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Sample records for blodsygdomme ii translation

  1. Minimal restsygdom ved maligne blodsygdomme II. Translation og terapeutiske konsekvenser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, Peter; Ommen, Hans Beier; Nyvold, Charlotte Guldborg

    2009-01-01

    in following patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib. Moreover, the methodology is being integrated in an increasing number of clinical trials, where it is expected to result in more rational and individualized clinical decision-making. A special point...

  2. Personalized translational epilepsy research - Novel approaches and future perspectives: Part II: Experimental and translational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sebastian; van Alphen, Natascha; Becker, Albert; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Deichmann, Ralf; Deller, Thomas; Freiman, Thomas; Freitag, Christine M; Gehrig, Johannes; Hermsen, Anke M; Jedlicka, Peter; Kell, Christian; Klein, Karl Martin; Knake, Susanne; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Liebner, Stefan; Norwood, Braxton A; Omigie, Diana; Plate, Karlheinz; Reif, Andreas; Reif, Philipp S; Reiss, Yvonne; Roeper, Jochen; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W; Schorge, Stephanie; Schratt, Gerhard; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Steinbach, Joachim P; Strzelczyk, Adam; Triesch, Jochen; Wagner, Marlies; Walker, Matthew C; von Wegner, Frederic; Rosenow, Felix

    2017-11-01

    Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics, and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy. In the context of these advances, the First International Symposium on Personalized Translational Epilepsy Research (1st ISymPTER) was held in Frankfurt on September 8, 2016, to discuss novel approaches and future perspectives for personalized translational research. These included new developments and ideas in a range of experimental and clinical areas such as deep phenotyping, quantitative brain imaging, EEG/MEG-based analysis of network dysfunction, tissue-based translational studies, innate immunity mechanisms, microRNA as treatment targets, functional characterization of genetic variants in human cell models and rodent organotypic slice cultures, personalized treatment approaches for monogenic epilepsies, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, therapeutic focal tissue modification, computational modeling for target and biomarker identification, and cost analysis in (monogenic) disease and its treatment. This report on the meeting proceedings is aimed at stimulating much needed investments of time and resources in personalized translational epilepsy research. This Part II includes the experimental and translational approaches and a discussion of the future perspectives, while the diagnostic methods, EEG network analysis, biomarkers, and personalized treatment approaches were addressed in Part I [1]. Copyright © 2017

  3. General-relativistic celestial mechanics. II. Translational equations of motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, T.; Soffel, M.; Xu, C.

    1992-01-01

    The translational laws of motion for gravitationally interacting systems of N arbitrarily composed and shaped, weakly self-gravitating, rotating, deformable bodies are obtained at the first post-Newtonian approximation of general relativity. The derivation uses our recently introduced multi-reference-system method and obtains the translational laws of motion by writing that, in the local center-of-mass frame of each body, relativistic inertial effects combine with post-Newtonian self- and externally generated gravitational forces to produce a global equilibrium (relativistic generalization of d'Alembert's principle). Within the first post-Newtonian approximation [i.e., neglecting terms of order (v/c) 4 in the equations of motion], our work is the first to obtain complete and explicit results, in the form of infinite series, for the laws of motion of arbitrarily composed and shaped bodies. We first obtain the laws of motion of each body as an infinite series exhibiting the coupling of all the (Blanchet-Damour) post-Newtonian multipole moments of this body to the post-Newtonian tidal moments (recently defined by us) felt by this body. We then give the explicit expression of these tidal moments in terms of post-Newtonian multipole moments of the other bodies

  4. Translation invariant time-dependent solutions to massive gravity II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, J.; Steer, D. A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper is a sequel to JCAP 12 (2013) 004 and is also devoted to translation-invariant solutions of ghost-free massive gravity in its moving frame formulation. Here we consider a mass term which is linear in the vielbein (corresponding to a β3 term in the 4D metric formulation) in addition to the cosmological constant. We determine explicitly the constraints, and from the initial value formulation show that the time-dependent solutions can have singularities at a finite time. Although the constraints give, as in the β1 case, the correct number of degrees of freedom for a massive spin two field, we show that the lapse function can change sign at a finite time causing a singular time evolution. This is very different to the β1 case where time evolution is always well defined. We conclude that the β3 mass term can be pathological and should be treated with care.

  5. A family of insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding proteins represses translation in late development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Christiansen, J; Lykke-Andersen, J

    1999-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a major fetal growth factor. The IGF-II gene generates multiple mRNAs with different 5' untranslated regions (5' UTRs) that are translated in a differential manner during development. We have identified a human family of three IGF-II mRNA-binding proteins.......5 followed by a decline towards birth, and, similar to IGF-II, IMPs are especially expressed in developing epithelia, muscle, and placenta in both mouse and human embryos. The results imply that cytoplasmic 5' UTR-binding proteins control IGF-II biosynthesis during late mammalian development....... and are homologous to the Xenopus Vera and chicken zipcode-binding proteins. IMP localizes to subcytoplasmic domains in a growth-dependent and cell-specific manner and causes a dose-dependent translational repression of IGF-II leader 3 -luciferase mRNA. Mouse IMPs are produced in a burst at embryonic day 12...

  6. Rapid Genome-wide Recruitment of RNA Polymerase II Drives Transcription, Splicing, and Translation Events during T Cell Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Davari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Activation of immune cells results in rapid functional changes, but how such fast changes are accomplished remains enigmatic. By combining time courses of 4sU-seq, RNA-seq, ribosome profiling (RP, and RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II ChIP-seq during T cell activation, we illustrate genome-wide temporal dynamics for ∼10,000 genes. This approach reveals not only immediate-early and posttranscriptionally regulated genes but also coupled changes in transcription and translation for >90% of genes. Recruitment, rather than release of paused RNA Pol II, primarily mediates transcriptional changes. This coincides with a genome-wide temporary slowdown in cotranscriptional splicing, even for polyadenylated mRNAs that are localized at the chromatin. Subsequent splicing optimization correlates with increasing Ser-2 phosphorylation of the RNA Pol II carboxy-terminal domain (CTD and activation of the positive transcription elongation factor (pTEFb. Thus, rapid de novo recruitment of RNA Pol II dictates the course of events during T cell activation, particularly transcription, splicing, and consequently translation. : Davari et al. visualize global changes in RNA Pol II binding, transcription, splicing, and translation. T cells change their functional program by rapid de novo recruitment of RNA Pol II and coupled changes in transcription and translation. This coincides with fluctuations in RNA Pol II phosphorylation and a temporary reduction in cotranscriptional splicing. Keywords: RNA Pol II, cotranscriptional splicing, T cell activation, ribosome profiling, 4sU, H3K36, Ser-5 RNA Pol II, Ser-2 RNA Pol II, immune response, immediate-early genes

  7. Translation, adaptation and validation of a Portuguese version of the Moorehead-Ardelt Quality of Life Questionnaire II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, João; Infante, Paulo; Ribeiro, Susana; Ferreira, André; Silva, Artur C; Caravana, Jorge; Carvalho, Manuel G

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide. An assessment of the impact of obesity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) requires specific instruments. The Moorehead-Ardelt Quality of Life Questionnaire II (MA-II) is a widely used instrument to assess HRQoL in morbidly obese patients. The objective of this study was to translate and validate a Portuguese version of the MA-II.The study included forward and backward translations of the original MA-II. The reliability of the Portuguese MA-II was estimated using the internal consistency and test-retest methods. For validation purposes, the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between the Portuguese MA-II and the Portuguese versions of two other questionnaires, the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite (IWQOL-Lite).One hundred and fifty morbidly obese patients were randomly assigned to test the reliability and validity of the Portuguese MA-II. Good internal consistency was demonstrated by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.80, and a very good agreement in terms of test-retest reliability was recorded, with an overall intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.88. The total sums of MA-II scores and each item of MA-II were significantly correlated with all domains of SF-36 and IWQOL-Lite. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the MA-II total score and BMI. Moreover, age, gender and surgical status were independent predictors of MA-II total score.A reliable and valid Portuguese version of the MA-II was produced, thus enabling the routine use of MA-II in the morbidly obese Portuguese population.

  8. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications: II, Clouds. Issue 159

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning clouds as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  9. Selected Translated Abstracts of Russian-Language Climate-Change Publications, II. Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravina, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning clouds as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included, to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  10. Human insulin-like growth factor II leader 2 mediates internal initiation of translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Christiansen, Jan; Hansen, T.O.

    2002-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a fetal growth factor, which belongs to the family of insulin-like peptides. During fetal life, the IGF-II gene generates three mRNAs with different 5' untranslated regions (UTRs), but identical coding regions and 3' UTRs. We have shown previously that IG...

  11. Class I and II Small Heat Shock Proteins Together with HSP101 Protect Protein Translation Factors during Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Fionn; Basha, Eman; Fowler, Mary E; Kim, Minsoo; Bordowitz, Juliana; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Vierling, Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    The ubiquitous small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are well documented to act in vitro as molecular chaperones to prevent the irreversible aggregation of heat-sensitive proteins. However, the in vivo activities of sHSPs remain unclear. To investigate the two most abundant classes of plant cytosolic sHSPs (class I [CI] and class II [CII]), RNA interference (RNAi) and overexpression lines were created in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and shown to have reduced and enhanced tolerance, respectively, to extreme heat stress. Affinity purification of CI and CII sHSPs from heat-stressed seedlings recovered eukaryotic translation elongation factor (eEF) 1B (α-, β-, and γ-subunits) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A (three isoforms), although the association with CI sHSPs was stronger and additional proteins involved in translation were recovered with CI sHSPs. eEF1B subunits became partially insoluble during heat stress and, in the CI and CII RNAi lines, showed reduced recovery to the soluble cell fraction after heat stress, which was also dependent on HSP101. Furthermore, after heat stress, CI sHSPs showed increased retention in the insoluble fraction in the CII RNAi line and vice versa. Immunolocalization revealed that both CI and CII sHSPs were present in cytosolic foci, some of which colocalized with HSP101 and with eEF1Bγ and eEF1Bβ. Thus, CI and CII sHSPs have both unique and overlapping functions and act either directly or indirectly to protect specific translation factors in cytosolic stress granules. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. The roles of MHC class II genes and post-translational modification in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollid, Ludvig M

    2017-08-01

    Our increasing understanding of the etiology of celiac disease, previously considered a simple food hypersensitivity disorder caused by an immune response to cereal gluten proteins, challenges established concepts of autoimmunity. HLA is a chief genetic determinant, and certain HLA-DQ allotypes predispose to the disease by presenting posttranslationally modified (deamidated) gluten peptides to CD4 + T cells. The deamidation of gluten peptides is mediated by transglutaminase 2. Strikingly, celiac disease patients generate highly disease-specific autoantibodies to the transglutaminase 2 enzyme. The dual role of transglutaminase 2 in celiac disease is hardly coincidental. This paper reviews the genetic mapping and involvement of MHC class II genes in disease pathogenesis, and discusses the evidence that MHC class II genes, via the involvement of transglutaminase 2, influence the generation of celiac disease-specific autoantibodies.

  13. Pedagogical progeniture or tactical translation? George Fordyce's additions and modifications to William Cullen's philosophical chemistry--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Georgette

    2014-08-01

    This paper compares the affinity theories and the associated affinity diagrams of William Cullen (1710-1790) and George Fordyce (1736-1802), exploring in particular one episode that took place during the brief hiatus between Fordyce's student years at Edinburgh University and the start of his own pedagogical career in London. This investigation complements that contained in Part I of this paper, which compared the chemistry courses given by Cullen and Fordyce, demonstrating that the knowledge originally imparted to Fordyce by Cullen in his Edinburgh lectures was augmented and translated by Fordyce for his own pedagogical purposes. Part II offers greater insight into the flow of knowledge between Fordyce and Cullen. Their correspondence suggests that the relationship between master and student transmuted into something more complicated after Fordyce left Edinburgh, while the model of knowledge transmission between the two can be seen to be more collaborative than might be expected.

  14. Aristides Quintilianus. De Musica, II 1–5. Introduction, Russian translation and notes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Lyamkina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In his extensive treatise On music Aristides Quintilianus (the late 3rd c. CE, according to Mathiesen 1983 tried to collect everything relevant to the study of musical theory and practice. Although somewhat eclectic, this massive compilation is unique in many respects, both providing us with access to the sources unknown otherwise and offering a unifying and personalized vision of music and musical education in the structure of human society and cosmos. The first book largely deals with the technical side of the Aristoxenian harmonics, rhythmic, and metrics; the most original and well structured second book focuses on the educational and therapeutic value of music, the ethical and emotional (‘male and female’ characters of melody as well as the peculiarities of various musical instruments; while the last third presents a metaphysical outlook, influenced by (Neo-Pythagorean and Platonic inclinations of the author, and includes the ‘Pythagorean’ number theory (the division of kanon, concordant relations, etc. and ‘physics’ (presented as a correlation between musical and physical realms, mostly in Platonic terms. The chapters, presented in this study in a new Russian translation, concern the pedagogical aspects of music.

  15. Translation Theory 'Translated'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....

  16. Lost in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Steffen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    of translated texts. Our results suggest (i) that frame-based classifiers are usable for author attribution of both translated and untranslated texts; (ii) that framebased classifiers generally perform worse than the baseline classifiers for untranslated texts, but (iii) perform as well as, or superior...... to the baseline classifiers on translated texts; (iv) that—contrary to current belief—naïve classifiers based on lexical markers may perform tolerably on translated texts if the combination of author and translator is present in the training set of a classifier....

  17. Practical criterion for the determination of translation factors. II. Application to He2++H(1s) collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errea, L.F.; Gomez-Llorente, J.M.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1985-01-01

    An illustration is reported on the use of the Euclidean norm as a criterion of the quality of translation factors in the molecular model of atomic collisions. The relation between our norm and the deviation vector of Chang and Rapp [J. Chem. Phys. 59, 572 (1973)], and the computational simplicity of the calculation and minimization of the former quantity, are very appealing features of our approach. To show how the norm method can be applied, the He 2+ +H(1s)→He + (2s,2p )+H + reaction is treated

  18. Practical criterion for the determination of translation factors. II. Application to He/sup 2 +/+H(1s) collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errea, L.F.; Gomez-Llorente, J.M.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1985-10-01

    An illustration is reported on the use of the Euclidean norm as a criterion of the quality of translation factors in the molecular model of atomic collisions. The relation between our norm and the deviation vector of Chang and Rapp (J. Chem. Phys. 59, 572 (1973)), and the computational simplicity of the calculation and minimization of the former quantity, are very appealing features of our approach. To show how the norm method can be applied, the He/sup 2 +/+H(1s)..-->..He/sup +/(2s,2p )+H/sup +/ reaction is treated.

  19. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  20. Translation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because a...

  1. Comprehensive analysis of published phase I/II clinical trials between 1990-2010 in osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma confirms limited outcomes and need for translational investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Maldegem Annemiek M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High grade primary bone sarcomas are rare cancers that affect mostly children and young adults. Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are the most common histological subtypes in this age group, with current multimodality treatment strategies achieving 55-70% overall survival. As there remains an urgent need to develop new therapeutic interventions, we have reviewed published phase I/II trials that have been reported for osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma in the last twenty years. Results We conducted a literature search for clinical trials between 1990 and 2010, either for trials enrolling bone sarcoma patients as part of a general sarcoma indication or trials specifically in osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. We identified 42 clinical trials that fulfilled our search criteria for general sarcoma that enrolled these patient groups, and eight and twenty specific trials for Ewing and osteosarcoma patients, respectively. For the phase I trials which enrolled different tumour types our results were incomplete, because the sarcoma patients were not mentioned in the PubMed abstract. A total of 3,736 sarcoma patients were included in these trials over this period, 1,114 for osteosarcoma and 1,263 for Ewing sarcoma. As a proportion of the worldwide disease burden over this period, these numbers reflect a very small percentage of the potential patient recruitment, approximately 0.6% for Ewing sarcoma and 0.2% for osteosarcoma. However, these data show an increase in recent activity overall and suggest there is still much room for improvement in the current trial development structures. Conclusion Lack of resources and commercial investment will inevitably limit opportunity to develop sufficiently rapid improvements in clinical outcomes. International collaboration exists in many well founded co-operative groups for phase III trials, but progress may be more effective if there were also more investment of molecular and translational research into

  2. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention...... is given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention....... This creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  3. Machine Translation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Mt System Example: The 'Janus' Translating Phone Project. The Janus ... based on laptops, and simultaneous translation of two speakers in a dialogue. For more ..... The current focus in MT research is on using machine learning.

  4. Machine translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, M

    1982-04-01

    Each language has its own structure. In translating one language into another one, language attributes and grammatical interpretation must be defined in an unambiguous form. In order to parse a sentence, it is necessary to recognize its structure. A so-called context-free grammar can help in this respect for machine translation and machine-aided translation. Problems to be solved in studying machine translation are taken up in the paper, which discusses subjects for semantics and for syntactic analysis and translation software. 14 references.

  5. Exciting perspectives for Translational Myology in the Abstracts of the 2018Spring PaduaMuscleDays: Giovanni Salviati Memorial – Chapter II - Abstracts of March 15, 2018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Carraro

    2018-02-01

    translational researches summarized in the 2018SpPMD Abstracts are at the appropriate high level to attract approval of Ethical Committees, the interest of International Granting Agencies and approval for publication in top quality, international journals. In this chapter II are listed the abstracts of the March 15, 2018 Padua Muscle Day. All 2018SpPMD Abstracts are indexed at the end of the Chapter IV.

  6. Translating India

    CERN Document Server

    Kothari, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The cultural universe of urban, English-speaking middle class in India shows signs of growing inclusiveness as far as English is concerned. This phenomenon manifests itself in increasing forms of bilingualism (combination of English and one Indian language) in everyday forms of speech - advertisement jingles, bilingual movies, signboards, and of course conversations. It is also evident in the startling prominence of Indian Writing in English and somewhat less visibly, but steadily rising, activity of English translation from Indian languages. Since the eighties this has led to a frenetic activity around English translation in India's academic and literary circles. Kothari makes this very current phenomenon her chief concern in Translating India.   The study covers aspects such as the production, reception and marketability of English translation. Through an unusually multi-disciplinary approach, this study situates English translation in India amidst local and global debates on translation, representation an...

  7. Translating Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallov, Mia Arp; Birk, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how practices of translation shape particular paths of inclusion for people living in marginalized residential areas in Denmark. Inclusion, we argue, is not an end-state, but rather something which must be constantly performed. Active citizenship, today......, is not merely a question of participation, but of learning to become active in all spheres of life. The paper draws on empirical examples from a multi-sited field work in 6 different sites of local community work in Denmark, to demonstrate how different dimensions of translation are involved in shaping active...... citizenship. We propose the following different dimensions of translation: translating authority, translating language, translating social problems. The paper takes its theoretical point of departure from assemblage urbanism, arguing that cities are heterogeneous assemblages of socio-material interactions...

  8. Compositional translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelo, Lisette; Janssen, Theo; Jong, de F.M.G.; Landsbergen, S.P.J.

    1994-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth review of machine translation by discussing in detail a particular method, called compositional translation, and a particular system, Rosetta, which is based on this method. The Rosetta project is a unique combination of fundamental research and large-scale

  9. Minimal restsygdom ved maligne blodsygdomme I. Baggrund og praeklinisk validering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, Peter; Nyvold, Charlotte Guldborg; Stentoft, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    In haematological malignancies, molecular markers like fusion DNA from balanced translocations, point mutations, or over-expressed genes can now be used not only for diagnosis, but also for determination of the minimal residual disease (MRD) after cytoreduction with a sensitivity by far exceeding...

  10. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  11. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein and Dendritic Local Translation of the Alpha Subunit of the Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Kinase II Messenger RNA Are Required for the Structural Plasticity Underlying Olfactory Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroles, Laura; Gribaudo, Simona; Doulazmi, Mohamed; Scotto-Lomassese, Sophie; Dubacq, Caroline; Mandairon, Nathalie; Greer, Charles August; Didier, Anne; Trembleau, Alain; Caillé, Isabelle

    2016-07-15

    In the adult brain, structural plasticity allowing gain or loss of synapses remodels circuits to support learning. In fragile X syndrome, the absence of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) leads to defects in plasticity and learning deficits. FMRP is a master regulator of local translation but its implication in learning-induced structural plasticity is unknown. Using an olfactory learning task requiring adult-born olfactory bulb neurons and cell-specific ablation of FMRP, we investigated whether learning shapes adult-born neuron morphology during their synaptic integration and its dependence on FMRP. We used alpha subunit of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (αCaMKII) mutant mice with altered dendritic localization of αCaMKII messenger RNA, as well as a reporter of αCaMKII local translation to investigate the role of this FMRP messenger RNA target in learning-dependent structural plasticity. Learning induces profound changes in dendritic architecture and spine morphology of adult-born neurons that are prevented by ablation of FMRP in adult-born neurons and rescued by an metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist. Moreover, dendritically translated αCaMKII is necessary for learning and associated structural modifications and learning triggers an FMRP-dependent increase of αCaMKII dendritic translation in adult-born neurons. Our results strongly suggest that FMRP mediates structural plasticity of olfactory bulb adult-born neurons to support olfactory learning through αCaMKII local translation. This reveals a new role for FMRP-regulated dendritic local translation in learning-induced structural plasticity. This might be of clinical relevance for the understanding of critical periods disruption in autism spectrum disorder patients, among which fragile X syndrome is the primary monogenic cause. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Precision translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Robert P.; Crawford, Daniel W.

    1984-01-01

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  13. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  14. Anatomy of a reindeer dissected in Copenhagen in 1672 by Niels Stensen as reported by Thomas Bartholin. I. Introduction by Troels Kardel. II. Translation by Paul Maquet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troels Kardel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A report by Professor Thomas Bartholin on the dissection of a reindeer performed in 1672 by his former student Niels Stensen as Royal Anatomist in Copenhagen is presented in English translation with biographical introduction and bibliographical notes. The report is most likely the first of its kind being an early contribution to comparative anatomy.

  15. Translation Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandepitte, Sonia; Mousten, Birthe; Maylath, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    After Kiraly (2000) introduced the collaborative form of translation in classrooms, Pavlovic (2007), Kenny (2008), and Huertas Barros (2011) provided empirical evidence that testifies to the impact of collaborative learning. This chapter sets out to describe the collaborative forms of learning at...

  16. Translating Harbourscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diedrich, Lisa Babette

    -specific design are proposed for all actors involved in harbour transformation. The study ends with an invitation to further investigate translation as a powerful metaphor for the way existing qualities of a site can be transformed, rather than erased or rewritten, and to explore how this metaphor can foster new...

  17. Word translation entropy in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied....... In particular, the current study investigates the effect of these variables on early and late eye movement measures. Early eye movement measures are indicative of processes that are more automatic while late measures are more indicative of conscious processing. Most studies that found evidence of target...... language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...

