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Sample records for blodsygdomme ii translation

  1. Minimal restsygdom ved maligne blodsygdomme II. Translation og terapeutiske konsekvenser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, Peter; Ommen, Hans Beier; Nyvold, Charlotte Guldborg;

    2009-01-01

    in following patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib. Moreover, the methodology is being integrated in an increasing number of clinical trials, where it is expected to result in more rational and individualized clinical decision-making. A special point...

  2. Translation invariant time-dependent solutions to massive gravity II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, J.; Steer, D.A., E-mail: mourad@apc.univ-paris7.fr, E-mail: steer@apc.univ-paris7.fr [AstroParticule and Cosmologie, UMR 7164-CNRS, Université Denis Diderot-Paris 7, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2014-06-01

    This paper is a sequel to JCAP 12 (2013) 004 and is also devoted to translation-invariant solutions of ghost-free massive gravity in its moving frame formulation. Here we consider a mass term which is linear in the vielbein (corresponding to a β{sub 3} term in the 4D metric formulation) in addition to the cosmological constant. We determine explicitly the constraints, and from the initial value formulation show that the time-dependent solutions can have singularities at a finite time. Although the constraints give, as in the β{sub 1} case, the correct number of degrees of freedom for a massive spin two field, we show that the lapse function can change sign at a finite time causing a singular time evolution. This is very different to the β{sub 1} case where time evolution is always well defined. We conclude that the β{sub 3} mass term can be pathological and should be treated with care.

  3. Translation invariant time-dependent solutions to massive gravity II

    CERN Document Server

    Mourad, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a sequel to arXiv:1310.6560 [hep-th] and is also devoted to translation-invariant solutions of ghost-free massive gravity in its moving frame formulation. Here we consider a mass term which is linear in the vielbein (corresponding to a $\\beta_3$ term in the 4D metric formulation) in addition to the cosmological constant. We determine explicitly the constraints, and from the initial value formulation show that the time-dependent solutions can have singularities at a finite time. Although the constraints give, as in the $\\beta_1$ case, the correct number of degrees of freedom for a massive spin two field, we show that the lapse function can change sign at a finite time causing a singular time evolution. This is very different to the $\\beta_1$ case where time evolution is always well defined. We conclude that the $\\beta_3$ mass term can be pathological and should be treated with care.

  4. Translation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    "Translation" is a life narrative about the ways in which cultural histories shape personal stories, and the capacity of the imagination to develop alternative narratives about oneself and the world. It can also be read a way of addressing the effects of what Ato Quayson calls the global process of postcolonializing. Quaysons critical perspective might be used as an interpretive lens for seeing some of the ways in which  this autobiographical narrative complicates the jargon of race, cl...

  5. Translation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    "Translation" is a life narrative about the ways in which cultural histories shape personal stories, and the capacity of the imagination to develop alternative narratives about oneself and the world. It can also be read a way of addressing the effects of what Ato Quayson calls the global process of postcolonializing. Quaysons critical perspective might be used as an interpretive lens for seeing some of the ways in which  this autobiographical narrative complicates the jargon of race, class, ...

  6. A family of insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding proteins represses translation in late development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Christiansen, J; Lykke-Andersen, J;

    1999-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a major fetal growth factor. The IGF-II gene generates multiple mRNAs with different 5' untranslated regions (5' UTRs) that are translated in a differential manner during development. We have identified a human family of three IGF-II mRNA-binding proteins.......5 followed by a decline towards birth, and, similar to IGF-II, IMPs are especially expressed in developing epithelia, muscle, and placenta in both mouse and human embryos. The results imply that cytoplasmic 5' UTR-binding proteins control IGF-II biosynthesis during late mammalian development....

  7. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications: II, Clouds. Issue 159

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning clouds as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  8. Hydrodynamic Interactions between Two Forced Objects of Arbitrary Shape: II Relative Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfriend, Tomer; Witten, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    We study the relative translation of two arbitrarily shaped objects, caused by their hydrodynamic interaction as they are forced through a viscous fluid in the limit of zero Reynolds number. It is well known that in the case of two rigid spheres in an unbounded fluid, the hydrodynamic interaction does not produce relative translation. More generally such an effective pair-interaction vanishes in configurations with spatial inversion symmetry, for example, an enantiomorphic pair in mirror image positions has no relative translation. We show that the breaking of inversion symmetry by boundaries of the system accounts for the interactions between two spheres in confined geometries, as observed in experiments. The same general principle also provides new predictions for interactions in other object configurations near obstacles. We examine the time-dependent relative translation of two self-aligning objects, extending the numerical analysis of our preceding publication [Goldfriend, Diamant and Witten, arXiv:1502....

  9. Human insulin-like growth factor II leader 2 mediates internal initiation of translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne K; Christiansen, Jan; Hansen, Thomas v O

    2002-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a fetal growth factor, which belongs to the family of insulin-like peptides. During fetal life, the IGF-II gene generates three mRNAs with different 5' untranslated regions (UTRs), but identical coding regions and 3' UTRs. We have shown previously that IG...

  10. Vibration-translation energy transfer in anharmonic diatomic molecules. II - The vibrational quantum-number dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenzie, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    A semiclassical model of the inelastic collision between a vibrationally excited anharmonic oscillator and a structureless atom is used to predict the variation of thermally averaged vibrational-translational rate coefficients with temperature and initial-state quantum number. Multiple oscillator states are included in a numerical solution for collinear encounters. The results are compared with CO-He experimental values for both ground and excited initial states using several simplified forms of the interaction potential. The numerical model is also used as a basis for evaluating several less complete, but analytic, models. Two computationally simple analytic approximations are found that successfully reproduce the numerical rate coefficients for a wide range of molecular properties and collision partners. Their limitations are identified, and the relative rates of multiple-quantum transitions from excited states are evaluated for several molecular types.

  11. Translator awareness Translator awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Wilss

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness. If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness.

  12. Frequency translation of light waves by propagation around an optical ring circuit containing a frequency shifter: II. Theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K; Horiguchi, T; Koyamada, Y

    1994-05-20

    Theoretical aspects of the frequency-translation ring circuit are considered through numerical simulations. We analyze the signal and noise propagation around an optical ring circuit that contains a frequency shifter, an erbium-doped fiber amplifier and a bandpass filter (BPF). The relations between the frequency-translation limit and some important parameters such as the BPF bandwidth and the polarization state are clarified. Numerical results for the frequency-translation limit are compared with reported experiments and a frequency translation of more than 100 GHz is predicted.

  13. Translations and Translators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nida, Eugene A.

    1979-01-01

    The necessity for stylistic appropriateness in translation as well as correct content is discussed. To acquire this skill, translators must be trained in stylistics through close examination of their own language and must have practice in translating for different audiences at different levels. (PMJ)

  14. Translating Words, Translating Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Whitaker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available What exactly does (or should translation from one language into another try to do? Attempt to convey to readers of the target language (the language into which one is translating something of the strangeness, difference and historicity of the original in the source language (the language from which one is translating? Or must translation try to bridge the gap between source and target language, by rendering the original in a thoroughly contemporary style and diction, as if this were a work being written now for the first time? And related to these the further questions: how closely should a translation render the genre, language, metre, style and content of the original? How far can a translation depart from the original without ceasing to be a translation – in other words, where is one to situate the border between “translation”, “version” and “adaptation”?

  15. Pseudo minimum translational distance between convex polyhedra (II)——Robot collision-free path planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By using the pseudo minimum translational distance between convexobjects, this paper presents two algorithms for robot path planning. First, an analytically tractable potential field is defined in the robot configuration space, and the concept of virtual obstacles is introduced and incorporated in the path planner to handle the local minima of the potential function. Second, based on the Lipschitz continuity and differentiability of the pseudo minimum translational distance, the flexible-trajectory approach is implemented. Simulation examples are given to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the path planners for both mobile robots and manipulators.

  16. Pseudo minimum translational distance between convex polyhedra (II) ——Robot collision-free path planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Xiangyang; DING; Han; XIONG; Youlun

    2001-01-01

    By using the pseudo minimum translational distance between convex objects, this paper presents two algorithms for robot path planning. First, an analytically tractable potential field is defined in the robot configuration space, and the concept of virtual obstacles is introduced and incorporated in the path planner to handle the local minima of the potential function. Second, based on the Lipschitz continuity and differentiability of the pseudo minimum translational distance, the flexible-trajectory approach is implemented. Simulation examples are given to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the path planners for both mobile robots and manipulators.

  17. Lost in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Steffen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    of translated texts. Our results suggest (i) that frame-based classifiers are usable for author attribution of both translated and untranslated texts; (ii) that framebased classifiers generally perform worse than the baseline classifiers for untranslated texts, but (iii) perform as well as, or superior...... to the baseline classifiers on translated texts; (iv) that—contrary to current belief—naïve classifiers based on lexical markers may perform tolerably on translated texts if the combination of author and translator is present in the training set of a classifier....

  18. Translating China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    sidney Shapiro, an American-born translator famous for his translation of Chinese literary works, received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Translation by the Translators Association of China on December 2, 2010.

  19. Post-translational hydroxylation by 2OG/Fe(II-dependent oxygenases as a novel regulatory mechanism in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M van Staalduinen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein hydroxylation has been well-studied in eukaryotic systems. The structural importance of hydroxylation of specific proline and lysine residues during collagen biosynthesis is well established while, recently, key roles for post-translational hydroxylation in signalling and degradation pathways have been discovered. The function of hydroxylation in signalling is highlighted by its role in the hypoxic response of eukaryotic cells, where oxygen dependent hydroxylation of the hypoxia inducible transcription factor both targets it for degradation and blocks its activation. In contrast, the role of protein hydroxylation has been largely understudied in prokaryotes. Recently, an evolutionarily conserved class of ribosomal oxygenases (ROX that catalyze the hydroxylation of specific residues in the ribosome has been identified in bacteria. ROX activity has been linked to cell growth, and has been found to have a direct impact on bulk protein translation. This discovery of ribosomal protein hydroxylation in bacteria could lead to new therapeutic targets for regulating bacterial growth, as well as, shed light on new prokaryotic hydroxylation signalling pathways. In this review, recent structural and functional studies will be highlighted and discussed, underscoring the regulatory potential of post-translational hydroxylation in bacteria.

  20. Practical criterion for the determination of translation factors. II. Application to He/sup 2 +/+H(1s) collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errea, L.F.; Gomez-Llorente, J.M.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1985-10-01

    An illustration is reported on the use of the Euclidean norm as a criterion of the quality of translation factors in the molecular model of atomic collisions. The relation between our norm and the deviation vector of Chang and Rapp (J. Chem. Phys. 59, 572 (1973)), and the computational simplicity of the calculation and minimization of the former quantity, are very appealing features of our approach. To show how the norm method can be applied, the He/sup 2 +/+H(1s)..-->..He/sup +/(2s,2p )+H/sup +/ reaction is treated.

  1. Human Translator and Translation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辰

    2016-01-01

    With the great development of technology, translation technology exerts great influence on human translators because during their translation process, they may use many computer-aided translation tools, such as TRADOS, Snowman, WordFisher and etc. However, they always misunderstand the concept of computer-aided translation, so this thesis managed to providedetails about some translation technology and human translators' strengths so as to help them improve the productivity and the quality of theirtranslation works effectively and efficiently.

  2. Translating Means Translating Meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕

    2000-01-01

    美国著名翻译理论家尤金·奈达说 :“翻译即译意 (Translating m eans translating m eaning)。”就实质而言 ,翻译即译意。就是把一种语言表达的意义用另一种语言表达出来。翻译分理解与表达两个步骤。理解是翻译的基础 ,表达直接决定译文的成败与优劣 ,两者缺一不可

  3. Fully quantal calculation of H2 translation-rotation states in (H2)4@5(12)6(4) clathrate sII inclusion compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Peter M

    2013-05-01

    The quantal translation-rotation (TR) states of the (p-H2)4@5(12)6(4) and (o-D2)4@5(12)6(4) hydrate clathrate sII inclusion compounds have been computed by nuclear-orbital/configuration-interaction methods. The model of these compounds in a rigid, high-symmetry 5(12)6(4) cage is treated in detail. The low-energy TR level structures of both isotopomers within this model are found to consist of states that can be readily described in terms of a small number of single-H2 and double-H2 excitation modes. The use of the high-symmetry results to facilitate the calculation and interpretation of (p-H2)4 and (o-D2)4 TR states in low-symmetry physically realizable 5(12)6(4) cages is also reported.

  4. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  5. Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.

  6. Comprehensive analysis of published phase I/II clinical trials between 1990-2010 in osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma confirms limited outcomes and need for translational investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Maldegem Annemiek M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High grade primary bone sarcomas are rare cancers that affect mostly children and young adults. Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are the most common histological subtypes in this age group, with current multimodality treatment strategies achieving 55-70% overall survival. As there remains an urgent need to develop new therapeutic interventions, we have reviewed published phase I/II trials that have been reported for osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma in the last twenty years. Results We conducted a literature search for clinical trials between 1990 and 2010, either for trials enrolling bone sarcoma patients as part of a general sarcoma indication or trials specifically in osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. We identified 42 clinical trials that fulfilled our search criteria for general sarcoma that enrolled these patient groups, and eight and twenty specific trials for Ewing and osteosarcoma patients, respectively. For the phase I trials which enrolled different tumour types our results were incomplete, because the sarcoma patients were not mentioned in the PubMed abstract. A total of 3,736 sarcoma patients were included in these trials over this period, 1,114 for osteosarcoma and 1,263 for Ewing sarcoma. As a proportion of the worldwide disease burden over this period, these numbers reflect a very small percentage of the potential patient recruitment, approximately 0.6% for Ewing sarcoma and 0.2% for osteosarcoma. However, these data show an increase in recent activity overall and suggest there is still much room for improvement in the current trial development structures. Conclusion Lack of resources and commercial investment will inevitably limit opportunity to develop sufficiently rapid improvements in clinical outcomes. International collaboration exists in many well founded co-operative groups for phase III trials, but progress may be more effective if there were also more investment of molecular and translational research into

  7. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention...... is given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention....... This creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  8. MiR-152 may silence translation of CaMK II and induce spontaneous immune tolerance in mouse liver transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Spontaneous immune tolerance in mouse liver transplantation has always been a hotspot in transplantation-immune research. Recent studies revealed that regulatory T cells (Tregs, hepatic satellite cells and Kupffer cells play a potential role in spontaneous immune tolerance, however the precise mechanism of spontaneous immune tolerance is still undefined. By using Microarray Chips, we investigated different immune regulatory factors to decipher critical mechanisms of spontaneous tolerance after mouse liver transplantation. Allogeneic (C57BL/6-C3H and syngeneic (C3H-C3H liver transplantation were performed by 6-8 weeks old male C57BL/6 and C3H mice. Graft samples (N = 4 each group were collected from 8 weeks post-operation mice. 11 differentially expressed miRNAs in allogeneic grafts (Allografts vs. syngeneic grafts (Syngrafts were identified using Agilent Mouse miRNA Chips. It was revealed that 185 genes were modified by the 11 miRNAs, furthermore, within the 185 target genes, 11 of them were tightly correlated with immune regulation after Gene Ontology (GO, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis and Genbank data cross-comparison. Verified by real-time PCR and western blot, our results indicated that mRNA expression levels of IL-6 and TAB2 were respectively down regulated following miR-142-3p and miR-155 augment. In addition, increased miR-152 just silenced mRNA of CaMK II and down-regulated translation of CaMK II in tolerated liver grafts, which may play a critical role in immune regulation and spontaneous tolerance induction of mouse liver transplantation.

  9. Translating Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chevrel

    2007-07-01

    Europe thinks in many languages and Europe is a land of translation. Translation is a means of transmitting culture, a means of making it available to others and an invitation to share. It is a cement which binds Europe together.

  10. Translation Nation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The International Federation of Translators will hold its largest ever world congress in China on the eve of 2008 Olympic Games china’ s position as a powerhouse of the translation industry is to be cemented,

  11. teaching translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bolaños Cuéllar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The advance in cultural-oriented perspectives in Translation Studies has sometimes played down the text linguistic nature of translation. A pilot study in teaching translation was carried out to make students aware of the text linguistic character of translating and help them to improve their translation skills, particularly with an emphasis on self-awareness and self-correcting strategies. The theoretical background is provided by the Dynamic Translation Model (2004, 2005 proposed by the author, with relevant and important contributions taken from Genette’s (1982 transtextuality phenomena (hypertext, hypotext, metatext, paratext, intertext and House and Kasper’s (1981 pragmatic modality markers (downgraders, upgraders. The key conceptual role of equivalence as a defining feature of translation is also dealt with. The textual relationship between Source Language Text (slt is deemed to be pivotal for performing translation and correction tasks in the classroom. Finally, results of the pilot study are discussed and some conclusions are drawn.

  12. Literal Translation and Free Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭佼

    2011-01-01

    @@ Dispute over the method of literal translation and that of free translation had a long history in China, in East Jin Dynasty Daoan(道安314-385),a well-known monk, was the representative of those who firmly advocated literal translation.Since he feared that free translation might not be true to the original, he advocated strict literal translation so as to preserve the true features.Works under his direction were typical of word-for-word translation, in which no alteration was made except accidental changes in word order.

  13. Translation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because artistic translation focuses on reactions, judging the quality of an artistic translation work is one of the most difficult things one can do. We end up having a score of complexity and humanity for each one of the mentioned techniques: Literal translation would be the closest thing we have to the machines world and artistic translation would be the closest thing we have to the purely human world. By creating these classifications and studying the subtleties of each one of them, we are adding degrees of quality to our courses and to translation as a professional field. The main contribution of this paper is then the formalization of such a piece of knowledge. We, however, also lay the foundations for studies of this type.

  14. Aestivation induces changes in transcription and translation of coagulation factor II and fibrinogen gamma chain in the liver of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiong, Kum C; Tan, Xiang R; Boo, Mel V; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to sequence and characterize two pro-coagulant genes, coagulation factor II (f2) and fibrinogen gamma chain (fgg), from the liver of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens, and to determine their hepatic mRNA expression levels during three phases of aestivation. The protein abundance of F2 and Fgg in the liver and plasma was determined by immunoblotting. The results indicated that F2 and Fgg of P. annectens were phylogenetically closer to those of amphibians than those of teleosts. Three days of aestivation resulted in an up-regulation in the hepatic fgg mRNA expression level, while 6 days of aestivation led to a significant increase (3-fold) in the protein abundance of Fgg in the plasma. Hence, there could be an increase in the blood-clotting ability in P. annectens during the induction phase of aestivation. By contrast, the blood-clotting ability in P. annectens might be reduced in response to decreased blood flow and increased possibility of thrombosis during the maintenance phase of aestivation, as 6 months of aestivation led to significant decreases in mRNA expression levels of f2 and fgg in the liver. There could also be a decrease in the export of F2 and Fgg from the liver to the plasma so as to avert thrombosis. Three to 6 days after arousal from 6 months of aestivation, the protein abundance of F2 and Fgg recovered partially in the plasma of P. annectens; a complete recovery of the transcription and translation of f2/F2 in the liver might occur only after refeeding.

  15. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    out by specialised revisers, but by staff translators, who revise the work of colleagues and freelancers on an ad hoc basis. Corrections are mostly given in a peer-to-peer fashion, though the work of freelancers and inexperienced in-house translators is often revised in an authoritative (nonnegotiable......) way. Most respondents and interviewees are worried about increasing pressures on the translation market, which, combined with customers’ general lack of understanding of the translation process, mean that systematic, all-encompassing quality assurance is rarely financially viable....

  16. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  17. Word translation entropy in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied...... language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross...

  18. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  19. Anatomy of a reindeer dissected in Copenhagen in 1672 by Niels Stensen as reported by Thomas Bartholin. I. Introduction by Troels Kardel. II. Translation by Paul Maquet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troels Kardel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A report by Professor Thomas Bartholin on the dissection of a reindeer performed in 1672 by his former student Niels Stensen as Royal Anatomist in Copenhagen is presented in English translation with biographical introduction and bibliographical notes. The report is most likely the first of its kind being an early contribution to comparative anatomy.

  20. Beyond Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the growing scholarship on local development practitioners by re-examining conceptualizations of practitioners as ‘brokers’ strategically translating between ‘travelling’ (development institution) rationalities and ‘placed’ (recipient area) rationalities in relation...... and practice spurred by new challenges deriving from climate change anxiety, the study shows how local practitioners often make local activities fit into travelling development rationalities as a matter of habit, rather than as a conscious strategy. They may therefore cease to ‘translate’ between different...... rationalities. This is shown to have important implications for theory, research and practice concerning disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in which such translation is often expected....

  1. Translational genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kussmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.

  2. Theorizing About Translation and Translation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Mukesh

    2012-01-01

    The act of translation between languages and cultures has been going on for centuries, but the act of theorizing about-translation is of recent origin. In the last forty years translation scholars have attempted to understand the process of translation and evaluate its merits giving rise to a whole range of conceptualizing which is now called translation studies. Translation studies , therefore, has grown within important scholastic enclosures of the west attempting to conduct political and i...

  3. Mutations in domain II of 23 S rRNA facilitate translation of a 23 S rRNA-encoded pentapeptide conferring erythromycin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, M; Douthwaite, S; Tenson, T

    1996-01-01

    Mutations in domain II of Escherichia coli 23 S rRNA that cause resistance to erythromycin do so in a manner fundamentally different from mutations at the drug binding site in domain V of the 23 S rRNA. The domain II mutations are located in a hairpin structure between nucleotides 1198 and 1247....... This is close to a short open reading frame in the 23 S rRNA that encodes a pentapeptide (E-peptide) whose expression in vivo renders cells resistant to erythromycin. Therefore, a possible mechanism of resistance caused by domain II mutations may be related to an increased expression of the E-peptide. To test...... this hypothesis, a range of point mutations was generated in domain II of 23 S rRNA in the vicinity of the E-peptide open reading frame. We find a correlation between erythromycin resistance of the mutant clones and increased accessibility of the ribosome binding site of the E-peptide gene. Furthermore...

  4. Translating person-centered care into practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoffmann, Vibeke; Hörnsten, Åsa; Storbækken, Solveig

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Person-centred care [PCC] can engage people in living well with a chronic condition. However, translating PCC into practice is challenging. We aimed to compare the translational potentials of three approaches: motivational interviewing [MI], illness integration support [IIS] and guided......) health care professionals' background and training; (7) fidelity assessment; (8) reported effects. RESULTS: Although all approaches promoted autonomous motivation, they differed in other ways. Their original settings explain why IIS and GSD strive for life-illness integration, whereas MI focuses...

  5. Translator's preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiell, James T

    2013-08-01

    Presents a preface from James T. Lamiell, who translates Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's Struggle for Existence (Die Psychologie im Kampf ums Dasein), in which Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy, into English. Lamiell comments that more than a decade into the 21st century, it appears that very few psychologists have any interest at all in work at the interface of psychology and philosophy. He notes that one clear indication of this is that the Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, which is Division 24 of the American Psychological Association (APA), remains one of the smallest of the APA's nearly 60 divisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. On Feminist Translation Theory and Literary Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄东睿

    2015-01-01

    Feminist translation theory emerged in the late 70s and early 80s of 20th Century. It is the combination of the feminist movement and the“cultural turn”of translation. It was introduced to China in the 1980s, and with the development of the transla⁃tion theory and translation practice, more and more Chinese translators want to study the feminist translation theory from the deep levels.

  7. Part II: Functional delivery of a neurotherapeutic gene to neural stem cells using minicircle DNA and nanoparticles: Translational advantages for regenerative neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Alinda R; Chari, Divya M

    2016-09-28

    Both neurotrophin-based therapy and neural stem cell (NSC)-based strategies have progressed to clinical trials for treatment of neurological diseases and injuries. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in particular can confer neuroprotective and neuro-regenerative effects in preclinical studies, complementing the cell replacement benefits of NSCs. Therefore, combining both approaches by genetically-engineering NSCs to express BDNF is an attractive approach to achieve combinatorial therapy for complex neural injuries. Current genetic engineering approaches almost exclusively employ viral vectors for gene delivery to NSCs though safety and scalability pose major concerns for clinical translation and applicability. Magnetofection, a non-viral gene transfer approach deploying magnetic nanoparticles and DNA with magnetic fields offers a safe alternative but significant improvements are required to enhance its clinical application for delivery of large sized therapeutic plasmids. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of using minicircles with magnetofection technology to safely engineer NSCs to overexpress BDNF. Primary mouse NSCs overexpressing BDNF generated increased daughter neuronal cell numbers post-differentiation, with accelerated maturation over a four-week period. Based on our findings we highlight the clinical potential of minicircle/magnetofection technology for therapeutic delivery of key neurotrophic agents.

  8. The Commentary of al-Nayrizi on Books II-IV of Euclid's Elements of Geometry With a Translation of That Portion of Book I Missing from MS Leiden Or 3991 but Present in the Newly Discovered Qom Manuscript Edited by Rüdiger Arnzen

    CERN Document Server

    Bello, Anthony Lo

    2009-01-01

    "The Commentary of al-Nayrizi (circa 920) on Euclid's Elements" occupies an important place in the history of mathematics and of philosophy. This work presents an annotated English translation of Books II-IV and of a hitherto lost portion of Book I.

  9. Deconstructive Reconsideration of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳清

    2014-01-01

    This paper is on the deconstructive reconsideration of the definition of translation, the relation of source text and translation, as well as the relation of translator and author. It also points out the differences between tranditioanal concepts of translation and deconstructive reconsideration of translation.

  10. On Becoming a Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Douglas Robinson's Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.

  11. Translator Studies in Retrospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭勤

    2009-01-01

    The concern about translator has run for thousands of years on which many translators and translation scholars have made comments.A rough examination of the translator within translation studies at home and abroad is expounded in a loosely chronological way as follows.

  12. On Becoming a Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Douglas Robinson’s Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.

  13. Equivalence in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良杰

    2013-01-01

    There are many researches about translation theories and methods in western translation history. Equivalence in transla⁃tion has always been the central issue for discussion. This paper gives a general review and comment on equivalence in translation in terms of three representative translation theorists and their views about equivalence in translation.

  14. Some Major Steps to Translation and Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hojat Shamami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is an overview of the main issues at the core of theorizing translation practice and the features of a good translator or how to be a good translator and of course what are the Skills to become a Freelance Translator and Translation process. In this world of science and technology there is knowledge explosion every day. This knowledge which is generally written in the English language needs to be transmitted in various languages so that people who do not know how to speak and write the original language can get the knowledge necessary for industrial development and technological innovation to keep up with the rest of the world. To transmit this knowledge effectively, there is a need for competent translators in various languages. Keywords: Translation, Translator, SL, Accommodation, Text

  15. Translation Theory and Translation Studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a comparative study of "translation theory" and "translation studies" in China and the West. Its focus is to investigate whether there is translation theory in the Chinese tradition. My study begins with an examination of the debate in China over whether there has already existed a system of translation…

  16. Speaking your Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio...... output and keystrokes were recorded. Oral and written translation data were examined in order to investigate if task times and translation quality differed in the three modalities. Although task times were found to be highest in written translation, the quality was not consistently better. In addition...

  17. 40S recruitment in the absence of eIF4G/4A by EMCV IRES refines the model for translation initiation on the archetype of Type II IRESs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamond, Nathalie; Deforges, Jules; Ulryck, Nathalie; Sargueil, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Initiation of translation on Type II IRESs, such as those of EMCV and FMDV viruses, has been well documented in the recent years. For EMCV, the current model argues for a mechanism in which the key interaction necessary for the pre-initiation complex recruitment is eIF4G binding to the central J-K domains of EMCV-IRES. Here we demonstrate that, in contrast with the current model, the molecular mechanism of EMCV-IRES involves direct recruitment of the 40S subunit. Importantly, we identified a specific structural element that prevents the correct positioning of the initiation codon in the close vicinity of the ribosomal P site. This work clarifies how this interaction could not be anticipated by earlier studies and allows us to propose a new model for initiation complex assembly on EMCV-IRES. The role attributed to eIF4G/4A can thus be refined as stabilizing/promoting the conformational changes that are necessary for IRES function, thus resembling the role conventionally assigned to ITAFs. This raises the interesting possibility that IRESs are primarily ribosome binders, some of which having partly lost the ability to fold into the active structure without the help of proteins.

  18. Corpora and Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅丽莉

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Recent years have witnessed a significant growth of corpora heat. One of the many fields where corpora have a growing impact is translation, both at a descriptive and a practical level. Chesterman pointed out that the focus of Translation Studies shifted from translation itself to translators, from regulative to descriptive studies, from philosophical to empirical studies (Chesterman, 1998).

  19. Lost in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Zhitao; Chen Wen

    2011-01-01

    IT is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  20. Lost in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The intricacies of language still eludes even the most sophisticated technology IT is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  1. Translators and Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Technology is not yet advanced enough to capture the nuances of language It is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  2. On translation equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石雏凤

    2009-01-01

    Nida's translation theories, especially for his "Dynamic equivalence theory", are highly praised and adopted in Chinese translation circle. Howev-er, there are a lot of criticism and misunderstanding at the same time. This paper explores the issue on translation equivalence so as to benefit our translation studies on both theory and practice level.

  3. FACTORS REGULATING LIBERAL TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚海红

    2012-01-01

    Literal translation and liberal translation are two important methods and both play key roles in translation.However,some textbooks say that most translations are literal translations while others maintain most are liberal ones,besides,some others suggest a combination of the two.This paper focuses on the facts that regulate liberal translation.Because of the differences in culture,society,history,geography,and so on,there exists a great difference between Chinese language and English language,which does naturally lead to the liberal translation.

  4. Cultural Context and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  5. Stylistic Requirement for Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Yin-zhen

    2016-01-01

    Stylistic research is subordinate to language use research. The fast maturing modern stylistics has greatly boosted trans-lation studies. Translation has a close relationship with stylistics. Many problems can be solved in translation practice by stylis-tic theories and analysis methods. Based on a brief introduction of stylistics and the relationship between stylistics and transla-tion, this paper will give a specific analysis of the stylistic requirement for translation.

  6. Translation-coupling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  7. Translation-coupling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2015-05-19

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  8. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of

  9. Translation Theory 'Translated': Three Perspectives on Translation in Organizational Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the mo......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings.......Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented...

  10. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have...... implications for the curriculum, (3) be pedagogically motivating, and (4) prepare students for employing translation technology in their future practice as translators. In a two-phase study in which 14 MA students translated texts in three modalities (sight, written, and oral translation using an SR program......), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...

  11. Application of the method ELECTRE II (Elimination and Choice Translating Algorithm) to support the customers order in liquefied petroleum gas distributors; Aplicacao do metodo ELECTRE II (Elimination and Choice Translating Algorithm) na ordenacao de clientes em uma distribuidora de gas liquefeito do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobral, Marcos Felipe Falcao; Costa, Ana Paula Cabral Seixas [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to promote the use of multi criteria decision method ELECTRE II to support the customers order in liquefied petroleum gas distributors, located in the Northeast of Brazil. The company has difficulties to rank the customers their factory, causing various difficult related like reduction of performance indicators and high costs with extra-hours. Finally, is presented a results comparison obtained by the method with the current results, performing a utilization viability analysis of method for this problem. (author)

  12. On Advertisement Language Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ya-lu

    2015-01-01

    Advertisement language is a special practical writing with abundant imagination, great creativity and instigation. During translation the diversity in social culture, language and ethnic psychology, etc. will be directly reflected into its effect, presenting both the trouble in business of translators and also significant influences on the business brand. Starting from the features of adver⁃tisement language itself, this paper integrates translation situations and measures from several schools over the latest 20 years, gives typical examples in advertising translation and analyzes from varies perspectives and points out some problems in today ’s ad⁃vertisement translation,aiming to provide some constructive opinions for translation of advertisements.

