlying metabolic changes than the BOLD response alone.

  12. Circulating sCD36 levels in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll, S; Poulsen, M K; Ornstrup, M J;

    2016-01-01

    . An unhealthy and unbalanced CD36 expression in adipose and hepatic tissue may shift the fatty acid load to the liver.Clinical Trials.gov (NCT01464801, NCT01412645, NCT01446276).International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 05 December 2016. doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.223.......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: CD36 is implicated in fatty acid uptake in multiple tissues, including hepatocytes and adipocytes. Circulating CD36 (sCD36) is increased in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).We explored this association further by investigating correlations between sCD36 levels...

  13. Circulating sCD36 levels in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll, Sara; Poulsen, Marianne Kjær; Ørnstrup, Marie Juul

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: CD36 is implicated in fatty acid uptake in multiple tissues, including hepatocytes and adipocytes. Circulating CD36 (sCD36) is increased in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).We explored this association further by investigating correlations between sCD36 levels....... An unhealthy and unbalanced CD36 expression in adipose and hepatic tissue may shift the fatty acid load to the liver.Clinical Trials.gov (NCT01464801, NCT01412645, NCT01446276).International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 05 December 2016. doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.223....

  14. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauson Anne-Helene

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets. The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver function were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended to increase (P = 0.07 with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters.

  15. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma, for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma and, 3. Separation by SPE with manual pressured, 4. Elution to SPE followed by the measurement on a spectrophotometer in the ultra violet region. The critical value of  │t │at the 5% confidence level indicates that there is no systematic error in the linearity proposed method. Recoveries for this research were obtained at ranging 93.460 to 95.598%. The coefficient variation precision of this procedure was clearly good at smallest than 2%. The analytical procedure can be carried out in one working operation as a monitored therapeutic activity.

  16. The relationship between serum lipid levels, high blood pressure and obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Kurtuncu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine serum lipid, cholesterol and obesity levels in healthy children, and then to explore the relationships between these factors. Methods: The sample group consisted of 103 students at Gelik Elementary School in Zonguldak, Turkey who was willing to participate in the study, had not been medically diagnosed with a chronic ailment, and were not taking regular medications. Results: When the students' mean BMI (Body Mass Index measurements were considered, it was found that mean BMI at 13 years of age (21.03 ± 0.23 was higher than at 14 years (20.05 ± 0.20 and that this difference was strongly significant (p=0.002. When the relationships between the students' height, weight, BMI, blood pressure, FBS (Fasting Blood Sugar, cholesterol, LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein, HDL (High Density Lipoprotein measurements were considered, it was seen that there was a positive significant relationship between height-weight (r=0.472; p<0.001, height-blood pressure (r=0.432; p<0.001, and height-FBS (r=0.332; p=0.001. Conclusions: The conclusion drawn was that monitoring blood pressure, cholesterol, LDL and HDL levels in childhood medical examinations is not only important in terms of identifying obesity, but also in identifying nutritional mistakes and deficiencies at an early stage.

  17. Level of risk for alcohol consumption among the drivers of an urban public transportation company in Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Molina C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the level of risk for alcohol consumption among drivers from a public transportation company. Methodology: a cross-sectional observational study with a sample of 145 drivers from a transportation company in Medellin, Colombia. A self-survey was used that included socio-demographic data, work organization data, and the audittest to measure the level of risk for alcohol consumption. Results: the socio-demographic and work organization profiles, together with the risk level values are consistent with the findings of previous national and international studies. The audit test results showed that 12.5% of the subjects had a score greater than or equal to 8. This is a global indicator of risky and harmful consumption. Furthermore, the score of 17% of the subjects suggested probable dependence. Conclusions: this study’s findings suggest that further research is required in order to establish the grounds for designing a coordinated proposal integrating the actions of each of the Social Security System’s actors. Such proposal should be based on the policy for decreasing consumption of psychoactive substances in the working population

  18. Effect of visible laser light on ATP level of anaemic red blood cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suardi, Nursakinah; Sodipo, Bashiru Kayode; Mustafa, Mohd Zulkifli; Ali, Zalila

    2016-09-01

    In this work we present influence of visible laser light on ATP level and viability of anaemic red blood cell (RBC). The visible laser lights used in this work are 460nm and 532nm. The responses of ATP level in anaemic and normal RBC before and after laser irradiation at different exposure time (30, 40, 50 and 60s) were observed. Three aliquots were prepared from the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood sample. One served as a control (untreated) and another two were irradiated with 460nm and 560nm lasers. Packed RBC was prepared to study ATP level in the RBC using CellTiter-GloLuminescent cell Viability Assay kit. The assay generates a glow type signal produced by luciferase reaction, which is proportional to the amount of ATP present in RBCs. Paired t-test were done to analyse ATP level before and after laser irradiation. The results revealed laser irradiation improve level of ATP in anaemic RBC. Effect of laser light on anaemic RBCs were significant over different exposure time for both 460nm (p=0.000) and 532nm (p=0.003). The result of ATP level is further used as marker for RBC viability. The influence of ATP level and viability were studied. Optical densities obtained from the data were used to determine cell viability of the samples. Results showed that laser irradiation increased viability of anaemic RBC compared to normal RBC.

  19. A versatile UHPLC–MSMS method for simultaneous quantification of various alcohol intake related compounds in human urine and blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monosik, Rastislav; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol intake has been associated with preventive as well as negative effects on health. However, the intake estimates are often based on subjective reporting and therefore biased and the types of beverages consumed are often inaccurately reported. Accurate and specific quantification of alcohol...... related compounds in biological samples may help to understand dietary exposure and metabolic kinetics. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, rapid and versatile UHPLC–MSMS method able of quantifying various alcohol derived compounds or potential effect markers. The method was thoroughly...... validated for L–tartaric acid, ethyl sulphate, ethyl–β–D–glucuronide, indoxyl sulphate, p–cresol sulphate, resveratrol, estrone sulphate and dihydroepiandrosterone sulphate. Isocohumulone and isoxanthohumol related to beer intake were also evaluated and the former found to be detectable but no standards...

  20. Blood sugar test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood glucose level ( hypoglycemia ) may be due to: Hypopituitarism (a pituitary gland disorder) Underactive thyroid gland or ... tonic-clonic seizure Glucagon blood test Glucagonoma Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Insulinoma Low blood sugar Multiple endocrine neoplasia ( ...

  1. Carbonic anhydrase activity in the red blood cells of sea level and high altitude natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, J; Caceda, R; Gamboa, A; Monge-C, C

    2000-01-01

    Red blood cell carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity has not been studied in high altitude natives. Because CA is an intraerythocytic enzyme and high altitude natives are polycythemic, it is important to know if the activity of CA per red cell volume is different from that of their sea level counterparts. Blood was collected from healthy subjects living in Lima (150m) and from twelve subjects from Cerro de Pasco (4330m), and hematocrit and carbonic anhydrase activity were measured. As expected, the high altitude natives had significantly higher hematocrits than the sea level controls (p = 0.0002). No difference in the CA activity per milliliter of red cells was found between the two populations. There was no correlation between the hematocrit and CA activity.

  2. The level of plasma homocysteine in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in combination with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Orlovskiy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the major causes of chronic diseases of the hepatobiliary zone. Aim. In order to explore new pathogenetic factors of NAFLD examined the level of plasma homocysteine in 110 patients. Methods and results. Patients were divided into two groups - the isolated NAFLD and in combination with Diabetes mellitus type 2. Found a significant increase in homocysteine level in all patients with NAFLD compared with the control group. High homocysteine concentration was in patients with comorbidity. There was positive correlation between levels of homocysteine and lipid components and cytolytic syndrome in all patients. Conclusion. The data obtained allow us to consider homocysteine as one of the factors in the pathological changes development in the liver.

  3. Strain dependent gene expression and neurochemical levels in the brain of zebrafish: focus on a few alcohol related targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y; Chatterjee, D; Gerlai, R

    2012-12-05

    The zebrafish is becoming increasingly popular in behavior genetics because it may allow one to conduct large scale mutation and drug screens facilitating the discovery of mechanisms of complex traits. Strain differences in adult zebrafish behavior have already been reported, which may have important implications in neurobehavioral genetics. For example, we have found the AB and SF strains to differ in their behavioral responses to both acute and chronic alcohol exposure. In the current study, we further characterize these strains using semi-quantitative RT-PCR to measure the expression of ten selected genes and HPLC to measure the levels of nine neurochemicals. We chose the target genes and neurochemicals based upon their potential involvement in alcohol and other drugs of abuse related mechanisms. We quantified the expression of the genes encoding D1-R, D2a-R, D4a-R dopamine receptors, GABA(A)-R, GABA(B)-R1, GAD1, MAO, NMDA-R (NR2D subunit), 5HT-R1bd and SLC6 a4a. We found the gene encoding D1 dopamine receptor over-expressed and the genes encoding GABA(B1) receptor and solute family carrier protein 6 (SLC6) 4a under-expressed in SF compared to AB. We also found the level of all (dopamine, DOPAC, Serotonin, GABA, Glutamate, Glycine, Aspartate, Taurine) but one (5HIAA) neurochemicals tested decreased in SF as compared to AB. These results, combined with previously identified behavioral differences between the AB and SF strains, demonstrate the importance of strain characterization in zebrafish. They now also allow formulation of working hypotheses about possible mechanisms underlying the differential effects of acute and chronic alcohol treatment on these two zebrafish strains.

  4. Relationship between gestational age and endoglin levels in maternal and cord blood

    OpenAIRE

    Simmi Kharb; Tiwari, R; Nanda, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poor placentation at early gestational age is an important predisposing condition for the development of preeclampsia. The present study was designed to study the relationship of gestational age with endoglin levels in maternal and cord blood of normal and pre-eclamptic women. Methods: The present study was conducted in fifty pregnant women that were grouped as: group 1 (control, n=25) comprising of normotensive women immediately after delivery, group 2 (study group, n=25) comp...

  5. Combined MELD and blood lipid level in evaluating the prognosis of decompensated cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prognostic value of the combined model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) and blood lipid level in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. METHODS: A total of 198 patients with decompensated cirrhosis were enrolled into the study. The values of triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (TC), high density lipoproteins (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) of each patient on the fi rst day of admission were retrieved from the medical records, and MELD was calculated. All the patients were followed ...

  6. Effect of Jiang Zhuo Mixture on Blood Glucose Level and Insulin Resistance in Diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiabo; Wang Hui

    2005-01-01

    @@ Based on the knowledge of diabetes in traditional Chinese medicine and modem biomedical sciences,Dr. Wang Hui (王晖) designed Jiang Zhuo Mixture (降浊合剂) , a preparation for treatment of fat diabetes type 2. Jiang Zhuo Mixture showed good actions of strengthening the spleen and stomach,separating the clear from the turbid, resolving the stasis and decreasing the blood glucose level. These were reported as follows.

  7. Low perfusion index affects the difference in glucose level between capillary and venous blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acar N

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nurdan Acar,1 Hamit Ozcelik,1 Arif Alper Cevik,1 Engin Ozakin,1 Goknur Yorulmaz,2 Nur Kebapci,2 Ugur Bilge,3 Muzaffer Bilgin4 1Emergency Department, 2Endocrinology Department, 3Family Medicine Department, 4Biostatistics Department, Medical School, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey Aim: In emergency cases, finger stick testing is primarily used to check the blood glucose value of patients since it takes longer to obtain the venous value. In critical patients, under conditions that cause an increase in metabolic state and level of stress, there occurs considerable difference in glucose levels between capillary and venous measurements. This study aimed to investigate the comparability of capillary and venous glucose values, according to the perfusion index level obtained with the Masimo Radical-7® device, in critical patients aged 18 years and over.Method: We conducted this prospective and observational study in the emergency department of the Eskisehir Osmangazi University hospital between November 3, 2008 and February 2, 2009.Results: The blood glucose of 300 critical patients was checked by finger stick in the emergency unit. The participants with normal vital signs had perfusion index between 0 and 5; the results obtained by the two methods were more consistent for perfusion index values of 6 and over. The results were most consistent in aged participants with normal vital sign findings and low perfusion index and in young patients with high perfusion index. In the cases where at least one of the vital signs was abnormal, the glucose values obtained by the two methods were more consistent when the perfusion index was 6 or over. In this group, independently from the perfusion index value, the consistency was higher in younger patients compared with aged patients.Conclusion: In the emergency department, perfusion index value measured by Masimo Radical-7 and capillary blood glucose levels can serve in blood sugar management in

  8. The Relationship between Levels of PCBs and Pesticides in Human Hair and Blood: Preliminary Results

    OpenAIRE

    Covaci, Adrian; Altshul, Larisa M.; Hauser, Russ B.

    2004-01-01

    Human hair as a biologic measure of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has some advantages over the more commonly used blood and adipose tissue samples. However, one of the primary limitations is the difficulty in distinguishing between exogenous and endogenous contamination. In addition, there are currently no standardized methods for hair sample collection, washing, and chemical analysis. There is also very limited information describing the correlation between levels of organ...

  9. The Effect of Whole-Body Radiation on Blood Levels of Gastrointestinal Peptides in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Katanyutanon, Sakdhisapol; WU, RONGQIAN; Wang, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Radiation-induced injury may occur in various incidents as well as the terrorist radiation exposure scenario. The digestive tract is among the most radiosensitive organs in the body and its function, which is partly regulated by gastrointestinal (GI) peptides, can be affected by radiation exposure. However, very little is known about the effect of whole-body radiation on blood GI peptides. The aim of this study therefore was to determine the effect of whole-body radiation on circulating level...