  18. Mutations in domain II of 23 S rRNA facilitate translation of a 23 S rRNA-encoded pentapeptide conferring erythromycin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, M; Douthwaite, S; Tenson, T

    1996-01-01

    Mutations in domain II of Escherichia coli 23 S rRNA that cause resistance to erythromycin do so in a manner fundamentally different from mutations at the drug binding site in domain V of the 23 S rRNA. The domain II mutations are located in a hairpin structure between nucleotides 1198 and 1247...... this hypothesis, a range of point mutations was generated in domain II of 23 S rRNA in the vicinity of the E-peptide open reading frame. We find a correlation between erythromycin resistance of the mutant clones and increased accessibility of the ribosome binding site of the E-peptide gene. Furthermore......, the erythromycin resistance determinant in the mutants was shown to be confined to a small 23 S rRNA segment containing the coding region and the ribosome binding site of the E-peptide open reading frame. It thus appears that the domain II mutations mediate erythromycin resistance by increasing expression...

  19. Translational genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kussmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.

  20. Beyond Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the growing scholarship on local development practitioners by re-examining conceptualizations of practitioners as ‘brokers’ strategically translating between ‘travelling’ (development institution) rationalities and ‘placed’ (recipient area) rationalities in relation...... and practice spurred by new challenges deriving from climate change anxiety, the study shows how local practitioners often make local activities fit into travelling development rationalities as a matter of habit, rather than as a conscious strategy. They may therefore cease to ‘translate’ between different...... rationalities. This is shown to have important implications for theory, research and practice concerning disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in which such translation is often expected....

  1. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The paper explains the theoretical background and findings of an empirical study of revision policies, using Denmark as a case in point. After an overview of important definitions, types and parameters, the paper explains the methods and data gathered from a questionnaire survey and an interview...... survey. Results clearly show that most translation companies regard both unilingual and comparative revisions as essential components of professional quality assurance. Data indicate that revision is rarely fully comparative, as the preferred procedure seems to be a unilingual revision followed by a more...... or less comparative rereading. Though questionnaire data seem to indicate that translation companies use linguistic correctness and presentation as the only revision parameters, interview data reveal that textual and communicative aspects are also considered. Generally speaking, revision is not carried...

  2. The Use of Circular Arc Cams for the Command of a Robotic System. Part II: Application to Knife Edge Translating Follower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Alaci

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of paper the results from the first part are applied to the cam mechanisms with knife-edge translating follower. First, a method for characterizing the tangency points fulfilling the actual constraints of the problem is identified. Applying this criterion, a set of equidistant points is generated on the whole geometrical locus of tangency points and the characteristics of approximating circles are found. Considering all replacement solutions, the kinematical analysis for all cam mechanisms with approximate profiles is made, choosing amid them the one performing the closest kinematical behavior to the exact cam mechanism.

  3. Oration “Ingentes vobis gratias” of Pope Pius II (15 April, 1459, Siena). Translated by Michael von Cotta-Schönberg

    OpenAIRE

    Cotta-Schønberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    During his stay in Siena, in the spring of 1459, Pope Pius II endeavoured to reform the political system of the city republic. In his oration, Ingentes vobis gratias, to the ruling parties, he requested the reintegration of the noble families into the government of city-state, but with little success.

  4. Intersection of triadic Cantor sets with their translates. II. Hausdorff measure spectrum function and its introduction for the classification of Cantor sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jun; Nekka, Fahima E-mail: fahima.nekka@umontreal.ca

    2004-01-01

    Initiated by the purpose of classification of sets having the same fractal dimension, we continue, in this second paper of a series of two, our investigation of intersection of triadic Cantor sets and their use in the classification of fractal sets. We exploit the infinite tree structure of translation elements to give the exact expressions of these elements. We generalize this result to a family of uniform Cantor sets for which we also give the Hausdorff measure spectrum function (HMSF). We develop three algorithms for the construction of HMSF of triadic Cantor sets. Then, we introduce a new method based on HMSF as a way for tracing the geometrical organization of a fractal set. The HMSF does carry a huge amount of information about the set to likely be explored in a chosen way. To extract this information, we develop a one by one step method and apply it to typical fractal sets. This results in a complete identification of fractals.0.

  5. Development of a translational model to screen medications for cocaine use disorder II: Choice between intravenous cocaine and money in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lile, Joshua A.; Stoops, William W.; Rush, Craig R.; Negus, S. Stevens; Glaser, Paul E. A.; Hatton, Kevin W.; Hays, Lon R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A medication for treating cocaine use disorder has yet to be approved. Laboratory-based evaluation of candidate medications in animals and humans is a valuable means to demonstrate safety, tolerability and initial efficacy of potential medications. However, animal-to-human translation has been hampered by a lack of coordination. Therefore, we designed homologous cocaine self-administration studies in rhesus monkeys (see companion article) and human subjects in an attempt to develop linked, functionally equivalent procedures for research on candidate medications for cocaine use disorder. Methods Eight (N=8) subjects with cocaine use disorder completed 12 experimental sessions in which they responded to receive money ($0.01, $1.00 and $3.00) or intravenous cocaine (0, 3, 10 and 30 mg/70 kg) under independent, concurrent progressive-ratio schedules. Prior to the completion of 9 choice trials, subjects sampled the cocaine dose available during that session and were informed of the monetary alternative value. Results The allocation of behavior varied systematically as a function of cocaine dose and money value. Moreover, a similar pattern of cocaine choice was demonstrated in rhesus monkeys and humans across different cocaine doses and magnitudes of the species-specific alternative reinforcers. The subjective and cardiovascular responses to IV cocaine were an orderly function of dose, although heart rate and blood pressure remained within safe limits. Conclusions These coordinated studies successfully established drug vs. non-drug choice procedures in humans and rhesus monkeys that yielded similar cocaine choice behavior across species. This translational research platform will be used in future research to enhance the efficiency of developing interventions to reduce cocaine use. PMID:27269368

  6. Translating democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Linguistic barriers may pose problems for politicians trying to communicate delicate decisions to a European-wide public, as well as for citizens wishing to protest at the European level. In this article I present a counter-intuitive position on the language question, one that explores how...... Forum (ESF). I compare deliberative practices in the multilingual ESF preparatory meetings with those in monolingual national Social Forum meetings in three Western European countries. My comparison shows that multilingualism does not reduce the inclusivity of democratic deliberation as compared...... in institutionalized habits and norms of deliberation. Addressing democratic theorists, my findings suggest that translation could be a way to think about difference not as a hindrance but as a resource for democracy in linguistically heterogeneous societies and public spaces, without presupposing a shared language...

  7. Translator's preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiell, James T

    2013-08-01

    Presents a preface from James T. Lamiell, who translates Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's Struggle for Existence (Die Psychologie im Kampf ums Dasein), in which Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy, into English. Lamiell comments that more than a decade into the 21st century, it appears that very few psychologists have any interest at all in work at the interface of psychology and philosophy. He notes that one clear indication of this is that the Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, which is Division 24 of the American Psychological Association (APA), remains one of the smallest of the APA's nearly 60 divisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation......Due to the growing uptake of translation technology in the language industry and its documented impact on the translation profession, translation students and scholars need in-depth and empirically founded knowledge of the nature and influences of translation technology (e.g. Christensen....../Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...

  9. Part II: Functional delivery of a neurotherapeutic gene to neural stem cells using minicircle DNA and nanoparticles: Translational advantages for regenerative neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Alinda R; Chari, Divya M

    2016-09-28

    Both neurotrophin-based therapy and neural stem cell (NSC)-based strategies have progressed to clinical trials for treatment of neurological diseases and injuries. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in particular can confer neuroprotective and neuro-regenerative effects in preclinical studies, complementing the cell replacement benefits of NSCs. Therefore, combining both approaches by genetically-engineering NSCs to express BDNF is an attractive approach to achieve combinatorial therapy for complex neural injuries. Current genetic engineering approaches almost exclusively employ viral vectors for gene delivery to NSCs though safety and scalability pose major concerns for clinical translation and applicability. Magnetofection, a non-viral gene transfer approach deploying magnetic nanoparticles and DNA with magnetic fields offers a safe alternative but significant improvements are required to enhance its clinical application for delivery of large sized therapeutic plasmids. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of using minicircles with magnetofection technology to safely engineer NSCs to overexpress BDNF. Primary mouse NSCs overexpressing BDNF generated increased daughter neuronal cell numbers post-differentiation, with accelerated maturation over a four-week period. Based on our findings we highlight the clinical potential of minicircle/magnetofection technology for therapeutic delivery of key neurotrophic agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhomogeneous ordered states and translational nature of the gauge group in the Landau continuum theory: II. Applications of the general theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braginsky, A. Ya.

    2007-01-01

    A group theory approach to description of phase transitions to an inhomogeneous ordered state, proposed in the preceding paper, is applied to two problems. First, a theory of the state of a liquid-crystalline smectic type-A phase under the action of uniaxial pressure is developed. Second, a model of strengthening in quasicrystals is constructed. According to the proposed approach, the so-called elastic dislocations always appear during the phase transitions in an inhomogeneous deformed state in addition to static dislocations, which are caused by peculiarities of the crystal growth or by other features in the prehistory of a sample. The density of static dislocations weakly depends on the external factors, whereas the density of elastic dislocations depends on the state. An analogy between the proposed theory of the inhomogeneous ordered state and the quantum-field theory of interaction between material fields is considered. On this basis, the phenomenological Ginzburg-Landau equation for the superconducting state is derived using the principle of locality of the transformation properties of the superconducting order parameter with respect to temporal translations

  11. Translating person-centered care into practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoffmann, Vibeke; Hörnsten, Åsa; Storbækken, Solveig

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Person-centred care [PCC] can engage people in living well with a chronic condition. However, translating PCC into practice is challenging. We aimed to compare the translational potentials of three approaches: motivational interviewing [MI], illness integration support [IIS] and guided...... tools. CONCLUSION: Each approach has a primary application: MI, when ambivalence threatens positive change; IIS, when integrating newly diagnosed chronic conditions; and GSD, when problem solving is difficult, or deadlocked. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Professionals must critically consider the context...

  12. Oration “Pius et misericors” of Pope Pius II (Spring 1459, Siena). Edited and translated by Michael von Cotta-Schönberg. Preliminary edition, 3rd version. (Orations of Pope Pius II; 36)

    OpenAIRE

    Cotta-Schønberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    During a prolonged stay in Siena in the spring of 1459, Pope Pius II received a number of embassies from the rulers of Europe declaring obedience to the Apostolic See and to the new pope. One of the embassies was from Juan II, King of Aragon and Sicily. In his short reply to the oration of the ambassadors, the pope touched upon five themes: supremacy of the Roman Church; his own unworthiness for the exalted office; merits of the king and his House; gratitude for the king’s offer of aid to the...

  13. Oration “Ingentes vobis gratias” of Pope Pius II (15 April, 1459, Siena). Edited and translated by Michael von Cotta-Schönberg. Preliminary edition, version 2. (Orations of Enea Silvio Piccolomini / Pope Pius II; 41)

    OpenAIRE

    Cotta-Schønberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    During his prolonged stay in Siena, in the spring of 1459, Pope Pius II endeavoured to reform the political system of the city republic. In his oration, Ingentes vobis gratias, to the ruling parties, he requested the reintegration of the noble families into the government of city-state, but with little success..

  14. Oration ”Quotiens nova” of Pope Pius II (9 February 1459, Perugia). Edited and translated by Michael von Cotta-Schønberg. Preliminary edition, 5th version. (Orations of Enea Silvio Piccolomini / Pope Pius II; 30)

    OpenAIRE

    Cotta-Schønberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    During his stay in Siena, in the spring of 1459, Pope Pius II received a number of embassies from the rulers of Europe coming to present the declaration of their lord’s obedience to the Apostolic See and the new pope. In his oration, Quotiens nova, to the ambassadors of Duke Louis of Savoy, the pope asserts the papal supremacy in all matters, spiritual and temporal, by virtue of the unlimited mission entrusted to the Apostle Peter by Jesus Christ. This mission and the power of the apostolic o...

  15. Translational Breast Cancer Research Consortium (TBCRC) 022: A Phase II Trial of Neratinib for Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Breast Cancer and Brain Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Rachel A; Gelman, Rebecca S; Wefel, Jeffrey S; Melisko, Michelle E; Hess, Kenneth R; Connolly, Roisin M; Van Poznak, Catherine H; Niravath, Polly A; Puhalla, Shannon L; Ibrahim, Nuhad; Blackwell, Kimberly L; Moy, Beverly; Herold, Christina; Liu, Minetta C; Lowe, Alarice; Agar, Nathalie Y R; Ryabin, Nicole; Farooq, Sarah; Lawler, Elizabeth; Rimawi, Mothaffar F; Krop, Ian E; Wolff, Antonio C; Winer, Eric P; Lin, Nancy U

    2016-03-20

    Evidence-based treatments for metastatic, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer in the CNS are limited. Neratinib is an irreversible inhibitor of erbB1, HER2, and erbB4, with promising activity in HER2-positive breast cancer; however, its activity in the CNS is unknown. We evaluated the efficacy of treatment with neratinib in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer brain metastases in a multicenter, phase II open-label trial. Eligible patients were those with HER2-positive brain metastases (≥ 1 cm in longest dimension) who experienced progression in the CNS after one or more line of CNS-directed therapy, such as whole-brain radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, and/or surgical resection. Patients received neratinib 240 mg orally once per day, and tumors were assessed every two cycles. The primary endpoint was composite CNS objective response rate (ORR), requiring all of the following: ≥ 50% reduction in volumetric sum of target CNS lesions and no progression of non-target lesions, new lesions, escalating corticosteroids, progressive neurologic signs/symptoms, or non-CNS progression--the threshold for success was five of 40 responders. Forty patients were enrolled between February 2012 and June 2013; 78% of patients had previous whole-brain radiotherapy. Three women achieved a partial response (CNS objective response rate, 8%; 95% CI, 2% to 22%). The median number of cycles received was two (range, one to seven cycles), with a median progression-free survival of 1.9 months. Five women received six or more cycles. The most common grade ≥ 3 event was diarrhea (occurring in 21% of patients taking prespecified loperamide prophylaxis and 28% of those without prophylaxis). Patients in the study experienced a decreased quality of life over time. Although neratinib had low activity and did not meet our threshold for success, 12.5% of patients received six or more cycles. Studies combining neratinib with chemotherapy in patients

  16. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    /Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...... section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation...... technology research as a subdiscipline of TS, and we define and discuss some basic concepts and models of the field that we use in the rest of the paper. Based on a small-scale study of papers published in TS journals between 2006 and 2016, Section 3 attempts to map relevant developments of translation...

  17. On Various Negative Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proof translations of classical mathematics into intuitionistic mathematics have been proposed in the literature over the past century. These are normally referred to as negative translations or double-negation translations. Among those, the most commonly cited are translations due to Kolmogorov, Godel, Gentzen, Kuroda and Krivine (in chronological order. In this paper we propose a framework for explaining how these different translations are related to each other. More precisely, we define a notion of a (modular simplification starting from Kolmogorov translation, which leads to a partial order between different negative translations. In this derived ordering, Kuroda and Krivine are minimal elements. Two new minimal translations are introduced, with Godel and Gentzen translations sitting in between Kolmogorov and one of these new translations.

  18. Gender issues in translation

    OpenAIRE

    ERGASHEVA G.I.

    2015-01-01

    The following research is done regarding gender in translation dealing specifically with the issue of the translators’ gender identity and its effect on their translations, as well as on how gender itself is translated and produced. We will try to clarify what gender is, how gender manifests itself in the system of language, and what problems translators encounter when translating or producing gender-related materials

  19. Cultural Context and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  20. Translation-coupling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  1. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of

  2. Application of the method ELECTRE II (Elimination and Choice Translating Algorithm) to support the customers order in liquefied petroleum gas distributors; Aplicacao do metodo ELECTRE II (Elimination and Choice Translating Algorithm) na ordenacao de clientes em uma distribuidora de gas liquefeito do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobral, Marcos Felipe Falcao; Costa, Ana Paula Cabral Seixas [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to promote the use of multi criteria decision method ELECTRE II to support the customers order in liquefied petroleum gas distributors, located in the Northeast of Brazil. The company has difficulties to rank the customers their factory, causing various difficult related like reduction of performance indicators and high costs with extra-hours. Finally, is presented a results comparison obtained by the method with the current results, performing a utilization viability analysis of method for this problem. (author)

  3. Why Translation Is Difficult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz Jonas

    2017-01-01

    The paper develops a definition of translation literality that is based on the syntactic and semantic similarity of the source and the target texts. We provide theoretical and empirical evidence that absolute literal translations are easy to produce. Based on a multilingual corpus of alternative...... translations we investigate the effects of cross-lingual syntactic and semantic distance on translation production times and find that non-literality makes from-scratch translation and post-editing difficult. We show that statistical machine translation systems encounter even more difficulties with non-literality....

  4. Determinants of translation ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Tamar; Prior, Anat; Eddington, Chelsea M.; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Ambiguity in translation is highly prevalent, and has consequences for second-language learning and for bilingual lexical processing. To better understand this phenomenon, the current study compared the determinants of translation ambiguity across four sets of translation norms from English to Spanish, Dutch, German and Hebrew. The number of translations an English word received was correlated across these different languages, and was also correlated with the number of senses the word has in English, demonstrating that translation ambiguity is partially determined by within-language semantic ambiguity. For semantically-ambiguous English words, the probability of the different translations in Spanish and Hebrew was predicted by the meaning-dominance structure in English, beyond the influence of other lexical and semantic factors, for bilinguals translating from their L1, and translating from their L2. These findings are consistent with models postulating direct access to meaning from L2 words for moderately-proficient bilinguals. PMID:27882188

  5. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  6. Translation and Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    1996-01-01

    theory which would seem likely to be of interest in this connection and section 2. gives a linguist's introduction to the part of the area of quality management which I consider relevant for present purposes. Section 3. is devoted to the case study of a small translation firm which has been certified......The aim of this article is to consider the issue of quality in translation. Specifically, the question under consideration is whether quality assurance in relation to translation is feasible and, if so, what some of the implications for translation theory, translation practice and the teaching...... of translation would be. To provide a backdrop against which the issue may be discussed, I present an overview of the two areas which seem most likely to hold potential answers, viz., that of translation theory and that of quality management. Section 1. gives a brief outline of some contributions to translation...

  7. Memetics and Translation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew, Chesterman

    2000-01-01

    Translation Studies is a branch of memetics. This is a claim, a hypothesis. More specifically, it is an interpretive hypothesis: I claim that Translation Studies can be thus interpreted, and that this is a useful thing to do because it offers a new and beneficial way of understanding translation.

  8. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    ), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...

  9. The Temple Translator's Workstation Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vanni, Michelle; Zajac, Remi

    1996-01-01

    .... The Temple Translator's Workstation is incorporated into a Tipster document management architecture and it allows both translator/analysts and monolingual analysts to use the machine- translation...

  10. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have......), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...

  11. Speaking your Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio......, since students were dictating in their L2, we looked into the number and types of error that occurred when using the SR software. Items that were misrecognised by the program could be divided into three categories: homophones, hesitations, and incorrectly pronounced words. Well over fifty per cent...

  12. Lost in translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granas, Anne Gerd; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The "Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire" (BMQ) assess balance of necessity and concern of medicines. The BMQ has been translated from English to many languages. However, the original meaning of statements, such as "My medicine is a mystery to me", may be lost in translation. The aim...... of this study is to compare three Scandinavian translations of the BMQ. (1) How reliable are the translations? (2) Are they still valid after translation? METHODS: Translated Norwegian, Swedish and Danish versions of the BMQ were scrutinized by three native Scandinavian researchers. Linguistic differences...... and ambiguities in the 5-point Likert scale and the BMQ statements were compared. RESULTS: In the Scandinavian translations, the Likert scale expanded beyond the original version at one endpoint (Swedish) or both endpoints (Danish). In the BMQ statements, discrepancies ranged from smaller inaccuracies toward...

  13. What is a translator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Pulido

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available I copied the title from Foucault’s text, "Qu'est-ce qu'un auteur" in Dits et écrits [1969], Paris, Gallimard, 1994, that I read in French, then in English in Donald F. Bouchard’s and Sherry Simon’s translation, and finally in Spanish in Yturbe Corina’s translation, and applied for the translator some of the analysis that Foucault presents to define the author. Foucault suggests that if we cannot define an author, at least we can see where their function is reflected. My purpose in this paper is to present those surfaces where the function of the translator is reflected or where it can be revealed, and to analyse the categories that could lead us to the elaboration of a suitable definition of a Translator. I dare already give a compound noun for the translator: Translator-Function.

  14. What is a translator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Martha Pulido

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available I copied the title from Foucault’s text, "Qu'est-ce qu'un auteur" in Dits et écrits [1969], Paris, Gallimard, 1994, that I read in French, then in English in Donald F. Bouchard’s and Sherry Simon’s translation, and finally in Spanish in Yturbe Corina’s translation, and applied for the translator some of the analysis that Foucault presents to define the author. Foucault suggests that if we cannot define an author, at least we can see where their function is reflected. My purpose in this paper is to present those surfaces where the function of the translator is reflected or where it can be revealed, and to analyse the categories that could lead us to the elaboration of a suitable definition of a Translator. I dare already give a compound noun for the translator: Translator-Function.

  15. Discourse Analysis in Translator Training

    OpenAIRE

    Gülfidan Ayvaz

    2015-01-01

    Translator training enables students to gain experience in both linguistic parameters and translation practice. Discourse Analysis is one of the strategies that lead to a better translation process and quality in translation. In that regard, this study aims to present DA as a translation strategy for translation practice and a useful tool for translator training. The relationship between DA and Translator Training is not widely studied. Therefore this study aims to define DA and how it can be...

  16. Translational approach for gene therapy in epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledri, Litsa Nikitidou; Melin, Esbjörn; Christiansen, Søren H.

    2016-01-01

    clinical trial for gene therapy of temporal lobe epilepsy was explored: We investigated (i) whether the post intrahippocampal kainate-induced status epilepticus (SE) model of chronic epilepsy in rats could be clinically relevant; and (ii) whether a translationally designed neuropeptide Y (NPY)/Y2 receptor...

  17. Struggling with Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    This paper shows empirical how actors have difficulties with translating strategy texts. The paper uses four cases as different examples of what happens, and what might be difficult, when actors translate organizational texts. In order to explore this, it draws on a translation training method from...... translation theory. The study shows that for those who have produced the text, it is difficult to translate a strategy where they have to change the words so others who don’t understand the language in the text can understand it. It also shows that for those who haven’t been a part of the production, it very...... challenge the notion that actors understand all texts and that managers per se can translate a text....

  18. Translational ecology for hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, William H

    2013-01-01

    Translational ecology--a special discipline aimed to improve the accessibility of science to policy makers--will help hydrogeologists contribute to the solution of pressing environmental problems. Patterned after translational medicine, translational ecology is a partnership to ensure that the right science gets done in a timely fashion, so that it can be communicated to those who need it. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Translation of ARAC computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kunio; Chino, Masamichi; Honma, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Kai, Michiaki; Imai, Kazuhiko; Asai, Kiyoshi

    1982-05-01

    In 1981 we have translated the famous MATHEW, ADPIC and their auxiliary computer codes for CDC 7600 computer version to FACOM M-200's. The codes consist of a part of the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) system of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The MATHEW is a code for three-dimensional wind field analysis. Using observed data, it calculates the mass-consistent wind field of grid cells by a variational method. The ADPIC is a code for three-dimensional concentration prediction of gases and particulates released to the atmosphere. It calculates concentrations in grid cells by the particle-in-cell method. They are written in LLLTRAN, i.e., LLNL Fortran language and are implemented on the CDC 7600 computers of LLNL. In this report, i) the computational methods of the MATHEW/ADPIC and their auxiliary codes, ii) comparisons of the calculated results with our JAERI particle-in-cell, and gaussian plume models, iii) translation procedures from the CDC version to FACOM M-200's, are described. Under the permission of LLNL G-Division, this report is published to keep the track of the translation procedures and to serve our JAERI researchers for comparisons and references of their works. (author)

  20. Translation and Intertextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rahimi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is intends to describe and Presents a new theory of translation based on the "Intertextuality" unlike the Translation theories that presented to date, what all are based on the principle of "Equivalence". Our theory is based on the examples of Arabic poetry translated into Persian poetry. The major findings of this study show that the Intertextuality can serve as a link between the original text and the target. it can also interact with other texts is the translation result in the target language, Whtich is the book of poetic eloquence is addressed and was mentioned Literary robbery.

