In this booklet the uranium atom nucleus fission as well as electricity generation in a nuclear power plant (primary circuit, reactor, reactor pressure vessel, fuel assembly, control rod and reactor power control) are explained. Scheme of electricity generation in nuclear power plant and Cross-section of Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant unit are included. In next part a reactor scram, refuelling of fuel, instrumentation and control system as well as principles of nuclear safety and safety improvements are are described
The Slovak Republic is the country with very insufficient amounts of primary sources. That is why almost 90% of used fuel has to be imported. In addition Slovakia does not have direct access to the sea and cheap tankers transportation is not available. The only possibility for Slovakia in the near future from the point of needs and increasing electricity generation is nuclear power. As part of the former Czechoslovakia, Slovakia started to build the second nuclear power plant in the Mochovce village. Consequently with huge political and social changes in November 1989 and essential deficiency of investment money construction of nuclear power plant was stopped. Under considerable press by the non-governmental organizations (i.e. Greenpeace etc.) one of the main reason was to find out the formulation of feasibility and economic advantages of Mochovce completion very thoroughly and precisely even though the first unit has been completed approximately by 80%. As a grant from the European Union some financial sources were given to promote training process. Some financial sources obtained from the grant by the European Union have been given to promote the training process in the Slovak Republic. A brief description of methods which have been carried out to determine the best economic option for development of the company is part of material. Result is the only reasonable option is to complete nuclear power plant Mochovce not only from economic point of view. Several international pre operational audit team reviews by nuclear safety teams were sent by IAAE Vienna. Goals of these teams were to examine if safety is at the appropriate and accepted level and if the next operation would be acceptable. Models which are presently used in Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. have all the features of integrated resource planning
In this article author describes the present state and prospects of development of preparation of employees of Slovenske elektrarne, plc. Realised in Training centre of personnel of JEZ (IVS) VUJE Trnava, Inc., in co-operation with Slovenske elektrarne, Inc. Bratislava. Orientation on customer tends to Bohunice NPP, Mochovce 1, 2 EMO as well as on employees of Bohunice Radioactive Waste Processing Center, but also other subjects fulfilling tasks connected with nuclear and radiation safety in Slovakia as well as abroad
Purpose of the Feasibility Study was to define in detail all technical, economic, financial, legal and authorization aspects of Mochovce NPP Unit 3 and 4 completion in order to provide Slovenske Elektrarne, a. s. (SE) and ENEL Top Management with all the necessary information for a final decision on Mochovce Unit 3 and 4. Feasibility study has started in January 2006. SE had the commitment to complete the Feasibility Study within 12 months from Closing of SE acquisition (April 2007). In order not to delay completion of Mochovce Unit 3 and 4, SE has decided to perform, in parallel to the Feasibility study, also all design and permitting activities which are required for the completion of Plant. This has involved anticipation of expenses for approximately 700 MSKK (or approx. 20 MEuro). SE was able to announce the positive decision about completion on Mochovce NPP Unit 3 and 4, two months in advance of the deadline.
On 4 and 5 December, 2006, Fulvio Conti, Executive Director of ENEL, visited Slovenske elektrarne (SE). On the first day of his visit, he met with the Slovak Prime Minister Robert Fico. At the meeting, apart from energy prices, they discussed the completion of Blocks 3 and 4 of Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant. ENEL, which holds 66 % of shares in Slovenske elektrarne, should present to the Government within end of April a study on completion of construction of the blocks MO34. The completion of construction of the Mochovce blocks would amount to approximately EUR 1 billion 600 million. In the afternoon, he met with the representatives of SE's management, who presented to him the results achieved in the area of operational safety, costing, and electricity trade. On the second day, he visited the Mochovce nuclear power plant, where in the morning, there was held a meeting with financial analysts at international level. SE's General Director and Chairman of the Board of Directors, Paolo Ruzzini, had a presentation on introducing SE, then Marco Arcelli, Director of Strategic Development of ENEL Group for Central and Eastern Europe and Vice- Chairman of the Board of Directors of SE, had presentation on an Enel's increase in the Centrel region. Jaroslav Holubec, Director of Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant, summed up the operational results, and Giancarlo Aquilanti, Director of MO34 Power Plant, summed up the plans for the completion of Blocks 3 and 4 of Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant. After answers to the questions, the guests viewed a control room and turbine room of Block 1. (author)
Mochovce NPP was originally planned for operation with four WWER-213 440 MW reactor blocks. Mochovce units 1 and 2 were commissioned in 1998 and 2000, respectively. Construction of Mochovce units 3 and 4 was temporally suspended in 1992 due to a lack of financial resources. At present, construction of units 3 and 4 is approximately 30% complete in terms of technology and approximately 70% complete with respect to construction works, representing a total investment currently valued by Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) at approximately of SKK 18.9 bn. It is currently estimated by SE that the expenditures necessary to complete Mochovce units 3 and 4 amount to approximately SKK 42.5 bn, 45% of which for supplies and 55% for construction and assembly works. SE is considering various financial options for financing of the investments, including using project finance techniques as Mochovce units 3 and 4 are still considered as a plant under the construction
In Mochovce site the construction of four units of WWER 440 NPP with V-213 type of reactor is being carried out. The financing of Mochovce units completion was resolved in April 1996. The completion work commenced at the construction site under leadership of SKODA Prague, the general supplier. The completion work on building part and tests of constructional electric distributions and lightning constructors started. The revisions in technological part were finished, and final protocols from revisions are the basis for starting of completion work. The assembly of transport container anchorage,ventilation system in hermetic areas and hermetic coverage of pools for stored spent nuclear fuel is being carried out. The pre-completion tests of instrumentation and control of ventilation systems, individual dosimetric control in medical station, and tests of nuclear programme according to commissioning and assembling work schedule at the equipment for physical protection of the NPP area started. Inspection activities at Mochovce were performed in accordance with inspection plan for 1996. Evaluation of routine inspections was performed by means of quarterly protocols. Main findings from the inspections performed in Mochovce were in the following areas: (a) deficiencies in the knowledge of the respective regulation and conditions from the Resolution of the state regulatory body, concerning selected employees; (b) training of the selected employees; (c) aim of the measures imposes by inspectors is to eliminate deficiencies in preparation of programmes for pre-completion and completion testing. NRA SR assessment activities at Mochovce NPP were focused mainly on approving and inspecting of design modification to approving programmes for pre-completion and completion testing of system s and equipment and on approving quality assurance programmes. The suggestions of international missions, which reviewed Mochovce safety in the years, were taken into consideration in the programme
Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant has been an open project involving a wide international co-operation of numerous organisations of countries stretching from the Atlantic coast up to the Urals that make it a truly European project. The units at Mochovce are the later V-213 type of Soviet-designed WWER-440 reactors. They therefore incorporate a number of improvements over the earlier V-230 type. There are four units at Mochovce site: unit 1 has been in operation since summer 1998, unit 2 is currently in the stage of commissioning tests and scheduled for operation by the end of this year, and unit 3 and 4 are still waiting for the final governmental decision about their completion, currently 40% and 30% completed respectively. Beginning in 1981, the construction works were stopped in early 90's due to the decision on replacement of the original I and C system, as well as lack of funding afterwards. Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. have been working to resuscitate the project focusing initially on completion of the units 1 and 2 with assistance of western companies. one month later the governmental guarantees were given for loans and Slovenske elektrarne signed loan agreements to finance the project completion, as well as construction completion agreements with contractors. (Author)
At the end of 2002 Mochovce NPP as the first Slovak energy operation got the international certificate of environmental managership according to norm ISO 14 001:1996 on production and electric energy supply from nuclear power plant praised by reputable testimonial company Det Norske Veritas. Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. management has intention to pass a certification process in all of its operations in this and following year. Certification presentation is one of the results of project of Environmental policy of SE, a.s. as it was specified by company executive in 2000. This project comes out from Environmental protection conception of SE from 1997. The basic condition of success of whole project is total orientation of Slovak electric energetic on energy production with minimal environmental load. It means the maximal exploitation of water and nuclear production of electric energy at the expense of technologies based on energy raw materials incineration. In 2002, of totally produced 32 805 MWh of electric energy almost two thirds were produced by nuclear power plants, almost one fifth by water power plants and 16% by thermal power plants. Thanks to this electricity production structure it is sharply possible to cut back the emission capacity produced by thermal power plants
In this leaflet the Management's declaration is presented. This declaration contains: operation management and quality assurance, plant commissioning, maintenance and repairs, reactor physics, radiation protection, surveillance programmes, events analyses and experience feed-back, accident management procedures and training, emergency planning and preparedness review of safety performance, human resources, and personnel responsibility
Mochovce NPP simulator basic features and detailed description of its characteristics are presented with its performance, certification and application for training of NPP operators as well as the training scenario
Ronald Blasko has returned from Brussels to Slovenske elektrarne (SE) to manage the new department of Risk Management. In this position he will utilise the experience he has obtained as the senior manager in the European Nuclear Forum, as well as in his previous job position as the head of General Director's office in SE. (author)
Cox, Manon M.J.; Patriarca, Peter A.; Treanor, John
Abstract FluBlok, a recombinant trivalent hemagglutinin (HA) vaccine produced in insect cell culture using the baculovirus expression system, provides an attractive alternative to the current egg‐based trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) manufacturing process. FluBlok contains three times more HA than TIV and does not contain egg‐protein or preservatives. This review discusses the four main clinical studies that were used to support licensure of FluBlok under the ‘Accelerated Appro...
Minister of Economy of the Slovak Republic Pavol Rusko would like to see the power plant in Mochovce finished. Press agency SITA quoted his statement that in case of privatisation of Slovenske elektrarne (SE), a.s., Bratislava investor should be searched that would be willing to complete the third and fourth blocks of the nuclear power plant. Last week a tender for sale of a 49-percent stake in SE was repeatedly launched when a privatisation advertisement was published in local and international press. Through a resolution announced last summer the cabinet allowed other companies to participate in the tender (as a reaction interest shown by Czech CEZ). CEZ would be interested in all areas of SE and not only in its conventional part as the other prospects. It is well possible that the number of prospects interested in nuclear energy may increase. Boss of SE, Miroslav Rapsik shares this view and last week announced that there would be probably at least two or three prospects that may be interested in SE as a whole. Amongst them some Russian companies. General Manager and Chairman of Board of Directors, Jaroslav Mil does not wasn't to speculate on under what conditions CEZ may agree with completing of Mochovce. He adds that building any source of nuclear power anywhere in Europe is very difficult without a clear support of wide political spectrum of the specific country. And he needs another assurance: that the cabinet would guarantee that it would eliminate all political pressure from side of the European Union.' In regards to a semi-finished source, according to J. Mil, it made a difference whether this was offered free or with all the fixed costs. 'First we have to see the figures,' he adds. Works on the third and fourth block were stopped in 1992 due to lack of funds. Based on the advise of privatisation advisor the semi-finished blocks were taken out of the privatisation. According to latest analysis the finalization would cost up to 43 billion Sk (1.04 billion
The design of Mochovce NPP was based on the Novo-Voronez type WWER-440/213 reactor - twin units. Seismic characteristic of this region is characterized by very low activity. Mochovce NPP site is located on the rock soil with volcanic layer (andesit). Seismic reassessment of Mochovce NPP was done in two steps: deterministic approach up to commissioning confirmed value Horizontal Peak Ground Acceleration HPGA=0.1 g and activities after commissioning as a consequence of the IAEA mission indicate higher hazard values. (author)
Namen diplomskega dela je analiza Simulinkovih programskih modelov vetrnih elektrarn. Predstavljeni so različni modeli vetrnih elektrarn, od takih z generatorjem s kratkostično kletko, sinhronskim pa do dvojno napajanega asinhronskega generatorja. Najprej smo preučili parameter posameznega modela ter ugotovili kdaj ga lahko uporabimo. Zatem smo izvedli simulacije različnih obratovalnih stanj. Bila je izvedena podrobna analiza fazorskega in dinamičnega modela dvojno napajanega asinhronskega g...
V diplomskem delu so, na podlagi literature, analizirane dinamične lastnosti različnih tipov vetrnih elektrarn v elektroenergetskem sistemu. Namen dela je ponuditi pregled generacije vetrne energije, pri katerem je poudarek na vplivu vetrnih elektrarn na stabilnost elektroenergetskega sistema. Podani so osnovni mehanizmi delovanja asinhronskega generatorja, dvojno napajanega asinhronskega generatorja in sinhronskega generatorja s pretvornikom, njihovo tranzientno obratovanje in zmožnost...
The present position of Slovenske elektrarne, a. s., Bratislava (SE) before its privatisation is presented. Privatisation of SE will be encumbered by problematic spheres, which no potential investor is interested in. E.g. nuclear devices operation and also specifically solution of questions connected with liquidation of A-1, laying up of V-1, completing of the third and the fourth block in Mochovce, encumbered by old debt as well as making the largest water energy centre in Gabcikovo operational, limited by international contract with Hungary by international court decision. Czech CEZ, a.s. was interested in purchase of SE as last, encouraged by considerations about possible advantages of re-fusion of Czech and Slovak energetics. It can be expected the decrease of installed output in SE sources (about in 1400 MW) after 2006 in consequence of early laying up of some production capacities, e.g. Bohunice NPP V-1
Pričujoča magistrska naloga obravnava verjetnostne varnostne analize jedrske elektrarne v zaustavitvenih stanjih. Verjetnostne varnostne analize so namenjene ocenjevanju in izboljšanju varnosti kompleksnih sistemov, tudi jedrskih elektrarn. Skozi analizo izvemo možne neželene dogodke, do katerih lahko pride v sistemu, verjetnost nastopa teh dogodkov, način njihovega razvoja in končne posledice. Na podlagi analize lahko določimo pomembnost posameznih komponent, kar je koristna informacija pri ...
This article presents the approach of Mochovce NPP to the Safety culture. It presents activities, which have been taken by Mochovce NPP up to date in the area of Safety culture enhancement with the aim of getting the term into the subconscious of each employee, and thus minimising the human factor impact on occurrence of operational events in all safety areas. The article furthermore presents the most essential information on how the elements characterising a continuous progress in reaching the planned Safety culture goals of the company management have been implemented at Mochovce NPP, as well as the management's efforts to get among the best nuclear power plant operators in this area and to be an example for the others. (author)
Implementation of the Severe Accident Management (SAM) in Slovenske Elektrarne, subsidiary of ENEL, is a process initiated well before the Fukushima Daiichi accident. The main goal was to cover, comprehensively, level 4 of the Defense in Depth (DiD). The process included development of plant specific severe accident management guidelines (SAMGs) and installation of hardware modifications dedicated to mitigation of severe accidents as an upgrade the original VVER-440/V213. The SAM modifications have been developed with the aim to address all main generic vulnerabilities of VVER-440/V213 containments identified during initial analysis supporting the development of plant specific SAMGs. SAM modifications, in addition to their original purpose, improved plant response also at the level 3 of DiD. SAM modifications installed on VVER-440/V213 units in operation or under construction in Slovakia can be considered as an independent and diverse provision for the main safety functions: core subcriticality, core heat removal and confinement integrity. Basic set of SAM modifications includes independent diesel generator (DG), independent external source of borated water and containment vacuum breaker. Major contribution to safety from SAM modifications has been proved to be the implementation of in-vessel retention, hydrogen management in the containment and reliable depressurization of RCS. The complete set of SAM modifications installed incorporates dedicated SAM I and C to allow for determination and monitoring of plant status via dedicated instrumentation and control of SAM equipment installed at plants during a severe accident. SAM project including updating of SAMGs has been successfully completed on both units of Bohunice NPP and respective activities are continuing on operating units no. 1 and 2 in Mochovce with expected deadline in 2015. The basic design of Mochovce units no. 3 and 4 that are under construction has been modified to incorporate hardware changes
The approach of the Mochovce nuclear power plant to nuclear safety improvement is highlighted. The solution of major safety problems is described for the following areas: general problems, reactor core, component integrity, technological systems, instrumentation and control system, electrical systems, containment, internal risks, external risks, accident analyses, operation. (author)
EMO interest is to operate only nuclear power plants with high standards of nuclear safety. This aim EMO declare on preparation completion and commissioning of Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant. Wide co-operation of our company with International Atomic Energy Agency and west European Inst.ions and companies has been started with aim to fulfil the nuclear safety requirements for Mochovce NPP. Set of 87 safety measures was implemented at Mochovce Unit 1 and is under construction at Unit 2. Mochovce NPP approach to safety upgrading implementation is showed on chosen measures. This presentation is focused on the issues category III.(author)
Diplomsko delo zajema primerjavo rezultatov simulacije male izlivne nezgode s programskim orodjem Advanced PWR simulator z rezultati, ki jih je opravilo podjetje Westinghouse v testnem objektu APEX-1000. V prvem delu diplomskega dela sta opisana primarni in sekundarni sistem, ki se bistveno ne razlikujeta od sistemov ostalih jedrskih elektrarn. Nato sledi opis pasivnih varnostnih sistemov, po katerih je AP1000 znana. Sledi splošen opis izlivne nezgode, simulacijskega orodja in potek simul...
Full text: Brief description of nuclear facility. Slovenske elektrarne - ENEL utility operates two nuclear power plants in southern Slovakia - Bohunice and Mochovce nuclear power plants. Both plants are of the same design (WWER 440/V213). The Mochovce plant operates two units; Unit 1 has supplied electricity to the network since 1998, and Unit 2 since 2000. The Mochovce units rank among the newest WWER 440/V 213 nuclear blocks and benefit from all the improvements already made at the plant. Overview of OE arrangements. The basic management expectations concerning the OE programme are defined by the utility's policy. Assessment of the effectiveness of the OE programme is performed locally at the plant and independently at the utility level. This utility assessment serves as input to overall improvement process of OE programme at the plant. Management arrangements. The IAEA performed a pre-OSART mission in 1994 before the Mochovce plant began operation. Based on the recommendations of the mission, the Mochovce plant established an OE programme and an organizational structure to support it. The plant operation started with a fully functioning OE system. The plant director is responsible for implementation of an effective OE programme, in accordance with the national regulatory body requirements, WANO and IAEA expectations and the utility's policy. The OE programme owner is head of the safety division, who ensures that reported events and near misses are screened and analysed, and that corrective actions are taken with regard to the safety significance of the problem. Implementation of daily activities connected with the OE programme, screening, investigation of events, assessment of effective implementation of the corrective actions taken, assessment of OE programme effectiveness through performance indicators, and updating information in the OE database are the responsibility of head of the OE section. The section is located in the Safety Division and consists of
The cooperation between the western countries and the countries of ex-eastern block in the field of nuclear safety is recent and still limited. The main reasons for this situation are limited or non existent capabilities of these countries for financing as well as non acceptable legal conditions concerning the third party nuclear liability in this part of Europe. Nevertheless, Framatome and Siemens associated in the consortium named EUCOM, have signed in April 1996 the contract of about 100 million US dollars with Slovak electricity company (SLOVENSKE ELEKTRARNE-SE) for upgrading the Units 1 and 2 of Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant according to the western safety standards. This is the first important project involving west-european companies in the modernisation of Russian type of pressurized water reactor (VVER 440/213). The consortium will cooperate with other partners involved in the project: Slovak, Czech and Russian. The financing of the project will be provided mainly form Slovak and Czech sources. The safety upgrading will be financed through French and German buyer credits. French company Electricite de France (EDF) will be the consultant for SE. The safety upgrading measures have been elaborated taking into account the recommendation of Vienna International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the evaluation of the safety realised by RISKAUDIT, the common organization of German and French safety authorities (GSR and IPSN). Hence all guaranties have been taken to fulfil the western safety criteria for Nuclear Power Plant Mochovce. (author)
V Sloveniji se hitro povečuje število fotovoltaičnih elektrarn, ki so vgrajene na stavbah, hkrati pa se s hitrim napredkom te tehnologije postavi vprašanje tudi glede požarne varnosti. Cilj te diplomske naloge je predstavitev delovanja fotovoltaične elektrarne, v ta del spadajo osnove fotovoltaike, sestavni deli in zaščitni elementi elektrarne. Teoretično smo predstavili osnove požarne varnosti, kot so teorija gorenja, odkrivanje, javljanje in gašenje požara, ter požarno-gradbene zahteve. V ...
Nuclear power plant Mochovce is currently under construction and an extensive nuclear safety enhancement programme is under way. The upgrading and modifications are based on IAEA documents and on those of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic. Based on a contract concluded with Riskaudit from the CEC, safety examinations of the Mochovce design were performed. An extensive list of technical specifications of safety measures is given. (M.D.)
A brief account of activities carried out by the ENEL Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) in 2006 year is presented. These activities are reported under the following headings: (1) Evaluation Report and Foreword of the Chairman of the Board of Directors; (2) SE, a.s., Board of Directors in 2006; (3) SE, a.s., Supervisory Board in 2006; (4) The year in brief; (5) SE, a.s., Organisation Structure; (6) Company stakes; (7) Company strategy; (8) Electricity and heat generation; (9) Trade in electricity, support services and heat; (10) Investments; (11) Nuclear safety; (12) Occupational health and safety and fi re protection; (13) Environment; (14) Human resources; (15) Report on Financial Statements and Performance of the Company; (16) Auditor's report; (17) Abbreviations
One of the aims of Human Resources Division of Slovenske elektrarne, a. s. is to ensure suitable working conditions for new comers for their fast adaptation in the new working environment, in our company. On the other hand, achieving the attitude of an employee, which may be defined by a phrase 'He/she is the Group Member' belongs to the priorities of the Enel Leadership Model. We will not reach for this attitude and behaviour corresponding to it on the first day, when the new comer starts working. Effective set up of the whole adaptation process in he first thee months and following steps are very important, so that we may show the new employee that we do care about him/her. (author)
Despite a several-years effort for change, the number of chamois and marmots is dropping down in our Tatras. Scientologists are monitoring impairing environment of biotopes (from Greek bios - life, topos - location) - the symbols of Slovakia and of the High Tatras. Among the specialists there is also Pavel Ballo, an employee of the Slovak Museum of Nature Protection and Speleology in Liptovsky Mikulas, who is systematically monitoring marmots through the satellite navigation GPS (Global Positioning System). At a press conference of ENEL Slovenske elektrarne and TANAP, organized at the occasion of the European Day of National and Natural Parks held on May 24, he informed on negative effects on chamois and marmots. (author)
On-site monitoring posts, inner circuit there are installed 16 detectors for measuring dose rates in a circle line inside the power plant site at the distances between approximately 200 m and 520 m from the exhaust air stack of Mochovce-1,2 NPP. The technical versions of all these measuring posts are from the same type On-site are installed 3 large containers for measuring gamma dose rate and activity concentration of aerosols and iodine too. Off-site monitoring posts at places of living consist of 16 small containers with dose rate measurements and iodine sampling units and 8 large containers with dose rate measurement and aerosol and iodine monitoring unit. Three of these large containers are installed nearby the NPP inside the fence of the NPP area. The technical version of these measuring posts are from the same type. Five of these containers are installed faraway of the NPP outside the fence of the NPP. These five posts are from the same type. The process data is continuously acquired, stored and processed by the Central Radiological Computer System of the power plant. The tele-dosimetry system data are a main part of the radiological information system, which continuously provide the information of the measurements and evaluate possible radiological consequences. (author)
V diplomskem delu so predstavljene vse zaščite fotovoltaičnih elektrarn pred udarom strele. Strelovodna zaščita skrbi za odvod strele mimo ščitenih objektov. V tem primeru so to sončni moduli, ki so najdražji element sončne elektrarne. Prenapetostna zaščita nam omogoča, da tudi po udaru strele ne pride do poškodb materiala kablov, razsmernikov in drugih elementov, ki so sestavni del sončne elektrarne. Opisano je načrtovanje in preizkušanje obeh zgoraj navedenih strelovodnih zaščit.Kot dodatno...
Z vključevanjem sončnih fotonapetostnih elektrarn v elektroenergetski sistem lahko vplivamo na smer pretoka moči in posledično napetostni profil vzdolž nizkonapetostnega omrežja. Cilj magistrskega dela je bil na podlagi meritev in analitičnega orodja prepoznati ter ovrednotiti eventualne negativne vplive na napetostni profil. Ugotovili smo, da sončne fotonapetostne elektrarne na obravnavanem področju vplivajo na napetostni profil, vendar v mejah dovoljenega. To pa ne pomeni, da negativne...
This annex deals with project control. Mochovce NPP suffered considerable delay primarily due to lack of money. This situation was corrected and construction resumed in 1996. Throughout the 'dormant' period the plant received considerable support from the major contractors, who maintained skeleton staff at site. Significant safety and managerial improvements are being introduced and a strategic plan for the plant has been developed. (author)
V sklopu izdelave sistema sončne elektrarne je bila izdelana in nadgrajena programska oprema enostopenjskega DC-AC pretvornika, ki je sestavljen iz dveh pretvornikov navzgor. Prednosti enostopenjskega pretvornika sta uporaba minimalnega števila elementov ter čista sinusna napetost na izhodu. Programska oprema teče na digitalnem signalnem krmilniku TMS320F2812, njena osnovna funkcija je regulacija in nadzor pretvornika. Zaradi lažjega preizkušanja raznih algoritmov vodenja je izvedena komunika...