  13. Translation, Quality and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    The paper investigates the feasibility and some of the possible consequences of applying quality management to translation. It first gives an introduction to two different schools of translation and to (total) quality management. It then examines whether quality management may, in theory......, be applied to translation and goes on to present a case study which involves a firm in the translation industry and which illustrates quality management in practice. The paper shows that applying quality management to translation is feasible and that doing so may translate into sustained growth....

  14. Film Name Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师晓晓

    2014-01-01

    <正>1.Introduction A good translation of the name should convey the information of the film and attract the audience’s desire for going to the cinema.Translation of film names should have business,information,culture,aesthetic features,while a short eye-catching name aims to leave the audience an unforgettable impression.This thesis discusses the translation of English film names from the aspects of the importance of English film name translation,principles for translating English film names and methods of English film name translation.

  15. Translation between representation languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbaalen, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.

  16. Lost in translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granas, Anne Gerd; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2014-01-01

    completely different meaning. Some dissimilarities reflect different cultural beliefs about medicines. CONCLUSION: When translating questionnaires, bilingual researchers should scrutinize translations across similar languages to address content validity across different countries and languages. PRACTICE...

  17. Living in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    Exaugural presentation. A retrospect of my personal itinerary from literature, across translation studies to translation process research and a look ahead. In the retrospect, I range over diverse topics, all of which have sprung from my concern with the phenomenon of translation. I reflect on how......, as humans, we generate meaning, interpret meaning, and reformulate or translate meaning. I also reflect on the way computing has influenced research into these phenomena as seen e.g. in my creation of the Translog program and in projects I have been involved in, such as OFT (Translation of Professional...... for global communication purposes, and for improving research into translation, the phenomenon of translation and the world of translation in which we all live....

  18. Translation and Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this article is to consider the issue of quality in translation. Specifically, the question under consideration is whether quality assurance in relation to translation is feasible and, if so, what some of the implications for translation theory, translation practice and the teaching...... of translation would be. To provide a backdrop against which the issue may be discussed, I present an overview of the two areas which seem most likely to hold potential answers, viz., that of translation theory and that of quality management. Section 1. gives a brief outline of some contributions to translation...... theory which would seem likely to be of interest in this connection and section 2. gives a linguist's introduction to the part of the area of quality management which I consider relevant for present purposes. Section 3. is devoted to the case study of a small translation firm which has been certified...

  19. Accommodating Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This is an article in a series illustrating the way scholars in communication have pursued translating their research into practice. The translational nature of communication accommodation theory and examples of its application are the focus of this contribution.

  20. Translating Others, Discovering Himself: Beckett as Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Gribben

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the work of Samuel Beckett in the light of his early work as a translator of the works of other writers.  In his translations for Negro: An Anthology (1934, the Anthology of Mexican Poetry (1958, or commissioned translations for journals such as “This Quarter”, early pre-figurings of Beckett’s own thematic and linguistic concerns abound.  Rarely viewed as more than acts of raising money for himself, Beckett’s acts of translation, examined chronologically, demonstrate a writer discovering his craft, and developing his unique voice, unencumbered by the expectations of originality.  This essay posits that Beckett’s works, with their distinctive voice and characterisation, owe much to the global perspective he gained through translating across cultural, continental divides, as well as experimenting with form, which became a staple of Beckett’s own work.  Without formal training or theoretical grounding in translation, Beckett utilises the act of translation as a means of finding himself, revisiting it as a means of shaping his own unique literary voice.

  1. Translating HOL to Dedukti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Assaf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dedukti is a logical framework based on the lambda-Pi-calculus modulo rewriting, which extends the lambda-Pi-calculus with rewrite rules. In this paper, we show how to translate the proofs of a family of HOL proof assistants to Dedukti. The translation preserves binding, typing, and reduction. We implemented this translation in an automated tool and used it to successfully translate the OpenTheory standard library.

  2. Bssiness Correspondence Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静

    2009-01-01

    It is widely-acknowtedged that business correspondence works as a bridge between the writer and the reader.Taking its characteristics into consideration,this essay illustrates how to do business correspondence translation.Only by abiding by all those fcatures can the translator achieve the aim of translation.

  3. Translation is Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟婧妤

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the art in translation.First,the translation and art are defined and some historic views are illustrated.Then the author lays emphasis on how to convey the artistic information and provides some methods on how to achieve artistic effect in translation.

  4. Metaphor and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    坎曼丽·麦麦提; 朱毅

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the author first analyzed the nature of metaphor and difficulties in metaphor translation, displayed the fac-tors that will influence the translation between English and Chinese metaphors, and then explored the metaphor translation strate-gies by taking some English and Chinese idioms as examples.

  5. Found in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The 18th World Congress of the International Federation of Translators(FIT) is bound to increase China’s international exposure.Shortly before the congress,Guo Xiaoyong,Executive Vice President of the Translators Association of China(TAC),spoke to Beijing Review about his expectations for the event and his evaluation of translation and interpretation services in China.

  6. Using Pragmatic in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井琳

    2013-01-01

    Translating process is coordination of the source language and target language. As the source language and translation language readers are in different cultural background, so their understanding of the environment is different. When the translator express their understanding in the receptor language, he must figure out the best relevance between source language and target language, which can achieve pragmatic equivalence.

  7. OVERVIEW OF TRANSLATION- JAHIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Yuslina Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research tries to contrive Jahiz's stands and ideas in translation which he has discussed in his two books named "Al-Bayan Wal-Tabyeen" and "Al-Haiwan". As it was known this issue of translation was emergence since long period of time, and there was no need toward translation, however, after Arabian and Persian assembled with Greek philosophers had increasingly the need and concerned on Religion Sciences and others, for instances: Mathematics, Medicine, Logic, Engineering, Business and others which were existed during that time. The translation movement had gone by several stages in the different periods and being developed during Abassid period for example, the works of "Hanen Ibn Ishaq" and his own school which the translators had faced difficulties and problems in their translation. To summarize, this research has found a number of results that the "Jahiz" was precedence than others who had stated the conditions of translation before 12th century ago. Besides, these conditions appropriate till nowadays, he had also pointed these conditions cannot be applied in translation of literature texts and holy texts because its might be obliterated the savoir faire. "Jahiz" had looked through this issue seriously, he tried to help translators in this area and he had stated in his famous books the conditions of translation and he had given his ideas toward translation benefited from his previous experience in translation the ancient philosopher's books from Persian to Arabic. Though, the readers could benefit his ideas in translation generally and for the translator specifically, also his books became as a heritage references and cannot be neglected at all in translation work.

  8. A Writer, a Translator and a Translator

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Marinčič

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the French translation of the short story Amy by the Slovenian writer Mira Mihelič, made by Elza Jereb for the anthology Nouvelles slovènes (Paris, 1969). The original text, a classical narrative involving some modernist strategies, presents a syntactical feature rather unusual in Slovenian (although typical of the author Mira Mihelič): a very frequent use of participles and participial structures. Elza Jereb’s translation is accurate and precise, preserving not only th...

  9. Foreignizing Translation and Domesticating Translation of Hong Kong Movie Titles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林慧韵

    2014-01-01

    Generally,the movie title translation strategy would be divided into two:domesticating translation strategy and foreignizing translation strategy.The movie title translation in Hong Kong is chosen to be the material for the analysis of the domesticating translation strategy and foreignizing translation strategy,compared with that of Mainland China.

  10. On Peter Newmark’s Semanic Translation & Communicative Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; ZHANG Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Peter Newmark has written many preeminent works on translation theory. He classifies the translation texts into differ⁃ent types,and puts forward his great translation methods-communiative translation and semantic translation. This paper is aimed to explain the creative work by Peter Nwmark in the translation theory.

  11. Text Type and Translation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘福娟

    2015-01-01

    Translation strategy and translation standards are undoubtedly the core problems translators are confronted with in translation. There have arisen many kinds of translation strategies in translation history, among which the text type theory is considered an important breakthrough and a significant complement of traditional translation standards. This essay attempts to demonstrate the value of text typology (informative, expressive, and operative) to translation strategy, emphasizing the importance of text types and their communicative functions.

  12. Struggling with Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    This paper shows empirical how actors have difficulties with translating strategy texts. The paper uses four cases as different examples of what happens, and what might be difficult, when actors translate organizational texts. In order to explore this, it draws on a translation training method from...... translation theory. The study shows that for those who have produced the text, it is difficult to translate a strategy where they have to change the words so others who don’t understand the language in the text can understand it. It also shows that for those who haven’t been a part of the production, it very...... challenge the notion that actors understand all texts and that managers per se can translate a text....

  13. Relevance Theory in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Jun; Jiang Min

    2008-01-01

    In perspective of relevance theory, translation is regarded as communication. According to relevance theory, communication not only requires encoding, transfer and decoding processes, but also involves inference in addition. As communication, translation decision-making is also based on the human beings' inferential mental faculty. Concentrating on relevance theory, this paper tries to analyze and explain some translation phenomena in two English versions of Cai Gen Tan-My Crude Philosophy of Life.

  14. Transliteration in EST Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新然

    2016-01-01

    Firstly, this paper presents the definition of transliteration and its important position in EST translation. Secondly, in terms of the previous practice and experience in EST translation, four main transliteration techniques are concluded and analyzed. But meanwhile, there are still some negative issues and phenomena. As a result, it is worthy to make good use of the existing transliteration techniques and create more proper ones to remove the obstructions and promote the development of EST translation.

  15. Translation domains in multiferroics

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, D; Leo, N; Jungk, T.; Soergel, E.; Becker, P.; Bohaty, L.; Fiebig, M.

    2010-01-01

    Translation domains differing in the phase but not in the orientation of the corresponding order parameter are resolved in two types of multiferroics. Hexagonal (h-) YMnO$_3$ is a split-order-parameter multiferroic in which commensurate ferroelectric translation domains are resolved by piezoresponse force microscopy whereas MnWO$_4$ is a joint-order-parameter multiferroic in which incommensurate magnetic translation domains are observed by optical second harmonic generation. The pronounced ma...

  16. Trusted Translation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Yacine; Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Campbell, Piers; Mathew, Sujith Samuel

    Administering multilingual Web sites and applications reliably, involves interconnected and multipart tasks, where trust in the involved parties and content translation sources is paramount. Published Web sites may reflect content from databases, content management systems and other repositories to manage related Web content. But a Web site mirrored wholly or selectively onto a target language version requires streamlined trusted processes. Traditionally, files are translated and transferred via FTP, e-mail, or other communication means. Similarly, translation instructions are communicated between involved parties through verbal instruction, e-mail, and instruction files lead to a variety of inconsistencies and lack of trust in the translation process. This paper proposes a Web service approach to streamline the translation processes and an integration of trust properties in the proposed translation Web services. Web Services have been instrumental in handling problems inherent to systems integration, allowing web-based systems to converse and communicate data automatically. The OASIS Translation Web Services Technical Committee has released a standard way for Web Services to serve the translation and localization business. This article proposes a framework to centralize translation services at a reputable source providing a workflow and a mechanism to quantify service trust. An implementation of the framework is also described in the context of a localization case study.

  17. Cultural bridge: translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易菲

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers study on the relation between culture and language, language and translation, or culture and translation. Indeed, the three subjects are inseparable. It's incomprehensive to look into just two of them for a linguist. It's more useful for us to study on the relation between them, because we can extend our eyesight and searching scope and propel our translation business. Moreover, studying on them provides a rich material for other fields, such as sociology, translation, cross-cultural communication as well as give other subjects a lead to deep further.

  18. Feminist Translation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伟

    2008-01-01

    Feminist translation studies have underg one rapid development in China in recent years.However,most of its research rema ins on the inquiry of the influence on the theoretical layer.In this thesis,I tr y to probe carefully into the translation of "Men and Women,Women and the City" done by Zhu Hong in an attempt to find out wh at is the difference that exits in the translation between the Chinese female tr anslators and the western feminist translators.

  19. Stimulating translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim;

    2015-01-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research with...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom.......Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research...

  20. Translating the Untranslatable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jie; WANG Ping

    2015-01-01

    Translations contribute to our knowledge and understanding in various fields of daily life, as they open us to a greater awareness of the world in which we live. The deeper we are delved into the meaning of the translation, the more questions are raised, among which, translatable/untranslatable argument strikes the most. In this article, factors including cultural vocabulary va⁃cancy and different image associations leading to temporary untranslatability are presented. Besides, the strategies to change this situation to relatively translatable are given as well.

  1. Influence of Cultural Differences on Advertisement Translation and Trademark Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓玮

    2014-01-01

    Advertisement translation and trademark translation are becoming more and more prevailing and influential under the increasing development of internationalization of business. This paper attempts to analyze the influence of cultural differences on advertisement translation and trademark translation. It finds that advertisement translation and trademark translation are under the impressive influence of the differences between Chinese and Western cultures. This paper aims to stress the cultural differences in advertisement translation and trademark translation and reminds translators of the importance of noticing cultural differences and finding a proper point between foreign cultures and native cultures.

  2. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  3. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  4. Translation between cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Oliveira Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article will question the pertinence of understanding interculturality in terms of translation between cultures. I shall study this hypothesis in two ways : 1 / the cosmopolitan horizon, which the idea of translation may implicate ; 2 / the critique of the premises of unique origin and homogeneity of cultures which this hypothesis makes possible.

  5. Translations and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tresguerres, Romualdo

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the role played by local translational symmetry in the context of gauge theories of fundamental interactions. Translational connections and fields are introduced, with special attention being paid to their universal coupling to other variables, as well as to their contributions to field equations and to conserved quantities.

  6. Creativity, Culture and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Siamak; Wan Yahya, Wan Roselezam; Babaee, Ruzbeh

    2014-01-01

    Some scholars (Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original text while some others (Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging…

  7. Students' Differentiated Translation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how students translate between mathematical representations is of both practical and theoretical importance. This study examined students' processes in their generation of symbolic and graphic representations of given polynomial functions. The purpose was to investigate how students perform these translations. The result of the study…

  8. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  9. Translational Health Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowski, Wolf; John, Jürgen; IJzerman, Maarten; Scheffler, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Translational health economics (THE) can be defined as the use of theoretical concepts and empirical methods in health economics to bridge the gap between the decision to fund and use a new health technology in clinical practice (the backend of translational medicine) and the decision to invest into

  10. Staging Ethnographic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))......Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))...

  11. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge;

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) ha...

  12. Culture Difference and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冬兰

    2012-01-01

    Culture difference is necessary to be paid attention to during the process of translating.Culture difference is caused by different history,regions,customs,religions and the modes of thinking.Having the awareness of the culture difference will make translation more accurate and successful.

  13. Translations toward Connected Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applebaum, Mark; Leikin, Roza

    2010-01-01

    The translation principle allows students to solve problems in different branches of mathematics and thus to develop connectedness in their mathematical knowledge. Successful application of the translation principle depends on the classroom mathematical norms for the development of discussions and the comparison of different solutions to one…

  14. Translation as Literary Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Stefano, B. Follkart

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that literary translation is intrinsically an act of literary criticism. This theory is illustrated by discussion of specific problems in translating Sartre's "La Nausee" and Leonard Forest's "Le pays de la Sagouine," especially the use of verb tense. (MSE)

  15. Theory of Test Translation Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…

  16. Translation skills of Business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Lu; He; Yan-ni

    2014-01-01

    With the deepening of economic globalization,business English plays an increasingly vital role.In order to better translate business English,the translator has to adopt some important translation techniques.Thus,emphasis is placed on business English translation skills,such as omission,supplement and word conversion,etc,which provides some practical advice to the translation of business English.

  17. Translation skills of Business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Lu; He Yan-ni

    2014-01-01

    With the deepening of economic globalization, business English plays an increasingly vital role. In order to better translate business English, the translator has to adopt some important translation techniques. Thus, emphasis is placed on business English translation skills, such as omission, supplement and word conversion, etc, which provides some practical advice to the translation of business English.

  18. On the Tasks of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓菊

    2012-01-01

      Many linguists, translators, and theorists have been arguing over the approaches on translation. While putting these into use a translator may experience many pleasure and problems as well. The purpose of this article is to discuss the tasks of translation and the way of choosing the proper translation approaches according to the author’s own experience of practice.

  19. CLAUSE AS THE TRANSLATION UNIT IN CHINESE TO ENGLISH TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向阳

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of Halliday' s theory, this paper makes it clear that clause as the translation unit is operational in Chinese to English translation and expounds the application of clause as the translation unit with some examples.

  20. Exploring Translations Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pym

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is a translation of the chapter “Descriptions – the intellectual background” serving as a complement to the chapter 5 of the book titled Exploring Translations Studies (2010 by Anthony Pym. The chapter outlines the relationship between Russian Formalism and some of the strands of the Translation Studies which emerged during the 19th century. It brings to the fore works done in Prague (Prague Circle, Bratislava, Leipzig, Holland and Flanders focusing specially on the Tel-Aviv School of Itamar-Even and Gideon Toury, the main forerunners of the Descriptive Translation Studies (DTS. By analyzing this academic context, not only it describes the type of approaches those theorists suggested, but it also discusses the ups and downs of such paradigms problematizing concepts like “translation shifts”, “assumed translations” and “norms”. This translation aims at presenting and sharing Pym’s work as clearly and fluid as the original is, so that it serves as both a historical reference and an introductory text to Translation Studies.

  1. Cultural Considerations in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嫔荣

    2009-01-01

    Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experi-enced, explained, and shared. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. But as it has been long taken for granted, translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This paper first analyses the definitions of translation and culture, and then discusses why we should take culture into consideration and in the end, two translating strategies:domestication and foreignization are introduced.

  2. Cultural Considerations in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嫔荣

    2009-01-01

    Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experi- enced, explained, and shared. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. But as it has been long taken for granted, translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This paper first analyses the definitions of translation and culture, and then discusses why we should take culture into consideration and in the end, two translating strategies: domestication and foreignization are introduced.

  3. Translation, Cultural Translation and the Hegemonic English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Horak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This brief chapter problematizes the hegemonic position of the English language in Cultural Studies, which, in the author's view, can be understood as a moment that stands against a true internationalisation of the project. Following an argu-ment referring to the necessary 'translation' process (here seen as 're-articulation', 'transcoding' or 'transculturation' Stuart Hall has put forward almost two decades ago, the essay, firstly, turns to the notion of 'linguistic translations', and deals, secondly, with what has been coined 'cultural translation'. Discussing approaches developed by Walter Benjamin, Umberto Eco and Homi Bhabha, the complex relationship between the two terms is being investigated. Finally, in a modest attempt to throw some light on this hegemonic structure, central aspects of the output of three important journals (European Journal of Cultural Studies, International Journal of Cultural Studies, Cultural Studies, i. e. an analysis of the linguistic and institutional backgrounds of the authors of the ten most-read and most-cited essays, are presented. Based on these findings I argue that it is not simply the addition of the discursive field (language to the academic space (institution that defines the mecha-nism of exclusion and inclusion. Rather, it is the articulation of both moments, i.e. that of language and that of the institution, which - in various contexts (but in their own very definite ways - can help to develop that structure which at present is still hindering a further, more profound internationalisation of the project that is Cultural Studies.

  4. Translation Strategies of English Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令会

    2010-01-01

    Metaphor is one of the important and forceful figures of speech in English. In practice of translating English metaphors into Chinese, some approaches are available: literal translation, changing metaphor into sim/h, conversion, liberal translation and complement.

  5. Perceived radial translation during centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Correia Grácio, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Linear acceleration generally gives rise to translation perception. Centripetal acceleration during centrifugation, however, has never been reported giving rise to a radial, inward translation perception. OBJECTIVE: To study whether centrifugation can induce a radial translation percepti

  6. Translation and Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Bezerra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the differences betweenscientific and fictional translations, and focus on the second.The fictional translation works with meanings, opens itselfto the plurissignification in the purpose to create a similarity of the dissimilarity; in this process, the translator does nottranslate a language, but what a creative individuality makeswith a language. At last there is an approach to the knowledgeand skills necessaries to a translator of literature: theknowledge of the theories of the literature and of thetranslation, the capacity to preserve the national color ofthe original text and at the same time to respect the arrivallanguage, and the sensibility to his national languagevariations present in the daily and in the literary spheres.

  7. English Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莹

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the necessity of adopting interactive approach in college English teaching and proposes that teachers are supposed to mobilize students' intrinsic motivation when following proper translation teaching procedures.

  8. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied...... language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross...

  9. Structural Coupling and Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    society is described as networks binding bits and pieces together. Humans are also themselves networks of skin, bones, enzymes, cells etc. What homogenize the many heterogeneous entities in networks are processes of translations (Schiølin 2010). Translation is never neutral, and is not meant like from...... and translations the social medium of Twitter opens for. The second, but most prioritized, aim of the paper is to present, compare and discuss the two theories: How do they understand what becomes visible in their different optics, which observations become possible in the one or the other – and is it possible...... to compare the semantics of their concepts. The paper first provides an analysis and discussion of language as the mechanism of structural coupling between the levels of psychic and social systems. Then the article provides an analysis and discussion of translation as a transformation process between actors...

  10. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven; Dam, Helle Vrønning

    2017-01-01

    Translation, interpreting and lexicography represent three separate areas of human activity, each of them with its own theories, models and methods and, hence, with its own disciplinary underpinnings. At the same time, all three disciplines are characterized by a marked interdisciplinary dimension...... in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...... disciplines frequently come into touch with each other. This chapter discusses and explores some of the basic aspects of this interrelationship, focusing on the (potential) contribution of lexicography to translation and interpreting and on explaining the basic concepts and methods of the former discipline...

  11. Lost in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well

  12. Strategies of English Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Yu; WANG; Jin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract:Translation is an independent discipline(Jean Delisle,1988).With the deepening of translation studies,translation teaching aroused widespread concern among translation academia,and gradually separated from language teaching,being a subj ect with its own obj ectives and a special position.This paper,firstly introduces the obj ectives and content of translation teaching,then points out several common problems in translation teaching.Finally,associated with the basic principles of translation teaching,it analyzes the strategies of English translation teaching.

  13. Lost in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askehave, Inger; Zethsen, Karen Korning

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with an aspect of patient information that differs somewhat from the traditional scope of this journal; namely the linguistic and translational aspects of Patient Information Leaflets (PILs). During the past decade much work has been dedicated to making the English PILs...... as informative and lay-friendly as possible. However, much of the good work is ruined when the PIL is translated. Why is this so and what can be done about it?...

  14. Stylistic Adaptation in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芳

    2011-01-01

    <正>A translation criteria universally accepted is faithfulness, which can be examined from different dimensions of content, form and style.Among these three dimensions,faithfulness in content and form is easier to be noted,while the faithfulness in style is harder to judge.This paper will mainly focus on the study of stylistic features for the purpose of language providing methods to achieve stylistic adaptation in translation.

  15. Translation for language purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English).......The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English)....

  16. Translation dictionaries triangulation

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic Translation Dictionaries (PTD) are translation resources that can be obtained automatically from parallel corpora. Although this process is simple, it requires the existence of a parallel corpora for the involved languages. Minoritized languages have a limited amount of available resources. For example, while they can have a few parallel corpora, the number of parallel language-pairs uses to be restricted. We defend that if a minoritized language A has a parallel corpus with a l...

  17. Semantics on Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦

    2014-01-01

    Semantics is the study of the meanings of words and sentences. While word is the most basic unit in every language and the understanding of the word meaning is the most important problem in translation. Therefore, the analysis of semantics just provides a very direct approach to doing translation. In this paper, I’d like to focus on the three kinds of word meaning in transla- tion, the ambiguities caused by the word meaning and how to deal with such ambiguities.

  18. The Translation Of Colors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰

    2012-01-01

    Different nations have different or even opposite perception of color, which results in non-equivalence of color words in mutual translation between Chinese and English. This paper is to discuss non-equivalence of color words between Chinese and English on the two aspects and emphasizes the importance of transmitting cultural message accurately in the mutual translation between Chinese and English. Studying the cultural connotations of the words is of great importance for successful communication.

  19. Translation Studies: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina García de Toro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the main schools and approaches that make up the current landscape of Translation Studies. The purpose of this paper is to offer an introduction to translation theory for those who are beginning their studies in this field or whose knowledge of Translation Studies is tangential. The article starts with a few preliminary matters, such as the question of what Translation Studies is and how the discipline has been mapped out. Then it moves on to examine the theoretical considerations that have been developed since the second half of the 20th century, with special attention being paid to the most recent decades. In this section, which is devoted to theoretical considerations, I will review some of the fundamental issues from a theories of equivalence and comparisons between languages; b functionalist theories; c discursive approaches; d polysystem theory, descriptive studies and norms; e cultural studies; f philosophical theories; g latest contributions to the field of Translation Studies; and h interdisciplinary and integrating approaches. Keywords: translation studies, contemporary theories, linguistic approaches, descriptive studies, cultural studies.

  20. The Impact of Translators' Academic Experience on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge and professional conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' academic experience on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study", a sample of 100 male and…

  1. The Effect of Translators' Emotional Intelligence on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge, professional and psychological conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' Emotional Intelligence on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study," a sample of…

  2. Translation and Language Teaching: Translation as a useful teaching Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Randaccio, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Both language teaching experts and translation theorists have proposed detailed analyses of the advantages and disadvantages of using translation in language teaching. However, in order to make translation a useful teaching resource, they have provided new and challenging insights into the nature of translation itself. Some of the principles among these insights will be outlined and discussed in this paper.

  3. Proper Nouns in Translation: Should They Be Translated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Zarei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The translation of proper nouns is not as easy as that of other parts of speech as this is more challenging for certain reasons. The present article presents a descriptive study of proper nouns in translation, scrutinizing the challenges and exploring the solutions. Building on some scholars’ approach and suggestions from other researchers, the article clarifies the nature and problems of proper nouns in translation; it seeks to answer three questions: 1 Should proper nouns be translated? 2 What are the problems on the way of translation of the proper nouns? 3 How can the translator overcome such problems? Moreover, strategies applied by the researchers to make their translation easier are also discussed. It follows that translating proper nouns is not simple and there is little flexibility about translating proper nouns. Keywords: proper nouns, translation, strategies

  4. Translating Signs, Producing Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Neilson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and

  5. Translation of a laboratory-validated equine herpesvirus-1 specific real-time PCR assay into an insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) assay for point-of-need diagnosis using POCKIT™ nucleic acid analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Lee, Pei-Yu Alison; Tsai, Yun-Long; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Shen, Yu-Han; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Skillman, Ashley; Wang, Hwa-Tang Thomas; Pronost, Stéphane; Zhang, Yan

    2017-03-01

    Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a major problem for the equine industry in the United States, is caused by equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1). In addition, EHV-1 is associated with upper respiratory disease, abortion, and chorioretinal lesions in horses. Here we describe the development and evaluation of an inexpensive, user-friendly insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR) method targeting open reading 30 (ORF30) to detect both neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic strains on the field-deployable POCKIT™ device for point-of-need detection of EHV-1. The analytical sensitivity of the EHV-1 iiPCR assay was 13 genome equivalents per reaction. The assay did not cross react with ten non-target equine viral pathogens. Performance of the EHV-1 iiPCR assay was compared to two previously described real-time PCR (qPCR) assays in two laboratories by using 104 archived clinical samples. All 53 qPCR-positive and 46 of the 51 qPCR-negative samples tested positive and negative, respectively, by the iiPCR. The agreement between the two assays was 95.19% (confidence interval 90.48-99.90%) with a kappa value of 0.90. In conclusion, the newly developed EHV-1 iiPCR assay is robust to provide specificity and sensitivity comparable to qPCR assays for the detection of EHV-1 nucleic acid in clinical specimens.

  6. Translation as Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Gilberthorpe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation of literature is generally understood as a copy of an original. As such, it finds itself compared negatively to the original; judged and found lacking either the style or meaning of the original text it was seeking to translate. However, this paper will explore the relationship between the text and its translation through the work of Jacques Derrida and his neologisms such as the supplement and différance in addition to the work of Walter Benjamin. Through understanding the translation as a supplement, this paper will explore whether the original text was complete in and of itself. Through this and Derrida’s understanding of the play of language, I argue that translation can be understood as the palingenesis of literature, as it is only through translation that literature is reborn and lives on. Moreover, this paper will conclude with an examination of Blanchot’s distinction between the Book and the book in order to argue that literature is in itself a form of translation. Thus, the relationship between translation and literature is one of a cycle of genesis and palingenesis, as translation finds itself at both the beginning and continual rebirth of literature. La traduzione letteraria viene generalmente intesa come la copia di un originale. In quanto tale essa viene considerata negativamente in rapporto a quest’ultimo, giudicata manchevole quanto a stile o contenuto rispetto al testo originale che cerca di tradurre. Questo articolo intende esaminare la relazione tra il testo e la sua traduzione attraverso l’opera di Jacques Derrida e i suoi neologismi, come supplemento e différance, e sulla scorta degli studi di Walter Benjamin. Considerando la traduzione come un supplemento, l’articolo indaga se l’originale sia completo in e di per se stesso. Attraverso questo concetto e la prospettiva di Derrida sul gioco del linguaggio, la tesi sostenuta è che la traduzione possa essere considerata come palingenesi della

  7. Advertisement Translation under Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严妙

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience. Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.

  8. Advertisement Translation under Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严妙

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience.Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.

  9. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  10. Explorations of Corpus Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琳琳

    2014-01-01

    Corpus-based translation studies belong to a new translation study paradigm which rose at the beginning of 1990s. The rise of corpus brings the update of research tools and research methods, and lead to the emerging of Corpus Translation Stud-ies. It is necessary to introduce the theory basis of Translational English Corpus and its application in the translation, especially in the science and technology translation. Besides, it makes an analysis and discussion about the potential of Corpus Translation Stud-ies.

  11. Yan Fu's Thoughts of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩赵东

    2009-01-01

    Yan Fu was famous translator in Chinese history, and proposed three standards of translation. The theory made great contribution to Chinese translation history. However, with the development of society at present, Yah Fu's theory had been out of date. More and more translators and scholars pay more attention on linguistics to translate appropriately nowadays. It is the aim to analysis this problem in the article and introduces more detailed knowledge to make flourish translation, so that it becomes true that Chinese translation develop step by step.

  12. Translation and Transtextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapodi Zsuzsa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Umberto Eco’s novel The Name of the Rose as a postmodern literary work is extensively based on transtextuality. There are series of quotations from the Bible, Petrus Abelardus, St. Bernard, Petrarch, Conan Doyle, Agatha Christie, Jorge L. Borges, Nietzsche, and other classic authors interwoven into the novel’s narrative. The text is a result of multiple translations, a truly intercultural adventure: Adso, a 14th-century German monk from the Melk monastery provides a Northern Italian travel experience in Latin language, this memoir is translated by the publishing narrator into the Italian language of the 20th century. The characters of the story come from different areas of Europe, as there are monks from England, Spain, Norway, Germany, and other countries. This paper sheds light on the problems that occurred during the novel’s translation.