  10. Case–Control Study of Blood Lead Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hui-Li; Chen, Xiang-Tao; Yang, Bin; Ma, Fang-Li; Wang, Shu; Tang, Ming-liang; Hao, Ming-Gao; Ruan, Di-Yun

    2008-01-01

    Background Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and lead exposure are high-prevalence conditions among children. Objective Our goal was to investigate the association between ADHD and blood lead levels (BLLs) in Chinese children, adjusting for known ADHD risk factors and potential confounding variables. Methods We conducted a pair-matching case–control study with 630 ADHD cases and 630 non-ADHD controls 4–12 years of age, matched on the same age, sex, and socioeconomic status. The ...

  11. Environmental determinants of different Blood Lead Levels in children: a quantile analysis from a nationwide survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Etchevers, Anne; Le Tertre, Alain; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Bretin, Philippe; Oulhote, Youssef; Le Bot, Barbara; Glorennec, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Background: Blood Lead Levels (BLLs) have substantially decreased in recent decades in children in France. However, further reducing exposure is a public health goal because there is no clear toxicological threshold. The identification of the environmental determinants of BLLs as well as risk factors associated with high BLLs is important to update prevention strategies. We aimed to estimate the contribution of environmental sources of lead to different BLLs in childre...

  12. Effects of alcohol, expectancies, and partner type on condom use in college males: event-level analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph; Earleywine, Mitch; Schiffman, Jason; Pedersen, Eric; Marriot, Charles

    2005-08-01

    Sexually active heterosexual college males (N = 93) provided data on over 1,500 sexual encounters. Alcohol consumption, expectancies about alcohol's impact on condom use, and partner type each contributed to use of a condom. Partner type covaried with alcohol consumption and condom use. The men consumed significantly more alcohol with new partners, followed by casual partners, and then by regular partners. In contrast, they were more likely to use condoms with new partners than with casual or regular partners. Drinking alcohol decreased condom use, but only with casual partners. Expectancies about alcohol's disinhibiting sexual effects decreased condom use as well. These data suggest that alcohol consumption does decrease condom use, particularly with casual partners and when drinkers believe alcohol alters sexual disinhibition. Improving knowledge about HIV and other STD transmission in casual partners and challenging expectancies about alcohol as a sexual disinhibitor could help decrease the spread of HIV and other STDs.

  13. Sialic acid, ferritin and CEA levels in peripheral blood and blood draining from the tumor in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, M; Catania, S; Locatelli, E; Scazzoso, A; Calzaferri, G; Cunietti, E

    1988-01-01

    Concentrations of total serum N-acetyl-neuraminic acid, carcinoembryonic antigen, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine phosphokinase and total proteins were measured in both tumor drainage blood (axillary vein) and in peripheral blood taken during surgery from 44 breast cancer patients. There were no significant differences in any of the markers between mean values in peripheral and tumor drainage blood, between cancer patients and healthy controls, between patients with or without axillary lymph node metastases, or according to the site of breast mass.

  14. Organochlorine pesticide levels in umbilical cord blood of newborn in Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Mercado, Margarita; Waliszewski, S M; Caba, M; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Hernández-Chalate, F

    2010-10-01

    Organochlorine pesticides accumulate in lipid rich compartments of organisms. During pregnancy, the compounds pass through the placental barrier appear in cord blood. The aim of this study was to monitor the levels of organochlorine pesticides in 70 umbilical cord blood samples taken during deliveries in Veracruz in 2009. For organochlorine pesticides, only the presence β-HCH (4%, 3.9 μg/L median concentration on wet weight), pp'DDE (100%, 0.7 μg/L) and pp'DDT (4%, 1.4 μg/L) were detected. The total pool of samples divided according to sex of new born babies, showed no statistical differences among median concentrations. The number of deliveries considered as a determinant contamination factor affirmed there were no statistical differences among median concentrations; however pp'DDE levels increased from the one to two childbirth groups. Age of pregnant women as a discriminate factor manifests in a significant increase in contamination levels among first, second and third tertile. In general, umbilical cord blood samples in Veracruz contained organochlorine pesticides, especially pp'DDE, confirming the presence of these compounds in the environment and their transfer from the mother to the developing fetus.

  15. Association of sleep duration with blood glucose level of Gujarati Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal C; Shaikh, Wasim A; Singh, S K

    2012-01-01

    Recently studies conducted in various parts of the world indicate short sleep duration as a novel risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes. However, ethnic differences exist in the etiopathogenesis of diseases, the current study was undertaken to study the effect of sleep duration on the blood glucose level of Gujarati Indian adolescents. A randomized, non-experimental, cross-sectional study was done on the voluntary participants n = 332 Gujarati adolescent boys and girls of age group 13-20 years studying at the schools and colleges in the Anand district. The participants were assessed for their sleep duration, body composition and blood glucose level. The sleep duration was reported by the subjects as the number of hours they slept on most of the nights in a week over the last one-year. The observations of the study were then analyzed after grouping them into: 1) Adequate sleep duration at night, ASDN (> or = 7 hrs) and 2) Inadequate sleep duration at night, ISDN (way ANOVA and post hoc Tuky-Krammer test were used for finding significant differences (P sleep duration at night (< 7 hrs) does not affect the blood glucose level of the Gujarati Indian adolescents of age group 13-20 years.

  16. Circadian variations of adenosine level in blood and liver and its possible physiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagoya de Sánchez, V; Hernández-Muñoz, R; Díaz-Muñoz, M; Villalobos, R; Glender, W; Vidrio, S; Suárez, J; Yañez, L

    1983-09-12

    The role of adenosine as a possible physiological modulator was explored by measuring its concentration in different tissues during a 24-hour period. Initially the circadian variations of adenosine and other purine compounds such as inosine, hypoxanthine, uric acid and adenine nucleotides were studied in the rat blood. A daily cyclic response was observed, with low levels of adenosine from 08.00 - 20.00 h, followed by an increase from this time on. Inosine and hypoxanthine levels were elevated during the day and low at night. The uric acid changes observed indicate that the decrease in purine catabolism coincides with a decrease in inosine and hypoxanthine levels and an increase in adenosine. The blood adenine nucleotides, energy charge and phosphorylation potential remained constant during the day and showed oscillatory changes during the night. Similar studies were made in the liver, a primary source of circulating purines. Liver adenosine was high during the night while inosine and hypoxanthine remained low along the 24 hours. The results suggest that liver purine metabolism might participate in the maintenance and renewal of the blood purine pool and in the energy state of erythrocytes in vivo.

  17. Effects of hypothermia on blood endogenous endotoxin levels during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerçekoglu, H; Tarim, O; Agar, I; Korukçu, A; Karabulut, H; Soydemir, H; Sokullu, O; Toklu, H; Johansson, C B; Yigiter, B; Kopman, E

    1997-01-01

    Endotoxin activates white blood cells and complement and produces a spectrum of clinical syndromes ranging from fever to septic shock. Although production of endogenous endotoxemia during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has recently been reported, the role of hypothermia on endotoxemia is not clear. In this study, we evaluated the effects of moderate (24-28 degrees C) and mild (32-34 degrees C) hypothermia on blood endotoxin levels. The study population consisted of 20 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with CPB. Moderate systemic hypothermia was applied during aortic cross-clamping in ten patients (group 1) and mild hypothermia in the remaining ten patients (group 2). The mean rectal temperatures were 26.8 +/- 1.2 degrees C in group 1 and 33.8 +/- 0.8 degrees C in group 2. The blood samples for endotoxin level measurements were obtained before CPB, during aortic cross-clamping, immediately after the release of the cross-clamp, 20 minutes after the release of the cross-clamp, after CPB, and 2 hours postoperatively. There were no endotoxins in any of the samples before CPB, but it was detected after CPB in both groups. The endotoxin levels were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2. The present study suggests that when hypothermia is the technique of choice, the deleterious effects of endotoxemia on patients with comorbidity must be considered.

  18. Relationship between Glycemic Load and Blood Lipid Level in Hospitalized Adult Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic diseases in China have been on the rise in recent decades, partially due to reduced cereal consumption and excessive intake of low glycemic index (GI foods such as meat and oil. Although the relationship between dietary glycemic load (GL and various metabolic diseases has been extensively studied worldwide, it is unclear whether dietary GL is related to blood lipid levels and dyslipidemia risk in Chinese. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between dietary GL and blood lipid levels and dyslipidemia risk in hospitalized Chinese adults.Dietary GL in 2258 hospitalized Chinese adults was calculated based upon GI, carbohydrate content and daily intake of individual foods. In addition, fasting total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C data were collected. Multiple regression and logistic regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between dietary GL and plasma lipid levels or dyslipidemia risk.Dietary GL remained inversely associated with blood total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (P0.05.High GL diet, as represented by traditional Chinese dietary pattern, may contribute to reduced risk of dyslipidemia in Chinese adults.

  19. Thyroid stimulating hormone levels in cord blood are not influenced by non-thyroidal mothers' diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sterian Ward

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Screening programs not only offer the opportunity to trace and treat almost all cases of congenital hypothyroidism but also mean large savings to the health system. However, carefully planned strategies are necessary to extend their benefits and reduce costs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the possible influence of maternal diseases that affect maternal-fetal placenta dynamics on primary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH screening for congenital hypothyroidism. DESIGN: Prospective non-randomized clinical trial with at least 3 months of follow-up. SETTING: A public university referral center [CAISM/Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP]. PARTICIPANTS: 415 neonates divided into 5 groups: eighty-three infants born from cardiac mothers; 98 from mothers that had toxemia; 54 of the mothers had diabetes mellitus; 40 were HIV positive and 140 had no diseases. INTERVENTION: All newborns had cord blood samples collected on filter paper at birth. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: TSH was measured from dried blood spots using a homemade immunofluorescence assay (sensitivity in dried blood spots = 0.1 mU/L. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the mean TSH levels among the 5 groups. Moreover, TSH levels were around 5 mU/L in 48% of the newborns, indicating that our region is severely deficient in iodine. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that primary TSH screening programs using cord blood are not affected by maternal diseases. We suggest that, besides its technical advantages over heel punctures with T4 primary approaches, neonatal screening using primary cord blood TSH may also be used as a monitoring tool for evaluation and control of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD.

  20. Whole blood BDNF levels in healthy twins discordant for affective disorder: association to life events and neuroticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trajkovska, V.; Vinberg, M.; Aznar, S.

    2008-01-01

    and protected against affective disorder. Whole blood assessed for BDNF concentrations and correlated to risk status, neuroticism, and number of stressful life events. RESULTS: Between the groups, we found no significant difference in whole blood BDNF levels. Women at high-risk for depression who had...... neuroticism scores and two or less recent stressful events were associated with decreased whole blood BDNF levels (n=50, p

  1. 血液酒精浓度对驾驶行为的影响研究%Effect of Blood Alcohol Concentration on Driving Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣婷

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the impact of alcohol on the driving behavior, 13 different drivers′driv⁃ing behaviors, such as acceleration and braking, were tested under different blood alcohol concentration (0mg/dl、20mg/dl、50 mg/dl、80 mg/dl)and different scenarios based on driving simulator. The drivers′subjective feelings were also investigated. Results show that drunk driving, especially under high BAC, has an impact on driving behavior and may cause some dangerous driving behavior;gender and driving ex⁃perience also have an impact on driving behavior under different blood alcohol concentration.%为了探讨饮酒对驾驶员驾驶行为的影响,以驾驶模拟器为平台,测试了13名驾驶人员在不同血液酒精浓度(0mg/dl,20mg/dl,50 mg/dl,80 mg/dl)、不同场景下加速、刹车情况并调查了其主观感受。进行数据分析后初步得到一些结论:饮酒(特别是在较高血液酒精浓度的情况下)确实会对驾驶行为产生影响并可能会导致某些危险驾驶行为;性别和驾驶经验也会对不同酒精浓度下的驾驶行为产生影响。

  2. Autistic children exhibit decreased levels of essential Fatty acids in red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigandi, Sarah A; Shao, Hong; Qian, Steven Y; Shen, Yiping; Wu, Bai-Lin; Kang, Jing X

    2015-05-04

    Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential nutrients for brain development and function. However, whether or not the levels of these fatty acids are altered in individuals with autism remains debatable. In this study, we compared the fatty acid contents between 121 autistic patients and 110 non-autistic, non-developmentally delayed controls, aged 3-17. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids showed that the percentage of total PUFA was lower in autistic patients than in controls; levels of n-6 arachidonic acid (AA) and n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were particularly decreased (pautism.

  3. A multivariate linear regression model for predicting children's blood lead levels based on soil lead levels: A study at four Superfund sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewin, M.D.; Sarasua, S.; Jones, P.A. (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States). Div. of Health Studies)

    1999-07-01

    For the purpose of examining the association between blood lead levels and household-specific soil lead levels, the authors used a multivariate linear regression model to find a slope factor relating soil lead levels to blood lead levels. They used previously collected data from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR's) multisite lead and cadmium study. The data included in the blood lead measurements of 1,015 children aged 6--71 months, and corresponding household-specific environmental samples. The environmental samples included lead in soil, house dust, interior paint, and tap water. After adjusting for income, education or the parents, presence of a smoker in the household, sex, and dust lead, and using a double log transformation, they found a slope factor of 0.1388 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.09--0.19 for the dose-response relationship between the natural log of the soil lead level and the natural log of the blood lead level. The predicted blood lead level corresponding to a soil lead level of 500 mg/kg was 5.99 [micro]g/kg with a 95% prediction interval of 2.08--17.29. Predicted values and their corresponding prediction intervals varied by covariate level. The model shows that increased soil lead level is associated with elevated blood leads in children, but that predictions based on this regression model are subject to high levels of uncertainty and variability.