A review of regulatory requirements for demonstration of the achieved safety level at the Mochovce NPP before commissioning is given. It contains licensing steps in Slovakia during commissioning; Status and methodology of Mochovce safety analysis report; Mochovce NPP safety enhancement program; Regulatory body policy towards Mochovce NPP safety enhancement; Recent development in Mochovce pre-operational safety enhancement program review and assessment process; Licensing steps in Slovakia during commissioning
6th Nuclear society information meeting dealt with the completion of the Mochovce NPP with regard to implementation of safety measures. It was aimed to next problems: I. 'Survey' presentation on the situation of the nuclear power industry in partner countries; II. Basic technical presentations; III. Presentations of operators of the other VVER 440/213 NPPs on their activities in the field of safety improvement in relation to IAEA recommendations; IV. Technical solutions of safety improvements ranked with IAEA degree 3 (Report SC 108 VVER); V: Technical solutions of selected Safety Measures ranked with IAEA degree 2 and 1 (Report SC 108 VVER)
Sonce v eni uri obseva Zemljo s takšno močjo , kot je potreba celotnega sveta po elektriki za eno leto. Diplomsko delo opisuje delovanje sonca, zgodovino, razvoj in solarne energije ter dimenzioniranje heliostata sončne elektrarne. Heliostat je računalniško vodena naprava, ki je sestavljena iz jeklene konstrukcije in ogledal, ki sledi soncu in odseva sončne žarke na sprejemno točko, ponavadi v obliki stolpa. Heliostati se uporabljajo pri koncentrirani sončni energiji pri sistemu sončnega st...
History of Mochovce NPP is quite long and reflects political changes that happened in Europe in the end of 80'ties. The plant site was chosen in south-west of Slovakia in the frame of Nuclear Industry Development Plan adopted by former Czechoslovak government in 70'ties. In that time was decided to build in Mochovce four VVER 440/213 units together with other NPP's (Dukovany, Temelin, Kecerovce)
The report gives the basic technical data and history of the construction of the units 3 and 4 of the Mochovce NPP.The current status of the units completion according to the original plan is: civil part - 70%; mechanical part - 30%; electric and IC equipment - 1%. Strategic plan for the preservation of the units 3 and 4 has been developed in accordance with TECDOC-1110. In implementation of the plan preservation activities are performed for the components located and built-in on the site and in storehouses. Preservation with dryers and protective coatings is applied. The factors of possible component degradation are determined. Ventilation components are used for improving the climate conditions in the primary part of the reactor building. Temperature and humidity measurements are done and temperature control is set. Special pre-service inspections beyond the basic scope of preservation and protection works are conducted of steam generator and reactor pressure vessel. The implementation of the design data protection and enhancement is discussed. The feasibility study of units 3 and 4 completion funding has been developed in 2002
This thesis develops an in-depth understanding of a specific case at the intersection of extreme right politics, marketing and language. More specifically, the research focuses on a Flemish extreme right party, the Vlaams Blok/Vlaams Belang which provides a rich site of enquiry for the analysis of political communications, marketing strategies and discursive processes. Critical discourse analysis of the verbal and visual elements of Vlaams Blok/Vlaams Belang publications reveals, on three lev...
The so called 'Mochovce Problem' was one of the major topics in Polish media in the period from May to July 1998. The nuclear power plant commissioning caused an unexpectedly strong reaction, especially in the newspapers, slightly less so in electronic media. Faced with clearly hostile media reaction to Mochovce NPP, the National Atomic Energy Agency representatives, together with atomic and nuclear experts, undertook to change these attitudes. In numerous interviews, letters to the editors and talks with journalists, they attempted to correct the mistakes, explain the true safety situation in the nuclear power plant, by whom it was constructed, who supervised and tested the systems and so on. The completion of Mochovce NPP construction improved significantly the electricity balance in Slovakia, thus decreasing the pressure for continuing the operation of older Bohunice V1 units beyond their design lifetime. For this reason, as well as in view of striving for improvement in environmental factors beyond Polish southern border, especially after Kyoto/97 decisions on greenhouse gases emissions, the public opinion in Poland should support the Mochovce NPP construction. In 1996 Poland has signed with Slovakia a bilateral inter-governmental agreement on the prompt notification on nuclear accidents and on the cooperation in the nuclear safety and radiological protection matters. On the basis of this agreement the experts from Polish National Atomic Energy Agency are in perpetual contact with Slovakian Nuclear Regulatory Body and in each and every moment can obtain full and comprehensive information on the plant parameters iportant for nuclear safety. The experts explanations, together with the NAEA top management visit to the plant itself, brought some results. The media became less aggressive, and Polish public and authorities - contrary to the Austrians - do not protest loudly against the commissioning of this newest European NPP. Now, in December 1998, the tune of
The Project 'Mochovce Units 3 and 4 Completion' started in 2009 and it will be finished in 2013. VUJE, Inc. is one of the five main Project contractors for the Nuclear Island and it is responsible, inter alia, for Mochovce Units 3 and 4 commissioning. The commissioning of Units 3 and 4 includes the stages of Physics Commissioning and Power Commissioning. This paper deals with the preparation of Mochovce Units 3 and 4 Physics Commissioning. In the paper there is presented a preparation of some commissioning documents, e.g. 'Quality Assurance Programme', 'Commissioning Programme', 'Stage Programme for Physics Commissioning', 'Test working programmes', 'Neutron-physics characteristics for Physics and Power Commissioning', etc. The scope of Physics Commissioning is presented by list of tests. For assessment of tests results so-called three-level acceptance criteria will be applied: realization, design and safety criteria. In the paper there are also presented computer codes, which will be used for neutron-physics characteristics calculation and the fuel loading scheme for the reactor core of Mochovce Unit 3. (Authors)
The approach of the Mochovce nuclear power plant to the safety culture issue is highlighted. Activities performed so far at the plant to improve the plant safety culture with a view to enhancing the awareness of each employee and thus to minimize the effect of the human factor on the evolution of incidents and accidents at the plant are described. (author)
The article describes the chronology construction of the Mochovce NPP Units 3 and 4. Initial research and technical studies, preparatory works, important decisions, Slovak government involvement are described. Importance of the Nuclear Regulation Authority of the Slovak Republic decision is discussed. (author)
Diplomska naloga opisuje problem slabega izkoriščanja obnovljivih virov energije. Opisani so obnovljivi viri energije, pri tem pa so izpostavljene fotonapetostne celice (solarne celice in moduli). V diplomski nalogi je predstavljen celoten potek načrtovanja sončne elektrarne. Predstavljeno je načrtovanje, izvedba in postavitev elektrarne, na kaj je potrebno paziti, kakšna je potrebna dokumentacija in kakšni so stroški. Potek dela je opisan po stopnjah, od pridobivanja dokumentacije, do končne...
Diplomsko delo obravnava možnost izgradnje male vetrne elektrarne na žitnem silosu Intes v Mariboru. V začetnih poglavjih diplomskega dela so predstavljeni zgodovina vetrnih elektrarn, meteorološki pogoji in energija vetra. Prikazani sta prirast hitrosti vetra z višino in hrapavost okolice za predvideno lokacijo. Predstavljene so razmere in stanje na področju obnovljivih virov v Sloveniji. Obravnavane so tudi različne vrste in izvedbe vetrnih turbin. Podane so karakteristike izbrane vetr...
The challenge that SE a.s. took up in April 1996 to start Mochovce units 1 and 2 within a very demanding time frame and in satisfactory conditions is on the way to being wined. EMO managed to put in place an organisation able to ensure the continuity of the design and construction works and to integrate the requirements of modern safety. EDF is proud and happy to contribute to this effort by making available its expertise and experience in building and operating nuclear power plants. The success of Mochovce will not only contribute to the Slovak electricity needs coverage, but will be the first demonstration of a soviet design nuclear power plant brought to international safety standards. (author)
Paper is focused on new acceptance criteria for physical startup tests of Mochovce Units 1, 2. The acceptance criteria are discussed at the stage of their development. The acceptance criteria determination is based on statistical processing of differences between the experimental and theoretical values of neutron-physical characteristics. The experimental values were taken from physical startup tests of Bohunice Unit 1, 2 and 4 and Dukovany Unit 1 - 4. The theoretical values were calculated by code BIPR-7. The acceptance criteria were established for critical boron concentration, core loading symmetry measurement, boric acid worth, temperature reactivity coefficient, 'ejected' control rod worth, pressure reactivity coefficient and power reactivity coefficient. The new acceptance criteria were applied to evaluate results of physical startup tests of Mochovce Unit 1 in June 1998. The acceptance criteria showed to be adequate. The summary results of statistical processing and the comparison of earlier, new and US acceptance criteria for physical startup tests are presented.(Authors)
For the Mochovce NPP safety measurements project realisation, a list of totally 87 safety measures grouped according their purposes to reach recent international requirements on nuclear safety and reliability was elaborated. In this paper an overview of the Mochovce NPP safety measures is given and it is stressed on the measures related to the PSA (AA-08 - Shutdown and Low Power PSA (SPSA) and AA-10 - Full Power PSA Level 1). The scope of PSA level 1 and SPSA projects developed for Unit 1 are described and the main results are discussed. The Core Damage Frequency (CDF) calculation, contribution of the IEs to the shutdown CDF (total CDF=3.83E-06/year) and to the full power CDF (total CDF=1.66E-04/year) are shown. The developed PSA models can be adopted in the future for the following purposes: living PSA; real time risk monitoring; technical specifications and STIs optimization; level 2 PSA
The approach taken by the Mochovce NPP management to safety culture is described. Activities implemented at the plant since 1986 with the aim to enhance the safety culture level through each employee's firm awareness of the safety culture issue and so to minimize the impact of the human factor on operational events in all safety areas are highlighted. The approach to safety culture at the plant was ultimately reflected in the culture of the whole company. (orig.)
In this leaflet the results of radiation monitoring on the Mochovce NPP, Mochovce Radioactive Waste Repository and in the vicinity are presented. The radioactive effluents from the Mochovce NPP into atmosphere within January 2005 were: 1.77 TBq (14.7% of annually limit (AL)) of tritium; 2.56 MBq (0.23% AL) of corrosive and fission products; 0.406 TBq (0.010% of AL) of rare gases; 0.357 MBq (0.00021% of AL) of aero-soles; and 56.8 kBq (0.00008% of AL) of iodine-131. Average dose equivalent rates during January 2005 in the vicinity as well as in the Mochovce NPP and in the Mochovce Radioactive Waste Repository are included
A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Mochovce in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Director's foreword; (2) Power plant management; (3) Highlights of 1997; (4) Capital construction; (5) Nuclear safety; (6) Radiation safety; (7) Work safety and health protection at work; (9) Fire protection; (10) Units upgrading - safety measures; (11) Maintenance; (12) Operation; (13) Environmental impacts of operations; (14) List of balances; (15) Human sources; (16) International co-operation; (17) Public relations
Commissioning of the Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant unit 2 fully completed the Mochovce unit 1 and 2 project. The power plant construction passed through a complicated evolution since early 80's. The genesis started with the change of the plant location due to a seismic resistance requirement raised by the former Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission, change of the design and contractor of the Instrumentation and Control system in early 90's, halt of construction in 1993 till 1996 due to a lack of funding, as well as a series of international reviews of safety aspects. All the obstacles had been overcome in the end, and completion works were re-started in 1996. Looking back to the unit 1 and 2 completion project, I would like to highlight some aspects of the project, particularly the level of safety, technical and organisational conditions, and terms of funding. The most important argument for completion of the plant was that VVER 440/213 reactor units were distinguished with very high level of passive safety, even overcoming Western-type PWR's in some aspects. The replacement of the original I and C system was another important contribution to the initial level of safety. International safety reviews performed at Mochovce NPP between 1990 and 1995 (Siemens, EdF, IAEA, RlSKAUDIT) confirmed the high level of safety of VVER 440/213 reactors, however, pointed out at some safety issues which had not been dealt with in the design. Those included e.g. the 'external risks', primary-to-secondary leaks, qualification of pressurizer safety valves, and others. It is necessary to stress that the Safety Improvement Programme defined for Mochovce NPP to comply with international standards did not become the most important part of the completion project due to external pressures, but based on natural requirements on nuclear power plant safety level generally accepted in 90's. The good example could be the seismic resistance of the plant which, though designed as seismic resistant
The system dynamic approach presented in this study by modelling the behaviour of Slovak market on the basis of system dynamic model (Forrester model), enables real mix in the extend of 12 years and helps understanding of the market limits. In addition this tool can be used for sensitivity calculations depending on many parameters to develop possible trends in the economic development of the Slovak Republic. If both nuclear power options are maintained then it becomes obvious that electric excess energy is produced and could be exported. This export option remains for the situation that a strong growth of the gross national product is assumed without any increase in energy efficiency. Between these extremes is the scenario that Bohunice 1, 2 off is balanced by Mochovce 3, 4 on and increasing demand this will lead to more moderate but still not negligible potential of CO2 increase. Switching off Bohunice 1, 2 and not switching on Mochovce 3, 4 leads to energy need which must be counterbalanced either by investments in other power plants or by import energy. As far as domestic production is concerned even assuming 50 % CHP production leads to partly remarkable additional CO2-production which might infringe on a long term basis with the Kyoto goals. Assuming additional CO2-emissions from increasing traffic real problems can be expected in such a case. To maintain national nuclear capabilities in Slovakia is very important for today and for future of nuclear energy option in enlarged European Union. (authors)
In this presentation author deals with actual status of project Mochovce NPP units 3 and 4 completion. Present state of Mochovce NPP, Units 3 and 4 enables real assumption to completion. It is expected that such supplier companies can be used which are experienced in field of nuclear projects. Based on budget of 2002, it seems that completion costs of 45 billions SKK are real. These figures were confirmed by study performed by TRACTEBEL in 2004. Based on experience from Bohunice NPP completion as well as from Mochovce NPP, Units 1 and 2 completion and if decision milestone and project start up deadlines will be observed according to modified preliminary schedule of Mochovce NPP Units 3 and 4 completion, it seems as real that Unit 3 will be completed till 06/2011 and Unit 4 - till 12/2011.
A draft is described of starting geodesy points for the delineation of deforestation of the Mochovce site and for the detailed layout of rough ground grading. Later, a basic layout of control points was suggested that was gradually implemented in line with the progress of building work on the main site. The layout of foundations was done using the polar method and instrumentation by Kern. A rectangular layout micro-network was set out on the foundation slabs of the main production units to serve a detailed layout of the buildings. A large part of geodesy measurements is used as complementary measurements for producing the basic map of the plant. (E.J.). 3 figs
New acceptance criteria are discussed for physical startup tests of Mochovce Units 1, 2, at the stage of their development. The acceptance criteria determination is based on statistical processing of differences between the experimental and theoretical values of neutron-physical characteristics. The experimental values were taken from physical startup tests of Bohunice Unit 1, 2 and 4 and Dukovany Unit 1 - 4. The theoretical values were calculated by code BIPR-7. The acceptance criteria were established for critical boron concentration, core loading symmetry measurement, boric acid worth, temperature reactivity coefficient, 'ejected' control rod worth, pressure reactivity coefficient and power reactivity coefficient. The new acceptance criteria were applied to evaluate results of physical startup tests of Mochove Unit 1 in June 1998. The acceptance criteria showed to be adequate. The summary results of statistical processing and the comparison of earlier, new and US acceptance criteria for physical startup tests are presented. (author)
Diplomsko delo prikazuje proces oblikovanja sestavnih delov vetrne elektrarne s pomočjo znanja strojništva, inženirskega oblikovanja in bionike. Z metodami inženirskega oblikovanja in bio-dizajna iz narave izberemo najprimernejše ter najbolj učinkovite oblikovne in konstrukcijske rešitve za vetrno elektrarno EKO 50kW. V tem procesu dobimo dovolj natančne rezultate, da se lahko te izbrane smernice uporabi kot osnovo pri proizvodnji sestavnih delov za dotično vetrno elektrarno, a kljub temu dov...
The legal requirements on emergency preparedness come from Acts of Slovak republic as the Act on State Safety Supervision of Nuclear Facilities, The Act on Civil Protection of population and the Act on Protection of Public Health. The operating organization, regulatory bodies and public authorities shall cooperate to prepare emergency plans according to these Acts in which the contents and conditions of the emergency planning are specified, exercises and reviews are demanded. On-site emergency plan with Emergency Plan Implementing procedures are the basic documents for emergency planning on NPP Management of response to emergency including exposure management shall be handled by Emergency Response Organization. There are the centers at which management is present during the emergency at NPP Mochovce: - Main Control Room; - Emergency Control Room; -Emergency Control Center; - Operational Support Center; - Technical Support Center; - Information Center; - Off-site Assessment Centre. NPP Mochovce owns facilities and equipment for the permanent environment monitoring at site and within the 20 km emergency planning zones. The major tasks of the Emergency Response Organization, which are carried out in compliance with defined procedures after an extraordinary event, are as follows: - assessment of extraordinary events; - warning and notification of the plant personal and population in the surroundings; - analysis and evaluation of on-site radiation situation; - exposure management; - taking measures for protection of the workforce (turn-back dose); - coordination of the activities of monitoring teams in environment; - coordination of the rescue teams (turn-back dose); - recommendations for public protection; - implementation of activities to remove the extraordinary event and to return to a safe state. Events are ranked in the Emergency Plan in compliance with their radiological consequences as follows: - 1. Degree - 'the alert state'; - 2.Degree; - 'On-site Emergency
A safety and reliability of operation of NPP type VVER 440/213, differences between Mochovce NPP and other VVER 440/213 NPPs contributing to the safety improvement, organization of the completion works of Mochovce NPP units 1 and technical condition of the installations are discussed
In this leaflet the results of radiation monitoring on the Mochovce NPP, Mochovce Radioactive Waste Repository and in the vicinity are presented. The radioactive effluents from Mochovce NPP into atmosphere within March 2005 were: 0.962 TBq of tritium; 2.07 MBq of corrosive and fission products; 0.431 TBq of rare gases; 0.20 MBq aero-soles; and 20.0 kBq of iodine-131. For the period January -March 2005 these radioactive effluents into atmosphere represents for tritium 2.903 TBq (24.2% of annually limit (AL)); 7.66 MBq (0.70% of AL) for corrosive and fission products; 1.296 TBq (0.032% of AL) for rare gases; 0.85 MBq (0.032% of AL) for aero-soles; and 80.0 kBq for iodine-131 (0.001% of AL). Average dose equivalent rates during March 2005 in the vicinity as well as in the Mochovce NPP and in the Mochovce Radioactive Waste Repository are included
In this leaflet the results of radiation monitoring on the NPP Mochovce, Mochovce Radioactive Waste Repository and in the vicinity are presented. The radioactive effluents from Mochovce NPP into atmosphere within February 2005 were: 0.174 TBq of tritium; 3.07 MBq of corrosive and fission products; 0.459 TBq of rare gases; 0.318 MBq aero-soles; and 12.3 kBq of iodine-131. For the period January - February 2005 these radioactive effluents into atmosphere represents for tritium 1.94 TBq (16.2% of annually limit (AL)); 5.59 MBq (0.5% of AL) for corrosive and fission products; 0.865 TBq (0.021% of AL) for rare gases; 0.643 MBq (0.0004% of AL) for aero-soles; and 66.9 kBq for iodine-131 (0.0001% of AL). Average dose equivalent rates during February 2005 in the vicinity as well as in the Mochovce NPP and in the Mochovce Radioactive Waste Repository are included
Mochovce NPP is the last one of this kind and compared to its predecessors, it is characterized by several modifications which contribute to the improvement of the safety level. In addition based on Nuclear Regulatory Authority requirements and based on documents: - IAEA - Safety Issues and their ranking for NPP WWER 440/213, - IAEA - Safety Improvement of Mochovce NPP Project Review Mission, - Riskaudit - Evaluation of the Mochovce NPP Safety Improvements. Additional safety measures have been implemented before commissioning. The consortium EUCOM (FRAMATOME - SIEMENS), SKODA Praha, ENERGOPROJEKT Praha, Russian organizations and VUJE Trnava Nuclear Power Plants research institute were selected for design and implementation of the safety measures. The papers summarized, safety requirements, safety measures implemented, results of commissioning and results of safety analysis report evaluation. (author)
In this presentation authors deal with preparation phase of Mochovce NPP unit 3 and 4 construction completion. The preparation phase of the Mochovce unit 3 and 4 construction completion gives following main outputs: (a) Detail Safety Concept gives definitive complex safety and technical improvement of MO34, more precise analysis of the total cost of construction completion, a list of potential suppliers and construction completion time schedule; (b) Appendices of Basic Design Documentation and Preliminary SAR serves as basic documentation for UJD SR decision making according to Law No. 541 for start of Realization Phase; (c) The Preparation Phase represents effective tool for start of MO34 construction completion Realization Phase.
assumptions was included in work of Blok's disciple--Jewgienij Spektorski. An attempt of objective, free of emotions look at Błok's output to some extent makes us verify one-sidedly its critical estimate. In Błok's writings one can observe several earlier unnoticed values--author's wide mind horizons, his erudition, interesting but not accomplished research conceptions, competence for analysing difficult issues fringing upon social, political and philosophical thought. PMID:20027928
The paper presents some of the Mochovce NPP experience in the full-scope simulator certification process, simulator training programs development, implementation and evaluation, the use of simulator in the all-plant emergency exercises as well as the experience in validation of plant operational procedures.(author)
Tema moje diplomske naloge je otočno delovanje sončne elektrarne enodružinske hiše. V uvodu izvemo nekaj o samooskrbi z električno energijo ter o samem delovanju manjše sončne elektrarne. V glavnem delu naloge je najprej, s pomočjo tlorisnih načrtov enodružinske hiše, opisana dnevna poraba električne energije. V nadaljevanju sem pri izračunu sončnega obsevanja za naš solarni sistem upošteval konkretne parametre, pomagal pa sem si s podatki meteoroloških postaj. Rezultat so dnevne vrednost...
The article provides information on the safety of the Mochovce NPP related to occupational health and safety and environmental protection. The facility has earned EN ISO 140001 and OHSAS 18001 certificates. (orig.)
Slovenske elektrarne (SE), a.s., Bratislava were, according to the time schedule of the previous government, expected to receive a new strategic co-owner this year. But this will not come true. Even though last year potential investors were invited to a tender and they even submitted their offers by the end of September but the new Privatisation Committee only started evaluating them in April. In the meantime a new Commission was established, the relevant Ministry prepared new plans and fights for chairs in SE's managing bodies were fought. A document containing privatisation alternatives for SE was sitting on the desk of Minister of Economy, Robert Nemcsics. The Coalition Board was busy discussing other topics and so, according to the Minister, SE should get on the agenda this week. R. Nemcsics claims that this privatisation requires political will as well. This political will will decide how the cabinet will handle an offer Czech CEZ submitted after deadline - in May this year - in a letter sent to privatisation agency National Property Fund (FNM). Spokesman of the Czech company, Ladislav Kriz explained that this step was motioned by signals from official and unofficial Slovak sources that CEZ could possibly be a suitable partner for SE. The whole debate about these two companies joining together was started at the beginning of this year by Vincent Pillar short after his sudden resignation from position of General Manager of SE. Production and export of electrical energy in years 1999-2002 is presented graphically
Programs ESTE EMO and ESTE EBO are emergency response systems that help the crisis staff of the NPP in assessing the source term (predicted possible release of radionuclides to the atmosphere ), in assessing the urgent protective measures and sectors under threat, in assessing real release (symptoms of release really detected and observed), in calculating radiological impacts of real release, averted or avertable doses, potential doses and doses during transport or evacuation on specified routes. Both systems serve as instruments in case of severe accident (DBA or BDBA) at NPP Mochovce or NPP Bohunice, accidents with threat of release of radioactivity to the atmosphere. Systems are implemented at emergency centre of Mochovce NPP and Bohunice NPP and connected online to the sources of technological and radiological data from the reactor, primary circuit, confinement, secondary circuit, ventilation stack, from the area of NPP (TDS 1) and from the emergency planning zone (TDS 11). Systems are connected online to the sources of meteorological data, too. (authors)
A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Mochovce in 1998 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Director's foreword; (2) Power plant management; (3) Highlights of 1998; (4) Quality system; (5) Electricity and heat generation; Maintenance; Capital construction; (6) Radiation safety; Environmental impacts of operations; (7) List of balances; Human resources; (8) International co-operation; Public relations
A system for monitoring the accuracy and reliability characteristics of standard temperature measurements both at fuel channel exits and at the reactor inlet and outlet, was partially installed in Mochovce Units 1 and 2 simultaneously with their commissioning. In the paper, the way of implementation of the SMAR system at both units, experience with its use since the start-up and proposals for the improvement of the system are presented. (Authors)
The paper presents general approach, used methods and form of documentation of the results that have been applied within the shutdown and low power PSA (SPSA) study for Mochovce NPP, Unit 1, Slovakia. The SPSA project was realized by VUJE Trnava Inc., Slovakia in 2001-2002 years. The Level 1 SPSA study for Mochovce NPP Unit 1 covers internal events as well as internal (fires, floods and heavy load drop) and external (aircraft crash, extreme meteorological conditions, seismic event and influence of surrounding industry) hazards. Mochovce NPP consists of two operating units equipped with VVER 440/V213 reactors safety upgraded before construction finishing and operation start. 87 safety measures based on VVER 440 operational experience and international mission insights were implemented to enhance its operational and nuclear safety. The SPSA relates to full power PSA (FPSA) as a continuation of the effort to create a harmonized level 1 PSA model for all operational modes of the plant with the goal to use it for further purposes as follows: Real Time Risk Monitor, Maintenance Optimization, Technical Specifications Optimization, Living PSA. (author)
The nuclear power industry has been recently perceived by the general public as a specific industrial branch stretching its activities far beyond the conventional industrial standard. Similarly, the stage of testing and commissioning of a nuclear power plant is perceived as a specific stage in the plant life-cycle. This is a complicated process not only in technical terms, but in the context of nowadays, it is also one of the key periods in terms of public relations and public acceptance. The stage of commissioning unit 1 of Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant evoked a real communication media war between defenders and opponents of the nuclear industry started early in 1998 in Slovakia, as well as in other, mostly neighbouring countries. It should be noted, however, that the Mochovce plant has never been a technical problem as confirmed a number of international regulatory missions and audits, even though its construction was stopped in early 90's. The result of the war between the opponents and 'nuclear experts' was more or less clear to a thinking human being - a compromise could have been the only result. The compromise which is in fact a victory of the side of technical development, and loss of those lobbying for a nuclear-reactor-free central Europe. This article brings a review of events that accompanied commissioning activities of Mochovce NPP unit I which were important in terms of public relations
Magistrsko delo obravnava razvoj modelov za kratkoročno napovedovanje oddane moči obnovljivih virov energije. V nalogi je obrazložen razvoj modela za napoved oddane moči fotonapetostnih elektrarn in razvoj modela za napoved oddane moči malih hidroelektrarn. Temeljna stopnja celotnega procesa predstavlja izbor in analizo meteoroloških spremenljivk, ki vplivajo na napovedovanje. Za umetno zmanjšanje vpliva meteoroloških dejavnikov je pri obeh modelih večji delež napovedi izračunan z uvedbo doda...