  13. Engineering in translational medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area.

  14. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  15. CHARACTERISTICS OF ZHANGPEIJI'S PROSE TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽丽

    2015-01-01

    Zhang Peiji has worked hard for over sixty years in the translation fields,which makes his prose translation studied by a lot of scholars. His translation that best shows his translation thought and aesthetic thought is natural, expressive and skilfuly representative of the original's style. Based on Nida's theory of functional equivalence, the thesis makes an analysis of the transformation in Zhang Peiji's prose translation.

  16. Translating VDM to Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    . Traditionally, theorem provers are used to prove that specifications are correct but this process is highly dependent on expert users. Alternatively, model finding has proved to be useful for validation of specifications. The Alloy Analyzer is an automated model finder for checking and visualising Alloy...... specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  17. Translating a wicked problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietjen, Anne; Jørgensen, Gertrud

    2016-01-01

    In a time of increasing globalisation and urbanisation, shrinking peripheral rural areas have become a truly wicked planning problem in many European countries. Although a problem can be easily perceived and measured by various indicators, the precise definition of the problem is problematic. Based......, place-based and project-oriented process directed at concrete physical outcomes. We frame strategic planning as a translation process where the interaction between human and non-human actors translates a unique, complex and contested situation into an innovated situation. We find that local physical...

  18. Chinese Meter in Translating English Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温荣芬

    2009-01-01

    <正>Translation is not easy and poetry translation is troublesome,while meter poetry translation is the most difficult. This paper will focus on the meter in translating English poetry into Chinese. From the review of translation history to

  19. Synonymy and translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Franciska; Appelo, Lisette

    1987-01-01

    This paper is meant to give some insight into the interaction between on the one hand theoretical concepts in the field of formal semantics, and on the other hand linguistic research directed towards an application, more specifically, the research in the machine translation project Rosetta. The cent

  20. Grammatical Gender in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments native speakers of Czech translated bare nouns and gender-marked adjective + noun phrases into German, their second language (L2). In Experiments 1-3 we explored the so-called gender interference effect from first language (L1) as observed in previous picture naming studies (naming latencies were longer when the L1 noun and…

  1. Translational research in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Madhury; Farma, Jeffrey M; Hsu, Cary

    2013-10-01

    Recent breakthroughs in the fundamental understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of melanoma have culminated in new therapies with unquestionable efficacy. Immunotherapy and targeted therapy strategies have completely transformed the contemporary management of advanced melanoma. The translational research behind these developments is discussed, with an emphasis on immune checkpoint blockade and inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

  2. Translation and Transliteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakaraj, S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Makes a case for using transliteration in order to avoid wholesale translation of new words from the natural sciences and technology into Indian languages. Proposes introduction of the Roman alphabet (in a modified form), so that the Indian languages can accommodate new loans within their own phonetic systems without any substantial changes. (SR)

  3. Not Lost in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Translation is all about one thing and one thing only, and that’s communication. Since people of different nationalities first came into contact with each other, the need to make them- selves understood was at the top of their agenda.

  4. Forms of creativity in translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia V Aranda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2009v1n23p23This paper explores the creative constructs utilized by translators in the reformulation of texts. As translation studies realigns the definition of translation vis-à-vis the original, a number of factors inform translations: the agency and subjectivity of the translator, as well as questions of form, and the more obvious social factors. This discussion addresses the articulation of creativity as a response to specific cases and repositions translation as part of a greater creative project.

  5. Machine Translation Based on Translation Corresponding Tree Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A representation schema called translation corresponding tree (TCT) has been applied to a Portuguese to Chinese example-based machine translation system. The translation examples are annotated by the representation of the TCT structure. Each TCT describes not only the syntactic structure of the source sentence (i.e., Portuguese in our system) but also the translation correspondences (i.e., Chinese translation). In addition, the TCT nodes describe the corresponding linguistic relationships between the source and target languages. The translation examples can be effectively represented with this annotation schema and organized in the bilingual knowledge database or example base. In the real machine translation process, the target language is synthesized with higher quality by referring to the TCT translation information.

  6. On Translatability of Metaphors and Relevant Translating Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱采真; 张文普

    2012-01-01

    Metaphor is one of the most poetic forms of language.It is widely used in daily life and good translation of it is of great significance.In spite of the cultural and lingual hindrance,to some extent,good translation of metaphors can be achieved because of the similarities between two cultures and the overlaps of two languages.This paper explores translatability of metaphores from cultural and linguistic perspectives as well as specific techniques in terms of metaphor translation.

  7. A Stylistic Study of Translator Based on Western Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators' style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in thisfield.

  8. Lost in Translation: Examining Translation Errors Associated with Mathematical Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Stiff, Lee V.; Bosse, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Translation errors and conceptual misunderstandings made by students translating among graphical, tabular, and symbolic representations of linear functions were examined. The study situated student errors in the context of the "Translation-Verification Model" developed specifically for the purpose of explaining student behavior during the process…

  9. A Study on Translation Strategies in Tourist Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yuan-yuan

    2014-01-01

    Tourist materials play a significant role in publicizing China’s tourism industry in the world. In the current English translation of Chinese tourist materials, some problems exist because of differences in Chinese and English style and expression characteristics. This paper is intended to conduct a preliminary study on the tourist translation and put forward some useful transla-tion strategies.

  10. Translation in Language Teaching: Insights from Professional Translator Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreres, Angeles; Noriega-Sanchez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The past three decades have seen vast changes in attitudes towards translation, both as an academic discipline and as a profession. The insights we have gained in recent years, in particular in the area of professional translator training, call for a reassessment of the role of translation in language teaching. Drawing on research and practices in…

  11. On Literal Translation of English Idioms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linli

    2009-01-01

    There are six translation tactics in translating English idioms into Chinese: literal translation, compensatory translation, free translation, explanational translation, borrowing, integrated approach. Each tactic should be reasonably employed in the process of translating, so as to keep the flavor of the original English idioms as well as to…

  12. Translating organizational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2016-01-01

    This paper takes it point of departure in actor-network-theory (ANT). It responds to the Next Management Theory tracks call for papers that address and further develops our understanding of organizational change as translation processes. It moreover addresses a critique of ANT researchers...... in organizational studies for making descriptions of studied empirical phenomena rather than developing theories and giving normative advice about how organizations or organizational change processes may be theorized, analyzed, managed and/or organized better. A new ANT-inspired theory about the characteristics...... of organizations, organizational change and change agents is therefore developed combining ANT with other theories. The relevance of this view is demonstrated in an analysis of a case where a nurse and the leader of a clinic for orthopedic surgery try to translate and thus implement a risk-management and deviation...

  13. Translating a wicked problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietjen, Anne; Jørgensen, Gertrud

    2016-01-01

    In a time of increasing globalisation and urbanisation, shrinking peripheral rural areas have become a truly wicked planning problem in many European countries. Although a problem can be easily perceived and measured by various indicators, the precise definition of the problem is problematic. Based...... on the case of a Danish planning process which was carried out in collaboration with a charitable trust, this paper discusses an emerging strategic planning approach at the municipal level. We use the concept of wicked problems, strategic planning theory and Actor-Network-Theory to study a collaborative......, place-based and project-oriented process directed at concrete physical outcomes. We frame strategic planning as a translation process where the interaction between human and non-human actors translates a unique, complex and contested situation into an innovated situation. We find that local physical...

  14. The mechanism of translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Translation of the genetic code on the ribosome into protein is a process of extraordinary complexity, and understanding its mechanism has remained one of the major challenges even though x-ray structures have been available since 2000. In the past two decades, single-particle cryo-electron microscopy has contributed a major share of information on structure, binding modes, and conformational changes of the ribosome during its work cycle, but the contributions of this technique in the translation field have recently skyrocketed after the introduction of a new recording medium capable of detecting individual electrons. As many examples in the recent literature over the past three years show, the impact of this development on the advancement of knowledge in this field has been transformative and promises to be lasting.

  15. Implementations of translational medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Sonntag Kai-Christian

    2005-01-01

    Abstract New developments in science are rapidly influencing and shaping basic and clinical research and medicine. This has led to the emergence of multiple opportunities and challenges on many levels in the bio-medical and other associated fields. To face these opportunities and challenges, new concepts and strategies are needed. These can be provided by translational research/medicine as an integrative concept based on a multidirectional understanding of research and medicine embedded in a ...

  16. New Historicism in Translation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mohammad Khadem-Nabi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Translation Studies has moved from linguistically oriented approaches to a historicist one. This is evident in many recent publications, and has brought about new trends in Translation Studies as well as in Cultural Studies. This paper is an attempt at summarizing the influence of the historicist approaches on translation. Of specific importance for this paper is New Historicism, which has poststructuralist tendencies.  Keywords: New Historicism, translation studies, cultural studies

  17. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  18. Translational research in retinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira RC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubens Camargo Siqueira1,2, Rodrigo Jorge21Rubens Siqueira Research Center, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Retina and Vitreous Section, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Clinical laboratories are strong, integral partners in personalized health care. Laboratory databases hold a vast amount of data on human phenotypes, genotypes, biomarkers, progression of disease, and response to therapy. These structured and unstructured free text data are critical for patient care and a resource for personalized medicine and translational research. Laboratory data are integrated into many electronic medical records that provide “summary reports” and “trending” to visualize longitudinal patient data. Recent advances in ophthalmology such as gene therapy, cell therapy using stem cells, and also retinal prosthesis explore the potential of translational research marking a new era in research into the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases.Keywords: translational, retinal diseases, stem cell, gene therapy

  19. Multiculturalism and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rebeca PRECUP STIEGELBAUER

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural diversity has emerged as a key concern in recent years, however the implications to this term are very different. A number of people see cultural diversity as fundamentally important and positive, as it points to a sharing of the wealth embodied in each of the world’s cultures and, accordingly, to the links tying us all in processes of exchange and dialogue via translation. On the other hand, for many others, cultural differences are what cause us to lose sight of our shared humanity and as a result are the root of numerous conflicts, since we can get lost in translation. This second finding is today all the more plausible since globalisation has increased the points of interaction and friction between cultures, giving rise to identity-linked tensions, withdrawals and claims, particularly of each one and other, which can become potential sources of dispute. The essential challenge, therefore, would be to propose a coherent vision of cultural diversity, languages and translations and thereby to clarify how, far from being a threat, it can become beneficial to the action of the international community.

  20. Knowledge Translation: Implications for Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Colleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Translation theory originates in the field of applied linguistics and communication. The term knowledge translation has been adopted in health and other fields to refer to the exchange, synthesis, and application of knowledge. The logic model is a circular or iterative loop among various knowledge translation actors (knowledge producers and users)…

  1. On Yao's method of translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    Machine Translation, i.e., translating one kind of natural language to another kind of natural language by using a computer system, is a very important research branch in Artificial Intelligence. Yao developed a method of translation that he called ``Lexical-Semantic Driven". In his system he introd

  2. Ideological Manipulation in Translation Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张靖

    2011-01-01

    Lefevere's rewriting theory states that translation is a rewriting of the original text,all rewritings reflect a certain ideology and a poetics and as such manipulate literature to function in a given society.Based on this theory,some translation examples are illustrated and analyzed here to show that political and aesthetic ideology will inevitably manipulate translation in different aspects.

  3. Lexical Discourse Analysis in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khotaba, Eissa; Al Tarawneh, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Lexical Discourse very often depend on lexis. Lexical Discourse analysis, however, has not yet been given enough consideration of the phenomenon of translation. This paper investigates lexical discourse analysis in translation from one language to another. This qualitative study comprises 15 text translated by M.A. students at the Department of…

  4. Adaptation in Tourist Publicity Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭娟

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide a preliminary study of adaptation adopted in the translation of tourist publicity and ex-plore the main reasons behind the adaptive techniques on the basis of functionalist theories of translation. It is found that cultural blanks, different linguistic conventions and also the intended functions of tourist publicity may all contribute to adaptation in translation.

  5. The Translator in Cultural Mediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜迎新

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing cross-cultural exchanges, the translator should respect and spread the source culture. It is necessary for translators to employ as much as possible the foreignizing translation to keep the exotic flavor of the source language.A Chi-nese translator’s responsibility is to spread Chinese culture.

  6. Machine Translation Tools - Tools of The Translator's Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this article three of the more common types of translation tools are presented, discussed and critically evaluated. The types of translation tools dealt with in this article are: Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided Machine Translation (or HAMT) and Machine Aided Human...... Translation (or MAHT). The strengths and weaknesses of the different types of tools are discussed and evaluated by means of a number of examples. The article aims at two things: at presenting a sort of state of the art of what is commonly referred to as “machine translation” as well as at providing the reader...... with a sound basis for considering what translation tool (if any) is the most appropriate in order to meet his or her specific translation needs....

  7. The Manipulation of Translator's Ideology in Translating In Liu Village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何霞; 李莎莎

    2014-01-01

    Traditional studies on translation have generally been source-oriented. Since 1980s, translation theorists shifted their eyes on new areas, such as culture, history, and ideology. Andre Lefevere puts forward the theory of rewriting, including such three important factors as ideology, poetics and patronage. This paper focuses on the study of manipulation of ideology over trans-lation of In Liu Village by a famous writer-cum-translator Yu Lihua. Based on the data collected, the present paper argues that during the process of translation, ideology exerts constraints on the translator and influences her in such aspects as the choice of texts, the process of decoding and the choice of translation strategy.

  8. Specialised Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Specialised translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain discourse in a foreign language in connection with translation. The most common type is the business dictionary covering several more or less related subject fields. However, business dictionaries....... The result is that the traditional focus on language system will be extended to usage because the central unit of translation is not the word but the text....... treat one or few fields extensively thereby neglecting the discourse of the other fields. Furthermore, recent research shows that specialised translation is not limited to terms but also concerns domain-specific syntactic structures and genre conventions using various translation strategies. To meet...

  9. Mamma Mia, A Singable Translation!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Stopar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses and analyzes approaches to translating singable texts. It presents a linguistic (prosodic, lexical and structural analysis of the Slovenian translation of the musical Mamma Mia! The aim of the qualitative and quantitative study is to investigate the translation strategies used to produce a singable target text. The results of the analysis suggest that producing a prosodic match is a basic requirement, whereas the lexical, structural and/or poetic characteristics of the source text are subject to changes. Overall, the findings show that the function and the purpose of the translation play a crucial role in the prioritization of translation strategies.

  10. Literal Translation and Free Translation in the Translation of the Bible——Struggles and Compromises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琰; 陈懿

    2008-01-01

    This essay attempts to explore the struggles and compromises of literal translation and free translation in the Bible translation,and comes to the conclusion that the two methods experienced a process from being immature to mature till the final merge of them,which reflected the need of the readers and the social settings of different epochs.

  11. Eye-movements During Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    Translation process research or TPR, the study of the cognitive processes involved in translation, is a relatively new field characterised by small-scale studies with few participants and variables. However, the translation process is characterised by much variation between different translators......, texts, tasks and languages, and larger-scale investigations are therefore highly desirable. To that end, we have publicly released the CRITT TPR database which currently contains data from 845 translation sessions but is continually extended. The database includes information about the source and target...... texts as well as both eye-tracking and keylogging data. Based on this database, I present a large-scale analysis of gaze on the source text based on 91 translators' translations of six different texts from English into four different target languages. I use mixed-effects modelling to compare from...

  12. Translating Shakespeare for the theatre Translating Shakespeare for the theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Déprats

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Translate Shakespeare for the theatre? The question is not purely rhetorical. In his Memoires, Jean Vilar, speaking of his work as an actor, raises the question of whether it is even possible to translate dramatic texts: Macbeth. Whilst learning my part alone at home in the morning, I keep on saying to myself , ‘Never again will I perform translated plays, not even those of Shakespeare.’ Translations either emasculate the original so that the actors may ‘utter’ a French which is straightforward, or at least authentic, or force us to chew up and spit out a stodgy French, weighed down by the burden of the English. My friend Curtis, the translator, can’t help it. Remaining faithful to the original text makes the French prose heavy, but to stray from the original is a crime. So what can we do? (131 This dilemma, so accurately put into words by Vilar, brings us to the question: when translating a Shakespeare play for performance, must we incorporate into our work aims which curtail the usual demands of translation? What is specific about translating for the theatre? Or rather, what demands must a French translation of a dramatic text meet if it is to make performance possible? Translate Shakespeare for the theatre? The question is not purely rhetorical. In his Memoires, Jean Vilar, speaking of his work as an actor, raises the question of whether it is even possible to translate dramatic texts: Macbeth. Whilst learning my part alone at home in the morning, I keep on saying to myself , ‘Never again will I perform translated plays, not even those of Shakespeare.’ Translations either emasculate the original so that the actors may ‘utter’ a French which is straightforward, or at least authentic, or force us to chew up and spit out a stodgy French, weighed down by the burden of the English. My friend Curtis, the translator, can’t help it. Remaining faithful to the original text makes the French prose heavy

  13. Cross-cultural equivalence in translations of the oral health impact profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEntee, Michael I; Brondani, Mario

    2016-04-01

    The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) has been translated for comparisons across cultural boundaries. This report on a systematic search of literature published between 1994 and 2014 aims to identify an acceptable method of translating psychometric instruments for cross-cultural equivalence, and how they were used to translate the OHIP. An electronic search used the keywords 'cultural adaptation', 'validation', 'Oral Health Impact Profile' and 'OHIP' in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases supplemented by reference links and grey literature. It included papers on methods of cross-cultural translation and translations of the OHIP for dentulous adults and adolescents, and excluded papers without translational details or limited to specific disorders. The search identified eight steps to cross-cultural equivalence, and 36 (plus three supplemental) translations of the OHIP. The steps involve assessment of (i) forward/backward translation by committee, (ii) constructs, (iii) item interpretations, (iv) interval scales, (v) convergent validity, (vi) discriminant validity, (vii) responsiveness to clinical change and (viii) pilot tests. Most (>60%) of the translations involved forward/backward translation by committee, item interpretations, interval scales, convergence, discrimination and pilot tests, but fewer assessed the underlying theory (47%) or responsiveness to clinical change (28%). An acceptable method for translating quality of life-related psychometric instruments for cross-cultural equivalence has eight procedural steps, and most of the 36 OHIP translations involved at least five of the steps. Only translations to Saudi Arabian Arabic, Chinese Mandarin, German and Japanese used all eight steps to claim cultural equivalence with the original OHIP.

  14. On Translatability and Untranslatability in Translation of Chinese Idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟建

    2015-01-01

    Translation is a field full of paradoxes.The question of whether or not languages are translatable has been argued for many years in the history of translation.There are many opposite idea on this question,for example,to what degree languages are translatable,and all this problems relating to translatability and untranslatability have always been difficult questions for fur-ther studying.Also,idioms are major components of a language.They are experience and lessons that people learned from years of hard work and life experiences,and they reflect the wisdom of human beings.In a word,when it comes to the translatability and untranslatability of Chinese idioms,there usually exist more obvious problems.Because Chinese idioms have certain ethnic characteristics and distinguishable cultural meanings,and more importantly they are deeply rooted in national culture and soci-ety.This essay first introduced the relationship between Untranslatability and Translatability,and then discussed the features of Chinese idioms,and later this essay mainly discussed the translatability and untranslatability in a translating process from a per-spective of the translation of Chinese idioms.Finally,it gives some practical ways to reduce the untranslatability of Chinese idi-oms.

  15. Process analytical approach to translation and implications for translations teaching Process analytical approach to translation and implications for translations teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Lörscher

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The considerations which will be made in this paper can be located within the newly established field of translation process analysis (cf.Gerloff 1988; Jääskeläinen 1990; Krings 1986; Lörscher 1991; Séguinot 1989; Tirkkonen-Condit 1991. They are based on a research project which I have been carrying out since 1983. The aim of this project is to analyze psycholinguistically translation performance as contained in a corpus of orally produced translations from German into English and vice versa. This is done in order to reconstruct translation strategies. These underlie translation performance, operate within the translation process, and are thus not open to direct inspection. In the first stage of the project, translation processes of advanced foreign language learners were investigated. The considerations which will be made in this paper can be located within the newly established field of translation process analysis (cf.Gerloff 1988; Jääskeläinen 1990; Krings 1986; Lörscher 1991; Séguinot 1989; Tirkkonen-Condit 1991. They are based on a research project which I have been carrying out since 1983. The aim of this project is to analyze psycholinguistically translation performance as contained in a corpus of orally produced translations from German into English and vice versa. This is done in order to reconstruct translation strategies. These underlie translation performance, operate within the translation process, and are thus not open to direct inspection. In the first stage of the project, translation processes of advanced foreign language learners were investigated.

  16. Continuity of Translation Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Athreya, Krishna B

    2010-01-01

    For a Radon measure $\\mu$ on $\\bbR,$ we show that $L^{\\infty}(\\mu)$ is invariant under the group of translation operators $T_t(f)(x) = {$f(x-t)$}\\ (t \\in \\bbR)$ if and only if $\\mu$ is equivalent to Lebesgue measure $m$. We also give necessary and sufficient conditions for $L^p(\\mu),\\1 \\leq p < \\infty,$ to be invariant under the group $\\{T_t\\}$ in terms of the Radon-Nikodym derivative w.r.t. $m$.

  17. Translators: Travellers, Not Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Rot Gabrovec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores various representations of culture(s found in contemporary English children’s literature and discusses how they were rendered into Slovene. In the first part, some introductory definitions of culture and approaches to the translation of children’s literature are presented. In the second part, excerpts from selected literary works (for instance, Mary Poppins, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, Matilda, The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time are examined, both from the source and the target texts, with more attention paid to the cultural contexts, and the social changes that possibly influenced the translator’s decisions.

  18. The translating techniques analyzation of Oliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Ran

    2014-01-01

    In order to deeply understanding the translation methods and further improving translation skil s, the article provides notions of Translation methods with examples form the translating version by Mr.Rong from shanghai.

  19. Do clinical, histological or immunohistochemical primary tumour characteristics translate into different {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT volumetric and heterogeneity features in stage II/III breast cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groheux, David; Martineau, Antoine; Merlet, Pascal [Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Majdoub, Mohamed; Hatt, Mathieu; Visvikis, Dimitris [INSERM, UMR 1101 LaTIM, Brest (France); Tixier, Florent; Le Rest, Catherine Cheze [Miletrie Hospital, DACTIM, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Poitiers (France); Espie, Marc [Saint-Louis Hospital, Breast Diseases Unit and Department of Medical Oncology, Paris (France); Roquancourt, Anne de [Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Pathology, Paris (France); Hindie, Elif [University of Bordeaux, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France)

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine if some features of baseline {sup 18}F-FDG PET images, including volume and heterogeneity, reflect clinical, histological or immunohistochemical characteristics in patients with stage II or III breast cancer (BC). Included in the present retrospective analysis were 171 prospectively recruited patients with stage II/III BC treated consecutively at Saint-Louis hospital. Primary tumour volumes were semiautomatically delineated on pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET images. The parameters extracted included SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub mean}, metabolically active tumour volume (MATV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and heterogeneity quantified using the area under the curve of the cumulative histogram and textural features. Associations between clinical/histopathological characteristics and {sup 18}F-FDG PET features were assessed using one-way analysis of variance. Areas under the ROC curves (AUC) were used to quantify the discriminative power of the features significantly associated with clinical/histopathological characteristics. T3 tumours (>5 cm) exhibited higher textural heterogeneity in {sup 18}F-FDG uptake than T2 tumours (AUC <0.75), whereas there were no significant differences in SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean}. Invasive ductal carcinoma showed higher SUV{sub max} values than invasive lobular carcinoma (p = 0.008) but MATV, TLG and textural features were not discriminative. Grade 3 tumours had higher FDG uptake (AUC 0.779 for SUV{sub max} and 0.694 for TLG), and exhibited slightly higher regional heterogeneity (AUC 0.624). Hormone receptor-negative tumours had higher SUV values than oestrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) and progesterone receptor-positive tumours, while heterogeneity patterns showed only low-level variation according to hormone receptor expression. HER-2 status was not associated with any of the image features. Finally, SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub mean} and TLG significantly differed among the three

  20. A. Schopenhauer, "De doctrina deque viris doctis" [translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baasten, M.F.J.

    2014-01-01

    An annotated Latin translation of Arthur Schopenhauer, "Über Gelehrte und Gelehrsamkeit", Parerga und Paralipomena. Kleine philosophische Schriften II (1851; Sämtliche Werke V; ed. W. von Lohneysen; Darmstadt 1976) cap. 21, §§ 244-256 by Martin F.J. Baasten.

  1. A Review of Translation and Gender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄东睿

    2012-01-01

    Around 1970th, translation theory comes across feminism, thus the feminist translation theory emerged as the times required. The appearance of feminist translation enriches the modern translation theory, and extends the horizon of translation theory. At the same time, feminist translation has its shortcomings, especially in its exaggeration and arbitrariness. This paper explores the similarities between feminism and translation, the contributions and limitations of feminist translation theory.

  2. Application of translation strategies in the translation of trademark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾丽晔

    2014-01-01

    The trademark propaganda is an important means of sel ing goods and way of competition in international market. Cultivating famous brand serves as an important links in opening up the international market. So the importance of a good trademark translation is evident. Through discussing the importance of the Chinese-English trademark translation, the translation of the principles, tactics, errors and trademark translation of cultural taboos, this paper studies initial y several aspects about how to translate the Chinese trademark into English, which is in order to make the translation of the original brand names and the products match perfectly in the sound, shape, meaning, and beauty. Thus, commodity exchanges and cultural exchanges both can be achieved.

  3. Translating the Poet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Scott Valentino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available You want your author to be appreciated, to be read. Yes, why not, to be respected. As a writer at least, if not as a person. And the author’s image, not just the work, is in your hands. That’s the way it works in English at least, where translation tends to be decentralized. I’m not referring to commissions obviously. In that sense translation is like any kind of creative writing – you choose your project, you shape it, you develop it, you pitch and promote it, and you pitch and promote the image of the author that goes with it. So the question: what to do when your author is not an especially attractive character, not a good person, a bad husband, for instance, a bad father?For instance, Eligio Zanini was a bad husband and a bad father. He abandoned his family when two children were small and a third was on the way. He never contacted them again, though he lived just down the road. When his son died in a car accident at the age of seventeen and the parents were supposed to go down to Split to retrieve the body, he didn’t show up, though the boy’s mother, Bianca, held out hope until the last minute. She was devastated by her husband’s departure and carried the wound as if fresh inside her.

  4. A Stylistic Study of Translator Based on Western Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators’ style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in this field.

  5. On Translation Thoughts of American Translator Howard Goldblatt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亚丽; 王亚荣; 李静莹

    2015-01-01

    In 2012,Moyan won the Nobel Prize for literature to which the media and the scholars paid great attention.The transla-tions of his works by Howard Goldblatt were also caught great attention.Howard Goldblatt was believed to help Moyan win the No-bel Prize.Based on this,it is necessary to study translation thoughts of Howard Goldblatt,which will provide some references for Chinese literature translations.

  6. Translation Aestheticsand Communication Theory of Journalism English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曜

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the present translation theories and standards especially in journalism English translation and imply these theories in my issue. Moreover, I will explain how to apply the translation aesthetics and communication theory of translation in the course of journalism English translation activities. So that translation will achieve elegance in English news text and its Chinese version as well.

  7. Testing the committee approach to translating measures across cultures: Translating primary communication inventory from English to Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Ryoko; Driessnack, Martha

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the initial translation process and follow-up psychometric evaluation of the Japanese version of the Primary Communication Inventory (J-PCI). The J-PCI was developed using the committee approach to translation and then used in a study exploring Japanese couples' communication satisfaction while separated during Satogaeri Bunben - a Japanese perinatal tradition. The committee approach attends to cultural nuance and context and is especially useful when languages have dissimilar linguistic roots and cultures, such as Japanese and English. The translation process and evaluation included five steps; (i) selection of the original PCI for research; (ii) selection of translators; (iii) development of the J-PCI using a committee approach; (iv) an initial small pilot study; and (v) a larger follow-up study. The J-PCI has good initial validity and reliability, although some nuances were observed in scoring.

  8. Computer-aided translation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on a questionnaire survey from 2013 of the uptake and use of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools by Danish translation service providers (TSPs) and discusses how these tools appear to have impacted on the Danish translation industry. According to our results, the uptake...... in Denmark is rather high in general, but limited in the case of machine translation (MT) tools: While most TSPs use translation-memory (TM) software, often in combination with a terminology management system (TMS), only very few have implemented MT, which is criticised for its low quality output, especially...... when Danish is one of the languages, though some also express willingness to consider using MT (more) when output quality improves. Most respondents report that CAT has changed the translation industry, mentioning that the technology facilitates improved productivity and consistency, but also...

  9. Semantic Translation and Communicative Translation:A Case Study in My Chinese Translation of Alnwick’s Inspired Heritage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶谋锦

    2013-01-01

      This essay deals with my Chinese translation of a tour brochure and highlights some issues in translation. The translation strategies semantic translation and communicative translation are famous approaches proposed by Peter Newmark in his book Approaches to Translation. He puts forward his text typology and categorizes all text types into three types, i.e. expressive text, informative text and vocative text. In order to solve problems emerging in different types, he presents two dominant translation approaches, namely, semantic translation and communicative translation (Newmark, 2001). These translation methods are regarded as a milestone in translation theory and highly quoted by many scholars. Semantic translation emphasizes the thinking process of the author and represents the origin meanings of the source text. In this case, translator makes little interference with the harmony of the source text. Semantic translation can preserve the characteristics and expression patterns of the source language, forcing readers to follow the thinking pattern of the author. While communicative translation indicates that the influence of translation on target readers should be identical to the effect of original article on source readers. Communicative translation is target-language-orientated and focuses on transference of information. This translation strategy allows translator to reorganize sentences with classical phrases in the target language to make his translation accessible to target readers. Of course, these different translation strategies often com⁃plement with each other, and should be combined together in translation.

  10. Translated chemical reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Matthew D

    2014-05-01

    Many biochemical and industrial applications involve complicated networks of simultaneously occurring chemical reactions. Under the assumption of mass action kinetics, the dynamics of these chemical reaction networks are governed by systems of polynomial ordinary differential equations. The steady states of these mass action systems have been analyzed via a variety of techniques, including stoichiometric network analysis, deficiency theory, and algebraic techniques (e.g., Gröbner bases). In this paper, we present a novel method for characterizing the steady states of mass action systems. Our method explicitly links a network's capacity to permit a particular class of steady states, called toric steady states, to topological properties of a generalized network called a translated chemical reaction network. These networks share their reaction vectors with their source network but are permitted to have different complex stoichiometries and different network topologies. We apply the results to examples drawn from the biochemical literature.

  11. Evaluative Meaning in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Jurko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative meaning is frequently understood as a form of connotation, pertaining to single lexical items. However, the term has recently been applied also to longer stretches of text, spanning several words. The paper generally deals with the latter aspect and provides a corpus-driven analysis of several Slovene and English phrases that may appear semantically neutral, yet turn out to be heavily non-neutral in terms of their semantic properties. After a short introduction of the main approaches to the topic, including its dilemmas, the paper focuses on the L1-into-L2 translation of such strings, with particular emphasis on proper rendering of the evaluative meaning. While further research is warranted into the matter, the work presented here attests to the complex and ubiquitous nature of the Sinclairian extended unit of meaning.

  12. Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Mercedes Garcia; Koglin, Arlene; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    The availability of systems capable of producing fairly accurate translations has increased the popularity of machine translation (MT). The translation industry is steadily incorporating MT in their workflows engaging the human translator to post-edit the raw MT output in order to comply with a set......-DB) *. On the one hand, post-editing temporal effort was measured using FDur values (duration of segment production time excluding keystroke pauses >_ 200 seconds) and KDur values (duration of coherent keyboard activity excluding keystroke pauses >_ 5 seconds). On the other hand, post-editing technical effort...