  1. Lost in Translation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Translating sacred scriptures is not only a praxis that is crucial for the fruitful, i.e. non-distorted and unbiased dialogue between different religious traditions, but also raises some fundamental theoretical questions when it comes to translating the sacred texts of the religious other or

  2. Translating VDM to Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  3. Students' Differentiated Translation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how students translate between mathematical representations is of both practical and theoretical importance. This study examined students' processes in their generation of symbolic and graphic representations of given polynomial functions. The purpose was to investigate how students perform these translations. The result of the study…

  4. Creativity, Culture and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Siamak; Wan Yahya, Wan Roselezam; Babaee, Ruzbeh

    2014-01-01

    Some scholars (Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original text while some others (Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging…

  5. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  6. Measuring Translation Literality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz

    2017-01-01

    Tirkkonen-Condit (2005: 407–408) argues that “It looks as if literal translation is [the result of] a default rendering procedure”. As a corollary, more literal translations should be easier to process, and less literal ones should be associated with more cognitive effort. In order to assess this...

  7. Text Coherence in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanping

    2009-01-01

    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  8. TRANSLATING SERVICE TECHNICAL PROSE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    language. The Application of Technical Service. Prose. To form a good idea of the appl ication .... cost lives. In this particular domain, translators must have a sound technical ... These semantic ... another language and often, in doing so, changing its meaning. The words ..... He will hand out tasks to each translator and after.

  9. Stimulating translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research with...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom....

  10. Translation, Quality and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    The paper investigates the feasibility and some of the possible consequences of applying quality management to translation. It first gives an introduction to two different schools of translation and to (total) quality management. It then examines whether quality management may, in theory...

  11. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning; Tarp, Sven

    2018-01-01

    in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...

  12. Translation between cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Oliveira Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article will question the pertinence of understanding interculturality in terms of translation between cultures. I shall study this hypothesis in two ways : 1 / the cosmopolitan horizon, which the idea of translation may implicate ; 2 / the critique of the premises of unique origin and homogeneity of cultures which this hypothesis makes possible.

  13. Idioms and Back Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of intercultural communication are an integral part of many undergraduate business communication courses. Marketing gaffes clearly illustrate the pitfalls of translation and underscore the importance of a knowledge of the culture with which one is attempting to communicate. A good way to approach the topic of translation pitfalls in…

  14. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  15. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  16. Theory of Test Translation Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…

  17. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  18. Translation, Cultural Translation and the Hegemonic English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Horak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This brief chapter problematizes the hegemonic position of the English language in Cultural Studies, which, in the author's view, can be understood as a moment that stands against a true internationalisation of the project. Following an argu-ment referring to the necessary 'translation' process (here seen as 're-articulation', 'transcoding' or 'transculturation' Stuart Hall has put forward almost two decades ago, the essay, firstly, turns to the notion of 'linguistic translations', and deals, secondly, with what has been coined 'cultural translation'. Discussing approaches developed by Walter Benjamin, Umberto Eco and Homi Bhabha, the complex relationship between the two terms is being investigated. Finally, in a modest attempt to throw some light on this hegemonic structure, central aspects of the output of three important journals (European Journal of Cultural Studies, International Journal of Cultural Studies, Cultural Studies, i. e. an analysis of the linguistic and institutional backgrounds of the authors of the ten most-read and most-cited essays, are presented. Based on these findings I argue that it is not simply the addition of the discursive field (language to the academic space (institution that defines the mecha-nism of exclusion and inclusion. Rather, it is the articulation of both moments, i.e. that of language and that of the institution, which - in various contexts (but in their own very definite ways - can help to develop that structure which at present is still hindering a further, more profound internationalisation of the project that is Cultural Studies.

  19. Translation of feminine: Szymborska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Donata Guerizoli Kempinska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2014v1n33p35 The paper discusses the problems present in the process of the translation of the feminine, related to the discursive articulations of the gender and to the socio-historical conditions of its construction. The differences between languages make this articulation hard to transpose and such is the case in some of Wisława Szymborska’s poems. An attentive reading of her work and of its translations in different languages reveals that the transposition of its specifically feminine humor is also a challenge for the translator

  20. Translating Shakespeare for the Hungarian Stage: Contemporary Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Szele

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents trends in today’s Shakespeare translation in Hungary based on interviews with Hungarian translators and scholars. Instead of a collection of names and dates of translators and translations, it focuses on the organic development of Hungarian Shakespeare translation, which has been going on for more than two hundred years, and tries to fit new developments into the tradition of translating Shakespeare in a theoretical framework. “Hungarian Shakespeare,” now seen as a broad collection of Hungarian translations and adaptations, lives on, is kept alive in theaters, but it is undergoing a process of simplification. It was very hard work to do away with the forced prudishness and mannerism of the nineteenth century Shakespeare translations. After World War II, during the dominance of Communist culture, it was not allowed for several translations of Shakespeare to co-exist, so a politically appointed committee was set up to decide which one fit into the official canon. Only the selected texts could be printed and used in performances. After the political changes in Hungary in 1989, there was an upsurge of interest in Shakespeare, and since the 1990s there has been an unprecedented plurality of Shakespeare translations. I aim to examine the processes that led to the development of today’s easy-to-understand and naturalistic translations, and to the abandonment of century-old classical ones.

  1. Perceived radial translation during centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Correia Grácio, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Linear acceleration generally gives rise to translation perception. Centripetal acceleration during centrifugation, however, has never been reported giving rise to a radial, inward translation perception. OBJECTIVE: To study whether centrifugation can induce a radial translation

  2. Russian translations for Cochrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudina, E V; Ziganshina, L E

    2015-01-01

    Cochrane collaboration has made a huge contribution to the development of evidence-based medicine; Cochrane work is the international gold standard of independent, credible and reliable high-quality information in medicine. Over the past 20 years the Cochrane Collaboration helped transforming decision-making in health and reforming it significantly, saving lives and contributing to longevity [1]. Until recently, Cochrane evidence were available only in English, which represents a significant barrier to their wider use in non-English speaking countries. To provide access to evidence, obtained from Cochrane Reviews, for health professionals and general public (from non-English-speaking countries), bypassing language barriers, Cochrane collaboration in 2014 initiated an international project of translating Plain language summaries of Cochrane Reviews into other languages [2, 3]. Russian translations of Plain language summaries were started in May 2014 by the team from Kazan Federal University (Department of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology; 2014-2015 as an Affiliated Centre in Tatarstan of the Nordic Cochrane Centre, since August 2015 as Cochrane Russia, a Russian branch of Cochrane Nordic, Head - Liliya Eugenevna Ziganshina) on a voluntary basis. To assess the quality of Russian translations of Cochrane Plain Language Summaries (PLS) and their potential impact on the Russian speaking community through user feedback with the overarching aim of furthering the translations project. We conducted the continuous online survey via Google Docs. We invited respondents through the electronic Russian language discussion forum on Essential Medicines (E-lek), links to survey on the Russian Cochrane.org website, invitations to Cochrane contributors registered in Archie from potential Russian-speaking countries. We set up the survey in Russian and English. The respondents were asked to respond to the questionnaire regarding the relevance and potential impact of the Cochrane Russian

  3. A phased translation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, R.J.; Schierbeek, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A phased translation function, which takes advantage of prior phase information to determine the position of an oriented mulecular replacement model, is examined. The function is the coefficient of correlation between the electron density computed with the prior phases and the electron density of the translated model, evaluated in reciprocal space as a Fourier transform. The correlation coefficient used in this work is closely related to an overlap function devised by Colman, Fehlhammer and Bartels. Tests with two protein structures, one of which was solved with the help of the phased translation function, show that little phase information is required to resolve the translation problem, and that the function is relatively insensitive to misorientation of the model. (orig.)

  4. Translation and Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Bezerra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the differences betweenscientific and fictional translations, and focus on the second.The fictional translation works with meanings, opens itselfto the plurissignification in the purpose to create a similarity of the dissimilarity; in this process, the translator does nottranslate a language, but what a creative individuality makeswith a language. At last there is an approach to the knowledgeand skills necessaries to a translator of literature: theknowledge of the theories of the literature and of thetranslation, the capacity to preserve the national color ofthe original text and at the same time to respect the arrivallanguage, and the sensibility to his national languagevariations present in the daily and in the literary spheres.

  5. Translation of research outcome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    2017-01-03

    Jan 3, 2017 ... we must act”1 - Translation of research outcome for health policy, strategy and ... others iron-out existing gaps on Health Policy .... within the broader framework of global call and ... research: defining the terrain; identifying.

  6. Staging Ethnographic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))...

  7. Translation for language purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English)....

  8. Lost in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well

  9. Lost in translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zethsen, Karen Korning; Askehave, Inger

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with an aspect of patient information that differs somewhat from the traditional scope of this journal; namely the linguistic and translational aspects of Patient Information Leaflets (PILs). During the past decade much work has been dedicated to making the English PILs...... as informative and lay-friendly as possible. However, much of the good work is ruined when the PIL is translated. Why is this so and what can be done about it?...

  10. Machine Translation from Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John

    Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.

  11. Jungmann's translation of Paradise Lost

    OpenAIRE

    Janů, Karel

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines Josef Jungmann's translation of John Milton's Paradise Lost. Josef Jungmann was one of the leading figures of the Czech National Revival and translated Milton 's poem between the years 1800 and 1804. The thesis covers Jungmann's theoretical model of translation and presents Jungmann's motives for translation of Milton's epic poem. The paper also describes the aims Jungmann had with his translation and whether he has achieved them. The reception Jungmann's translation rece...

  12. Translating Alcohol Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Angela M.; Miles, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of streamlining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085

  13. Implementing family nursing: how do we translate knowledge into clinical practice? Part II: The evolution of 20 years of teaching, research, and practice to a Center of Excellence in Family Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhamel, Fabie

    2010-02-01

    The author's reflections on knowledge transfer/translation highlight the importance of the circular process between science and practice knowledge, leading to the notion of "knowledge exchange." She addresses the dilemmas of translating knowledge into clinical practice by describing her academic contributions to knowledge exchange within Family Systems Nursing (FSN). Teaching and research strategies are offered that address the circularity between science and practice knowledge. The evolution of 20 years of teaching, research, and clinical experience has resulted in the recent creation of a Center of Excellence in Family Nursing at the University of Montreal. The three main objectives of the Center uniquely focus on knowledge exchange by providing (a) a training context for skill development for nurses specializing in FSN, (b) a research milieu for knowledge "creation" and knowledge "in action" studies to further advance the practice of FSN, and (c) a family healing setting to support families who experience difficulty coping with health issues.

  14. The Effect of Translators' Emotional Intelligence on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge, professional and psychological conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' Emotional Intelligence on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study," a sample of…

  15. The Impact of Translators' Academic Experience on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge and professional conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' academic experience on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study", a sample of 100 male and…

  16. Translating Signs, Producing Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Neilson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and

  17. Finite translation surfaces with maximal number of translations

    OpenAIRE

    Schlage-Puchta, Jan-Christoph; Weitze-Schmithuesen, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The natural automorphism group of a translation surface is its group of translations. For finite translation surfaces of genus g > 1 the order of this group is naturally bounded in terms of g due to a Riemann-Hurwitz formula argument. In analogy with classical Hurwitz surfaces, we call surfaces which achieve the maximal bound Hurwitz translation surfaces. We study for which g there exist Hurwitz translation surfaces of genus g.

  18. Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Mercedes Garcia; Koglin, Arlene; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    The availability of systems capable of producing fairly accurate translations has increased the popularity of machine translation (MT). The translation industry is steadily incorporating MT in their workflows engaging the human translator to post-edit the raw MT output in order to comply with a s...

  19. Advertisement Translation under Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严妙

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience.Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.

  20. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  1. Translational research in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Translational medicine is a medical practice based on interventional epidemiology. It is regarded by its proponents as a natural progression from Evidence-Based Medicine. It integrates research from the basic sciences, social sciences and political sciences with the aim of optimizing patient care and preventive measures which may extend beyond healthcare services. In short, it is the process of turning appropriate biological discoveries into drugs and medical devices that can be used in the treatment of patients.[1]Scientific research and the development of modern powerful techniques are crucial for improving patient care in a society that is increasingly demanding the highest quality health services.[2] Indeed, effective patient care requires the continuous improvement of knowledge on the pathophysiology of the diseases, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic tools available. To this end, development of both clinical and basic research in health sciences is required. However, what is most effective in improving medical knowledge, and hence patient care, is the cross-fertilization between basic and clinical science. This has been specifically highlighted in recent years with the coining of the term “translational research”.[3] Translational research is of great importance in all medical specialties.Translational Research is the basis for Translational Medicine. It is the process which leads from evidence based medicine to sustainable solutions for public health problems.[4] It aims to improve the health and longevity of the world’s populations and depends on developing broad-based teams of scientists and scholars who are able to focus their efforts to link basic scientific discoveries with the arena of clinical investigation, and translating the results of clinical trials into changes in clinical practice, informed by evidence from the social and political sciences. Clinical science and ecological support from effective policies can

  2. Translational Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issenberg, S. Barry; Cohen, Elaine R.; Barsuk, Jeffrey H.; Wayne, Diane B.

    2012-01-01

    Medical education research contributes to translational science (TS) when its outcomes not only impact educational settings, but also downstream results, including better patient-care practices and improved patient outcomes. Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has demonstrated its role in achieving such distal results. Effective TS also encompasses implementation science, the science of health-care delivery. Educational, clinical, quality, and safety goals can only be achieved by thematic, sustained, and cumulative research programs, not isolated studies. Components of an SBME TS research program include motivated learners, curriculum grounded in evidence-based learning theory, educational resources, evaluation of downstream results, a productive research team, rigorous research methods, research resources, and health-care system acceptance and implementation. National research priorities are served from translational educational research. National funding priorities should endorse the contribution and value of translational education research. PMID:23138127

  3. Engineering in translational medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area.

  4. Data format translation routines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burris, R.D.

    1981-02-01

    To enable the effective connection of several dissimilar computers into a network, modification of the data being passed from one computer to another may become necessary. This document describes a package of routines which permit the translation of data in PDP-8 formats to PDP-11 or DECsystem-10 formats or from PDP-11 format to DECsystem-10 format. Additional routines are described which permit the effective use of the translation routines in the environment of the Fusion Energy Division (FED) network and the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) data base

  5. Translating BPEL to FLOWer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    FLOWer is a case handling tool made by Pallas-Athena for process management in the service industry. BPEL on the other hand is a language for web service orchestration, and has become a de facto standard, because of its popularity, for specifying workflow processes even though that was not its...... original purpose. This paper describe an approach translating BPLE to FLOWer, or more precisely form BPEL to CHIP. where CHIP is the interchange language that FLOWer import from and export to. The aim of the translation scheme that I give is to derive a CHIP specification that is behaviorally equivalent...

  6. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied. In p...

  7. George Sigerson: Charcot's translator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, J B

    1997-04-01

    Senator George Sigerson (1836-1925), Dublin's first neurologist, was also a significant contributor to Anglo-Irish literature. His medical career and literary accomplishments are outlined, the focus of the article being Sigerson's friendly relationship with Charcot (with whom he corresponded), and whose Leçons sur les maladies du système nerveux he translated.

  8. Intermediation, Brokerage and Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hönke, Jana; Müller, Markus-Michael; Risse, Thomas; Draude, Anke; Börzel, Tanja

    2018-01-01

    Brokerage, a term prominent in the 1960s and 1970s, has returned. A huge literature analyses how brokers and intermediators— such as government officials, heads of non-governmental organization (NGOs), translators, neo-traditional authorities— strategically negotiate flows of resources and political

  9. Made in translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, John C.

    2018-03-01

    Evolution of highly functionalized DNA could enable the discovery of artificial nucleic acid sequences with different properties to natural DNA. Now, an artificial translation system has been designed that can support the evolution of non-natural sequence-defined nucleic acid polymers carrying eight different functional groups on 32 codons.

  10. On the construction of translationally invariant deformed wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiola, R.

    1975-01-01

    Translationally invariant nuclear wave functions are constructed from deformed harmonic oscillator shell-model wave functions, with an exact projection of angular momentum quantum numbers. It is shown that the computation of matrix elements with the translationally invariant wave functions is as simple as the standard calculation, and formulae are obtained for (i) the potential energy, (ii) the kinetic energy and rms radius, and (iii) the charge form factor. (Auth.)

  11. On Deletion of Sutra Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shu-juan

    2017-01-01

    Dao An's the metaphor of translation "wine diluted with water' ' expressed a view about translation that had been abridged.Later Kumarajiva provided metaphor "rice chewed—tasteless and downright disgusting".Both of them felt regretted at the weakening of taste,sometimes even the complete loss of flavor caused by deletion in translation of Buddhist sutras.In early sutra translation,deletion is unavoidable which made many sutra translators felt confused and drove them to study it further and some even managed to give their understanding to this issue.This thesis will discuss the definition,and what causes deletion and the measures adopted by the sutra translators.

  12. The Impact of Machine Translation and Computer-aided Translation on Translators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao

    2018-03-01

    Under the context of globalization, communications between countries and cultures are becoming increasingly frequent, which make it imperative to use some techniques to help translate. This paper is to explore the influence of computer-aided translation on translators, which is derived from the field of the computer-aided translation (CAT) and machine translation (MT). Followed by an introduction to the development of machine and computer-aided translation, it then depicts the technologies practicable to translators, which are trying to analyze the demand of designing the computer-aided translation so far in translation practice, and optimize the designation of computer-aided translation techniques, and analyze its operability in translation. The findings underline the advantages and disadvantages of MT and CAT tools, and the serviceability and future development of MT and CAT technologies. Finally, this thesis probes into the impact of these new technologies on translators in hope that more translators and translation researchers can learn to use such tools to improve their productivity.

  13. The Art of Translation, by Vladimir Nabokov Questions of Reception and of Transmigration in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Raguet

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this article are: i to analyze the relations of Vladimir Nabokov as a multilingual author with translation when faced with exile and with the publication of one of his novels in a language in which he could write; ii to explore Nabokov’s attitude towards the translation of one of his books, his desires to be recognized as an author and to polish his style in the new culture-language; iii to present factors like personal and cultural identity, and also financial needs as linked to exile and as significant elements in the translating process; iv to discuss  the impact of rewriting in an author seeking international recognition and in an obvious quest for new aesthetic values. Nabokov is not a unique case, but his situation and reactions are quite representative of the difficulties raised when changing one’s language of composition.

  14. (Con)figuring gender in Bible translation: Cultural, translational and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gendered intersection of cultural studies and Bible translation is under acknowledged. Accounting for gender criticism in translation work requires, besides responsible theory and practice of translation, also attention to interwoven gender critical aspects. After a brief investigation of the intersections between biblical, ...

  15. Translation in Language Teaching: Insights from Professional Translator Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreres, Angeles; Noriega-Sanchez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The past three decades have seen vast changes in attitudes towards translation, both as an academic discipline and as a profession. The insights we have gained in recent years, in particular in the area of professional translator training, call for a reassessment of the role of translation in language teaching. Drawing on research and practices in…

  16. Translation and identity: Translation of the Freedom Charter into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative analysis of the Afrikaans translations reveals how the respective translators struggled sporadically through certain ideological constraints in order to provide a satisfactory narrative. Their inability to internalise the principles contained in the Freedom Charter resulted in them presenting a 'framed' translation ...

  17. A Writer's Thoughts on Translation and Always Living in Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosin, Marjorie; Jones, Robin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how it feels to be a poet who writes in Spanish and has her work translated, examining the author's immigration experiences and noting the translator's contributions in making her work accessible across languages, borders, and cultures. Explains that writing in Spanish is a gesture of survival, and translation allows her memories to…

  18. 'Inhabiting' the Translator's Habitus – Antjie Krog as Translator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing on the Bourdieusian concept of habitus and its applicability in the field of translation, this article discusses Antjie Krog's profile in the practice of translation in. South Africa. Bourdieu's conceptualisation of the relationship between the initiating activities of translators and the structures which constrain and enable ...

  19. Translating a wicked problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietjen, Anne; Jørgensen, Gertrud

    2016-01-01

    , place-based and project-oriented process directed at concrete physical outcomes. We frame strategic planning as a translation process where the interaction between human and non-human actors translates a unique, complex and contested situation into an innovated situation. We find that local physical...... on the case of a Danish planning process which was carried out in collaboration with a charitable trust, this paper discusses an emerging strategic planning approach at the municipal level. We use the concept of wicked problems, strategic planning theory and Actor-Network-Theory to study a collaborative...... projects played a major role in this process. First, they acted as a vehicle that assembled planners, politicians and stakeholders to work towards strategic visions across multiple scales. Second and consequently, they stimulated considerable second and third order effects in the form of shared problem...

  20. Structural Coupling and Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    formations. After presenting the two theories the article put forward Twitter as an example making it possible to compare the two theories. Hereby the article also provides two analysis of how Twitter changes the communication milieu of modern society. In systems theory media can be seen as the mechanisms...... and translations the social medium of Twitter opens for. The second, but most prioritized, aim of the paper is to present, compare and discuss the two theories: How do they understand what becomes visible in their different optics, which observations become possible in the one or the other – and is it possible...... creating networks consisting in both humans and non-humans. Then the two appearing frameworks are used to observe Twitter and discuss which structural couplings and translations are made possible by this medium. In the end of the paper the two theories are discussed and compared....

  1. Translation of Financial Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Dalthan Simas; Otavio De Medeiros

    2005-01-01

    This paper has the purpose of surveying and critically analyzing the effects of accounting procedures which are closely related to groups of companies operating multinationally. These are the methods for translation of financial statements, e.g. the Temporal and the Closing- rate Methods, as far as those methods are embodied in accounting standards which have been either recommended or adopted by countries such as the UK and US. We conclude that with regard to changing prices, General Price L...

  2. CADAT network translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    Program converts cell-net data into logic-gate models for use in test and simulation programs. Input consists of either Place, Route, and Fold (PRF) or Place-and-Route-in-Two-Dimensions (PR2D) layout data deck. Output consists of either Test Pattern Generator (TPG) or Logic-Simulation (LOGSIM) logic circuitry data deck. Designer needs to build only logic-gate-model circuit description since program acts as translator. Language is FORTRAN IV.