  4. Optical Marking of Alcohol Induced Hemoglobin Modification

    CERN Document Server

    Vlokh, R; Moroz, O; Nastishin, Yu; Dudok, K; Dudok, T; Grinchishin, N; Nechiporenko, I; Hul, A

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that conformational modifications of Hb induced by ethanol consumption can be visualized in optical spectra studying oxygenation kinetics of hemoglobin or mixing hemoglobin with Cibacron blue dye. Better dye affinity of blood proteins extracted from alcoholised rats with respect to those from non-alcoholised ones confirms that ethanol and its metabolites induce structural pathologies in blood protein molecules. The detected changes for the case of the posterity of intoxicated animals may be explained as a post-translation modification, as well as a disturbance of the structure and function of tissue cellular gene mechanism for the blood creation. It is established that alcohol intake during first four months leads to the decrease of fractional weight of oxyhemoglobin and to the increase of methemoglobin amount in blood. Further alcohol consumption is accompanied by recovering of the normal level of hemoglobin derivatives in blood. Normalization of the fractional weight of hemoglobin derivati...

  5. Relationship between Food Security with Sugar Level and Blood Pressure in Diabetes Type 2 in Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Seyed Amir Hossein Zehni; Javadi, Maryam; Mohammadpooral, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Food security has been defined as the “availability, stability, access and utilization of safe foods”. Diabetes has been known as one of the biggest health and medical problems throughout the world and is clearly related to lifestyle, and particularly, improper food consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between food security with sugar and blood pressure in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes who refer to diabetes centers in Tehran. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 on type 2 diabetes patients in Tehran, Iran. From two diabetes centers in the eastern and southern parts of Tehran, 243 type 2 diabetes patients were selected. Necessary information (demographic and food security information) about all the studied persons was collected using the standard questionnaire verified by US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The data was analyzed by SPSS version 16, statistical comparisons were made using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square and Tukey tests and a significant level of 0.05), but there was a significant relationship between food security and diastolic blood pressure (p= 0.030). Conclusions According to the relationship between diastolic blood pressure and food security and the role of blood pressure in the irreparable diabetic complications, it is recommended to perform appropriate food advice. PMID:28163854

  6. High-normal levels of hs-CRP predict the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver in healthy men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Yoon, Kijung; Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul

    2017-01-01

    We performed a follow-up study to address whether high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels within the normal range can predict the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in healthy male subjects. Among15347 male workers between 30 and 59 years old who received annual health check-ups in 2002, a NAFLD-free cohort of 4,138 was followed through December 2009. Alcohol consumption was assessed with a questionnaire. At each visit, abdominal ultrasonography was performed to identify fatty liver disease. The COX proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the relationship between hs-CRP and incident NAFLD. During the follow-up period, 28.8% (1191 of 4138) of participants developed NAFLD. The hazard ratios of NAFLD were increased by hs-CRP categories within the normal range in the non-adjusted model and age-adjusted model. After adjusting for age, exercise, smoking, BMI, systolic BP, triglyceride, and fasting glucose, these incidences were only increased between the lowest and the highest hs-CRP categories. The risk for NAFLD increased as the hs-CRP level increased (p< 0.001). As the hs-CRP level increased within the healthy cohort, the risk of developing NAFLD increased. This trend remained true even if the hs-CRP level remained within the normal range. hs-CRP can be used as a predictor of NAFLD, as well as other obesity-associated diseases. Therefore, individuals with higher hs-CRP levels (even within the normal range) may require appropriate follow-up and management to prevent NAFLD development. PMID:28234943

  7. High-normal levels of hs-CRP predict the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Yoon, Kijung; Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul

    2017-01-01

    We performed a follow-up study to address whether high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels within the normal range can predict the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in healthy male subjects. Among15347 male workers between 30 and 59 years old who received annual health check-ups in 2002, a NAFLD-free cohort of 4,138 was followed through December 2009. Alcohol consumption was assessed with a questionnaire. At each visit, abdominal ultrasonography was performed to identify fatty liver disease. The COX proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the relationship between hs-CRP and incident NAFLD. During the follow-up period, 28.8% (1191 of 4138) of participants developed NAFLD. The hazard ratios of NAFLD were increased by hs-CRP categories within the normal range in the non-adjusted model and age-adjusted model. After adjusting for age, exercise, smoking, BMI, systolic BP, triglyceride, and fasting glucose, these incidences were only increased between the lowest and the highest hs-CRP categories. The risk for NAFLD increased as the hs-CRP level increased (phs-CRP level increased within the healthy cohort, the risk of developing NAFLD increased. This trend remained true even if the hs-CRP level remained within the normal range. hs-CRP can be used as a predictor of NAFLD, as well as other obesity-associated diseases. Therefore, individuals with higher hs-CRP levels (even within the normal range) may require appropriate follow-up and management to prevent NAFLD development.

  8. Genetic polymorphism and mRNA levels of cytochrome P450ⅡE1 and glutathione S-transferase P1 in patients with alcoholic liver disease in different nationalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Liu; Xiang-Wei Meng; Ling-Yun Zhou; Pei-Yi Zhang; Xun Sun; Ping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse and dependence are major factors in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Alcohol abuse is becoming an increasingly severe problem among the Han, Mongol, and Korean nationalities in northeast China. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between ALD and the genetic polymorphism and expression levels of two enzymes, cytochrome P450ⅡE1 (CYPⅡE1) and glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) in patients of three nationalities. METHODS: Peripheral blood was collected from 353 Chinese patients with ALD, 300 alcohol dependent patients without liver disease (alcoholic), and 360 healthy controls. Each group included patients from the Han, Mongol and Korean nationalities. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) were used. RESULTS: Regardless of nationality, patients who carried the rare CYPⅡE1 C2 and GSTP1 Val alleles were at higher risk of ALD. The frequency of C2 and Val in patients with ALD was respectively 50.00% and 26.98% in the Han, 31.36% and 22.87% in the Mongol, and 45.87% and 22.02%in theKorean nationality. No signiifcant differences were seen in the frequency of either C2 or Val alleles in ALD patients among the three nationalities. In each nationality, the frequencyof both C2 and Val alleles was signiifcantly higher in ALD compared to alcoholic and healthy controls. Except for nationality, the average mRNA levels of CYPⅡE1 in ALD patients and healthy controls were 10.05% and 2.21%, respectively. The average mRNA levels of GSTP1 in ALD patients and healthy controls were 0.53% and 2.12%, respectively. The mRNA level of CYPⅡE1 was higher, and that of GSTP1 was lower in patients with ALD compared to the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Except for nationality, patients with ALD in this series tended to have a higher mRNA expression of CYPⅡE1 and to carry the C2 allele, and tended to have a lower mRNA expression of GSTP1 and to carry the Val allele

  9. Blood levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in patients with neurological diseases.

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    Christoph A Mayer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The brain-specific astroglial protein GFAP is a blood biomarker candidate indicative of intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with symptoms suspicious of acute stroke. Comparably little, however, is known about GFAP release in other neurological disorders. In order to identify potential "specificity gaps" of a future GFAP test used to diagnose intracerebral hemorrhage, we measured GFAP in the blood of a large and rather unselected collective of patients with neurological diseases. METHODS: Within a one-year period, we randomly selected in-patients of our university hospital for study inclusion. Patients with ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack and intracerebral hemorrhage were excluded. Primary endpoint was the ICD-10 coded diagnosis reached at discharge. During hospital stay, blood was collected, and GFAP plasma levels were determined using an advanced prototype immunoassay at Roche Diagnostics. RESULTS: A total of 331 patients were included, covering a broad spectrum of neurological diseases. GFAP levels were low in the vast majority of patients, with 98.5% of cases lying below the cut-off that was previously defined for the differentiation of intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. No diagnosis or group of diagnoses was identified that showed consistently increased GFAP values. No association with age and sex was found. CONCLUSION: Most acute and chronic neurological diseases, including typical stroke mimics, are not associated with detectable GFAP levels in the bloodstream. Our findings underline the hypothesis that rapid astroglial destruction as in acute intracerebral hemorrhage is mandatory for GFAP increase. A future GFAP blood test applied to identify patients with intracerebral hemorrhage is likely to have a high specificity.

  10. Methodological modifications on quantification of phosphatidylethanol in blood from humans abusing alcohol, using high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light scattering detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aradottir Steina

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatidylethanol (PEth is an abnormal phospholipid formed slowly in cell membranes by a transphosphatidylation reaction from phosphatidylcholine in the presence of ethanol and catalyzed by the enzyme phospholipase D. PEth in blood is a promising new marker of ethanol abuse depending on the high specificity and sensitivity of this marker. None of the biological markers used in clinical routine at the present time are sensitive and specific enough for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse. The method for PEth analysis includes lipid extraction of whole blood, a one-hour HPLC separation of lipids and ELSD (evaporative light scattering detection of PEth. Results Methodological improvements are presented which comprise a simpler extraction procedure, the use of phosphatidylbutanol as internal standard and a new algorithm for evaluation of unknown samples. It is further demonstrated that equal test results are obtained with blood collected in standard test tubes with EDTA as with the previously used heparinized test tubes. The PEth content in blood samples is stable for three weeks in the refrigerator. Conclusion Methodological changes make the method more suitable for routine laboratory use, lower the limit of quantification (LOQ and improve precision.

  11. Levels of carnitine and acylcarnitines in reconstituted red blood cell samples washed with different concentrations of saline solutions

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    José Henry Osorio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the percentage of carnitine and acylcarnitines remaining in red blood cells after washing them with different concentrations of saline solution. Materials and methods: Human blood samples were centrifuged and the blood cells were washed with different saline solutions. The final pellet was resuspended in PBS for card preparation and tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Results: It was found that carnitine, as well as short-chain, medium-chain, and long-chain acylcarnitines remain in red blood cells at average percentages of 19.3; 34; 34; and 32%, respectively. Significant differences were found for carnitine and acylcarnitine levels in blood washed with an isotonic solution compared to their levels using several hypotonic solutions (p<0.05. Conclusion: Because carnitine and acylcarnitines remained associated with the blood cells, we recommend using whole blood to measure these metabolites.

  12. Levels of carnitine and acylcarnitines in reconstituted red blood cell samples washed with different concentrations of saline solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henry Osorio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the percentage of carnitine and acylcarnitines remaining in red blood cells after washing them with different concentrations of saline solution.Materials and methods: Human blood samples were centrifuged and the blood cells were washed with different saline solutions. The final pellet was resuspended in PBS for card preparation and tandem mass spectrometry analysis.Results: It was found that carnitine, as well as short-chain, medium-chain, and long-chain acylcarnitines remain in red blood cells at average percentages of 19.3; 34; 34; and 32%, respectively. Significant differences were found for carnitine and acylcarnitine levels in blood washed with an isotonic solution compared to their levels using several hypotonic solutions (p<0.05.Conclusion: Because carnitine and acylcarnitines remained associated with the blood cells, we recommend using whole blood to measure these metabolites.

  13. Association between blood lipid levels and personality traits in young Korean women.

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    Seung-Ju Roh

    blood lipid levels and personality traits may have a beneficial effect for the managing of dyslipidemia.

  14. Association between blood lipid levels and personality traits in young Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Seung-Ju; Kim, Han-Na; Shim, Unjin; Kim, Bo-Hye; Kim, Su-Jin; Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal lipid levels are important etiological factors associated with the development of atherosclerosis and with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Lipid levels are also influenced by lifestyle and behavioral factors, which suggests that personality traits might be related to abnormal lipid profiles. Studies on personality traits and lipid levels are relatively scarce in Korea. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the association between lipid levels and personality traits in young Korean women. A total of 1,701 young Korean women [mean age  = 24.9±4.6 years (range 17-39)] who volunteered for personality trait evaluation were recruited for this study. Lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride, were measured in all subjects after an overnight fast, and a low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was calculated. The study population was divided into abnormal and normal lipid level groups according to the clinical criteria. Personality traits were measured using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for the Five-Factor Model of personality. High neuroticism was associated with low HDL cholesterol levels. Low extraversion and openness were associated with high levels of triglyceride. At the facet level, the association between personality and lipid levels were generally consistent. Angry hostility, self-consciousness, vulnerability to stress, activity, and straightforwardness were associated with HDL cholesterol levels. Activity, positive emotion, aesthetics, actions, and deliberation were associated with triglyceride. When applying clinical criteria, conscientiousness was less likely to have abnormal total cholesterol levels. Our results showed that the women with the low HDL cholesterol levels are like to be more neurotic and the hyperglycemic women are prone to lower extraversion and openness in Korea. Understanding the associations between blood lipid levels

  15. Alcohol: impact on sports performance and recovery in male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly used recreational drug globally and its consumption, often in large volume, is deeply embedded in many aspects of Western society. Indeed, athletes are not exempt from the influence alcohol has on society; they often consume greater volumes of alcohol through bingeing behaviour compared with the general population, yet it is often expected and recommended that athletes abstain from alcohol to avoid the negative impact this drug may have on recovery and sporting performance. While this recommendation may seem sensible, the impact alcohol has on recovery and sports performance is complicated and depends on many factors, including the timing of alcohol consumption post-exercise, recovery time required before recommencing training/competition, injury status and dose of alcohol being consumed. In general, acute alcohol consumption, at the levels often consumed by athletes, may negatively alter normal immunoendocrine function, blood flow and protein synthesis so that recovery from skeletal muscle injury may be impaired. Other factors related to recovery, such as rehydration and glycogen resynthesis, may be affected to a lesser extent. Those responsible for the wellbeing of athletes, including the athlete themselves, should carefully monitor habitual alcohol consumption so that the generic negative health and social outcomes associated with heavy alcohol use are avoided. Additionally, if athletes are to consume alcohol after sport/exercise, a dose of approximately 0.5 g/kg body weight is unlikely to impact most aspects of recovery and may therefore be recommended if alcohol is to be consumed during this period.