  13. Functionalist Approaches to Advertisement Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乐

    2009-01-01

    The 1970s saw a development of the Functionalism, with its three representative scholars Katharina Reiss, Hans. Vermeer and Justa Holz Manttari. Katharina Reiss proposed the text type theory; Vermeer brought up the skopostheory and Mantarri translational action theory. The Functional theories are very useful for the translators to adopt a fight translation strategy. In these years, various kinds of advertisement have appeared in people's daily life. They are becoming one important part in our culture. The companies need advertisements to sell their products and the consumers need the advertisement to decide which brand to buy after comparison. This paper will discuss how they are ap-plied to the advertisement translation.

  14. On the Unit of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曼

    2013-01-01

      The unit of translation has been the focus of debate through the history of translation. Barkhudarov suggests six levels of UT, each level could serve as unit of different levels of translation. Many Chinese translators also expressed their opinions on this issue, but there is no settled answer yet. This paper tends to make a distinction between different texts:ordinary and special. Ordinary ones can adopt the UT of paragraph, while special ones should adopt special UTs according to their own characteristics.

  15. Translation-Memory (TM) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2010-01-01

    of much research. Our paper attempts to find out what we know about the nature, applications and influences of TM technology, including translators' interaction with TMs, and also how we know it. An essential part of the analysis is based on a selection of empirical TM studies, which we assume...... to be representative of the research field as a whole. Our analysis suggests that, while considerable knowledge is available about the technical side of TMs, more research is needed to understand how translators interact with TM technology and how TMs influence translators' cognitive translation processes....

  16. Adding Statistical Machine Translation Adaptation to Computer-Assisted Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    on Telecommunications. Tehran, 2012, 822–826. Bertoldi, N.; Federico, M. Domain Adaptation for Statistical Machine Translation with Monolingual ...for Interactive Machine Translation. ICMI’11. Alicante, Spain: ACM, 2011, 197–200. 14 Haffari, G.; Sarkar, A. Active Learning for Multilingual

  17. Using example-based machine translation to translate DVD subtitles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian

    Audiovisual Translation (AVT), and in particular subtitling, has been recognised as an area that could potentially benefit from the introduction of machine translation (followed by post-editing). In recent years the demands on subtitlers have increased, while the payment to subtitlers and time al...

  18. Thick Translation as a New Trend of Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶莉

    2016-01-01

    This paper, based on the development and history of thick translation, is intended to carry out a comparative critic of the interpretations of“thick translation”proposed by different scholars so as to explore the profound meanings and significance of“thick translation”as a new strategy, which has reflected and predicted the new trend of translation studies.

  19. Application of Relevance Translation Theory in Humor Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀丽

    2013-01-01

    This thesis,aiming to investigate the process of English-Chinese translation of humor from the perspective of RT theory(relevance translation theory),endeavors to apply its principles and methods to the re-construction of humor in the target language.

  20. Knowledge translation: translating research into policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Donszelmann Oelke

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper provides a theoretical-reflective study of knowledge translation concepts and their implementation processes for using research evidence in policy and practice.Results: The process of translating research into practice is iterative and dynamic, with fluid boundaries between knowledge creation and action development. Knowledge translation focuses on co-creating knowledge with stakeholders and sharing that knowledge to ensure uptake of relevant research to facilitate informed decisions and changes in policy, practice, and health services delivery. In Brazil, many challenges exist in implementing knowledge translation: lack of awareness, lack of partnerships between researchers and knowledge-users, and low research budgets.Conclusions: An emphasis on knowledge translation has the potential to positively impact health outcomes. Future research in Brazil is needed to study approaches to improve the uptake of research results in the Brazilian context.

  1. Translation Memory and Computer Assisted Translation Tool for Medieval Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Törcsvári Attila

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation memories (TMs, as part of Computer Assisted Translation (CAT tools, support translators reusing portions of formerly translated text. Fencing books are good candidates for using TMs due to the high number of repeated terms. Medieval texts suffer a number of drawbacks that make hard even “simple” rewording to the modern version of the same language. The analyzed difficulties are: lack of systematic spelling, unusual word orders and typos in the original. A hypothesis is made and verified that even simple modernization increases legibility and it is feasible, also it is worthwhile to apply translation memories due to the numerous and even extremely long repeated terms. Therefore, methods and algorithms are presented 1. for automated transcription of medieval texts (when a limited training set is available, and 2. collection of repeated patterns. The efficiency of the algorithms is analyzed for recall and precision.

  2. Indicators of translation competence: Translators' self-concepts and the translation of titles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Ehrensberger-Dow & Gary Massey

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The parallels between writing research and translation process research range from the objects of study (text producers and texts to the methods employed in investigating them. Similarly to writing research, translation studies has recently moved from an almost exclusive focus on products towards considering workplace and cognitive processes and the effects of those processes on the quality of products. In this paper, we outline how the methods common to both fields can be applied to the investigation of translators' understanding of their roles and responsibilities as text producers and their treatment of the specific problem of title translation. The data are drawn from a corpus built up in an longitudinal research project about the relationship of translation competence and the translation process. The multi-method approach we use combines keystroke logging, screenshot recording, eye-tracking, retrospection, and interviews. It allows us to monitor translators at their workplace in as controlled and non-invasive a manner as possible. It also provides rich data that make it possible to infer the practices and metalinguistic awareness that characterize the translation competence of translators with different levels of experience.

  3. Translation Strategies of Non-literary Texts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静

    2015-01-01

    Translator's subjectivity is closely related to the choice of the style of the translated texts and translation strategies.This paper presents an analytical study of translation strategies of non-literary texts.It introduces different non-literary texts,and then generalizes some factors influencing the selection of translation strategies.Take these Influencing factors into account,Translators should adopt different translation strategies

  4. Sight Translation and written translation. A comparative Analysis of causes of problems, Strategies and Translation Errors within the PACTE Translation Competence Model

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative empirical exploratory study of some cognitive aspects of the oral and written translation process within the translation competence construct. This research has a twofold objective: finding some evidence of specific translation competence skills in translation tasks and comparing these data in sight translation and written translation in order to empirically check if sight translation can really be considered an interpreting modality. A sample ...

  5. Knowledge Translation in Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos-Mendez, Ariel; Shademani, Ramesh

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the "know-do gap," present a definition of knowledge translation, and discuss its relative importance in bridging the know-do gap. Some of the underlying causes of the know-do gap are listed, along with ongoing efforts to address them. Knowledge translation is considered a cross-cutting, nonlinear process that involves not only recent…

  6. Cultural Contexts and Language Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong-mei

    2014-01-01

    According to cognitive linguistics, human language is a process of cognition. Because of the different culture in Eastern and Western, the translation form must adapt to the cultural contexts. This article mainly deals with the differences in intercultural, and discusses the relationship between cultural contexts and language translation.

  7. Statistical methods in translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Shein-Chung; Tse, Siu-Keung; Lin, Min

    2008-12-01

    This study focuses on strategies and statistical considerations for assessment of translation in language (e.g. translation of case report forms in multinational clinical trials), information (e.g. translation of basic discoveries to the clinic) and technology (e.g. translation of Chinese diagnostic techniques to well-established clinical study endpoints) in pharmaceutical/clinical research and development. However, most of our efforts will be directed to statistical considerations for translation in information. Translational medicine has been defined as bench-to-bedside research, where a basic laboratory discovery becomes applicable to the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a specific disease, and is brought forth by either a physicianscientist who works at the interface between the research laboratory and patient care, or by a team of basic and clinical science investigators. Statistics plays an important role in translational medicine to ensure that the translational process is accurate and reliable with certain statistical assurance. Statistical inference for the applicability of an animal model to a human model is also discussed. Strategies for selection of clinical study endpoints (e.g. absolute changes, relative changes, or responder-defined, based on either absolute or relative change) are reviewed.

  8. A Commentary on News Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚雅晴

    2011-01-01

    News language is formal,especially the high register vocabulary it employed to deliver the message unveiled by culturally and politically stamped style which challenges the translator a lot.Nida's formal and dynamic equivalence theory,Bielsa and Bassnett news translation theories and other methods and strategies are introduced to cope with these challenges and get the message across without distortion.

  9. Translator: Expert of ‘What’? Translator Training and the Changing/Changeful Identity of the Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Öner

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to trace the contemporary perceptions/definitions of the translator and translation in Turkey where the translation profession is not a legally regulated profession. (Invisibility of the translator and the scope of his/her expertise are widely debated issues among both the scholars/students of translation and the various players in the world of translation. Although translation is no longer being defined as a mere linguistic activity, reductionist views of translation that equate translation to ‘know’ing a foreign language still continues to prevail. What accompanies the said reductionist view is the claim that a translator can not translate ‘all the texts’ in different fields of expertise, at least not as successfully as the ‘real’ experts of the field who also know a foreign language such as engineer-translators or lawyer-translators who know English. However, recent developments concerning legal translation in plurilingual settings evidence a completely different understanding of translation and the identity/expertise of the translator. In such settings, translators work together with the drafters of the legal texts and are responsible for the source legal texts as well as the target ones, broadening the scope of the ‘expertise’ of the translator in an unprecedented way. In the light of the implications of the said transformation of the identity of the legal translator, this paper argues that the identity/definition of the translator/translation needs to be reconsidered and the results should be reflected onto the translator training programs with the aim of helping students of translation (redefine their identity as real ‘experts’ of the translation field and contributing to the transformation of the perception of translation and the translator.

  10. Revising and editing for translators

    CERN Document Server

    Mossop, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Revising and Editing for Translators provides guidance and learning materials for translation students learning to edit texts written by others, and professional translators wishing to improve their self-revision ability or learning to revise the work of others. Editing is understood as making corrections and improvements to texts, with particular attention to tailoring them to the given readership. Revising is this same task applied to draft translations. The linguistic work of editors and revisers is related to the professional situations in which they work. Mossop offers in-depth coverage of a wide range of topics, including copyediting, style editing, structural editing, checking for consistency, revising procedures and principles, and translation quality assessment. This third edition provides extended coverage of computer aids for revisers, and of the different degrees of revision suited to different texts. The inclusion of suggested activities and exercises, numerous real-world examples, a proposed gra...

  11. Optimising Comprehensibility in Interlingual Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbeth Jensen, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    . It is argued that Plain Language writing is a type of intralingual translation as it involves rewriting or translating a complex monolingual text into comprehensible language. Based on Plain Language literature, a comprehensibility framework is elaborated, which is subsequently exemplified through...... the functional text type of Patient Information Leaflet. Finally, the usefulness of applying the principles of Plain Language and intralingual translation for optimising comprehensibility in interlingual translation is discussed....... information on medication and tax information. Such texts are often written by experts and received by lay people, and, in today’s globalised world, they are often translated as well. In these functional texts, the receiver is not a mere recipient of information, but s/he needs to be able to act upon it...

  12. Upstream ORFs are prevalent translational repressors in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Timothy G; Bazzini, Ariel A; Giraldez, Antonio J

    2016-04-01

    Regulation of gene expression is fundamental in establishing cellular diversity and a target of natural selection. Untranslated mRNA regions (UTRs) are key mediators of post-transcriptional regulation. Previous studies have predicted thousands of ORFs in 5'UTRs, the vast majority of which have unknown function. Here, we present a systematic analysis of the translation and function of upstream open reading frames (uORFs) across vertebrates. Using high-resolution ribosome footprinting, we find that (i)uORFs are prevalent within vertebrate transcriptomes, (ii) the majority show signatures of active translation, and (iii)uORFs act as potent regulators of translation and RNA levels, with a similar magnitude to miRNAs. Reporter experiments reveal clear repression of downstream translation by uORFs/oORFs. uORF number, intercistronic distance, overlap with the CDS, and initiation context most strongly influence translation. Evolution has targeted these features to favor uORFs amenable to regulation over constitutively repressive uORFs/oORFs. Finally, we observe that the regulatory potential of uORFs on individual genes is conserved across species. These results provide insight into the regulatory code within mRNA leader sequences and their capacity to modulate translation across vertebrates.

  13. Analysis on the German Functionalist Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying

    2013-01-01

    German functionalist approach makes considerable contributions to translation studies for considering translation as an fact of intercultural communication and concentrate on the purpose and function of the target text. It distinctively promoted translation theory against the traditional translation views. The paper analyzes its main ideas ,contribution and criticism of the Ger⁃man Functionalist Translation Theory.

  14. On Cultivating Students' Ability to Utilize Automatic Translation Tools in Translation%On Cultivating Students'Ability to Utilize Automatic Translation Tools in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪宇红

    2016-01-01

    The information age has put forward higher demand for the translator not only to possess sound grounding in basic skills of translation, but also to grasp the advanced equipment and modern information technology to assist in their translation work. This paper explores the problems in automatic translation and proposes solutions in translation teaching.

  15. The methods to Translating of English Idiom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛媛; 郑庆列

    2008-01-01

    There are many languages including idioms and they are noted for the wealth of idiom.Idiom is an inalienable part of languages.There are mainly five methods while translating English idiom:equal replacement translation,liberal translation,literal tranalation,annotation translation and antithetical couplet and amplification translation.

  16. Knowledge translation of research findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimshaw Jeremy M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health. We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting, and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge

  17. Harold Pinter in Slovene Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Hribar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the translation of Harold Pinter’s most notable stylistic peculiarities into Slovene, illustrating its main points with examples taken from his play The Homecoming. The findings demonstrate above all a marked degree of non-observance of the special verbal pattern (special cohesion of the originals, a failure to convey Pinter’s special configuration of meaning (special coherence, and a disregard for internal unifying coincidences. It argues that the Slovene translations of Pinter rely mostly on traditional theories of meaning and of language norms, thus preventing the reproduction of those emotional and psychological actions of Pinter’s characters which are usually not expressed by means of the rhetorical, informative elements of his dialogue, but by its form and sonority, i. e. the length, strength, and level of articulation of verbal expression. This blurs Pinter’s famous logic of emotion, narrows the proverbial openness and conceptual uncertainty of his plays, and limits their potential vitality in translation. Taking into account current drama and theatre translation practices in Slovenia, i.e. the rarity of published drama translation and the dependence on a translated performance text for subsequent theatrical productions, the article argues that in such cases the drama translation should be retrospective, i.e. aiming at a maximum reconstruction of all relevant linguistic, stylistic, and textual properties of the original, leaving expressly subjective interventions in the text to the theatre practitioners.

  18. Translating Romans: some persistent headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. du Toit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Translating Romans: some persistent headaches Gone are the days when it was axiomatic that expertise in biblical languages automatically qualified one as a Bible translator. In 1949, Ronald Knox, who for nine years conscientiously struggled with translating the Bible for his generation, published a booklet under the title The trials of a translator. At that stage Bible translation as the subject of scientific study was still in its infancy. Since then, research into the intricacies of communicating the biblical message in an authentic but understandable manner, has made significant progress (cf. Roberts, 2009. However, the frustrations of Bible translators, first of all to really understand what the biblical authors wanted to convey to their original addressees, and then to commu-nicate that message to their own targeted readers in a meaningful way, have not disappeared. In fact, the challenge to meet the vary-ing requirements of the multiple kinds of translation that are present-ly in vogue, has only increased.

  19. Strategies for Translating Vocative Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga COJOCARU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the linguistic and cultural elements of vocative texts and the techniques used in translating them by giving some examples of texts that are typically vocative (i.e. advertisements and instructions for use. Semantic and communicative strategies are popular in translation studies and each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages in translating vocative texts. The advantage of semantic translation is that it takes more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, while communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original text in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership. Focus is laid on the strategies used in translating vocative texts, strategies that highlight and introduce a cultural context to the target audience, in order to achieve their overall purpose, that is to sell or persuade the reader to behave in a certain way. Thus, in order to do that, a number of advertisements from the field of cosmetics industry and electronic gadgets were selected for analysis. The aim is to gather insights into vocative text translation and to create new perspectives on this field of research, now considered a process of innovation and diversion, especially in areas as important as economy and marketing.

  20. Translating Fashion into Danish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Riegels Melchior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available With their association to enterprise and innovation, creative industries have emerged as a legitimate concern in national cultural and economical policy in many countries across the world. In Denmark, the fashion business, in particular, has been hailed as a model for successful (postindustrial transformation. In this paper, we explore the birth of Danish fashion from the ashes of the country’s clothing manufacturing industry, suggesting that the very notion of Danish fashion is indicative of – and enabled by – a development towards a polycentric fashion system. The intriguing idea that fashion could emanate from Denmark and secure growth, jobs and exports even outside the fashion business has taken hold among policymakers, and compelled the government to embrace fashion as a national project. In investigating the emergence and rising stature of Danish fashion, particular at home, we first establish a theoretical frame for understanding the cultural economic policy and the motives, principles and strategies behind it. Then – drawing inspiration from Michel Callon’s “sociology of translation” with its moments of translation: problematization, interessement, enrolment and mobilization – we identify the actors and analyze their strategic roles and interrelationship through various phases of the development of Danish fashion. Callon’s actor network theory (ANT is based on the principle of “generalized symmetry” – originally using a single repertoire to analyze both society and nature. We adapt this principle to study the realms of market, culture and politics within a common analytical framework. In our analysis, the state responds to industry transformation, interprets it and develops its own agenda. But it can hardly be said to develop policies for the industry. On the contrary, we suggest, fashion is mobilized to lend its luster to the nation, its institutions and politicians.

  1. Literary Translation: The Experience of Translating Chinua Achebe's "Arrow of God" into French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Almeida, Irene

    1981-01-01

    Uses Achebe's "Arrow of God" as example of difficulty in translating English into French when author and translators are not native speakers of these languages. Suggests inventing French gibberish or use of translator's notes to translate Pidgin English. (BK)

  2. Understanding Discourse Competence in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masduki Masduki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Discourse as a communication event is influenced by topic being communicated, interpersonal relationship between the communicants, and communication channel used in context. Whatever senses created by the communicants is fully related to culture and situation being involved. Participating in conversation, reading, writing, and translating, activates discourse competence, which requires the use of a set of strategy to realize or mobilize all declarative knowledge in the real context of communication. Further, this article highlights the discourse competence and how it is culturally implemented in translation as an activity of transferring messages. The discussion covers the overview of discourse competence, discourse approach, and discourse competence in translation.

  3. Population genetics of translational robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Claus O; Drummond, D Allan

    2006-05-01

    Recent work has shown that expression level is the main predictor of a gene's evolutionary rate and that more highly expressed genes evolve slower. A possible explanation for this observation is selection for proteins that fold properly despite mistranslation, in short selection for translational robustness. Translational robustness leads to the somewhat paradoxical prediction that highly expressed genes are extremely tolerant to missense substitutions but nevertheless evolve very slowly. Here, we study a simple theoretical model of translational robustness that allows us to gain analytic insight into how this paradoxical behavior arises.

  4. On automatic machine translation evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Verdonik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An important task of developing machine translation (MT is evaluating system performance. Automatic measures are most commonly used for this task, as manual evaluation is time-consuming and costly. However, to perform an objective evaluation is not a trivial task. Automatic measures, such as BLEU, TER, NIST, METEOR etc., have their own weaknesses, while manual evaluations are also problematic since they are always to some extent subjective. In this paper we test the influence of a test set on the results of automatic MT evaluation for the subtitling domain. Translating subtitles is a rather specific task for MT, since subtitles are a sort of summarization of spoken text rather than a direct translation of (written text. Additional problem when translating language pair that does not include English, in our example Slovene-Serbian, is that commonly the translations are done from English to Serbian and from English to Slovenian, and not directly, since most of the TV production is originally filmed in English. All this poses additional challenges to MT and consequently to MT evaluation. Automatic evaluation is based on a reference translation, which is usually taken from an existing parallel corpus and marked as a test set. In our experiments, we compare the evaluation results for the same MT system output using three types of test set. In the first round, the test set are 4000 subtitles from the parallel corpus of subtitles SUMAT. These subtitles are not direct translations from Serbian to Slovene or vice versa, but are based on an English original. In the second round, the test set are 1000 subtitles randomly extracted from the first test set and translated anew, from Serbian to Slovenian, based solely on the Serbian written subtitles. In the third round, the test set are the same 1000 subtitles, however this time the Slovene translations were obtained by manually correcting the Slovene MT outputs so that they are correct translations of the

  5. Translation and spaces of reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Scott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses relations between the original and translation in terms of imaginary spaces. Target text is understood here as one of the possible images of the source text, from the perspective which could not be accessible to the original. In accordance with the concept presented here, artistic translation can be not so much reconstructed, as conceptually constructed, in the manner of a cubist object. Acts of creative reading are commented on by the author with examples of his own experimental translations from contemporary French poetry.

  6. The Translator's Turn: in the Cultural Turn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玮玮

    2003-01-01

    @@ Introduction: Douglas Robinson rose to the defense of the " atheoretical" American literary translator in The Translator's Turn (1991). Here, I borrowed the title from him, but I will write my paper in the thought of the translator's role in translating. In his book, Robinson argued that the literary translator embodies an integration of feeling and thought, of intuition and systematization. In analyzing the " turn" that the translator take from the source text to the target text, Robinson offered a " dialogical" model, that is the translator's dialogical engagement with the source language and with the ethic of the target language. Robinson allows for the translator to intervene, subvert, divert, even entertain, emphasizing the creative aspect of literary translation. The translation linguists, scientists, and philosophers have had their chance at translation theory; now it is time, he argued, for the literary translators to have their " turn".

  7. Translation-A Process of Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viola Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Translation is a process that involves transformation and reproduction. This essay discusses some useful techniques of trans-lating practice by introducing a simple model. A few examples of good translation are presented to support explaining the model cleady.

  8. Translation of Conversational Implicature and the Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Grice introduced the theory of conversational implicature which is essential in translation, especially in conversation translation of fictions. Four most commonly-seen and effective strategies of translating the conversational implicature are going to discussed.

  9. Sucrose dependent translational dynamics in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, M.

    2011-01-01

    Sucrose dependent translational dynamics Gene expression is regulated at several different levels starting from chromatin remodeling and transcription in the nucleus to translation and post-translational modifications in the cytosol. Depending on the gene and circumstances, different regulatory mech

  10. On Technical Translation-Usability Strategies for Translating Technical Documentation by Jody Byrne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪辉

    2013-01-01

      Numerous books concerning technical translation deal with specific translation skills, or function as a summary of the au⁃thors’own translation experience with few of them devoted to the theorized study on technical translation. Jody Byrne’s book pio⁃neers in theoretical study on technical translation and is of great value to our Chinese technical translation study.

  11. Translation of Idioms in Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹丹

    2009-01-01

    <正>This paper explains two approaches to the translation of idioms in Chinese literature: free translation and literal translation.Chinese idioms,in its broad sense including set phrases,proverbs and two-part allegorical,have the specific features and rich in their content.By analyzing the basic principles of translation,we can better understand how to make full use of various translation methods,which can lay a good foundation for the translation of Chinese idioms.

  12. Discussion on Misunderstandings of Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莎

    2008-01-01

    Translation is required as a compulsory course for English majors in many universities in China.With the development of globalization,a large number of translators are needed.Therefore, translation teaching is significant for the training of high-qualified translation personnel for the society.The purpose of this study is to give a basic introduction of the misunderstandings existing in translation teaching in China and to offer some advices in hope of promoting translation teaching in China.

  13. Discussion on Misunderstandings of Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莎

    2008-01-01

    Translation is required as a compulsory course for English majors in many universities in China. With the development of globalization, a large number of translators are needed. Therefore, translation teaching is significant for the training of high-qualified translation personnel for the society. The purpose of this study is to give a basic introduction of the misunderstandings existing in translation teaching in China and to offer some advices in hope of promoting translation teaching in China.

  14. MT In Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志新

    2009-01-01

    In this article the operational principles of MT in business English translation is briefly introduced with an aim to point out that to improve the MT quality machine study is a key factor to work on.

  15. Approaches to translational plant science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Christensen, Brian; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Translational science deals with the dilemma between basic research and the practical application of scientific results. In translational plant science, focus is on the relationship between agricultural crop production and basic science in various research fields, but primarily in the basic plant...... science. Scientific and technological developments have allowed great progress in our understanding of plant genetics and molecular physiology, with potentials for improving agricultural production. However, this development has led to a separation of the laboratory-based research from the crop production...... is lessened. In our opinion, implementation of translational plant science is a necessity in order to solve the agricultural challenges of producing food and materials in the future. We suggest an approach to translational plant science forcing scientists to think beyond their own area and to consider higher...

  16. Foregrounding Theory and Fiction Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳

    2014-01-01

    Foregrounding is a concept that originally introduced from pictorial art. The function of foregrounding is to attract the audiences' attention so as to achieve certain expected artistic effects with the rest persons or things backgrounded.For a long time, foregrounding theory has been widely applied to linguistics, stylistics, literary creation and research whereas rarely being employed to translation activities. Not until late 19th century did Ye Zinan proposed that this theory could be applied to translation practice. He only put forward the relevant assumption on foregrounding theory. Based on English linguist Geoffrey Leech's deviation theory and Ye Zinan's assumption on the application of foregrounding theory to translation practice, this paper aims to draw translators' attention to foregrounding factors concealed in literary works, especially in novels, and to provide some basic means for them to render these foregrounding features into the relevant foregrounding expressions in the target language.

  17. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    . Lexicographers should therefore design their dictionaries so that they contain intra-lingual or contrastive descriptions of the relevant genre conventions. As illustrated in Nielsen (2000) whether the best solution is to retain the genre conventions found in the SL text or to adopt the conventions used in TL...... to treat one or few sub-fields extensively at the expense of the other sub-fields. Furthermore, Nord (2005), among others, shows that translation is not limited to terms but also concerns syntactic structures and genre conventions in the two cultures concerned and involves the use of various translation...... are used across sub-genres within the legal genre, e.g. contracts and statutes, so translators are likely to meet them relatively often and need to know how to translate them. Examples of relevant syntactic constructions are pre-modified syntagmas with a noun as the head word, and the use of inversion...

  18. Velleius Paterculus: Historia Romana II CVIII - CXVII (translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julijana Visočnik

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available CVIII V Germaniji ni bilo več nikogar, ki bi ga bilo mogoče še premagati, razen ljudstva Markomanov. Le-to je na spodbudo poveljnika Maroboda zapustilo svoja bivališča, se zateklo v notranje dele in naselilo polja obdana s herkinijskimi gozdovi. Nobena naglica ne sme biti vzrok, da tega moža ne omenimo. Marobod, mož plemenitega rodu, močne postave, neustrašnega duha, barbar bolj po rojstvu kot v mišljenju.

  19. A Report on Translation of UN Career

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Yanli

    2016-01-01

    This report translates the recruitment advertisement of the United Nations into Chinese. As the translated version serves for massive job-hunters, thus Communicative Translation of Peter Newmark is a good choice since this translation strategy is quite reader-oriented. Furthermore, there are some differences between English and Chinese, so such translation techniques as transformation of voice, amplification and omission will be used. This report made me know that a qualified translator should have a good knowledge of translation theories, learn the differences between English and Chinese and improve translation abilities through continuous practice.

  20. GAO Jian's Theoretical Thoughts in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区沛仪

    2016-01-01

    As an experienced translator and theorist, GAO Jian has translated numerous English works into Chinese and pub-lished a series of theoretical thoughts concerning the most fundamental problems in translation studies. He has formed a unique style in translation and proposed some theoretical concepts with great expertise. Gao represents the translators'spirit of the time. His theories are highly comprehensive and pragmatic. His discussion of translatability of style, relativity and the Language Characteristics Theory reflect the academic thinking among translators in China, which inspires many young translators and the-orists.

  1. A Tentative Analysis of Translatability and Untranslatability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐越

    2014-01-01

    Translation is a field full of paradoxes. During the long history of their intensive debate, translatability and untranslatability have experienced ebb and flow of people’ s preferences. On the one hand, language should be translatable; on the other hand, owing to the existence of certain differences, language is sometimes not completely translatable. Translatability and untranslatability inseparably exist side by side. The thesis casts an overview of translatability study both at home and abroad, inquires into the bases of translatability and un-translatability from the perspective of functional equivalence, and presents a dialectical analysis of the relationship between the two.

  2. A Cultural View on Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜莉莉

    2009-01-01

    The most common difficulty in transhdon studies has traditionally been the dilemma between the historical and synchronic approaches in the analysis and description of the culture of transhdon. Most of works of other culture are read in translation. At the same time,transhtion could provide a way into an analysis for the transmission of culture such as across linguistic boundaries and generations. So readers may know other culture directly or indirectly by translation. The two are interdependent in some extent.

  3. Population genetics of translational robustness

    OpenAIRE

    Wilke, Claus O; Drummond, D. Allan

    2005-01-01

    Recent work has shown that expression level is the main predictor of a gene’s evolutionary rate, and that more highly expressed genes evolve slower. A possible explanation for this observation is selection for proteins which fold properly despite mistranslation, in short selection for translational robustness. Translational robustness leads to the somewhat paradoxical prediction that highly expressed genes are extremely tolerant to missense substitutions but nevertheless evolve very slo...

  4. Translating Linguistic Jokes for Dubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ALEKSANDROVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has attempted to establish the possible ways of translating linguistic jokes whendubbing. The study is also intended to identify the most problematic cases of screen translation andthe factors which cause these problems. In order to support such an approach a corpus of 7American and British films has been compiled, including as many as 16 as their various dubbingtranslations into Russian. In the films, almost 12 instances of original linguistic jokes have beenidentified.

  5. Style and ideology in translation

    CERN Document Server

    Munday, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, this book investigates the style, or 'voice,' of English language translations of twentieth-century Latin American writing, including fiction, political speeches, and film. Existing models of stylistic analysis, supported at times by computer-assisted analysis, are developed to examine a range of works and writers, selected for their literary, cultural, and ideological importance. The style of the different translators is subjected to a close linguistic investigation within their cultural and ideological framework.

  6. The Complexities of Translating Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Bassnett

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers some of the long-standing debates about translating poetry, and explores the strategies used to bring about creative transposition through a series of examples, including translations from Persian, Korean and Welsh. The author drawsupon her own experiences both as a translator and translation scholar, also as one of the judges of the prestigious Stephen Spender poetry in translation prize for the last decade. The essay argues that the translator of a poem is both its rewriter and its recreator, and highlights the organic metaphor used by poets such as Percy Bysse Shelley proposing that the translation of poetry necessarily involves transplantation into new soil. The essay concludes by pointing out that the two crucial elements in translating poetry are joyfulness and playfulness, which gives the lie to the old negative idea of poetry being what is lost in translation.The translation of poetry is therefore a creative act, since it results in the blossoming of a new poem in a new language.Il saggio prende in esame una parte del dibatto di lunga data sulla traduzione della poesia e analizza le strategie utilizzate per trasporre la creatività attraverso una serie di esempi, tra i quali anche versioni dal persiano, coreano e gallese. L’autrice attinge allapropria esperienza di traduttrice e di studiosa della traduzione, anche in qualità di giudice nel corso dell’ultimo decennio del prestigioso premio per la traduzione poetica Stephen Spender. L’articolo sostiene che il traduttore di poesia è  contemporaneamente ri-scrittore e ri-creatore della stessa, e sottolinea la metafora biologica impiegata da poeti quali Percy Bysse Shelley secondo la quale la traduzione di poesia implica necessariamente il trapianto in un nuovo terreno. Il saggio si conclude mostrando come i due elementi cruciali nella traduzione di poesia siano la gioiosità e la giocosità, le quali sconfessano l’antica concezione della poesia come di

  7. Localizing apps a practical guide for translators and translation students

    CERN Document Server

    Roturier, Johann

    2015-01-01

    The software industry has undergone rapid development since the beginning of the twenty-first century. These changes have had a profound impact on translators who, due to the evolving nature of digital content, are under increasing pressure to adapt their ways of working. Localizing Apps looks at these challenges by focusing on the localization of software applications, or apps. In each of the five core chapters, Johann Roturier examines:The role of translation and other linguistic activities in adapting software to the needs of different cultures (localization);The procedures required to prep

  8. Domestication and Foreignization in Poetry Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉双

    2011-01-01

    Translation, especially the poetry translation, is very important in the process of language learning, so methods of translation seem to be more and more important in those days. This paper will provide you the method of how to translate poetry naturally

  9. On Features of EST and Its Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易高燕

    2009-01-01

    The study of translation has always been emphasizing the translation of literature, therefore, the translation of EST (English for science and technology), which is a special style or genre of English, doesn't get enough attention yet. This thesis attempts to discuss the translation of English for science and technology, and its features.