  3. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  4. Translation-Memory (TM) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2010-01-01

    to be representative of the research field as a whole. Our analysis suggests that, while considerable knowledge is available about the technical side of TMs, more research is needed to understand how translators interact with TM technology and how TMs influence translators' cognitive translation processes.......  It is no exaggeration to say that the advent of translation-memory (TM) systems in the translation profession has led to drastic changes in translators' processes and workflow, and yet, though many professional translators nowadays depend on some form of TM system, this has not been the object...... of much research. Our paper attempts to find out what we know about the nature, applications and influences of TM technology, including translators' interaction with TMs, and also how we know it. An essential part of the analysis is based on a selection of empirical TM studies, which we assume...

  5. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  6. Machine Translation Effect on Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Bjørn, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Intercultural collaboration facilitated by machine translation has gradually spread in various settings. Still, little is known as for the practice of machine-translation mediated communication. This paper investigates how machine translation affects intercultural communication in practice. Based...... on communication in which multilingual communication system is applied, we identify four communication types and its’ influences on stakeholders’ communication process, especially focusing on establishment and maintenance of common ground. Different from our expectation that quality of machine translation results...

  7. TEACHING TRANSLATION: OBJECTIVES AND METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    Kobyakova, Iryna; Shvachko, Svitlana

    2016-01-01

    The article is focused on the set of items: teaching translation, objectives, exercises and assignments (both word-centered and text-centered translation), translation analysis. The choice of the items is motivated by the dominant functions of transatology (nominative and communicative). The latter succeed in identification of adequate, congruent, equivalent translation. The article discusses the problems of professional validity, theoretical insertions, textocentric analysis. Gains, achievem...

  8. On Literal Translation of English Idioms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linli

    2009-01-01

    There are six translation tactics in translating English idioms into Chinese: literal translation, compensatory translation, free translation, explanational translation, borrowing, integrated approach. Each tactic should be reasonably employed in the process of translating, so as to keep the flavor of the original English idioms as well as to…

  9. Translational Implications of Tamil "Hamlets."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakaraj, S.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of translation when teaching English as a Second Language in a Tamil context. Singles out the fencing episode in Shakespeare's "Hamlet" to illustrate the difficulties of translating cultural aspects. Concludes that successful translations of Shakespeare into Indian languages should involve collaboration between…

  10. MULTIFUNCTION OF INTERNET IN TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Budiharjo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Technology affects almost all areas, including translation. Many products of technology have made translational works easier, one of which is internet. Despite the wide use of internet, the potentials it has are sometimes unnoticed. While web-based dictionaries or thesaurus often serve as translators’ assistants and online Machine Translation issues become topics of many researches, other uses of internet related to translation may not be known by many. Internet can help disseminate newborn ideas, theories and findings worldwide to enhance translation theories. Besides, the contact between internet and translation generates new areas to examine. Internet also provides helping hand in the area of translation research. Researcher or anyone conducting research in the field of translation can find a range of research gaps as well as reference. Those who need group discussions to collect required data from informants, or researchers of the same interest coming from all over the world can meet and conduct Focus Group Discussion (FGD on virtual world. Furthermore, internet offers various forms of assistance for translation practitioners. The commonly used internet assistance consists of dictionaries, thesaurus and Machine Translations available on the internet. Other forms of aid provided by internet take form of parallel texts, images, and videos, which can be very helpful. Internet provides many things which can be utilized for the purpose of translation. Internet keeps on providing more as it develops from time to time in line with the development of technology. Internet awaits utilization of theorists, researchers, practitioners and those having concern on translation.

  11. Machine Translation for Academic Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui-chin; Chien, Paul Shih Chieh

    2009-01-01

    Due to the globalization trend and knowledge boost in the second millennium, multi-lingual translation has become a noteworthy issue. For the purposes of learning knowledge in academic fields, Machine Translation (MT) should be noticed not only academically but also practically. MT should be informed to the translating learners because it is a…

  12. Translational plant proteomics: A perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, G.K.; Pedreschi, R.; Barkla, B.J.; Bindschedler, L.V.; Cramer, R.; Sarkar, A.; Renaut, J.; Job, D.; Rakwal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Translational proteomics is an emerging sub-discipline of the proteomics field in the biological sciences. Translational plant proteomics aims to integrate knowledge from basic sciences to translate it into field applications to solve issues related but not limited to the recreational and economic

  13. Lexical Discourse Analysis in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khotaba, Eissa; Al Tarawneh, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Lexical Discourse very often depend on lexis. Lexical Discourse analysis, however, has not yet been given enough consideration of the phenomenon of translation. This paper investigates lexical discourse analysis in translation from one language to another. This qualitative study comprises 15 text translated by M.A. students at the Department of…

  14. Machine Translation Tools - Tools of The Translator's Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this article three of the more common types of translation tools are presented, discussed and critically evaluated. The types of translation tools dealt with in this article are: Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided Machine Translation (or HAMT) and Machine Aided Human...... Translation (or MAHT). The strengths and weaknesses of the different types of tools are discussed and evaluated by means of a number of examples. The article aims at two things: at presenting a sort of state of the art of what is commonly referred to as “machine translation” as well as at providing the reader...... with a sound basis for considering what translation tool (if any) is the most appropriate in order to meet his or her specific translation needs....

  15. Mamma Mia, A Singable Translation!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Stopar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses and analyzes approaches to translating singable texts. It presents a linguistic (prosodic, lexical and structural analysis of the Slovenian translation of the musical Mamma Mia! The aim of the qualitative and quantitative study is to investigate the translation strategies used to produce a singable target text. The results of the analysis suggest that producing a prosodic match is a basic requirement, whereas the lexical, structural and/or poetic characteristics of the source text are subject to changes. Overall, the findings show that the function and the purpose of the translation play a crucial role in the prioritization of translation strategies.

  16. The Complexity of Indirect Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenjie, L. I.

    2017-01-01

    its complex nature, and thus determined that many facets of ITr remain to be studied. The present article will try to encompass the complexity of ITr by looking into the reasons for translating indirectly, the challenge of finding out mediating texts (MTs), indirectness in both translation...... of which have been translated and interpreted indirectly through major languages like English, will be employed as examples. Hopefully, this study will offer more insights into the nature of translation as a social activity and raise further interests in studying translation as a complex phenomenon....

  17. Computer-aided translation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark is rather high in general, but limited in the case of machine translation (MT) tools: While most TSPs use translation-memory (TM) software, often in combination with a terminology management system (TMS), only very few have implemented MT, which is criticised for its low quality output, especially......The paper reports on a questionnaire survey from 2013 of the uptake and use of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools by Danish translation service providers (TSPs) and discusses how these tools appear to have impacted on the Danish translation industry. According to our results, the uptake...

  18. Ebola: translational science considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Bakhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli; Manfrini, Ercolano; Piva, Francesco; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; Maida, Carl A

    2015-01-16

    We are currently in the midst of the most aggressive and fulminating outbreak of Ebola-related disease, commonly referred to as "Ebola", ever recorded. In less than a year, the Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire ebolavirus species) has infected over 10,000 people, indiscriminately of gender or age, with a fatality rate of about 50%. Whereas at its onset this Ebola outbreak was limited to three countries in West Africa (Guinea, where it was first reported in late March 2014, Liberia, where it has been most rampant in its capital city, Monrovia and other metropolitan cities, and Sierra Leone), cases were later reported in Nigeria, Mali and Senegal, as well as in Western Europe (i.e., Madrid, Spain) and the US (i.e., Dallas, Texas; New York City) by late October 2014. World and US health agencies declared that the current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has a strong likelihood of growing exponentially across the world before an effective vaccine, treatment or cure can be developed, tested, validated and distributed widely. In the meantime, the spread of the disease may rapidly evolve from an epidemics to a full-blown pandemic. The scientific and healthcare communities actively research and define an emerging kaleidoscope of knowledge about critical translational research parameters, including the virology of EBOV, the molecular biomarkers of the pathological manifestations of EVD, putative central nervous system involvement in EVD, and the cellular immune surveillance to EBOV, patient-centered anthropological and societal parameters of EVD, as well as translational effectiveness about novel putative patient-targeted vaccine and pharmaceutical interventions, which hold strong promise, if not hope, to curb this and future Ebola outbreaks. This work reviews and discusses the principal known facts about EBOV and EVD, and certain among the most interesting ongoing or future avenues of research in the field, including vaccination programs for the wild animal vectors of the virus

  19. Translators: Travellers, Not Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Rot Gabrovec

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores various representations of culture(s found in contemporary English children’s literature and discusses how they were rendered into Slovene. In the first part, some introductory definitions of culture and approaches to the translation of children’s literature are presented. In the second part, excerpts from selected literary works (for instance, Mary Poppins, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, Matilda, The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time are examined, both from the source and the target texts, with more attention paid to the cultural contexts, and the social changes that possibly influenced the translator’s decisions.

  20. Translation Analysis on Civil Engineering Text Produced by Machine Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutopo Anam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation is extremely needed in communication since people have serious problem in the language used. Translation activity is done by the person in charge for translating the material. Translation activity is also able to be done by machine. It is called machine translation, reflected in the programs developed by programmer. One of them is Transtool. Many people used Transtool for helping them in solving the problem related with translation activities. This paper wants to deliver how important is the Transtool program, how effective is Transtool program and how is the function of Transtool for human business. This study applies qualitative research. The sources of data were document and informant. This study used documentation and in dept-interviewing as the techniques for collecting data. The collected data were analyzed by using interactive analysis. The results of the study show that, first; Transtool program is helpful for people in translating the civil engineering text and it functions as the aid or helper, second; the working of Transtool software program is effective enough and third; the result of translation produced by Transtool is good for short and simple sentences and not readable, not understandable and not accurate for long sentences (compound, complex and compound complex thought the result is informative. The translated material must be edited by the professional translator.

  1. PERSONALITY TYPE AND TRANSLATION PERFORMANCE OF PERSIAN TRANSLATOR TRAINEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shaki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between the personality typology of a sample of Iranian translation students and their translation quality in terms of expressive, appellative, and informative text types. The study also attempted to identify the personality types that can perform better in English to Persian translation of the three text types. For that purpose, the personality type and the translation quality of the participants was assessed using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI personality test and translation quality assessment (TQA, respectively. The analysis of the data revealed that the personality type of the participants seemed relevant to the translation quality of all the text types. The translation quality of the participants with intuitive and thinking types was significantly better than the sensing type counterparts in translating expressive texts. The participants with intuitive and feeling types also performed better than their counterparts with sensing type in translation of the informative text. Moreover, the participants with intuitive, feeling, and thinking personality types performed more successfully than the participants with sensing type in translation of the appellative text. The findings of the study are discussed in light of the existing research literature.

  2. Translation Analysis on Civil Engineering Text Produced by Machine Translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutopo, Anam

    2018-02-01

    Translation is extremely needed in communication since people have serious problem in the language used. Translation activity is done by the person in charge for translating the material. Translation activity is also able to be done by machine. It is called machine translation, reflected in the programs developed by programmer. One of them is Transtool. Many people used Transtool for helping them in solving the problem related with translation activities. This paper wants to deliver how important is the Transtool program, how effective is Transtool program and how is the function of Transtool for human business. This study applies qualitative research. The sources of data were document and informant. This study used documentation and in dept-interviewing as the techniques for collecting data. The collected data were analyzed by using interactive analysis. The results of the study show that, first; Transtool program is helpful for people in translating the civil engineering text and it functions as the aid or helper, second; the working of Transtool software program is effective enough and third; the result of translation produced by Transtool is good for short and simple sentences and not readable, not understandable and not accurate for long sentences (compound, complex and compound complex) thought the result is informative. The translated material must be edited by the professional translator.

  3. Speech-enabled Computer-aided Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2014-01-01

    The present study has surveyed post-editor trainees’ views and attitudes before and after the introduction of speech technology as a front end to a computer-aided translation workbench. The aim of the survey was (i) to identify attitudes and perceptions among post-editor trainees before performing...... a post-editing task using automatic speech recognition (ASR); and (ii) to assess the degree to which post-editors’ attitudes and expectations to the use of speech technology changed after actually using it. The survey was based on two questionnaires: the first one administered before the participants...

  4. Magnetic translator bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockney, Richard L. (Inventor); Downer, James R. (Inventor); Eisenhaure, David B. (Inventor); Hawkey, Timothy J. (Inventor); Johnson, Bruce G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic bearing system for enabling translational motion includes a carriage and a shaft for movably supporting the carriage; a first magnetic bearing fixed to one of the carriage and shaft and slidably received in a first channel of the other of the carriage and shaft. The first channel is generally U shaped with two side walls and a back wall. The magnetic bearing includes a pair of spaced magnetic pole pieces, each pole piece having a pair of electromagnetic coils mounted on poles on opposite ends of the pole piece proximate the side walls, and a third electromagnetic coil mounted on a pole of the pole piece proximate the backwall; a motion sensor for sensing translational motion along two axes and rotationally about three axes of the carriage and shaft relative to each other; and a correction circuit responsive to the sensor for generating a correction signal to drive the coils to compensate for any misalignment sensed between the carriage and the shaft.

  5. Do clinical, histological or immunohistochemical primary tumour characteristics translate into different {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT volumetric and heterogeneity features in stage II/III breast cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groheux, David; Martineau, Antoine; Merlet, Pascal [Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Majdoub, Mohamed; Hatt, Mathieu; Visvikis, Dimitris [INSERM, UMR 1101 LaTIM, Brest (France); Tixier, Florent; Le Rest, Catherine Cheze [Miletrie Hospital, DACTIM, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Poitiers (France); Espie, Marc [Saint-Louis Hospital, Breast Diseases Unit and Department of Medical Oncology, Paris (France); Roquancourt, Anne de [Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Pathology, Paris (France); Hindie, Elif [University of Bordeaux, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France)

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine if some features of baseline {sup 18}F-FDG PET images, including volume and heterogeneity, reflect clinical, histological or immunohistochemical characteristics in patients with stage II or III breast cancer (BC). Included in the present retrospective analysis were 171 prospectively recruited patients with stage II/III BC treated consecutively at Saint-Louis hospital. Primary tumour volumes were semiautomatically delineated on pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET images. The parameters extracted included SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub mean}, metabolically active tumour volume (MATV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and heterogeneity quantified using the area under the curve of the cumulative histogram and textural features. Associations between clinical/histopathological characteristics and {sup 18}F-FDG PET features were assessed using one-way analysis of variance. Areas under the ROC curves (AUC) were used to quantify the discriminative power of the features significantly associated with clinical/histopathological characteristics. T3 tumours (>5 cm) exhibited higher textural heterogeneity in {sup 18}F-FDG uptake than T2 tumours (AUC <0.75), whereas there were no significant differences in SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean}. Invasive ductal carcinoma showed higher SUV{sub max} values than invasive lobular carcinoma (p = 0.008) but MATV, TLG and textural features were not discriminative. Grade 3 tumours had higher FDG uptake (AUC 0.779 for SUV{sub max} and 0.694 for TLG), and exhibited slightly higher regional heterogeneity (AUC 0.624). Hormone receptor-negative tumours had higher SUV values than oestrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) and progesterone receptor-positive tumours, while heterogeneity patterns showed only low-level variation according to hormone receptor expression. HER-2 status was not associated with any of the image features. Finally, SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub mean} and TLG significantly differed among the three

  6. Do clinical, histological or immunohistochemical primary tumour characteristics translate into different 18F-FDG PET/CT volumetric and heterogeneity features in stage II/III breast cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groheux, David; Martineau, Antoine; Merlet, Pascal; Majdoub, Mohamed; Hatt, Mathieu; Visvikis, Dimitris; Tixier, Florent; Le Rest, Catherine Cheze; Espie, Marc; Roquancourt, Anne de; Hindie, Elif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine if some features of baseline 18 F-FDG PET images, including volume and heterogeneity, reflect clinical, histological or immunohistochemical characteristics in patients with stage II or III breast cancer (BC). Included in the present retrospective analysis were 171 prospectively recruited patients with stage II/III BC treated consecutively at Saint-Louis hospital. Primary tumour volumes were semiautomatically delineated on pretreatment 18 F-FDG PET images. The parameters extracted included SUV max , SUV mean , metabolically active tumour volume (MATV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and heterogeneity quantified using the area under the curve of the cumulative histogram and textural features. Associations between clinical/histopathological characteristics and 18 F-FDG PET features were assessed using one-way analysis of variance. Areas under the ROC curves (AUC) were used to quantify the discriminative power of the features significantly associated with clinical/histopathological characteristics. T3 tumours (>5 cm) exhibited higher textural heterogeneity in 18 F-FDG uptake than T2 tumours (AUC <0.75), whereas there were no significant differences in SUV max and SUV mean . Invasive ductal carcinoma showed higher SUV max values than invasive lobular carcinoma (p = 0.008) but MATV, TLG and textural features were not discriminative. Grade 3 tumours had higher FDG uptake (AUC 0.779 for SUV max and 0.694 for TLG), and exhibited slightly higher regional heterogeneity (AUC 0.624). Hormone receptor-negative tumours had higher SUV values than oestrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) and progesterone receptor-positive tumours, while heterogeneity patterns showed only low-level variation according to hormone receptor expression. HER-2 status was not associated with any of the image features. Finally, SUV max , SUV mean and TLG significantly differed among the three phenotype subgroups (HER2-positive, triple-negative and ER

  7. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Models Core Technologies Clinical Innovation Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network Patient ... to our monthly e-newsletter. About Translation Translational Science Spectrum Explore the full spectrum of translational science, ...

  8. Translation goes to the movies

    CERN Document Server

    Cronin, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This highly accessible introduction to translation theory, written by a leading author in the field, uses the genre of film to bring the main themes in translation to life. Through analyzing films as diverse as the Marx Brothers' A Night at the Opera, The Star Wars Trilogies and Lost in Translation, the reader is encouraged to think about both issues and problems of translation as they are played out on the screen and issues of filmic representation through examining the translation dimension of specific films. In highlighting how translation has featured in both mainstream commercial and arthouse films over the years, Cronin shows how translation has been a concern of filmmakers dealing with questions of culture, identity, conflict and representation. This book is a lively and accessible text for translation theory courses and offers a new and largely unexplored approach to topics of identity and representation on screen. Translation Goes to the Movies will be of interest to those on translation studies...

  9. Pauses by Student and Professional Translators in Translation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdi Noor Rosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation as a process of meaning making activity requires a cognitive process one of which is realized in a pause, a temporary stop or a break indicating doing other than typing activities in a certain period of translation process. Scholars agree that pauses are an indicator of cognitive process without which there will never be any translation practices. Despite such agreement, pauses are debatable as well, either in terms of their length or in terms of the activities managed by a translator while taking pauses. This study, in particular, aims at finding out how student translators and professional translators managed the pauses in a translation process. This was a descriptive research taking two student translators and two professional translators as the participants who were asked to translate a text from English into bahasa Indonesia. The source text (ST was a historical recount text entitled ‘Early History of Yellowstone National Park’ downloaded from http://www.nezperce.com/yelpark9.html composed of 230-word long from English into bahasa Indonesia. The data were collected using Translog protocols, think aloud protocols (TAPs and screen recording. Based on the data analysis, it was found that student translators took the longest pauses in the drafting phase spent to solve the problems related to finding out the right equivalent for the ST words or terms and to solve the difficulties encountered in encoding their ST understanding in the TL; meanwhile, professional translators took the longest pauses in the pos-drafting phase spent to ensure whether their TT had been natural and whether their TT had corresponded to the prevailing grammatical rules of the TL.

  10. Topical Review: Translating Translational Research in Behavioral Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, Kevin A; Modi, Avani C; Piazza-Waggoner, Carrie; Myers, James D

    2015-01-01

    To present a model of translational research for behavioral science that communicates the role of behavioral research at each phase of translation. A task force identified gaps in knowledge regarding behavioral translational research processes and made recommendations regarding advancement of knowledge. A comprehensive model of translational behavioral research was developed. This model represents T1, T2, and T3 research activities, as well as Phase 1, 2, 3, and 4 clinical trials. Clinical illustrations of translational processes are also offered as support for the model. Behavioral science has struggled with defining a translational research model that effectively articulates each stage of translation and complements biomedical research. Our model defines key activities at each phase of translation from basic discovery to dissemination/implementation. This should be a starting point for communicating the role of behavioral science in translational research and a catalyst for better integration of biomedical and behavioral research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. An Evergreen Challenge for Translators – The Translation of Idioms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács Gabriella

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Translating idioms has always been a challenging decision-making process for translators mainly because not all idioms have direct equivalents in the target language. Translators usually and ideally have a solid knowledge of the target language and its cultural aspects, but even so they cannot match the ability of a native speaker in deciding when – i.e. in what context and text type – an idiom would or would not be appropriate. This study aims to explore the main characteristics of idioms and the difficulties which might occur when translating them. A needs analysis will also be presented, where the various solutions which a group of translator trainees chose while translating certain idioms from the novel “A Game of Thrones” by George R. R. Martin into Hungarian are examined. Their strategies and the appropriateness of their choices are analysed and compared with the options of the experienced literary translator (Tamás Pétersz. We consider this an important endeavour because, based on our experience, we believe that the topic of the translation of idioms should be included into the curriculum and appropriate materials and tasks should be designed to develop the translator trainees’ knowledge and skills in this domain. Therefore, the aim of this analysis is to obtain a clearer view of the difficulties they are dealing with and bear them in mind when designing teaching materials for them.

  12. Translation through argumentation in medical research and physician-citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gordon R; McTigue, Kathleen M

    2012-06-01

    While many "benchtop-to-bedside" research pathways have been developed in "Type I" translational medicine, vehicles to facilitate "Type II" and "Type III" translation that convert scientific data into clinical and community interventions designed to improve the health of human populations remain elusive. Further, while a high percentage of physicians endorse the principle of citizen leadership, many have difficulty practicing it. This discrepancy has been attributed, in part, to lack of training and preparation for public advocacy, time limitation, and institutional resistance. As translational medicine and physician-citizenship implicate social, political, economic and cultural factors, both enterprises require "integrative" research strategies that blend insights from multiple fields of study, as well as rhetorical acumen in adapting messages to reach multiple audiences. This article considers how argumentation theory's epistemological flexibility, audience attentiveness, and heuristic qualities, combined with concepts from classical rhetoric, such as rhetorical invention, the synecdoche, and ethos, yield tools to facilitate translational medicine and enable physician-citizenship.

  13. Translating Fashion into Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riegels Melchior, Marie; Skov, Lise; Csaba, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    emanate from Denmark and secure growth, jobs and exports even outside the fashion business has taken hold among policymakers, and compelled the government to embrace fashion as a national project. In investigating the emergence and rising stature of Danish fashion, particular at home, we first establish...... a theoretical frame for understanding the cultural economic policy and the motives, principles and strategies behind it. Then – drawing inspiration from Michel Callon’s “sociology of translation” with its moments of translation: problematization, interessement, enrolment and mobilization – we identify...... the actors and analyze their strategic roles and interrelationship through various phases of the development of Danish fashion. Callon’s actor network theory (ANT) is based on the principle of “generalized symmetry” – originally using a single repertoire to analyze both society and nature. We adapt...