Analyses of external events had been first time performed at the design stage of the Mochovce NPP showing sufficiently low contribution of external hazards to core damage frequency. But, based on IAEA document 'Safety problems of WWER-440/213 NPPs and the categorization' (IAEA-EBP-WWER-03, 1996), the need of new reassessment arose due to discrepancy of some origin recommendations in compare with present IAEA ones. Mochovce NPP Nuclear Safety Improvements Program elaborated at the same time included the IAEA recommendations and following improvements were proposed to perform in context of external events. 1. Seismic project and new locality seismic evaluation This safety improvement includes also some 'on site' technical improvements in seismic stability of structures and equipment. 2. Unit specific analyses of extreme meteorologic conditions. This safety improvement focuses on impact of feasible extreme conditions on NPP systems caused by rain, snow and hail storms, frost, winds, low and high temperatures. 3. Analyses of external hazards caused by humans. In this safety improvement were specified: feasible sources of explosions; analyses of hydrogen, gas and propane-calor gas depots; air crash risk. The results of these implemented safety improvements were considered in the PSA study. The External hazards analysis is also part of Level 1 PSA Mochovce NPP performed by PSA Department of VUJE Trnava Inc., Engineering, Design and Research Organization, Slovakia. Some partial analyses are performed in cooperation with following companies DS and S - SAIC, USA and Geophysical Institute Academy of Science, Slovakia Relko, Slovakia. Basic documents are: NUREG/CR-2300 'PRA Procedures Guide - A Guide to the Performance of Probabilistic Risk Assessments for Nuclear Power Plants' and IAEA SS No. 50-P-7 'Treatment of External Hazards in PSA for NPPs. The external hazards analysis consists of following parts: 1. Geography and plant locality; 2. Nearby industry; 3. Extreme
The incorporation of the measurement of displacements of buildings in the construction documentation of the Mochovce nuclear power plant is dealt with. Each project design shows the points of ground control, the method of their stabilization, the intervals, accuracy and method of measurement, etc. Of great importance is the measurement of the turbine bearing frame, the turbine equipment, the main production units and the buildings of auxiliary operations handling radioactive material. The measured values of displacement were within the expected limits for all buildings. (E.J.)
The results are discussed of four years of investigating the technical and economic parameters of drilling and blasting equipment employed on the building site of the Mochovce nuclear power plant. The technical and operating characteristics are given of tested breaking and drilling sets manufactured by various foreign companies. The final choice was based on output, hard currency prices, power demand, operating reliability and number of personnel required for operation. The optimal set consists of two Hausherr HBM 70 drilling systems (holes with a diameter of 130 to 150 mm) and two ROC 601-02 Atlas Copco machines (auxiliary work, breaking foundation holes for nuclear reactors). (J.C.)
In this contribution, an overview of seismic design procedures used for reassessment of seismic safety of civil structures at the Mochovce NPP in Slovak Republic presented. As an introduction, the objectives, history, and current status of seismic design of the NPP have been explained. General philosophy of design methods, seismic classification of buildings, seismic data, calculation methods, assumptions on structural behavior under seismic loading and reliability assessment were described in detail in the subsequent section. Examples of calculation models used for dynamic calculations of seismic response are given in the last section. (author)
Full text: The Mochovce repository is a shallow land burial facility for disposal of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the Slovak Republic. Waste generators include nuclear power plants, laboratories, hospitals, research institutes, and other radiological facilities. A performance assessment (PA) is required to determine the degree of potential risk posed to workers and the future public by these wastes, and to inform decisions about how that potential risk might be reduced. Since 1993, PAs of Mochovce have evolved as knowledge has improved, as computerbased analytical platforms have become more sophisticated, and as the repository has been upgraded to improve its operational capabilities and its long-term performance. The experience gained in this evolutionary modeling informs the current chain of deterministic one- and two-dimensional process models that constitute the bulk of the PA modeling. In order to evaluate the significance of different modeling techniques and of the uncertainty inherent in the parameters that are entered into such models, a probabilistic modeling framework has been developed using the GoldSim systems analysis computer program. In the new GoldSim model presented here, the essential behaviors of the process models are captured in simpler equivalent functions that are implemented in the GoldSim model. The uncertainty inherent in the imperfect state of knowledge about the repository's engineering, failure modes, the natural environment surrounding the repository, and the locations and behaviors of potential future human receptors is reflected in the definition of modeling parameters as stochastic variables. The new, integrated 'Mochovce repository GoldSim Model' is part of the evaluation of the facility. The model facilitates comparison of the repository's performance to regulatory dose limit objectives. In this new probabilistic implementation it can be used for other purposes as well. For example, analysis of the
The paper presents results of nuclear criticality safety analysis of spent fuel storage for the first and second unit of NPP Mochovce. The spent fuel storage pool (compact and reserve grid) was modeled using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. Conservative approach was applied and calculation of keff values was performed for normal and various postulated emergency conditions in order to evaluate the final maximal keff values. The requirement of current safety regulations to ensure 5% subcriticality was met except one especially conservative case. (Authors)
The projects are described which were implemented by Doprastav Bratislava within the preparation of the site for the Mochovce nuclear power plant. This includes a railway siding in a length of 11.2 kilometres which includes a railway bridge, two other bridges and the reconstruction of the Kalna nad Vahom railway terminal. Also reconstructed or newly built were road communications in a total length of 23.3 km. The said project included the construction of a road flyover over the railway track and the construction of five other smaller bridges. In order to provide the utility water supply to the Mochovce nuclear power plant, a large reservoir is being built at Velke Kozmalovce. The reservoir will have a total capacity of 2.6 mill. m3 of water, of this the effective capacity will be 2.1 mill. m3 on a flooded area of some 90 ha. Part of the reservoir will be a small hydro-power plant, the reservoir will also be used for irrigation on the fields of the neighbouring farms. (Z.M.)
In this paper results of monitoring of chemical gaseous and liquid effluents into the Hron River as well as of radiation monitoring of Mochovce NPP Units 1 and 2 are presented. The radioactive effluents into atmosphere within May 2008 were: 0.26 MBq of aerosoles, 0.021 MBq of iodine-131, and 108 GBq of rare gases. For the period January - May 2008 these radioactive effluents into atmosphere represented 4.48 MBq (0.0026% of annually limit (AL)) of aerosoles, 0.079 MBq (0.00012% of AL) of iodine-131, and 690 GBq (0.017% of AL) of rare gases. The radioactive effluents into recipient of Hron River within May 2008 were: 421 GBq of tritium, and 1.11 MBq of corrosive and fission products. For the period January - May 2008 these radioactive effluents into recipient of Hron River represented 4.627 GBq (38.6% of AL) of tritium; 4.96 MBq (0.45% of AL) of corrosive and fission products. Dose equivalents rate for the villages in surroundings of the Mochovce NPP in May 2008 are published. Chemical effluents are also reported.
In this paper results of monitoring of chemical gaseous and liquid effluents into the Hron River as well as of radiation monitoring of Mochovce NPP Units 1 and 2 are presented. The radioactive effluents into atmosphere within November 2008 were: 0.30 MBq of aerosoles, 0.010 MBq of iodine-131, and 136 GBq of rare gases. For the period January - November 2008 these radioactive effluents into atmosphere represented 8.04 MBq (0.0047% of annually limit (AL)) of aerosoles, 0.174 MBq (0.00026% of AL) of iodine-131, and 1.400 TBq (0.034% of AL) of rare gases. The radioactive effluents into recipient of Hron River within November 2008 were: 139 GBq of tritium, and 0.92 MBq of corrosive and fission products. For the period January - November 2008 these radioactive effluents into recipient of Hron River represented 7.761 GBq (64.7% of AL) of tritium; 13.13 MBq (1.19% of AL) of corrosive and fission products. Dose equivalents rate for the villages in surroundings of the Mochovce NPP in November 2008 are published. Chemical effluents are also reported.
In this paper results of monitoring of chemical gaseous and liquid effluents into the Hron River as well as of radiation monitoring of Mochovce NPP Units 1 and 2 are presented. The radioactive effluents into atmosphere within March 2008 were: 0.23 MBq of aerosoles, 0.010 MBq of iodine-131, and 195 GBq of rare gases. For the period January - March 2008 these radioactive effluents into atmosphere represented 0.66 MBq (0.00039% of annually limit (AL)) of aerosoles, 0.033 MBq (0.00005% of AL) of iodine-131, and 481 GBq (0.012% of AL) of rare gases. The radioactive effluents into recipient of Hron River within March 2008 were: 1.026 TBq of tritium, and 0.91 MBq of corrosive and fission products. For the period January - March 2008 these radioactive effluents into recipient of Hron River represented 2.927 TBq (24.4% of AL) of tritium; 2.25 MBq (0.20% of AL) of corrosive and fission products. Dose equivalents rate for the villages in surroundings of the Mochovce NPP in March 2008 are published. Chemical effluents are also reported.
In this paper results of monitoring of chemical gaseous and liquid effluents into the Hron River as well as of radiation monitoring of Mochovce NPP Units 1 and 2 are presented. The radioactive effluents into atmosphere within April 2008 were: 3.56 MBq of aerosoles, 0.024 MBq of iodine-131, and 100 GBq of rare gases. For the period January - April 2008 these radioactive effluents into atmosphere represented 4.22 MBq (0.0025% of annually limit (AL)) of aerosoles, 0.058 MBq (0.000086% of AL) of iodine-131, and 581 GBq (0.014% of AL) of rare gases. The radioactive effluents into recipient of Hron River within April 2008 were: 1.279 TBq of tritium, and 1.61 MBq of corrosive and fission products. For the period January - April 2008 these radioactive effluents into recipient of Hron River represented 4.206 TBq (35.1% of AL) of tritium; 3.85 MBq (3.0% of AL) of corrosive and fission products. Dose equivalents rate for the villages in surroundings of the Mochovce NPP in April 2008 are published. Chemical effluents are also reported.
In this paper results of monitoring of chemical gaseous and liquid effluents into the Hron River as well as of radiation monitoring of Mochovce NPP Units 1 and 2 are presented. The radioactive effluents into atmosphere within June 2008 were: 0.43 MBq of aerosoles, 0.014 MBq of iodine-131, and 126 GBq of rare gases. For the period January - June 2008 these radioactive effluents into atmosphere represented 4.91 MBq (0.0029% of annually limit (AL)) of aerosoles, 0.093 MBq (0.00014% of AL) of iodine-131, and 815 GBq (0.020% of AL) of rare gases. The radioactive effluents into recipient of Hron River within June 2008 were: 826 GBq of tritium, and 1.93 MBq of corrosive and fission products. For the period January - June 2008 these radioactive effluents into recipient of Hron River represented 5.454 TBq (45.4% of AL) of tritium; 6.89 MBq (0.63% of AL) of corrosive and fission products. Dose equivalents rate for the villages in surroundings of the Mochovce NPP in June 2008 are published. Chemical effluents are also reported.
In this paper results of monitoring of chemical gaseous and liquid effluents into the Hron River as well as of radiation monitoring of Mochovce NPP Units 1 and 2 are presented. The radioactive effluents into atmosphere within September 2008 were: 0.25 MBq of aerosoles, 0.009 MBq of iodine-131, and 330 GBq of rare gases. For the period January - September 2008 these radioactive effluents into atmosphere represented 5.58 MBq (0.0033% of annually limit (AL)) of aerosoles, 0.144 MBq (0.00021% of AL) of iodine-131, and 1.146 TBq (0.028% of AL) of rare gases. The radioactive effluents into recipient of Hron River within September 2008 were: 251 GBq of tritium, and 0.86 MBq of corrosive and fission products. For the period January - September 2008 these radioactive effluents into recipient of Hron River represented 6.775 TBq (56.5% of AL) of tritium; 10.36 MBq (0.94% of AL) of corrosive and fission products. Dose equivalents rate for the villages in surroundings of the Mochovce NPP in September 2008 are published. Chemical effluents are also reported.
In this paper results of monitoring of chemical gaseous and liquid effluents into the Hron River as well as of radiation monitoring of Mochovce NPP Units 1 and 2 are presented. The radioactive effluents into atmosphere within August 2008 were: 0.16 MBq of aerosoles, 0.015 MBq of iodine-131, and 104 GBq of rare gases. For the period January - August 2008 these radioactive effluents into atmosphere represented 5.33 MBq (0.0031% of annually limit (AL)) of aerosoles, 0.135 MBq (0.00020% of AL) of iodine-131, and 1.024 TBq (0.075% of AL) of rare gases. The radioactive effluents into recipient of Hron River within August 2008 were: 464 GBq of tritium, and 0.97 MBq of corrosive and fission products. For the period January - August 2008 these radioactive effluents into recipient of Hron River represented 6.524 TBq (54.4% of AL) of tritium; 9.49 MBq (0.86% of AL) of corrosive and fission products. Dose equivalents rate for the villages in surroundings of the Mochovce NPP in August 2008 are published. Chemical effluents are also reported.
In this paper results of monitoring of chemical gaseous and liquid effluents into the Hron River as well as of radiation monitoring of Mochovce NPP Units 1 and 2 are presented. The radioactive effluents into atmosphere within December 2008 were: 0.35 MBq of aerosoles, 0.010 MBq of iodine-131, and 117 GBq of rare gases. For the period January - December 2008 these radioactive effluents into atmosphere represented 8.39 MBq (0.0049% of annually limit (AL)) of aerosoles, 0.184 MBq (0.00027% of AL) of iodine-131, and 1.517 TBq (0.037% of AL) of rare gases. The radioactive effluents into recipient of Hron River within December 2008 were: 95 GBq of tritium, and 0.75 MBq of corrosive and fission products. For the period January - December 2008 these radioactive effluents into recipient of Hron River represented 7.856 TBq (65.5% of AL) of tritium; 13.88 MBq (1.26% of AL) of corrosive and fission products. Dose equivalents rate for the villages in surroundings of the Mochovce NPP in December 2008 are published. Chemical effluents are also reported.
In this paper results of monitoring of chemical gaseous and liquid effluents into the Hron River as well as of radiation monitoring of Mochovce NPP Units 1 and 2 are presented. The radioactive effluents into atmosphere within January 2008 were: 0.27 MBq of aerosoles, 0.009 MBq of iodine-131, and 151 GBq of rare gases. For the period January 2008 these radioactive effluents into atmosphere represented 0.27 MBq (0.00016% of annually limit (AL)) of aerosoles, 0.009 MBq (0.000014% of AL) of iodine-131, and 151 GBq (0.0037% of AL) of rare gases. The radioactive effluents into recipient of Hron River within January 2008 were: 766 GBq of tritium, and 0.66 MBq of corrosive and fission products. For the period January 2008 these radioactive effluents into recipient of Hron River represented 766 GBq (6.43% of AL) of tritium; 0.6673 MBq (0.060% of AL) of corrosive and fission products. Dose equivalents rate for the villages in surroundings of the Mochovce NPP in January 2008 are published. Chemical effluents are also reported.
In this paper results of monitoring of chemical gaseous and liquid effluents into the Hron River as well as of radiation monitoring of Mochovce NPP Units 1 and 2 are presented. The radioactive effluents into atmosphere within February 2008 were: 0.16 MBq of aerosoles, 0.014 MBq of iodine-131, and 136 GBq of rare gases. For the period January - February 2008 these radioactive effluents into atmosphere represented 0.43 MBq (0.00026% of annually limit (AL)) of aerosoles, 0.023 MBq (0.000034% of AL) of iodine-131, and 286 GBq (0.007% of AL) of rare gases. The radioactive effluents into recipient of Hron River within February 2008 were: 1.134 TBq of tritium, and 0.68 MBq of corrosive and fission products. For the period January - February 2008 these radioactive effluents into recipient of Hron River represented 1.901 TBq (15.8% of AL) of tritium; 1.34 MBq (0.12% of AL) of corrosive and fission products. Dose equivalents rate for the villages in surroundings of the Mochovce NPP in February 2008 are published. Chemical effluents are also reported.
In this paper results of monitoring of chemical gaseous and liquid effluents into the Hron River as well as of radiation monitoring of Mochovce NPP Units 1 and 2 are presented. The radioactive effluents into atmosphere within October 2008 were: 2.17 MBq of aerosoles, 0.021 MBq of iodine-131, and 118 GBq of rare gases. For the period January - October 2008 these radioactive effluents into atmosphere represented 7.75 MBq (0.0046% of annually limit (AL)) of aerosoles, 0.164 MBq (0.00025% of AL) of iodine-131, and 1.265 TBq (0.031% of AL) of rare gases. The radioactive effluents into recipient of Hron River within October 2008 were: 847 GBq of tritium, and 1.84 MBq of corrosive and fission products. For the period January - October 2008 these radioactive effluents into recipient of Hron River represented 7.622 TBq (63.5% of AL) of tritium; 12.21 MBq (1.11% of AL) of corrosive and fission products. Dose equivalents rate for the villages in surroundings of the Mochovce NPP in October 2008 are published. Chemical effluents are also reported.
JAVYS, the Nuclear Decommissioning Company owner and operator of National Radioactive Waste Repository (NRR) at Mochovce, is planning the enlargement of the existing NRR. The enlargement consists of the construction of new structures (double rows) like the ones existing for LILW and of the new facility for the disposal of Very Low Level Waste (VLLW). A VLLW disposal site is being planned in Mochovce where a LILW disposal site is already located. As a part of ongoing licensing process for this change in utilization of the NRR we have updated the already existing assessment of potential radiological impact to members of the public after closure of the site, both from the migration of leachate in groundwater from the site and from possible inadvertent intrusion into the site, including future residence on the material excavated for the construction of the road. The radionuclides from the ground water reach the biosphere through a spring flowing into the lake. It is conservatively assumed that individual in the critical group uses biosphere of the lake (for irrigations, fishing and recreation). In the case of unintentional intrusion into the repository, the exposed group consists of a small number of workers who excavate or examine repository materials. The assessment is based on preliminary conceptual design for VLLW module, estimation of future volumes for the different waste classes and their radiological inventories and considers some common aspects and potential interactions between both disposal systems, such as radiological criteria, critical group definition, institutional period, site environment, total activity inventory. (authors)
The document is part of the Leak Before Break project for the Mochovce nuclear power plant. The safety coefficients, specific of LBB as laid down by the Guidelines of the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission, are summarized for all loops. The document is a revised version with conservative materials data and newly determined response spectra as per NUREG 0098. (author)
Benchmarking efforts in the fall of 2006 showed significant performance gaps in multiple measured processes between the Slovenske Elektrarne (SE) nuclear organization and the highest performing nuclear organizations in the world. While overall performance of the SE nuclear fleet was good and in the second quartile, when compared to the worldwide population of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), SE leadership set new goals to improve safety and operational performance to the first decile of the worldwide PWR Fleet. To meet these goals the SE nuclear team initiated a project to identify and implement the Best Practice nuclear processes in multiple areas. The benchmarking process identified the Standard Nuclear Performance Model (SNPM), used in the US nuclear fleet, as the industry best practice process model. The Slovenske Elektrarne nuclear management team used various change management techniques to clearly establish the case for organizational and process change within the nuclear organization. The project organization established by the SE nuclear management team relied heavily on functional line organization personnel to gain early acceptance of the project goals and methods thereby reducing organizational opposition to the significant organizational and process changes. The choice of a standardized process model used, all or in part, by approximately one third of the nuclear industry worldwide greatly facilitated the development and acceptance of the changes. Use of a nuclear proven templated software platform significantly reduced development and testing efforts for the resulting fully integrated solution. In the spring of 2007 SE set in motion a set of initiatives that has resulted in a significant redesign of most processes related to nuclear plant maintenance and continuous improvement. Significant organizational structure changes have been designed and implemented to align the organization to the SNPM processes and programs. The completion of the initial
SE/ENEL, on a voluntary basis, has prepared new EIA Study for the completion of Units 3 and 4 of Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant (MO34 NPP) according to International current practices and European Directives. The results of the analysis, according to SE/ENEL Environment and Corporate Social Responsibility policies, will be provided to local Communities and Public Authorities. The Environmental Impact Assessment is performed: - in compliance with appendix 11 of Slovak Act. No. 24/2006 'On the assessment of the effects on the environment and on the modification and enlargement of some laws'; - meeting the requirements of the Exhibit II 'Illustrative list of potential social and environmental issues to be addressed in the Social and Environmental Assessment documentation' as reported in the document 'Equator Principles' of 2006 July developed by the International Finance Corporation (IFC). The area of Mochovce NPP is situated in Central Europe in the south-western region of the Slovak Republic (SR) at the western border of the Levice district. The area lies in the south-western part of the Kozmalovske hills mainly in the Hron highlands. From the point of view of the terrestrial and administrative organization of the SR, Mochovce NPP is situated in the eastern part of the Nitra region, in the north-western part of the Levice district, close to the border with the Nitra and Zlate Moravce districts. Mochovce NPP is approx. 12 km from the district capital Levice, which is the largest town within a 20 km distance from the power plant. Initial site preparation began in August 1983. In April 1998 the first fuel was loaded into Unit 1 of Mochovce NPP. The operation started in August 1998. Unit 2 started operation in January 2000. The original Construction Permit No. Vyst. 2010/86 for MO 34 was issued by the District National Committee in Levice on the basis of the Land Planning Decisions on 12 November 1986. This Permit has been renewed firstly on 5 May 1997 by letter of the
This paper presents genesis of Level 1 PSA project preparation for all operational modes of Mochovce NPP unit 1 including the description of its' main objectives, scope and working method. The PSA study which includes full power (FPSA) as well as shutdown and low power conditions (SPSA) Level 1 PSA has to support the nuclear safety improvements of the unit. They evaluate the basic design and the benefits of all improvements, which were found necessary to be incorporated before the start-up of the unit. The study includes internal events (transients and under-loss of coolant accident, LOCAs), internal hazards as fires and floods and selected external hazards as earthquake, influence of external industry, extreme meteorological conditions and aircraft crash.The PSA (both FPSA and SPSA) models is developed using the RISK SPECTRUM PSA code. (author)
Mochovce NPP consists of four reaktor units of WWER 440/V213 type and it is located in the south-middle part of Slovakia. At present units 1 and 2 are in operation. As these units represent the second generation of WWER reactor design, additional safety measures were implemented to enhance operational and nuclear safety according to the recommendations of international audits and operational experience from other simular units (such as Dukovany and Bohunice). These requirements result into a number of safety measures grouped according to their purpose to achieve recent international requirements on nuclear and operational safety. The paper presents the bases used for specification of safety measures including their grouping into comprehensive tasks covering different areas of safety goals as well as structural organization of project management including participating companies and work performance. Results are also given regarding the contribution of selected safety measures to reduction of total core damage frequency. (authors)
Mochovce NPP consists of four reactor units of WWER 440/V213 type and it is located in the south-middle part of Slovakia. At present two units are operated and another two are under the construction. As these units represent second generation of WWER reactor design, the additional safety measures (SM) were implemented to enhance operational and nuclear safety according to the recommendations of performed international audits and operational experience based on the exploitation of similar units. These requirements result into a number of SMs grouped according to their purpose to reach recent international requirements on nuclear and operational safety. The paper presents the bases used for SMs establishing including their grouping covering different areas of safety goals and results of SM contributions to the total core damage frequency based on FPSA analysis. (author)
Observing the given deadlines of the construction of the Mochovce nuclear power plant and the required volumes of breaking to the total value of 6.2 million m3 of rock, the required output was derived for the 7th five year plan to the value of 200,000 m3 per month, i.e., 10,000 m3 per day and 700 m3 per hour. The basic task is to build a flat building site with an area of 2,300 by 700 m2 which requires the removal of a masiff of rocks rising to a height of 37 m, and by compacting the mined rock to build heaps to a height of 20 m. The rocks were disintegrated by blasting. Surface blasting was used for mining faces and ribs. POLONIT 2 or PERMON DAP 1 were mainly used for blasting (ammonium nitrate explosives). The Danubit 1 detonator was used in holes flooded with water. For drilling a combination was used of drilling machines HBM 70 Hausherr with a drilling diameter of 130 to 155 mm and Ingersol Rand ECM 350 with a drilling diameter of 80 mm. The compressors used are Atlas Copco XRHS 350 Dd and PTS 900 Dd. As the optimal combination of machines for the removal of disengaged material for the daily output of 15,000 m3 the combination was used of 6 excavators with a shovel volume of 2.5 m3 ORENSTEIN-KOPPEL RH 25 with 12 Kockum 445 trucks and 18 ORENSTEIN-KOPPEL RH 40 excavators with a shovel volume of 4 m3 and a total of 64 Caterpillar 769 C, Belaz 548 A, Tatra T 200 and T 138 S1 trucks. The planned targets are being fulfilled and the work performed up to now on the Mochovce site equals 2.5 million m3 of excavated and removed rock. (B.S.)