  10. Translator-computer interaction in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Kristine; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Though we lack empirically-based knowledge of the impact of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools on translation processes, it is generally agreed that all professional translators are now involved in some kind of translator-computer interaction (TCI), using O’Brien’s (2012) term. Taking a TCI...

  11. Power Relations and Translational Inequality in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianbin, He

    2007-01-01

    Chinese translation to and from Japanese and English verifies the hypothesis that power differentials influence the flow and reception of translations. The Chinese tradition of translation has been characterised by fluency, but some scholars have recently advocated foreignisation for English to Chinese translation, and domestication for Chinese to…

  12. The Role of Semantics in Translation Recognition: Effects of Number of Translations, Dominance of Translations and Semantic Relatedness of Multiple Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxen, Jannika; Lavaur, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of multiple translations of a word on bilingual processing in three translation recognition experiments during which French-English bilinguals had to decide whether two words were translations of each other or not. In the first experiment, words with only one translation were recognized as translations…

  13. Daisaku Ikeda and the Culture of Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Although not functionally multilingual or a translator himself, Daisaku Ikeda has been deeply involved in translation processes, both as a reader and as someone who has produced texts for translation into various languages. This article examines two sources of influence shaping Ikeda's attitude toward translation culture: the flourishing culture…

  14. Translation Ambiguity in and out of Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Wintner, Shuly; MacWhinney, Brian; Lavie, Alon

    2011-01-01

    We compare translations of single words, made by bilingual speakers in a laboratory setting, with contextualized translation choices of the same items, made by professional translators and extracted from parallel language corpora. The translation choices in both cases show moderate convergence, demonstrating that decontextualized translation…

  15. Media Translation and Cultural Soft Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段蕾

    2015-01-01

    Media translation is a kind of applied translation,itis the symbol of a country’s development,and the demonstration of its cultural soft power.This essay mainly talks about how does media translation affect a country’s cultural soft power from three forms of media translation-news,movie and television,newspapers and magazines.

  16. Allocation of Cognitive Resources in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    The present study is an empirical investigation of translators' allocation of cognitive resources during the translation process, and it aims at investigating how translators' mental processing resources are put to use during translation. The study bases ts analyses on quantitative eye-tracking...

  17. A Taxonomy of Human Translation Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2011-01-01

    While the translation profession becomes increasingly technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we outline a method which helps to uncover characteristics of human translation processes. Based o...... on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis for a felicitous and grounded integration of human machine interaction in translation....

  18. History and theory of Scripture translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Loba-Mkole

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article argues for the importance of Bible translations through its historical achievements and theoretical frames of reference. The missionary expansion of Christianity owes its very being to translations. The early Christian communities knew the Bible through the LXX translations while churches today still continue to use various translations. Translations shape Scripture interpretations, especially when a given interpretation depends on a particular translation. A particular interpretation can also influence a given translation. The article shows how translation theories have been developed to clarify and how the transaction source-target is culturally handled. The articles discuss some of these “theoretical frames”, namely the functional equivalence, relevance, literary functional equivalence and intercultural mediation. By means of a historical overview and a reflection on Bible translation theories the article aims to focus on the role of Africa in translation history.

  19. On the Notion of Equivalence in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to translations, varies cultures are allowed to exchange with one another. One the one hand, this has been promoting the studies of translation. On the other hand, this poses huge challenges on translators, because it is hard to define what is a good target translation when a source text is translated. There is a variety of standards to evaluate the quality of a translation, among which equivalence seems to be the most controversial one. On the analysis of studies on equivalence, this essay discusses the role of equivalence in the practice of translating with illustrations of Chinese-English and English-Chinese translation. Indeed, to translate a source text into a target one is based on the equivalence among languages. However, in the process of translating, it can be adjusted to some extent for the sake of the acceptability in the target culture.

  20. Translational informatics: an industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Michael N

    2012-01-01

    Translational informatics (TI) is extremely important for the pharmaceutical industry, especially as the bar for regulatory approval of new medications is set higher and higher. This paper will explore three specific areas in the drug development lifecycle, from tools developed by precompetitive consortia to standardized clinical data collection to the effective delivery of medications using clinical decision support, in which TI has a major role to play. Advancing TI will require investment in new tools and algorithms, as well as ensuring that translational issues are addressed early in the design process of informatics projects, and also given higher weight in funding or publication decisions. Ultimately, the source of translational tools and differences between academia and industry are secondary, as long as they move towards the shared goal of improving health.

  1. Indicators of Difficulty in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate the correlation between indicators of difficulty observable in translation product and translation process data respectively. It has been claimed that the number of alternative renditions in the target text across a group of subjects translating the same source...... and self-corrections. We found highly significant correlations between product and process data: high target text variability across subjects correlated with high fixation counts, long gaze time and long pauses. High variability in the target text was also associated with more self-corrections, but we...... text item indicates the degree of cognitive effort. We identified words with high versus low target text variability across eight subjects and related these to various indicators of difficulty observable in process data from eye-tracking and keystroke logging: number of fixations, gaze time, pauses...

  2. A Simple Analysis on Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yue

    2016-01-01

    With the development of economic globalization, foreign business activities have penetrated into all aspects of the society. Meanwhile business English translation plays an indispensable role in foreign business communication as a bridge. This paper carries out a simple analysis about business English translation based on three aspects: linguistic features of business English, translation methods of business English, criteria in business English translation. Based on the analysis, some feasible suggestions have been proposed for business English translators.

  3. Publishing translated works: Examining the process

    OpenAIRE

    Garby, Taisha Mary

    2015-01-01

    Greystone Books Ltd., based in Vancouver, publishes many translated works. This report is intended to examine the benefits of publishing translated works and compare that to publishing original English language works. This report will analyze two translated works: Gut: The Inside Story of Our Body’s Most Underrated Organ by Giulia Enders, which was translated from German to English, and 1000 Lashes: Because I Say What I Think by Raif Badawi, which was translated from Arabic to English. Greyst...

  4. Review of A Textbook of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王存娟

    2016-01-01

    In recent years,firstly,we are lack of original transla-tion books;secondly,there are more and more graduate students who are studying translation.Thus,we need to import foreign translation study books,like A Textbook of Translation,in order to have better understanding of this book and Peter Newmark’ideas of translation, there is a need to conduct a brief review of this book.

  5. Cultural Identity and Otherness in Literary Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞凌

    2011-01-01

    Culture and language are close bounded.Cultural similarities provide a basis for translation and cultural exchange.It is widely agreed that cultural differences pose the greatest difficulties in translation.Cultural difference can be categorized into cultural blank and cultural conflict.When translating cultural otherness,different translators employ different translating strategies which are determined by translators’ idiosyncrasy,either to preserve or transform cultural images.

  6. Diglossia in Literary Translation: Accommodation into Translation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zughoul, Muhammad Raji; El-Badarien, Mohammed Nasser

    Sociolinguistic research on varieties of language and language variation, along with the necessity for meeting "equivalence" in terms of the appropriateness of the variety to the context have been well recognized in the formulation of a translation theory. However, the treatment of variation has always been restricted to dialect and has not…

  7. Principles of Fidelity in Dynamic Equivalence Translation for Trainee Translators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘屹

    2011-01-01

    For trainee translators,the question of to what extent equivalence can be achieved between the source text and the target text is always one of the most challenging parts to deal with.The paper tries to provide core principles of fidelity in dynamic equiv

  8. Translation Technologies: A Dilemma between Translation Industry and Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakul, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Today, physical and virtual borders are shrinking thanks to technology whose footprints are greater and faster than one can imagine. Beyond the shadow of a doubt, technology is associated with the areas for which it offers solutions such as education technologies, health technologies and translation technologies. Nowadays using translation…

  9. JavaScript DNA translator: DNA-aligned protein translations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William L

    2002-12-01

    There are many instances in molecular biology when it is necessary to identify ORFs in a DNA sequence. While programs exist for displaying protein translations in multiple ORFs in alignment with a DNA sequence, they are often expensive, exist as add-ons to software that must be purchased, or are only compatible with a particular operating system. JavaScript DNA Translator is a shareware application written in JavaScript, a scripting language interpreted by the Netscape Communicator and Internet Explorer Web browsers, which makes it compatible with several different operating systems. While the program uses a familiar Web page interface, it requires no connection to the Internet since calculations are performed on the user's own computer. The program analyzes one or multiple DNA sequences and generates translations in up to six reading frames aligned to a DNA sequence, in addition to displaying translations as separate sequences in FASTA format. ORFs within a reading frame can also be displayed as separate sequences. Flexible formatting options are provided, including the ability to hide ORFs below a minimum size specified by the user. The program is available free of charge at the BioTechniques Software Library (www.Biotechniques.com).

  10. Broadening the translational immunology landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peakman, M

    2012-12-01

    It is just over 5 years since Clinical and Experimental Immunology came under the direction of a new team of Editors and made a concerted effort to refresh its approach to promoting clinical and applied immunology through its pages. There were two major objectives: to foster papers in a field which, at the time, we loosely termed 'translational immunology'; and to create a forum for the presentation and discussion of immunology that is relevant to clinicians operating in this space. So, how are we doing with these endeavours? This brief paper aims to summarize some of the key learning points and successes and highlight areas in which translational gaps remain.

  11. Immunocapture strategies in translational proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredolini, Claudia; Byström, Sanna; Pin, Elisa; Edfors, Fredrik; Tamburro, Davide; Iglesias, Maria Jesus; Häggmark, Anna; Hong, Mun-Gwan; Uhlen, Mathias; Nilsson, Peter; Schwenk, Jochen M

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at clinical studies of human diseases, antibody-assisted assays have been applied to biomarker discovery and toward a streamlined translation from patient profiling to assays supporting personalized treatments. In recent years, integrated strategies to couple and combine antibodies with mass spectrometry-based proteomic efforts have emerged, allowing for novel possibilities in basic and clinical research. Described in this review are some of the field's current and emerging immunocapture approaches from an affinity proteomics perspective. Discussed are some of their advantages, pitfalls and opportunities for the next phase in clinical and translational proteomics.

  12. A syntax-oriented translator

    CERN Document Server

    Ingerman, Peter Zilahy

    1966-01-01

    A Syntax-Oriented Translator focuses on the field of programming and the characteristics and functions of compilers and translators.The book first offers information on the metasyntactic language and the details of a parsing processor. Discussions focus on processing, recovery, and output sections, detailed flow-chart of the parsing processor, parsing form of a grammar, canonical ordering, and the metasyntactic language in general. The text then elaborates on some extensions to the metasyntactic language and metasemantic and metapragmatic language, including punctuation marks and format contro

  13. Literary translation and quality assessment analysis – its significance in translation training

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight the role of translation quality assessment in translation training so as to develop students’ translation competence and skills to face translation problems. An analysis to assess literary translation quality is proposed before proceeding to discuss its pedagogical implementation.

  14. On the Translation Strategies in Zhang Guruo Translation of Tess of the D'urbervilles S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏宁

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides readers with an analysis of the translation strategies at different levels in Zhang Guruo' s translated version of Tess of the D' Urbervilles, aiming at enriching the understanding of Zhang Guruo' s translation theory and translation practice which may give some evidence and enlightenment for the further studies on literary translation under the context of culture.

  15. Strength and weakness of phase I to IV trials, with an emphasis on translational aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Lønning, Per Eystein

    2008-01-01

    Although phase I to III trials represent the standard for introducing new drugs to clinical therapy, there has been increasing demand for translational research in oncology over the past decade. Thus, for most novel therapies such as 'targeted agents', a critical aspect for drug development in oncology has been to select the right patients for therapy. Translational research plays a pivotal role, not only in phase II trials but also in phase I and III and even in phase IV trials. The importan...

  16. Evaluating Arabic to English Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith S. Hadla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Online text machine translation systems are widely used throughout the world freely. Most of these systems use statistical machine translation (SMT that is based on a corpus full with translation examples to learn from them how to translate correctly. Online text machine translation systems differ widely in their effectiveness, and therefore we have to fairly evaluate their effectiveness. Generally the manual (human evaluation of machine translation (MT systems is better than the automatic evaluation, but it is not feasible to be used. The distance or similarity of MT candidate output to a set of reference translations are used by many MT evaluation approaches. This study presents a comparison of effectiveness of two free online machine translation systems (Google Translate and Babylon machine translation system to translate Arabic to English. There are many automatic methods used to evaluate different machine translators, one of these methods; Bilingual Evaluation Understudy (BLEU method. BLEU is used to evaluate translation quality of two free online machine translation systems under consideration. A corpus consists of more than 1000 Arabic sentences with two reference English translations for each Arabic sentence is used in this study. This corpus of Arabic sentences and their English translations consists of 4169 Arabic words, where the number of unique Arabic words is 2539. This corpus is released online to be used by researchers. These Arabic sentences are distributed among four basic sentence functions (declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, and imperative. The experimental results show that Google machine translation system is better than Babylon machine translation system in terms of precision of translation from Arabic to English.

  17. Aesthetic Adaptation in Translating Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽艳

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the strategy of adaptation,in particular,the method of naturalizing and historicizing,in the translation of poetry to maintain the aesthetic meaning.Theoretical support from Susan Bassnett,James Holmes and others is applied and example lines from both Chinese and English verses are given.

  18. Knowledge Translation in Rehabilitation Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kurt; Brown, Pat; Harniss, Mark; Schomer, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The process and importance of Knowledge Translation (KT) for the field of rehabilitation counseling is described. One element of the KT process, systematic reviews of the literature, is described along with several strategies for grading evidence. Practicing clinicians, as do consumers, encounter a number of barriers to using primary source…

  19. Time Translation of Quantum Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura, Roberto; Vanni, Leonardo

    2009-02-01

    Based on the notion of time translation, we develop a formalism to deal with the logic of quantum properties at different times. In our formalism it is possible to enlarge the usual notion of context to include composed properties involving properties at different times. We compare our results with the theory of consistent histories.

  20. Translating Codex Guidelines Into Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Condex texts include commodity and general standards, as well as texts of an advisory nature. The General Principles for Codex Alimentarius define the ways in which commodity or general standards are accepted: (a) full, (b) with specified deviations, or (c) with a declaration of free distribution. The degree of acceptance partly defines the manner in which these texts are translated into application.

  1. Parsing statistical machine translation output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.; Vetulani, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increasing research into the use of syntax during statistical machine translation, the incorporation of syntax into language models has seen limited success. We present a study of the discriminative abilities of generative syntax-based language models, over and above standard n-gram models,

  2. English Advertisement and Its Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昭苑; 段海生

    2005-01-01

    The English advertisement is a lively and distinctive field. What are the features of English ads at a linguistic dimension and how to translate them well into Chinese? All this is given a careful discussion and a detailed study in this paper.

  3. Semiotic web for translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaprasad, Arkalgud; Kashyap, Vipul

    2008-11-06

    The semiotic web for translational medicine generalizes the concept of the semantic web. We present the functions of the semiotic web as a simple ontology with three dimensions, namely: (a) the four steps of semiotics, (b) the two processes in semiotics, and (c) the four types of research. The resulting 32 combinations represent all its functions.

  4. Translational Research and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Borrowing the term "translational research" (TR) from medicine, along with some of the ideas and practices that define it, holds promise as a way of linking research more closely to the practice of youth development. However, doing so entails substantial adaptation. TR is more than a new name for applied research. It comprehends the…

  5. The Importance of Background knowledge in Translating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZongHairong HuoRui

    2012-01-01

      Abstract]Nowadays,the undertaking of translation develops so rapidly in our country.More and more people are engaged in the career of translation.At the same time,unpleasant translated essays appear.In this paper,the author wants to make a main introduction about translation.Then list the problems when translating.At last,the author specifies the ways about how to solve the problems.From all the author’s ideas and examples,it’s not difficult to discover that the related knowledge in translating are very important.So in order to make contribution to the undertaking of the nation’s translation,the translators should try to enlarge their field of vision,know more about the related knowledge and then translate the original works successfully.

  6. ERRORS AND DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING LEGAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, CHIRILA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.

  7. Genetic Analysis of Chloroplast Translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkan, Alice

    2005-08-15

    The assembly of the photosynthetic apparatus requires the concerted action of hundreds of genes distributed between the two physically separate genomes in the nucleus and chloroplast. Nuclear genes coordinate this process by controlling the expression of chloroplast genes in response to developmental and environmental cues. However, few regulatory factors have been identified. We used mutant phenotypes to identify nuclear genes in maize that modulate chloroplast translation, a key control point in chloroplast gene expression. This project focused on the nuclear gene crp1, required for the translation of two chloroplast mRNAs. CRP1 is related to fungal proteins involved in the translation of mitochondrial mRNAs, and is the founding member of a large gene family in plants, with {approx}450 members. Members of the CRP1 family are defined by a repeated 35 amino acid motif called a ''PPR'' motif. The PPR motif is closely related to the TPR motif, which mediates protein-protein interactions. We and others have speculated that PPR tracts adopt a structure similar to that of TPR tracts, but with a substrate binding surface adapted to bind RNA instead of protein. To understand how CRP1 influences the translation of specific chloroplast mRNAs, we sought proteins that interact with CRP1, and identified the RNAs associated with CRP1 in vivo. We showed that CRP1 is associated in vivo with the mRNAs whose translation it activates. To explore the functions of PPR proteins more generally, we sought mutations in other PPR-encoding genes: mutations in the maize PPR2 and PPR4 were shown to disrupt chloroplast ribosome biogenesis and chloroplast trans-splicing, respectively. These and other results suggest that the nuclear-encoded PPR family plays a major role in modulating the expression of the chloroplast genome in higher plants.

  8. Literal Translation using Google Translate in Translating the Text from French to English in Digital Tourism Brochure Bienvenue Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rila Hilma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Translation is basically change of form. The form from which the translation is made will be called the source language and the form into which it is to be changed will be called the receptor language. Translation consists of transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor language. Translating is not an easy job to do because many things to be considered to do this activity because translation means determining the meaning of a text, then reconstructing this same meaning using the appropriate structure and form in the receptor language. Translation is basically divided by two types of translation, one is literal and the other is idiomatic. Literal translation is really strict to the structure and form then often can not well express the true meaning of source language. Idiomatic translation makes every effort to communicate the meaning of the source language text in the natural forms of the receptor language. Then the most popular translation machine, Google Translate, in this study shows the results of translation which remain odd, unnatural, and nonsensical because the unsuccessful of message delivery, which is notably the typically error of literal translation.

  9. Understanding Chinese translation situation and learning from the history of Chinese translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬冬; 韦骥; 常浩

    2009-01-01

    China translation contact and ex-plore the translation of different periods, this formed a different view. As the restrictions of level of awareness on the times, some of them may inevitably one - sided, even error. China translation has a tortuous process of cognition, but its future is to be expected. In this paper, with several important period of development in the history of China translation, Analysis of the development process of translation, comb development clues of understanding the trans-lation.

  10. A Study on Liang Shiqiu’s Translation Theory from the Prospective of Translation Sociology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning

    2015-01-01

    Translation activities, social environment and translators’individual particularities are combined in translation sociolo⁃gy which are provided broader theoretical perspective for translation studies. In this paper, Liang Shiqiu’s translation theory is ana⁃lyzed from the perspective of translation sociology and there should be a new perspective which has expanded in the research of Li⁃ang Shiqiu’s translation theory.

  11. On the translation skills of English proverbs from the factors affecting the translation of English proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟建

    2016-01-01

    English proverb, the treasure of the English language, is the crystallization of English nation. The thesis introduces several methods to the translation of English proverb. The paper concludes the definition of English proverbs. English proverb has its own characteristics in form and content. This thesis also analyses the factors that affect the translation of English proverb. According to these factors, three translation methods are discussed in this paper, which are word-for-word translation, free translation, and applying translation.

  12. Evidence of Parallel Processing During Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard; Sjørup, Annette Camilla

    2014-01-01

    conclude that translation is a parallel process and that literal translation is likely to be a universal initial default strategy in translation. This conclusion is strengthened by the fact that all three experiments were relatively naturalistic, due to the combination of remote eye tracking and mixed......Three eye tracking experiments test the hypothesis that translation involves parallel rather than sequential processing of the source and target texts. In Experiment 1, a group of professional translators translated texts from their native language Danish into English. The texts included both...

  13. Phraseological comptence and the translation of phrasemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallsteinsdóttir, Erla

    2011-01-01

    In this article, that is based on my contribution to the workshop Multilingual phraseology and translation, I’ll focus on the aspects and the role of language competence in the translation of phrasemes, i.a. the phraseological competence. At first, I’ll describe the context of language competence...... in translation. Secondly, I’ll define and illustrate some aspects of the phraseological competence that are relevant in the act of translating, and finally, I’ll discuss the difference between phraseology in system and the conception of the translation as a text in relation to the praseological competence...... as an integral part in the act of translating phrasemes....

  14. Intercultural Communication and Chinese-English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Yong-ju

    2014-01-01

    Translation is formally a process of language transferring but in essence a process of intercultural communication. Trans-lation serves as a bridge of communication between people from different cultures. Language, culture and communication form the basis of translation. Successful translation requires proficiency in languages and complete understanding two relevant cultures. This paper elaborates on five common cultural obstacles hindering CE translation:cultural differences, cultural conflicts, cultural-loaded words or expressions, cultural defaults, and cultural images and then gives corresponding translation solutions.

  15. The Translation of English News Headlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xiaona

    2013-01-01

    News headline translation is one of the most important types of news translation. As news headline is strongly purposeful, the translation of it must be achieved by some special methods. The history of news headline translation is almost as long as that of newspapers, but it has not been attached enough attention to. In the last twenty years, Chinese scholars of this field have paid much greater attention to news headline translation. Concerned studies of principles of news headline translation have also been made remarkable progress.

  16. On the Translation Methods of Biblical Idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜丽芬

    2016-01-01

    Biblical idioms are widely used in daily communication in English-speaking countries. In order to prevent cross-cultural communication barriers, it is important for non-native English speakers to understand the background information of biblical idioms, such as religious stories. Biblical idioms can be classified into two categories: phrases originated from Christian stories and quotations extracted from the Bible. Different biblical idioms requires different translation methods. Three main translation methods, literal translation, free translation, and corresponding translation, are discussed in this paper with detailed case analysis. The three translation methods have their own advantages and are applied in different circumstances.

  17. Translation and Poetry: Preface to Lost in Translation, the collection of poems and translations by Yihai Chen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan Bassnett

    2010-01-01

    @@ The American poet Robert Frost (1874-1963) suggested that poetry gets lost in translation, an opinion that unfortunately has been widely publicised. This view, of course, is a conceit: not only does poetry NOT always get lost in translation, often it is through translation that poetry flourishes. For translation is one of the principal ways in which a literature can reinvigorate itself, can look outwards at other forms of writing and discover and then develop those forms.

  18. Theory of Creative Treason and Drama Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-ting

    2015-01-01

    Due to the specific characteristic which is related to stage performance, the academic researches of drama translation have so far been limited. Before the mid 1970s, discussions about drama translation were mainly limited to the study of the trans⁃lated text of drama by applying the prescribed method of comparative analysis in order to explore the equivalence between the translation and the original. While after the mid 1970s, researches on drama translation started to be done by applying the descrip⁃tive method. Some translation theorists and scholars began to study the translated text of drama on the background of target lan⁃guage culture, which had made fruitful achievements. Recently, studies on drama translation mostly paid attention to such issues as the nature of drama translation, the purpose of drama translation, the characteristics of the translated text of drama, performabili⁃ty and orality in drama translation, transformation of dramatic culture and the status of drama translators, etc. By applying Xie Tianzhen’s theory of creative treason, this drama translation can be studied from a new perspective.

  19. The curious case of legal translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cornelius

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the nature and scope of legal translation which is an under-researched area in South Africa. In this article the author predicts that the demand for competent legal translators will increase in the future, evidenced by a recent call by the Department of Justice and Constitutional Development(DoJ&CD, inviting applications for ten positions for “legislative language practitioners”. However, legal translation differs substantially from general translation in the sense that legal translation is subject to heavy restrictions at all levels and legal considerations are of paramount importance in a country such as South Africa, which provides for eleven official languages. Legal translation involves different legal languages, different legal systems and different cultural systems that require specialised knowledge and skills of the translator. The aim of this article is to investigate the core competencies and skills the legal translator must have; to consider the balance between legal competence and translation or linguistic competence; and to propose a discourse-analytical method of source text analysis, developed by Bhatia as a simplification strategy, as this may be a powerful tool in the training of legal translators in South Africa. Recent developments in South Africa relating to the Department of Arts and Culture’s obligation to translate legislation into all official languages, have important consequences for legal translation in general and the training of legal translators in particular.

  20. Translating genomics in cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Yvonne; Bach, Peter B; Offit, Kenneth

    2013-11-01

    There is increasing enthusiasm for genomics and its promise in advancing personalized medicine. Genomic information has been used to personalize health care for decades, spanning the fields of cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, endocrinology, metabolic medicine, and hematology. However, oncology has often been the first test bed for the clinical translation of genomics for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Notable hereditary cancer examples include testing for mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 in unaffected women to identify those at significantly elevated risk for developing breast and ovarian cancers, and screening patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer for mutations in 4 mismatch repair genes to reduce morbidity and mortality in their relatives. Somatic genomic testing is also increasingly used in oncology, with gene expression profiling of breast tumors and EGFR testing to predict treatment response representing commonly used examples. Health technology assessment provides a rigorous means to inform clinical and policy decision-making through systematic assessment of the evidentiary base, along with precepts of clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and consideration of risks and benefits for health care delivery and society. Although this evaluation is a fundamental step in the translation of any new therapeutic, procedure, or diagnostic test into clinical care, emerging developments may threaten this standard. These include "direct to consumer" genomic risk assessment services and the challenges posed by incidental results generated from next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. This article presents a review of the evidentiary standards and knowledge base supporting the translation of key cancer genomic technologies along the continuum of validity, utility, cost-effectiveness, health service impacts, and ethical and societal issues, and offers future research considerations to guide the responsible introduction of

  1. Translation Competence and Translation Performance: Lexical, Syntactic and Textual Patterns in Student Translations of a Specialized EU Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Adrienn

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study aiming to reveal the recurring patterns of lexical, syntactic and textual errors in student translations of a specialized EU genre from English into Hungarian. By comparing the student translations to the official translation of the text, this article uncovers the most frequent errors that students made…

  2. Learner corpora, corpora of professional translations and creative writing in a course on translation of general texts: an action research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Sánchez Nieto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a small action research project conducted in a course on translation of general texts from German into Spanish. The project methodology combines creative writing techniques with those of data-driven learning put forward by Johns (1991 for foreign language learning and applied by Laviosa (2014, in press to translator training, as well as with the methods of corpus use for learning to translate proposed by Marco and Van Lawick (2009. The aim of the project is threefold: (i raising the students’ awareness on the possibility of interference between German and Spanish past tenses when translating narrative sequences; (ii allowing the students practicing data-driven learning about translation issues, and (iii observing if these interventions bring about a qualitative change in their translation performance, specifically in the decrease of interference when translating narrative sequences with past tenses from German into Spanish. In the paper, special attention will be paid to the theoretical basis of the project, as well as to the methodological decisions involved in its design.

  3. On the Methods of Technology Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹雁

    2007-01-01

    Technology article has the characteristics as clearness, accurateness, conciseness and strictness. Therefore, more attention should be paid in translating the technology articles. This paper analyzes the methods used usually in technology articles translation.

  4. Are Literary Translators (STill) Lone Wolves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how much the traditional image of the solitary literary translator still holds true. Changes in professional associations and modes of communication are influencing how translators communicate and collaborate with other translators. This paper presents the results of a questio......This paper examines how much the traditional image of the solitary literary translator still holds true. Changes in professional associations and modes of communication are influencing how translators communicate and collaborate with other translators. This paper presents the results...... of a questionnaire on collaboration within literary translation in Scandinavia. Concepts from Community Studies, such as generalized reciprocity, interpersonal trust and active participation, are employed to discuss whether literary translators feel like members of a community, lone wolves, or simply lonely....

  5. Cultural Intervention in English and Chinese Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Wei-he

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the author defines translation as an act of communication in a cross-cultural context, the main aim of which is to establish communication between members of different cultures in accordance with previously determined communicative target purpose. He then discusses the unavoidable cultural intervention in the process of translation. Cases in aesthetic preference, political involvement and ethical tradition are studied to prove his proposition that translation is not only linguistic transfer, but also cultural transfer, and that "the more inclusive the target culture is, the closer the translation is to the source culture, the more exclusive the target culture is, the closer the translation must be to the target culture." In the last part of the paper, he proposes strategies of translation (especially for the translation between English and Chinese) with which we can tackle the cultural barriers in the process of translation, i.e. distortion,ignoring and coinage.

  6. The Challenges of Technical Translation: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Buzarna-Tihenea (Galbeaza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of the textile industry vocabulary, in order tohighlight the variety of the terms used to describe the respective field and to emphasize thedifficulties that hinder the translation of a specialized text. Firstly, this paper briefly tackles severalgeneral elements related to the translation process, such as the definition of translation, thedifference between general and specialized translation, translation methods and techniques. Thesecond part of our study is focused on the difficulties triggered by the specialized translation fromthe field of textile manufacture and industry. For the purpose of our analysis, we tackled the issuesraised by the application of several direct translation techniques, such as, borrowing, calque, andliteral translation, described in the first part of the study.

  7. Electronic Corpora as Translation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise; Mousten, Birthe; Jensen, Vigdis

    2012-01-01

    Small bilingual text corpora from a source and target language can be important sources of specialized language tracking for translators. A corpus platform can supplement or replace traditional reference works such as dictionaries and encyclopedia, which are rarely sufficient for the professional...... translator who has to get a cross-linguistic overview of a new area or a new line of business. Relevant internet texts can be compiled ‘on the fly’, but internet data needs to be sorted and analyzed for rational use. Today, such sorting and analysis can be made by a low-tech, analytical software tool....... This article demonstrates how strategic steps of compiling and retrieving linguistic data by means of specific search strategies can be used to make electronic corpora an efficient tool in translators’ daily work with fields that involve new terminology, but where the skills requested to work correspond...