  14. Found in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietjen, Anne

    2018-01-01

    activities and uses, and people’s ideas and desires for future development can be a pertinent starting point. Furthermore, a clearly defined programming phase where design problems are formulated by different representational media and collectively assessed by students and teachers proved helpful...... analysis. Second, it presents the applied educational procedure, with a focus on the decisive step from inventory to intervention which is the formulation of a design problem. The teaching experiment shows that onsite studies of spatial controversies in the form of recent physical changes, emerging new...... for the students. Overall, the produced design work and the student evaluations show that translation offers an operational framework for teaching a creative approach to site analysis....

  15. Holography without translational symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Vegh, David

    2013-01-01

    We propose massive gravity as a holographic framework for describing a class of strongly interacting quantum field theories with broken translational symmetry. Bulk gravitons are assumed to have a Lorentz-breaking mass term as a substitute for spatial inhomogeneities. This breaks momentum-conservation in the boundary field theory. At finite chemical potential, the gravity duals are charged black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime. The conductivity in these systems generally exhibits a Drude peak that approaches a delta function in the massless gravity limit. Furthermore, the optical conductivity shows an emergent scaling law: $|\\sigma(\\omega)| \\approx {A \\over \\omega^{\\alpha}} + B$. This result is consistent with that found earlier by Horowitz, Santos, and Tong who introduced an explicit inhomogeneous lattice into the system.

  16. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCREEN TRANSLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sang Ayu Isnu Maharani

    2014-01-01

    Screen translations involve oral translation known as dubbing and revoicing. Re-voicing consists of lip-sync dubbing, free commentary, narration and voice over. The written version is called subtitle. Dubbing and subtitling are two preferred mode used in the screen translation even though various numbers of current options are available nowadays. Dubbing commenced to be used in larger countries in Europe meanwhile smaller countries apply subtitling because it is more...

  17. Transferring communicative clues in translation

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Errasti, María Pilar

    2001-01-01

    In this essay I make use of the category communicative clue, as defined by Gutt (1991/2000), to explain certain differences between an original work and its various translations. Communicative clues are very useful analytical devices that show nuances of meaning and style. In the source texts, they sometimes go unnoticed. But when a translation is done the translator may come across these features and must desirably transfer them. Very frequently, however, they are ignored. Here a particular ...

  18. Translational Breast Cancer Research Consortium (TBCRC) 022: A Phase II Trial of Neratinib for Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2–Positive Breast Cancer and Brain Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Rebecca S.; Wefel, Jeffrey S.; Melisko, Michelle E.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Connolly, Roisin M.; Van Poznak, Catherine H.; Niravath, Polly A.; Puhalla, Shannon L.; Ibrahim, Nuhad; Blackwell, Kimberly L.; Moy, Beverly; Herold, Christina; Liu, Minetta C.; Lowe, Alarice; Agar, Nathalie Y.R.; Ryabin, Nicole; Farooq, Sarah; Lawler, Elizabeth; Rimawi, Mothaffar F.; Krop, Ian E.; Wolff, Antonio C.; Winer, Eric P.; Lin, Nancy U.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Evidence-based treatments for metastatic, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)–positive breast cancer in the CNS are limited. Neratinib is an irreversible inhibitor of erbB1, HER2, and erbB4, with promising activity in HER2-positive breast cancer; however, its activity in the CNS is unknown. We evaluated the efficacy of treatment with neratinib in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer brain metastases in a multicenter, phase II open-label trial. Patients and Methods Eligible patients were those with HER2-positive brain metastases (≥ 1 cm in longest dimension) who experienced progression in the CNS after one or more line of CNS-directed therapy, such as whole-brain radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, and/or surgical resection. Patients received neratinib 240 mg orally once per day, and tumors were assessed every two cycles. The primary endpoint was composite CNS objective response rate (ORR), requiring all of the following: ≥50% reduction in volumetric sum of target CNS lesions and no progression of non-target lesions, new lesions, escalating corticosteroids, progressive neurologic signs/symptoms, or non-CNS progression—the threshold for success was five of 40 responders. Results Forty patients were enrolled between February 2012 and June 2013; 78% of patients had previous whole-brain radiotherapy. Three women achieved a partial response (CNS objective response rate, 8%; 95% CI, 2% to 22%). The median number of cycles received was two (range, one to seven cycles), with a median progression-free survival of 1.9 months. Five women received six or more cycles. The most common grade ≥ 3 event was diarrhea (occurring in 21% of patients taking prespecified loperamide prophylaxis and 28% of those without prophylaxis). Patients in the study experienced a decreased quality of life over time. Conclusion Although neratinib had low activity and did not meet our threshold for success, 12.5% of patients received six or more cycles. Studies

  19. Strategy Of Translating Gadget Brochure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deny Kusuma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The title of this writing is strategy of translating gadget brochure. There were two problems discussed in this thesis, namely (1 terms found in the gadget manual book and its equivalence in Indonesia, (2 strategies applied in translating gadget brochure. Based on the analysis result, it was found that the terms and its equivalent words found in the gadget brochure were classified based on: 1 simple words or compound words and terminology forming phrase. 2 words category found are: noun and verb. The recommended pattern to determine the equivalent word was pure borrowing strategy, not adaptation borrowing strategy. The adaptation borrowing in this context was related to the spellings, the pronunciation or sound adaptation in the TL rather than adaptation for the cultural substitutes that conceptually mismatches with the standardized terminology in the SL. In addition, the result of the analysis that there were seven strategies found in gadget brochure, they were translation by more general word (Superordinate, translation by a more neutral/expressive word, translation by cultural substitution, translation by using loan word or loan word plus explanation, translation by paraphrase using related word, translation by omission and translation by illustration.

  20. Specialised Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Specialised translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain discourse in a foreign language in connection with translation. The most common type is the business dictionary covering several more or less related subject fields. However, business dictionaries...... the needs of learners, it is proposed that specialised translation dictionaries should be designed as augmented reference tools. It is argued that electronic and printed dictionaries should include sections or CD-ROMs with syntactic, translation etc. data as well as exercises and illustrative documents...

  1. Onomastics and Translation: The Case of Igbo→English Translation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The qualitative research method will be used to translate, analyze and explain the data from the anthroponomical, semiotic and linguistic perspectives to show that contrary to the view held in some Western circles that names are obscure and may consist of words that can hardly be interpreted or translated, they, as symbols ...

  2. The Translation and the Translator of the Peshitta of Hosea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive examination of the Syriac Peshitta of Hosea (P-Hosea) is the first study of the Peshitta conducted via insights and methods from the discipline of Translation Studies. It uses in particular Andrew Chesterman's Causal Model and Gideon Toury's descriptive approach. Every translator leaves residue of his or her…

  3. The wise translator: reflecting on judgement in translator education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The question of how one goes about teaching students to be translators is a central area of concern for translation teachers. As a reflective practitioner, I have a hunch about how to solve my problem. This paper is therefore in itself part of a reflective practicum, part of my reflection-in-action. I am in the process of restructuring ...

  4. Developing corpus-based translation methods between informal and formal mathematics : project description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaliszyk, C.; Urban, J.; Vyskocil, J.; Geuvers, J.H.; Watt, S.M.; Davenport, J.H.; Sexton, A.P.; Sojka, P.; Urban, J.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project is to (i) accumulate annotated informal/formal mathematical corpora suitable for training semi-automated translation between informal and formal mathematics by statistical machine-translation methods, (ii) to develop such methods oriented at the formalization task, and in

  5. A Study of Translation Institutional Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoXianfeng; ZhouJin

    2017-01-01

    Traditional translation ethics characterized by translators' ethics cannot provide a strong moral support to the translation practice,or guarantee the moral requirement towards translation activities in the social transformation caused by the market economy,because it does not have the power of punishment.Translation institutional ethics,however,a new form of translation ethics,integrates the translation ethic norm,translation regulations and relative laws together.As an inevitable outcome in the new era,it can escort the orderly and healthy translation activities.Its purpose is to strengthen the translators' moral consciousness,to sublimate their moral notions and to transfer from heteronomy to autonomy.

  6. Translation Memory and Computer Assisted Translation Tool for Medieval Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Törcsvári Attila

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation memories (TMs, as part of Computer Assisted Translation (CAT tools, support translators reusing portions of formerly translated text. Fencing books are good candidates for using TMs due to the high number of repeated terms. Medieval texts suffer a number of drawbacks that make hard even “simple” rewording to the modern version of the same language. The analyzed difficulties are: lack of systematic spelling, unusual word orders and typos in the original. A hypothesis is made and verified that even simple modernization increases legibility and it is feasible, also it is worthwhile to apply translation memories due to the numerous and even extremely long repeated terms. Therefore, methods and algorithms are presented 1. for automated transcription of medieval texts (when a limited training set is available, and 2. collection of repeated patterns. The efficiency of the algorithms is analyzed for recall and precision.

  7. Reconceptualising translation in agricultural innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, Julie; Dwyer, Janet; Gaskell, Peter; Mills, Jane; Wolf, de Pieter

    2018-01-01

    Scientific research continues to play a significant role in meeting the multiple innovation challenges in agriculture. If this role is to be fulfilled, provision needs to be made for effective translation of research outputs, where translation is understood to be the process whereby science becomes

  8. PATRAN-STAGS translator (PATSTAGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Neil

    1990-01-01

    A a computer program used to translate PATRAN finite element model data into Structural Analysis of General Shells (STAGS) input data is presented. The program supports translation of nodal, nodal constraints, element, force, and pressure data. The subroutine UPRESS required for the readings of live pressure data into STAGS is also presented.

  9. Knowledge Translation in Audiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anita; Bagatto, Marlene P.; Seewald, Richard; Miller, Linda T.; Scollie, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    The impetus for evidence-based practice (EBP) has grown out of widespread concern with the quality, effectiveness (including cost-effectiveness), and efficiency of medical care received by the public. Although initially focused on medicine, EBP principles have been adopted by many of the health care professions and are often represented in practice through the development and use of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Audiology has been working on incorporating EBP principles into its mandate for professional practice since the mid-1990s. Despite widespread efforts to implement EBP and guidelines into audiology practice, gaps still exist between the best evidence based on research and what is being done in clinical practice. A collaborative dynamic and iterative integrated knowledge translation (KT) framework rather than a researcher-driven hierarchical approach to EBP and the development of CPGs has been shown to reduce the knowledge-to-clinical action gaps. This article provides a brief overview of EBP and CPGs, including a discussion of the barriers to implementing CPGs into clinical practice. It then offers a discussion of how an integrated KT process combined with a community of practice (CoP) might facilitate the development and dissemination of evidence for clinical audiology practice. Finally, a project that uses the knowledge-to-action (KTA) framework for the development of outcome measures in pediatric audiology is introduced. PMID:22194314

  10. Revising and editing for translators

    CERN Document Server

    Mossop, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Revising and Editing for Translators provides guidance and learning materials for translation students learning to edit texts written by others, and professional translators wishing to improve their self-revision ability or learning to revise the work of others. Editing is understood as making corrections and improvements to texts, with particular attention to tailoring them to the given readership. Revising is this same task applied to draft translations. The linguistic work of editors and revisers is related to the professional situations in which they work. Mossop offers in-depth coverage of a wide range of topics, including copyediting, style editing, structural editing, checking for consistency, revising procedures and principles, and translation quality assessment. This third edition provides extended coverage of computer aids for revisers, and of the different degrees of revision suited to different texts. The inclusion of suggested activities and exercises, numerous real-world examples, a proposed gra...

  11. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Indra

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians" can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  12. Translational plant proteomics: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Pedreschi, Romina; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Bindschedler, Laurence Veronique; Cramer, Rainer; Sarkar, Abhijit; Renaut, Jenny; Job, Dominique; Rakwal, Randeep

    2012-08-03

    Translational proteomics is an emerging sub-discipline of the proteomics field in the biological sciences. Translational plant proteomics aims to integrate knowledge from basic sciences to translate it into field applications to solve issues related but not limited to the recreational and economic values of plants, food security and safety, and energy sustainability. In this review, we highlight the substantial progress reached in plant proteomics during the past decade which has paved the way for translational plant proteomics. Increasing proteomics knowledge in plants is not limited to model and non-model plants, proteogenomics, crop improvement, and food analysis, safety, and nutrition but to many more potential applications. Given the wealth of information generated and to some extent applied, there is the need for more efficient and broader channels to freely disseminate the information to the scientific community. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Proteomics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. TRANSLATING BLACKNESS: A CHALLENGE TO TRANSLATION STUDIES IN CONTEMPORANEITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Andrade Salgueiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents aspects of a work in progress about both African-American and Afro-Brazilian Literatures as well as Translation Studies. As it makes observations about how blackness has been translated in different contexts and geographical spaces, it calls the reader’s attention to power relations, processes of colonial and post-colonial identity construction, the rising of literary canons, cultural hegemony and globalization, demystifying spaces and showing translation as an activity that does not take place in a neutral space, but, for sure, inside social and political concrete situations.

  14. Knowledge translation of research findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimshaw Jeremy M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health. We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting, and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge

  15. Knowledge translation of research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Eccles, Martin P; Lavis, John N; Hill, Sophie J; Squires, Janet E

    2012-05-31

    One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the

  16. The "Pedagogue as Translator" in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Translation theory has faced criticism from professional translators for adopting an ivory tower stance to the "real world" challenges of translation. This article argues that a case can be made for considering the challenges of translation as it takes place in the school classroom. In support of such an argument the pedagogue as translator is…

  17. A Protocol of Japanese-English Translation

    OpenAIRE

    三浦, 勲夫; MIURA, Isao

    1999-01-01

    Every year I translate Japanes enewspaper articles into English and publish them in book form containing 12 or more translations. In translating there are regular procedures I go through:1)initial translation done by me and 2) corrected translation done through discussion between a native English speaker and me.

  18. Translating Romans: some persistent headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. du Toit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Translating Romans: some persistent headaches Gone are the days when it was axiomatic that expertise in biblical languages automatically qualified one as a Bible translator. In 1949, Ronald Knox, who for nine years conscientiously struggled with translating the Bible for his generation, published a booklet under the title The trials of a translator. At that stage Bible translation as the subject of scientific study was still in its infancy. Since then, research into the intricacies of communicating the biblical message in an authentic but understandable manner, has made significant progress (cf. Roberts, 2009. However, the frustrations of Bible translators, first of all to really understand what the biblical authors wanted to convey to their original addressees, and then to commu-nicate that message to their own targeted readers in a meaningful way, have not disappeared. In fact, the challenge to meet the vary-ing requirements of the multiple kinds of translation that are present-ly in vogue, has only increased.

  19. Harold Pinter in Slovene Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Hribar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the translation of Harold Pinter’s most notable stylistic peculiarities into Slovene, illustrating its main points with examples taken from his play The Homecoming. The findings demonstrate above all a marked degree of non-observance of the special verbal pattern (special cohesion of the originals, a failure to convey Pinter’s special configuration of meaning (special coherence, and a disregard for internal unifying coincidences. It argues that the Slovene translations of Pinter rely mostly on traditional theories of meaning and of language norms, thus preventing the reproduction of those emotional and psychological actions of Pinter’s characters which are usually not expressed by means of the rhetorical, informative elements of his dialogue, but by its form and sonority, i. e. the length, strength, and level of articulation of verbal expression. This blurs Pinter’s famous logic of emotion, narrows the proverbial openness and conceptual uncertainty of his plays, and limits their potential vitality in translation. Taking into account current drama and theatre translation practices in Slovenia, i.e. the rarity of published drama translation and the dependence on a translated performance text for subsequent theatrical productions, the article argues that in such cases the drama translation should be retrospective, i.e. aiming at a maximum reconstruction of all relevant linguistic, stylistic, and textual properties of the original, leaving expressly subjective interventions in the text to the theatre practitioners.

  20. Strategies for Translating Vocative Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga COJOCARU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the linguistic and cultural elements of vocative texts and the techniques used in translating them by giving some examples of texts that are typically vocative (i.e. advertisements and instructions for use. Semantic and communicative strategies are popular in translation studies and each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages in translating vocative texts. The advantage of semantic translation is that it takes more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, while communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original text in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership. Focus is laid on the strategies used in translating vocative texts, strategies that highlight and introduce a cultural context to the target audience, in order to achieve their overall purpose, that is to sell or persuade the reader to behave in a certain way. Thus, in order to do that, a number of advertisements from the field of cosmetics industry and electronic gadgets were selected for analysis. The aim is to gather insights into vocative text translation and to create new perspectives on this field of research, now considered a process of innovation and diversion, especially in areas as important as economy and marketing.

  1. Translating the covenant: The behavior analyst as ambassador and translator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx, R M

    1996-01-01

    Behavior analysts should be sensitive to how others react to and interpret our language because it is inextricably related to our image. Our use of conceptual revision, with such terms as punishment, has created communicative confusion and hostility on the part of general and professional audiences we have attempted to influence. We must, therefore, adopt the role of ambassador and translator in the nonbehavioral world. A number of recommendations are offered for promoting, translating, and disseminating behavior analysis.

  2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCREEN TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ayu Isnu Maharani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Screen translations involve oral translation known as dubbing and revoicing. Re-voicing consists of lip-sync dubbing, free commentary, narration and voice over. The written version is called subtitle. Dubbing and subtitling are two preferred mode used in the screen translation even though various numbers of current options are available nowadays. Dubbing commenced to be used in larger countries in Europe meanwhile smaller countries apply subtitling because it is more economical than dubbing. In Indonesia, the use of dubbing as well as subtitle are found.

  3. Translation and spaces of reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Scott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses relations between the original and translation in terms of imaginary spaces. Target text is understood here as one of the possible images of the source text, from the perspective which could not be accessible to the original. In accordance with the concept presented here, artistic translation can be not so much reconstructed, as conceptually constructed, in the manner of a cubist object. Acts of creative reading are commented on by the author with examples of his own experimental translations from contemporary French poetry.

  4. Eye-movements During Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    texts as well as both eye-tracking and keylogging data. Based on this database, I present a large-scale analysis of gaze on the source text based on 91 translators' translations of six different texts from English into four different target languages. I use mixed-effects modelling to compare from......, and variables indexing the alignment between the source and target texts. The results are related to current models of translation processes and reading and compared to a parallel analysis of production time....

  5. Regulation of mRNA translation influences hypoxia tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koritzinsky, M.; Wouters, B.G.; Koumenis, C.

    2003-01-01

    Hypoxia is a heterogenous but common characteristic of human tumours and poor oxygenation is associated with poor prognosis. We believe that the presence of viable hypoxic tumor cells reflects in part an adaptation and tolerance of these cells to oxygen deficiency. Since oxidative phosphorylation is compromized during hypoxia, adaptation may involve both the upregulation of glycolysis as well as downregulation of energy consumption. mRNA translation is one of the most energy costly cellular processes, and we and others have shown that global mRNA translation is rapidly inhibited during hypoxia. However, some mRNAs, including those coding for HIF-1 α and VEGF, remain efficiently translated during hypoxia. Clearly, the mechanisms responsible for the overall inhibition of translation during hypoxia does not compromize the translation of certain hypoxia-induced mRNA species. We therefore hypothesize that the inhibition of mRNA translation serves to promote hypoxia tolerance in two ways: i) through conservation of energy and ii) through differential gene expression involved in hypoxia adaptation. We have recently identified two pathways that are responsible for the global inhibition of translation during hypoxia. The phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2 α by the ER resident kinase PERK results in down-regulation of protein synthesis shortly after the onset of hypoxia. In addition, the initiation complex eIF4F is disrupted during long lasting hypoxic conditions. The identification of the molecular pathways responsible for the inhibition of overall translation during hypoxia has rendered it possible to investigate their importance for hypoxia tolerance. We have found that mouse embryo fibroblasts that are knockout for PERK and therefore not able to inhibit protein synthesis efficiently during oxygen deficiency are significantly less tolerant to hypoxia than their wildtype counterparts. We are currently also investigating the functional significance

  6. The Translator's Turn: in the Cultural Turn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玮玮

    2003-01-01

    @@ Introduction: Douglas Robinson rose to the defense of the " atheoretical" American literary translator in The Translator's Turn (1991). Here, I borrowed the title from him, but I will write my paper in the thought of the translator's role in translating. In his book, Robinson argued that the literary translator embodies an integration of feeling and thought, of intuition and systematization. In analyzing the " turn" that the translator take from the source text to the target text, Robinson offered a " dialogical" model, that is the translator's dialogical engagement with the source language and with the ethic of the target language. Robinson allows for the translator to intervene, subvert, divert, even entertain, emphasizing the creative aspect of literary translation. The translation linguists, scientists, and philosophers have had their chance at translation theory; now it is time, he argued, for the literary translators to have their " turn".

  7. Oration ”Ut apertum vobis” of Pope Pius II (10 October 1458, Rome). Edited and translated by Michael v. Cotta-Schönberg. Preliminary edition, 2nd version. With the papal bull “Vocavit nos Pius”. (Orations of Enea Silvio Piccolomini / Pope Pius II; 29) :

    OpenAIRE

    Cotta-Schønberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Immediately after his election in August 1458, Pope Pius II began to plan for a crusade against the Turks, a cause he had worked for tirelessly since the Fall of Constantinople. He soon decided that the most effective way would be to summon the European kings and princes to a congress on the matter, to be held in a city in Northern Italy which would be more accessible for the participants from beyond the Alps than the City of Rome. After intense consultations with the cardinals, the pope form...

  8. Approaches to translational plant science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Christensen, Brian; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    is lessened. In our opinion, implementation of translational plant science is a necessity in order to solve the agricultural challenges of producing food and materials in the future. We suggest an approach to translational plant science forcing scientists to think beyond their own area and to consider higher......Translational science deals with the dilemma between basic research and the practical application of scientific results. In translational plant science, focus is on the relationship between agricultural crop production and basic science in various research fields, but primarily in the basic plant...... science. Scientific and technological developments have allowed great progress in our understanding of plant genetics and molecular physiology, with potentials for improving agricultural production. However, this development has led to a separation of the laboratory-based research from the crop production...

  9. Translating English Idioms and Collocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochayah Machali

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Learners of English should be made aware of the nature, types, and use of English idioms. This paper disensses the nature of idioms and collocations and translation issues related to them

  10. Coordinator, Translation Services | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Coordinator, Translation Services coordinates the overall operations of the ... services in IDRC by acting as the main resource person for internal clients ... all operational issues in order to ensure good quality products delivered on time.

  11. Histochemistry and translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Manfredi Romanini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This issue of the Journal is mainly devoted to a specific, crucial topic in the field of histochemical research: how in situ technologies can be exploited to study tissue samples from patients with specific diseases. The final goal is on one hand a more accurate diagnosis; on the other, the identification of specific features that can: i be followed and compared at different time points ii provide hints on the natural history of the disease and iii represent surrogate end-points for targeted molecular treatments. The European Journal of Histochemistry has always been particularly concerned with the molecular study of diseases in different tissues, and we had the privilege to publish recently several cuttingedge reports dealing with such a subject (Boniotto et al., 2003; Lanni et al., 2003; Maraldi et al., 2003; Munoz et al., 2003; Benkoel et al., 2004; Cremer et al., 2004; Rambotti et al., 2004;Trovato et al., 2004;Waltregny et al., 2004;Woodall and Graham, 2004

  12. Optimising Comprehensibility in Interlingual Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbeth Jensen, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    The increasing demand for citizen engagement in areas traditionally belonging exclusively to experts, such as health, law and technology has given rise to the necessity of making expert knowledge available to the general public through genres such as instruction manuals for consumer goods, patien...... the functional text type of Patient Information Leaflet. Finally, the usefulness of applying the principles of Plain Language and intralingual translation for optimising comprehensibility in interlingual translation is discussed....