There were 14 contributions presented of the conference focused on the integrated quality management systems in completion EMO34. Contributions were focused both on theoretical problems from the project management area and on the applications in practice in management systems implementation in accordance with the standards: STN EN ISO 9001:2000, STN EN ISO 14 001:2005, and OHSAS 18 001:1999 at the completion of the Nuclear Power Plant Mochovce of units 3 and 4
In this paper author deals with privatization of Slovenske elektrarne (SE), a.s. Bratislava and their influence on economy of the Slovak Republic. Country made the first step in privatization in the case of SE at the beginning of 90's by transformation of state enterprise to a. s. with state dominant position (95.8% of stocks was held by Fond narodneho majetku (National Property Fund), the rest was divided between SPP, a.s. and Restitucny investicny fond (Restitution capital fund). In the next phase two newly founded separate a.s. TEKO, a.s. (Teplaren Kosice) and SEPS, a.s. (Slovenska elektrizacna prenosova sustava) were set aside from a.s. Government adopted two basic variants of sale of SE, a.s. stocks by resolution N. 700/2002. Possible variants of SE privatisation are discussed. Energy position of Slovak Republic in European context is relatively favourable in present time because production capacities exceed domestic consumption and part of energy (up to 600 MWh) is exported. Future of thermal power plants Novaky and Vojany is interrogative because of tightened ecological norms, besides Slovak Republic undertook to lay up both blocks of Bohunice NPP V1. Forecasts show that Slovak Republic will stop to be self-sufficient in electric power production about 2010. (Author)
The important aspect is testing if the nuclear energy in the Slovak Republic is due to obligatory rules acceptable and its operation is regulated by the state through the independent institution - The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). UJD considers the whole area of public relations an essential component of its activity. UJD intends to serve the public true, systematic, qualified, understandable and independent information regarding nuclear safety of nuclear power plants, as well as regarding methods and results of UJD work. Generally, public information is considered as significant contribution to the creation of confidence into the regulatory work. The public relations are understood as attempts to establish, keep and improve UJD-s good relations to its neighbours through purposeful informing. An Information centre at the offices of UJD was built and opened in October 1995 with IAEA Director General as the first visitor. NPP Mochovee is an example of international co-operation in achieving internationally acceptable safety standards. Companies from France, Germany, USA, Russian Federation, Czech Republic and Slovakia and last, but not least also the IAEA participated significantly on increasing the safety level of this NPP. We have been fully aware of the importance of good communication with press, TV and radio broadcasting in this pre-operation and operation period about nuclear safety, nuclear standard and other nuclear aspects commissioning of the NPP Mochovce in the UJD. The information policy of the UJD was in this period focused on the preparation an actual press releases for general and specialised news- paper and national press agencies. Very important were the frequent presentations the requirement safety stages of the NPP Mochovce inIV and radio broadcasting by headquarters of the UJD. UJD as the state authority provides information related to its competence, namely information on safety of operation of nuclear installations
Mochovce NPP consists of four reactor units of WWER 440/V213 type and it is located in the south-middle part of Slovakia. At present first unit operated and the second one under the construction finishing. As these units represent second generation of WWER reactor design, the additional safety measures (SM) were implemented to enhance operational and nuclear safety according to the recommendations of performed international audits and operational experience based on exploitation of other similar units (as Dukovany and J. Bohunice NPPs). These requirements result into a number of SMs grouped according to their purpose to reach recent international requirements on nuclear and operational safety. The paper presents the bases used for safety measures establishing including their grouping into the comprehensive tasks covering different areas of safety goals as well as structural organization of a project management of including participating companies and work performance. More, results are given regarding contribution of selected SMs to the total core damage frequency decreasing.(author)
Mochovce NPP consists of four reactor units of WWER 440/V213 type and it is located in the south-middle part of Slovakia. At present first unit operated and the second one under the construction finishing. As these units represent second generation of WWER reactor design, the additional safety measures (SM) were implemented to enhance operational and nuclear safety according to the recommendations of performed international audits and operational experience based on exploitation of other similar units (as Dukovany and J. Bohunice NPPs). These requirements result into a number of SMs grouped according to their purpose to reach recent international requirements on nuclear and operational safety. The paper presents the bases used for safety measures establishing including their grouping into the comprehensive tasks covering different areas of safety goals as well as structural organization of a project management of including participating companies and work performance. More, results are given regarding contribution of selected SMs to the total core damage frequency decreasing. (author)
The results are presented of a hydrobiological study of three flows and one retention reservoir in the surroundings of the Mochovce nuclear power plant (Western Slovakia) performed in June 1982 and May 1983. The research was aimed at obtaining necessary information on the species composition of the algal flora (include blue-green algae) and selected groups of invertebrate hydrofauna (Sarcodina, Rotatoria, Cladocera, Copepoda, Oligochaeta and Chironomidae) in this territory. Natural waters were classified on the basis of the species composition of water organisms according to saprobiological criteria. (author). 4 refs
In the contribution there is the basic information mentioned about history of building and the current situation at the finishing of the building of 3 and 4 block of the Nuclear Power Plant Mochovce with the use of project digitization. Further on the contribution shows what kinds of supporting material has been elaborated, what kind of decisions have been issued to the finishing of the building, way of financing and also the assumption of investment return under the defined conditions. An orientation time schedule of the finishing of the building and the crucial steps for its security are presented in the conclusion
The contribution defines the way of management of safety and protection of health and protection against the fire during completion of units 3. and 4. in NPP Mochovce. The creation of the management of safety raised from the legal and other requirements applied in the civil activities and mainly from the requirements for coordination of safety on the site. The whole system is methodically managed through the 5 basic documents so-called 'Building rules': 1) Safety-technical conditions of performance in SE, Inc. Bratislava (project MO34); 2) MO34/1/MNA-003.00-02 the elaboration of the integrated safety plan; 3) MO34/1/NA-003.00-03 risks analyse; 4) PNM3460100 Integrated safety plan for completion of Units 3.and 4 in NPP Mochovce; 5) Project of construction organization. The system itself of the management of the safety prevention must by provided by the supplier in compliance with the standard OHSAS 18 001 and ISO 14001, and in compliance with the requirement of the builder applied in the technical specification for the contract. Most of necessary related documentation of Safety plan for the site is usually part of the documentation for quality management of contractor. Therefore it is necessary to put the reference in each chapter of the Safety plan for site and the standpoint how to apply it for the particular specific situation. The coordinator is mandatory to manage the prevention for the part of safety of specified site and to coordinate the activity of suppliers during the works tie in this way, that the each contractor shall meet the safety requirements given by safety plan and also to identify and to eliminate the risks menaced in the particular work places or the suppliers each other. The builder established its own control system and for this purpose he settled the data base so-called 'The system of corrective and precautionary activities'. The system registers in its data base all discrepancies determined during the regular controls of the head workers
During joint development and designing of the bubbling vacuum system (BVS) equipment for localization of under-loss of coolant accident (LOCA) consequences on NPPs with WWER 440/213, a large volume of experimental and calculational activities have been performed by VTI and SverdNIIchimmash for the substantiation of functionality of this system, and in particular, for bubbler-condenser (BC) design, as a part of BVS. However, not looking on broad introduction of BVS on 16-th NPP units with WWER 440/213, its functionality was subjected to a doubt from experts of different countries. Sequentially, that promoted issue of the IAEA, document and OECD document. Therefore, before commissioning of the NPP 'Mochovce' unit 1 it was decided to execute additional experimental and computational researches for Safety Analysis Report preparation. Within the framework of these BVS thermodynamic behavior researches, in particular the following problems were chosen: (1) The check of a capability of valves DN 250 blocking in an opened position, as a result of return pressure differential on BC, during vent clearing process of the hydro-lock, that can sequentially result in an a drop of efficiency of stem condensation in BC pool; (2) To provide by direct measurements the absence of pressure oscillations dangerous for strength of a BC design in different modes of steam condensation in BC and to execute computational researches of instability of steam condensation processes (for such mode as 'chugging'); (3) Study influences of pool swell and water carry over through check valves DN 500 in the air traps on a BVS functionality; (4) To determine by a computational way the maximum pressure in NPP premises during LOCA, with taking into consideration additional failures of the BC equipment: absence of a water on two and more BC plates and DN 250 valves have blocked in an opened position (conservative conditions). (authors)
In the first decade of June 2008, during the power commissioning of the reactor at the Mochovce NPP unit 1, the experiment with reducing the thermal power of core almost to the balance-of-plant (BOP) needs was performed. After the reactor has operated for seven hours at low power (about 200 220 MW (thermal)), its power was increased (at a rate of about 0.25% of Nnom/min) to the initial level, close to 107% (1471 MW). During the experiment, core parameters, which were subsequently used for comparing the measured data with the results of experiment simulation calculations, were recorded in the reactor in-core monitoring system database. Calculated and measured levels of critical concentrations of boric acid were compared, along with power density distributions by fuel elements and assemblies obtained both by the KRUIZ in-core monitoring system and on the basis of calculations simulating reactor operation in accordance with the given core power variation schedule. The final stage consisted of assessing the methodical component of power density micro- and macro-fields calculation error in the core of Mochovce-1 reactor operating with varying load. (author)
In this paper authors describe the experience gained during commissioning and trial operation of Mochovce NPP (EMO). The first year of EMO operation from the point of view of safety and reliability was successful. Evidently we were challenged with certain problems characteristic to this stage of operation which resulted in automatic reactor shutdown. There were 11 automatic shutdowns in 1998 by action of the quick emergency protection AO-1 and two manual shutdowns by the AO-1 key. In 1999, there were 6 automatic shutdowns by action of the quick emergency protection AO-1. Three of them was connected to the falsely activated binary signal of MCP switch of, in two cases the reason came out from the turbo-generator (TG) cooling water system. Very positive trend in the operation of both units shows the fact that during all commissioning period of the second unit there were only three automatic reactor shutdowns by the signal AO-1. All these actions were done in frame of commissioning tests. All causes which activated the automatic unit shutdowns were found out and rectified, the overall tuning of the cooling water system is on the process now. The solution of this problem is possible only power commissioning, and in the stage of the trial operation had no direct impacts on the nuclear, radiation, or technical safety respectively. In 1998 two events according to the INES scale after second unit commissioning because of two unit links of the cooling water system. The operational events during the commissioning tests, start-up tests, physical commissioning, were ranked the category 1 ('Action of SIS U040 ppo <8,34 MPa at the system 2 and 3' and 'Breaching the L and C'). In 1999 only events occurred that were ranked in the category safety insignificant events and lower (category 0, or off the scale respectively). In the frame of the safety culture principles adopted, such as critical attitude, exact and careful approach, and communication, these problems were given the
The Mochovce-Nuclear Power Plant is one of the WWER-440/213 plants which has been designed against earthquake. Nevertheless, the design earthquake has not been assessed adequately to the seismic hazard at the site. A new seismic design shall include an increased seismic input and assure an acceptable standard of safety. This contribution is related to some design aspects of civil structures for this nearly finished plant, such as: existing design and its margins with regard to the employed codes; requirements for a new design concept; effects to be expected by an increased design earthquake; applicable design methods; use of inelastic design spectra, behavior factors and capacity design; feasible upgrading measures. (author)
In 1982 to 1983, the composition was studied of natural populations of yeasts and yeast-like microorganisms in the area of the construction of the nuclear power plant at Mochovce. Samples were taken from fruits of plum trees (Prunus domestica L.) and grape vine (Vitis vinifera L.). Totally, 394 strains were isolated that were identified and classified according to the monography of Lodder into the following families and genera: Saccharomycetaceae (Saccharomyces, Hanseniaspora, Hansenula, Debaryomyces, Kluyveromyces, Pichia), Spermopthoraceae (Metschnikowia), Cryptococaceae (Torulopsis, Candida, Kloeckera). On plum tree fruits the species Hanseniaspora uvarum and Saccharomyces rosei and on grape vine fruits Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima were most abundantly represented. The trees and plants were not treated with pesticides and on both the fruits of plum trees and grape vines the species Pullularia pullulans was frequently present that had never been isolated before from regularly treated vineyards. (author)
A comparison is given of ecological damage for the nuclear power plant in Mochovce and a conventional power plant with the same power. Ecological effects and damage are divided into three groups: comparable damage, ecological damage caused only by conventional power plants and ecological damage caused only by nuclear power plants. In the first group the factors compared are land requisition, consumption of utility water and air consumption. In the second group are enumerated losses of crops (cereals, sugar beet, potatoes, oleaginous plants) and losses caused by increased disease rate owing to polluted environment by conventional power plants. In the third group health hazards are assessed linked with ionizing radiation. Also considered are vent stack escapes. (E.S.)
V svoji diplomski nalogi proučujem mednarodni investicijski spor med Republiko Slovenijo in Republiko Hrvaško, ki je poteka glede skupnega objekta Nuklearne elektrarne Krško. V okviru zastavljenega problema, sem se najprej lotila predstavitve Mednarodnega centra za reševanje mednarodnih investicijskih sporov, pred katerim se je spor odvijal. Predstavila sem njegovo organizacijo, strukturo, prednosti, ter posebnosti reševanja investicijskih sporov pred tem mednarodnim telesom. V nadaljevanju s...
In this presentation author (General Director of Slovenske elektrarne, a. s.) presents structure and investment plans of SE. The feasibility study of construction of the blocks 3 and 4 of the Mochovce NPP is presented
In this leaflet the results of monitoring of radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents into the Hron River as well as of radiation monitoring of Mochovce Liquid RAW Final Treatment Facility (FS KRAO) and Mochovce Radioactive Waste Repository (RU RAO) are presented. The radioactive effluents into hydrosphere within April 2013 for the radioactive effluents into hydrosphere within for FS KRAO were: 0.2545 GBq of tritium (11.4933 GBq for the period January - April 2013 (3.83% of AL)) and summary of gamma-radionuclides 0.1436 GBq (1.2079 GBq for the period January - April 2013 (30.97% of AL)). The radioactive effluents into hydrosphere within April 2013 for FS KRAO were: 0.000 kBq of 90Sr (0.000% of AL)), 0.000 kBq of summary alpha (0.000% of AL) and 0.000 kBq of 14C (0.000% of AL). The radioactive effluents into hydrosphere within April 2013 for RU RAO were: 2.272 MBq of tritium (7.952 MBq for the period January - April 2013 (0.042% of AL)); 0.133 MBq of 137Cs (0.458 MBq for the period January - April 2013 (0.29% of AL)); 0.00 MBq of 90Sr - the value of the quarterly (0.00 MBq for the period January - April 2013 (0.000% of AL)); 0.095 MBq of 60Co (0.348 MBq for the period January - April 2013 (1.554% of AL)); 0.000 MBq of 239Pu (0.000 MBq for the period January - April 2013 (0.000% of AL)). Volume of liquid effluents in April 2013 was 908 m3 (3178 m3 for the period January - April 2013). The radioactive effluents into atmosphere within April 2013 for FS KRAO were: 0.0042 MBq of gamma radionuclides (0.0241 MBq for the period January - April 2013, that is 0.027% of annually limit (AL)); 0.00 MBq of alpha radionuclides (0.000 MBq for the period January - April 2013 (0.000% of AL)), and 0.000 MBq of 89Sr and 90Sr - the value of the quarterly (0.000 MBq for the period January - April 2013 (0.000% of AL)).
In this paper the history of delivery of technological part for NPP V-1 Mochovce as well as of reconstruction and safety improvements by the Skoda Praha a.s. is presented. Primary contractor of technological part Skoda Praha together with its final suppliers proved ability to realize under hard conditions such a complicated work what was indisputedly Units 1 and 2 finishing. Company proved capability to conform itself flexibly in the course of work to requirements of customer for realization of safety measures which means that Units 1 and 2 fully satisfy international standards. By fulfilment of primary contractor of technology obligations and above all by takeover of complex responsibility for both Units putting in operation including responsibility for 'past' Skoda Praha put away one of basic problems which occurred in decision making to whom will be assigned construction finishing contract. These facts fully qualify Skoda Praha to be selected for possible Units 3 and 4 construction finishing as one of chief construction finishing participant
In this interview Mr. Paolo Ruzzini (Chairman and CEO, Slovenske elektrarne, a. s., a member of ENEL) evaluates the decision of ENEL to complete the construction Unit-3 and Unit-4 of the Mochovce nuclear power plant. He argues that 'in the market conditions and without government subsidies, we are ready to continue developing the project - the construction of the Unit-3 and Unit-4 of the Mochovce NPP'.
Here is an interview with Mr. Karol Cesnek (minister of economy of the Slovak Republic from August 27, 1996 up to February 26, 1998 and general director of the Slovenske elektrarne, a .s. from April 1, 1995 up to August 27, 1996) who is remembering about financing of construction of the Mochovce NPP.
In this book the structure and activities of the Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, plc.) are presented. The parameters of the Bohunice NPPs as well as Mochovce NPP are described in detail. Other power plant (coal fired power plants and hydroelectric power plants as well as power transmission and distribution systems in the Slovak Republic are described too. Treatment of radioactive wastes are performed in the the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment Centre (BSC RAO) and radioactive waste are storages in Mochovce National Radioactive Waste Repository for the Slovak Republic
On 11 June 2009 the General Director and Chairman of the Board of Directors of Slovenske elektrarne Paolo Ruzzini and the Prime Minister of the Slovak Republic Robert Fico announced the signature of contracts with the main suppliers for the completion of units 3 and 4 of Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant. Planned investment of Eur 2.775 billion by 2013 for the Mochovce completion is an important commitment for us and especially in this time, such investment can mitigate the impact of global slowdown in economic growth which impacts Slovakia but also other economies of the world. (author)
In this chapter author reviewed the story of the EMO joint venture, joint-stock company, between Slovenske elektrarne, a. s. and EdF. EMO joint venture, joint-stock company, was established to complete the Mochovce nuclear power plant. EMO joint venture, joint-stock company was closed after one year of work. History of EMO joint venture, joint-stock company, was described by its former general manager Mr. Ladislav Loerinc.
In this popular scientific brochure a brief description of construction scheme of Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant is presented. Electricity generation in a nuclear power plant is described. Instrumentation and control system as well as nuclear safety principles applied on the NPP are presented
This brochure describes the Enterprise Vojany power plant (SE-EVO) is described. This is brown coal burning ((EVO II) and natural gas or fuel oil burning (EVO I) power plant. Technical data in detail of SE-EVO as well as results of up-grade of the SE-EVO are presented
V preteklosti se je zaradi slabih izkoristkov, visokih cen fotovoltaičnih modulov ter ostalih gradnikov, povezanih s fotovoltaiko, le-ta večinoma uporabljala predvsem v vesoljski tehnologiji in za raziskovalne namene. H komercializaciji fotovoltaike so sčasoma pripomogle nižje cene, boljši izkoristki fotovoltaičnih modulov, pa tudi podražitve ostalih energentov, svoje pa so dodale tudi državne subvencije v obliki javnih razpisov. V okviru fotovoltaične tehnologije obravnamo v diplomskem delu ...
V diplomskem delu so predstavljene posamezne komponente foto-napetostnih sistemov. Opisano je načrtovanje razporeditve elementov znotraj ohišja, ki temelji na trirazsežnem računalniškem modelu in zahtevah laboratorijskega prototipa. Vključen je tudi opis pretvornika navzgor in njegovih stikalnih elementov. Za slednje so izračunane stikalne in prevodne izgube. Ostale izgube pretvornika, ki se pretvorijo v toploto, pa smo poiskali z termalno kamero. Na podlagi teh rezultatov smo zasnovali model...
Povzetek Znan je rek, da imamo okolje, naravo v posodo od svojih zanamcev. Zato ves razvoj stremi k razvijanju novih, obnovljivih virov energije, k razvijanju pridobivanja le-te iz okolja. Ti viri so relativno dosegljivi, potrebno je le znanje, drznost in zadostna podpora za to pristojnih institucij, da peljemo razvoj v željeno smer in odkrivamo nove dimenzije pridobivanja energije, kar bi posledično zmanjšalo izpust toplogrednih plinov, ohranilo in varovalo naravo ter zmanjšalo vsakodnev...
Enel will only answer the basic question whether Slovenske elektrarne will complete the reactors 3 and 4 in nuclear power plant in Mochovce next year. Initial analyses made by Enel indicate that the completion of Mochovce would cost over 60 billions Sk (1,54 billions EUR). Since National Property Fund has approved the strategic investment plan two more conditions have to be met before Enel can acquire Slovenske elektrarne. The first condition is that a part of the company assets has to taken over by state owned joint stock company GovCo. This regards reactor V-1 in nuclear power plant Jaslovske Bohunice that should be made ready for closure by end of 2008, damaged reactor A-1, nuclear equipment decommissioning and disposal unit VYZ and hydroelectric power plant in Gabcikovo. The other condition that still has to be fulfilled is passing of a new act on disposal of nuclear power generating equipment. The new act should distribute the fund's resources amongst the individual nuclear energy sources. M. Arcelli (regional manager of Enel for Slovakia) stresses that the money nuclear power station in Mochovce and V-2 earned and will earn during their time in operation will have to remain in the fund to cover their later liquidation i.e. should not be used on liquidation of reactors V-1 or A-1. (authors)
Since the 90-ies Slovenske elektrarne have been gradually improving the environmental aspects of their generation. At the thermal power plants of Novaky and Vojany they have developed the equipment for fl u-gas desulphurization and denitrification, replaced the old boilers by fluidized-bed boilers, and installed automatic monitoring systems. At Vojany they have increased the share of co-fi red wood-chips, and at this site and at Mochovce they have built two new photovoltaic power plants. Clean energy from the nuclear and renewable sources increased 85% in 2010. (author)
This year (2007) in March a reputable international agency GfK conducted a poll, which was focused primarily on the questions relating to the presence and future of nuclear energy sector in Slovakia as well as brand awareness of Slovenske elektrarne. It results from the poll that 2/3 of Slovak population is not against the completion of Units 3 and 4 of Mochovce NPP (EMO34), and this relates to as much as 87 % of the asked in the region within a 10 km distance from EMO! (author)
Conditioned radioactive wastes from Jaslovske Bohunice NPP and from the decommissioning process of the A-1 NPP are deposited in the Republic disposal site of radioactive wastes in Mochovce since 2000 year. These wastes are transported nowadays by the roads. Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) are implementing new model of transport of dangerous expenditures. During 2005 radioactive wastes open to transport not only by the Slovak roads but by railway too. For needs of transport three special wagons and 12 transport-operating frames were manufactured, which will serve for fixation during all transport cycle. Within one transport 12 containers will be transported by the same mail. At the transhipment station in Mochovce they will be reloaded on the lorry-trailer combination, which will transport them by the road to the object of the disposal site
After transformation of filial companies of Slovenske elektrarne (SE) a.s, Bratislava to separate enterprises, a change of its managers also arose to 1 August. The changes were announced by executive chairman and general manager of SE Miroslav Rapsik. Minister of economy Robert Nemcsics has not participated in companies manager selection. Robert Gunis was named as Bohunice NPP manager, Jaroslav Holubec was named as Mochovce NPP, Eduard Seboek was named as Novaky thermal power plant. Martin Slezak is chief of imposition company, Milan Fedorco is manager of Vojany thermal power plant. Vladimir Majercak has remained manager of Trencin water power plant and Jozef Guba has remained manager of uncompleted Mochovce 3-4 NPP
Final treatment of liquid radioactive wastes which are produced by 1st and 2nd bloc of the Mochovce NPP, prepares the NPP in its natural range. The purpose of the equipment is liquidation of wastes, which are formed at production. Wastes are warehoused in the building of active auxiliary plants in the present time, where are reservoirs in which they are deposited. Because they are already feeling and in 2006 year they should be filled definitely, it is necessary to treat them in that manner, so as they may be liquidated. Therefore the Board of directors of the Slovenske elektrarne has disposed about construction of final treatment of liquid radioactive wastes in the Mochovce NPP. Because of transport the wastes have to be treated in the locality of power plant. Technically, the final treatment of the wastes will be interconnected with building of active operation by bridges. These bridges will transport the wastes for treatment into processing centre
Riza Zainuddin Ahmad
Full Text Available Duddingtonia flagrans is selected nematophagous fungi as biological control to nematode worm. Theaim of this research was to show that the survival of in vitro tested to D. flagrans mold growth is effectedby artificial saliva, rumen fluid, enzymes and agar-cement and comin block applicator. The testing wasdone two steps : Firstly the conidia’s was multicated and the secondly the growth of D.flagrans tested insaliva, rumen fluid and comin block, agar cement applicator. The result showed that mold could surviveand grow in condition such as in gastrointestinal fluid of sheep and in comin block and in agar-cementapplicator (1 and 2%. It can be concluded that D. flagrans could grow in medium containing rumen fluid,saliva, enzymes and comin block and agar-cement applicator.
Riza Zainuddin Ahmad; Beriajaya -
Duddingtonia flagrans is selected nematophagous fungi as biological control to nematode worm. Theaim of this research was to show that the survival of in vitro tested to D. flagrans mold growth is effectedby artificial saliva, rumen fluid, enzymes and agar-cement and comin block applicator. The testing wasdone two steps : Firstly the conidia’s was multicated and the secondly the growth of D.flagrans tested insaliva, rumen fluid and comin block, agar cement applicator. The result showed that m...
NI PUTU AYU MIRAH MARIATI; NI LUH PUTU SUCIPTAWATI; KARTIKA SARI
The experimental design was applied in research in many different fields of science, such as in education, as used in this study. Block algebra visual aids is a visual aids in the form of the geometry model used to concretize understanding the variables and constants in the algebra which is an abstract concept. This visual aids are used as a basis for factoring algebraic forms. In connection with this, the aims of this research is to determine the effect of the application of algebra block i...