  8. Translational research on advanced therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardelli, Filippo; Rizza, Paola; Moretti, Franca; Carella, Cintia; Galli, Maria Cristina; Migliaccio, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP) facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues) is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  9. Literary Translation: The Pleasure Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜博妮

    2007-01-01

    Chinese to English literary translation (CELT) has brought enormous reading pleasure to large numbers of people. These readers are not necessarily committed to China or Chinese literature as a cause or profession: they are disinterested readers. Publishers today, such as the Foreign Languages Press, can significantly increase their publication figures and strengthen their impact by going beyond captive readers to reach this wider audience. Guidelines that may lead to such a result can be summed up in the phrase: trust the reader. Readers of literary translations already belong to a limited class: they are risk-takers; they are curious and knowledgeable about other cultures; and they are skilled literary readers in their own language.

  10. Translational research on advanced therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Belardelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  11. Translation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    [53] Aspendos, as you know, is an old and famous town in Pamphylia, chockfull of the most precious statues. I am not going to say that this or that statue was taken away from there. I am saying this: that you, Verres, did not leave a single statue in Aspendos; all were loaded up and carried away from the shrines, from the public places, openly, with everybody looking on, on wagons. And even that lyre-player of Aspendos, about whom you have often heard what is a proverbial expression among the...

  12. Project-specific Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Linguistic Data Consortium’s Reflex Pack for Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTL) (7). The corpora labeled Sada -e-Azadi (SeA) (11) and Afghan Recovery...Linguistics, Philadelphia, PA, 2002, 311–318. 11. Sada -e Azadi. http://www.sada-e-azadi.net (accessed 2011). 12. Stolcke, A. SRILM - An Extensible...Translation Center QAMO Qamoosuna (dictionaries) RH Ranger Handbook SCFG Synchronous Context Free Grammar SeA Sada -e-Azadi SME subject matter expert SMT

  13. Translating Codex Guidelines Into Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MACONCEPCIONC.Lizada

    2001-01-01

    Condex texts include commodity and general standards,as well as texts of an advisory nature.The General Principles for Codex Alimentarius define the ways in which commodity or general standards are accepted:(a) full,(b) with specified deviations,or(c) with a declaration of free distribution.The degree of acceptance partly defines the manner in which these texts are translated into application.

  14. Translating Codex Guidelines Into Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; CONCEPCION; C.; Lizada

    2001-01-01

    Condex texts include commodity and general standards, as well as texts of an advisory nature. The General Principles for Codex Alimentarius define the ways in which commodity or general standards are accepted: (a) full, (b) with specified deviations, or (c) with a declaration of free distribution. The degree of acceptance partly defines the manner in which these texts are translated into application.……

  15. Literary Translation and Identity Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabih, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    particular group of Moroccan Jewish authors in Isreal that either continue writing in French or shifted completely into writing in Hebrew. Due to the increasing influence of this Moroccan-Israeli writers in the cultural and literary Israeli landscape, the issue of the Moroccan Jewish identity has in recent...... years contributed to a change with regard to the perception of Arabic literary works, their selection for translation, readers’ expectations....

  16. The Temple Translator’s Workstation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    allows both translator/analysts and monolingual analysts to use the machine- translation function for assessing the relevance of a translated...using a multilingual editor (Figure2). Source documents and their translations are managed using the Tipster Document Manager developed at CRL...an English morphological generator [Penman 88]. • A multilingual document editor (the Tipster Editor for Documents developed at CRL under the

  17. On translation strategies of petroleum technical English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阳

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the petroleum energy has achieved the prime competitiveness around the world.Therefore,translation of petroleum technical English leaves a significant impact.This paper has studied the characteristics of the words and the discourse with specific instance.It also summarizes some useful methods such as literal translation and free translation.And strategies in dealing with long sentences and passive voice,therefore it will help the translators with petroleum technological English.

  18. Measuring Cognitive Translation Effort with Activity Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael; Lacruz, Isabel;

    2016-01-01

    and complementarities of both partners. This paper traces cognitive approaches in machine translation back to the mid-1980s and argues that we now have the technologies available that will allow us to eventually arrive at an in-depth understanding of the human translation processes. It illustrates some of the research...... methods in empirical translation process research and suggests ngrams of Activity Units for measuring the translation process....

  19. MANAGING THE TRANSLATION OF ECONOMIC TEXTS

    OpenAIRE

    Pop Anamaria Mirabela; Sim Monica Ariana

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, translation may pass as science; practically, it seems closer to art. Translation is a challenging activity requiring a set of abilities and posing few difficulties that appear during the translation process. This paper investigates the extent to which sub-technical vocabulary can constitute a problem to Romanian students of economics reading in English, by looking at the translations produced as independent or pair work during English classes and analyzing the various errors w...

  20. How do bacteria tune translation efficiency?

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Gene-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial proteins are translated with precisely determined rates to meet cellular demand. In contrast, efforts to express recombinant proteins in bacteria are often met with large unpredictability in their levels of translation. The disconnect between translation of natural and synthetic mRNA stems from the lack of understanding of the strategy used by bacteria to tune translation efficiency. The development of array-based oligonucleotide synthesis and ribosome profiling provides new approac...

  1. On the Translation Equivalence of Literature Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娟

    2013-01-01

    As for translation principle, people have different opinions. The principle of equivalent translation may be is one of the most reason-able ones in today's translation world in my eyes. This paper focuses on the possibility and thec ondition to be achieved the biggest equivalence of the semantic, pragmatic and culture in order to get the conclusion that the translation equivalence is the proper principle. Besides,this paper has also discussed the pragmatic equivalence and cultural equivalence.

  2. On the Translation Equivalence of Literature Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娟

    2013-01-01

    As for translation principle,people have different opinions.The principle of equivalent translation maybe is one of the most reasonable ones in today’s translation world in my eyes.This paper focuses on the possibility and the condition to be achieved the biggest equivalence of the semantic,pragmatic and culture in order to get the conclusion that the translation equivalence is the proper principle.Besides,this paper has also discussed the pragmatic equivalence and cultural equivalence.

  3. On Savory’s Principles of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑秋芳

    2016-01-01

    One of Savory’s principles of translation focuses on whether a translator may or may never add to or omit from the original. According to the reader-analysis theory, this paper argues from both theoretical and practical aspects, that to fulfill the function of the translation adequately in the target language, the translator may have his right to add to or omit from the original.

  4. The Translation of Chinese Dish Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚佳文

    2015-01-01

    The traditional food of a nation reflects its historical and cultural characteristics This thesis begins with an introduction to the translation situation of Chinese dish names and its existing problem nowadays, and proceeds to the translation principles and tactics for English translation of the names of Chinese dishes, based on Eugene A. Nida’ s Functional Equivalence, with an aim to improve translation efficiency and promote cross-cultural communication, and promoting Chinese food culture throughout the globe.

  5. English Translation of Chinese Personal Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洁

    2008-01-01

    This paper talks about the translation of personal names from Chinese into English, which is complicated by different factors, including orthographic, phonetic, geographic and social ones. To translate personal names appropriately, a wide range of knowledge is required. Although translation machine is more often used nowadays, it cannot take place of person in the end. Several types of name translation will be talked about in this paper.

  6. Chinese-English Translation of Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珍凤; 李爱琴

    2013-01-01

    This paper is on the Chinese-English advertisement translation. It gives people an orderly discussion with examples in three parts: the problems in current advertisement translation, the causes of these problems, essential steps of making the Chinese-English translation of advertisement onto an appropriate way. This paper also suggests the principles of Chinese-English advertise⁃ment translation: natural, precise and understandable.

  7. Impact of Deconstruction on Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄浩

    2009-01-01

    Deconstruction theory is a translation theory which is worthy our great attention. This paper expounds the effects of deconstruction theory on translation theory and practice, points out the limitations of the theory, and puts forward the necessity to construct a new translation standard after deconstruction. The ideas and methods it illustrated bring us many new inspirations, which have important reference value and significance to reconstruct Chinese translation theory.

  8. The translational metaphor in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Lewis

    2015-02-01

    The translational metaphor in psychoanalysis refers to the traditional method of interpreting or restating the meaning of verbal and behavioral acts of a patient in other, presumably more accurate terms that specify the forces and conflicts underlying symptoms. The analyst translates the clinical phenomenology to explain its true meaning and origin. This model of analytic process has been challenged from different vantage points by authors presenting alternative conceptions of therapeutic action. Although the temptation to find and make interpretations of clinical material is difficult to resist, behaving in this way places the analyst in the position of a teacher or diagnostician, seeking a specific etiology, which has not proven fruitful. Despite its historical appeal, I argue that the translational model is a misleading and anachronistic version of what actually occurs in psychoanalysis. I emphasize instead the capacity of analysis to promote the emergence of new forms of representation, or figuration, from the unconscious, using the work of Lacan, Laplanche, and Modell to exemplify this reformulation, and provide clinical illustrations of how it looks in practice.

  9. Expertise and Environment in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Muñoz Martin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of the research team Expertise and Environment in Translation (PETRA, Spanish acronym is to study as many aspects of the translation process as possible under the same scope. PETRA is interested in expertise and its development, considers intuitive problem-solving in translation as related to emergence and construction of meaning, and interprets skills acquisition and development as routine interiorization and improvement of mental efficiency. Characteristic of PETRA's approach are homogeneous research methodologies through internal standards, and theoretical feedback from cognitive linguistics, situated and embodied cognition, and social constructivism. Research methods include pilot testing, subjects' and texts' profiling, test repetition, non-invasive data collection, previous typing period, length and frequency to determine pause relevance, post-test questionnaires, data triangulation, blind product cross-evaluation, statistical and ecological validity checks. Results of Martín de León (2003, Lachat (2003, De Rooze (2003, Gómez (2006 and Conde (2009, and ongoing projects by Castro, Marín, Muñoz, and Perea are summarized.

  10. XML Translator for Interface Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroson, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program defines an XML schema for specifying the interface to a generic FPGA from the perspective of software that will interact with the device. This XML interface description is then translated into header files for C, Verilog, and VHDL. User interface definition input is checked via both the provided XML schema and the translator module to ensure consistency and accuracy. Currently, programming used on both sides of an interface is inconsistent. This makes it hard to find and fix errors. By using a common schema, both sides are forced to use the same structure by using the same framework and toolset. This makes for easy identification of problems, which leads to the ability to formulate a solution. The toolset contains constants that allow a programmer to use each register, and to access each field in the register. Once programming is complete, the translator is run as part of the make process, which ensures that whenever an interface is changed, all of the code that uses the header files describing it is recompiled.

  11. Translator and Identity—Taking Lin Yutang as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春燕

    2016-01-01

    with the prosperous development of translation, the identity of translator has attracted more and more attention. The relationship of translator and identity is worth studying. This article takes translator Lin Yutang as an example to see how identities influence a translator. The conclusion is that the choice of translation martial, translation strategy, translation attitude and other aspects in translation are influenced by Li Yutang's identities such as his religious identity, class identity, national identity and personal identity.

  12. WEB BASED TRANSLATION OF CHINESE ORGANIZATION NAME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Muyun; Liu Daxin; Zhao Tiejun; Qi Haoliang; Lin Kaiming

    2009-01-01

    A web-based translation method for Chinese organization name is proposed. After analyzing the structure of Chinese organization name, the methods of bilingual query formulation and maximum entropy based translation re-ranking are suggested to retrieve the English translation from the web via public search engine. The experiments on Chinese university names demonstrate the validness of this approach.

  13. Translation Factors Specify Cellular Metabolic State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of Cell Reports, Shah et al. present evidence that a subcomplex of the eIF3 translation initiation factor regulates translation of mRNAs encoding components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and glycolytic enzymes, thus linking translational control with energy metabolism.

  14. Media Translation and Cultural Soft Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段蕾

    2015-01-01

    Media translation is a kind of applied translation,it is the symbol of a country’s development,and the demonstration of its cultural soft power.This essay mainly talks about how does media translation affect a country’s cultural soft power from three forms of media translation—news,movie and television,newspapers and magazines.

  15. Putting Translational Science onto a Global Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, C. Taylor; Zuk, Dorit; Kocis, Petr; Johnson, Mike; Hay, Stewart; Bietrix, Florence; Aversa, Gregorio; Austin, Christopher P.; Ussi, Anton E.

    2017-01-01

    Global collaboration in translational science promises to accelerate the discovery, development and dissemination of new medical interventions. In this article, we introduce a new international collaboration of translational science organizations and highlight our initial strategy to reduce or remove bottlenecks in translation. A first step in this process is increasing the awareness and understanding of the field among key stakeholder groups. PMID:27032820

  16. The Application of Domestication in Cultural Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏洁

    2015-01-01

    Domestication does have its reason for existence in the field of translation. It is indispensable to cultural transmission. Domestication is the further extension of free translation. It helps the target language reader gain a better understanding of the source language. The lack of domestication will disillusion of our hope of attaining cultural transmission. In translation history domestication plays a positive role.

  17. Professional Communication and Translation in Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnecci, Marusca; Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe;

    2008-01-01

    As translation of technical documents becomes commonplace, and as translation becomes more automated, the roles of translator and technical communicator appear to be converging. This paper examines the trend revealed from recent surveys, and it suggests further research to determine if the trend ...... is likely to continue. The  paper also provides recommendations for academic programs interested in adjusting to the trend....

  18. On the Systematicity of Human Translation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    While translation careers and the translation profession become more globalised and more technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we attempt to outline a method which helps to uncover character...

  19. Strategies for English translation of Chinese idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹霈

    2015-01-01

    There are several strategies for English translation of Chinese idioms.Domestication and Foreignization are the important points of these strategies.Foreignization and Domestication are the two terms created by American translation theorist Lawrence Venuti in 1995,in order to describe the translation strategies.

  20. Shared Representations and the Translation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present chapter is to investigate automated processing during translation. We provide evidence from a translation priming study which suggests that translation involves activation of shared lexico-semantic and syntactical representations, i.e., the activation of features of bot...

  1. Traveling Chaucer: Comparative Translation and Cosmopolitan Humanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Candace

    2014-01-01

    Through the comparative study of non-Anglophone translations of Geoffrey Chaucer's "The Canterbury Tales," we can achieve the progressive goals of Emily Apter's "translational transnationalism" and Edward Said's "cosmopolitan humanism." Both translation and humanism were intrinsic to Chaucer's…

  2. Machine Translation in Post-Contemporary Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2010-01-01

    This article focusing on translating techniques via personal computer or laptop reports updated artificial intelligence progresses before 2010. Based on interpretations and information for field of MT [Machine Translation] by Yorick Wilks' book, "Machine Translation, Its scope and limits," this paper displays understandable theoretical frameworks…

  3. On Functional Equivalence of Idiom Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管琴

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the feasibility of functional equivalence in idiom translations in Chinese-English cultures,trying to find efficient ways to avoid both under-translation and over-translation.The more functions are reproduced,the better the version will be at achieving correspondence between meaning and function.

  4. A tentative study of the differences between Chinese-translated and non-translated English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨乐

    2015-01-01

    Translated English is a distinctive variety of English with some special traits absent in non-translated English. This paper is an attempt to investigate the unique properties of Chinese-translated English, and categorize them in three aspects, namely, semantic, stylistic and syntactic, each of which is defined in light of non-translated English, and illustrated with proven data.

  5. How Do English Translation Majors Use Translation Strategies? A Survey of the Iranian EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgarian, Amir; Vefali, Gülsen Musayeva

    2015-01-01

    Translation language learning strategies, especially in relation to translation students, have not received adequate attention in the research to date. Therefore, the present study attempted to explore Iranian translation students' use of translation strategies, related beliefs, and academic achievement. It was a survey study involving…

  6. Translating Proper Nouns: A Case Study on English Translation of Hafez's Lyrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirinzadeh, Seyed Alireza; Mahadi, Tengku Sepora Tengku

    2014-01-01

    Proper nouns are regarded so simple that they might be taken for granted in translation explorations. Some may believe that they should not be translated in transmitting source texts to target texts. But, it is not the case; if one looks at present translations, he will notice that different strategies might be applied for translating proper…

  7. Measuring Difficulty in English-Chinese Translation: Towards a General Model of Translation Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sanjun

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of a text's level of translation difficulty is critical for translator training and accreditation, translation research, and the language industry as well. Traditionally, people rely on their general impression to gauge a text's translation difficulty level. If the evaluation process is to be more effective and the…

  8. The Translating Strategies of Prose Poem:Via the Comparison of Two Translations of Gitanjali

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁玉

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to find the proper way to translate the prose poem, a new genre of literary works.Under the translation criteria of “functional equivalence” and “Sublimation theory”, two Chinese translations of Gitanjali are compared and contrasted in order to conclude translating strategies of the prose poem.

  9. Building Scientist Capacity in Knowledge Translation: Development of the Knowledge Translation Planning Template

    OpenAIRE

    Melanie Barwick

    2016-01-01

    The last fifteen years have seen a fundamental shift in the importance of knowledge translation in health research and clinical care. Health research funders have incorporated knowledge translation into their missions, strategic directions, and funding opportunities, encouraging knowledge translation and implementation science and requiring knowledge translation practice from researchers working across the health research pillars – basic, clinical, health services, and population health. Heal...

  10. Machine-Aided Translation: From Terminology Banks to Interactive Translation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Concetta C.; Serain, Daniel

    The rapid growth of the need for technical translations in recent years has led specialists to utilize computer technology to improve the efficiency and quality of translation. The two approaches considered were automatic translation and terminology banks. Since the results of fully automatic translation were considered unsatisfactory by various…

  11. Ionic regulation in genetic translation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douzou, P; Maurel, P

    1977-03-01

    The polyelectrolyte theory can provide an interpretation of the interdependence of pH, ionic strength, and polyamines one observes in the activity of ribonuclease acting on RNA. According to this theory: (i) A nucleic acid-enzyme complex and the suspending medium may be considered as two phases in equilibrium, even though within limits, the complex is soluble in water. (ii) The enzymatic catalysis is under tight control of the electrostatic potential generated by the system. Consequently, modification in electrostatic potential will induce a concomitant change in activity. (iii) The electrostatic potential can be modified through action on the system of "modulators", either "external" (ionic strength, pH, temperature, etc.) or "internal" (specific ligands, substrates, protein factors, etc.). Similarities between the reaction of ribonuclease (ribonuclease 3'-pyrimidino-oligonucleotidohydrolase; EC 3.1.4.22) and RNA and those observed with highly organized systems catalyzing DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis suggest that the electrostatic potential also provides an important regulatory mechanism in genetic translation. In this view, an essential function of nucleic acids is to provide their enzyme partners with polyanionic microenvironments within which their catalytic activities are controlled by variation in physicochemical parameters, including the proton concentration induced through "modulation" of the local electrostatic potential.

  12. Enlightenment of Cognitive Linguistics on Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive linguistics is a young subject in linguistics. This paper is to inspire translators by explaining and analyzing translation practice from the perspective of cognitive linguistics and on the basis of its theories. This paper first briefly introduces the content of cognitive linguistics studies and its features;then, important translation theories in the west and in China and the limitations of those traditional theories are discussed;in the end, several examples are provided to il ustrate the close relation between cognitive linguistics and translation practices from the prospective of embodied experience, multiple interaction, restrained creativity and harmonious discourse in translation.

  13. The Translated Dowling Polynomials and Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangontarum, Mahid M; Macodi-Ringia, Amila P; Abdulcarim, Normalah S

    2014-01-01

    More properties for the translated Whitney numbers of the second kind such as horizontal generating function, explicit formula, and exponential generating function are proposed. Using the translated Whitney numbers of the second kind, we will define the translated Dowling polynomials and numbers. Basic properties such as exponential generating functions and explicit formula for the translated Dowling polynomials and numbers are obtained. Convexity, integral representation, and other interesting identities are also investigated and presented. We show that the properties obtained are generalizations of some of the known results involving the classical Bell polynomials and numbers. Lastly, we established the Hankel transform of the translated Dowling numbers.

  14. STUDY OF TOURY'S THREE NORMS OF TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘星

    2008-01-01

    Norms can be expected to operate not only in transLation of all kinds,nut also at every stage in the translating event,and hence to be reflected on every level of its product.Gideon Toury's most famous research-Descriptive Translation Study introduces us three norms of translation-preliminary norms;initial norms;operational norms,which are of vital importance in the field of translation theory study.In this essay,the author illustrates them to Chinese readers.

  15. Promised Land No More: Dynamic Shifts in Slovene Translation Market and Translator Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike K. Pokorn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the changes of the translation market, the development of Higher Education (HE translator training and of the profession of translator in Slovenia. First, three HE translator-training programmes in Slovenia are briefly described. Second, through an analysis of the public database containing information on all business entities in Slovenia, a description of the translation market in 2014 is made and the findings are compared to those of a similar study carried out in 2007. Then two surveys of translation graduates of University of Ljubljana are presented, focusing in particular on graduate employment statistics and average earnings of junior translators. The results show that despite the fact that the Slovene translation market is thriving, this growth is not reflected in the average earnings of individual translators. Finally, in view of the fact that translation rates are constantly falling, it is argued that the role of professional associations becomes vital.

  16. Cultural Discrepancies Multiply Difficulties in Translating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨姝

    2016-01-01

    Translators always face dilemmas while translating source text into target text. Whether the language form is more im-portant than the real underlying meaning is constantly a controversial issue in translation. In practice, to keep the target text in the same genre and form as the source text and accurately render the original meaning from the author is highly difficult, espe-cially in literature translation. Therefore, previous research regarding difficulties in translating various languages in diverse cul-tures are to be reviewed, followed by a more specific context in which literature translations from Chinese to English and Eng-lish to Chinese are analyzed. Difficulties exposed in these translations are dealt with by experienced translators who employ vari-ous strategies. How effective these translations are in transmitting the original source language in both form and other functions are then evaluated. Moreover, the impacts that culture have on translation are further discussed. It comes to conclude that transla-tors may apply effective methods to minimize the gap between source language and target language, despite being unable to ex-actly render the meaning and form of the source text, especially when over one source language is involved.

  17. Studies on the Translation Theory and Translation Practice of Lin Yutang through Moment in Peking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚驰

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes studies on the translation theory and translation practice of Lin Yutang through Moment in Peking. First the paper describes Lin’s achievements and translation theories mainly from his work on translation and then associates them with his world-renowned novel Moment in Peking to testify those effective theories, indicating that translators should take on the responsibility of introducing Chinese culture and promoting the communication between countries.

  18. Studies on the Translation Theory and Translation Practice of Lin Yutang through Moment in Peking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚驰

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes studies on the translation theory and translation practice of Lin Yutang through Moment in Peking.First the paper describes Lin’s achievements and translation theories mainly from his work on translation and then associates them with his world-renowned novel Moment in Peking to testify those effective theories, indicating that translators should take on the responsibility of introducing Chinese culture and promoting the communication between countries.

  19. Poetry Translation in English Teaching:Translation of Isles of Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭欣欣

    2012-01-01

    In English teaching,poetry translation is a difficult point which confuses many teachers and students.Different from other translations,poetry translation needs more background information and methods.In this article,the author choose Byron’s Isles of Greece as an example to analyze two different translations.With the comparison,we will have a better idea how to improve poetry translation in our teaching.

  20. Legal English Vocabulary and Its Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kuang-zheng

    2016-01-01

    There are differences between legal English and general English. Legal English relates to the legal profession. Law needs to maintain the impression of seriousness, standardization, accuracy and objectiveness, and as a result, legal English also has these characteristics. Compared to general everyday English, the application of legal English vocabulary requires consider-ation of these characteristics. In the translation of legal content, attention is also needed to be paid to the characteristics of foren-sic linguistics. Standardized legal terms are used in the translation of legal regulations and other content to keep the characteris-tics of faithfulness, accuracy, smoothness and consistency. In this paper, legal English vocabulary is discussed based on its char-acteristics, as well as the method of translation of legal content. For practical translation of legal English, translation methods in-clude literal translation, free translation and addition and omission. These methods are briefly discussed in this paper.

  1. On English and Chinese Trademark Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喆群

    2008-01-01

    Trademark translation has become familiar to most translators in the context of economic globalization,but it is not such an easy thing as we imagined due to cultural differences.Translators should be fully aware of the cultural traditions of trademark receivers and adopt spec-ial translation strategies to achieve message equi-valence.Moreover,translators should lay stress on creation and standardization of the target tradem-ark language,and adhere to principles of tradem-ark translation.That will make the target langu-age effectively and faithfully repeat the culture,image and messages of the original trademarks,thus decrease the communication gap between source language readers and target language rea-ders in translation and achieve the economic va-lue of trademarks.

  2. Authorial and Editorial Voices in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Translation Studies now recognizes that translators are not the only agents involved in translation. Authors and editors provide suggestions and instructions. Publishers have considerable power over the final text and how it is presented to the public. While it is well-known that translations...... are often censored in totalitarian regimes, less attention has been paid to the way commercial interests can interfere with the work of translation in ‘free’ societies. Using the concept of ‘voice’ to explore contexts where multiple agents interact, this volume makes a major contribution to our...... understanding of the processes through which authors, publishers, editors, directors, and critics can affect translation. Empirical studies from historical and contemporary settings examine forms of collaboration and negotiation, or conflict, with special attention to the multiple voices in theatre translation....

  3. Probing for Relevance: Information Theories and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dejica

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies claim that the more translators know about the structure and the dynamics of discourse, the more readily and accurately they can translate both the content and the spirit of a text. Similarly, international research projects highlight directions of research which aim at helping translators make reasonable and consistent decisions as to the relevance and reliability of source text features in the target text. Other recent studies stress the importance of developing information structure theories for translation. In line with such current research desiderata, the aim of this article is to test the relevance of information theories for translation. In the first part, information theories are presented from different linguistic perspectives. In the second part, their relevance for translation is tested on a series of texts by examining how they have been or can be applied to translation. The last part presents the conclusions of the analysis.

  4. Legal English Vocabulary and Its Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kuang zheng

    2016-01-01

    There are differences between legal English and general English. Legal English relates to the legal profession. Law needs to maintain the impression of seriousness, standardization, accuracy and objectiveness, and as a result, legal English also has these characteristics. Compared to general everyday English, the application of legal English vocabulary requires consideration of these characteristics. In the translation of legal content, attention is also needed to be paid to the characteristics of forensic linguistics. Standardized legal terms are used in the translation of legal regulations and other content to keep the characteristics of faithfulness, accuracy, smoothness and consistency. In this paper, legal English vocabulary is discussed based on its characteristics, as well as the method of translation of legal content. For practical translation of legal English, translation methods include literal translation, free translation and addition and omission. These methods are briefly discussed in this paper.

  5. The Translation of Indonesian Reduplication into English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Herlina Karjo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Every language has its own way to communicate its expression. Indonesian has reduplication such as pagi-pagi, cantik-cantik, and jalan-jalan. The English translation of this reduplication is not *morning-morning, *beautiful-beautiful, and*walking-walking respectively. In this case, the translators should make an adjustment when they transfer the message of the Indonesian reduplication into English. This study investigates how Indonesian university students, teachers, and professionals translate the Indonesian reduplications into English. It explores the meaning and structure resulted from the translation. The participants are university students, lecturers and employees. They are given questionnaires in which they translate the Indonesian reduplication into English. The analysis involves the morphological, syntactic and semantic aspects of the translation, as well as the deviations that possibly occur in the translation.

  6. The Translation of Numerals and its Limits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴贤雯

    2013-01-01

    Through probing into the diversity of numerals’functions in language use which gives prominence to the importance of numeral translation, this paper aims to analyze the limits of numeral translation and explain the cause for these limits. The analy-sis of the limits in numeral translation is guided by the principle of functional equivalence. It is discussed that in numeral transla-tion, the limits on different levels of culture, image, sound and form arise when the full functional equivalence can not be achieved. Furthermore, this paper finds that the differences in culture and formal structure as well as the semantic fuzziness are three reasons for the presence of limits in numeral translation. However, the author suggests that these limits in numeral transla-tion can be adjusted with the further development of research on translation methodology and the deep infiltration of different cultures.

  7. Foreign Language Writing and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuri Soedjatmiko

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In LI writing, every writer is said to have experienced writer's block. To overcome this writers are suggested that they continue writing without stopping to edit typing mistakes or find appropriate words. Using 14 fourth-semester students of the English Department whose LI is Indonesian as subjects, and consulting experts' findings and experience in writing, this study attempts to qualitatively describe the flow of thoughts of the subjects while writing in English, i.e., whether or not they think in bahasa Indonesia and translate it into English. Three steps are employed. The first is by evaluating the subjects first writing draft to see whether or not they choose appropriate words, compose sentences, and put them in coherent paragraphs. Some guiding assumptions are drawn from their work on the strategies utilized to overcome writer's block. The second step is checking through open interviews. The last step sees whether or not the strategies are related to the writer's language competence as shown by the average of subjects grades in dictation, reading, writing and structure from Semester 1 to Semester 4. The findings show that strategies used whether or not translation is used are not affected by the subjects' language competence. Almost all subjects think in bahasa Indonesia and translate their thoughts into English. From the four subjects who claim to always write directly in English, only two write clearly and well-organized writing, and one of them the best of all even says that she does not hesitate to consult dictionary if necessary. This study then suggests the teaching of EFL writing in class encourage students to think in Indonesian. In writing the first draft, students should be allowed or advised to write the Indonesian expressions to maintain the flow of their writing.

  8. Translation from research to applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Ernst; Spector, Myron; Libera, Jeanette; Gertzman, Arthur; Woo, Savio L-Y; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Lysaght, Michael; Coury, Arthur; Kaplan, David; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2006-12-01

    The article summarizes the collective views expressed at the fourth session of the workshop Tissue Engineering--the Next Generation, which was devoted to the translation of results of tissue engineering research into applications. Ernst Hunziker described the paradigm of a dual translational approach, and argued that tissue engineering should be guided by the dimensions and physiological setting of the bodily compartment to be repaired. Myron Spector discussed collagen-glycosaminoglycan (GAG) scaffolds for musculoskeletal tissue engineering. Jeanette Libera focused on the biological and clinical aspects of cartilage tissue engineering, and described a completely autologous procedure for engineering cartilage using the patient's own chondrocytes and blood serum. Arthur Gertzman reviewed the applications of allograft tissues in orthopedic surgery, and outlined the potential of allograft tissues as models for biological and medical studies. Savio Woo discussed a list of functional tissue engineering approaches designed to restore the biochemical and biomechanical properties of injured ligaments and tendons to be closer to that of the normal tissues. Specific examples of using biological scaffolds that have chemoattractants as well as growth factors with unique contact guidance properties to improve their healing process were shown. Anthony Ratcliffe discussed the translation of the results of research into products that are profitable and meet regulatory requirements. Michael Lysaght challenged the proposition that commercial and clinical failures of early tissue engineering products demonstrate a need for more focus on basic research. Arthur Coury described the evolution of tissue engineering products based on the example of Genzyme, and how various definitions of success and failure can affect perceptions and policies relative to the status and advancement of the field of tissue engineering.

  9. Translational Influence on Messenger Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette

    , on messenger stability was examined. Depending on the translation initiation frequency, the chance of an initial ribosome trailing the RNA polymerase get better for better initiation sites, thus protecting transcription from termination by Rho. A polarity assay in which the activity of the downstream lac......-termination to be a global phenomena in gene regulation. The influence of codon usage in the early coding region on messenger stability was examined, in order to establish how fast or slow the ribosome has to decode the sequence for it to protect the messenger from degradation. The experiments demonstrated that very fast...