  16. Assessment of the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in blood samples from Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta-Garcia, Sandra Teresa; León-Moreno, Lilia Carolina; González-Vega, Carolina; Dominguez-Cortinas, Gabriela; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the blood of children (50 individuals) living in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. We analyzed six PBDE congeners by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total PBDE levels ranged from not detectable (nd) to 15.2 μg/L on a whole-weight basis and from nd to 6,435 ng/g lipid on a lipid-weight basis. The dominant congener in our study was BDE-153, followed by BDE-154, BDE-99, BDE-100, and BDE-47. Levels of BDE-209 were below the detection limit. Our data indicate that children living in the areas studied in this work are exposed to high levels of PBDEs.

  17. Environmental variation of arsenic levels in human blood determined by neutron activation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    1970-01-01

    Arsenic levels in blood plasma and red cells from patients with Blackfoot disease, a peripheral arteriosclerosis endemic to a small area in Taiwan, were studied in relation to healthy individuals from the same and other parts of Taiwan and compared with arsenic levels in a control group from...... Denmark. Arsenic was determined by neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation and re-irradiation yield determination. The precision and accuracy of the results have been carefully evaluated in order to permit quantitative tests for the significance of the observed differences. The results...... from Taiwan followed a logarithmic normal distribution, and no difference was found between Blackfoot patients and their healthy family members. However, their overall arsenic levels were higher than the Taiwan average, presumably because of arsenic in their drinking water. Much lower levels were found...

  18. Disproportional decrease in office blood pressure compared with 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure with antihypertensive treatment: dependency on pretreatment blood pressure levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Roland E; Schmidt, Stephanie T; Riemer, Thomas; Dechend, Ralf; Hagedorn, Ina; Senges, Jochen; Messerli, Franz H; Zeymer, Uwe

    2014-11-01

    The long-term relationship between 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and office BP in patients on therapy is not well documented. From a registry we included all patients in whom antihypertensive therapy needed to be uptitrated. Drug treatment included the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren or an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker or drugs not blocking the renin-angiotensin system, alone or on top of an existing drug regimen. In all patients, office BP and 24-hour ABP were obtained at baseline and after 1 year with validated devices. In the study population of 2722 patients, there was a good correlation between the change in office BP and 24-hour ABP (systolic: r=0.39; PABP in a 1:1 fashion, for example, a decrease of 10, 20, and 30 mm Hg corresponded to a decrease of ≈7.2, 10.5, and 13.9 mm Hg in systolic ABP, respectively. The disproportionally greater decrease in systolic office BP compared with ABP was dependent on the level of the pretreatment BP, which was consistently higher for office BP than ABP. The white coat effect (difference between office BP and ABP) was on average 10/5 mm Hg lower 1 year after intensifying treatment and the magnitude of that was also dependent on pretreatment BP. There was a disproportionally greater decrease in systolic office BP than in ABP, which for both office BP and ABP seemed to depend on the pretreatment BP level.

  19. Relationship between blood levels and the anti-hyperalgesic effect of ketoprofen in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Carrasco, José Carlos; Rodríguez-Silverio, Juan; Jiménez-Andrade, Juan Miguel; Carrasco-Portugal, Miriam del Carmen; Flores-Murrieta, Francisco Javier

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between blood levels of ketoprofen and its anti-hyperalgesic effects was examined in rat using the carrageenan-evoked thermal hyperalgesia model. Female adult Wistar rats were injected with carrageenan into the plantar surface of the right hind paw. Immediately after, rats were administered with ketoprofen po and hindpaw withdrawal latency measured and micro-whole blood samples were obtained over six hours via a cannula inserted in the caudal artery. Ketoprofen levels were measured by HPLC. Ketoprofen concentration increased in a dose-dependent manner and was reflected in dose-dependent anti-hyperalgesic effect. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters expressed as mean ± s.e.m. following administration of 1, 3.2, and 10 mg/kg ketoprofen were: Cmax 1.27 ± 0.08, 3.44 ± 0.20 and 11.76 ± 0.81 μg/mL; AUClast 4.16 ± 0.17, 11.63 ± 0.65 and 28.15 ± 1.32 μg h/mL; and Emax observed (AUCE ): 65.41 ± 7.79, 92.06 ± 6.46 and 98.42 ± 7.53%. A direct relationship between blood concentrations and the anti-hyperalgesic effect of ketoprofen followed a maximum effect model equation. The results indicate that the anti-hyperalgesic effect of ketoprofen in the carrageenan pain model can be predicted by the pharmacokinetic properties of ketoprofen.

  20. Melatonin Signaling Controls the Daily Rhythm in Blood Glucose Levels Independent of Peripheral Clocks.

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    Sharon Owino

    Full Text Available Melatonin is rhythmically secreted by both the pineal gland and retina in a circadian fashion, with its peak synthesis occurring during the night. Once synthesized, melatonin exerts its effects by binding to two specific G-protein coupled receptors-melatonin receptor type 1(MT1 and melatonin receptor type 2(MT2. Recent studies suggest the involvement of MT1 and MT2 in the regulation of glucose homeostasis; however the ability of melatonin signaling to impart timing cues on glucose metabolism remains poorly understood. Here we report that the removal of MT1 or MT2 in mice abolishes the daily rhythm in blood glucose levels. Interestingly, removal of melatonin receptors produced small effects on the rhythmic expression patterns of clock genes within skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. Taken together, our data suggest that the loss of the daily rhythm in blood glucose observed in MT1(-/- and MT2(-/- mice does not occur as a consequence of 'disrupted' clocks within insulin sensitive tissues. Finally our results highlight a diurnal contribution of melatonin receptor signaling in the daily regulation of blood glucose levels.

  1. Effects of anesthetic agents on brain blood oxygenation level revealed with ultra-high field MRI.

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    Luisa Ciobanu

    Full Text Available During general anesthesia it is crucial to control systemic hemodynamics and oxygenation levels. However, anesthetic agents can affect cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in a drug-dependent manner, while systemic hemodynamics is stable. Brain-wide monitoring of this effect remains highly challenging. Because T(2*-weighted imaging at ultra-high magnetic field strengths benefits from a dramatic increase in contrast to noise ratio, we hypothesized that it could monitor anesthesia effects on brain blood oxygenation. We scanned rat brains at 7T and 17.2T under general anesthesia using different anesthetics (isoflurane, ketamine-xylazine, medetomidine. We showed that the brain/vessels contrast in T(2*-weighted images at 17.2T varied directly according to the applied pharmacological anesthetic agent, a phenomenon that was visible, but to a much smaller extent at 7T. This variation is in agreement with the mechanism of action of these agents. These data demonstrate that preclinical ultra-high field MRI can monitor the effects of a given drug on brain blood oxygenation level in the absence of systemic blood oxygenation changes and of any neural stimulation.

  2. Effects of K. Lysolecithin on Blood Levels of Monoamines in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this research, Lysolecithin - a substance made with 100% natural ingredients - was given to ICR mice as medication to measure its periodic effect on the noradrenalin (NA), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) levels of the brain. Both ICR and SAM mice were separated into two groups - control group and Lysolecithin (K. Lysolecithin: hydrolytic lysolecithin) medicated group, and given 1-week preparation period. The K. Lysolecithin group was given 500mg/kg of K. Lysolecithin at 0.2mL per dosage for 4 weeks, and the control group was given the same amount of dosage of water during the same period. NA, DA and 5-HT concentrations were measured from the blood before medication and 8 weeks / 12 weeks / 16 weeks after the first medication. For the SAM mice, 8 weeks after they were medicated with K .Lysolecithin, Morris Water Maze Test was conducted for 7 consecutive days and then the concentrations were measured by drawing blood from the heart. The K. Lysolecithin medicated group showed a tendency to have a statistically significant higher concentrations of 5-HT and NA in the blood. Also, periodic examination showed that the monoamine levels were highest in the 12th week and declined thereafter.

  3. A meta-analysis of peripheral blood nerve growth factor levels in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, X-Y; Wu, H-T; Cao, C; Loh, Y P; Cheng, Y

    2017-01-10

    Neurotrophins particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are crucial modulators in the neurodevelopment and maintenance of central and peripheral nervous systems. Neurotrophin hypothesis of schizophrenia (SCZ) postulated that the changes in the brains of SCZ patients are the result of disturbances of developing processes involving neurotrophic factors. This hypothesis was mainly supported by the abnormal regulation of BDNF in SCZ, especially the decreased peripheral blood BDNF levels in SCZ patients validated by several meta-analyses. However, the regulation of NGF in SCZ remains unclear because of the inconsistent findings from the clinical studies. Therefore, we undertook, to the best of our knowledge, the first systematic review with a meta-analysis to quantitatively summarize the peripheral blood NGF data in SCZ patients compared with healthy control (HC) subjects. A systematic search of Pubmed, PsycINFO and Web of Science identified 13 articles encompassing a sample of 1693 individuals for the meta-analysis. Random-effects meta-analysis showed that patients with SCZ had significantly decreased peripheral blood levels of NGF when compared with the HC subjects (Hedges's g=-0.633, 95% confidence interval (CI)=-0.948 to -0.318, PMolecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 10 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.235.

  4. Effects of peripheral blood stem cell apheresis on systemic cytokine levels in patients with multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkök, Ciğdem Akalin; Hervig, Tor; Stamnesfet, Siren; Nesthus, Ingerid; Melve, Guro K; Lassalle, Philippe; Bruserud, Oystein

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND AIMS. Pro-angiogenic cytokines can affect myeloma cell proliferation directly and indirectly through stimulation of cancer-associated angiogenesis. METHODS. We investigated how peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection affected plasma angioregulatory cytokine levels in 15 consecutive myeloma patients. RESULTS. Plasma levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were significantly increased prior to apheresis in patients compared with donors, and a further increase was detected immediately after PBSC apheresis. HGF levels decreased within 24 h, but were still higher than the levels in healthy donors, whose HGF levels were not altered by platelet apheresis. Pre-apheresis levels of other angioregulatory cytokines, angiopoietin-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), were also increased in patients, whereas angiopoietin-1, angiogenin and basic fibroblast growth factor levels did not differ from healthy controls. PBSC harvesting decreased angiopoietin-1 and VEGF levels, increased the microvascular endothelial cell marker endocan levels but did not affect the other mediators. CONCLUSIONS. Our results show that PBSC apheresis alters systemic angioregulatory profiles in myeloma patients. This cytokine modulation is not a general characteristic of all apheresis procedures and was not seen in healthy platelet donors.

  5. Transfer of maternal IgE can be a common cause of increased IgE levels in cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Bisgaard, Hans

    2010-01-01

    IgE in cord blood is thought to be a product of the fetus. A high level of total IgE is therefore used as a measure of atopic propensity in the newborn. We recently found strong evidence that allergen-specific IgE in cord blood was the result of transfer of maternal IgE to fetal blood or cord blood...... (maternofetal transfer) rather than fetal production. This also suggests that total IgE in cord blood might primarily be a maternal product....

  6. High blood cadmium levels are not associated with consumption of traditional food among the Inuit of Nunavik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, M. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Bogota (Colombia); Turcotte, F.; Lapointe, C. [Universite Laval, Quebec City (Canada)] [and others

    1997-09-01

    High levels of cadmium in the liver and kidneys of caribous and sea mammals of the Canadian Arctic have led to recommendations to remove such offal from the traditional diet. Blood cadmium levels have been found to be very high in samples of Inuit volunteers, hence the hypothesis that the Inuit might be exposed to cadmium through their diet. This survey of a population-based random sample of Nunavik residents (n = 518) confirms that blood cadmium of Inuit is indeed very high by comparison to published reports. Blood cadmium levels are closely associated with the current smoking status and are independent of dietary patterns among nonsmokers. Plasma omega-3 fatty acids concentrations have been used to assess the reliability of the dietary information collected by questionnaires and to test for any association of blood cadmium with the consumption of sea mammals. Blood cadmium levels are not related to the reported consumption of sea mammals. Blood cadmium levels are very high among smokers and are associated with levels of exposure to tobacco. Among nonsmoking Inuit, blood cadmium levels are comparable with those reported in nonsmokers elsewhere in the world. In reference to international standards, blood cadmium concentrations are high enough among the Inuit to warrant energetic public health interventions. 28 refs., 5 tabs.