  13. Expanding the knowledge translation metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Eivind; Sandset, Tony Joakim; Ødemark, John

    2017-03-13

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a buzzword in modern medical science. However, there has been little theoretical reflection on translation as a process of meaning production in KT. In this paper, we argue that KT will benefit from the incorporation of a more theoretical notion of translation as an entangled material, textual and cultural process. We discuss and challenge fundamental assumptions in KT, drawing on theories of translation from the human sciences. We show that the current construal of KT as separate from and secondary to the original scientific message is close to the now deeply compromised literary view of translation as the simple act of copying the original. Inspired by recent theories of translation, we claim that KT can be more adequately understood in terms of a 'double supplement' - on the one hand, KT offers new approaches to the communication of scientific knowledge to different groups in the healthcare system with the aim of supplementing a lack of knowledge among clinicians (and patients). On the other, it demonstrates that a textual and cultural supplement, namely a concern with target audiences (clinicians and patients), is inevitable in the creation of an 'autonomous' science. Hence, the division between science and its translation is unproductive and impossible to maintain. We discuss some possible implications of our suggested shift in concept by drawing on pharmaceutical interventions for the prevention of HIV as a case. We argue that such interventions are based on a supplementary and paradoxical relation to the target audiences, both presupposing and denying their existence. More sophisticated theories of translation can lay the foundation for an expanded model of KT that incorporates a more adequate and reflective description of the interdependency of scientific, cultural, textual and material practices.

  14. The Society for Translational Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shugeng; Zhang, Zhongheng; Aragón, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The Society for Translational Medicine and The Chinese Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery conducted a systematic review of the literature in an attempt to improve our understanding in the postoperative management of chest tubes of patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy. Recommendati......The Society for Translational Medicine and The Chinese Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery conducted a systematic review of the literature in an attempt to improve our understanding in the postoperative management of chest tubes of patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy...

  15. Style and ideology in translation

    CERN Document Server

    Munday, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, this book investigates the style, or 'voice,' of English language translations of twentieth-century Latin American writing, including fiction, political speeches, and film. Existing models of stylistic analysis, supported at times by computer-assisted analysis, are developed to examine a range of works and writers, selected for their literary, cultural, and ideological importance. The style of the different translators is subjected to a close linguistic investigation within their cultural and ideological framework.

  16. Translating Linguistic Jokes for Dubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ALEKSANDROVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has attempted to establish the possible ways of translating linguistic jokes whendubbing. The study is also intended to identify the most problematic cases of screen translation andthe factors which cause these problems. In order to support such an approach a corpus of 7American and British films has been compiled, including as many as 16 as their various dubbingtranslations into Russian. In the films, almost 12 instances of original linguistic jokes have beenidentified.

  17. Developing a translational ecology workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark W.; Hiers, J. Kevin; Davis, Frank W.; Garfin, Gregg; Jackson, Stephen T.; Terando, Adam J.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Morelli, Toni; Williamson, Matthew A.; Brunson, Mark W.

    2017-01-01

    We define a translational ecologist as a professional ecologist with diverse disciplinary expertise and skill sets, as well as a suitable personal disposition, who engages across social, professional, and disciplinary boundaries to partner with decision makers to achieve practical environmental solutions. Becoming a translational ecologist requires specific attention to obtaining critical non‐scientific disciplinary breadth and skills that are not typically gained through graduate‐level education. Here, we outline a need for individuals with broad training in interdisciplinary skills, use our personal experiences as a basis for assessing the types of interdisciplinary skills that would benefit potential translational ecologists, and present steps that interested ecologists may take toward becoming translational. Skills relevant to translational ecologists may be garnered through personal experiences, informal training, short courses, fellowships, and graduate programs, among others. We argue that a translational ecology workforce is needed to bridge the gap between science and natural resource decisions. Furthermore, we argue that this task is a cooperative responsibility of individuals interested in pursuing these careers, educational institutions interested in training scientists for professional roles outside of academia, and employers seeking to hire skilled workers who can foster stakeholder‐engaged decision making.

  18. Translational Repression in Malaria Sporozoites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turque, Oliver; Tsao, Tiffany; Li, Thomas; Zhang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by the parasitic protozoan, Plasmodium. Sporozoites, the infectious form of malaria parasites, are quiescent when they remain in the salivary glands of the Anopheles mosquito until transmission into a mammalian host. Metamorphosis of the dormant sporozoite to its active form in the liver stage requires transcriptional and translational regulations. Here, we summarize recent advances in the translational repression of gene expression in the malaria sporozoite. In sporozoites, many mRNAs that are required for liver stage development are translationally repressed. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α (eIF2α) leads to a global translational repression in sporozoites. The eIF2α kinase, known as Upregulated in Infectious Sporozoite 1 (UIS1), is dominant in the sporozoite. The eIF2α phosphatase, UIS2, is translationally repressed by the Pumilio protein Puf2. This translational repression is alleviated when sporozoites are delivered into the mammalian host. PMID:28357358

  19. Translational repression in malaria sporozoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Turque

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by the parasitic protozoan, Plasmodium. Sporozoites, the infectious form of malaria parasites, are quiescent when they remain in the salivary glands of the Anopheles mosquito until transmission into a mammalian host. Metamorphosis of the dormant sporozoite to its active form in the liver stage requires transcriptional and translational regulations. Here, we summarize recent advances in the translational repression of gene expression in the malaria sporozoite. In sporozoites, many mRNAs that are required for liver stage development are translationally repressed. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α (eIF2α leads to a global translational repression in sporozoites. The eIF2α kinase, known as Upregulated in Infectious Sporozoite 1 (UIS1, is dominant in the sporozoite. The eIF2α phosphatase, UIS2, is translationally repressed by the Pumilio protein Puf2. This translational repression is alleviated when sporozoites are delivered into the mammalian host.

  20. Translator-computer interaction in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Kristine; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    perspective, this paper investigates the relationship between machines and humans in the field of translation, analysing a CAT process in which machine-translation (MT) technology was integrated into a translation-memory (TM) suite. After a review of empirical research into the impact of CAT tools......Though we lack empirically-based knowledge of the impact of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools on translation processes, it is generally agreed that all professional translators are now involved in some kind of translator-computer interaction (TCI), using O’Brien’s (2012) term. Taking a TCI......, the study indicates that the tool helps the translator conform to project and customer requirements....

  1. Rotational and translational diffusions of fluorescent probes during gelation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yusuke; Panizza, Pascal; Letamendia, Louis; Ushiki, Hideharu

    2006-04-01

    Gelation process has been investigated by using light scattering techniques in recent years. We measured both of rotational and translational motions of fluorescent probes during gelation process. The measurements were performed after the temperature quenched at 30 °C. As the results, rotational diffusion coefficient of fluorescein was decreased after 6.0 × 10 4 s and energy transfer rate was reduced after 2.0 × 10 4 s. We sorted the gelation process into the following three parts, (I) pre-gelation, (II) reduction of translational diffusion (aging), and (III) reduction of rotational diffusion with saturating translational diffusion (post-gelation). The time scale of the process was completely different from the results of other methods.

  2. On the Systematicity of Human Translation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    While translation careers and the translation profession become more globalised and more technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we attempt to outline a method which helps to uncover character......While translation careers and the translation profession become more globalised and more technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we attempt to outline a method which helps to uncover...... characteristic steps in human translation processes. Based on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles, which are characteristic for different kinds of translators. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis...

  3. Copper (II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Valine (2 - amino - 3 – methylbutanoic acid), is a chemical compound containing .... Stability constant (Kf). Gibb's free energy. ) (. 1. −. ∆. Mol. JG. [CuL2(H2O)2] ... synthesis and characterization of Co(ii), Ni(ii), Cu (II), and Zn(ii) complexes with ...

  4. Localizing apps a practical guide for translators and translation students

    CERN Document Server

    Roturier, Johann

    2015-01-01

    The software industry has undergone rapid development since the beginning of the twenty-first century. These changes have had a profound impact on translators who, due to the evolving nature of digital content, are under increasing pressure to adapt their ways of working. Localizing Apps looks at these challenges by focusing on the localization of software applications, or apps. In each of the five core chapters, Johann Roturier examines:The role of translation and other linguistic activities in adapting software to the needs of different cultures (localization);The procedures required to prep

  5. Using example-based machine translation to translate DVD subtitles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian

    between Swedish and Danish and Swedish and Norwegian subtitles, with the company already reporting a successful return on their investment. The hybrid EBMT/SMT system used in the current research, on the other hand, remains within the confines of academic research, and the real potential of the system...... allotted to produce the subtitles have both decreased. Therefore, this market is recognised as a potential real-world application of MT. Recent publications have introduced Corpus-Based MT approaches to translate subtitles. An SMT system has been implemented in a Swedish subtitling company to translate...

  6. Translational research: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, M Cecilia; Kirkbride, Geri; Wade, Kristen; Ferrell, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: Little is known about which approaches facilitate adoption and sustainment of evidence-based practice change in the highly complex care environments that constitute clinical practice today. The purpose of this article was to complete a concept analysis of translational research using a modified Walker and Avant approach. DESIGN/DATA COLLECTION: Using a rigorous and thorough review of the recent health care literature generated by a deep electronic search from 2004-2011, 85 appropriate documents were retrieved. Close reading of the articles by three coresearchers yielded an analysis of the emerging concept of translational research. Using the iterative process described by Walker and Avant, a tentative definition of the concept of translational research, along with antecedents and consequences were identified. Implications for health care professionals in education, practice, and research are offered. Further research is needed to determine the adequacy of the definition, to identify empirical referents, and to guide theory development. The study resulted in a theoretical definition of the concept of translational research, along with identification of antecedents and consequences and a description of an ideal or model case to illustrate the definition. Implications for practice and education include the importance of focusing on translational research approaches that may reduce the research-practice gap in health care, thereby improving patient care delivery. Research is needed to determine the usefulness of the definition in health care clinical practice.

  7. Maintaining Sentiment Polarity in Translation of User-Generated Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohar Pintu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of social media has shaken the very foundations of how we share information, with Twitter, Facebook, and Linkedin among many well-known social networking platforms that facilitate information generation and distribution. However, the maximum 140-character restriction in Twitter encourages users to (sometimes deliberately write somewhat informally in most cases. As a result, machine translation (MT of user-generated content (UGC becomes much more difficult for such noisy texts. In addition to translation quality being affected, this phenomenon may also negatively impact sentiment preservation in the translation process. That is, a sentence with positive sentiment in the source language may be translated into a sentence with negative or neutral sentiment in the target language. In this paper, we analyse both sentiment preservation and MT quality per se in the context of UGC, focusing especially on whether sentiment classification helps improve sentiment preservation in MT of UGC. We build four different experimental setups for tweet translation (i using a single MT model trained on the whole Twitter parallel corpus, (ii using multiple MT models based on sentiment classification, (iii using MT models including additional out-of-domain data, and (iv adding MT models based on the phrase-table fill-up method to accompany the sentiment translation models with an aim of improving MT quality and at the same time maintaining sentiment polarity preservation. Our empirical evaluation shows that despite a slight deterioration in MT quality, our system significantly outperforms the Baseline MT system (without using sentiment classification in terms of sentiment preservation. We also demonstrate that using an MT engine that conveys a sentiment different from that of the UGC can even worsen both the translation quality and sentiment preservation.

  8. The Role of Semantics in Translation Recognition: Effects of Number of Translations, Dominance of Translations and Semantic Relatedness of Multiple Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxen, Jannika; Lavaur, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of multiple translations of a word on bilingual processing in three translation recognition experiments during which French-English bilinguals had to decide whether two words were translations of each other or not. In the first experiment, words with only one translation were recognized as translations…

  9. Working with Corpora in the Translation Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to illustrate possible applications of electronic corpora in the translation classroom. Starting with a survey of corpus use within corpus-based translation studies, the didactic value of corpora in the translation classroom and their epistemic value in translation teaching and practice will be elaborated. A typology of…

  10. Translation Ambiguity in and out of Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Wintner, Shuly; MacWhinney, Brian; Lavie, Alon

    2011-01-01

    We compare translations of single words, made by bilingual speakers in a laboratory setting, with contextualized translation choices of the same items, made by professional translators and extracted from parallel language corpora. The translation choices in both cases show moderate convergence, demonstrating that decontextualized translation…

  11. Daisaku Ikeda and the Culture of Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Although not functionally multilingual or a translator himself, Daisaku Ikeda has been deeply involved in translation processes, both as a reader and as someone who has produced texts for translation into various languages. This article examines two sources of influence shaping Ikeda's attitude toward translation culture: the flourishing culture…

  12. Barriers vs Creativity in Translator Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Mine

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses translation problems awaiting Turkish students as well as the creative solutions they develop in overcoming them. It consists of two parts; The first part studies the barriers concerning translation procedures from the perspective of translation theory and Turkish translation history; The second parts analyses the impact of…

  13. Allocation of Cognitive Resources in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    The present study is an empirical investigation of translators' allocation of cognitive resources during the translation process, and it aims at investigating how translators' mental processing resources are put to use during translation. The study bases ts analyses on quantitative eye...

  14. Translational informatics: an industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Michael N

    2012-01-01

    Translational informatics (TI) is extremely important for the pharmaceutical industry, especially as the bar for regulatory approval of new medications is set higher and higher. This paper will explore three specific areas in the drug development lifecycle, from tools developed by precompetitive consortia to standardized clinical data collection to the effective delivery of medications using clinical decision support, in which TI has a major role to play. Advancing TI will require investment in new tools and algorithms, as well as ensuring that translational issues are addressed early in the design process of informatics projects, and also given higher weight in funding or publication decisions. Ultimately, the source of translational tools and differences between academia and industry are secondary, as long as they move towards the shared goal of improving health.

  15. A Taxonomy of Human Translation Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2011-01-01

    on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis for a felicitous and grounded integration of human machine interaction in translation.......While the translation profession becomes increasingly technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we outline a method which helps to uncover characteristics of human translation processes. Based...

  16. History and theory of Scripture translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Loba-Mkole

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article argues for the importance of Bible translations through its historical achievements and theoretical frames of reference. The missionary expansion of Christianity owes its very being to translations. The early Christian communities knew the Bible through the LXX translations while churches today still continue to use various translations. Translations shape Scripture interpretations, especially when a given interpretation depends on a particular translation. A particular interpretation can also influence a given translation. The article shows how translation theories have been developed to clarify and how the transaction source-target is culturally handled. The articles discuss some of these “theoretical frames”, namely the functional equivalence, relevance, literary functional equivalence and intercultural mediation. By means of a historical overview and a reflection on Bible translation theories the article aims to focus on the role of Africa in translation history.

  17. Translation Technologies: A Dilemma between Translation Industry and Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakul, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Today, physical and virtual borders are shrinking thanks to technology whose footprints are greater and faster than one can imagine. Beyond the shadow of a doubt, technology is associated with the areas for which it offers solutions such as education technologies, health technologies and translation technologies. Nowadays using translation…

  18. The translator status, the translation market and developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies ... article is an attempt to examine the sociology of translation in the development context of ten countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam).

  19. Nurturing and Testing Translation Competence for Text-Translating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubakirova, Karlygash Adilkhanovna

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the problems of contemporary professional education. As its instance, we examine the developmental scheme for training professional translators. Optimal ways of organizing the learning process are suggested from the point of view of the competence approach, which is widely recognized for training a modern specialist. The…

  20. JavaScript DNA translator: DNA-aligned protein translations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William L

    2002-12-01

    There are many instances in molecular biology when it is necessary to identify ORFs in a DNA sequence. While programs exist for displaying protein translations in multiple ORFs in alignment with a DNA sequence, they are often expensive, exist as add-ons to software that must be purchased, or are only compatible with a particular operating system. JavaScript DNA Translator is a shareware application written in JavaScript, a scripting language interpreted by the Netscape Communicator and Internet Explorer Web browsers, which makes it compatible with several different operating systems. While the program uses a familiar Web page interface, it requires no connection to the Internet since calculations are performed on the user's own computer. The program analyzes one or multiple DNA sequences and generates translations in up to six reading frames aligned to a DNA sequence, in addition to displaying translations as separate sequences in FASTA format. ORFs within a reading frame can also be displayed as separate sequences. Flexible formatting options are provided, including the ability to hide ORFs below a minimum size specified by the user. The program is available free of charge at the BioTechniques Software Library (www.Biotechniques.com).

  1. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    in conditional clauses. When translating into languages not allowing such structures, for instance, English and French, learners need their legal translation dictionaries to help them with both the legal terms and the syntactic structures. The uses of textual conventions that characterise the legal genre vary....... Lexicographers should therefore design their dictionaries so that they contain intra-lingual or contrastive descriptions of the relevant genre conventions. As illustrated in Nielsen (2000) whether the best solution is to retain the genre conventions found in the SL text or to adopt the conventions used in TL...

  2. Geometry and topology of wild translation surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Randecker, Anja

    2016-01-01

    A translation surface is a two-dimensional manifold, equipped with a translation structure. It can be obtained by considering Euclidean polygons and identifying their edges via translations. The vertices of the polygons form singularities if the translation structure can not be extended to them. We study translation surfaces with wild singularities, regarding the topology (genus and space of ends), the geometry (behavior of the singularities), and how the topology and the geometry are related.

  3. Cross-cultural equivalence in translations of the oral health impact profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEntee, Michael I; Brondani, Mario

    2016-04-01

    The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) has been translated for comparisons across cultural boundaries. This report on a systematic search of literature published between 1994 and 2014 aims to identify an acceptable method of translating psychometric instruments for cross-cultural equivalence, and how they were used to translate the OHIP. An electronic search used the keywords 'cultural adaptation', 'validation', 'Oral Health Impact Profile' and 'OHIP' in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases supplemented by reference links and grey literature. It included papers on methods of cross-cultural translation and translations of the OHIP for dentulous adults and adolescents, and excluded papers without translational details or limited to specific disorders. The search identified eight steps to cross-cultural equivalence, and 36 (plus three supplemental) translations of the OHIP. The steps involve assessment of (i) forward/backward translation by committee, (ii) constructs, (iii) item interpretations, (iv) interval scales, (v) convergent validity, (vi) discriminant validity, (vii) responsiveness to clinical change and (viii) pilot tests. Most (>60%) of the translations involved forward/backward translation by committee, item interpretations, interval scales, convergence, discrimination and pilot tests, but fewer assessed the underlying theory (47%) or responsiveness to clinical change (28%). An acceptable method for translating quality of life-related psychometric instruments for cross-cultural equivalence has eight procedural steps, and most of the 36 OHIP translations involved at least five of the steps. Only translations to Saudi Arabian Arabic, Chinese Mandarin, German and Japanese used all eight steps to claim cultural equivalence with the original OHIP. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. (Configuring gender in Bible translation: Cultural, translational and gender critical intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Punt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The gendered intersection of cultural studies and Bible translation is under acknowledged. Accounting for gender criticism in translation work requires, besides responsible theory and practice of translation, also attention to interwoven gender critical aspects. After a brief investigation of the intersections between biblical, translation and gender studies, translation in a few Pauline texts with bearing on gender and sexuality are investigated.

  5. Hurdles in Basic Science Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J. Perry

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past century there have been incredible advances in the field of medical research, but what hinders translation of this knowledge into effective treatment for human disease? There is an increasing focus on the failure of many research breakthroughs to be translated through the clinical trial process and into medical practice. In this mini review, we will consider some of the reasons that findings in basic medical research fail to become translated through clinical trials and into basic medical practices. We focus in particular on the way that human disease is modeled, the understanding we have of how our targets behave in vivo, and also some of the issues surrounding reproducibility of basic research findings. We will also look at some of the ways that have been proposed for overcoming these issues. It appears that there needs to be a cultural shift in the way we fund, publish and recognize quality control in scientific research. Although this is a daunting proposition, we hope that with increasing awareness and focus on research translation and the hurdles that impede it, the field of medical research will continue to inform and improve medical practice across the world.

  6. Stroke-Related Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Louis R.; Arenillas, Juan; Cramer, Steven C.; Joutel, Anne; Lo, Eng H.; Meschia, James; Savitz, Sean; Tournier-Lasserve, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Stroke-related translational research is multifaceted. Herein, we highlight genome-wide association studies and genetic studies of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, COL4A1 mutations, and cerebral cavernous malformations; advances in molecular biology and biomarkers; newer brain imaging research; and recovery from stroke emphasizing cell-based and other rehabilitative modalities. PMID:21555605

  7. Advancing neurosurgery through translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Claire; Sutherland, Garnette

    2013-01-01

    Every year, the number of published research articles increases significantly. However, many potentially useful ideas are lost in this flood of data. Translational research provides a framework through which investigators or laboratories can maximize the likelihood that the product of their research will be adopted in medical practice. There are 2 recognizable models of translation appropriate for the majority of research: investigator driven and industry enabled. Investigator-driven research has more range because it does not have to consider the profit margin of research, but it is a slow process. The industry-enabled model accelerates the translational research process through the power of industry funding but is interested primarily in products with potential for profit. Two cases are examined to illustrate different methods of partnering with industry. IMRIS is a company founded by investigators to distribute intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging technology based on a movable high-field magnet. It took 7 years for IMRIS to make its first sale, but it is now a successful company. With neuroArm, a surgical robot, investigators decided to sell the intellectual property to an established company to ensure successful global commercialization. Translational research advances medicine by creating and distributing effective solutions to contemporary problems.

  8. Machine Translation - A Gentle Introduction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 7. Machine Translation - A Gentle Introduction. Durgesh D Rao. General Article Volume 3 Issue 7 July 1998 pp 61-70. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/07/0061-0070 ...

  9. Translational Research and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Borrowing the term "translational research" (TR) from medicine, along with some of the ideas and practices that define it, holds promise as a way of linking research more closely to the practice of youth development. However, doing so entails substantial adaptation. TR is more than a new name for applied research. It comprehends the…

  10. Translational medicine and drug discovery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Littman, Bruce H; Krishna, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    ..., and examples of their application to real-life drug discovery and development. The latest thinking is presented by researchers from many of the world's leading pharmaceutical companies, including Pfizer, Merck, Eli Lilly, Abbott, and Novartis, as well as from academic institutions and public- private partnerships that support translational research...

  11. Parsing statistical machine translation output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.; Vetulani, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increasing research into the use of syntax during statistical machine translation, the incorporation of syntax into language models has seen limited success. We present a study of the discriminative abilities of generative syntax-based language models, over and above standard n-gram models,

  12. Translators’ Use of Digital Resources during Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a study on translators’ use of digital resources during the translation process. Eye tracking data and screen recording data from 18 professional translators are analysed in order to 1) examine how much time translators spend on digital resource consultation...... compared with translation drafting and translation revision, 2) examine how eye movements differ between translation drafting, revision and digital resource consultation and 3) investigate what types of digital resources are used by translators. The findings demonstrate that digital resource consultation...... constitutes a considerable amount of the translation process. The findings also show longer fixations and larger pupils during resource consultation, indicating heavier cognitive load, and finally the study identifies considerable variation in the use of resources between translators....

  13. ERRORS AND DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING LEGAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, CHIRILA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.