Miley, G. H.; Badziak, J.; Glowacz, S.; Jablonski, S.; Wolowski, J.; Hora, H.; Hammerling, P.X.; Osman, F.; Cang, Y.; He, X.; Peng, H.; Zhang, J.; Jungwirth, Karel; Rohlena, Karel; Ullschmied, Jiří
Bellingham: SPIE, 2006 - (Phipps, C.), s. 626129. (Proceedings of SPIE. 6261). ISBN 0-8194-6326-4. ISSN 0277-786X. [High-Power Laser Ablation /6./. Taos, New Mexico (US), 07.05.2006-12.05.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : laser plasma * ps laser * plasma acceleration * fast ignition Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s
NI PUTU AYU MIRAH MARIATI
Full Text Available The experimental design was applied in research in many different fields of science, such as in education, as used in this study. Block algebra visual aids is a visual aids in the form of the geometry model used to concretize understanding the variables and constants in the algebra which is an abstract concept. This visual aids are used as a basis for factoring algebraic forms. In connection with this, the aims of this research is to determine the effect of the application of algebra block in student academic achievement in class VII in the field of algebra in schools categorized as private, SSN (Sekolah Standar Nasional and the previously categorized RSBI (Rintisan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional. The method of analysis used in this study was two-factor experimental design in a randomized block design. The results showed that the academic achievement of students in the field of algebra after learning with block algebra visual aids obtained better than the academic achievement of students who received learning without using block algebra visual aids. Moreover, it also shows that the categories of schools have a significant effect on student achievement.
The NPP's first document dealing with ageing management procedures and responsibilities was issued in 1996, hence, before any of the units was operable. The concept described in the document is highlighted in the article. The description encompasses the responsibility system, procedures to set up ageing management programmes for the various equipment items, and co-operation among the various departments in implementing the ageing management programmes. The Ageing Diagnosis and Management department has available both hardware and software to fulfil the ageing management programmes. (author)
A review of the construction and operation of nuclear power plants in Slovak Republic which belong within Slovenske Elektrarne is made. Since 1993 with the applying of the Least Cost Planning Methods and Financial Feasibility Analysis the optimal variant, considering construction completion of the two units at Mochovce NPP, has been adopted and a project for safety enhancement has been implemented. Some changes have been made in siting project in order to meet the seismic requirements, following by change of the control system design and supplier. The most important result of the safety enhancement program, important not only for NPP Mochovce, but also for all NPPs of WWER 440/213 type, is the fact, that operability of containment with passive bubbler-condenser system for pressure suppression and its acceptability from safety point of view, has been fully confirmed. Results of safety enhancement program have been re-evaluated not only by International Atomic Energy Agency, but also by other international authorities and professional organisations with positive result. Especially significant is the conclusion of RISKAUDIT, which has carried out repeated evaluation of safety level of NPP Mochovce based on PHARE project and which is accepted by European Commission. A similar approach for enhancing the safety has been applied for the NPP V-1 units at Jaslovske Bohunice
The need to expand nuclear power and its advantages are discussed publicly nearly each week. According to politicians and the nuclear lobby investing tens of billions Sk at Mochovce will bring Slovakia the often cited 'independence and energy self-sufficiency'. It will also mean profit for Slovenske elektrarne and the company's shareholders - the state and Italian company, Enel. In addition to the lively discussion on the pros and cons of nuclear energy, TREND was also interested in the living conditions around the concrete and strictly guarded, potentially dangerous plants and in the opinion of the people most affected by Mochovce and Jaslovske Bohunice on expansion of the existing and the building of new nuclear power plants. The construction of nuclear powers stations in these regions was not only about new jobs. The state 'prescribed' iodine pills and did not allow any construction in the region and, in the case of Mochovce, ordered the complete demolition of a village. The only thing that remained from Mochovce village was the church. 'And when it was found that the power plant would not reach it, it was even given a new roof. Former inhabitants, especially the older ones that had problems accepting the evacuation, used to visit it often,' explained Jan Foldy, the head of the local municipality in Kalna nad Hronom. After many years, life in the neighbouring villages is not bad. Their budgets are overflowing and so they can afford to spoil their inhabitants with free cable TV and high standard sport facilities, which should partly compensate for the fact that the people are living so close to a nuclear facility. (authors)
Do sedaj je bilo projektiranje komponent vetrnega agregata usmerjeno tako, da so bile projektne obremenitve večje od tistih v resnici, s čimer so bile izpolnjene zahteve glede konservativnosti in mehanične varnosti vetrnega agregata. Os vetrnega agregata je s tem predimenzionirana, kar je s stališča varnosti ugodno, ampak zaradi večje mase povzroča dodatne zahteve glede nosilnosti stolpa in obračanja gondole. Prav tako večje dimenzije osi vplivajo na njegovo višjo ceno, kot tudi višjo ceno ve...
Main areas and opportunities for young nuclear professionals: → Further increase of safety of NPPs in operation and → Construction of two new NPP units; → Safety and efficiency of NPP decommissioning and radwaste treatment; → CENTA and R&D; → Prototype of gas cooled fast-breader reactor - ALLEGRO. Gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) is one of the Generation IV reactor concepts and represents one of the three European candidate for fast reactor types. Conclusions: • Human resources are key assets for nuclear organization; • Knowledge of nuclear technology be managed as a resource; • Support of young nuclear professionals is our commitment
S pomočjo dveh računskih metod smo analizirali, s kolikšno močjo bi obratovale ter koliko električne energije bi proizvedle določene vetrne turbine podjetja Enercon na izbranih mestih v Vipavski dolini. Izračune povprečnih moči smo v nadaljevanju opravili za vetrne turbine modelov E-70 E4, E-82 E2 in E-82 E3. Preden smo začeli z izračuni in analizo, smo s pomočjo literature na splošno opisali nastanek vetrne energije ter njenega izkoriščanja z uporabo vetrne turbine. Nato smo fizikalno ...
Izkoriščanje sonca je v zadnjem času vedno bolj pogosto. Sonce, večni jedrski reaktor, je praktično neizčrpen vir obnovljive energije. Čist in donosen vir, ki nam lahko zagotovi pomemben del energije za naše potrebe. Energija, ki jo sonce seva na zemljo, je 15.000 krat večja od energije, kot jo porabi človek. To je energija, ki se obnavlja, ne onesnažuje okolja in je hkrati brezplačna. Zato, mora biti cilj izkoriščati to energijo v največjem možnem obsegu. Da bi sonce lahko čim boljše izkori...
Sončni generator predstavlja glavni del investicije v sončno elektrarno. Zaradi velike cene in tudi izpostavljenosti sončnega generatorja (strehe …) ga moramo dobro zaščititi pred neposrednimi udari strele. Pri dimenzioniranju strelovodnega sistema moramo biti pozorni tudi na vpliv zaščitnega sistema na sončni generator (senčenje …). Diplomsko delo opisuje zaščito sončnega generatorja pred udarom strele, probleme pri določanju in dimenzioniranju strelovodnega sistema. Opira se na veljavne ...
Magistrsko delo obravnava področje izkoriščanja geotermalne energije. Izvedba geotermalnega projekta poteka fazno in se prične z geoinženirskimi raziskavami. Geoinženirske raziskave so zahtevne in drage, zato je njihov obseg omejen. Zato tudi rezultate raziskav predstavlja omejen obseg podatkov, ki imajo nizko zanesljivost zlasti v preliminarnih fazah raziskav. V magistrskem delu smo se posvetili predhodnim (preliminarnim) geoinženirskim raziskavam, ki zagotavljajo preliminarne podatke za nad...
This Environmental Report contains the results of the joint stock company Slovenske Elektrarne (SE) in relation to the natural environment primarily for the year 2003, but it also lets us compare results with preceding years. In 2003 Slovenske Elektrarne generated a total of 26,048 GWh of electricity. In terms of the market share in the Slovak Republic, this volume accounts for almost 84 % of electricity produced. Despite an extremely dry year, when outages in production of hydropower plants were 23 % more than planned, we managed to maintain the share of production from nuclear and hydroelectric power plants at a level in excess of 80 %. The outages in production at the hydro plants meant above all that we had to increase the output of thermal plants. Despite this fact, thanks to the ecologization of units we kept up the trend of progressively reducing the volume of production of basic pollutants, which is our long-term goal. This report contains the following headings: (1) Address by the Chairman of the SE Board; (2) Environmental Policy of join-stock company SE; (3) Atmospheric protection; (4) Water management; (5) Waste management; (6) Environmental management system in SE, a.s.; (7) Funding for environmental protection; (8) Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant SE-EBO; (9) Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant SE-EMO; (10) The Facility for decommissioning of nuclear facilities, radioactive waste and spent fuel management SE-VYZ; (11) Vojany Power Plant SE-EVO; (12) Novaky Power Plant SE-ENO; (13) Hydroelectric Power Plants SE-VE; (14) Units 3 and 4 of Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant SE-MO 34
Full Text Available In this globalization era technological advances growed very fast. In shipping industry of development process shipbuilding of principal feedstock to used steel plate, with construction tacking on using welder method.In this research purpose of lifted is know number of requirement (consumable electrode for welder SAW at block-block ship DCV 18500 DWT in PT. Jasa Marina Indah Semarang.At this experiment specimen applied is low carbon steel of type ST 42 with thickness of 12, 13, 14, 17, 19 dan 24 mm. Research is done by the way of making specimen at every plate thickness. Then is done path measurement of length, used electrode length, and weight flux applied at the welder.From result of gauging and data calculation welder at block DB 5(p/c/s, SS5A(p/s, SS 5B(p/s, UD 5C, and TB 102 (p/c/s will be known number of electrodes applied in welder SAW and number of flux used.
Perbandingan Epidural Volume Extension 5 mL dan 10 mL Salin 0,9% pada Spinal Anestesi dengan Bupivakain 0,5% 10 mg Hiperbarik terhadap Tinggi Blok Sensorik dan Pemulihan Blok Motorik pada Seksio Sesare
Reza Indra Putra
Full Text Available Epidural volume extension (EVE is a modified form of combined spinal epidural with normal saline injected into the epidural space after the intrathecal dose. EVE techniques increases the level of sensory block resulting from the volume effects when the volume of fluid in the epidural space suppresses the dural sac and causes the cephalad spread of local anesthetic. The aim of this research was to assess differences in the effects of 5 mL EVE and 10 mL EVE by 0.9% saline with 10 mg 0.5% bupivacaine on sensory block height and motor block recovery in caesarean section patients. This research was carried out from mid September to November 2014 in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. This was a randomized controlled clinical trial conducted on 30 patients who underwent caesarean section (SC and divided randomly into two groups, namely group receiving 10 mL EVE and group receiving 5 mL EVE with a spinal epidural combination anesthesia. The assessment of sensory block height was performed using the pinprick test while bromage score test were used for motor block recovery. The data was analyzed using t test. The results showed a faster recovery of motor block in the research subjects using 10 mL EVE compared to those using 5 mL EVE (p<0.001. The conclusion from this study is that the administration of 10 mL EVE in patients who underwent caesarean section leads to a faster motor block recovery with the same sensory block height.
West Block of Batang Toru Forest known as important area for biodiversity conservation and livelihood support systems continuity of the wider community. The close relation between economyc activity, social community and physical condition with Batang Toru forest cover visible from its forest cover change because of deforestation. Starting from this, this study aims to determine the land use change from forest to non-forest and its causes in terms of social, economic and physical. This study ...
Petrographic and geochemical study of the granulitic rocks from Tanquinho block, in NE of Bahia state, Brazil. The petrographic analysis showed four differents groups of granulitic rocks. This work explains, through the minerals coexistence, through the time of its inclusion in the rocks and by the minerals transformation process, the kind of the rocks facies and the transformation process it was subfected. Through the geochemical observation of the different elements, like Na, Al and K conduct, wich showed be the rock from magmatic origin. The elements observation, like Zr, Ti, Nb and Y, permit classify the rock complex in a sublakaline serie, diversified by the fractional crystallization process. The variable elements conduct - K, Na, Rb and Si, showed the important migration which is perfectly concordant with the petrographic observations. (C.D.G.)
Cacoń, S.; Makolski, K.; Košťák, Blahoslav; Kaczalek, M.
Wrocław : WIND Wrocław, 2011 - (Chodak, T.; Kabala, C.; Kaszubkiewicz, J.; Wojewoda, J.), s. 105-112 ISBN 978-83-922330-4-6 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/1828; GA ČR GA205/09/2024; GA MŠk OC 625.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : rock blocks * geo detic measurements * crack.gauge observations Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation
Marbun, Eko Rumondang
The purpose of the research was to know about the kindly and potential of medicinal plants found in Batang Toru Forest Block West, Adiankoting district. The research was done in April to June 2014 by data collection, interviews with the public, and field sampling. Field sampling was conducted by using a combination of methods to track and laying checkered line sample units in systematic sampling with random start. The research result showed 43 species of medicinal plants. From 43 species,...
A brief account of activities carried out by the Vyskumny ustav energetickych zariadeni, a.s. (VUEZ) in 2006 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Introductory address by the Chairman of the Board of Directors; (2) Company profile; (3) Organisational structure; (4) Portfolio of products and services in 2006; (5) Quality management system; (6) Human resources; (7) Financial statements and auditor's report; (8) Auditor's certificate; (9) Basic and contact data. The year 2006 was a year of changes in the Slovak energy sector what, in a certain degree, became evident also in the related sphere of supplies. In the course of the year, Slovenske elektrarne a.s. Company was divided into two entities and its proprietary structure was changed. At the same time, the number of capital investment projects was reduced and the related procedure of procurement was changed. VUEZ, as a supplier to the energy sector, had to promptly respond to the changes. That was why in the first half of 2006, the organisational structure of VUEZ was modified. In the course of the year, also the structure of customers on the domestic market was partly changed. To stable partners such as Slovenske elektrarne (and its successors after the company splitting), another important partner was added - Vodohospodarska vystavba s.p. Bratislava. As to Slovenske elektrarne, our supplies were oriented mainly on nuclear reactor units in the Jaslovske Bohunice and Mochovce NPPs. At the end of the year, a joint convention was agreed and concluded on application of the results of the joint research at third parties. In the preparation for the decommissioning of the Jaslovske Bohunice V1 NPP, VUEZ continued its participation in on-going projects of an international consortium of companies. Similarly important were the customers such as CEZ a.s., Czech Republic (in particular its Dukovany NPP), and the Paks NPP (Hungary)
The degradation of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel is a complex process depending on many factors (thermal and radiation treatment, chemical compositions, preparing conditions, ageing, operation environment, etc.). This paper describes tests based on Nondestructive Methods used for evaluation of material characterisation at Slovenske Elektrarne a.s. Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS), Moessbauer Spectroscopy (MS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) investigate microstructure changes of Reactor Pressure Vessel steels caused neutrons irradiation. There are showed results of investigation of reactor pressure vessel steel specimens after five years irradiation in reactor nature by mentioned NDT methods. Investigated specimens has been prepared for the Extended surveillance specimen program which has run out on the 3rd and 4th units of NPP Jaslovske Bohunice and for the Modified surveillance specimen program in the 1st and 2nd unit which is continued in NPP Mochovce (Slovakia). PAS and MS spectra showed that the degradation of the steel properties associated with the effects of neutron irradiation can be well detected. The samples from RPV base metal (15Kh2MFA) and weld metal (Sv 10KhMFT) were measured by PAS and MS before and after irradiation. Samples have been irradiated in VVER-440 reactor (units 3rd and 4th in Bohunice as well as 1st and 2nd units Mochovce) by neutron fluency from 7.8 1023 m-2 up to 2.5 1024 m-2. Measurement results are presented and discussed in detail.(author)
The purpose of this report is to describe the re-starting phase of DNPP MO 34 Project, mainly focusing on management issues. The report consists of three main parts dealing with the Project management organization during the three different periods of the of DNPP re-starting process. The first part (Chapter 2) begins with the general background information about the NPP and then focuses on the pre-feasibility and feasibility study. The second part (chapter 3) deals with the current status of the plant and it stresses the main steps of the DNPP Project resuming after completion of the feasibility study. The third part (Chapter 4) outlines the main issues related to the criticality of a typical DNPP Project (e.g. preservation and maintenance of equipments, updating to technological and regulatory requirements, human resources, protection of design documentation, etc.) and the measures implemented in MO 34. The hereby presented content reflects the experience and good practices concerning the following main management issues: - project control measures; - human resources; - preservation and maintenance of site installations, structures and equipment; - updating of the whole Project to meet licensing requirements and technology upgrades; - preservation of Project documentation. (author)
Described is the common project for completion of bubbler condenser qualification for nuclear power plants in Bohunice, Mochovice, Dukovany and Paks. Functionality of the bubbler condenser was elaborated during the simulation of the main steam line brake, medium break and small break LOCA. On this basis the appropriate operation of bubbler condenser containment under accident conditions can be positively confirmed
A major element of providing information is the demonstration that the area of nuclear energy uses has its binding rules in the Slovak Republic and the observance thereof is controlled by the state through an independent institution Slovak Nuclear Regulatory Authority (UJD). As early as 1995 were laid on the UJD the foundations of the concept of broadly keeping the public informed on UJD activity and the safety of nuclear installations by opening the UJD Information Centre that provides by its activity communications with the public and mass media, which is instrumental in creating in the public a favourable picture of the independent state nuclear regulation. Clear communication policy is the key to credibility and is based on perceptions which give ride to varying levels of confidence. It has been consistently found in opinion research that credibility is the single most powerful persuasive force. Public communication programmes are the principal currency for the Regulatory Authority to inform the public on issues like costs, benefit requirements and risks
Bubbler condenser strength behavior at maximum pressure difference possible under-loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions was evaluate. The results and observations of static testing: static overpressure was gradually increased until the stipulated maximum of 30 kPa was reached; plastic deformations of the walls include ribs; plastic hinges at mid height of the side wall stiffeners; deformation of bottom and ceiling sheet remained elastic; functional capability of BC remained preserved. It was concluded: an overpressure of 20 kPa is adequate for the structural evaluation at the initial phase of the accident; low frequency pulsation effects during condensation have amplitudes less than or equal to 5 kPa; relevant swell or chugging effects have not been observed. Conclusions for upgrading: sheet structures of the tray chambers in the regular floors (1st to 11th floor) are evidently capable to resist an overpressure of 20 kPa without a reinforcement; functional capability remained preserved under a static overpressure of 30 kPa in the experimental verification; a similar strength capacity of the tray chamber on the 12th floor has not been demonstrated by analysis and could not be verified by experiment; a sufficient functionality of BC is preserved even when this way tray level would fail. The global stability of the storey remains preserved. A reinforced of the sheet construction is not proposed; main floor beams located under the side walls shall be upgraded. Spacers with screw jack shall be inserted between the tray wall elements at the bottom of BC in the 2nd to 11th floor, and between the interrupted ceiling ribs in the 1st to 10th floor. Main floor beams under the side walls in the 1st to 11th floor will be upgraded using existing beams and new or modified anchorage; beams in the bottom floor shall be protected from uplift. Struts installed between the beams of the 1st and 2nd floor are designed for
V današnjem času si je skoraj nemogoče predstavljati naš vsakdan brez potrebe po rabi električne energije. Ljudje iz dneva v dan postajamo vse večji porabniki električne energije, s tem pa se posledično povečujejo potrebe po dodatni proizvodnji električne energije. Da se s povečanjem potreb ne poveča obremenjevanje okolja pri proizvodnji elektrike s pomočjo termoelektrarn, so obnovljivi viri energije (OVE) prava pot za prihodnost. Prav tako cene fosilnih goriv strmo naraščajo in prekomerna po...
This Environmental Report contains the results of the joint stock company Slovenske Elektrarne in relation to the natural environment primarily for the year 2003, but it also lets us compare results with preceding years. In 2003 Slovenske Elektrarne generated a total of 26,048 GWh of electricity. In terms of the market share in the Slovak Republic, this volume accounts for almost 84 % of electricity produced. Despite an extremely dry year, when outages in production of hydropower plants were 23 % more than planned, we managed to maintain the share of production from nuclear and hydroelectric power plants at a level in excess of 80 %. The outages in production at the hydro plants meant above all that we had to increase the output of thermal plants. Despite this fact, thanks to the ecologisation of units we kept up the trend of progressively reducing the volume of production of basic pollutants, which is our long-term goal. I would just like to point out some of the key events of 2003 with regard to the environment. In the preceding year, the Mochovce nuclear power plant was first to be awarded the environmental management system certificate in line with ISO 14001:1996. We progressed in 2003 and managed to successfully pass the certification process also for Novaky thermal power plant and Bohunice nuclear power plant, with this process also being started in the group of hydroelectric power plants. Another significant achievement in 2003 concerned the results regarding emissions of pollutants at Vojany power plant. After extensive investments into the ecologisation of SE-EVO, emissions of SO2 are now just 3 %, emissions of dust pollutants 23 %, and emissions of NOx 24% - in comparison with the year 1980. (author)
Sitanggang, Hasber F. H.
PT. PLN (Persero) is a company engaged in the producer of electrical energy which is inseparable from the effectiveness of machinery and equipment problems caused by the six big losses. The impact of these problems will interfere with the machine work in accordance with the results that should be achieved. Hence the need for special attention regarding the maintenance and care of the machine with the purpose of the machine is capable of committing a longer production process and generate a p...
Cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in Medan City 2010 noted as 918 people with prevalence as 45,9/100,000 population. Based on preliminary surveys in the Class I State Penitentiary Medan in 2010, found 59 inmates suffering from lung tuberculosis and 14 of them suffering from lung tuberculosis after became inmates. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of environmental sanitation and hygiene on the incident of lung tuberculosis in the inmates of Block D at the Class I State ...
The Environmental Report for 2002 of the Slovak Electric, plc (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.) is intended to provide information on the results achieved regarding the protection and creation of the environment over the course of the year and continue the communication process. A significant process, which began at SE, a. s., in 1998, was the construction and implementation of an environmental management system in accordance with the ISO 14 001:1996 standard. From August to September 2002, a pre-certification audit and certification audit was successfully undertaken at Mochovce nuclear power plant, and the certificate was awarded at a ceremony held on 11. 12. 2002 in Levice. The company plans that in the period 2003 to 2004 all the branch plants of SE, a. s., will undergo the certification process. After Mochovce nuclear power plant obtained the certificate the environmental management system became part of the overall management system. In accordance with our stated long-term and short-term environmental goals, the company is gradually redirecting its focus from atmospheric protection to water protection. Last year, a significant investment project in this area was the ecologisation of the external substation at the SE-VYZ branch plant. The main benefit of this project was a significant reduction of the risk of the contamination of the soil and groundwater by oil-based substances. At Vojany power plant, the test operation of units 5 and 6 of EVO I with an output of 2 x 110 MWe continued in 2002. These units were upgraded in past years to use the more environmentally friendly fluidized-bed combustion of semi-anthracite black coal. Thanks to their satisfactory test operation, the production of SO2 at SE-EVO fell to the lowest level in the plant's history - 6 041 tons, which represents a reduction in comparison with 2001 by 40 %. (author)
A brief account of activities carried out by the Vyskumny ustav energetickych zariadeni, a.s. (VUEZ) in 2008 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Introductory address by the Chairman of the Board of Directors; (2) Company profile; (3) Portfolio of products and service 2007; (4) Quality management system; (5) Organisational Structure; (6) Human resources; (7) Financial statements and auditor's report; (8) Basic and contact data; (9) Contact data. The year 2007 was arduous and, with regard to contracts and projects performed and related profits, also successful for VUEZ, a.s. On the domestic market, our principal customers have bee companies such as Slovenske elektrarne - Enel, Bratislava, in its locations of Jaslovske Bohunice and Mochovce, Jadrova vyradovacia spolocnost, Jaslovske Bohunice, and Vodohospodarska vystavba, Bratislava. Equally important customers for our company have been operators of foreign nuclear power plants, namely CEZ, a.s. (Czech Republic) and the Paks NPP (Hungary). In the course of 2007, negotiations and offer proceedings were initiated with WWER nuclear power plants in Ukraine and Russia
The specifications are presented of the cooling tower and the calculation is described of the permissible geometric shape deviation. The polar method was used in laying out the cooling tower and the process was based on the local layout network. The least squares method was used in calculating and aligning the coordinates. Digital theodolites were used in measuring the profile. The instruments allowed automating the collection and processing of the measured data. (E.J.)
The following major requirements and criteria fulfillment concerned the super-emergency feedwater system (SEFW) system were proposed: to provide sufficient water amount for accident conditions, inclusive seismicity, even during required SEFW system operation for the time period of 72 hours; to analyse ensuring of residual heat removal in case of a station black-out; to state criteria for water supply by the SEFW system into the steam generators (SGs); to simplify the existing connection scheme inclusive decreasing the number of valves, which are in series; to analyse and provide the system protection against a common cause failure, which the SEFW system did not provide in some parts (possibilities of three systems failure due to flooding; vulnerability of all tanks by the operation building fall in case of a seismic event; vulnerability of all tanks due to extreme climatic conditions; vulnerability of all tanks during new seismic loading and consequent mutual endangering; the possibility of three systems failure due to common routing in the vicinity of high; energy media on the +14,7 m floor in the intermediate machinery building and due to inconsistent electrical valves secured power supply systems); to analyse temperature increase impact on the number of uses and lifetime of SGs; to perform a change of SEFW system pipelines routing layout outside the dangerous area of the +14,7 m floor in the intermediate machinery building with high energy media; checking the thanks autonomy. There were performed analyses of selected transient operation modes. The analyses had the following objectives: necessary flowrate of the SEFW in case of the primary side stabilised temperature of 140 C till 72 hours of the process duration; sufficient capacity of one subsystem for the supply of sufficient water amount; sufficient water reserve in the tanks at given conditions; and other. Accident situations were evaluated using an analysis and three characteristic operation modes were selected, out of them each covers a group of ana-logical processes: operating mode with feedwater loss; operating mode with station black-out; operating mode during an earthquake
After the earthquake and subsequent tsunami in March 2011 Fukushima nuclear power reactors in Japan were damaged. As a result of damage of reactors escaped into air iodine radioactive isotopes which were dispersed by air masses over Europe and Slovakia. Isotope I-131 was identified in samples of the atmosphere and the abstraction of Radiation Control SE EBO. The air from the atmosphere contaminated with isotopes of iodine from the Fukushima ventilation systems that do not contain iodine filters, sucked into the interior of the controlled area, then released in organised way and then measured in the ventilation chimneys of EBO NPP. The measured values thus entered a balance of radioactive discharges. Drain of I-131 from SE EBO was in that period plus a contribution coming from Fukushima NPP and measured activity I-131 had to be corrected.