  7. A Conceptual Framework for Studying Alcohol Intake and Blood Pressure on Historically Black College and University Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Edwards, Lori; Godette, Dionne C.; White, Sumitra Shantakumar; Tyson, William

    2009-01-01

    Drinking increases the risk of elevated blood pressure, a risk factor for chronic ailments such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The experience of elevated blood pressure in young adulthood may be critical for the development of these diseases later in life. College campuses are venues replete with young adults, and drinking is a…

  8. Increased Circulating Levels of Alpha-Ketoglutarate in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlanga, Alba; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Martinez, Salomé; Armengol, Sandra; Sabench, Fàtima; Ras, Rosa; Hernandez, Mercè; Aguilar, Carmen; Colom, Josep; Sirvent, Joan Josep; Del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) causes a wide spectrum of liver damage, ranging from simple steatosis to cirrhosis. However, simple steatosis (SS) and steatohepatitis (NASH) cannot yet be distinguished by clinical or laboratory features. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between alpha-ketoglutarate and the degrees of NAFLD in morbidly obese patients. Materials and Methods We used a gas chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight-mass spectrometry analysis to quantify alpha-ketoglutarate in serum from normal-weight subjects (n = 30) and morbidly obese women (n = 97) with or without NAFLD. Results We found that serum levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were significantly higher in morbidly obese women than in normal-weight women. We showed that circulating levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were lower in lean controls and morbidly obese patients without NAFLD. We also found that alpha-ketoglutarate serum levels were higher in both SS and NASH than in normal liver of morbidly obese patients. However, there was no difference between SS and NASH. Moreover, we observed that circulating levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were associated with glucose metabolism parameters, lipid profile, hepatic enzymes and steatosis degree. In addition, diagnostic performance of alpha-ketoglutarate has been analyzed in NAFLD patients. The AUROC curves from patients with liver steatosis exhibited an acceptable clinical utility. Finally, we showed that the combination of biomarkers (AST, ALT and alpha-ketoglutarate) had the highest accuracy in diagnosing liver steatosis. Conclusion These findings suggest that alpha-ketoglutarate can determine the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver in morbidly obese patients but it is not valid a biomarker for NASH. PMID:27123846

  9. Increased Circulating Levels of Alpha-Ketoglutarate in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Aragonès

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD causes a wide spectrum of liver damage, ranging from simple steatosis to cirrhosis. However, simple steatosis (SS and steatohepatitis (NASH cannot yet be distinguished by clinical or laboratory features. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between alpha-ketoglutarate and the degrees of NAFLD in morbidly obese patients.We used a gas chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight-mass spectrometry analysis to quantify alpha-ketoglutarate in serum from normal-weight subjects (n = 30 and morbidly obese women (n = 97 with or without NAFLD.We found that serum levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were significantly higher in morbidly obese women than in normal-weight women. We showed that circulating levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were lower in lean controls and morbidly obese patients without NAFLD. We also found that alpha-ketoglutarate serum levels were higher in both SS and NASH than in normal liver of morbidly obese patients. However, there was no difference between SS and NASH. Moreover, we observed that circulating levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were associated with glucose metabolism parameters, lipid profile, hepatic enzymes and steatosis degree. In addition, diagnostic performance of alpha-ketoglutarate has been analyzed in NAFLD patients. The AUROC curves from patients with liver steatosis exhibited an acceptable clinical utility. Finally, we showed that the combination of biomarkers (AST, ALT and alpha-ketoglutarate had the highest accuracy in diagnosing liver steatosis.These findings suggest that alpha-ketoglutarate can determine the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver in morbidly obese patients but it is not valid a biomarker for NASH.

  10. Effect of Folk Dance Training on Blood Oxidative Stress Level, Lipids, and Lipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okdan Bora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Folk dance is a form of physical activity which helps develop the ability to use the whole body in a coordinated way with music, and folk dancers’ characteristics vary according to the particular type of dance practised in a given geographic region. The aims of the study were to evaluate the effects of 12-week folk dance training on blood oxidative stress level, lipids, lipoproteins, as well as muscle damage markers and to define some physical and physiological properties of folk dancers. Material and methods. Thirty-eight healthy male folk dancers aged 21-28 years having an average of 11 years of dance training experience voluntarily participated in the study. All of the physical and physiological measurements and the blood analysis were performed twice, before and after the training period which focused on different regional dances (Caucasus, Bar, Zeybek, Spoon Dance, Thracian dances, and Horon. The training was done 2 hours per day (a total of 10 hours a week, during a 12-week-long period. Results. All the blood parameters were found to be within the specified reference ranges. The training programme had no significant effect on the blood lipid profile, whereas it was found to have positive effects on body fat (p ≤ 0.012, peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak; p = 0.000, muscle damage markers (creatine kinase, Δ% = −19.6, and total antioxidant capacity (p ≤ 0.002. Conclusions. Regular folk dance training was found to have positive effects on body fat, VO2peak, blood total antioxidant capacity, and muscle damage markers. Based on these results, the community should be encouraged to perform folk dance as a recreational physical activity, and public awareness should be raised about the health benefits of practising folk dances.

  11. Determination of levels of adenosine phosphates in blood by ion chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Jin Xie; Ming Li Ye; Zhong Yang Hu; Guang Wen Pan; Yan Zhu; Jia Jie Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A new method was developed for simultaneous determination of levels of AMP, ADP and ATP in blood by anion-exchange chromatography. The three adenosine phosphates were separated by Dionex IonPac AG18 (50 mm x 4 mm) guard column and IonPac AS18 (250 mm x 4 mm) analytical column using a gradient method and detected with a suppressed conductivity detector. The detection limits (S/N = 3) of AMP, ADP and ATP were 38, 47, 108 ng/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations of retention time, peak area and peak height were all less than 1.87% and a good linear relationship was obtained. This method was applied to analyze human blood samples.

  12. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes.

  13. Healthy ranges of serum alanine aminotransferase levels in Tranian blood donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Mohamadnejad; Akram Pourshams; Reza Malekzadeh; Ashraf Mohamadkhani; Afsaneh Rajabiani; Ali Ali Asgari; Seyed Meysam Alimohamadi; Hadi Razjooyan; Mamar-Abadi

    2003-01-01

    AIM:The healthy ranges for serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are less well studied. The aim of this study was to define the upper limit of normal (ULN) for serum ALT levels, and to assess factors associated with serum ALT activity in apparently healthy blood donors.METHODS: A total of 1 939 blood donors were included.ALT measurements were performed for all cases using the same laboratory method. Healthy ranges for ALT levels were computed from the population at the lowest risk for liver disease. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate associations between clinical factors and ALT levels.RESULTS: Serum ALT activity was independently associated with body mass index (BMI) and male gender, but not associated with age. Association of ALT with BMI was more prominent in males than in females. Upper limit of normal for non-overweight women (BMI of less than 25) was 34 U/L,and for non-overweight men was 40 U/L.CONCLUSION: Serum ALT is strongly associated with sex and BMI. The normal range of ALT should be defined for male and female separately.

  14. The Effect of 8 Weeks of Aerobic Training and Consumption of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Nettle on Apelin and hs-CRP plasma Levels of Overweight and Obese Women

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    M Madadi Jaberi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The use of exercise along with herbal supplements is one method proposed for controlling obesity and its complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks aerobic training and use of hydro-alcoholic extract of nettle on levels apelin and hs-CRP plasma in overweight and obese women. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted with blind randomized clinical trial. 46 overweight and obese women (body mass index greater than 25 kilograms per square millimeter two, aged 25-45 years were selected purposefully and randomly divided into four groups of: aerobic training + hydro alcoholic extract of nettle, aerobic exercise + placebo extract of nettle and placebo. The intervention group and placebo received 8 mg of hydro alcoholic extract of nettle 8 ml of water-soluble daily for 8 weeks respectively. Aerobic exercise ergometer for 8 weeks, 3 sessions of 16 to 30 minutes with the intensity of 60-75% heart rate was reserved. In two pre and post-test after 14 hours of fasting at the same conditions, blood samples were collected. The ELISA method was use to assess levels of plasma apelin and hs-CRP d. Data obtained were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, ANOVA, t-test and LSD test. Results: The results showed that the levels of hs-CRP were significantly different in comparison among the groups as well as in groups of aerobic exercise + hydro alcoholic extract of nettle, nettle and hydro-alcholic aerobic exercise + placebo significant reduction was observed (p>0.05. Conclusion: It seems that consumption of Nettle extract along with aerobic exercise through Weight loss, body fat percentage and BMI, play an effective role in control of obesity and reducing of inflammatory Apelin markers and hs-CRP in obese women

  15. Blood Level of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Leukocytes and Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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    Cukic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNL) have an important defensive role against various microorganisms and other agents, but by liberating various substances, first of all the superoxide anion (O 2¯), they can damage the bronchial mucosa and influence the development of bronchial inflammation which is the fundamental of bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR). Objective: to show the role of the PMNL for development and level of BHR in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Material and methods: We observed 160 patients with COPD treated in Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” Sarajevo during three years :from 2012 to 2014. They were divided into groups and subgroups according to the first registration of BHR in the course of illness and to the number of exacerbations of the disease in one year. The number of blood PMNL was measured in a stable state of disease at the begging and at the end of investigation. Results: The number of blood PMNL was significantly greater in patients with 3 or more exacerbations per one year (p <0.01). Patients with BHR had significantly greater number blood PMNL than patients without BHR (p< 0.05). Patients with 3 exacerbations per year had a statistically significant increase of number of PMNL between first and last examination (p<0.01). Conclusion: There is statistically significant correlation between the number of blood PMNL and the level of BHR in COPD, but future examination need to be done to determine real role and mode of action of PMNL for these processes. PMID:26543311

  16. Detection of cord blood hepcidin levels as a biomarker for early-onset neonatal sepsis.

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    Cizmeci, Mehmet Nevzat; Kara, Semra; Kanburoglu, Mehmet Kenan; Simavli, Serap; Duvan, Candan Iltemur; Tatli, Mustafa Mansur

    2014-03-01

    Early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) continues to be a severe condition associated with a high mortality and morbidity. However, symptoms and laboratory markers of this serious condition are nonspecific and currently there are no available standard tests to provide perfect diagnostic accuracy. An early recognition and initiation of antimicrobial therapy are essential in order to prevent morbidity and mortality. Hepcidin, the key regulator of iron homeostasis, is also an acute-phase reactant, which has a critical role in inflammation and contributes to host defense by interfering with microorganism's access to iron. Since hepcidin expression is induced by interleukin-6 (IL-6), it also plays role in the innate immune system. Recently, endogenous expression of hepcidin by macrophages and neutrophils in response to bacterial pathogens confirmed its role in innate immunity. The clear link between the hepcidin molecule and innate immunity may be used for the detection of EONS. We hypothesized that an increased level of hepcidin in cord blood may be used as a reliable biological marker of EONS and designed a prospective cohort study to test this hypothesis and collected pilot data. Cord blood samples of all infants born between January 2009 and December 2010 at our university hospital were collected after parental consent and a total of 38 infants were enrolled in the study who fulfilled the sepsis criteria. The range of cord blood hepcidin was found to be significantly increased in newborns with EONS (min-max: 118.1-8400 ng/mL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the pathophysiologic relevance of hepcidin in EONS and demonstrate increased levels of hepcidin in cord blood as an acute-phase reactant in response to sepsis.

  17. Blood ammonia levels in liver cirrhosis: a clue for the presence of portosystemic collateral veins

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    Tripodi Francesca

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Portal hypertension leads to the formation of portosystemic collateral veins in liver cirrhosis. The resulting shunting is responsible for the development of portosystemic encephalopathy. Although ammonia plays a certain role in determining portosystemic encephalopathy, the venous ammonia level has not been found to correlate with the presence or severity of this entity. So, it has become partially obsolete. Realizing the need for non-invasive markers mirroring the presence of esophageal varices in order to reduce the number of endoscopy screening, we came back to determine whether there was a correlation between blood ammonia concentrations and the detection of portosystemic collateral veins, also evaluating splenomegaly, hypersplenism (thrombocytopenia and the severity of liver cirrhosis. Methods One hundred and fifty three consecutive patients with hepatic cirrhosis of various etiologies were recruited to participate in endoscopic and ultrasonography screening for the presence of portosystemic collaterals mostly esophageal varices, but also portal hypertensive gastropathy and large spontaneous shunts. Results Based on Child-Pugh classification, the median level of blood ammonia was 45 mcM/L in 64 patients belonging to class A, 66 mcM/L in 66 patients of class B and 108 mcM/L in 23 patients of class C respectively (p The grade of esophageal varices was concordant with venous ammonia levels (rho 0.43, p Conclusion Identifying cirrhotic patients with high blood ammonia concentrations could be clinically useful, as high levels would lead to suspicion of being in presence of collaterals, in clinical practice of esophageal varices, and pinpoint those patients requiring closer follow-up and endoscopic screening.

  18. [Physical activity level and home blood pressure measurement: Pilot study "Acti-HTA"].

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    Sosner, P; Ott, J; Steichen, O; Bally, S; Krummel, T; Brucker, M; Lequeux, B; Dourmap, C; Llaty, P; Le Coz, S; Baguet, S; Miranne, A; Labrunée, M; Gremeaux, V; Lopez-Sublet, M

    2015-06-01

    While physical activity (PA) is recommended for high blood pressure management, the level of PA practice of hypertensive patients remains unclear. We aimed to assess the association between the level of both PA and blood pressure of individuals consulting in 9 hypertension specialist centres. Eighty-five hypertensive patients were included (59 ± 14 years, 61% men, 12% smokers, 29% with diabetes). Following their consultation, they performed home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) over 7 days (2 in the morning+2 in the evening), they wrote in a dedicated form their daily activities to estimate the additional caloric expenditure using Acti-MET device (built from International physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ]). Thus, patients completed a self-administered questionnaire "score of Dijon" (distinguishing active subjects with a score>20/30, from sedentary<10/30). Subjects with normal HBPM value (<135/85 mm Hg) (55% of them) compared to those with high HBPM were older, had a non-significant trend towards higher weekly caloric expenditure (4959 ± 5045 kcal/week vs. 4048 ± 4199 kcal/week, P=0.3755) and score of Dijon (19.44 ± 5.81 vs. 18.00 ± 4.32, P=0.2094) with a higher proportion of "active" subjects (48.9% vs. 34.2%, P=0.1773). In conclusion, our results demonstrate a "tendency" to a higher level of reported PA for subjects whose hypertension was controlled. This encourages us to continue with a study that would include more subjects, which would assess PA level using an objective method such as wearing an accelerometer sensor.