  14. A GRAMMATICAL ADJUSTMENT ANALYSIS OF STATISTICAL MACHINE TRANSLATION METHOD USED BY GOOGLE TRANSLATE COMPARED TO HUMAN TRANSLATION IN TRANSLATING ENGLISH TEXT TO INDONESIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Pujianto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Google translate is a program which provides fast, free and effortless translating service. This service uses a unique method to translate. The system is called ―Statistical Machine Translation‖, the newest method in automatic translation. Machine translation (MT is an area of many kinds of different subjects of study and technique from linguistics, computers science, artificial intelligent (AI, translation theory, and statistics. SMT works by using statistical methods and mathematics to process the training data. The training data is corpus-based. It is a compilation of sentences and words of the languages (SL and TL from translation done by human. By using this method, Google let their machine discovers the rules for themselves. They do this by analyzing millions of documents that have already been translated by human translators and then generate the result based on the corpus/training data. However, questions arise when the results of the automatic translation prove to be unreliable in some extent. This paper questions the dependability of Google translate in comparison with grammatical adjustment that naturally characterizes human translators' specific advantage. The attempt is manifested through the analysis of the TL of some texts translated by the SMT. It is expected that by using the sample of TL produced by SMT we can learn the potential flaws of the translation. If such exists, the partial of more substantial undependability of SMT may open more windows to the debates of whether this service may suffice the users‘ need.

  15. Neuropathological biomarker candidates in brain tumors: key issues for translational efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainfellner, J A; Heinzl, H

    2010-01-01

    Brain tumors comprise a large spectrum of rare malignancies in children and adults that are often associated with severe neurological symptoms and fatal outcome. Neuropathological tumor typing provides both prognostic and predictive tissue information which is the basis for optimal postoperative patient management and therapy. Molecular biomarkers may extend and refine prognostic and predictive information in a brain tumor case, providing more individualized and optimized treatment options. In the recent past a few neuropathological brain tumor biomarkers have translated smoothly into clinical use whereas many candidates show protracted translation. We investigated the causes of protracted translation of candidate brain tumor biomarkers. Considering the research environment from personal, social and systemic perspectives we identified eight determinants of translational success: methodology, funding, statistics, organization, phases of research, cooperation, self-reflection, and scientific progeny. Smoothly translating biomarkers are associated with low degrees of translational complexity whereas biomarkers with protracted translation are associated with high degrees. Key issues for translational efficiency of neuropathological brain tumor biomarker research seem to be related to (i) the strict orientation to the mission of medical research, that is the improval of medical practice as primordial purpose of research, (ii) definition of research priorities according to clinical needs, and (iii) absorption of translational complexities by means of operatively beneficial standards. To this end, concrete actions should comprise adequate scientific education of young investigators, and shaping of integrative diagnostics and therapy research both on the local level and the level of influential international brain tumor research platforms.

  16. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  17. Typologically robust statistical machine translation : Understanding and exploiting differences and similarities between languages in machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daiber, J.

    2018-01-01

    Machine translation systems often incorporate modeling assumptions motivated by properties of the language pairs they initially target. When such systems are applied to language families with considerably different properties, translation quality can deteriorate. Phrase-based machine translation

  18. Translation: between what can be translated and what must be translated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Jeanrenaud

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Starting from a disconcerting interpretation of Jacques Derrida, our analysis aims at investigating and also tries to explain the blockage which appears in the English, French and Romanian translations (signed by Maurice de Gandillac, Antoine Berman, Laurent Lamy, Alexis Nouss, Harry Zohn, Steven Rendall, Martine Broda, Catrinel Pleșu etc. of a well-known text of Walter Benjamin, Die Aufgabe des Übersetzers, when translators transpose in their target languages the two quotations given by Benjamin: one of Mallarmé, left untranslated in the source text, and another, signed by Pannwitz. The fact is that both quotations have something in common: a discoursive form which results from an unusual syntax, as if they were already, in a certain sense, „translations”. As if the translators feared—a feature of the translator’s psychology?—not to render their text sufficiently accessible, even when the source text is not intended to be accessible. Hence the painful dilemma of the intentional fallacy (not only of the text to be translated.

  19. Authorial and Editorial Voices in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Translation Studies now recognizes that translators are not the only agents involved in translation. Authors and editors provide suggestions and instructions. Publishers have considerable power over the final text and how it is presented to the public. While it is well-known that translations...... understanding of the processes through which authors, publishers, editors, directors, and critics can affect translation. Empirical studies from historical and contemporary settings examine forms of collaboration and negotiation, or conflict, with special attention to the multiple voices in theatre translation....

  20. An analysis of machine translation and speech synthesis in speech-to-speech translation system

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, K.; Yamagishi, J.; Byrne, W.; King, S.; Tokuda, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the impacts of machine translation and speech synthesis on speech-to-speech translation systems. The speech-to-speech translation system consists of three components: speech recognition, machine translation and speech synthesis. Many techniques for integration of speech recognition and machine translation have been proposed. However, speech synthesis has not yet been considered. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on machine translation and speech synthesis, ...

  1. French-Canadian translation and validation of four questionnaires assessing hearing impairment and handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Claude; Gagné, Jean-Pierre; Leroux, Tony; Clothier, Audrey; Larivière, Marianne; Dumont, Frédéric S; Gendron, Martine

    2017-04-01

    Questionnaires evaluating hearing impairment are available in English but there is a need for French standardised questionnaires for researchers as well as for audiologists and other clinicians. The objective of this study is to describe the translation and validation of four questionnaires that assess different aspects of hearing impairment and handicap among elders with hearing loss, by comparing the main score and psychometric evaluation of original and French-Canadian (FC) versions of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale II (WHO-DAS II), the Screening Test for Hearing Problems (STHP), the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) and the Measure of Audiologic Rehabilitation Self-Efficacy for Hearing Aids (MARS-HA). Vallerand method: translation and back-translation by two translators, revision by a committee of experts and pre-tested with five bilingual older participants. Participants (n = 29) were 65 years of age or older including 21 with hearing aids. The psychometric properties (internal consistency, temporal stability after four weeks) indicate good reliability for most of the translated questionnaires and their subscales, especially the WHO-DAS II. The translations in FC of two hearing loss and two hearing aid questionnaires were validated. It is recommended to pursue the demonstration for temporal stability for the STHP.

  2. From Polarity to Plurality in Translation Scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolla Karimzadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of the literature in translation studies shows that translation scholarship can be discussed in 3 Macro-levels including 1 Corpus-based studies, 2 Protocol-based studies, and 3 Systems- based studies. Researchers in the corpus-based studies test the hypothesis about the universals of translation. They also try to identify translation norms and regular linguistic patterns. This scholarship aims at showing that the language of translation is different from that of non-translation. The other purpose is to identify the techniques and strategies adopted by the translators. In protocol –based studies, the researchers study the mental activities and the individual behaviors of the translators while translating. They aim to describe the behavior of professional translators (versus translator trainees during the process of translation in a bid to identify how they chunk the source text (unit of translation and to describe how the translation trainees develop their translation competence. These studies are longitudinal for the reason that they aim to investigate the change of intended behaviors in the subjects of the study. Like corpus-based studies, they are experimental and data for analysis are collected by various methods including the translators’ verbal report, keystroke logging, eye tracking, and so on. Recently, in a method called “triangulation”, they combine the above-mentioned methods of data collection to test their hypotheses on a stronger experimental basis. To collect the data, they also employ the methods used in neurology (for example the technology of Electroencephalogram in order to obtain information on the physiological processes in the brains of the translators while translating. And finally in the systems-based studies, the researchers analyze more extended systems of production, distribution, and consumption of translations and their impacts on the target culture in a specific socio-cultural context. Differentiating

  3. Translational research on advanced therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Belardelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  4. Translational research on advanced therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardelli, Filippo; Rizza, Paola; Moretti, Franca; Carella, Cintia; Galli, Maria Cristina; Migliaccio, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP) facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues) is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  5. Translation Competence and Translation Performance: Lexical, Syntactic and Textual Patterns in Student Translations of a Specialized EU Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Adrienn

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study aiming to reveal the recurring patterns of lexical, syntactic and textual errors in student translations of a specialized EU genre from English into Hungarian. By comparing the student translations to the official translation of the text, this article uncovers the most frequent errors that students made…

  6. Livestock models in translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, James A; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the ILAR Journal focuses on livestock models in translational medicine. Livestock models of selected human diseases present important advantages as compared with rodent models for translating fundamental breakthroughs in biology to useful preventatives and therapeutics for humans. Livestock reflect the complexity of applying medical advances in an outbred species. In many cases, the pathogenesis of infectious, metabolic, genetic, and neoplastic diseases in livestock species more closely resembles that in humans than does the pathogenesis of rodent models. Livestock models also provide the advantage of similar organ size and function and the ability to serially sample an animal throughout the study period. Research using livestock models for human disease often benefits not only human health but animal health and food production as well. This issue of the ILAR Journal presents information on translational research using livestock models in two broad areas: microbiology and infectious disease (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, mycobacterial infections, influenza A virus infection, vaccine development and testing, the human microbiota) and metabolic, neoplastic, and genetic disorders (stem cell therapy, male germ line cell biology, pulmonary adenocarcinoma, muscular dystrophy, wound healing). In addition, there is a manuscript devoted to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees' responsibilities for reviewing research using livestock models. Conducting translational research using livestock models requires special facilities and researchers with expertise in livestock. There are many institutions in the world with experienced researchers and facilities designed for livestock research; primarily associated with colleges of agriculture and veterinary medicine or government laboratories. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions

  7. The ubiquity of conservative translations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2012), s. 666-678 ISSN 1755-0203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : conservative translation * deductive system * nonclassical logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2012 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8757256

  8. Systematic reviews and knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugwell, Peter; Robinson, Vivian; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Santesso, Nancy

    2006-08-01

    Proven effective interventions exist that would enable all countries to meet the Millennium Development Goals. However, uptake and use of these interventions in the poorest populations is at least 50% less than in the richest populations within each country. Also, we have recently shown that community effectiveness of interventions is lower for the poorest populations due to a "staircase" effect of lower coverage/access, worse diagnostic accuracy, less provider compliance and less consumer adherence. We propose an evidence-based framework for equity-oriented knowledge translation to enhance community effectiveness and health equity. This framework is represented as a cascade of steps to assess and prioritize barriers and thus choose effective knowledge translation interventions that are tailored for relevant audiences (public, patient, practitioner, policy-maker, press and private sector), as well as the evaluation, monitoring and sharing of these strategies. We have used two examples of effective interventions (insecticide-treated bednets to prevent malaria and childhood immunization) to illustrate how this framework can provide a systematic method for decision-makers to ensure the application of evidence-based knowledge in disadvantaged populations. Future work to empirically validate and evaluate the usefulness of this framework is needed. We invite researchers and implementers to use the cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation as a guide when planning implementation strategies for proven effective interventions. We also encourage policy-makers and health-care managers to use this framework when deciding how effective interventions can be implemented in their own settings.

  9. XML Translator for Interface Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroson, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program defines an XML schema for specifying the interface to a generic FPGA from the perspective of software that will interact with the device. This XML interface description is then translated into header files for C, Verilog, and VHDL. User interface definition input is checked via both the provided XML schema and the translator module to ensure consistency and accuracy. Currently, programming used on both sides of an interface is inconsistent. This makes it hard to find and fix errors. By using a common schema, both sides are forced to use the same structure by using the same framework and toolset. This makes for easy identification of problems, which leads to the ability to formulate a solution. The toolset contains constants that allow a programmer to use each register, and to access each field in the register. Once programming is complete, the translator is run as part of the make process, which ensures that whenever an interface is changed, all of the code that uses the header files describing it is recompiled.

  10. Revisiting interaction in knowledge translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zackheim Lisa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the study of research utilization is not new, there has been increased emphasis on the topic over the recent past. Science push models that are researcher driven and controlled and demand pull models emphasizing users/decision-maker interests have largely been abandoned in favour of more interactive models that emphasize linkages between researchers and decisionmakers. However, despite these and other theoretical and empirical advances in the area of research utilization, there remains a fundamental gap between the generation of research findings and the application of those findings in practice. Methods Using a case approach, the current study looks at the impact of one particular interaction approach to research translation used by a Canadian funding agency. Results Results suggest there may be certain conditions under which different levels of decisionmaker involvement in research will be more or less effective. Four attributes are illuminated by the current case study: stakeholder diversity, addressability/actionability of results, finality of study design and methodology, and politicization of results. Future research could test whether these or other variables can be used to specify some of the conditions under which different approaches to interaction in knowledge translation are likely to facilitate research utilization. Conclusion This work suggests that the efficacy of interaction approaches to research translation may be more limited than current theory proposes and underscores the need for more completely specified models of research utilization that can help address the slow pace of change in this area.

  11. The translational metaphor in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Lewis

    2015-02-01

    The translational metaphor in psychoanalysis refers to the traditional method of interpreting or restating the meaning of verbal and behavioral acts of a patient in other, presumably more accurate terms that specify the forces and conflicts underlying symptoms. The analyst translates the clinical phenomenology to explain its true meaning and origin. This model of analytic process has been challenged from different vantage points by authors presenting alternative conceptions of therapeutic action. Although the temptation to find and make interpretations of clinical material is difficult to resist, behaving in this way places the analyst in the position of a teacher or diagnostician, seeking a specific etiology, which has not proven fruitful. Despite its historical appeal, I argue that the translational model is a misleading and anachronistic version of what actually occurs in psychoanalysis. I emphasize instead the capacity of analysis to promote the emergence of new forms of representation, or figuration, from the unconscious, using the work of Lacan, Laplanche, and Modell to exemplify this reformulation, and provide clinical illustrations of how it looks in practice. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  12. Elementary operations on histograms - translation - contraction - expansion; Operations elementaires sur histogrammes translation, contraction, dilatation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    A simple model is proposed for describing the working of analyzer systems which carry out successively the transformations from a physical system to its analogue expression, and then finally to a numerical scale. The model leads to a process for determining the physical zero in which, intentionally, only instrumental adjustments of immediate access are made to intervene. When it is possible to consider that the indispensable knowledge of the correspondence between the physical origin and the numerical scale has been acquired, one can correct by numerical treatment the possible deformations, which affect the recorded distributions in spite of the use of electronic stabilizing systems. With this in view, a programme of very general structure has been written which makes it possible to carry out simple operations of the translation type and homothetic transformations with constant area; the major part of is this report is devoted to a description of this programme and to its expression in MAGE II and FORTRAN IV. (author) [French] Pour la description du fonctionnement des systemes analyseurs realisant successivement les transformations faisant passer d'un systeme physique a son expression analogique, puis enfin, a une echelle numerique, on propose un modele simple. Ce dernier conduit a un procede de determination de zero physique, dans lequel, c'est a dessein, que l'on ne fait intervenir que des reglages instrumentaux d'acces immediat. Lorsque l'indispensable connaissance de la correspondance entre l'origine physique et l'echelle numerique peut etre consideree comme acquise, les eventuelles deformations qui, malgre l'utilisation de systemes stabilisateurs electroniques, affectent les distributions enregistrees peuvent etre corrigees par des traitements numeriques. Dans ce dernier but, il a ete ecrit un programme de structure tres generale, capable d'effectuer des operations simples du type translation et homotheties avec conservation d'aires; sa description et son

  13. Translating Management Practices in Hierarchical Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger

    structures affect translators’ approaches taken towards management ideas. This paper reports the findings from a longitudinal case study of the translation of Leadership Pipeline in a Danish fire department and how the translators’ approach changed over time from a modifying to a reproducing mode. The study......This study examines how translators in a hierarchical context approach the translation of management practices. Although current translation theory and research emphasize the importance of contextual factors in translation processes, little research has investigated how strongly hierarchical...... finds that translation does not necessarily imply transformation of the management idea, pointing instead to aspects of exact imitation and copying of an ”original” idea. It also highlights how translation is likely to involve multiple and successive translation modes and, furthermore, that strongly...

  14. Classroom Interactions in a Cooperative Translation Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui chuan Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available For the past decade, translation learning has become one of the main foci for university language students in Taiwan. However, many studies have shown that translation teachers tend to adopt traditional teaching methods without considering class dynamics and student interactions. This paper therefore looks into the interactions in the researcher’s designed cooperative translation task, the Cooperative Translation Task, to see how these interactions helped or hindered students’ translation learning. A small class of 25 translation students and two translation teachers were participants. Videotaping and interviews were conducted in order to investigate the interaction modes and student participants’ perspectives toward each interaction mode. Six interaction modes were found in this task: within group, between group, translator group and comment-giver group, instructor and students, guest teacher and students, and instructor and guest teacher. Based on the results and participants’ responses, suggested teaching guidelines are provided.

  15. (CEPTSA) — Translating and Explanatory Dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phases of the project, consisting of different translating and explanatory versions, are discussed. ... already published, namely the Dictionary category of the South African Translators' Institute (SATI) (2003), ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. Morphological Analysis for Statistical Machine Translation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Young-Suk

    2004-01-01

    .... The technique improves Arabic-to-English translation qualities significantly when applied to IBM Model 1 and Phrase Translation Models trained on the training corpus size ranging from 3,500 to 3.3 million sentence pairs.

  17. Precision axial translator with high stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösch, M A

    1979-08-01

    We describe a new type of translator which is inherently stable against torsion and twisting. This concentric translator is also ideally suited for precise axial motion with clearance of the center line.

  18. Translator/Revisor | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    On request, performs quality control of texts translated or written by clients or ... of the Official Languages Act, the IDRC Translation Unit provides service for the ... Resources and Communications documents for the purposes of internal and ...

  19. The Translation of Chinese Dish Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚佳文

    2015-01-01

    The traditional food of a nation reflects its historical and cultural characteristics This thesis begins with an introduction to the translation situation of Chinese dish names and its existing problem nowadays, and proceeds to the translation principles and tactics for English translation of the names of Chinese dishes, based on Eugene A. Nida’ s Functional Equivalence, with an aim to improve translation efficiency and promote cross-cultural communication, and promoting Chinese food culture throughout the globe.

  20. Preserved Network Metrics across Translated Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabatbat, Josephine Jill T.; Monsanto, Jica P.; Tapang, Giovanni A.

    2014-09-01

    Co-occurrence language networks based on Bible translations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) translations in different languages were constructed and compared with random text networks. Among the considered network metrics, the network size, N, the normalized betweenness centrality (BC), and the average k-nearest neighbors, knn, were found to be the most preserved across translations. Moreover, similar frequency distributions of co-occurring network motifs were observed for translated texts networks.

  1. Single acting translational/rotational brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Johnny W. (Inventor); Fleck, Jr., Vincent J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A brake system is provided that applies braking forces on surfaces in both the translational and rotational directions using a single acting self-contained actuator that travels with the translational mechanism. The brake engages a mechanical lock and creates a frictional force on the translational structure preventing translation while simultaneously creating a frictional torque that prevents rotation of the vertical support. The system may include serrations on the braking surfaces to provide increased braking forces.

  2. Professional Communication and Translation in Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnecci, Marusca; Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe

    2008-01-01

    As translation of technical documents becomes commonplace, and as translation becomes more automated, the roles of translator and technical communicator appear to be converging. This paper examines the trend revealed from recent surveys, and it suggests further research to determine if the trend...... is likely to continue. The  paper also provides recommendations for academic programs interested in adjusting to the trend....

  3. Evidence of Parallel Processing During Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard; Sjørup, Annette Camilla

    2014-01-01

    conclude that translation is a parallel process and that literal translation is likely to be a universal initial default strategy in translation. This conclusion is strengthened by the fact that all three experiments were relatively naturalistic, due to the combination of remote eye tracking and mixed...

  4. Difficulties in translation of personality scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses translations of tests and questionnaires from a psychological perspective: A distinction is drawn between linguistic and psychometric considerations, and procedures from both areas are briefly described. Back-translations and simple psychometric procedures are used to illustr...... to illustrate problems in the translation of Millon's Clinical Multiaxial Inventory into Danish....

  5. Machine Translation in Post-Contemporary Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2010-01-01

    This article focusing on translating techniques via personal computer or laptop reports updated artificial intelligence progresses before 2010. Based on interpretations and information for field of MT [Machine Translation] by Yorick Wilks' book, "Machine Translation, Its scope and limits," this paper displays understandable theoretical frameworks…

  6. Professional Communication and Translation in Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnecci, Marusca; Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe

    2008-01-01

    As translation of technical documents becomes commonplace, and as translation becomes more automated, the roles of translator and technical communicator appear to be converging. This paper examines the trend revealed from recent surveys, and it suggests further research to determine if the trend...

  7. The Role of Translation in EFL Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    congmin zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the problem “thinking in the first language then translating into the target language” by examining the process of writing. It is suggested that it is natural to think in the first language and/or to translate and the first language to foreign language translation indirectly enhances the writing ability.

  8. The Role of Translation in EFL Writing

    OpenAIRE

    congmin zhao

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the problem “thinking in the first language then translating into the target language” by examining the process of writing. It is suggested that it is natural to think in the first language and/or to translate and the first language to foreign language translation indirectly enhances the writing ability.

  9. Traveling Chaucer: Comparative Translation and Cosmopolitan Humanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Candace

    2014-01-01

    Through the comparative study of non-Anglophone translations of Geoffrey Chaucer's "The Canterbury Tales," we can achieve the progressive goals of Emily Apter's "translational transnationalism" and Edward Said's "cosmopolitan humanism." Both translation and humanism were intrinsic to Chaucer's…

  10. Inhibiting Translation One Protein at a Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Matthew D

    2017-06-01

    Historically, translational inhibitors have been confined to anti-bacterials that globally affect translation. Lintner et al. demonstrate that small molecules can specifically inhibit translation of a single disease-associated protein by stalling the ribosome's nascent chain [1], opening up a new therapeutic strategy for 'undruggable' proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development and Validation of a Translation Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonsooly, Behzad

    1993-01-01

    Translation testing methodology has been criticized for its subjective character. No real strides have so far been made in developing an objective translation test. In this paper, certain detailed procedures including various phases of pretesting have been performed to achieve objectivity and scorability in translation testing methodology. In…

  12. Translation Factors Specify Cellular Metabolic State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of Cell Reports, Shah et al. present evidence that a subcomplex of the eIF3 translation initiation factor regulates translation of mRNAs encoding components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and glycolytic enzymes, thus linking translational control with energy metabolism.

  13. Double-diffusive translation of Earth's inner core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguen, R.; Alboussiére, T.; Labrosse, S.