The lawyers of Enel will be spending the pre-Christmas period studying the transaction documents relating to the privatization of a 66% stake in Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric). At the beginning of the year, the Italian company Enel is set to sign the document that Cabinet approved in December 2004. Neither the draft privatization documents, nor the version approved by Parliament are publicly available. The Ministry promised to publish them after Enel signed the contracts. But Cabinet-level discussions prior to the approval of the documents uncovered problematic parts of the agreements related to the relationship between Enel, Slovak Electric and the state. Lawyers are examining the changes that were implemented based on recommendations of Cabinet members during the period after the postponement of the signing of the contract. Minister Pavol Rusko does not expect that Enel will reject the approved conditions, as that would mean the end of negotiations. But despite this, TREND asked whether he had an alternative plan prepared for such an eventuality. The Minister repeated that he had no doubt that the sale would be completed successfully and as of June Enel would become the new majority shareholder of Slovak Electric. He believes the 'the contract, which was very thoroughly prepared, will be very acceptable for both the selling and purchasing parties'. However, both the lawyers of Enel and the Minister should be aware of new facts they cannot be found in the privatisation documentation. And this is good news for both parties. This week Slovak Electric completed the process of financial restructuring and fulfilled the 'stabilization scenario'. Debt repayment has been postponed, debts will be repayable under standard conditions and will reflect the current capacity of the loan market. State guarantees have been decreased to a minimum and Slovak Electric will be able to request a new rating. More good news, mainly for P. Rusko, although he has not spoken
Slovenske elektrarne (SE), a.s, Bratislava in present time operates some sources, which would be off at normal conditions. It was caused by high electricity price on European markets. It is possible to sell 1 MWh for 12 thousands Slovak crowns abroad in last months. It is also advantageous to initialise thermal sources for power plant, where variable expenses are higher - from 1200 to 1300 Slovak crowns per MWh. SE are mainly trying to sell most of electricity on domestic market because returnability of dominant nuclear power plants was projected for this market. Utilizing capacities profit via domestic market covers fixed costs of power plants. Besides, power plant can demand regulated price 1272 Slovak crowns per 1 MWh. SE sources have capacity of 6800 MW, but maximal daily load uses for example in December approximately 4000 MW. Overflows are more higher in the summer - load dropped to 2200 MW in the beginning of September in last year. It is noted in issue that price increase in Europe is noticed. Price of primary power electricity will remain at liquid markets at 28 Euro (1176 Slovak crowns) in the following year prices fluctuate from 38 to 40 Euro (to 1700 Slovak crowns) per 1 MW at load peaks. Price increase is caused by lack of sources - it does not keep up to satisfy demand increase. Sources are gradually laid up and no new sources are built. Production capacities will decrease also in SE - by laying up of two 440 MW blocks of Bohunice NPP V-1. Price increase trend will continue according to SE businessmen till it is advantageous to build new source. Present price trend can be accelerated by decision about completing of Mochovce NPP 3-4
A brief account of activities carried out by the Vyskumny ustav energetickych zariadeni, a.s. (VUEZ) in 2003 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Introductory address by the Chairman of the Board of Directors; (2) Mission and vision; (3) Basic data; (4) Product portfolio and customer services; (5) VUEZ - Quality mark; (6) Economic data; (7) Auditor's certificate; (8) Contact persons and addresses. In 2003, a number of important events took place in VUEZ. From the standpoint of international activities, a significant event was VUEZ involvement in the process or the preparation for the V-1 NPP decommissioning. VUEZ company became a subcontractor to the Consultant to the Project Management Unit who is an international Consortium consisting of Iberdrola Ingenieria Y Consultoria S.A., Electricite de France, Empresarios Agrupados Intemacional S.A. and Soluziona Ingenierfa S.A. In the field of experimental research, activities within the research and development project with IRSN Paris were successfully continuing. As to increasing the leak-tightness of NPP hermetic compartments, relevant works were executed at the Dukovany and Paks NPPs. For a business partner from Hungary, a project was initiated related to the manufacture and delivery of air locks. Predominant VUEZ capacities concentrated on Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) a.s. Company in the Jaslovske Bohunice and Mochovce sites. In addition to major sealing works and periodical integrated leakage rate tests at individual reactor units, VUEZ participated also in the upgrading of the V-2 NPP. Design work was implemented through ADVING, a daughter company of VUEZ; erection and installation works within the project were performed by relevant VUEZ departments during refuelling outages at the V-2 NPP
Slovenske elektrarne, a. s. (SE) entered the year 2008 with a determination to achieve the best possible profit from power production. During the process of production optimization were taken into account external conditions, which were mentioned in the last issue. The result is SE supply reaching 22 251 GWh. Very satisfactory for us is the fact that high fulfillments by nuclear power plants have exceeded the expectations. Bohunice V1 NPP up to 103%, Bohunice V2 NPP up to 104,5% and Mochovce NPP up to 102, 9%. Nonfulfillment of hydroelectric and thermal power plants is a result of objective reasons- as for thermal power plants due to market conditions and in case of hydroelectric power plants this has been a result of hydrological reasons. Just a few words to a crisis that appeared in January 2009. When we look back, we have to divide the issue into two periods (crises). The first one is an economic crisis the consequences of which were apparent already in December, where the providers of supporting services among industrial customers were unable to guarantee those services (the service is activated by reduction of consumption and since then there was no sale of their products, they cut off their production, i.e. power production, and as a consequence, no reserve for Ss remained.) Missing supporting services have been purchased by a transmission system provider on both daily and monthly basis. There was a demand for SRV, TRV30MIN, + TRV3MIN+, however, there were no extreme values. (author)
Zórad, Š.; Železná, Blanka; Tybitanclová, K.
Praha : Galen, 2004 - (Houdek, L.), s. 1 ISBN 80-7262-288-9. [Konference České společnosti pro hypertenzi /21./, Konference pracovní skupiny Preventivní kardiologie ČKS /13./, Konference pracovní skupiny Srdeční selhání ČKS. Lázně Jeseník (CZ), 07.10.2004-09.10.2004] Grant ostatní: VEGA(SK) 2/7213/22 Keywords : AT1 receptor losartan renin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry
Upaya Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Dalam Mengelola Sampah Anorganik Melalui Bank Sampah(Studi Kasus : Di Bank Sampah Simpan Jadi Emas Lingkungan V Blok B Lorong II Kelurahan Belawan Sicanang Kecamatan Medan Belawan)
This research will in the foreground by the ever increasing waste production numbers from year to year, especially in the city of Medan. If waste management cannot be performed optimally will certainly have an impact on the environment and public health itself. If seen through the eyes of socio-economic, waste management a less well may form environment unpleasant for people like the appearance of the unpleasant smell and influential to the visits of tourism, and the fall in public health tha...
This is the tenth Environmental Report we have been regularly issuing annually since 1996 in order to give you information about our efforts and activities taken in the environmental protection area and, at the same time, to keep the mutual dialogue on a standard high level. The year 2005 was not easy for Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. Our company was subject to complicated internal changes to implement as effective company management model as possible. We strove, above all, to enhance the process management system that had already been developed previously. It is true that we also had to resolve personnel matters when looking for an effective power engineering company management model and we had to part from many of our colleagues during that stage. The second priority task we faced was to make preparations for the takeover of our company by the Italian company ENEL, S.p.A., and to complete the privatization process covering 66 % of Slovenske elektrarne, a.s., stock. It was especially the second half of 2005 that brought very intensive mutual discussions and working negotiations held on all management levels. The third, but not less significant, task consisted in detaching the assets which would not be covered by the privatization, namely to detach the Set of Gabcikovo Hydro Power Plants, to detach the VYZ - Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations, Radioactive Treatment and Spent Fuel Management Plant and the EBO V-1 Plant. Despite relatively complicated conditions and the opened and liberalized market in the Slovak Republic, our company produced 26,470,901 MWh of electricity whereby the target was met to 115.00 %. Our company kept the stability of the electric power supply system of the Slovak Republic, despite a complicated situation in the area of electric power supplies in Europe. We can really state that we produced in a safe, reliable, ecological and economical manner. The reliable operations of nuclear power plants in Jaslovske Bohunice and Mochovce where 17
This paper dealt with the identification of possible damaging mechanism of the collector of the WWER 440 steam generator, cracking of primary collectors, corrosion damage of the protective coat of the primary collector circumferential weld, cracking of breathing space in the region of blinding effect by corrosion and strain, leaking of disassembling joint of the primary collector lid and with the integrity of heat exchanging tubes
Petelin, Stojan; Vidmar, Peter
The basic aim of this paper is to research the relevant features of the control and management of an outdoor fire event and its influence on the safety of the surrounding area. The work is based on an analytical study of the fire's origin, its development and spread. A computer program called FDS (Fire Dynamic Simulator) is used in the work to simulate the fire's behaviour.A program based on the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic) model usingthe LES (Large Eddie Simulation) is used to calculate...
Gudbergsen, H.; Lohmander, L. S.; Jones, G.;
coefficients. RESULTS: The average patient was 63 years of age, female and had a BMI of 37. KL gradings correlated to cartilage damage, bone marrow lesions and meniscus pathology (r=0.15-0.76) and similar results were found for the relationship between BLOKS and mJSW. BLOKS assessed knee joint pathology co...
The participants at the Conference called on decision makers both in the European Union (EU) and in Slovakia to provide fair treatment to nuclear power compared with other energy sources, especially with renewable, without prejudice to nuclear safety. This implies ensuring equality in terms of economics, tax, and accounting for externalities. The participants called on the Slovak government to initiate studies that compare the full life-cycle costs, impacts and risks, across the spectrum of energy sources and uses. They should also internalize the external costs. The participants called for a debate on the Slovak energy needs, taking into account the environmental impact of all potential sources of energy and the costs of providing electricity from those sources, and in addition a rational and objective analysis of the security of supply of those sources. It is necessary to have a range of sources for electricity generation that are cost effective and reliable, and respect the environment. The Slovak economy cannot withstand a sudden loss of its guaranteed energy supply. The participants believe that the major government role is setting overall policy for the economy, energy and the environment, with an adequate base in legislation and institutional competence. The Slovak government should have clear strategies for achieving self-sufficient energy-policy goals with reserve power and for meeting climate-change and air-quality goals. The Conference concluded that the nuclear option should remain open in Slovakia, as part of a balanced energy mix, in line with developments abroad and the EU Green Paper from 2000; the alternative is Slovak's failure to secure an affordable energy supply for its citizens. The participants supported the completion of Mochovce 3, 4, complying with enhanced safety requirements, as the most effective option. In Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) privatization, the government should insist on as large an involvement of Slovak firms in the
The establishment and development of the information centre operating within the Mochovce nuclear power plant are described. The centre operates librarian, documentation and publication services. (E.S.)
Mým prvním zadáním bylo řešit ulici Údolní z hlediska urbanismu. Vytipovat kladné a záporné oblasti a místa. A navrhnout jejich řešení i v návaznosti na historii. Po analýzách a důkladném prozkoumání ulice, jsem našla několik nedostatkových míst. Prvním je prostor naproti Obilnému trhu + areál ombudsmana. Podle mého názoru se tato stavba sem nehodí a nahradila bych ji bytovými domy s obchodním parterem, tak jak tomu bylo i v minulosti. V nedávné době vybudovaná zahrada, která spojuje park na ...
ÜRER, Semih; Kilinç, Fatih
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of plyometric training method on vertical jump performance and block-above shot hitting ratio at 15-17 age group handball players who take education from High School. Mean age was 15.86±0.8 years, mean sport age was 4±1,9 years, mean height was 173,50±6,8 cm and mean body weight was 65±12.61 kg of handball players participated to research. 6 weeks plyometric training program was applied to players. Beginning and end of training programs, verti...
V diplomskem delu je obravnavan fotonapetostni sistem elektrarne, katerega princip delovanja se razlikuje od klasičnih fotonapetostnih elektrarn, saj omogoča omrežni in otočni način delovanja. V diplomskem delu je podan opis fotonapetostne elektrarne, ki obsega tudi osnovne opise fotonapetostnih celic, modulov in razsmernikov. Ker je tema diplomskega dela omrežno-otočni fotonapetostni sistem, delo vključuje tudi osnovni opis o solarnih baterijah (akumulatorjih). V nadaljevanju je predstavljen...
Competition for the Slovak National Prize for Quality is a milestone in the history of the Mochovce NPP. The Mochovce NPP won the prize in 2004. The article describes in detail the preparatory efforts including not only technological issues but also various administrative challenges. The impacts of this achievement on the plant's subsequent development are also highlighted. (orig.)
This report describes all nuclear installations in the Slovak Republic. It informs the public about the safety of nuclear installations. The spent fuel activities and nuclear wastes storage matters are discussed separately ((NPP Bohunice V-1, NPP Bohunice V-2, NPP Mochovce, NPP Bohunice A-1, Radioactive wastes repository Mochovce, Interim spent fuel storage Bohunice)
In this interview Mr. Milan Cagala (minister of economy of the Slovak Republic from February, 27, 1998 up to October 10, 1998) is remembering about construction and reactor commissioning of the Mochovce NPP. He highly assesses the contribution of Slovak companies and international cooperation with foreign companies in the completion of Mochovce nuclear power plant.
In this presentation author deals with safe operation of Slovak NPPs. Electricity production in Slovakia as well as in Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. (SE) is presented. Safety characteristics of SE exploitation are included.
In this presentation author deals with impact of the structural changes (privatization of the Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s.) and new Atomic law (541/2004 Coll. Laws) on the nuclear safety in the Slovak Republic.
In the fourth chapter of this CD ROM the operation culture of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.), is presented. It consist of next paragraphs (1) Environment; (2) Personnel and social policy; (3) Public relations; (4) Consultancy
Slovenske elektrarne has been dealing with exploitation of hydropower potential during long-term period and conceptually. In this paper parameters of construction of new planned small-scale hydroelectric power plants on the Vah River (Slovakia) are presented.
The Company Slovenske elektrarne (SE) Predaj has after two years of presence in the market expanded their business activities to the households segment. The first customers can be particularly employees of Slovenske elektrarne. This chance will be provided to them starting from 1 October of this year. 'The electricity supplies for households will only be supplementary segment of sales at SE Predaj Company. We will still focus mainly at businesses with higher consumption,' says director of the Company Mr. Stanislav Reguli. (author)
Globalno segrevanje ozračja s toplogrednimi plini, druga okoljska onesnaženja ter pomanjkanje fosilnih goriv so razlog, da stremimo k uporabi jedrskih in drugih alternativnih oblik energije za proizvodnjo električne energije. Jedrske elektrarne veljajo ob normalnih obratovalnih pogojih za ene izmed najbolj varnih, zanesljivih in predvsem čistih virov električne energije, ki razen z jedrskimi odpadki dodatno ne obremenjujejo okolja. Na varno obratovanje jedrskih elektrarn imajo velik vpl...
Co-combustion of biomass with lignite started in Novaky Power Plant (ENO) in October. With Vojany, it is the second power plant from of Slovenske elektrarne where this renewable source of energy is utilised. Biomass in the form of wooden chips is fired in a fluidized-bed boiler in the ENO A unit; it represents a minimum share of 10% in the weight volume of fuel. Slovenske elektrarne's plan is to increase gradually its weight portion. (author)
A brief account of activities in environment protection carried out by the Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. in 1999 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Address; (2) Electricity generation and consumption in the Slovak Republic; (3) Air protection; (4) Water management; (5) Waste management; (6) Environmental management system at Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s.; (7) Environmental protection funds; (8) Structure of SE, a.s., power installations
The brief results from the surveillance specimen program's application on the RPV's WWER-440/213 in Jaslovske Bohunice V-2 and Mochovce NPP's was finished the standard surveillance specimen program (SSSP). On the base of SSSP critical analysis was prepared so called 'Extended Surveillance Specimen Program' (ESSP). For the first two units of the Mochovce NPP is prepared completely new program of irradiation embrittlement monitoring called 'Modern Surveillance Specimen Program' (MSSP), This program will serve for Mochovce NPP during all planned service life. The first results of ESSP from the 3-rd and 4-th units in Jaslovske Bohunice V-2 NPP are presented too. (author)
Environmental impacts of activities carried out by the Slovak Electric, plc is presented. These impacts are reported under the following headings: (1) Statement of the Chairman of the Board of directors; (2) Environmental policies of Slovak Electric Joint Stock Company; (3) Atmospheric Protection; (4) Water management; (5) Waste management; (6) Environmental management system of SE, a. s.; (7) Financial of the protection of the environment; (8) NPP Bohunice, o. z., Jaslovske Bohunice; (9) NPP Mochovce, o. z., Mochovce; (10) Decommissioning of nuclear installations, BSC RAO, o. z., Jaslovske Bohunice; (11) Thermal Power Station Vojany, o. z., Vojany; (12) Thermal Power Station Novaky, o. z., Zemianske Kostolany; (13) Thermal Energetic Kosice, o. z., Kosice; (14) Hydroelectric Power Plants Trencin, o. z., Trencin; (15) Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina, o. z., Dobsina; (16) Transmissive System, o. z., Bratislava; (17) 3rd and 4th block of the NPP Mochovce, o. z., Mochovce
In this presentation author deals with the security of energy supply in the Slovak Republic (SR). Nuclear energy sector in the SR is presented. Completion of Unit 3 and 4 of the Mochovce NPP is necessary
In this chapter author reviewed a political pressure of Austrian government and Austrian legislative assembly on Slovakia before fuel assembly insertion and commissioning of the Unit-1 of the Mochovce NPP. Mission of Walkdown II is described.
In this presentation author deals with operating results of Bohunice nuclear power plants and Mochovce NPP. These operating results are compared with results obtained on other NPPs with WWER reactors.
In this presentations processes of radioactive waste treatment in the Bohunice Radioactive Waste Processing Center (SE-VYZ), Jaslovske Bohunice are presented. Decommissioning of the A-1 NPP is also presented. Disposal of conditioned radioactive waste in fibre concrete containers (FCC) are transported to Mochovce from Jaslovske Bohunice by the transport truck where are reposited in the National radioactive waste repository Mochovce. The Interim spent fuel storage facility (ISFSF) is included into this presentation
The booklet contains the following six papers: 1. International situation; 2. Five years of partnership with Germany; 3. Cooperation isar-2 with the Mochovc, Paks and Temelin plants; 4.Support of GUS (community of independent States) and MOE (central and east European) States in the establishment of nuclear licensing and surveillance authorities; 5. Scientific and technological cooperation; 7. Completion of the Mochovce nuclear power plant. (HP)
Eka Aditya Putri Iskandar
Full Text Available Inventarisasi Fissidens spp. (Fissidentaceae, Bryophyta di Kebun Raya Cibodas telah dilakukan. Pengoleksian dilakukan pada blok-blok yang ada di Kebun Raya Cibodas dan karakteristik dari setiap lokasi pengoleksian dicatat. Sebanyak enam puluh tujuh koleksi berhasil dikumpulkan dan diidentifikasi, yang mencakup 40% dari jenis-jenis yang disebutkan oleh Fleischer (1900-1902. Kunci determinasi menuju jenis-jenis Fissidens disajikan pula. Tiga jenis catatan baru dari Cibodas dilaporkan pada makalah ini, yaitu F. perpusillus, F. bryoides subsp. schmidii dan F. obscurirete.
Diplomsko delo predstavlja idejni projekt postavitve ene vetrne elektrarne za izbrano mesto Košenjak. Predpostavljam investitorja, ki je v projekt pripravljen vložiti 70 % lastnih sredstev. Predmet dela je smotrnost postavitve vetrne elektrarne. Postavitev mora biti energetsko, ekonomsko in okoljsko upravičljiva. Pri ugotavljanju ekonomske upravičenosti postavitve vetrne turbine je ključna ocena povrnitve začetne investicije. Na podlagi te ocene se odločamo o potencialni uresničitvi ali op...
Diplomsko delo obravnava meritev kakovosti električne energije sončnih elektrarn Termoelektrarne Brestanica (TEB), MFE TEB1, MFE TEB2 ter MFE TEB3. V uvodnih poglavjih so razložene značilnosti sončne energije, sončno sevanje ter fotonapetostni pojav. Na kratko so opisane vrste sončnih elektrarn, predstavljena vloga njihovih gradnikov, razložena pretvorba enosmerne napetosti v izmenično s pulzno-širinsko modulacijo, priklop ter odkup električne energije pridobljene iz sončnega vira. Diplomsko ...
V diplomskem delu je obravnavano področje požarne varnosti energetskih objektov. Osredotočeno je na sončno elektrarno, v nalogi je opisana sončna energija, sestavni deli elektrarne, delovanje, varnost in zakonodaja. Podrobneje so opisane zahteve in ukrepi, za namestitev sončne elektrarne na šolske objekte. Predstavljen je tudi potek vaje evakuacije, ki jo mora šola po zakonu izvršiti vsaj enkrat letno. Izpostavljene so naloge odgovornih za požarno varnost in evakuacijo. V vzgojni izobraževal...
Wassenberg, Jacqueline; Cochard, Marie-Madeleine; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; Newman, Christopher J.; Hofer, Michael; Eigenmann, Philippe A.
To cite this article: Wassenberg J, Cochard M-M, DunnGalvin A, Ballabeni P, Flokstra-de Blok BMJ, Newman CJ, Hofer M, Eigenmann PA. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012: 23: 412419. Abstract Background: Food allergy in children
Ejersbo, Lisser Rye
Som reaktion på min forrige blok, vil jeg her uddybe og begrunde, hvorfor det er en god ide, at lade eleverne få kropslige oplevelser med tallinjen. Det drejer sig bl.a. om fænomenet SNARC, der er en forkortelse for ‘Spatical Numerical Association of Response Codes’, og som på godt dansk betyder...
Nixon, William J.; Lipitakis, Evangelia A. E. C.
Blok obsahuje 2 přednášky: Bibliometrics at the University of Glasgow (Nixon, William ) a The Use of Thomson Reuters Research Analytic Resources in Academic Performance Evaluation (Lipitakis, Evangelia) a následnou společnou diskuzi.
Verbruggen EMJ; SEC
In dit rapport zijn maximaal toelaatbare risiconiveaus en "serious risk concentrations" voor ecosystemen afgeleid voor minerale olie ("total petroleum hydrocarbons"). De gebruikte methode berust op een benadering met analyse van fracties, waarbij de alifatische en aromatische stoffen apart worden beschouwd en beide verder worden verdeeld in verschillende fracties. Voor elke fractie of blok zijn aparte risicogrenzen afgeleid. De "toxic unit" benadering moet worden...
In the article the author makes an attempt of reconstruction of the outstanding Russian symbolists' world outlook. The result of this reconstruction shows that divergences in views of Andrey Bely and Alexander Blok were unavoidable, because of irreconcilable contradictions in understanding of general concepts of symbolism.
de Visser, Erika; Blok, K.
Striving for energy efficiency means trying to obtain a certain result with a minimum of input (Schipper and Meyers, 1992; Blok, 2007). As energy is used to fulfil human needs, one may define the energy efficiency of an activity as the degree to which given human needs can be fulfilled with a minimu
Increasing efficiency, continuous improvement, ambitious investment plans. How we (Slovenske elektrarne) succeeded in overcoming crisis impacts and achieved excellent results, about the necessity to increase the company's safety culture - these issues were discussed at the Goal Setting Meeting 2010. The introductory meeting was held on 9 March 2010 in Bratislava. (author)
Slovenske elektrarne considers a specific training and education of experienced experts to be a key issue. The company gradually undergoes quite demanding change in the field of education and training of the nuclear power plants staff. We have an ambitious vision - to create one of the best training organisations in Europe by the means of systematic approach to the training. (author)
On 29-30 June, 2006, the training for workers of the Slovenske elektrarne, a. s. was organized to explain the most important management safety aspects on leadership awareness (Nuclear Leadership Awareness Course). The course was held at the regional consultation center in Jaslovske Bohunice. (author)
Another power plant will be added to the hydroelectric power plant Dobsina. Preparations for the construction of a small hydro power plant have started on the streams Hnilec and Dobsinsky Brook. Dobsina III will extend the portfolio of renewable sources of Slovenske elektrarne. (author)
Instalment payments in this and the coming two years amount to 32 billion Sk (762.8 mn Euro) - that is about 60 percent of the overall credit burden of the electricity producer Slovenske elektrarne (SE). And so the situation from three years ago is repeating itself - a new financial department of the company is expected to lead the company out of the substantial cash-flow crisis caused by credit burden. This difficulties have been caused by decisions taken by state like building of power plant in Mochovce. Minister Nemcsics will not be in the position to complete his ambition to direct the activities of SE, his successor will need time to find his way and so the solution stays in hands of the company management. Where will they look for the necessary recourses? The operation generates virtually no cash-flow increase - reminds General Manager for Economy and Finances, Milos Sujansky. What the manager considers a possible solution is loan restructuring. 'We have to review the whole loan portfolio in order to eliminate the pressure caused by the necessity to repay the debts in 2004 and the beginning of 2005 and that would allow as to survive in a relatively normal state,' unveils the company plans M. Sujansky. That would mean postponing the instalment payments until 2007. Before this strategy was prepared the existing debts had to be analysed. The results of this analysis showed 'an inconsistent debt portfolio with many non-standard elements anchored in relevant contracts'. In the opinion of Director for External Financing this fact makes the loan management and decision making in regards to assets/liabilities structure difficult. 'When you have 35 different loans and every contract is different - communication and monitoring costs much effort,' he adds. According to an Auditors Report for 2002 prepared according to ISA standards even the share of third-party capital is high and inhomogeneous. The previous financial management managed to minimize the deficit. The fact
A brief overview is given of the power sources in Slovakia which include 6 operational reactor units (4 at Jaslovske Bohunice and 2 at Mochovce) and 2 units under construction (at Mochovce). The efforts undertaken in the past 10 years and aimed at upgrading the nuclear safety of the two older (V-230 Soviet type) units at Bohunice are highlighted. The relevant regulatory decisions are dealt with and the measures already carried out are listed. Also characterized are several IAEA international safety assessment missions and safety-aimed meetings which took place in 1998 and 1999 and are of concern to the older Bohunice units. (A.K.)