  19. Low blood and plasma carnitine levels in children receiving long-term parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlström, K A; Ament, M E; Moukarzel, A; Vinton, N E; Cederblad, G

    1990-10-01

    Total and free carnitine and acylcarnitine concentrations were analyzed in whole blood and plasma in 12 children with a mean age of 68.4 +/- 42.9 months who had received carnitine-free total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for an average of 4 years. The purpose of the study was to see if the children had become carnitine deficient and, if so, whether this correlated with poor lipid clearance. Compared to controls, the TPN-dependent children had significantly decreased concentrations of total and free carnitine in blood (26.6 +/- 9.4 (SD) mumols/L vs. 43.3 +/- 9.1 mumols/L, p less than 0.001, and 17.1 +/- 7.7 mumols/L vs. 35.2 +/- 8.1 mumols/L, p less than 0.001, respectively). Similar results were found in plasma (total carnitine of 19.0 +/- 8.0 mumols/L vs. 41.9 +/- 5.2 mumols/L, p less than 0.001, and free carnitine of 15.7 +/- 7.3 mumols/L vs. 36.1 +/- 5.2 mumols/L, p less than 0.001, respectively). The acylcarnitine concentration in plasma was decreased in the TPN children (3.3 +/- 1.5 mumols/L vs. 5.8 +/- 3.0 mumols/L, p less than 0.01) compared to controls. Despite the low carnitine concentrations, serum triglyceride levels and serum free fatty acid levels were within the normal range. There was no correlation between carnitine concentrations in plasma and serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels. Our data show that children receiving carnitine-free TPN for many years developed markedly decreased concentrations of carnitine in blood and plasma. However, no adverse effects of the low carnitine levels were found on triglyceride and free fatty acid metabolism under stable conditions.

  20. Assessment of DDT and DDE levels in soil, dust, and blood samples from Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Fernando Díaz-Barriga; Trejo-Acevedo, Antonio; Betanzos, Angel F; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Alegría-Torres, Jorge Alejandro; Maldonado, Iván Nelinho Pérez

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess levels of DDT and DDE in two environmental matrices (soil and dust) and to investigate the blood levels of these insecticides in exposed children living in a north Mexican state (Chihuahua) where DDT was sprayed several years ago during (1) health campaigns for the control of malaria and (2) agricultural activities. DDT and DDE were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In general, lower levels were found in household outdoor samples. The levels in outdoor samples ranged from 0.001 to 0.788 mg/kg for DDT and from 0.001 to 0.642 mg/kg for DDE. The levels in indoor samples ranged from 0.001 to 15.47 mg/kg for DDT and from 0.001 to 1.063 mg/kg for DDE. Similar results to those found in indoor soil were found in dust, in which the levels ranged from 0.001 to 95.87 mg/kg for DDT and from 0.001 to 0.797 mg/kg for DDE. Moreover, blood levels showed that all of the communities studied had been exposed to DDT and/or DDE, indicating a general past or present exposure to DDT. It is important to note that the quotient DDT/DDE in all matrices was always >1. Whether the people living in our study area are at risk is an issue that deserves further analysis. However, applying precautionary principles, it is important to initiate a risk-reduction program to decrease exposure to DDT and its metabolites in people living in this area.

  1. Effects of dietary protein levels for gestating gilts on reproductive performance, blood metabolites and milk composition.

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    Jang, Y D; Jang, S K; Kim, D H; Oh, H K; Kim, Y Y

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary CP levels in gestation under equal lysine content on reproductive performance, blood metabolites and milk composition of gilts. A total of 25 gilts (F1, Yorkshire×Landrace) were allotted to 4 dietary treatments at breeding in a completely randomized design, and fed 1 of 4 experimental diets containing different CP levels (11%, 13%, 15%, or 17%) at 2.0 kg/d throughout the gestation. Body weight of gilts at 24 h postpartum tended to increase linearly (p = 0.09) as dietary CP level increased. In lactation, backfat thickness, ADFI, litter size and weaning to estrus interval (WEI) did not differ among dietary treatments. There were linear increases in litter and piglet weight at 21 d of lactation (pPlasma urea nitrogen levels of gilts in gestation and at 24 h postpartum were linearly elevated as dietary CP level increased (pplasma of gestating gilts increased as dietary CP level increased up to 15%, and then decreased with quadratic effects (15 d, pplasma FFA, glucose levels and milk composition in lactation. These results indicate that increasing dietary CP level under equal lysine content in gestation increases BW of gilts and litter performance but does not affect litter size and milk composition. Feeding over 13% CP diet for gestating gilts could be recommended to improve litter growth.

  2. Portal pressure and blood nitric oxide levels as predictors of outcome in biliary atresia

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    Vikram Khanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the incidence of portal hypertension (PHT in biliary atresia (BA patients and to monitor its progress after Kasai portoenterostomy (KP by measuring nitric oxide (NO levels in peripheral blood. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study conducted over a period of 2 years. Intraoperative portal pressure (PP and blood NO levels at presentation, 1-month, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up, were correlated with clinical and biochemical parameters in BA patients. The mean NO level in age-matched control group was 4.64 ± 2.32 μmol/L. Results: Thirty-four BA patients underwent KP over a period of 2 years. The mean age of presentation was 2.7 months (range 1-4 months. The mean intraoperative PP was 21.3 ± 5.4 mmHg. The mean PP in patients aged 90 days was 18.53 ± 4.45 mmHg, 20.33 ± 3.07 mmHg, and 26.5 ± 5.01 mmHg, respectively. The mean PP in the patients who underwent successful KP was 16.75 ± 3.54 mmHg while for those who continued to have jaundice it was 23.94 ± 4.63 mmHg (P < 0.001. NO levels closely followed the PP as shown by the regression equation NO = 4.79 + 0.64 PP mmHg, R2 = 0.69. The mean NO level at presentation was 18.48 ± 4.17 μmol/L and at 1-month, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up was 11.94 ± 5.62 μmol/L, 10.79 ± 6.02 μmol/L, and 9.93 ± 6.53 μmol/L, respectively (P < 0.001. The difference in NO levels was also statistically significant between the patients who cleared jaundice and those with persisting jaundice. Conclusion: All BA patients had PHT at presentation. PHT worsens with age and has an adverse effect on outcome of KP. NO levels in blood closely follow PP and higher levels are associated with poor outcome.

  3. Portal pressure and blood nitric oxide levels as predictors of outcome in biliary atresia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Vikram; Bhatnagar, Veereshwar; Agarwala, Sandeep; Srinivas, Maddur; Das, Nibhriti; Singh, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the incidence of portal hypertension (PHT) in biliary atresia (BA) patients and to monitor its progress after Kasai portoenterostomy (KP) by measuring nitric oxide (NO) levels in peripheral blood. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study conducted over a period of 2 years. Intraoperative portal pressure (PP) and blood NO levels at presentation, 1-month, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up, were correlated with clinical and biochemical parameters in BA patients. The mean NO level in age-matched control group was 4.64 ± 2.32 μmol/L. Results: Thirty-four BA patients underwent KP over a period of 2 years. The mean age of presentation was 2.7 months (range 1-4 months). The mean intraoperative PP was 21.3 ± 5.4 mmHg. The mean PP in patients aged 90 days was 18.53 ± 4.45 mmHg, 20.33 ± 3.07 mmHg, and 26.5 ± 5.01 mmHg, respectively. The mean PP in the patients who underwent successful KP was 16.75 ± 3.54 mmHg while for those who continued to have jaundice it was 23.94 ± 4.63 mmHg (P < 0.001). NO levels closely followed the PP as shown by the regression equation NO = 4.79 + 0.64 PP mmHg, R2 = 0.69. The mean NO level at presentation was 18.48 ± 4.17 μmol/L and at 1-month, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up was 11.94 ± 5.62 μmol/L, 10.79 ± 6.02 μmol/L, and 9.93 ± 6.53 μmol/L, respectively (P < 0.001). The difference in NO levels was also statistically significant between the patients who cleared jaundice and those with persisting jaundice. Conclusion: All BA patients had PHT at presentation. PHT worsens with age and has an adverse effect on outcome of KP. NO levels in blood closely follow PP and higher levels are associated with poor outcome. PMID:27046973

  4. Blood levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in children of Lucknow, India.

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    Singh, Vipul K; Patel, Devendra K; Ram, S; Mathur, N; Siddiqui, M K J; Behari, Jai Raj

    2008-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds with two or more fused benzene rings produced by incomplete combustion of organic substances involved in natural and anthropogenic processes. Children are exposed to these compounds through inhalation, dietary ingestion, and, also, soil at the playground. It has been well established that PAHs have carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic effects. Considering possible health risks due to PAHs exposure among children, the present study was carried out in collaboration with the Pediatrics Department, King George's Medical University (KGMU), Lucknow, to determine its exposure in children by estimating blood PAHs levels. Due to the variable composition of PAHs mixtures emitted from different environmental sources, any single compound or metabolite may not be representative of all exposure conditions. For these reasons, the measurement of blood PAHs levels as a possible biomarker, especially of the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency, USA) priority list, has been proposed. Acenaphthylene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, naphthalene, pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene were determined by HPLC-FD/UV. On the basis of the individual compound, the median (50th percentile) of naphthalene (19 ppb) was highest, however, benzo(a)pyrene (4.0 ppb) level was found to be lowest among all detected PAHs. The median level of total noncarcinogenic PAHs (113.55 ppb) was higher than the total carcinogenic PAHs (32.35 ppb) in blood samples of children. A significant correlation was found between period of time spent in the surrounding breathing zone of the cooking place and total noncarcinogenic PAHs (p < 0.05), while the blood carcinogenic PAHs level in children was found to be associated with lower status of their families (p < 0.05). It is speculated that there may be chances of health hazards through exposure to PAHs, those not yet declared hazardous and present at higher concentrations in

  5. The Protective Effects of Buzui on Acute Alcoholism in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Da-Chao; Gao, Shu-di; Hu, Xiao-yu; Yi, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of a traditional buzui recipe in anti-inebriation treatment. Buzui consists of Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis, Fructus Chebulae, Fructus Mume, Fructus Crataegi, Endothelium Corneum Gigeriae Galli, and Excrementum Bombycis. The buzui mixture was delivered by gavage, and ethanol was delivered subsequent to the final treatment. The effects of buzui on the righting reflex, inebriation rates, and the survival curve are depicted. Blood alcohol concentrations, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were recorded. The activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as malonaldehyde (MDA) levels, were also measured. Our results demonstrated that a traditional buzui recipe showed significant effects on promoting wakefulness and the prevention of acute alcohol intoxication, accelerating the metabolism of alcohol in the liver and reducing the oxidative damage caused by acute alcoholism. PMID:26884793

  6. Blood amyloid beta levels in healthy, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease individuals: replication of diastolic blood pressure correlations and analysis of critical covariates.

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    Agustín Ruiz

    Full Text Available Plasma amyloid beta (Aβ levels are being investigated as potential biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. In AB128 cross-sectional study, a number of medical relevant correlates of blood Aβ40 or Aβ42 were analyzed in 140 subjects (51 Alzheimer's disease patients, 53 healthy controls and 36 individuals diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment. We determined the association between multiple variables with Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels measured in three different blood compartments called i Aβ directly accessible (DA in the plasma, ii Aβ recovered from the plasma matrix (RP after diluting the plasma sample in a formulated buffer, and iii associated with the remaining cellular pellet (CP. We confirmed that diastolic blood pressure (DBP is consistently correlated with blood DA Aβ40 levels (r=-0.19, P=0.032. These results were consistent in the three phenotypic groups studied. Importantly, the observation resisted covariation with age, gender or creatinine levels. Observed effect size and direction of Aβ40 levels/DBP correlation are in accordance with previous reports. Of note, DA Aβ40 and the RP Aβ40 were also strongly associated with creatinine levels (r=0.599, P<<0.001 and to a lesser extent to urea, age, hematocrit, uric acid and homocysteine (p<0.001. DBP and the rest of statistical significant correlates identified should be considered as potential confounder factors in studies investigating bloodlevels as potential AD biomarker. Remarkably, the factors affecting Aβ levels in plasma (DA, RP and blood cell compartments (CP seem completely different.

  7. Effect of different levels of L-carnitine and lysine-methionine on broiler blood parameters

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    Babak Hosseintabar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. In the present study a completely randomized 3×3 factorial design was used to analyze the effects of different levels of L-Carnitine, lysine(Lys and methionine (Met on the blood concentrations of energy, protein and lipid metabolites of male broiler chickens. Materials and methods. A total of 270 newly hatched male broiler chickens (Ross 308 were randomly assigned to 9 groups (ten broilers per replicate and three replicates per treatment. The control group was fed a basal diet, whereas the treatment groups were fed basal diets supplemented with L-Carnitine (0 mg/kg, 75 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg and lysine-methionine (0, 15 and 30% for 42 days. On day 42, one bird was randomly chosen per replication, a blood sample was taken and the blood concentrations of glucose (GLU, uric acid (UAc, triglyceride (TG, VLDL, HDL, LDL, total protein (TP, albumin (Alb and total cholesterol (TC were analyzed. Results. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation had a significant effect (p<0.05 on uric acid (UAc, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol (TC. The birds feed L-carnitine plus Lys and Met presented the highest plasmatic UAc level and the lowest plasmatic TC and LDL level. Moreover, L-carnitine significantly reduced total cholesterol (TC when compared with both the control group and the birds feed Lys and Met without L-carnitine. Conclusions. A diet with 150 mg/kg L-carnitine plus 15% Lys and Met seems to be enough to sustain low plasmatic TC, LDL and HDL concentrations on male broiler.

  8. Triclosan/triclocarban levels in maternal and umbilical blood samples and their association with fetal malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ling; Qiao, Pengyun; Shi, Ying; Ruan, Yan; Yin, Jie; Wu, Qingqing; Shao, Bing

    2017-03-01

    Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are widely used as antimicrobial compounds in consumer products. TCS and TCC are frequently found in waste water and sewage. In this study, we investigate the potential impact of exposure to triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) on fetal abnormalities. We measured TCS and TCC levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood samples from 39 pregnant women diagnosed with fetal or post-birth abnormalities at Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital. 52 pregnant women who gave birth to healthy neonates during the same period of time were included as controls. Applying ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, TCS and TCC concentrations were measured in maternal and fetal sera. Significantly increased levels of TCS were detected in maternal sera from mothers with abnormal births. Similar levels of TCS or TCC were found in maternal and cord sera in control group. The concentrations of TCS or TCC in maternal sera correlated with those in umbilical cord sera (r=0.649, P<0.01). These observations suggest that maternal blood test could be a useful assay for detecting fetal exposure to TCS and TCC, and high exposure to TCS may be potentially associated with increased risk for fetal malformations.