  10. Titu Maiorescu, Polyglot and Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Mihai DASCĂLU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since he was young, TM has studied the classical languages and many occidental languages, such as German, French and English. By means of these languages, he was directly connected with the great European cultures. Fond of literature and philosophy, he focused on some texts that he considered useful for the Romanians'spiritual progress. The most well-known text he translated was Aphorisms by Schopenhauer, a text which had a huge success and powerfully influenced some of the Romanian writers and thinkers.

  11. Looking for Help in the Translation Process--The Role of Auxiliary Texts in Translator Training and Translation Practice%Looking for Help in the Translation Process——The Role of Auxiliary Texts in Translator Training and Translation Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.诺德

    2007-01-01

    The article analyses translation from a pedagogical point of view, focussing on the necessity of"jumping over the culture hurdle" and using existing texts from the target culture as a tool in the translation process. Traditional dictionaries and grammars often do not provide sufficient or appropriate information to allow satisfactory solutions of quite a number of translation problems, especially where stylistic, textual and genre conventions or technolect and terminology are concerned. Therefore, drawing on the useful concept of intertextuality, the author suggests a variety of auxiliary texts which may be useful in source-text analysis and target-text production for both trainee and professional translators.

  12. Near-infrared fluorescence-guided surgery : pre-clinical validation and clinical translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, Joost Renier van der

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focus on preclinical validation of novel fluorescent contrast agents for solid tumor imaging (Part I), the clinical introduction of NIR fluorescence sentinel lymph node imaging in several cancer types using indocyanine green (Part II) and the clinical translation of NIR fluorescence imag

  13. HDL to verification logic translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.

  14. Encounters with Translations of Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Titchkosky

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This special issue edited by Katie Aubrecht demonstrates that a focus on translations of happiness makes us attend to the interpretive process animating social relations. There are many registers of translation that individuals, communities, and the state make use of as they grapple with relations to happiness. Among the vast array of historical registers that aim to make happiness comprehensible or compelling, medicine and politics are two of the most noteworthy. Moving from one register to another, such as from institutional versions of happiness as a medically regulated matter, to its appearance in situations of war, trauma, illness, local community or state, between these differing registers, we come to re-encounter happiness in many important ways as this special issue demonstrates. This issue thus invites its readers to question modernity’s progressive interest in and use of happiness as a way to narrate and assemble our essential inter-relatedness.

  15. Translational Medicine - doing it backwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schechter Alan N

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years the concept of "translational medicine" has been advanced in an attempt to catalyze the medical applications of basic biomedical research. However, there has been little discussion about the readiness of scientists themselves to respond to what we believe is a required new approach to scientific discovery if this new concept is to bear fruit. The present paradigm of hypothesis-driven research poorly suits the needs of biomedical research unless efforts are spent in identifying clinically relevant hypotheses. The dominant funding system favors hypotheses born from model systems and not humans, bypassing the Baconian principle of relevant observations and experimentation before hypotheses. Here, we argue that that this attitude has born two unfortunate results: lack of sufficient rigor in selecting hypotheses relevant to human disease and limitations of most clinical studies to certain outcome parameters rather than expanding knowledge of human pathophysiology; an illogical approach to translational medicine. If we wish to remain true to our responsibility and duty of performing research relevant to human disease, we must begin to think about fundamental new approaches. NIH is the nation's medical research agency - making important medical discoveries that improve health and save lives. NIH is the steward of medical and behavioral research for the Nation. Its mission is science in pursuit of fundamental knowledge about the nature and behavior of living systems and the application of that knowledge to extend healthy life and reduce the burdens of illness and disability 1.

  16. Container II

    OpenAIRE

    Baraklianou, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Container II, self-published artists book.\\ud The book was made on the occasion of the artists residency at the Banff Arts Centre, in Alberta Canada. \\ud \\ud Container II is a performative piece, it worked in conjunction with the photographic installation "Stage Set: Cool Tone" . (photographic floor installation, Reclaimed wood, frames, 130x145cm, 2016) \\ud The photographic installation was also part of the artists residency titled "New Materiality" at the Banff Arts Centre. \\ud \\ud Limited E...

  17. The use of parentheses in Arabic translated and non-translated texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussein Ali Yehia Ali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at comparing the functions of parentheses in Arabic translated and non-translated texts. The study is carried out across genres; it includes texts from science, medicine, education, computers, and literary criticism. The texts constitute two corpora: a monolingual comparable corpus and bilingual parallel corpus. The monolingual comparable corpus is used to identify differences between Arabic translated and non-translated language in the uses of parentheses. The findings are then tested against a bilingual parallel corpus consisting of original English texts and their translations into Arabic. The study looks at the qualitative and quantitative differences between the uses of parentheses in translated and non-translated Arabic. Furthermore, the paper does not deal only with translation anomalies, but focuses as well on correct parallels. The paper can be seen then as a guide on the uses of parentheses in Arabic and in translation between Arabic and English.

  18. On Translation of Ren in The Analects in Terms of Cultural Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qin

    2013-01-01

    In 1980’s, the famous translator and scholar Bassnett proposes a new translation theory, namely cultural translation the-ory, in which Bassnett insists that culture should be taken as the basic unit of translation, which attracts the attentions all over the world. In the thesis, the translation of Ren, one of the main ideas of Confucianism, will be discussed from the perspective of Bassnett’s cultural translation theory. Ren, the essence of The Analects, also the symbol of Chinese traditional culture, is endowed with profound connotation and important status. There are more and more translations of Ren in contemporary era. After com-paring different kinds of translation and cultural translation theory, the most proper way of doing it may be transliterating it to Ren.

  19. Assessing Query Translation Quality Using Back Translation in Hindi-English CLIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Chandra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-Language Information Retrieval (CLIR is a most demanding research area of Information Retrieval (IR which deals with retrieval of documents different from query language. In CLIR, translation is an important activity for retrieving relevant results. Its goal is to translate query or document from one language into another language. The correct translation of the query is an essential task of CLIR because incorrect translation may affect the relevancy of retrieved results. The purpose of this paper is to compute the accuracy of query translation using the back translation for a HindiEnglish CLIR system. For experimental analysis, we used FIRE- 2011 dataset to select Hindi queries. Our analysis shows that back translation can be effective in improving the accuracy of query translation of the three translators used for analysis (i.e. Google, Microsoft and Babylon. Google is found best for the purpose.

  20. Translating Legal Collocations in Contract Agreements by Iraqi EFL Students-Translators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntaha A. Abdulwahid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal translation of contract agreements is a challenge to translators as it involves combining the literary translation with the technical terminological precision. In translating legal contract agreements, a legal translator must utilize the lexical or syntactic precision and, more importantly, the pragmatic awareness of the context. This will guarantee an overall communicative process and avoid inconsistency in legal translation. However, the inability of the translator to meet these two functions in translating the contract item not only affects the contractors’ comprehension of the contract item but also affects the parties’ contractual obligations. In light of this, the purpose of this study was to find out how legal collocations used in contract agreements are translated from Arabic into English by student-translators in terms of (1 purely technical, (2 semi-technical, and (3 everyday vocabulary collocations. For the data collection, a multiple-choice collocation test was used to be answered by 35 EFL Iraqi undergraduate translator-students to decide on the aspects of weaknesses and strengths of their translation, thus decide on the aspects of correction. The findings showed that these students had serious problems in translating legal collocations as they lack the linguistic knowledge and pragmatic awareness needed to achieve the legal meaning and effect. They were also unable to make a difference among the three categories of legal collocations, purely technical, semi-technical, and everyday vocabulary collocations. These students should be exposed to more legal translation practices to obtain the required experience needed for their future career.

  1. The Standard Profile of the 21st Century Translator: Implications for Translator Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakwe George Mbotake

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the profile of the translator in Cameroon and posits that the translating activity is increasingly becoming part of the translation service, reflecting the market expectation to train translation service providers rather than translators. The paper demonstrates that the translation profession as it is performed in the field and portrayed in job adverts reveals that a wide range of employers are looking for translators and their services. A survey of the Cameroonian translation market was carried out to raise awareness of the language skills translators need in order to work successfully as language services providers. The data for this study was obtained from 36professionaltranslators drawn from the public service, the freelance and in-house corporate translation market in Cameroon. The study argues that today’s new translator’s profile and his activities are basically variants of interlingual communication in which the traditional concept of translation constitutes only one option and that these ‘add-ons,’which contribute to a better professionalization of the translator,pose new challenges to translation pedagogy in terms of both content and methodology.In this vein the study proposes a translational language teaching model aimed at making training more responsive to market exigencies in this era of modernization.

  2. Influence of Translator's Religious Ideology on Translation: A Case Study of English Translations of the Nobel Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibeh Khosravi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to investigate the role of translator's religious ideology on his/her translation of the Nobel Quran by focusing on English translations of four verses from Surah An-Nisa (Women, Surah Al-Ahzab (The Confederates and Surah An-Nur (Light which are mostly referred to with the aim of imagining Islam as a religion that oppresses women and abuses their rights. To this end, four English translations of the Nobel Quran by four translators from Muslim, Christian and Jewish backgrounds, with different ideologies, were selected as the corpus of this study. The research applied Farahzad's model of translation criticism (Based on Fairclough's approach to CDA as the theoretical framework of this paper. Based on this framework, English translations of selected verses were compared with their original versions at the textual level and paratextual level. The result of this study demonstrated that it is difficult to conclude that there is relationship between translator's religious ideology and his/her translation of Quran.

  3. 0n the Translation of Nicknames in Outlaws of the Marsh from the Perspective of Functional Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹玥俐

    2015-01-01

    According to the Functional Translation Theory which derived from Germany in the 1970s, the purpose of the entire translation behavior determines the basic principle of any translation process.?By analyzing translation of the heroes' nicknames in Sidney Shapiro's translation of Outlaws of the Marsh from the perspective of Functional Translation Theory, this paper aims to illustrate intercultural translation obstacles caused by the collision between eastern and western cultures, from which enlightenment about cross-cultural translation can be gained.

  4. Is Literal Translation Possible? Or the Ethos of a Dedicated Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolfgang; Kubin

    2012-01-01

    <正>Those who translate a verse literally are liars.——The Talmud According to popular opinion,all translations must be literal ones,that is,one should translate every text word for word without any additions.Although translation theory has developed very quickly since the 60s and shown that such a view of literal translation is much too simple,if not blatantly incorrect,these new insights into the true nature of translation work do not really play a role in

  5. New Trends outside the Translation Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Martínez Martínez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the study of different elements at the University of Granada’s Faculty of Translation and Interpreting and seeks to elaborate a prototype for a multilingual and accessible audio guide (audio description, SDHH and Spanish sign language interpretation. We defend a new methodology, one that focuses on teaching the translation process from previous museum-based learning experiences in the translation classroom using QR codes. Our main goal is to innovate translation-related teaching based on the new approaches acquired through learning workshop perspectives. In this sense, we will offer an ideal framework in developing the new concept of translation learning. This concept involves systemising a new means of learning and organising the realities of translation itself, encompassing objectives, competences, methodology and evaluation.

  6. Novel translational strategies in colorectal cancer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Defining translational research is still a complex task. In oncology, translational research implies using our basic knowledge learnt from in vitro and in vivo experiments to directly improve diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches in cancer patients. Moreover, the better understanding of human cancer and its use to design more reliable tumor models and more accurate experimental systems also has to be considered a good example of translational research. The identification and characterization of new molecular markers and the discovery of novel targeted therapies are two main goals in colorectal cancer translational research. However, the straightforward translation of basic research findings, specifically into colorectal cancer treatment and vice versa is still underway. In the present paper, a summarized view of some of the new available approaches on colorectal cancer translational research is provided. Pros and cons are discussed for every approach exposed.

  7. The Role of Localisation in Advertising Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying

    2016-01-01

    Today, a growing number of international corporations have been seeking to boost their sales on the global scale. To achieve this, adverting, one of the most common way to stimulate consumption, is widely used in which translation is involved because of diverse languages. Thus, how to translate a source advertising in a target culture has a decisive influence on a compa-ny’s marketing. The aim of the target advertising is to sell products to the locals. In this sense, localisation plays a significant role in the translation of advertising. This essay will discuss the importance of localisation in the translation of advertising and analyse cases of English-Chinese advertising translation based on the purpose of advertising and advertising translation.

  8. Retrospect and Prospect of Translational Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Jifeng

    2013-01-01

    Being a great revolution of medical research, translational medicine tries to establish more directly linkage between the basic research and clinical medical treatment-two-sideway translational channel so as to quickly promote the clinical transformation and feedback of basic research achievements. So far, A lot of effective studies on translational medicine in various medical ifelds at home and abroad have been carried out,such as tumor, cardiocerebral vascular diseases, obesity, respiratory functional disorder, epilepsy, schizophrenia, organ transplantation, clinical application of stem cells and neural restoration, meanwhile, many fruitful studies on translational medicine are also performed or being performed in different disciplines or professions, and achieves better progress. But many problems are also presented. Therefore, the direction of medical development in 21 century should be fostering the concepts of translational medicine, encouraging the bidirectional cross between basic research staff and clinical doctors as well as focusing on translational achievements and practical application.

  9. Application of Relevance theory to translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯仁爱

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of relevance theory, translation is regarded as a relevance-seeking communication. It involves three participant relationships:the source speaker, the translator and the target hearers. The translator is supposed to create a context that the target hearer can infer the intention of the source speaker. Comparing translation theories which fail to pay attention to the relevance between the source speakers and the target hearers, Relevance Theory is a relatively overall account of translation. For one thing, some points concerning the Relevance Theory are capable of facilitating the researches to the present translation field. For another, the information of the original text will be understood and comprehended accurately and promptly on the basis of the relevant theory.

  10. Translation: treason, serendipity or acquired instinct?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick John O. Sullivan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2008v2n22p75This article reviews Gregory Rabassa’s memoirs called “If this be treason”. It pays tribute to a brilliant translator and literary critic, who is one of the unsung heroes of Spanish and Portuguese Literature. His memoirs, enriched by years of experience and theoretical reflection, provide a profound and wonderfully readable meditation on the art of translation, without ever becoming pedantic. They are divided into three sections: a the translator, b the translated and, finally, c his verdict on the treason involved in the translation process. In this article, Aubert’s (1997 translation modalities are used to analyze Rabassa’s strategies when dealing with culture-specific items.

  11. Some Pitfalls of Translation Greek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Marcos, Natalio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In textual criticism it is important to detect the genesis of mistakes; sometimes the true reading is only reached through the unmasking of the wrong one. Likewise, in order to use critically the Septuagint it is indispensable to find out first its corruptions and mistranslations. The making of a Greek-Hebrew Index of the Antiochene Text in the Historical Books is an excellent occasion to observe the translation process and find out the most common errors made by the translators. A few examples will be commented concerning the following issues: inner-Greek corruptions and misleading translations caused by the graphic confusion of similar letters (paleography or sounds (phonetics, and by a different reading or vocalization of the consonantal text. In several cases this analysis may open a window towards a non-Masoretic Hebrew Vorlage.

    En crítica textual es muy importante descubrir la génesis de los errores; a veces la lectura verdadera sólo se descubre desenmascarando la falsa. De igual manera, para usar críticamente la Septuaginta es imprescindible descubrir primero las corrupciones y los errores de traducción. La confección de un índice griego-hebreo del texto antioqueno en los libros históricos es una ocasión excelente para analizar el proceso de traducción y detectar los errores más comunes cometidos por los traductores. En el artículo se estudian algunos ejemplos con relación a los siguientes fenómenos: corrupciones internas al griego y traducciones equivocadas motivadas por la confusión gráfica de letras (paleografía o sonidos (fonética semejantes y por una vocalización diferente del texto consonántico. En varios casos este análisis permite vislumbrar un texto base hebreo distinto del masorético.

  12. A Probabilistic Approach to Knowledge Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shangpu; Lowd, Daniel; Dou, Dejing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on a novel knowledge reuse scenario where the knowledge in the source schema needs to be translated to a semantically heterogeneous target schema. We refer to this task as "knowledge translation" (KT). Unlike data translation and transfer learning, KT does not require any data from the source or target schema. We adopt a probabilistic approach to KT by representing the knowledge in the source schema, the mapping between the source and target schemas, and the resulting ...

  13. On the Translation of Paper Losses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡礼慧

    2012-01-01

      Paper Losses is a short story written by Lorrie Moore,an American fiction writer known for her humorous and poignant short stories,in 2006. Before do the English-Chinese translation,the author makes an analysis of the source text from the point of tone and characters,then discusses the translation methods and theory that the author adopts. Moreover,problems encountering in the pro-cess of translation are listed for further progress.

  14. Translational medicine promising personalized therapy in oncology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Xin ZENG; Xiao-Shi ZHANG; Qiang LIU

    2010-01-01

    @@ Translational medicine has newly emerged to bridge the gap between bench-related basic science research and bedside clinical practice. From early diagnosis to late-stage disease treatment, translational medicine has transformed the clinical practice by making personalized medicine possible. Attributing to the progress in translational medical research, cancer therapy has evolved from non-specific cytotoxic drugs against both tumor and normal proliferating cells to more specific small molecule chemical and immunotherapy approaches.

  15. Problems and Countermeasures in Advertising Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜卉

    2015-01-01

    Advertisement is an important tie linking the international commercial activities.Advertisement language,as the main core of advertisements,plays an important role on conveying information.However,people usually suffer from some problems when they conduct advertising translation activities.This essay figures out the problems and the requirements of advertising translation, and some primary methods approaching to the most appropriate advertising translation.

  16. Translation Studies Based on Pragmatic Equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇宁; 李丽丽

    2016-01-01

    As a newly created field, pragmatics has become more systematic during the years' continuous development. It provides us a wide range of insights into other fields—translation, linguistics, discourse analysis, semantics and psychologist, etc. To some extent, pragmatics is the facilitator of translation in cross-cultural and cross-linguistic communication and is expected to achieve the fulfillment of communicative effect. With the enforcement of pragmatics, pragmatic translation got rapid improvement.

  17. On Intuitionistic Fuzzy Magnified Translation in Semigroups

    OpenAIRE

    Sardar, Sujit Kumar; Mandal, Manasi; Majumder, Samit Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The notion of intuitionistic fuzzy sets was introduced by Atanassov as a generalization of the notion of fuzzy sets. S.K Sardar and S.K. Majumder unified the idea of fuzzy translation and fuzzy multiplication of Vasantha Kandasamy to introduce the concept of fuzzy magnified translation in groups and semigroups. The purpose of this paper is to intuitionistically fuzzify(by using Atanassov's idea) the concept of fuzzy magnified translation in semigroups. Here among other results we obtain some ...

  18. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeman, Daniel J.; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J.

    2012-01-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component “hepatitis c virus” separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such “Ab.IgG”, “DNA”, and “RNA”. We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into 9 languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC’s open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange PMID:22285984

  19. Review on Translation as Adaptive Variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiao-han

    2014-01-01

    Translation as Adaptive Variation originally is Professor Ma Xiao’s doctoral dissertation, providing a novel perspective and a theoretical concept for translation researchers. It will firstly have a review on the book, explaining Professor Ma’s theory in details and pointing out the key concepts, then analysis it’s significance to translation theory and study. Furthermore, several weakness may be presented for future improving.

  20. Iran’s Approach to Knowledge Translation

    OpenAIRE

    R Majdzadeh; S Nedjat; Fotouhi, A; H. Malekafzali

    2009-01-01

    "nKnowledge translation was created in response to the knowledge-do gap. With the growing number of research projects, utilization of research knowledge roused interest. One of its defects, which are seen more in developing countries, is the scarcity of recognized practical knowledge translation applications. The actions taken to strengthen knowledge translation can be classified into three categories of ‘push, pull and exchange'. In Iran, some of the interventions effecti...

  1. Translation Study from Perspective of Skoposthoerie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiangqun; Huang Ruying

    2009-01-01

    The functionalists take translation, including written and oral ones, as a purposeful action. The theory reflects its essence in the following four parts: (a) the foundation of functionalism ; (b) basic concepts and nature of functional translation ; (c) translating as interpersonal interaction; (d) an applied introduction of Skoposthcorie in interpreting and interpretation. This paper is designed to extend these three parts above to take a closer look at the skoposthoerie.

  2. NDAS Hardware Translation Layer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaretian, Ryan N.; Holladay, Wendy T.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Data Acquisition System (NDAS) project is aimed to replace all DAS software for NASA s Rocket Testing Facilities. There must be a software-hardware translation layer so the software can properly talk to the hardware. Since the hardware from each test stand varies, drivers for each stand have to be made. These drivers will act more like plugins for the software. If the software is being used in E3, then the software should point to the E3 driver package. If the software is being used at B2, then the software should point to the B2 driver package. The driver packages should also be filled with hardware drivers that are universal to the DAS system. For example, since A1, A2, and B2 all use the Preston 8300AU signal conditioners, then the driver for those three stands should be the same and updated collectively.

  3. Trademark Translation in International Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋露露

    2012-01-01

    Trademark is a sign of a certain product;the fundamental function of which is to distinguish the products of one producer from thoseof another.It is also "the first face" of the product which is put in front of the consumers,providing them with quite a lot of information.More andmore firms have come to realize that one of their most valuable assets isthe trademarks associated with their products or services,since the valueof a manufacturer’s brand finally lies in the trademark of the product.Consequently,the translation of trademarks has also drawn much greaterattention than ever before and has become an essential research problemin the business circle with the rapid development of economic globalization.

  4. Tuning innate immunity by translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Robert; Ignatova, Zoya

    2015-12-01

    In multicellular organisms, the epithelia is a contact surface with the surrounding environment and is exposed to a variety of adverse biotic (pathogenic) and abiotic (chemical) factors. Multi-layered pathways that operate on different time scales have evolved to preserve cellular integrity and elicit stress-specific response. Several stress-response programs are activated until a complete elimination of the stress is achieved. The innate immune response, which is triggered by pathogenic invasion, is rather harmful when active over a prolonged time, thus the response follows characteristic oscillatory trajectories. Here, we review different translation programs that function to precisely fine-tune the time at which various components of the innate immune response dwell between active and inactive. We discuss how different pro-inflammatory pathways are co-ordinated to temporally offset single reactions and to achieve an optimal balance between fighting pathogens and being less harmful for healthy cells.

  5. Translational Bioinformatics and Clinical Research (Biomedical) Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cheng, Donavan T

    2016-03-01

    Translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics are the primary domains related to informatics activities that support translational research. Translational bioinformatics focuses on computational techniques in genetics, molecular biology, and systems biology. Clinical research (biomedical) informatics involves the use of informatics in discovery and management of new knowledge relating to health and disease. This article details 3 projects that are hybrid applications of translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics: The Cancer Genome Atlas, the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center clinical variants and results database, all designed to facilitate insights into cancer biology and clinical/therapeutic correlations.

  6. Translation and Manipulation in Renaissance England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Denton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This supplementary volume to JEMS is part of an ongoing research project which began with a series of articles published by the author in the 1990s on the translation of Classical historical texts in Renaissance England. The methodology followed is that of Descriptive Translation Studies as developed by scholars such as Lefevere and Hermans with the accent on manipulation of the source text in line with the ideological stance of the translator and the need to ensure that readers of the translation received the ‘correct’ moral lessons.  Particular attention is devoted to a case study of the strategies followed in Thomas North’s domesticating English translation of Jacques Amyot’s French translation of Plutarch’s Lives and the consequences for Shakespeare’s perception of Plutarch.Biography John Denton was associate professor of English Language and Translation at the University of Florence until retirement in 2015. He  has published on contrastive analysis, history of translation (with special reference to the Early Modern England, religious discourse, literary and audiovisual translation

  7. The Analysis of Semantic Comparisons in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晨; 温雪娜

    2007-01-01

    As you all know,translation is an art that requires a lot of skills.Wide horizon,literature connotation and constant practice make a successful translator.And in translation we have to pay special attention to the semantic comparisons of different languages.This paper probes into the four features of comparisons between Chinese & English vocabulary,that is,coincidence,parallel,vacancy and conflict.At the same time,it explores how to deal with some problems in translation,too.

  8. Bastyr/UW Oncomycology Translational Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research Area: Fungi Program: Partnerships for CAM Clinical Translational Research Description: Trametes versicolor is an immunologically active medicinal mushroom...

  9. Gregory Rabassa’s Views on Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaños Cuéllar Sergio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gregory Rabassa is noted for his translations of famous Latin American authors (García Márquez, Vargas Llosa, Clarice Lispector, Jorge Amado, etc.. Less known are his views on translating. In this paper I aim at presenting and discussing his viewpoints as to the definition of translation (with a key discussion of the concept of equivalence, the role of the translator (a model speaker-listener of the target text, and some of the translation strategies he applies in his translational work (original's pre-eminence, problem solving, foreignizing, fictionalizing, and semantic networking. I argue that most of Rabassa's stances towards translating can be explained and are still valid within the framework of a modern translation approach. Examples from the English, French, German, Portuguese and Russian translations of García Márquez's Cien años de soledad are taken from a multilingual parallel corpus collected by the author of this paper.

  10. On Chinese Translation Methods of English Pun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jin

    2015-01-01

    English pun is the humorous of a word to suggest different meanings or applications or of words having the same or nearly the same sound but different meanings. Due to the great discrepancy between English and Chinese in terms of pronuncia⁃tion, form, sentence structure and ways of expression, the translation of pun into Chinese has been generally thought as untranslat⁃able. Hence, the translator faces great challenges in its Chinese translation. However, puns are not necessarily untranslatable. Six methods are usually employed in English puns’translation into Chinese.

  11. The Application of Gestalt Theory in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海

    2014-01-01

    The Gestalt theory is an important integral of integrated approach to translation, which tries to bridge the gap between linguistic oriented translation and literary oriented translation. The gestalt principle is a vertical stratificational model, which is proceeds from level A at the top to level F at the bottom. In other words, from the macro- level to the micro- level. Thus, from the perspective of gestalt theory, we can have a holistic understanding of the source text, and at the same time the translated texts would be more precise.

  12. Bastyr/UW Oncomycology Translational Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research Area: FungiProgram: Partnerships for CAM Clinical Translational ResearchDescription:Trametes versicolor is an immunologically active medicinal mushroom that...

  13. On Intuitionistic Fuzzy Magnified Translation in Semigroups

    CERN Document Server

    Sardar, Sujit Kumar; Majumder, Samit Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The notion of intuitionistic fuzzy sets was introduced by Atanassov as a generalization of the notion of fuzzy sets. S.K Sardar and S.K. Majumder unified the idea of fuzzy translation and fuzzy multiplication of Vasantha Kandasamy to introduce the concept of fuzzy magnified translation in groups and semigroups. The purpose of this paper is to intuitionistically fuzzify(by using Atanassov's idea) the concept of fuzzy magnified translation in semigroups. Here among other results we obtain some characterization theorems of regular, intra-regular, left(right) regular semigroups in terms of intuitionistic fuzzy magnified translation.

  14. Classification and Translation of Chinese Abbreviations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭颖婷

    2014-01-01

    Chinese abbreviation, containing fewer words and delivering a wealth of information, is a vital component of Chinese language. But the tremendous differences between Chinese and English make it an arduous task to translate Chinese abbreviations into English. Based on the analyses of the structure and patterns of word-formation of Chinese abbreviations, it makes a classifi-cation of Chinese abbreviations, summarize the translation methods, and point out some attention points in translation. A system-atic analysis on the structure and classification of Chinese abbreviations will be beneficial to reduce the mistakes in its translation.

  15. An Image Processing Approach to Linguistic Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubatur, Shruthi; Sreehari, Suhas; Hegde, Rajeshwari

    2011-12-01

    The art of translation is as old as written literature. Developments since the Industrial Revolution have influenced the practice of translation, nurturing schools, professional associations, and standard. In this paper, we propose a method of translation of typed Kannada text (taken as an image) into its equivalent English text. The National Instruments (NI) Vision Assistant (version 8.5) has been used for Optical character Recognition (OCR). We developed a new way of transliteration (which we call NIV transliteration) to simplify the training of characters. Also, we build a special type of dictionary for the purpose of translation.

  16. Amharic Speech Recognition for Speech Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Melese, Michael; Besacier, Laurent; Meshesha, Million

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The state-of-the-art speech translation can be seen as a cascade of Automatic Speech Recognition, Statistical Machine Translation and Text-To-Speech synthesis. In this study an attempt is made to experiment on Amharic speech recognition for Amharic-English speech translation in tourism domain. Since there is no Amharic speech corpus, we developed a read-speech corpus of 7.43hr in tourism domain. The Amharic speech corpus has been recorded after translating standard Bas...

  17. On Translation of Tourism Materials into English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing development of Chinese international activities and the promotion of international position and reputation, more and more English-speaking visitors come to China. Therefore, the translation of Chinese materials into English is of prime importance, which forms the subject of this paper. With the consideration of language features and functions of English texts, this paper analyzes certain disadvantages of the existing translation of tourism materials, by ways of examples, quotations and analysis, so as to explore proper translation strategies, which are supposed to be applied to practical use for the purpose of improving the quantity of translation and meeting readers'needs.

  18. Translation Method and Computer Programme for Assisting the Same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a translation method comprising the steps of: a translator speaking a translation of a written source text in a target language, an automatic speech recognition system converting the spoken translation into a set of phone and word hypotheses in the target language......, a machine translation system translating the written source text into a set of translations hypotheses in the target language, and an integration module combining the set of spoken word hypotheses and the set of machine translation hypotheses obtaining a text in the target language. Thereby obtaining...... a significantly improved and faster translation compared to what is achieved by known translation methods....

  19. Virtual Teaching Environment and Translation Teachers'Roles%Virtual Teaching Environment and Translation Teachers' Roles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪宇红

    2016-01-01

    With the development of information technology, there has appeared a virtual environment for translation teaching. This paper illustrates the advantages of this environment, points out translation teachers' roles and the requirements for them to fulfil these roles.

  20. Integrating Automatic Speech Recognition and Machine Translation for Better Translation Outputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi

    than typing, making the translation process faster. The spoken translation is analyzed and combined with the machine translation output of the same sentence using different methods. We study a number of different translation models in the context of n-best list rescoring methods. As an alternative...... to the n-best list rescoring, we also use word graphs with the expectation of arriving at a tighter integration of ASR and MT models. Integration methods include constraining ASR models using language and translation models of MT, and vice versa. We currently develop and experiment different methods...... on the Danish – English language pair, with the use of a speech corpora and parallel text. The methods are investigated to check ways that the accuracy of the spoken translation of the translator can be increased with the use of machine translation outputs, which would be useful for potential computer...

  1. Harmonious Relationship between Authors and Translators under the Feminist Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈辉

    2013-01-01

    "Androgyny"is an important concept of feminist criticism. The translators have their own voice under the guidance of“androgyny”. The relationship between the translator and the author should be a harmonious dialogue.

  2. Thinking Chinese Translation A Course in Translation Method; Chinese to English

    CERN Document Server

    Valerie, Pellatt

    2010-01-01

    Suitable for advanced undergraduates and postgraduate students of Chinese. "Thinking Chinese Translation", this book explores the ways in which memory, general knowledge, and creativity (summed up as 'schema') contribute to the linguistic ability necessary to create a good translation

  3. TBscore II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Lemvik, Grethe; Abate, Ebba;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: The TBscore, based on simple signs and symptoms, was introduced to predict unsuccessful outcome in tuberculosis patients on treatment. A recent inter-observer variation study showed profound variation in some variables. Further, some variables depend on a physician assessing...... them, making the score less applicable. The aim of the present study was to simplify the TBscore. Methods: Inter-observer variation assessment and exploratory factor analysis were combined to develop a simplified score, the TBscore II. To validate TBscore II we assessed the association between start...