An overview is given of the recommendations and regulations concerning IandC systems of nuclear power plants with WWER-440 reactors in the Slovak Republic, and of the relevant involvement of regulatory bodies. The issues included in regulatory decrees and pertaining to the safety aspects of IandC systems are mentioned point by point, with emphasis put on the upgrading of the systems. The power plants covered include the Bohunice V-1 and V-2 plants and the Mochovce-1 and Mochovce-2 units. (A.K.)
To evaluate, in a confirmatory fashion, whether baseline and change from baseline to 24-month follow-up in cartilage damage, bone marrow lesions and meniscal damage are predictors of knee replacement (KR) in subjects with a high risk of osteoarthritis (OA), independent of the level of physical activity, symptom severity and radiographic abnormalities. Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative's (OAI) baseline and 24-month follow-up knee MRIs of 115 patients (age range: 45-78 years; 48 % female; BMI: 20.9-48.7) were analyzed. Cartilage, bone marrow and menisci were semi-quantitatively scored according to the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS) and Boston-Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score (BLOKS) systems in all compartments. Baseline and 24-month interval changes in structural tissue damage assessed by BLOKS and WORMS were used as predictors of KR independent of clinical and radiographic parameters using Cox hazard analysis. Adjustments were performed for age, gender, BMI and physical activity (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly: PASE), Western Ontario and McMaster Questionnaire (WOMAC) total score and radiographic Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) score. BLOKS and WORMS baseline cartilage scores were predictors of KR independent of the PASE, WOMAC and KL score. One score increase in the average baseline BLOKS full-thickness cartilage defect score was associated with a [hazard ratio (95 % CI)] 13.55 (3.61-50.89) times greater risk of KR independent of the PASE, WOMAC and KL score. Net reclassification improvements (NRIs) of the additional evaluation of 24-month follow-up MRI scores and assessment of changes were not significant for prediction of KR (NRI range: - 7.23 - 24.8 %). The BLOKS cartilage score for full-thickness cartilage defects had the highest hazard for KR. Follow-up MRI changes in structural tissue damage, detected by BLOKS and WORMS cartilage, bone marrow or meniscus scores (up to 24 months) had no significant predictive value in addition
Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Eng, John; Demehri, Shadpour [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zikria, Bashir [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Carrino, John A. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Radiology and Imaging, New York, NY (United States)
To evaluate, in a confirmatory fashion, whether baseline and change from baseline to 24-month follow-up in cartilage damage, bone marrow lesions and meniscal damage are predictors of knee replacement (KR) in subjects with a high risk of osteoarthritis (OA), independent of the level of physical activity, symptom severity and radiographic abnormalities. Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative's (OAI) baseline and 24-month follow-up knee MRIs of 115 patients (age range: 45-78 years; 48 % female; BMI: 20.9-48.7) were analyzed. Cartilage, bone marrow and menisci were semi-quantitatively scored according to the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS) and Boston-Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score (BLOKS) systems in all compartments. Baseline and 24-month interval changes in structural tissue damage assessed by BLOKS and WORMS were used as predictors of KR independent of clinical and radiographic parameters using Cox hazard analysis. Adjustments were performed for age, gender, BMI and physical activity (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly: PASE), Western Ontario and McMaster Questionnaire (WOMAC) total score and radiographic Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) score. BLOKS and WORMS baseline cartilage scores were predictors of KR independent of the PASE, WOMAC and KL score. One score increase in the average baseline BLOKS full-thickness cartilage defect score was associated with a [hazard ratio (95 % CI)] 13.55 (3.61-50.89) times greater risk of KR independent of the PASE, WOMAC and KL score. Net reclassification improvements (NRIs) of the additional evaluation of 24-month follow-up MRI scores and assessment of changes were not significant for prediction of KR (NRI range: - 7.23 - 24.8 %). The BLOKS cartilage score for full-thickness cartilage defects had the highest hazard for KR. Follow-up MRI changes in structural tissue damage, detected by BLOKS and WORMS cartilage, bone marrow or meniscus scores (up to 24 months) had no significant predictive value in addition
A A Kurnia Aditama
Full Text Available Dewasa ini smartphone dengan sistem operasi android sedang menjadi tren, khususnya pada bidang teknologi komunikasi. Adanya smartphone dengan sistem operasi android dapat digunakan untuk mendukung upaya pemerintah dalam melakukan pendataan penduduk, khususnya pendataan warga banjar. Saat ini petugas masih menggunakan cara manual dengan menggunakan form pendataan dari kertas. Sehingga munculah masalah yaitu bagaimana membuat suatu aplikasi mobile android dengan memanfaatkan kode QR yang dapat digunakan untuk mempermudah dalam melakukan pendataan warga banjar. Aplikasi ini dikembangkan menggunakan sebuah tools dari Google yaitu App Inventor, dengan tools ini pemrograman dapat dilakukan seperti bermain puzzle dimana seorang programmer melakukan pemrograman dengan cara menyatukan blok-blok program yang telah disediakan pada App Inventor. Dengan adanya App Inventor ini dapat dibuat sebuah aplikasi pendataan warga banjar dengan memanfaatkan kode QR sebagai media untuk memempermudah dalam proses pendataan sehingga pendataan warga banjar dapat dilakukan dengan lebih cepat dan efisien.
Vincentius Totok Noerwasito
Full Text Available "Bata lempung" is block of wall material, main basic material is sols contains 50-60% clay, pressed and molded, without combusted, used after 28 days and production doesn't depend climates. "Bata lempung" can used as bearing wall or curtain wall, exposed and in low-cost housing, exclusive house and real estate. Resultants of research "Bata lempung" used sols from Pandaan Jawa-Timur are resistance compression 60 -70 kg/cm2, waterproofing and cheaper than brick if produced in site of project. "Bata lemping" are material saving energy, without pollution, efficient, structural and art material. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : "Bata lempung" adalah bahan bangunan dinding berupa blok terbuat dari tanah "lempung" dengan kandungan 50-60% Clay, dicetak dengan pemadatan, pengeringan tanpa dibakar, dipergunakan setelah berumur 28 hari. Karena dicetak proses pembuatan tidak tergantung pada cuaca. Aplikasi "bata lempung" adalah sebagai dinding pemikul atau sebagai dinding pengisi, yang dapat diekspose pada dinding rumah murah, rumah mewah atau pada kompleks perumahan real estate. Hasil penelitian dari tanah yang berasal dari Pandaan - Jawa timur menghasilkan blok "bata lempung" dengan kuat tekan 60 -70 kg/cm2, tahan air .dan harga dibawah harga bata merah dipasaran jika diproduksi dilokasi bangunan. "Bata lempung" adalah bahan bangunan yang ramah lingkungan,henat enrgi, tidak meninggalkan banyak sisa blok, merupakan bahan bangunan struktural dan juga bahan bangunan seni. Kata kunci: Bahan bangunan dinding, blok, Clay, Semen, pemadatan, pencetakan, pembakaran, ekspose, natural, modul, kuat tekan, dinding pemikul, dinding pengisi, polusi, hemat energi, material struktural, material seni.
国别:UNITED STATES美国 厂商:TITAN INTERNATIONAL IMPORT—EXPORT §CONSULTING CO。L 地址:IMES SAN SIT E—BLOK 504 SK.NO 51 YDUDULLU IMES SAN SIT 联系人E—SAADETTIN CAYO 51 Y DUDULLU IS-TANBUL TURKEY 电话:90—216—420—0920 传真:90—216—313—4419 国外进口:医院用床单
In the Second Polish Republic two main concepts of education were defined: national education, represented the National Democracy (Narodowa Demokracja), and state education, proposed by the Sanation camp: the Nonpartisan Bloc for Cooperation with the Government (Bezpartyjny Blok Współpracy z Rządem – BBWR). These two concepts were confronted in the addresses of the MPs and senators in the parliament of the Second Polish Republic which pertained to the legal bases of the education system. Howe...
Bahan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah limbah pertamina (oil sludge) dari PT Pertamina Pangkalan Susu - Kab. Langkat, yang dihasilkan dari proses pengeboran minyak. Limbah ini termasuk limbah padat yang telah mengering dan berbentuk gumpalan (oil sludge). Adapun besaran fisis yang diamati pada sampel paving blok adalah antara lain: porositas, densitas, dan serapan air. Sedangkan besaran mekanika adalah kekerasan, kuat tekan, kuat impak dan kuat patah. Dari hasil penelitian menunjukk...
The report presents an analysis of works of а Russian mystic poet and philosopher Daniel Andreev (1906–1959) and а European poet Vadim Andreev (1902–1976) as а phenomenon of 20th century's cultural development. Cross-cultural communication in the poets' works is combined with developed national identity. Vadim Andreev's poetry embodies national identity through developmeпt of motives representative for the Russian literature. Reconstituted world of the Russian literature (А. Pushkin, А. Blok,...
Praagman; N.; Vorst, van der, R.; Koster; J
Vijf klassen van Runge-Kutta methoden voor het numeriek integreren van beginwaardeproblemen worden vergeleken. Aangetoond wordt dat de beste resultaten, bedoeld is het kleinste aantal rechterlid bewerkingen bij een gegeven tolerantie, verkregen worden met een blok Runge-Kutta methode met een speciale stapsgrootte selectie. De formules van de vijf klassen, waarvan er twee nieuw zijn, worden gepresenteerd en resultaten van testproblemen worden in tabelvorm gegeven.
Zwart, de, H.F.; Speetjens, S.L.
Het nieuwe concept Next Generation Semigesloten kas is met recht een opvolger van eerdere generaties (semi)gesloten kassen. Het systeem realiseert een substantiële invulling van de verwarming van kasteelten met duurzame warmte. Het concept is gebaseerd op een kleine aanpassing van de luchtbehandelingskasten die met de opkomst van Het Nieuwe Telen in steeds meer kassen te zien zijn. Door deze luchtbehandelingskasten naast een verwarmend blok ook met een koelblok uit te rusten kan met een beper...
Burghouts, H. [Energie Netwerk EN, Bilthoven (Netherlands); De Kleijn, B.; Van Leerdam, W. [Tangram Advies en Onderzoek, Zeist (Netherlands)
In the 'Block by Block' project 13 local energy saving projects are supported in the development of concepts to realize large-scale energetic improvements of existing houses. In these projects the consortia develop strategies which are applied in the market. In addition, a number of projects is awarded with a so-called 'Green Deal' (agreements between governmental, public and private parties in the Netherlands). Part of the support is a knowledge and learning process. As part of the learning process a practice-oriented research has been carried out into the possibilities of database marketing (DBM) for energy conservation. The research focuses on the opportunities for DBM for energy savings and promising product-market combinations. The question is: can DBM contribute to improving the effectiveness of the 'Block by Block' projects? [Dutch] In het project 'Blok voor Blok' worden 13 lokale energiebesparingsprojecten gesteund bij de ontwikkeling van concepten ten behoeve van de grootschalige energetische verbetering van bestaande woningen. In deze projecten worden door de gevormde consortia strategieen ontwikkeld en uitgevoerd in de markt. Daarnaast is een aantal projecten gehonoreerd met een 'Green deal'. Onderdeel van de ondersteuning is een kennis- en leertraject. In het kader van het leertraject is een praktijk gericht onderzoek gedaan naar de mogelijkheden van databasemarketing (DBM) voor energiebesparing. Het onderzoek richt zich op de kansen voor DBM voor energiebesparing en kansrijke productmarktcombinaties. De vraag is: kan DBM bijdragen aan verbetering van de effectiviteit van projecten 'Blok voor Blok'?.
Though the extreme right was not particularly successful in the 1999 European elections, it continues to be a major factor in the politics of Western Europe. This book, newly available in paperback, provides a comprehensive and detailed analysis of the extreme right in the Netherlands (Centrumdemocraten, Centrumpartij'86), Belgium (Vlaams Blok) and Germany (Die Republikaner, Deutsche Volksunion). On the basis of original research - using party literature - the author concludes that though ind...
Praha : Slovanský ústav AV ČR, v.v.i, 2007 - (Ulbrechtová, H.), s. 57-73 ISBN 978-80-86420-25-7. - (Práce Slovanského ústavu. Nová řada. 22) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90920516 Keywords : Russian poetry * Blok, Aleksandr * Literary cycles Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision
Gunung Galunggung ketika erupsi tahun 1982 sebagian besar flora dan fauna yang ada disekitarnya luluh lantak. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui populasi dan pola sebaran burung-burung yang terdapat di kawasan Galunggung periode pemulihan pasca 31 tahun meletus.Metode “point count jarak tidak tetap” digunakan dalam penelitian ini Gunung Galunggung telah ditetapkan sebagai kawasan Wanawisata Galunggung sejak tahun. Penelitian dilakukan dengan membagi dalam 5 blok pengamatan. Sejumlah 80 titik pen...
In this presentation author presents the Energetic politic and Program declaration of the Government of the Slovak Republic. He criticizes the decree on decommissioning of first and second block of the Bohunice NPP and presents support of the Government of the Slovak Republic for building of third and fourth block of Mochovce NPP
The proceedings contain 30 contributions, 2 of which have been inputted in INIS; these deal with nuclear power in Czechoslovakia (particularly in Slovakia), safety problems of WWER type reactors, and problems associated with the lack of funds to complete the construction of the Mochovce nuclear power plant. (M.D.)
This section treats of the two following case laws: Slovak Republic: Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; United States: Judgment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission denying requests from petitioners to suspend final reactor licensing decisions pending the issuance of a final determination of reasonable assurance of permanent disposal of spent fuel
In this presentation author deals with structure of electricity production in the Slovak republic in 2006 and perspectives of electricity supply up to 2020 year. Decommissioning of Unit 1 and Unit 2 of the Bohunice NPP and completion of Unit 3 and 4 of the Mochovce NPP are discussed
On the occasion of the 43rd conference for water management in the industry results of the 3rd competition were announced for the National Business Award for Environment in the Slovak Republic 2011 organized by the Association of Industrial Ecology in Slovakia (ASPEK). The first prize in the category 'product; went to the hands of Slovenske elektrarne representatives for providing the energy self-sufficiency of Tery Chalet, High Tatras, all year round with installing photovoltaic system. 'We have a complex programme of five energies through which we support culture, sports, humanity, education and environmental protection. Hence we try to support constant sustainability of biodiversity,' underlined Alena Meciarova, Manager of Environment at Slovenske elektrarne. (author)
In this paper the interview with engineer Peter Hlbocky, director of division of the Project of decommissioning of V 1 Nuclear Power Plant in Jaslovske Bohunice is presented. Project Manager Unit (PMU) was formed on the basis of directive of the General Director of the Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. The Director of the Division of decommissioning of the V 1 NPP and at the same time the Main manager of the PMU is engineer Peter Hlbocky. On this project participate 19 employees of the Slovenske elektrarne, a. s. (SE), 6 abroad employees of the consortium IBERINCO, 15 employees of the VUEZ and 25 abroad employees on the detached place of work in the Spain and France
This paper describes how Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. develops projects of biodiversity and clean energy in High Tatras. Solar panels help to increase convenience for tourists on the Tery's circular while building a culture flows and fish ladder to facilitate the survival of endangered species. At present, photovoltaic panels on the circular are installed with a total installed capacity of 1.2 kW. After the reconstruction will have a new system of power 9 kW.
Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) received from an international consortium of nine banks a revolving credit line for seven years in the volume of Eur 800 million, approximately SKK 27.3 billion. It was confirmed by SE representatives and participating banks representatives during the signing ceremony which took place together with a press conference on 22 October 2007. This is the highest company financing in the whole history of Slovakia. (author)
Tracking Environmental Costs and Investments in SAP will provide us with a managerial tool that will help us understand better the magnitude of the financial resources we are dedicating to environmental protection activities and investments. Environmental Cost Accounting is a new project in Slovenske Elektrarne that will be particularly valuable for the Company's environmental management initiatives, such as waste monitoring, cleaner production, eco-design and environmental management systems; its launch is expected in September. (author)
In this paper the interview with the MR. Stanislav Reguli, chairman of the board of directors and general director of the GovCo, joint-stock association is published. The state company GovCo, a.s. was originated on April 1, 2006. Process of severance of property from the Slovenske elektrarne, a.s., personnel management of new company as well as organisation of property management are presented
Diplomsko delo obravnava izdelavo in eksperimentalno preizkušanje sledilnega dvo-osnega fotonapetostnega sistema. Delovanje sledilnega dvo-osnega fotonapetostnega sistema je ovrednoteno s primerjavo s fiksnim fotonapetostnim sistemom. Oba fotonapetostna sistema sta velikosti mikro fotonapetostnih elektrarn. Na podlagi dnevnih meritev, opravljenih na sledilnem in fiksnem mikro fotonapetostnem sistemu, naloga podaja primerjavo med proizvedeno električno, časovne poteke temperature modula, sončn...
Namen doktorske disertacije je izboljšati tvorbo metana z mehanskimi in encimskimi predobdelavami substratov. Za anaerobno presnovo različnih substratov in določevanje biometanskega potenciala smo uporabili napravo Automatic Methane Potential Test System (AMPTS II). AMPTS II je analitična naprava laboratorijske skale, ki omogoča meritve ultra nizkih hitrosti tvorbe biometana, proizvedenih med anaerobno presnovo biološko razgradljivih substratov. Donosnost bioplinskih elektrarn je omejena na k...
A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Foreword; (2) Role of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic; (3) Supervisory and assessment activities in activities; (3.1) NPP V-1 Bohunice; (3.2) NPP V-2 Bohunice; (3.3) NPP Mochovce; (3.4) NPP A-1 Bohunice; (3.5) Radioactive wastes repository in Mochovce; (3.6) Interim spent fuel storage in Jaslovske Bohunice; (4) Nuclear materials and physical protection; (5) Radioactive wastes; (6) Quality assurance; (7) Personnel qualification and training; (8) Emergency management; (9) Legislation; (10) International co-operation; (11) Public information; (12) Conclusions; (13) Appendices
Dynamic analyses of the WWER-440 primary loops for the Mochovce nuclear power plant showed that the unprotected primary loop is very soft with a first eigenfrequency of 0.38 Hz. Protection with amortisseurs and viscous shock absorbers was compared and the viscous shock absorber in all cases proved to be more suitable. GERB viscous absorbers will be installed at the Mochovce nuclear power plant. First calculations of the dynamic resistance of the WWER-1000 primary loops for the Temelin nuclear power plant to extreme events were also made. It was shown that the unprotected primary loop is rather soft with a first eigenfrequency of 0.9 Hz, or 0.6 Hz at the pressurizer branch. It will therefore be necessary to protect the primary loops with viscous shock absorbers. (Z.M.)
A prototype expert system for advising emergency procedures for nuclear regulatory authority has been developed. The expert system ESPRO is known as goal oriented rule-based knowledge system. The system is based on emergency procedures developed in VUJE Trnava, Inc. for use by the Emergency Response Centre (ERC) of the Slovak Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA). The operation interpretation module uses the knowledge base of emergency procedures for the evaluation of source term and determination and suggestion of protective measures which is represented in the form of a Petri net model. Its verification and validation was done on the basis of the results of two exercises: joint exercise of ERC staff with Slovak Army Headquarters and full scale Mochovce NPP emergency exercise with use of the Mochovce NPP simulator. (author)
This section of the Bulletin brings together the texts of the following case laws: Canada: - Judgment of the Federal Court of Canada sending back to a joint review panel for reconsideration the environmental assessment of a proposed new nuclear power plant in Ontario. France : - Conseil d'etat, 24 March 2014 (Request No. 358882); - Conseil d'etat, 24 March 2014 (Request No. 362001). Slovak Republic: - Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; - Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant. United States: - Initial Decision of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Ruling in Favour of Nuclear Innovation North America, LLC (NINA) Regarding Foreign Ownership, Control or Domination
Five nuclear units with reactor WWER-440 are in this time in operation in Slovakia - four units in Bohunice and one in Mochovce sites. Start-up of another unit can be expected in Mochovce soon. Spent nuclear fuel was considered as a waste with final disposal in deep repository. Characterization and evaluation of burned-up is now under process of changes in connection with development of Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technology systems. Applicability of transmutation technology in particular nuclear economy depends on the amount and composition of burned fuel assemblies. This study deals with evaluation of Slovak WWER-440 spent fuel composition based on ORIGEN calculation. The paper provides calculation results of WWER-440 (1.6%, 2.4%, 3.6%, 3.82% enrichment) spent fuel inventory. Amounts and activities of important nuclides are tabled. (Authors)
This progress report outlines and describes the analysis and investigations of soil-structure interaction effects in seismic response of Bohunice and Mochovce nuclear power plants. The work carries out consists of theoretical-numerical analysis of soil-structure interaction and the description of the experimental results obtained so far. Investigations were performed for different soil conditions and recommendations were elaborated as to prepare and use long-term monitoring of vibration activity at the Bohunice NPP site
Supervisory activity of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) over the safety of nuclear installations in compliance with the 'Atomic Act' and other regulations includes also inspection and assessment activities of UJD. In 1999 the assessment activity were focused on newly constructed nuclear installations or their parts - Unit 2 of NPP Mochovce, National Repository of rad-waste in Mochovce, and the first phase of technology for treatment and conditioning of rad-waste in Jaslovske Bohunice. Inspection activity specified in the 'Atomic Act' is governed by internal guideline, an important part of which is an annual inspection plan that considers the routine inspections, special inspections, team inspections, and extraordinary inspections - there they are briefly described. Assessment as well as inspection activities in the NPP V-1 Bohunice, NPP V-2 Bohunice, NPP Mochovce, as well as NPP A-1 Bohunice (under decommissioning) are reviewed in detail. Assessment and inspection activities of UJD in the Interim spent fuel storage Bohunice, and in the nuclear facility 'Technology for treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste' Bohunice are described in detail, too. National radioactive waste repository Mochovce is determined for disposal low and intermediate radioactive waste. UJD issued a resolution on approval for commissioning of this nuclear facility in October 1999. VUJE bituminization facility was out of operation in 1999, The incinerator treated the burnable waste from NPP V-1 Bohunice. The technology of cementing sludge from NPP V-2 Bohunice was verified on cementing equipment. Assessment and inspection activities of UJD in 1999, which were completed by issuing UJD decisions are presented in the table form
In this leaflet the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment Centre (BSC RAO) is presented. BSC RAO is designed to process and treat liquid and solid radwaste, arising from the NPP A-1 decommissioning, from NPPs V-1, V-2, and Mochovce operations, as well as institutional radwaste of diverse institutional (hospitals, research institutes) in the Slovak Republic. Transport, sorting, incineration, compacting, concentration and cementation of radwaste as well as monitoring of emission are described
23 papers deal with the assessment of the standard of software in in-service diagnostics systems in the Dukovany and the Bohunice nuclear power plants. Research projects, intentions and the scope of research are outlined for the diagnostic systems of the Mochovce and the Temelin nuclear power plants. It is shown that the use is ever more growing of personal computers in this sphere. (J.B.)
In this part the nuclear power plants Bohunice - Units V-1 and V-2 and NPP Mochovce (description of units, safety reports and safety improvement programs) are described. Description of Bohunice A-1, history and current status of the NPP A-1 and NPP decommissioning program are included. In next parts interim spent fuel storage, technologies of Raw processing and treatment, and treated and solid Raw storage sites are described
In this work the determination of weighting factors and functions for WWER-440 ex-core neutron detectors using MCNP5 is presented. Precise and complex whole-core model of the WWER-440 was developed in MCNP5 and applied for solution of various reactor-physical problems (NPP Bohunice and Mochovce). Determination of weighting factors and weighting functions was performed for the source range ex-core detector CPNB44 (NPP Bohunice). At present, database of spatial weighting factors is generated.
The six papers of this session deal with experience, results and data obtained in nuclear power plant operation in Germany, and with the conclusions drawn relating to optimisation of maintenance work, insight drawn from reports on events and incidents in nuclear power plant, human factors engineering, or power plant life management. One paper discusses measures for safeguarding in the long run the functional integrity of the Mochovce-1 nuclear power station unit. (DG)
Full text of publication follows: an international team of experts, organized by the Institute of Risk Research of the Academic Senate of the University of Vienna, conducted a walk down assessment of the Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in May 1998. The Mochovce NPP is a VVER-440/213 station which has been in final construction and implementation of a safety improvement program since 1996. In preparation for the walk down, available plant design information was organized into a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) format in order to assist in prioritizing walk down activities. The PSA was also used to understand the likely impact on core damage frequency (CDF) resulting from implementation of the safety improvement program. The PSA employed event trees from the Dukovany PSA, modified to represent the system designs at Mochovce, to assess internal hazards. External hazards were assessed based on an evaluation performed in 1995, with consideration given to upgrades planned to be implemented up to 1998. Failure events were identified directly based on the Dukovany PSA and other sources, and quantified using data from the Dukovany PSA, other non-Mochovce PSAs, and generic data. The PSA was used to identify a suite of dominant accident sequences from internal and external causes. The impact of safety improvements on these sequences was then assessed. The 'pre-fix' and 'post-fix' cases were compared to identify the change in risk due to implementation of the safety improvement program. Following the walk down, the 'post-fix' case was updated based on insights gained from the walk down. This revised case was used to aid in understanding the risk significance of issues identified during the walk down. (author)
This CD-ROM contains 28 minutes 30 seconds of video-film about programme of International Youth Nuclear Congress 2000 (IYNC 2000). There is documentary video-film about IYNC 2000, also presented are: the Opening panel of the IYNC 2000, every day work of IYNC 2000, Congress people; the fun run; Entertainment excursion in Bratislava, about excursion in Mochovce NPP as well as in IAEA
The dissertation deals with sorption and desorption characteristics of two significant radionuclides Sr-85 and Cs-137 in selected soil samples as well as from around of NPP Bohunice and NPP Mochovce which were examined. The dissertation consists from next chapters: (1) Introduction; (2) Present state of knowledge; (3) Materials and methods; (4) Results and discussion; (5) Conclusions; (6) Particular conclusions for the realisation in practice and for next development of the science
Full Text Available The Dutch friends of E. W. von Tschirnhaus
In this article, the relations of the German scientist E.W. von Tschirnhaus with his Dutch friends is studied from what has remained of their correspondence. In 1669-1674, Tschirnhaus studied at Leiden, fought in the Dutch army, and became acquainted with Spinoza. In the letters from the following years, he appears to be on close terms with Dutch Spinozists as Jarich Jelles, Jan Rieuwerts, Georg Hermann Schuller, the Danish mathematician Georg Mohr, and Pieter van Gent, who until 1687 acted as his Amsterdam correspondent.