  9. Analytical model for real time, noninvasive estimation of blood glucose level.

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    Adhyapak, Anoop; Sidley, Matthew; Venkataraman, Jayanti

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an analytical model to estimate blood glucose level from measurements made non-invasively and in real time by an antenna strapped to a patient's wrist. Some promising success has been shown by the RIT ETA Lab research group that an antenna's resonant frequency can track, in real time, changes in glucose concentration. Based on an in-vitro study of blood samples of diabetic patients, the paper presents a modified Cole-Cole model that incorporates a factor to represent the change in glucose level. A calibration technique using the input impedance technique is discussed and the results show a good estimation as compared to the glucose meter readings. An alternate calibration methodology has been developed that is based on the shift in the antenna resonant frequency using an equivalent circuit model containing a shunt capacitor to represent the shift in resonant frequency with changing glucose levels. Work under progress is the optimization of the technique with a larger sample of patients.

  10. Increased platelet oxidative metabolism, blood oxidative stress and neopterin levels after ultra-endurance exercise.

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    de Lucas, Ricardo Dantas; Caputo, Fabrizio; Mendes de Souza, Kristopher; Sigwalt, André Roberto; Ghisoni, Karina; Lock Silveira, Paulo Cesar; Remor, Aline Pertile; da Luz Scheffer, Débora; Guglielmo, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci; Latini, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to identify muscle damage, inflammatory response and oxidative stress blood markers in athletes undertaking the ultra-endurance MultiSport Brazil race. Eleven well-trained male athletes (34.3 ± 3.1 years, 74.0 ± 7.6 kg; 172.2 ± 5.1 cm) participated in the study and performed the race, which consisted of about 90 km of alternating off-road running, mountain biking and kayaking. Twelve hours before and up to 15 minutes after the race a 10 mL blood sample was drawn in order to measure the following parameters: lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities, lipid peroxidation, catalase activity, protein carbonylation, respiratory chain complexes I, II and IV activities, oxygen consumption and neopterin concentrations. After the race, plasma lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities were significantly increased. Erythrocyte TBA-RS levels and plasma protein carbonylation were markedly augmented in post-race samples. Additionally, mitochondrial complex II activity and oxygen consumption in post-race platelet-rich plasma were also increased. These altered biochemical parameters were accompanied by increased plasma neopterin levels. The ultra-endurance event provoked systemic inflammation (increased neopterin) accompanied by marked oxidative stress, likely by increasing oxidative metabolism (increased oxidative mitochondrial function). This might be advantageous during prolonged exercise, mainly for efficient substrate oxidation at the mitochondrial level, even when tissue damage is induced.

  11. High blood lead levels in ceramic folk art workers in Michoacan, Mexico.

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    Fernandez, G O; Martinez, R R; Fortoul, T I; Palazuelos, E

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic folk art workers are at risk for developing lead intoxication. These workers live in small settlements, which often lack sanitation services, and these individuals work with ceramics in their homes. The study population comprised individuals of all ages from three rural communities in central Michoacan (Tzintzuntzan, Tzintzunzita, and Colonia Lazaro Cardenas). A survey questionnaire, which was provided to each individual, included questions about household characteristics, presence of a clay oven in the home, and use of lead oxide ("greta") and other hazardous products. Venous blood samples were obtained from the workers. We found lead exposure to be reduced if the home floor was covered and if the house had been painted < or =1 y prior to study. Blood lead levels exceeded the maximum level permitted, but the levels were lower than those found in the 1970s, during which time study techniques for analyzing samples differed from those used in the present study. In addition, activity patterns of the populations differed during the two studies.

  12. Fetal Growth Retardation And Its Relationship To Maternal Blood Lead Levels, Antioxidants And Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

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    Ragab H. EL-Yamani* and Ahmed E. Karim

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead intoxication in human being has been documented since the second century BC and its deleterious effects continue to be a major health hazard for the population, it is demonstrated that lead exposure might decrease the defense mechanism of the cell to the oxidative stress, and therefore, elevate the reactive oxygen species (ROS generation which enhance vascular reactivity. Since vitamin E (Vit. E and vitamin C (Vit. C are natural antioxidants, changes in their status may reflect alterations in free radical production rate and their concentrations are biological markers of oxidative stress. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between maternal blood lead levels and the antioxidants Vit.E and Vit.C in a step to understand the mechanism of action of lead and its possible influence on maternal blood pressure and fetal growth at the lower community exposure levels. The study included, 42 patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH with or without proteinuria, 31 patients with fetal growth retardation (FGR and 23 women with uncomplicated pregnancy. We demonstrated that, the maternal blood lead levels were significantly high in the PIH (30.5 ±0.978 µg/dl and FGR groups (28.87 ±1.21 µg/dl as compared with the uncomplicated pregnancy group (17.82 ±110µg/dl at P0.00l Vit.E concentrations were significantly lower in both PIH and FGR (0.941 ±0.033 mg/dl and 0.866 ± 0.055 mg/dl respectively when compared with normal group (2.00±0.085 mg/dl. Regarding Vit.C in the 2 studied groups there was significantly low levels in PIH group (0.772 ±0.030 mg/dl and FGR (0.847 ±0.039 mg/dl in comparison with control group (l.23 ±0.06 mg/dl. We observed significant negative correlation between maternal blood lead levels and Vit.E in PIH and FGR group. A significant negative correlation was also observed between maternal lead levels and Vit.C in both studied groups. We concluded that high blood lead levels in pregnancy are associated

  13. Hormonal and nonhormonal factors affecting sex hormone-binding globulin levels in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, J H

    1988-01-01

    Researchers in Utrecht, the Netherlands have studied the effects of different factors, such as oral contraceptives (OCs), on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels in blood. The SHBG levels in women who continuously used OCs consisting only of .05 mg of ethinyl estradiol (EE2) rose as high as 260% + or - 25% of those in women not using OCs. Further, mean SHBG levels of women using combination OCs of EE2 and levonorgestrel were 10-60% higher than women not using OCs. SHBG levels were significantly higher than the use of a sequential OC containing decreasing amounts of EE2 and increasing amounts of levonorgestrel than those cause by use of a continuous combined OC with .03 mg and .15 mg respectively. As the dosage of EE2 increased in combination OCs with 2.5 mg lynestrenol, the SHBG increased from 20% (.05 mg EE2) to 150% (.75 mg EE2). SHBG levels after taking EE2 and cyproterone acetate increased significantly more (240%) than levels after EE2 and desogestrel (170%), or after EE2 and gestoden (140%) [p.001]. SHBG levels of women who took OCs containing only .03 mg of levonorgestrel daily decreased 35% (p.01). These levels fell by 30% in women who received 150 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate intramuscularly every 3 months (p.001). SHBG concentrations increased when estrogens were taken orally for noncontraceptive purposes, but they did not change when they were administered percutaneously. As body weight increased the SHBG levels decreased despite hormonal status or sex. Further, the lower the fat content of one's diet the higher the SHBG levels and vice versa. SHBG levels are higher in males with flaccid lungs than they are in males with healthy lungs.

  14. Determinants of blood lead levels in an adult population from a mining area in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos Paoliello, M. M.; Mello de Capitani, E.; Gonçalves da Cunha, F.; Carvalho, M. De Fatima; Matsuo, T.; Sakuma, A.; Ribeiro Figueiredo, B.

    2003-05-01

    During the last fifty year the Ribeira river valley, Brazil, had been under the influence of the full activity of a huge lead refinery and mining along the riverside. The plant completely stopped all kind of industrial activities at the end of 1995, and part of the worker population and their families still remain living nearby in smal communities. The objective of the present study was to assess the deterninants of blood lead levels (BLL) in these nining areas, where residual environmental contamination from the past industrial activity still remains. Blood samples of 350 adults aged 15 to 70, residing in areas around the mine and the refinery were collected. A questionnaire was given in order to gather information on food habits, current and former residential places occupationnal activities, among other variables. Blood lead concentrations were analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using Zeeman background correction. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the independent contribution of selected variables in predicting BLL in those subjects. The following variables showed significant association with high BLL: residential area close to the lead refinery, former dwelling at the refinery village, male gender, smoking habits, and consume of fruits from home back yard.

  15. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M.; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D’Ann L.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40–60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.–11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17–99) μg/m3, and 100 (95% CI: 67–187) μg/m3 in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39–297) μg/m3 and 127.8 (95% CI: 86–190) μg/m3 in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant

  16. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undarmaa Enkhbat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40–60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.–11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™ and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17–99 μg/m3, and 100 (95% CI: 67–187 μg/m3 in ger households (p < 0.001. The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39–297 μg/m3 and 127.8 (95% CI: 86–190 μg/m3 in ger households (p = 0.004. The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001. Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15. The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01 when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically

  17. Relationship between Plasma Ghrelin Levels and Insulin Resistance and Blood Pressure in Octogenarians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵荫涛; 邵莉; 滕丽莉; 张代富; 张华

    2010-01-01

    The association between fasting plasma ghrelin levels and insulin resistance and blood pressure(BP) in octogenarians was investigated in this study.A total of 487 unrelated octogenarians(including 203 men and 284 women) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study at the Healthy Care Center of Shanghai East Hospital,Tongji University,China,from October 2008 to April 2009.Plasma ghrelin was determined by using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA).Insulin sensitivity was assessed using the homeostasis ...

  18. Elevated levels of whole blood nickel in a group of Sri Lankan women with endometriosis: a case control study

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    Silva Nalinda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometriosis is characterized by the persistence of endometrial tissue in ectopic sites outside the uterine cavity. Presence of nickel, cadmium and lead in ectopic endometrial tissue has been reported previously. While any association between blood levels of nickel and endometriosis is yet to be described in literature, conflicting reports are available with regards to cadmium and lead levels in blood and urine. Findings In fifty patients with endometriosis and fifty age-matched controls confirmed by laparoscopy or laparotomy, whole blood samples were collected and digested using supra pure 65% HNO3. Whole blood levels of nickel and lead were measured using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF while cadmium levels were evaluated using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFASS. Women with endometriosis had significantly higher (P=0.016 geometric mean (95% CI whole blood nickel levels [2.6(1.9-3.3 μg/L] as compared to women without endometriosis [0.8 (0.7-0.9 μg/L]. Whole blood levels of cadmium and lead were similar between the two groups. Conclusions Although women with endometriosis in this study population had higher levels of nickel in whole blood compared to controls, whether nickel could be considered as an aetiological factor in endometriosis remains inconclusive in view of the smaller sample that was evaluated.

  19. Effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the red blood cell count and RBC indices in the HIV infected patients on d4T/3TC/NVP drug regimen in Uganda

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    Godfrey S. Bbosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is common problem in Uganda. Among the types of alcohols consumed include beers, spirits, liqueurs, wines and traditional brew. These alcohols are easily accessible and consumed by many people including the HIV infected patients who are on the d4T/3TC/NVP regimen. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of chronic alcohol intake on the red blood cell count (RBC and the RBC indices in the HIV-infected patients on d4T/3TC/NVP regimen. It was a case control study that used a repeated measures design model where serial measurements of the red blood cell count (RBC and RBC indices were determined at 3 month interval for 9 months. A total of 41 HIV infected patients were recruited and grouped into two arms; the control group had 21 patients and the chronic alcohol group had 20 patients. The RBC and RBC indices of the whole blood were determined using automated hematological Coulter CBC-5 Hematology Analyzer system using standard procedures. The data was sorted into alcohol-use self reporting by WHO AUDIT tool and alcohol-use biomarkers groups. It was analysed using the SAS 2003 version 9.1 statistical package with the repeated measures fixed model. The means were compared using the student t-test. The mean MCV and MCH values in the chronic alcohol use group were higher than in the control group and there was a significant difference between the 2 groups (p<0.05 for both the WHO AUDIT tool group and chronic alcohol use biomarkers group. The mean RBC count, Hct, HGB and MCHC values in both the control and chronic alcohol use groups were within the normal reference ranges for both groups though the trend was lower in alcohol group. Chronic alcohol use affects the RBC and RBC indices in the HIV infected patients on d4T/3TC/NVP treatment regimen. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 528-536

  20. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol Facts and Statistics Print version Alcohol Use in the United States: ... 1245, 2004. PMID: 15010446 11 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 2014 Crash Data Key Findings (Traffic ...