  4. Terminology and French-Spanish business translation: evaluating terminology resources for the translation of accounting documents

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate a series of terminology resources and determine their suitability to the practice of French-Spanish translation of accounting documents. First we identify the terminology needs of a specific group of translator trainees when facing business translation, as well as the resources they use particularly when translating annual accounts. Then, we select various terminology resources used in this context and evaluate them according to their needs. The results su...

  5. Computer-aided Translation Technology and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪美侠; 何大顺

    2014-01-01

    This article begins with a brief analysis of the significance of translation technology in different spheres of modern life, followed by a distinction between machine translation (MT) and computer-aided translation (CAT). It then describes some trans-lation resources and tools and examines the negative and positive aspects of computer-aided translations. Finally it comes to a conclusion that it would be greatly efficient and productive for the translators to acquire the new skills in the translation work-place.

  6. The use of social surveys in translation studies: methodological characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznik, Anna; Hurtado Albir, Amparo; Espinal Berenguer, Anna; Andrews, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Translation is an activity carried out by professionals – in some cases after a period of formal training – who are employed or self-employed, and whose work is destined for translation users. Translators, translator trainees, employers of translators, and translation users are four clearly defined social groups within the translation industry that may be the subject of study using one of the methods most frequently used within the field of social sciences: the social survey. This paper prese...

  7. On Advertisement Translation from the Perspective of Skopostheorie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莹

    2015-01-01

    with many international companies being founded, there is a growing need for efficient international advertising communication and translation. Due to the cultural difference between two languages, advertising translation is a great challenge for the translator. On this occasion, the functionalist approaches which allow enough freedom and flexibility of the translator can be the leading guidance in the advertising translation. This paper introduces the skopos features of advertisement translation, meanwhile, discusses the translation strategies of advertisement.

  8. Bean Soup Translation: Flexible, Linguistically-Motivated Syntax for Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehay, Dennis Nolan

    2012-01-01

    Machine translation (MT) systems attempt to translate texts from one language into another by translating words from a "source language" and rearranging them into fluent utterances in a "target language." When the two languages organize concepts in very different ways, knowledge of their general sentence structure, or…

  9. A Study on the Role of Translators from the Perspective of Cognitive Linguistic View on Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金洪; 王延邦

    2015-01-01

    As the vital element in the process of translation, translators’ role has always been neglected in traditional theories. On the basis of cognitive linguistics, translators should attain a balance between subjectivity and passivity to reach a better translation practice in vital process of inter-cultural communication.

  10. Translation Competence and Translation Teaching%翻译能力与翻译教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军燕

    2008-01-01

    Through an analysis of the features of Translation Teaching(TT)of China,the author tries to propose a new viewpoint on Translation Competence (TC).Traditionally,the TC focuses on practical TC.To the author translation teaching should put stress on not only practical TC of

  11. Translation Training in the Jordanian Context: Curriculum Evaluation in Translator Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Anjad

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at drawing a clear picture of translator training in Jordan through the evaluation of translation programs at the Master's level. The framework of the Context, Input, Process, and Product components of the CIPP evaluation model developed by Daniel Stufflebeam in 1971 was used to evaluate the three translation Master's programs at…

  12. Translation Meets Cognitive Science: The Imprint of Translation on Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Translation has long played a role in linguistic and literary studies research. More recently, the theoretical and methodological concerns of process research have given translation an additional role in cognitive science. The interest in the cognitive aspects of translation has led scholars to turn to disciplines such as cognitive linguistics,…

  13. An Evaluation of Output Quality of Machine Translation (Padideh Software vs. Google Translate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Haniyeh Sadeghi; Aghayi, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the translation quality of two machine translation systems in translating six different text-types, from English to Persian. The evaluation was based on criteria proposed by Van Slype (1979). The proposed model for evaluation is a black-box type, comparative and adequacy-oriented evaluation. To conduct the evaluation, a…

  14. TNO at CLEF-2001: Comparing translation resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the official runs of TNO TPD for CLEF-2001. We participated in the monolingual, bilingual and multilingual tasks. The main contribution of this paper is a systematic comparison of three types of translation resources for bilingual retrieval based on query translation. We compare

  15. The Nature of Dynamic Equivalence in Translating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nida, Eugene A.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of three types of translation: formal correspondence, cognitive content and emotive response-oriented. The latter two are dynamic-equivalent translations. Their purpose is to enable the receptors to understand the implications of the cognitive content or to make a corresponding emotive response without recourse to the original text.…

  16. On the Techniques of Journalistic Text Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林燕

    2015-01-01

    With the development of economy globalization,the translation of journalistic text has become increasingly important to cultural exchanges or economy communication among different countries. This paper briefly introduces the characteristics of news text and provides some feasible techniques for translation from English to Chinese or Chinese to English based on the case study.

  17. The Role of Discourse Analysis in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Vasheghani Farahani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Discourse Analysis (D.A is a discipline which concerns the study of the relationship between language and the context in which it is used. In other words, Discourse Analysis is a branch of applied linguistics which investigates the study of language in use .As McCarty explains (1978: p 5 “This field of study grew out of work in different disciplines in 1960s and 1970s, including linguistics, semiotics, psychology, anthropology and sociology”. One of the most interesting fields of study which has been recently affected by Discourse Analysis is a newly –born trend called Translation studies. This new area of research which is going from strength to strength delves into the systematic study of translation. It is assumed that D.A and Translation studies have much in common .Some of the areas of research which have been affected by D.A are Halliday’s systematic functional grammar, Julian House model of translation quality assessment and Katherine Reisis text typology in translation. This papers aims at analyzing these concepts and terms in relation with translation studies. Keywords: Discourse Analysis, Translation Studies, Systematic-Functional grammar, Context, House model of translation quality assessment.

  18. SLOVAK CHILDREN''S LITERATURE IN TRANSLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KNIAZKOVA V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main milestones of Slovak children's literature and how it is represented in the translation into foreign languages. The work of writers who have contributed to the development of children's literature most of all is analyzed in the article, as well as the work of the translators who have contributed to the promotion of Slovak literature abroad.

  19. Translation and Advertising: Going Global. Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguinot, Candace; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the identity-forming power of translation in advertising copy. In the marketing of goods and services across cultural boundaries, an understanding of culture and semiotics that goes well beyond both language and design is involved. Translators must understand marketing, the legal jurisdictions of their market, how cultural differences…

  20. Literary Translation: Cultural Value, Time and Intertextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimer Luarsabishvili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we evaluate the literary translation as the phenomena with three peculiarities: as the creator of the cultural values, as the possessor of the intertextual peculiarities and as the mediator between the epoch of creations and translation of the literary text.

  1. A Pragmatic Perspective on Advertisement Translating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管虎元

    2008-01-01

    With the strengthening of intercultural communication,advertisement translating becomes more and more impor tant in the field of commerce.Based on an analysis and comparison of English and Chinese advertisements,this paper discusses the strategies of translating advertisement from a pragmatic pernpective, including the speech act theory,the context theory and cultural consideration,etc.

  2. Compiling a Corpus for Teaching Medical Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth de la Teja Bosch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: medical translation has countless documentary sources; the major difficulty lies in knowing how to assess them. The corpus is the ideal tool to perform this activity in a rapid and reliable way, and to define the learning objectives based on text typology and oriented towards professional practice.Objective: to compile an electronic corpus that meets the requirements of the professional practice to perform specialized medical translation. Methods: a pedagogical research was conducted in the province of Cienfuegos. The units of analysis involved records from translators of the Provincial Medical Sciences Information Center and specialized translators in this field, who completed a questionnaire to accurately determine their information needs, conditioning the corpus design criteria. The analysis of a set of texts extracted from highly reputable sources led to the text selection and final compilation. Subsequently, the validation of the corpus as a documentary tool for teaching specialized medical translation was performed. Results: there was a concentration of translation assignments in the topics: malignant tumors, hypertension, heart disease, diabetes mellitus and pneumonias. The predominant text typologies were: evaluative and dissemination of current research, with plenty original articles and reviews. The text corpus design criteria were: unannotated, documented, specialized, monitor and comparable. Conclusions: the corpus is a useful tool to show the lexical, terminological, semantic, discursive and contextual particularities of biomedical communication. It allows defining learning objectives and translation problems. Key words: teaching; translating; medicine

  3. Translating Lengthy Chinese sentences into English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖攀

    2014-01-01

    <正>1.Introduction With more and more international communication,translation becomes the most important means of communication between different countries and cultures.The lengthy sentence translation is an area that demands more indepth and comprehensive studies.By using the contrastive methods,this paper aims at discussing the techniques of

  4. Suggestions on Training MTI Translators and Interpreters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岩

    2013-01-01

    This article gives a brief review of the current state of training MTI translators and interpreters.After analyzing the problems that exist in course of the training,the author,as a student of MTI,puts forth some suggestions to improve the MTI training in colleges and universities to train practical translators and interpreters from the point of view of learning.

  5. Current Situation of English Translation Courses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋蕾

    2016-01-01

    After 1978, according to the foreign language teaching program and outline requirements which were established by the Ministry of Education, most colleges and universities identified translation as important foreign language professional courses for English majors. But currently, there are still many errors in positioning the teaching English translation at most colleges and universities, and their teaching and research are also at the margins.

  6. Research on the Translation of Public Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiannan, Ma

    2012-01-01

    Because of the increasing international image of China, the translation of public signs in city has become the very important issue. From the point of view of cross-cultural communication, the public signs have crucial influence on the image of the city, even for the whole China. However, there exist many translation errors of the public signs in…

  7. Distance and Defamiliarisation: Translation as Philosophical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitenberg, Claudia W.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I posit translation as philosophical operation that disrupts commonsense meaning and understanding. By defamiliarising language, translation can arrest thinking about a text in a way that assumes the language is understood. In recent work I have grappled with the phrase "ways of knowing", which, for linguistic and conceptual…

  8. Travelling Languages? Land, Languaging and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Alison

    2011-01-01

    What does translation become if we uncouple language from culture and link language to perception and experience of the land? What would happen to translation if the culture concept was not the starting point for theorizing? In order to answer this question I examine the contributions of Eagleton, Keesing, Cronin and, most particularly, of the…

  9. SLOVAK CHILDREN''S LITERATURE IN TRANSLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kniazkova V.S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main milestones of Slovak children's literature and how it is represented in the translation into foreign languages. The work of writers who have contributed to the development of children's literature most of all is analyzed in the article, as well as the work of the translators who have contributed to the promotion of Slovak literature abroad.

  10. RAN translation-What makes it run?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Katelyn M; Linsalata, Alexander E; Todd, Peter K

    2016-09-15

    Nucleotide-repeat expansions underlie a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders for which there are currently no effective therapies. Recently, it was discovered that such repetitive RNA motifs can support translation initiation in the absence of an AUG start codon across a wide variety of sequence contexts, and that the products of these atypical translation initiation events contribute to neuronal toxicity. This review examines what we currently know and do not know about repeat associated non-AUG (RAN) translation in the context of established canonical and non-canonical mechanisms of translation initiation. We highlight recent findings related to RAN translation in three repeat expansion disorders: CGG repeats in fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), GGGGCC repeats in C9orf72 associated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and CAG repeats in Huntington disease. These studies suggest that mechanistic differences may exist for RAN translation dependent on repeat type, repeat reading frame, and the surrounding sequence context, but that for at least some repeats, RAN translation retains a dependence on some of the canonical translational initiation machinery. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:RNA Metabolism in Disease.

  11. TRANSLATE: New Strategic Approaches for English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Jiménez, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This teaching tip shares a research-based instructional model that uses translation to improve the English reading comprehension of English Learners. Within this instruction, English learners work collaboratively in small groups and use translation to facilitate understandings of their required English language arts curriculum. Students are taught…

  12. Translation: Towards a Critical-Functional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Sima; Ketabi, Saeed

    2010-01-01

    The controversy over the place of translation in the teaching of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) is a thriving field of inquiry. Many older language teaching methodologies such as the Direct Method, the Audio-lingual Method, and Natural and Communicative Approaches, tended to either neglect the role of translation, or prohibit it entirely as a…

  13. Rewriting "Beowulf": The Task of Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, John D.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that the work of translating the Old English poem, "Beowulf," has yielded an artistic work of the literary imagination that, although far different from the work of the original poet, is compelling for readers of today. Outlines numerous problems of translating the work. (HB)

  14. Terminology in Doing Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周樱

    2011-01-01

    Terminology plays an important role in doing business English translation.This paper will try to give tentative definitions of what is terminology,of what is business English translation,and render some examples to exemplify the significant impacts of terminology in doing BET.In author's opinion the scope of "terminology" is quite broad.

  15. Translational physiology: from molecules to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Douglas R

    2013-07-15

    The term 'translational research' was coined 20 years ago and has become a guiding influence in biomedical research. It refers to a process by which the findings of basic research are extended to the clinical research setting (bench to bedside) and then to clinical practice and eventually health policy (bedside to community). It is a dynamic, multidisciplinary research approach. The concept of translational physiology applies the translational research model to the physiological sciences. It differs from the traditional areas of integrative and clinical physiology by its broad investigative scope of basic research to community health. Translational physiology offers exciting opportunities, but presently is under-developed and -utilized. A key challenge will be to expand physiological research by extending investigations to communities of patients and healthy (or at risk) individuals. This will allow bidirectional physiological investigation throughout the translational continuum: basic research observations can be studied up to the population level, and mechanisms can be assessed by 'reverse translation' in clinical research settings and preclinical models based on initial observations made in populations. Examples of translational physiology questions, experimental approaches, roadblocks and strategies for promotion are discussed. Translational physiology provides a novel framework for physiology programs and an investigational platform for physiologists to study function from molecular events to public health. It holds promise for enhancing the completeness and societal impact of our work, while further solidifying the critical role of physiology in the biomedical research enterprise.

  16. The Translation Problems of English Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蓓

    2013-01-01

    In the process of learning English, reading comprehension is a very important part. Firstly, the paper analyzes the trans-lation’s role in reading comprehension. Secondly, it considers translation could enhance English reading comprehension. Thirdly, it mainly discusses the translation problem and skills of English Reading Comprehension.

  17. Translation brings China and World Closer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunBin

    2005-01-01

    Meaningful exchanges between people who don't speak the same language would be difficult, if not impossible, without translation. In the 21st century China's industries related to translation, such as information, publishing, education, training, development of software and audio and video equipment, have seen unprecedented progress.

  18. Translated points and Rabinowitz Floer homology

    CERN Document Server

    Albers, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We prove that if a contact manifold admits an exact filling then every local contactomorphism isotopic to the identity admits a translated point in the interior of its support, in the sense of Sandon [San11b]. In addition we prove that if the Rabinowitz Floer homology of the filling is non-zero then every contactomorphism isotopic to the identity admits a translated point, and if the Rabinowitz Floer homology of the filling is infinite dimensional then every contactmorphism isotopic to the identity has either infinitely many translated points, or a translated point on a closed leaf. Moreover if the contact manifold has dimension greater than or equal to 3, the latter option generically doesn't happen. Finally, we prove that a generic contactomorphism on $\\mathbb{R}^{2n+1}$ has infinitely many geometrically distinct iterated translated points all of which lie in the interior of its support.

  19. Ethical perspectives on knowledge translation in rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banja, John D; Eisen, Arri

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature on the ethical dimensions of knowledge creation, use, and dissemination is voluminous, it has not particularly examined the ethical dimensions of knowledge translation in rehabilitation. Yet, whether research is done in a wet lab or treatments are provided to patients in therapeutic settings, rehabilitation professionals commonly use (as well as create) knowledge and disseminate it to peers, patients, and various others. This article will refer to knowledge creation, use, and transfer as knowledge translation and examine some of its numerous ethical challenges. Three ethical dimensions of knowledge translation will particularly attract our attention: (1) the quality of knowledge disseminated to rehabilitationists; (2) ethical challenges in being too easily persuaded by or unreasonably resistant to putative knowledge; and (3) organizational barriers to knowledge translation. We will conclude with some recommendations on facilitating the ethical soundness of knowledge translation in rehabilitation.

  20. Eye tracking and the translation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Eye tracking has become increasingly popular as a quantitative research method in translation research. This paper discusses some of the major methodological issues involved in the use of eye tracking in translation research. It focuses specifically on challenges in the analysis and interpretation...... of eye-tracking data as reflections of cognitive processes during translation. Four types of methodological issues are discussed in the paper. The first part discusses the preparatory steps that precede the actual recording of eye-tracking data. The second part examines critically the general assumptions...... linking eye movements to cognitive processing in the context of translation research. The third part of the paper discusses two popular eye-tracking measures often used in translation research, fixations and pupil size, while the fourth part proposes a method to evaluate the quality of eye-tracking data....

  1. Eye tracking and the translation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Eye tracking has become increasingly popular as a quantitative research method in translation research. This paper discusses some of the major methodological issues involved in the use of eye tracking in translation research. It focuses specifically on challenges in the analysis and interpretation...... linking eye movements to cognitive processing in the context of translation research. The third part of the paper discusses two popular eye-tracking measures often used in translation research, fixations and pupil size, while the fourth part proposes a method to evaluate the quality of eye-tracking data....... of eye-tracking data as reflections of cognitive processes during translation. Four types of methodological issues are discussed in the paper. The first part discusses the preparatory steps that precede the actual recording of eye-tracking data. The second part examines critically the general assumptions...

  2. Borges and Textual Quality in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Carlos Costa

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available THROUGHOUT HIS LIFE BORGES dealt with translation problems. In hischildhood translation was a daily experience for him since he spokeboth Spanish and English at home. Later on he learnt French and German in Lausane, Switzerland, where he spent three years whenhe was a teenager. Most of his reading was. done in foteign languages, especially in English but also in French, German, and to a lesser extent in Italian and Portuguese. Borges translated little but regularly through his entire literarycareer, which was very long indeed. Among others, he translated into Spanish some pages of Ulysses, Faulkner's Wild Palms, Virginia Woolf 's A Room of One's Own, a selection of Whitman's Leaves ofGrass. Moreover, he translated a great number of quotations of writersand philosophers that he inserted copiously in his writings, includinghis fiction and poems.

  3. Structural aspects of trans-translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpanchenko, Olga V; Golovin, Andrey V; Bugaeva, Elizaveta Y; Isaksson, Leif A; Dontsova, Olga A

    2010-02-01

    trans-Translation is a process which the bacterial cells apply to rescue the ribosomes that are arrested during the translation of damaged mRNA and to get rid of the mRNA and the product polypeptide. In the course of trans-translation, the mRNA-like domain of tmRNA replaces the nonstop messenger RNA bound to the ribosome. Although several structural elements of tmRNA and SmpB known to be essential for correct determination of resume codon, the molecular mechanism of trans-translation is not well understood. Computer modeling has been used to develop a model for the spatial organization of the tmRNA inside the ribosome at different stages of trans-translation leading to a proposal for the mechanism of the template-switching process.

  4. On the Translation of Classical Chinese Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guofang

    2015-01-01

    The translation of classical Chinese poetry is a topic heated discussed in translation studies throughout the world.In this paper, the author analyzes the characteristics of Chinese as a poetic medium first, and tries to point out that the differences between Chinese and English lie in the nature of the two languages themselves, and that there are differences due to unique concepts or divergent ways of thinking and models of feeling as well.And in the following part, the author tries to explore the art the translating Chinese poetry, emphasizing on the problems of translation of rhythm and rhyme, as well as the different understandings about nature, time, nostalgia and the feeling of love between the two cultures.Last, the author draws a conclusion that translation of poetry is a kind of transplantation and recreation.

  5. Political Discourse Translation from a Register Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽梅

    2014-01-01

    Recently, register theory has been largely adopted in translation studies. It can better avoid subjective factors in transla-tion in perspective of register. It can also evaluate“faithfulness”of translated text in a rigorous way. In the paper, register theory is introduced to political discourse translation. In Halliday’s systemic functional grammar, he defines“register”as the context of sit-uation. And there are three variables of register, respectively, field, tenor and mode. Field means what is taking place in the dis-course. By tenor, it refers to who is taking part in the discourse, i.e. participant. As for mode of discourse, it means what the lan-guage will do for the participants in the context of situation. The paper aims to discuss the guiding role that register theory has to political discourse translation practice through field, tenor and mode.

  6. Translational vibrations between chains of hydrogen-bonded molecules in solid-state aspirin form I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masae; Ishikawa, Yoichi

    2013-06-01

    We perform dispersion-corrected first-principles calculations, and far-infrared (terahertz) spectroscopic experiments at 4 K, to examine translational vibrations between chains of hydrogen-bonded molecules in solid-state aspirin form I. The calculated frequencies and relative intensities reproduce the observed spectrum to accuracy of 11 cm-1 or less. The stronger one of the two peaks assigned to the translational mode includes the stretching vibration of the weak hydrogen bond between the acetyl groups of a neighboring one-dimensional chain. The calculation of aspirin form II performed for comparison gives the stretching vibration of the weak hydrogen bond in one-dimensional chain.

  7. Javanese Phrase Construction in Classical Books Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Masrukhi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available When the system or structure of language is used and influenced by other languages, it is called interference, and it may ruin the concept of structures.   This research is about Arabic phrase construction that influenced Javanese phrase construction in classical books translation (TKK. This involvement appears when the concept of Arabic’s construction is translated literally into Javanese.   The research was carried out by applying theories of interference and translation. It’s analysis approach with contrastive analysis which is allegedly enabled errors to be predicted from a comparison between Arabic’s and Javanese’s phrase construction. The data were found and collected from several classical books in Arabic language (KKbA translated by different writers. The results show that Javanese phrase construction (as the target language, particularly, with noun phrases,  with adjectival phrases, with numeral phrases, and with prepositional phrases was influenced by Arabic’s murakkab or Arabic phrase construction (as the source language. Arabic has its own concept of phrase construction.  The phrase construction cannot be translated into Javanese directly through word-for-word translation or literal translation. Thus, Javanese in TKK became inconvenient and ungrammatical. Arabic phrase construction is flipped around (with noun phrases and adjectival phrases and prepositions are used and translated improperly or in the wrong position (with prepositional phrases. This research has many implications for further use, such as: for the identification and description of the deviation of  Javanese phrase construction which has been affected by direct translation from the Arabic language,  and furthermore, to increase the knowledge of those who are learning by increasing the realization and awareness in writing and translating (especially from Arabic to Javanese about the fact that  Arabic and Javanese  have their own regulations or

  8. Linguistic Levels of Translation: A Generic Exploration of Translation Difficulties in Literary Textual Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Madkour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study research was based on a generic exploration of the translation problems that graduate students face in literary translation. Literary translation is fundamental to translation programs at higher education due to the upsurge that has occurred in publishing classical and modern literary works from various cultures. However, literary texts have special characteristics that make the process of transferring them from one language into another a daunting task. Translating literary texts is difficult even for professional translators because misinterpreting the messages of the source texts can lead to distorting the aesthetic aspects of the literary work. Students need to learn various linguistic levels of literary translation as well as strategies and methods of translation. Learning the linguistics levels of translation necessitates providing adequate training that is based on enhancing students’ cognitive abilities. Cognitive-based translation training helps students learn the procedures of solving the problems of translating sound and literary devices. Cognitive approaches are relevant to the translation process since cognition implies mental activities that students can use to understand and synthesize the literary text, and reconstruct it creatively. Therefore, the current study aimed at examining the relationship between cognitive teaching methodologies and students’ performance in literary translation. To examine this relationship, qualitative and quantitative data was collected from graduate students at the College of Languages and Translation at Imam Mohammed bin Saud Islamic University (IMAMU University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In addition, corpus data was gathered from authentic literary texts including, novels, short stories, and poetry, to investigate the effect of linguistic analysis and cognitive strategies on the quality of literary translation. Quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the

  9. Steadily translating parabolic dissolution fingers

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratiuk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Dissolution fingers (or wormholes) are formed during the dissolution of a porous rock as a result of nonlinear feedbacks between the flow, transport and chemical reactions at pore surfaces. We analyze the shapes and growth velocities of such fingers within the thin-front approximation, in which the reaction is assumed to take place instantaneously with the reactants fully consumed at the dissolution front. We concentrate on the case when the main flow is driven by the constant pressure gradient far from the finger, and the permeability contrast between the inside and the outside of the finger is finite. Using Ivantsov ansatz and conformal transformations we find the family of steadily translating fingers characterized by a parabolic shape. We derive the reactant concentration field and the pressure field inside and outside of the fingers and show that the flow within them is uniform. The advancement velocity of the finger is shown to be inversely proportional to its radius of curvature in the small P\\'{e}clet...

  10. ACTON - AUTOCAD TO NASTRAN TRANSLATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.

    1994-01-01

    The AutoCAD to NASTRAN translator, ACTON, was developed to facilitate quick generation of small finite element models for use with the NASTRAN finite element modeling program. (NASTRAN is available from COSMIC.) ACTON reads the geometric data of a drawing from the Data Exchange File (DXF) used in AutoCAD and other PC based drafting programs. The geometric entities recognized by ACTON include POINTs, LINEs, SOLIDs, 3DLINEs and 3DFACEs. From this information ACTON creates a NASTRAN bulk data deck which can be used to create a finite element model. The NASTRAN elements created include CBARs, CTRIAs, CQUAD4s, CPENTAs, and CHEXAs. The bulk data deck can be used to create a full NASTRAN deck. It is assumed that the user has at least a working knowledge of AutoCAD and NASTRAN. ACTON was written in Microsoft QuickBasic (Version 2.0). The program was developed for the IBM PC and has been implemented on an IBM PC compatible under DOS 3.21. ACTON was developed in 1988.

  11. ACTOG - AUTOCAD TO GIFTS TRANSLATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.

    1994-01-01

    The AutoCad TO Gifts Translator program, ACTOG, was developed to facilitate quick generation of small finite element models using the CASA/Gifts finite element modeling program. ACTOG reads the geometric data of a drawing from the Data Exchange File (DXF) used in AutoCAD and other PC based drafting programs. The geometric entities recognized by ACTOG include POINTs, LINEs, ARCs, SOLIDs, 3DLINEs and 3DFACEs. From this information ACTOG creates a GIFTS SRC file which can then be read into the GIFTS preprocessor BULKM or can be modified and read into EDITM to create a finite element model. The GIFTS commands created include KPOINTs, SLINEs, CARCs, GRID3s and GRID4s. The SRC file can be used as is (using the default parameters) or edited for any number of uses. It is assumed that the user has at least a working knowledge of AutoCAD and GIFTS. ACTOG was written in Microsoft QuickBasic (Version 2.0). The program was developed for the IBM PC and has been implemented on an IBM PC compatible under DOS 3.21. ACTOG was developed in 1988.

  12. The Original Text and Translated Text in Derrida's Deconstruction Theory of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1960s translation has made great progress on the way to becoming a systematic and scientific discipline. The theory of deconstruction, originating in France, has made great impact on traditional translation. It has become more influential in recent days. Through the discussion of deconstruction and its idea of translation, this thesis clarifies people's skeptical attitudes towards deconstruction and explains radical changes it has brought for translation field, especially in explaining the relationship between the original text and the translated text in Derrida's deconstruction theory. At the end of this thesis, the application and limitations of deconstruction are discussed.

  13. Translation and Culture:Translation as a Cross-cultural Mediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶谋锦

    2013-01-01

    Translation is a complex activity which involves language competence as well as proficiency in multiculturalism. From the perspective of multiculturalism, translation resembles recreation of source text by grasping essential meanings to produce a sub-tle target text which can be clearly perceived by target readers. Ignoring cultural issues can present serious mistranslations in the field of advertising translation. This paper aims to explore the significance of connotation confined by the framework of culture and point out that verbal translation is a dangerous inclination by illustrating three business examples. This paper argues that cross-cultural mediation plays an important role in translation.

  14. Ad Translation from the Perspective of Functional Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海强

    2015-01-01

    Advertising translation,as a tool of promoting sales,plays an increasingly important part in the international arena.The objective of advertising translation is to persuade customers to make purchase or buy services.Therefore,functional theory is put forward to analyze advertising translation.Advertising translation is explored from the perspective of functional theory by reviewing Vermeer’s Skopos theory.Successful translation strategies such as structure-borrowing translation,Creative Translation and zero-translation are discussed through specific examples.It proves that advertising translation can be guided by functional theory.

  15. Ad Translation from the Perspective of Functional Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海强

    2015-01-01

    Advertising translation,as a tool of promoting sales,plays an increasingly important part in the international arena.The objective of advertising translation is to persuade customers to make purchase or buy services.Therefore,functional theory is put forward to analyze advertising translation. Advertising translation is explored from the perspective of functional theory by reviewing Vermeer’s Skopos theory. Successful translation strategies such as structure-borrowing translation,Creative Translation and zero-translation are discussed through specific examples.It proves that advertising translation can be guided by functional theory.

  16. The Cultural Identity of Translator and Its Effect on Translation:The case of Two English version of Analects%The Cultural Identity of Translator and Its Effect on Translation: The case of Two English version of Analects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    恩浩

    2016-01-01

    This paper will focus on how the identity of translators affect the translation based on the analysis of the two translation versions of the Analects translated by James Legge and Ku Hungming respectively. The thesis will analyze the identity types the translators have, and then offers in-depth analyses and discussion of how the cultural identity affects translation strategy which can provide us with a special angle on the ways we see translation. Through analyzing, it can be easily found that cultural identity has a great impact on translator and translation which cannot be neglected.

  17. Word reading and translation in bilinguals: The impact of formal and informal translation expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo M. García

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies on bilingual word reading and translation have examined the effects of lexical variables (e.g., concreteness, cognate status by comparing groups of non-translators with varying levels of L2 proficiency. However, little attention has been paid to another relevant factor: translation expertise (TI. To explore this issue, we administered word reading and translation tasks to two groups of non-translators possessing different levels of informal TI (Experiment 1, and to three groups of bilinguals possessing different levels of translation training (Experiment 2. Reaction-time recordings showed that in all groups reading was faster than translation and unaffected by concreteness and cognate effects. Conversely, in both experiments, all groups translated concrete and cognate words faster than abstract and non-cognate words, respectively. Notably, an advantage of backward over forward translation was observed only for low-proficiency non-translators (in Experiment 1. Also, in Experiment 2, the modifications induced by translation expertise were more marked in the early than in the late stages of training and practice. The results suggest that TI contributes to modulating inter-equivalent connections in bilingual memory.

  18. Study on Translation Teaching from the Perspective of Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田春霞

    2015-01-01

    Through introducing the basic theories of the research,in which the distinction between translation teaching and teaching translation,the brief introduction to skopos theory and its influence on translation teaching are explained,this paper aims to probe into the translation teaching under Skopos theory,attempting to find out the effective patterns of translation teaching.

  19. The Analysis of English Translation of Chinese Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张竹莉

    2007-01-01

    By the use of various categories of translating methods:音译(Transliteration),意译(Free Translation),音意兼顾(Transliteration combined by flee translation),Culture-oriented translating approach and others,the author analyses theEnglish translation of tea names and interprets tea knowledge as well.

  20. On Peter Newmark’s View of Literal Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qiu-fang

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on Peter Newmark’s view of literal translation as the basic translation method. The author expands it by discussing three situations in which literal translation can be applied as the best translation method, including one provided by Peter Newmark, as well as its advantages over other translation methods.