These men were in general very anxious to maintain their spiritual independence. Their ideal, as well as Tschimhaus's, was a life solely devoted to the pursuit of truth. Only in the course of time, some other people enter the correspondence for whom science was not so much a calling as a hobby: the merchant Ameldonk Blok and the broker Jan Makreel. Tschimhaus's truth seeking friends often experienced considerable difficulty in earning themselves a living. Not seldom they looked to Tschirnhaus for help in the form of recommendations, useful inventions, etc. When Ameldonk Blok got in financial difficulties, he negotiated the sale of Tschimhaus's burning-mirrors and burning-lenses at Amsterdam.
Tschirnhaus not only used his friends to provide him with news and books. He had his work Medicina mentis edited by them in Amsterdam, both in Latin and in a Dutch translation (by Blok. Eager to promote science, he also was ready to suggest, or pay for, the translation or publication of works by others than himself (e.g. Descartes, Bruno, Burnet. The results of the scientific application of his friends, however, seem to have been rather disappointing: little has seen the printing-press. Nevertheless, on an informal level there was a real involvement with science and mathematics which helped to shape Dutch scientific life.
A propositional logic induced by means of commutative basic algebras was already described by M. Botur and R. Halaš. It turns out that this is a kind of non-associative fuzzy logic which can be used e.g. in expert systems. Unfortunately, there are other important classes of basic algebras which are not commutative, e.g. orthomodular lattices which are used as an axiomatization of the logic of quantum mechanics. This motivated us to develop another axioms and derivation rules which form a propositional logic induced by basic algebras in general. We show that this logic is algebraizable in the sense of W. J. Blok and D. Pigozzi.
Vasić, Milinko; Djogo, Mitar; Jelisavac, Branko
Klizište u zoni mosta Slobode u Novom Sadu je jedno od najviše istraživanih klizišta u Srbiji iz razloga što predstavlja ozbiljnu prijetnju po stabilnost pomenutog mosta preko Dunava. U vrijeme završetka izgradnje 1981. godine, ovaj most s kosim kablovima, bio je na svijetu s najvećim središnjim rasponom od 351 m. U tijelu klizišta, most je temeljen na armiranobetonskim pilotima duljine 27 m. Utvrđena dubina pomicanja za prvi klizni blok iznosi 26 m, a za drugi 35 m. Projektirani drenažni sus...
The Labour Union of Villages and Cities (Zjednoczenie Pracy Wsi i Miast - ZPWiM) was a continuation of the Union of the Amendment of the Republic (Związek Naprawy Rzeczypospolitej) - which had been created in 1926 - after the coup d'état of May. It lead the left and the liberal-democratic wing of BBWR (Non-party Block of the Co-operation with the Government - Bezpartyjny Blok Współpracy z Rządem). The bulk of its members was constituted with the radical intelligentsia and a par...
Seletković, Ivan; Potočić, Nenad; Jazbec, Anamarija; Čosić, Tomislav; JAKOVLJEVIĆ, TAMARA
U radu su prikazani rezultati pokusa u kojemu se ispitivao utje caj različitih supstrata (Litvanski treset, supstrat Humofin, supstrat Stender A400) i vrsta sporotopivih gnojiva (Osmocote Exact Standard 5-6 M i 12-14 M) na rast i fiziološke parametre sadnica obične bukve (Fagus sylvaticaL.) u ra sad niku i nakon presadnje na teren. Pokus je postavljen u rasadniku Šumarskog instituta, Jastrebarsko, kao randomizirani blok s osam tretiranja i četiri ponav lja nja. Sadnicama je određena koncentra...
Seletković, Ivan; Potočić, Nenad; Topić, Vlado; Butorac, Lukrecija; Jelić, Goran; Jazbec, Anamarija
U radu su prikazani rezultati pokusa u kojemu se ispitivao utjecaj različitih tipova kontejnera i doza sporotopivog gnojiva (Osmocote Exact Standard 5–6 M) na rast i fiziološke parametre sadnica crnog bora (Pinus nigraArn.). Pokus je postavljen u proljeće 2007. godine u rasadniku Omiš, Hrvatske šume d.o.o. Zagreb, randomizirani blok u četiri ponavljanja. Tretmani su se razlikovali u primjeni različitih kontejnera (HIKO V–150, HIKO V–265, QPD 12T/18) i doza gnojiva (2, 4 i 6 g/l supstrata)....
Veit, Th.; Friedrich, J.; Offermann, E. A. J. M.
The procedures used to model [J. Friedrich, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 293 (1990) 575] or to determine [N. Voegler et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 249 (1986) 337, H. Blok et al., ibid., vol. A 262 (1987) 291, and E.A.J.M. Offermann et al., ibid., vol. A 262 (1987) 298] the mapping properties of a magnetic spectrometer are based on a minimization of the variance of target coordinates. We show that backtracing with matrix elements, determined in this way, may contain systematic errors. As alternative, we propose to minimize the variance of the detector coordinates. This procedure avoids these systematic errors.
Visser, Erika de; de Blok, K
Striving for energy efficiency means trying to obtain a certain result with a minimum of input (Schipper and Meyers, 1992; Blok, 2007). As energy is used to fulfil human needs, one may define the energy efficiency of an activity as the degree to which given human needs can be fulfilled with a minimum amount of energy. So, energy efficiency improvement can be defined as reducing the energy use per unit of human activity. The energy use per unit of human activity is also called energy intensity...
The annual report of SE, a. s., contains information for the year of 2003 and summarises SE's most important financial data for the stated period. The joint stock company Slovenske elektrarne, a. s. (Slovak Power Plants) was established on January 21, 2002, when it was entered into the Commercial Register as a new business entity formed by splitting the former Slovenska elektrarne, a. s. (SE, a. s.) into three independent business entities: Slovenska elektrarne, a. s. (SE, a. s.), Slovenska elektrizacna prenosova sustava, a. s. (Slovak Transmission Grid), and Teplaren Kosice, a. s. (Heating Plant Kosice). Data regarding electricity and heat generation and operational and financial results of the company are stated for the year of 2003, without providing a comparison to the previous year. The reason is that 2002 data do not cover the whole year, as the new SE a. s. was established on January 21, 2002 with changed mix of heat and electricity generation assets. Comparison data for previous years are provided only for certain technical parameters regarding nuclear safety, environment and human resources. This report contains the following headings: (1) SE Board of directors; (2) Supervisory Board; (3) Address by the Chairman of the Board of directors; (4) Year in brief; (5) Organisational structure of the company; (6) Participating interests held by the company; (7) Company strategy; (8) Heat and electricity generation; (9) Sales of electricity, ancillary services and heat; (10) Investments; (11) International cooperation; (12) Nuclear safety; (13) Environment; (14) Human resources; (15) Business report and financial statements; (16) Auditor's report; (17) List of abbreviations
Annual impacts of Bohunice V -2 operation caused by effluents in routine releases during the year 2007 were calculated and evaluated first time with the help of completely new program - ESTE AI. Program is approved by the 'Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic' and since January 2008 is used as legal instrument by Slovenske elektrarne a.s., NPP Bohunice. In this poster presented are annual effluents to the atmosphere and to the hydrosphere from Bohunice V-2 NPP. Presented, analyzed and discussed are main results of 2007 impacts evaluation. (authors)
A brief report of activities carried out by the Slovenske elektrarne, a.s., in 2000 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: Address by the Chairman of the board of directors; Major events; Board of directors; Supervisory board; Business strategy and development programme; Organisational structure; Equity investments in other companies; Basic data on generation units; Management and operation of the Slovak Republic's power systems; Transmission system of the Slovak Republic; Electricity sales; Heat sales; Safety at work and health protection and fire protection; Customer services; Investment programme; Research and development; Environmental protection; Nuclear safety; International co-operation; Human resources; Information systems; Telecommunications; Auditor report; Balance sheet
In this presentation author deals with next problems of Slovenske elektrarne, Plc (SE): - Centralisation and optimisation of informatics management; - New technologies within Integrated Informatics System IIS-SE: presentation of preliminary Project of 2nd generation IIS-SE; - Centralisation of the selected data processing. At the present the intensive process of restructuring is taking place in SE, Plc, focused on increasing of the effectiveness of the pursued activities. In connection with this the Informatics section solves two projects: More effective self-management and human resources; Change of Informatics system architecture from decentralised to the centralised ones with an aim to consolidate all information and to make new conditions for higher mobility
Leading to perfection Project SAP Nuclear is one of the most important projects in Slovenske elektrarne, a. s. (SE). 'SAP Nuclear' is aimed to software support for work management, GO management, reliability of the installations, operation experience, self management and benchmarking. It is inevitable that people understand, that the system can only help them, to simplify and reduce the workload. That is why we strongly require the high quality training programs and afterwards the system testing by the direct users of the system. We are talking to project managers Clay Warren and Antonio Cavaletto. (author)
Diplomska naloga opisuje fuzijo z vidika energetike. Opisane so potrebe po električni energiji v Sloveniji in Svetu. Predstavljene so nekatere konvencionalne in nekonvencionalne elektrarne, ki trenutno proizvedejo največji delež skupno proizvedene električne energije. Predstavljena je fuzija na Soncu, kjer je zaradi visoke temperature vsa snov v stanju plazme. Na Soncu se štirje protoni zlijejo v helijevo jedro, pri čemer je masa helijevega jedra za 0,7% manjša od mase štirih protonov, kar po...
Poslovna stavba GEN-I je bila zgrajena leta 2011 kot nizkoenergijska stavba z lastnim fotonapetostnim sistemom, ki omogoča pretvorbo sončne energije v električno energijo. Na podlagi podatkov o proizvedeni električni energiji instalirane fotonapetostne elektrarne smo dejansko proizvodnjo električne energije primerjali s pričakovano. Poleg tega nas je zanimalo, ali je stavba energetsko samozadostna. S pomočjo programskega paketa PHPP smo ovrednotili stopnjo energetske učinkovitosti poslovn...
Diplomsko delo obravnava postavitev vetrne elektrarne na Lisci. Za določeno lokacijo sem najprej analiziral vetrovne razmere za deset let. Na podlagi obratovalnih karakteristik vetrnih turbin in analize vetrovnih razmer sem izbral najprimernejšo vetrno turbino. Grafično sem predstavil tudi pas v katerem obratuje in ovrednotil vse investicijske stroške. Za tri primere sem izvedel izračun proizvodnje električne energije ter predstavil denarni tok skozi življenjsko dobo vetrnega sistema. Na osno...
V diplomski nalogi je predstavljena nova tehnologija vetrnih turbin, ki se imenuje Gedayc tehnologija. V nadaljevanju bomo vidli da so Gedayc turbine zelo izboljšane od navadnih trikrkakih. Nov dizajn vključuje podoben izgled deteljici z rezili in zmaju z podobnimi veznimi členi. Nekaj smo povedali in o sami zgradbi, tudi in delovanju vetrnih elektrarn. Rezultati ki jih podaja Gedayc vetrna turbina so veliko boljši od trikrakih in zaradi tega lahko rečemo, da so tiste turbine, vetrne turbine ...
Izkoriščanje obnovljivih virov energije, je ključnega pomena, zaradi vse večjih potreb po električni energiji. Kljub majhni količini proizvedene električne energije v malih hidroelektrarnah imajo takšne investicije veliko drugih prednosti. Pred začetkom opravil za izgradnjo elektrarne je natančna analiza, na osnovi kakovostnih vhodnih podatkov, mesta na katerem želimo izkoriščati vodni potencial, ključnega pomena. V oceni hidroenergetskega potenciala reke Reke na lokaciji Topolc, smo določili...
In the fifth chapter of this CD ROM the strategic plans of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.), are presented. It consist of next paragraphs (1) The programme of strategic changes (Declaration of the programme; The need for change; Major tasks; The management structure; Interconnections between the PSC target areas; The PSC projects); (2) The development of the Company (The major objectives of the Company; The energy plan of Slovakia; Analysis of development Alternatives; Results of the analysis; Economic comparison of the alternatives; Development of generation, The information system; Strategic goals and legislation). (3) The quality control system
Gudek, K.; Korošec, Darko; Vojvodič-Tuma, Jelena
The addy current testing of the steam generator of nuclear power plant Krško are discussed. After 121.000 hours of operation the surface of transport of heat from the primary to secondary part of the plant is diminished consequently by 17,4% and it is near the limit of the licenced operation at full power. The last investigations in 1998 confirmed that the operation time of the steam generators is running out. V prispevku so obravnavane raziskave cevi uparjalnika jedrske elektrarne Krško z...
The part of transformation process of the Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. is implementation and use of such software and their applications, which are an instrument for evaluating of the main goals of the company ant plants with the aim to declare the effective exploitation from economic and safety point of view. The suitable criterion instrument for assessing and a periodical control of pursuance of tasks and monitoring of trends of development of indicators in terms of strategy of the company and plants is the application PPRC (Power Plant Risk Control). (author)
V diplomski nalogi je predstavljen projekt električne napeljave v stanovanjski hiši, z dodano sončno elektrarno na strehi. Vsebuje načrte in enopolne sheme v programu AvtoCad, za močnostni del in razsvetljavo, ter vse potrebne izračune. Za sončno elektrarno je podan izračun, opisan pa je tudi ozemljitveni sistem. Opisani so tudi nekateri standardi, ki so potrebni pri načrtovanju električnih napeljav ter izvedbo sončne elektrarne.
Dandanes se zelo spodbuja uporaba obnovljivih virov energije za proizvodnjo električne energije. V magistrskem delu je predstavljen model hibridne elektrarne, ki za proizvodnjo električne energije uporablja tri različne OVE – geotermalno energijo, sončno energijo in lesno biomaso. Osnova je ORC sistem. Prvi vir za izkoriščanje je geotermalna energija, sončna energija in energija lesne biomase pa sta v sistemu kot vira dodatnega toplotnega toka za dogrevanje delovnega medija. Prikazan je detaj...
Magistrska naloga obravnava orientacijsko in naklonsko odvisnost fotonapetostnih sistemov Šolskega centra Krško-Sevnica. Fotonapetostni moduli sončnih elektrarn ŠC Krško-Sevnica so orientirani v smeri vzhod, jug in kot sledilni sistem za namen raziskovanja in izobraževanja. Na podlagi večletnih meritev, opravljenih na sončnih elektrarnah, bo v nalogi ovrednoten vpliv orientacijske in naklonske odvisnosti na proizvodnjo električne energije. Izplen proizvodnje električne energije sončnih elektr...
V diplomskem delu je predstavljena zasnova in trdnostni preračun dvoosnega sledilnika sonca. Dvoosni sledilnik sonca je naprava, ki ima nameščene sončne module, ki proizvajajo električno energijo iz sonca. Naprava ima nameščena dva pogona, ki vrtita površino s sončnimi moduli tako, da je ta vedno pravokotna glede na sonce. S sistemom dvoosnega sledenja dosežemo maksimalni izkoristek . Diplomsko delo zajema nekaj osnov sončnih elektrarn ter osnove solarne geometrije. Predstavljene so razli...
Tato práce se zabývá návrhem jádra 8-bitového mikroprocesoru kompatibilního s jedním z 8-bitových mikrokontrolérů PIC společnosti Microchip. Teoretická část práce zkoumá jednotlivé architektury 8-bitových mikrokontrolérů PIC a popisuje architekturu vybraného mikrokontroléru a funkci jeho dílčích bloků. V praktické části je proveden návrh a realizace jádra kompatibilního z hlediska provádění instrukcí, toku dat uvnitř mikrokontroléru a funkce jeho dílčích bloků, to vše pro dosažení co možná ne...
Předkládaná práce se zabývá návrhem nové obvodové struktury pro implementace dopředných neuronových sítí. Navržená struktura využívá nekonvenční uspořádání sběrnic pro propojení dílčích bloků. Přínos navržené struktury spočívá v optimalizaci vytížení výpočetních bloků a zvýšení efektivity přenosu dat mezi nimi. Navržená struktura je flexibilní a vhodná pro implementace širokého spektra topologií dopředných neuronových sítí.
URBANISMUS A ARCHITEKTURA Celý blok, který byl až do poslední velké asanace uzavřený, byl součástí původní urbanistické struktury Starého Brna. Poloha ulic Křížová, Václavská a zaniklá Klášterní, které vymezují tento blok je po staletích neměnná. Ne až tak, dávno před tím, než byly uliční profily přizpůsobeny „moderní“ koncepci dopravy ve městě, se zde nacházely kostel, vyhlášený dvůr s hostincem, radnice a nejstarší a nejdůležitější křižovatka obchodních cest v Brně. Nejspíš jediným důvodem ...
Práce se zabývá analýzou provozu uzlu sítě po připojení jaderného bloku. Cílem diplomové práce je popsat vliv síťových poruch na blok jaderné elektrárny. Práce řeší tři základní problémy: Vliv zkratu a výkonové nerovnováhy v síti na synchronní generátor jaderné elektrárny a její provoz v ostrovní síti. Práce je zaměřena zejména na blok jaderné elektrárny. V případě poruchy v síti je nutné sledovat další bloky v modelu a jejich ochrany, protože výpadek bloku by mohl způsobit rozpad soustavy. P...
Ēdināšanas nozare pēdēju laika posmā strauji pieaug visā pasaulē. Ēdināšanas nozari var sadalīt divos lielos blokos, tādos ka: ātras ēdinašanas bloks, kurā ietilpst bistro, kafejnīcas, bāri un vēl viens bloks: restorāni. Viena no lielākājiem restorānu potenciālo apmeklātāju grupām ir tūristi un iedzīvotāji ar vidējo un augstu ienākumu nodokli, jo viņiem ir brīvie naudas līdzekļi un viņi ir ar mieru tos tērēt. Var minēt arī to, ka Latvija tūristu skaits ar ktru gadu arī pieaug, par ko liecina...
|İkinci Dünya Savaşı sonrası Türkiye yeni müttefik arayışlarına girişmiş ve bu konuda adımlar atmaya özen göstermiştir. SSCB'nin savaş sonrası Türkiye'ye karşı tutumunu değiştirmesi ve bazı Türk topraklarını istemesi Türkiye'yi Batı Blok'una yakınlaştırmış ve Batı Blok'unun öncüsü durumundaki ABD safında yer almayı seçmiştir. Bu karar Türkiye'de siyasi olarak D...
Full text: Under the Research Agreement a 'National Intercepting System for radioactive contaminated Materials' was developed. It consists of the following elements: The real time information system - ILTRAM, detection equipment and detection response procedures. To guarantee smooth operation, the responsibilities of different state organizations needed to be defined and the information exchange was initiated. The emerging system was discussed in several national and international workshops and seminars. Participants came from the Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic (SR), the Customs Directorate, Ministry of Economy, Slovenske Elektrarne, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority, the State Fund for Decommissioning of NPP, the Office of Civil Protection, the police and other. Development and implementation were complemented by training courses with participation of customs coordinators and officers from the Customs Criminal Unit. The training covered radiation protection, response plans, detection equipment and its technical parameters, practical exercises with hand-held instruments, practical operation of the information system ILTRAM, and training of the response to different scenarios. Special effort was paid also to the training of the coordination of the cooperation between different parties involved: Customs Directorate, Customs Criminal Unit, Presidium of the Police Force, Office of Civil Protection of the Ministry of Interior, Laboratory of Radiochemical Analyses (SLRA), Slovenske Elektrarne, APEKO. In the training the functioning of the whole system was demonstrated, including the response to illicit trafficking. (author)
The overall training system and the development projects of training the staff of all categories from NPP V-1, NPP V-2 Bohunice, SE-VYZ and NPP Mochovce were the subject of UJD's attention. During 2001 following inspections were carried out on nuclear personnel training: - PP's Bohunice: an inspection focused on compliance with requirements for staff qualifications and compliance with the prescribed training of Bohunice plant staff; - Mochovce NPP: an inspection focused on compliance with the requirements for staff qualifications and compliance with the prescribed training of NPP Mochovce staff; - SE-VYZ: an inspection focused on compliance with the requirements for staff qualifications and compliance with the prescribed training of SE-VYZ staff. Training the staff of the NPP's Bohunice: - The fundamental and periodical theoretical training as sure as the fundamental and periodical simulator training is carried out by the VUJE Training centre in Trnava. - The fundamental practical training in the workplace and training for the change work- rank is carried at Bohunice plant. Training of the staff of the NPP Mochovce: - The fundamental and periodical theoretical training is carried out by the VUJE Training centre in Trnava. The fundamental practical training in the workplace and training for the change work- rank as well as the fundamental and periodical simulator training is carried at Mochovce plant. Based on a successful passing of examination before the examining committee, UJD issues a certificate on special professional skills of selected staff members of nuclear installations for specific activity for the given type of nuclear installation and for the following positions: 1. Scientific shift manager for start up with the right of manipulation; 2. Shift supervisor; 3. Unit supervisor; 4. Primary circuit operator; 5. Secondary circuit operator; 6. Reactor physicist; 7. Scientific shift manager for start up without the right of manipulation. Examinations of
The overall training system and the development of projects for training of all categories of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 Bohunice, SE-VYZ and NPP Mochovce staff were the subject of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) attention. During 2000, the following inspections were carried out on nuclear personnel training: (a) NPP Bohunice: an inspection focused on compliance with requirements for staff qualifications and compliance with the prescribed training of Bohunice plant staff ; (b) NPP Mochovce: an inspection focused on compliance with the requirements for staff qualifications and compliance with the prescribed training of NPP Mochovce staff; an inspection focused on verifying the simulator aided training; an inspection focused on checking the preparedness of NPP Mochovce operation and technical personnel for NPP Mochovce Unit 2 operation; (c) Technology for treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste Bohunice (BSC): an inspection focused on compliance with the requirements for staff qualifications and compliance with the prescribed training of SE-VYZ staff; VUJE Trnava: verification of technical equipment and professional skills of VUJE Trnava staff and tasks arising out of the 'Authorisation on nuclear installation staff training'. Examinations of selected personnel were scheduled according to the plan of examining committee meetings. For each examined person written tests are generated by the computer from the database of test questions at the Training Centre of VUJE Trnava for individual positions - categories of selected staff of NPP V-1 and NPP V-2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce so that the examination questions both in written and oral part equally cover individual facilities and regimes of operation of NPP. The database is continuously updated, thereby containing new questions resulting from the recent changes carried out at NPPs. A part of the examination in case of promotion to a higher position is the practical part, which is conducted under
Presentation describes the history, present and future of the spent fuel management in the Slovak Republic. First experiences with spent fuel were gained in the seventies. Spent fuel form A-1 NPP was handled at Jaslovske Bohunice site, in order to prepare the spent fuel for the transport to the former USSR. After shut down of the A-1 NPP, all spent fuel was transported to the USSR. In 1978 first unit of V-1 NPP was set into operation. Actually there are six NPP units of the WWER type at Jaslovske Bohunice and Mochovce sites in operation in the Slovak Republic. These six units produce about 500 spent fuel assemblies per year. In 1988 an Interim spent fuel storage facility was build at Jaslovske Bohunice site. These facility stores spent fuel from four Jaslovske Bohunice units. In 2000 this facility was subject to a reconstruction, seismic upgrade and capacity enlargement. In 2004 Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic approved transport container C-30 for transport of forty-eight spent fuel assemblies. The transport capacity has risen, so the number of transports could be reduced. In 2006 Slovak Electric Plc. (SE) will start transports of spent fuel from Mochovce site to Interim spent fuel storage facility (ISFSF) Jaslovske Bohunice. In addition, a project of Interim spent fuel storage facility at Mochovce site is going on. In the future Slovakia plans to find definitive solution for the spent fuel. One solution could be reprocessing and further usage in the power reactors, the other solution could be final deposition of spent fuel. (author)
Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) activities in the area of NPPs staff qualification followed requirements of the Act No. 28/1984 of Collection on the state supervision over nuclear safety of nuclear installations and Decree of CSKAE No. 191/1989 of Collection. Based on these documents, staff having direct influence on nuclear safety by their working activity are subject to an examination of special vocational capability, i.e. verification of a set of their vocational knowledge and skills. Selected staff is examined by the State Examining Committee established by NRA's chairman. Based on successfully passed exams before the State Examining Commission, the NRA issues licences for selected personnel working at the WWER type of a nuclear installation. The positions are as follows: shift supervisor, unit supervisor, primary circuit operator, secondary circuit operator, and reactor physicist.Such licenses are valid for two years from the date of issue.In the event of passing an exam with grade with grade excellent, licences for a 4-year period can be granted to select personnel of the NPP V-2. For the past year of 1997, the number of licences issued to NPPs V-1 and V-2 selected personnel is reviewed. During the year, the technical equipment testing on the NPP Mochovce simulator was done. Granted licences on the ground of the NPP Mochovce for selected personnel as professional qualifications of simulation training instructors. Working negotiations at international level were held during the year to secure funds to improve the NPP V-2 simulator (US AID); also testing of technical equipment of the full-scope simulator of NPP-Mochovce, professional eligibility and overall preparation of simulator training including simulator software. Funded by the PHARE programme, an in co-operation with the IAEA, personnel qualification upgrade courses continued