  1. 乙醇所致精神障碍患者血细胞参数的研究%Research of blood cell parameters in alcohol-induced mental disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨梦心; 何柯新; 麦静雯

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore changes of blood cell parameters in alcohol-induced mental disorders ,so as to provide a monitoring parameter for alcohol-induced mental disorders .Methods 120 cases of healthy people and 113 cases of alcohol-induced mental disorders were selected in our hospital from February 2011 to August 2013 ,the 113 cases of alcohol-induced mental disorders were taken to be research group ,and the 120 cases of healthy people were taken to be control group .Then blood cell parameters were measured by Mindray BC-6800 Automated Hematology Analyzer ,and then the results of the both groups were analyzed and compared .Results There were significant differ-ence of RBC ,Hb ,HCT ,PLT ,MPV ,LYMPH # ,MCV、MCH、RDW、NEUT # and MONO # between alcohol-in-duced mental disorders and healthy people ,and there were no statistically significant difference in MCHC and WBC between two groups .Conclusion MCV and MCHC level can be used as a monitoring parameter for alcohol-induced mental disorders .%目的:探讨乙醇所致精神障碍患者血细胞参数的变化,从而为乙醇所致精神障碍患者提供一个实验室参考指标。方法选取广州医科大学附属脑科医院2011年2月至2013年8月收治的113例乙醇所致精神障碍患者(患者组)和120例健康体检者(健康对照组),分别检测两组血细胞参数指标,并对两组数据进行分析和比较。结果乙醇所致精神障碍患者血液红细胞(RBC)、血红蛋白(Hb)、红细胞压积(HCT)、血小板(PLT)、平均血小板容积(MPV)、淋巴细胞计数(LYMPH#)明显降低,平均红细胞体积(MCV)、平均红细胞血红蛋白含量(MCH)、红细胞分布宽度、中性粒细胞计数和单核细胞计数明显升高,平均血红蛋白浓度和白细胞无明显变化。结论红细胞的MCV、MCH 的检测可以作为乙醇所致精神障碍的一个监测指标。

  2. Effects of Dietary Protein Levels for Gestating Gilts on Reproductive Performance, Blood Metabolites and Milk Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y. D.; Jang, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Oh, H. K.; Kim, Y. Y.

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary CP levels in gestation under equal lysine content on reproductive performance, blood metabolites and milk composition of gilts. A total of 25 gilts (F1, Yorkshire×Landrace) were allotted to 4 dietary treatments at breeding in a completely randomized design, and fed 1 of 4 experimental diets containing different CP levels (11%, 13%, 15%, or 17%) at 2.0 kg/d throughout the gestation. Body weight of gilts at 24 h postpartum tended to increase linearly (p = 0.09) as dietary CP level increased. In lactation, backfat thickness, ADFI, litter size and weaning to estrus interval (WEI) did not differ among dietary treatments. There were linear increases in litter and piglet weight at 21 d of lactation (p<0.05) and weight gain of litter (p<0.01) and piglet (p<0.05) throughout the lactation as dietary CP level increased. Plasma urea nitrogen levels of gilts in gestation and at 24 h postpartum were linearly elevated as dietary CP level increased (p<0.05). Free fatty acid (FFA) levels in plasma of gestating gilts increased as dietary CP level increased up to 15%, and then decreased with quadratic effects (15 d, p<0.01; 90 d, p<0.05), and a quadratic trend (70 d, p = 0.06). There were no differences in plasma FFA, glucose levels and milk composition in lactation. These results indicate that increasing dietary CP level under equal lysine content in gestation increases BW of gilts and litter performance but does not affect litter size and milk composition. Feeding over 13% CP diet for gestating gilts could be recommended to improve litter growth. PMID:25049930

  3. The prognostic significance of whole blood global and specific DNA methylation levels in gastric adenocarcinoma.

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    Mansour S Al-Moundhri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epigenetics, particularly DNA methylation, has recently been elucidated as important in gastric cancer (GC initiation and progression. We investigated the clinical and prognostic importance of whole blood global and site-specific DNA methylation in GC. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of 105 Omani GC patients at diagnosis. DNA methylation was quantified by pyrosequencing of global DNA and specific gene promoter regions at 5 CpG sites for CDH1, 7 CpG sites for p16, 4 CpG sites for p53, and 3 CpG sites for RUNX3. DNA methylation levels in patients were categorized into low, medium, and high tertiles. Associations between methylation level category and clinicopathological features were evaluated using χ(2 tests. Survival analyses were carried out using the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test. A backward conditional Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify independent predictors of survival. RESULTS: Older GC patients had increased methylation levels at specific CpG sites within the CDH1, p53, and RUNX-3 promoters. Male gender was significantly associated with reduced global and increased site-specific DNA methylation levels in CDH1, p16, and p53 promoters. Global DNA low methylation level was associated with better survival on univariate analysis. Patients with high and medium methylation vs. low methylation levels across p16 promoter CpG sites, site 2 in particular, had better survival. Multivariate analysis showed that global DNA hypermethylation was a significant independent predictor of worse survival (hazard ratio (HR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.8; p = 0.02 and high methylation mean values across p16 promoter sites 1-7 were associated with better survival with HR of 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1-0.8; p = 0.02 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of global and site-specific DNA methylation in peripheral blood by pyrosequencing provides quantitative DNA methylation values that may serve as important

  4. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

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    LuAnn L. Brink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007 by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas.

  5. Modification of corporal weight, body fat distribution, blood lipids and glucose levels in oral contraceptive users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Lira, S; Bueno Fontal, J P

    2000-01-01

    The association between oral contraceptives and the modification of corporal weight and body fat distribution is controversial. The characteristics of the menstrual cycle, lipids and glucose levels were also analyzed. Thirty women who received ethinylestradiol 0.035 mg and norethindrone 0.400 mg for one year were studied. The following variables were analyzed every 3 months: weight, body mass index (BMI), hip perimeter, waist perimeter, waist-hip ratio (WHR), duration of menstrual cycle, quantity of uterine bleeding, as well as blood levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Waist and hip perimeters increased during the third evaluation; as well as the BMI starting from the second evaluation. The triglycerides levels rose from the first evaluation. No modifications were found in the WHR, glucose and cholesterol levels and the duration of the menstrual cycle, but the quantity of uterine bleeding decreased from the third month. The oral contraceptive significantly increased BMI and triglycerides level, but no changes were detected in body fat distribution, cholesterol and glucose levels. Uterine bleeding decreased from the first evaluation.

  6. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  7. The impact of weight reduction therapy on blood pressure levels in Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Victor Arantes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the incidence and prevalence of overweight and obesity are increasing drastically over the world. It is estimated that in Brazil 32% of adults are overweight and 8% obese, totalizing 40% of adults over the weight levels recommended for a healthy life. The situation is even more critical in the low-income population with poor educational level, where the problem is advancing even faster. Obesity figures among the most important risk factors for cardio-vascular diseases and there is strong scientific evidence that even modest weight reduction leads to significant clinical benefits. Thus, offering treatment for overweight and obesity in primary care can evidently improve the health and quality of life of the population and reduce the final public health expenditures. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the applicability and impact of a weight reduction program on the blood pressure levels of a group of patients assisted in a public primary care program called ‘Estratégia de Saúde da Família’ (Family Health Strategy and to propose ways for standardizing this program. A retrospective analytic study was conducted for comparing the clinical data of patients submitted to weight reduction therapy in a public primary care unit called ‘Unidade de Saúde da Família Bandeiras’ in Anápolis, State of Goiás, Brazil. Informed consent from the patients was obtained. Exclusion and inclusion criteria were applied to correct deviations, resulting in a homogeneous sample of 28 patients. Blood pressure and weight levels were obtained before and after the treatment. The arithmetic means of weight, height and blood pressure at the beginning of the treatment were compared with those obtained six months after the treatment was started. There was a mean reduction of 0,64mmHg in the systolic blood pressure (SBP levels and of 0,84mmHg in the diastolic blood pressure (DBP levels for each 1kg of weight loss. These data confirm those found

  8. Blood levels of polychlorinated biphenlys and organochlorinated pesticides in women from Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulutaş, Onur Kenan; Çok, Ismet; Darendeliler, Feyza; Aydin, Banu; Çoban, Asuman; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2015-03-01

    The human body is not a chemically uncontaminated system. Every simple action that humans undertake, such as drinking water, eating, nursing, and even breathing air, puts the system under environmental xenobiotic exposure stress. Environmental chemicals have been shown to produce unwanted effects on health and remove the right to healthy living, starting from the first encounter in utero to geriatrics, throughout the lifespan. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels, important members of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have been detected before in human breast milk and also in the adipose tissue of women from different regions of Turkey; however, there was no information about the blood levels of these chemicals. This study generated the first information that evaluates OCP and PCB contamination levels in the blood of the women living in Turkey. The current study measured the blood concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in 58 healthy women (age 20-41 years; mean age 28 years) who were living in Istanbul, Turkey, in the years 2010-2012. Samples were analyzed for 29 OCPs and 18 PCB congeners using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). PCB 153 was the predominant congener (643.2 pg/g lipid), followed by PCB 138 and PCB 180. 4,4'-DDE (24872.8 pg/g lipid) was the most common organochlorinated pesticide contaminant in studied blood samples. Results for analyzed chlorinated compounds were as follows: ∑PCB 2682 ± 3300 pg/g lipid; ∑DDT 25,938 ± 28,644 pg/g lipid; and ∑HCH 2930 ± 2222 pg/g lipid, respectively. The mean concentration of ∑WHOPCB-TEQ was 0.037 pg/g on a lipid basis. This information will be important base data during the assessment of the general health concerns of women, as well as for studies about how endocrine disruptors affect humans for forthcoming studies.

  9. Melatonin Pharmacological Blood Levels Increase Total Antioxidant Capacity in Critically Ill Patients

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    Giovanni Mistraletti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the aim was to test the biochemical effects of melatonin supplementation in Intensive Care Unit (ICU patients, since their blood levels are decreased. Sixty-four patients were enrolled in the study. From the evening of the 3rd ICU day, patients were randomized to receive oral melatonin (3 mg, group M or placebo (group P twice daily, at 20:00 and 24:00, until discharged. Blood was taken (at 00:00 and 14:00, on the 3rd ICU day to assess basal nocturnal melatonin values, and then during the treatment period on the 4th and 8th ICU days. Melatonin, total antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress were evaluated in serum. Melatonin circadian rhythm before treatment was similar in the two groups, with a partial preservation of the cycle. Four hours from the 1st administration (4th ICU day, 00:00, melatonin levels increased to 2514 (982.3; 7148 pg·mL−1 in group M vs. 20.3 (14.7; 62.3 pg·mL−1 in group P (p < 0.001. After five treatment days (8th ICU day, melatonin absorption showed a repetitive trend in group M, while in group P nocturnal secretion (00:00 was impaired: 20 (11.5; 34.5 pg·mL−1 vs. 33.8 (25.0; 62.2 on the 3rd day (p = 0.029. Immediately from the beginning of treatment, the total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in melatonin treated subjects at 00:00; a significant correlation was found between total antioxidant capacity and blood melatonin values (ρ = 0.328; p < 0.001. The proposed enteral administration protocol was adequate, even in the early phase, to enhance melatonin blood levels and to protect the patients from oxidative stress. The antioxidant effect of melatonin could play a meaningful role in the care and well-being of these patients.

  10. Effects of sugarcane wax alcohols in subjects with normal or borderline serum cholesterol levels

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    Ernesto López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La reducción de las concentraciones séricas del colesterol transportado por las lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL-C y del colesterol total (CT ha demostrado reducir la morbilidad y mortalidad coronaria, incluso en sujetos con concentraciones normales o limítrofes de colesterol. Los alcoholes de alto peso molecular de la cera de caña de azúcar (ACCA han demostrado reducir las concentraciones séricas de LDL-C y CT y aumentar las del colesterol transportado por las lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL-C, sin cambios importantes de los triglicéridos (TG, en sujetos normocolesterolémicos e hipercolesterolémicos. Sin embargo, los datos que sustentan los efectos de la dosis de 10 mg/d en individuos con concentraciones séricas de CT limítrofes o normales son relativamente escasos. El objetivo de este estudio aleatorizado, a doble ciegas y controlado con placebo consistió en confirmar la eficacia y seguridad de los ACCA (10 mg/d en sujetos con concentraciones séricas de CT ¿ 5,9 mmol/L. Cincuenta y cinco hombres y mujeres (edad promedio: 63 años fueron aleatorizados para recibir tabletas de placebo ó ACCA durante 12 semanas. El tratamiento redujo significativamente las concentraciones de LDL-C (22,1 %, p < 0 000 01, CT (11,7 %, p < 0,000 01 y aumentó las de HDL-C (9,6 %, p < 0,05 con respecto a las iniciales y al grupo placebo. Los indicadores de seguridad no se afectaron. Sólo un sujeto (placebo abandonó prematuramente el ensayo, pero no a causa de EA, y dos sujetos (un tratado, un placebo refirieron alguna EA (artralgia durante el estudio. Este estudio confirma que los ACCA (10 mg/d administrados durante 12 semanas fueron efectivos en reducir las LDL-C, el CT, el cociente LDL-C /HDL-C y en aumentar las HDL-C, siendo seguros y bien tolerados en sujetos con concentraciones séricas de CT normales o limítrofes.

  11. Is there a stimulation of blood microcirculation at low level laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogatkin, Dmitry; Dunaev, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    In 1980-2000 besides the laser surgery an intensive evolution of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) had started in medicine, especially in Russia as well as in several other East-European countries. At the same time the biophysical mechanisms of LLLT are still the subject of disputes. One of the most popular clinical effects at Low Level Laser Irradiation (LLLI) being mentioned in medical publications for justification of the LLLT healing outcome is a stimulation of blood microcirculation in irradiated area. It was declared a priori at a dawn of LLLT and is now a basis of medical interpretation of healing mechanisms of LLLT at least in Russia. But in past 20 years a lot of investigation was carried out on optical registration of microhaemodynamic parameters in vivo as well as a number of noninvasive diagnostic tools was created for that. So, today it is possible to experimentally check the blood microcirculation stimulation hypothesis. Our study was aimed on that during the past 10 years. The most precision and accurate experiments we have carried out recently using simultaneously three different noninvasive diagnostic techniques: Laser Doppler Flowmetry, Tissue Reflectance Oximetry and Infrared Thermography. All these methods didn't confirm the effect on the blood microcirculation stimulation in skin or mucosa at irradiation with the power density below 50 mW/cm2 and irradiation time up to 5-6 minutes. Above this threshold the heating on 0,8…1 °C of tissue in the field of irradiation and the corresponding synchronous increase of all parameters of microhemodynamics were observed.