    2018-03-01

    The hemispherical asymmetry of the inner core has been interpreted as resulting form a high-viscosity mode of inner core convection, consisting in a translation of the inner core. A thermally driven translation, as originally proposed, is unlikely if the currently favoured high values of the thermal conductivity of iron at core conditions are correct. We consider here the possibility that inner core translation results from an unstable compositional gradient, which would develop either because the light elements present in the core become increasingly incompatible as the inner core grows, or because of a possibly positive feedback of the development of the F-layer on inner core convection. Though the magnitude of the destabilising effect of the compositional field is predicted to be similar to or smaller than the stabilising effect of the thermal field, the huge difference between thermal and chemical diffusivities implies that double-diffusive instabilities can still arise even if the net buoyancy increases upward. Using linear stability analysis and numerical simulations, we demonstrate that a translation mode can indeed exist if the compositional field is destabilising, even if the temperature profile is subadiabatic, and irrespectively of the relative magnitudes of the composition and potential temperature gradients. The existence of this double diffusive mode of translation requires that the following conditions are met: (i) the compositional profile within the inner core is destabilising, and remains so for a duration longer than the destabilisation timescale (on the order of 200 My, but strongly dependent on the magnitude of the initial perturbation); and (ii) the inner core viscosity is sufficiently large, the required value being a strongly increasing function of the inner core size (e.g. 1017 Pa.s when the inner core was 200 km in radius, and ≃ 3 × 1021 Pa.s at the current inner core size). If these conditions are met, the predicted inner core

  14. Assessing excellence in translational cancer research: a consensus based framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Abinaya; Caldas, Carlos; van Luenen, Henri; Saghatchian, Mahasti; van Harten, Wim H

    2013-10-29

    It takes several years on average to translate basic research findings into clinical research and eventually deliver patient benefits. An expert-based excellence assessment can help improve this process by: identifying high performing Comprehensive Cancer Centres; best practices in translational cancer research; improving the quality and efficiency of the translational cancer research process. This can help build networks of excellent Centres by aiding focused partnerships. In this paper we report on a consensus building exercise that was undertaken to construct an excellence assessment framework for translational cancer research in Europe. We used mixed methods to reach consensus: a systematic review of existing translational research models critically appraised for suitability in performance assessment of Cancer Centres; a survey among European stakeholders (researchers, clinicians, patient representatives and managers) to score a list of potential excellence criteria, a focus group with selected representatives of survey participants to review and rescore the excellence criteria; an expert group meeting to refine the list; an open validation round with stakeholders and a critical review of the emerging framework by an independent body: a committee formed by the European Academy of Cancer Sciences. The resulting excellence assessment framework has 18 criteria categorized in 6 themes. Each criterion has a number of questions/sub-criteria. Stakeholders favoured using qualitative excellence criteria to evaluate the translational research "process" rather than quantitative criteria or judging only the outputs. Examples of criteria include checking if the Centre has mechanisms that can be rated as excellent for: involvement of basic researchers and clinicians in translational research (quality of supervision and incentives provided to clinicians to do a PhD in translational research) and well designed clinical trials based on ground-breaking concepts (innovative

  15. Measuring Difficulty in English-Chinese Translation: Towards a General Model of Translation Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sanjun

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of a text's level of translation difficulty is critical for translator training and accreditation, translation research, and the language industry as well. Traditionally, people rely on their general impression to gauge a text's translation difficulty level. If the evaluation process is to be more effective and the…

  16. How Do English Translation Majors Use Translation Strategies? A Survey of the Iranian EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgarian, Amir; Vefali, Gülsen Musayeva

    2015-01-01

    Translation language learning strategies, especially in relation to translation students, have not received adequate attention in the research to date. Therefore, the present study attempted to explore Iranian translation students' use of translation strategies, related beliefs, and academic achievement. It was a survey study involving…

  17. Translating Proper Nouns: A Case Study on English Translation of Hafez's Lyrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirinzadeh, Seyed Alireza; Mahadi, Tengku Sepora Tengku

    2014-01-01

    Proper nouns are regarded so simple that they might be taken for granted in translation explorations. Some may believe that they should not be translated in transmitting source texts to target texts. But, it is not the case; if one looks at present translations, he will notice that different strategies might be applied for translating proper…

  18. Translationally invariant and non-translationally invariant empirical effective interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golin, M.; Zamick, L.

    1975-01-01

    In this work empirical deficiencies of the core-renormalized realistic effective interactions are examined and simple corrective potentials are sought. The inability of the current realistic interactions to account for the energies of isobaric analog states is noted, likewise they are unable to reproduce the changes in the single-particle energies, as one goes from one closed shell to another. It is noted that the Schiffer interaction gives better results for these gross properties and this is attributed to a combination of several facts. First, to the inclusion of long range terms in the Schiffer potential, then to the presence of relative p-state terms (l=1), in addition to the usual relative s-state terms (l=0). The strange shape of the above interaction is further attributed to the fact that it is translationally invariant whereas the theory of core-polarization yields non-translationally invariant potentials. Consequently, as a correction to the monopole deficiencies of the realistic interactions the term Vsub(mon)=ar 2 (1)r 2 (2)+r 2 (1)+β[r 4 (1)r 2 (2)r 4 (2) ] is proposed. (Auth.)

  19. Translation as a Way of Intercultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Alexeevna Laskovets

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the role of translation in teaching foreign languages to non-linguistic students and postgraduates. The translation is a way of intercultural communication. At present, the translation is not only a means of teaching and control, but also an objective of foreign language teaching and additional qualification, which is “translator of vocationally oriented texts”. The article highlights a number of issues of teaching specialized translation to non-linguistic students and postgraduates as a part of higher education in the Russian Federation.

  20. Promised Land No More: Dynamic Shifts in Slovene Translation Market and Translator Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike K. Pokorn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the changes of the translation market, the development of Higher Education (HE translator training and of the profession of translator in Slovenia. First, three HE translator-training programmes in Slovenia are briefly described. Second, through an analysis of the public database containing information on all business entities in Slovenia, a description of the translation market in 2014 is made and the findings are compared to those of a similar study carried out in 2007. Then two surveys of translation graduates of University of Ljubljana are presented, focusing in particular on graduate employment statistics and average earnings of junior translators. The results show that despite the fact that the Slovene translation market is thriving, this growth is not reflected in the average earnings of individual translators. Finally, in view of the fact that translation rates are constantly falling, it is argued that the role of professional associations becomes vital.

  1. Working with corpora in the translation classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Krüger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to illustrate possible applications of electronic corpora in the translation classroom. Starting with a survey of corpus use within corpus-based translation studies, the didactic value of corpora in the translation classroom and their epistemic value in translation teaching and practice will be elaborated. A typology of translation practice-oriented corpora will be presented, and the use of corpora in translation will be positioned within two general models of translation competence. Special consideration will then be given to the design and application of so-called Do-it-yourself (DIY corpora, which are compiled ad hoc with the aim of completing a specific translation task. In this context, possible sources for retrieving corpus texts will be presented and evaluated and it will be argued that, owing to time and availability constraints in real-life translation, the Internet should be used as a major source of corpus data. After a brief discussion of possible Internet research techniques for targeted and quality-focused corpus compilation, the possible use of the Internet itself as a macro-corpus will be elaborated. The article concludes with a brief presentation of corpus use in translation teaching in the MA in Specialised Translation Programme offered at Cologne University of Applied Sciences, Germany.

  2. IQ and Reading Comprehension in Translation Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Askari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Having a deeper understanding of determining factors in the quality of translation is in the interest of almost all scholars of translation studies. Students’ intelligence is being measured constantly in order to determine their aptitude for entering into different programs. However, in translation studies, the variable of intelligence quotient (IQ has been curiously ignored among researchers. This study aimed to explore the strength of both IQ and reading comprehension in predicting translation quality among Iranian translation students.  A sample of forty-six translation students from Alborz University of Qazvin participated in this study. Data were collected using three tests including Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices, Colina’s (2008 componential translation quality rating scheme and the reading comprehension test of IELTS. The results show IQ test scores and reading comprehension significantly predict translation quality assessment. Surprisingly, the most significant finding is that IQ score is by far a better predictor of translation quality than reading comprehension. Overall, it is concluded that translation quality assessment is more of a deeper cognitive function than solely language process, which could lead to more research on cognitive aspects of translation.

  3. Rotational and translational Brownian motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, W.T.; Salford Univ.

    1980-01-01

    In this review it is proposed to summarise the work on the theory of the translational and rotational Brownian movement which has been carried on over roughly the past 30 years. The review is intended to take the form of a tutorial paper rather than a list of the results obtained by the various investigators over the period in question. In this vein then it seems appropriate to firstly give a brief account of those parts of the theory of probability which are relevant to the problems under discussion. (orig.)

  4. Electronic Corpora as Translation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise; Mousten, Birthe; Jensen, Vigdis

    2012-01-01

    translator who has to get a cross-linguistic overview of a new area or a new line of business. Relevant internet texts can be compiled ‘on the fly’, but internet data needs to be sorted and analyzed for rational use. Today, such sorting and analysis can be made by a low-tech, analytical software tool....... This article demonstrates how strategic steps of compiling and retrieving linguistic data by means of specific search strategies can be used to make electronic corpora an efficient tool in translators’ daily work with fields that involve new terminology, but where the skills requested to work correspond...

  5. [Qualitative translational science in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Pei-Fan

    2013-10-01

    Qualitative translational research refers to the "bench-to-bedside" enterprise of harnessing knowledge from the basic sciences to produce new treatment options or nursing interventions for patients. Three evidence-based translational problems related to qualitative translational research discussed this year address the interfaces among the nursing paradigm, the basic sciences, and clinical nursing work. This article illustrates the definition of translational science and translational blocks of evidence-based practice; discusses the qualitative research perspective in evidence synthesis, evidence translation and evidence utilization; and discusses the research questions that must be answered to solve the problems of the three translational gaps from the qualitative research perspective. Qualitative inquiry has an essential role to play in efforts to improve current healthcare-provider nursing interventions, experiences, and contexts. Thus, it is vital to introduce qualitative perspectives into evidence-based practice from the knowledge discovery through to the knowledge implementation process.

  6. Translation, Validation, and Adaptation of the Time Use Diary from English into the Malay Language for Use in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmuri, Siti Noraini; Brown, Ted; Broom, Lisa J

    2016-07-01

    Valid translations of time use scales are needed by occupational therapists for use in different cross-cultural contexts to gather relevant data to inform practice and research. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of translating, adapting, and validating the Time Use Diary from its current English language edition into a Malay language version. Five steps of the cross-cultural adaptation process were completed: (i) translation from English into the Malay language by a qualified translator, (ii) synthesis of the translated Malay version, (iii) backtranslation from Malay to English by three bilingual speakers, (iv) expert committee review and discussion, and (v) pilot testing of the Malay language version with two participant groups. The translated version was found to be a reliable and valid tool identifying changes and potential challenges in the time use of older adults. This provides Malaysian occupational therapists with a useful tool for gathering time use data in practice settings and for research purposes.

  7. Audiovisual Translation:A Critical Review on Sino-western Perspectives of Film Subtitle Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Junchen Zhang

    2018-01-01

    The paper argues the development of audiovisual translation (mainly focuses on the strand of film subtitle translation) in the West and China. Firstly, the paper discusses film translation from the perspective of the West and critically reviews the achievements produced by western researchers. Secondly, the paper analyzes film translation from Chinese perspective and outlines its change and development in Mainland China. Thirdly, some major issues exited in film translation such as cultural p...

  8. Goal Translation for a Hammer for Coq (Extended Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Czajka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hammers are tools that provide general purpose automation for formal proof assistants. Despite the gaining popularity of the more advanced versions of type theory, there are no hammers for such systems. We present an extension of the various hammer components to type theory: (i a translation of a significant part of the Coq logic into the format of automated proof systems; (ii a proof reconstruction mechanism based on a Ben-Yelles-type algorithm combined with limited rewriting, congruence closure and a first-order generalization of the left rules of Dyckhoff's system LJT.

  9. Reverse and Forward Translational Neuropharmacology in Psychiatric Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Christopher L

    2018-02-01

    The probability of achieving marketing approval of a novel therapeutic for psychiatric indications is extremely low due largely to the inability to demonstrate durable and reproducible efficacy in phase II trials and beyond. These failures are often attributed to the lack of translation of the underlying neuropharmacology from animal model(s) to the disease population. However, how assured is such a conclusion considering the clinical efficacy path rarely meticulously parallels the preclinical experiment(s) that underwrote it? © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  10. Optical-to-Tactile Translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Maurice L. (Inventor); Moynihan, Philip I. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An optical-to-tactile translator provides an aid for the visually impaired by translating a near-field scene to a tactile signal corresponding to said near-field scene. An optical sensor using a plurality of active pixel sensors (APS) converts the optical image within the near-field scene to a digital signal. The digital signal is then processed by a microprocessor and a simple shape signal is generated based on the digital signal. The shape signal is then communicated to a tactile transmitter where the shape signal is converted into a tactile signal using a series of contacts. The shape signal may be an outline of the significant shapes determined in the near-field scene, or the shape signal may comprise a simple symbolic representation of common items encountered repeatedly. The user is thus made aware of the unseen near-field scene, including potential obstacles and dangers, through a series of tactile contacts. In a preferred embodiment, a range determining device such as those commonly found on auto-focusing cameras is included to limit the distance that the optical sensor interprets the near-field scene.

  11. HDL to verification logic translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.

  12. Translational Medicine - doing it backwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schechter Alan N

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years the concept of "translational medicine" has been advanced in an attempt to catalyze the medical applications of basic biomedical research. However, there has been little discussion about the readiness of scientists themselves to respond to what we believe is a required new approach to scientific discovery if this new concept is to bear fruit. The present paradigm of hypothesis-driven research poorly suits the needs of biomedical research unless efforts are spent in identifying clinically relevant hypotheses. The dominant funding system favors hypotheses born from model systems and not humans, bypassing the Baconian principle of relevant observations and experimentation before hypotheses. Here, we argue that that this attitude has born two unfortunate results: lack of sufficient rigor in selecting hypotheses relevant to human disease and limitations of most clinical studies to certain outcome parameters rather than expanding knowledge of human pathophysiology; an illogical approach to translational medicine. If we wish to remain true to our responsibility and duty of performing research relevant to human disease, we must begin to think about fundamental new approaches. NIH is the nation's medical research agency - making important medical discoveries that improve health and save lives. NIH is the steward of medical and behavioral research for the Nation. Its mission is science in pursuit of fundamental knowledge about the nature and behavior of living systems and the application of that knowledge to extend healthy life and reduce the burdens of illness and disability 1.

  13. Translational Research from an Informatics Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Turley, James P.; Smith, Jack W.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical and translational research (CTR) is an essential part of a sustainable global health system. Informatics is now recognized as an important en-abler of CTR and informaticians are increasingly called upon to help CTR efforts. The US National Institutes of Health mandated biomedical informatics activity as part of its new national CTR grant initiative, the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). Traditionally, translational re-search was defined as the translation of laboratory discoveries to patient care (bench to bedside). We argue, however, that there are many other kinds of translational research. Indeed, translational re-search requires the translation of knowledge dis-covered in one domain to another domain and is therefore an information-based activity. In this panel, we will expand upon this view of translational research and present three different examples of translation to illustrate the point: 1) bench to bedside, 2) Earth to space and 3) academia to community. We will conclude with a discussion of our local translational research efforts that draw on each of the three examples.

  14. Synthetic Biology and the Translational Imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari Feidt, Raheleh; Ienca, Marcello; Elger, Bernice Simone; Folcher, Marc

    2017-12-18

    Advances at the interface between the biological sciences and engineering are giving rise to emerging research fields such as synthetic biology. Harnessing the potential of synthetic biology requires timely and adequate translation into clinical practice. However, the translational research enterprise is currently facing fundamental obstacles that slow down the transition of scientific discoveries from the laboratory to the patient bedside. These obstacles including scarce financial resources and deficiency of organizational and logistic settings are widely discussed as primary impediments to translational research. In addition, a number of socio-ethical considerations inherent in translational research need to be addressed. As the translational capacity of synthetic biology is tightly linked to its social acceptance and ethical approval, ethical limitations may-together with financial and organizational problems-be co-determinants of suboptimal translation. Therefore, an early assessment of such limitations will contribute to proactively favor successful translation and prevent the promising potential of synthetic biology from remaining under-expressed. Through the discussion of two case-specific inventions in synthetic biology and their associated ethical implications, we illustrate the socio-ethical challenges ahead in the process of implementing synthetic biology into clinical practice. Since reducing the translational lag is essential for delivering the benefits of basic biomedical research to society at large and promoting global health, we advocate a moral obligation to accelerating translational research: the "translational imperative."

  15. Translating Legal Collocations in Contract Agreements by Iraqi EFL Students-Translators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntaha A. Abdulwahid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal translation of contract agreements is a challenge to translators as it involves combining the literary translation with the technical terminological precision. In translating legal contract agreements, a legal translator must utilize the lexical or syntactic precision and, more importantly, the pragmatic awareness of the context. This will guarantee an overall communicative process and avoid inconsistency in legal translation. However, the inability of the translator to meet these two functions in translating the contract item not only affects the contractors’ comprehension of the contract item but also affects the parties’ contractual obligations. In light of this, the purpose of this study was to find out how legal collocations used in contract agreements are translated from Arabic into English by student-translators in terms of (1 purely technical, (2 semi-technical, and (3 everyday vocabulary collocations. For the data collection, a multiple-choice collocation test was used to be answered by 35 EFL Iraqi undergraduate translator-students to decide on the aspects of weaknesses and strengths of their translation, thus decide on the aspects of correction. The findings showed that these students had serious problems in translating legal collocations as they lack the linguistic knowledge and pragmatic awareness needed to achieve the legal meaning and effect. They were also unable to make a difference among the three categories of legal collocations, purely technical, semi-technical, and everyday vocabulary collocations. These students should be exposed to more legal translation practices to obtain the required experience needed for their future career.

  16. Some Pitfalls of Translation Greek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Marcos, Natalio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In textual criticism it is important to detect the genesis of mistakes; sometimes the true reading is only reached through the unmasking of the wrong one. Likewise, in order to use critically the Septuagint it is indispensable to find out first its corruptions and mistranslations. The making of a Greek-Hebrew Index of the Antiochene Text in the Historical Books is an excellent occasion to observe the translation process and find out the most common errors made by the translators. A few examples will be commented concerning the following issues: inner-Greek corruptions and misleading translations caused by the graphic confusion of similar letters (paleography or sounds (phonetics, and by a different reading or vocalization of the consonantal text. In several cases this analysis may open a window towards a non-Masoretic Hebrew Vorlage.

    En crítica textual es muy importante descubrir la génesis de los errores; a veces la lectura verdadera sólo se descubre desenmascarando la falsa. De igual manera, para usar críticamente la Septuaginta es imprescindible descubrir primero las corrupciones y los errores de traducción. La confección de un índice griego-hebreo del texto antioqueno en los libros históricos es una ocasión excelente para analizar el proceso de traducción y detectar los errores más comunes cometidos por los traductores. En el artículo se estudian algunos ejemplos con relación a los siguientes fenómenos: corrupciones internas al griego y traducciones equivocadas motivadas por la confusión gráfica de letras (paleografía o sonidos (fonética semejantes y por una vocalización diferente del texto consonántico. En varios casos este análisis permite vislumbrar un texto base hebreo distinto del masorético.

  17. Measuring the nursing work environment: translation and psychometric evaluation of the Essentials of Magnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, B.J.M. de; Kaljouw, M.J.; Kramer, M.; Schmalenberg, C.; Achterberg, T. van

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Translate the Essentials of Magnetism II(c) (EOMII; Dutch Nurses' Association, Utrecht, The Netherlands) and assess its psychometric properties in a culture different from its origin. BACKGROUND: The EOMII, developed in the USA, measures the extent to which organizations/units provide healthy,

  18. NDAS Hardware Translation Layer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaretian, Ryan N.; Holladay, Wendy T.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Data Acquisition System (NDAS) project is aimed to replace all DAS software for NASA s Rocket Testing Facilities. There must be a software-hardware translation layer so the software can properly talk to the hardware. Since the hardware from each test stand varies, drivers for each stand have to be made. These drivers will act more like plugins for the software. If the software is being used in E3, then the software should point to the E3 driver package. If the software is being used at B2, then the software should point to the B2 driver package. The driver packages should also be filled with hardware drivers that are universal to the DAS system. For example, since A1, A2, and B2 all use the Preston 8300AU signal conditioners, then the driver for those three stands should be the same and updated collectively.

  19. Bioinformatics in translational drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooller, Sarah K; Benstead-Hume, Graeme; Chen, Xiangrong; Ali, Yusuf; Pearl, Frances M G

    2017-08-31

    Bioinformatics approaches are becoming ever more essential in translational drug discovery both in academia and within the pharmaceutical industry. Computational exploitation of the increasing volumes of data generated during all phases of drug discovery is enabling key challenges of the process to be addressed. Here, we highlight some of the areas in which bioinformatics resources and methods are being developed to support the drug discovery pipeline. These include the creation of large data warehouses, bioinformatics algorithms to analyse 'big data' that identify novel drug targets and/or biomarkers, programs to assess the tractability of targets, and prediction of repositioning opportunities that use licensed drugs to treat additional indications. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Translational invariance in bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahed, F.

    1981-10-01

    In this thesis, the effect of restoring the translational invariance to an approximation to the MIT bag model on the calculation of deep inelastic structure functions is investigated. In chapter one, the model and its major problems are reviewed and Dirac's method of quantisation is outlined. This method is used in chapter two to quantise a two-dimensional complex scalar bag and formal expressions for the form factor and the structure functions are obtained. In chapter three, the expression for the structure function away from the Bjorken limit is studied. The corrections to the L 0 - approximation to the structure function is calculated in chapter four and it is shown to be large. Finally, in chapter five, a bag-like model for kinematic corrections to structure functions is introduced and agreement with data between 2 and 6 (GeV/C) 2 is obtained. (author)

  1. Translating The girls of Balthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Kohl Bines

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available What is the point in trying to write something that is irreducible to another form of expression? The question appears at the end of a noteworthy short story by the Brazilian writer Sergio Sant’Anna, which painstakingly describes a series of paintings by the Polish-French artist Balthasar Balthus. These paintings depict young girls in ambiguous poses, between innocence and lusciousness. The present paper investigates translation processes between painting and literature, through the topos of childhood, taken as a borderline zone and a passageway between the domains of silence and of language. To that end, the paper traces an intellectual itinerary that stems from the Freudian theory on aphasia.

  2. German Translation Theories and Their Practicalness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Alexandru MOHR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The translator should not be perceived as a simple producer of texts based on other texts, but as an expert, with skills, tasks and precise responsibilities, who works in cooperation with other "actors", that are part of the translating process. Text translating is not a simple linguistic act, but a complex one, that involves Linguistics, Hermeneutics (because texts must be interpreted and Semiology (because signs and symbols must be decoded. In this paper is being explained the difference between translation studies (or translatology and the linguistic theory of translation and why translatological concepts like “purpose”, “adequacy” and “actor” (as they were defined by Reiß, Vermeer and Mänttäri are essential and necessary required for a complete description and a responsible fulfillment of translating acts.

  3. New Trends outside the Translation Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Martínez Martínez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the study of different elements at the University of Granada’s Faculty of Translation and Interpreting and seeks to elaborate a prototype for a multilingual and accessible audio guide (audio description, SDHH and Spanish sign language interpretation. We defend a new methodology, one that focuses on teaching the translation process from previous museum-based learning experiences in the translation classroom using QR codes. Our main goal is to innovate translation-related teaching based on the new approaches acquired through learning workshop perspectives. In this sense, we will offer an ideal framework in developing the new concept of translation learning. This concept involves systemising a new means of learning and organising the realities of translation itself, encompassing objectives, competences, methodology and evaluation.

  4. Performance limitations of translationally symmetric nonimaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortz, John C.; Shatz, Narkis E.; Winston, Roland

    2001-11-01

    The component of the optical direction vector along the symmetry axis is conserved for all rays propagated through a translationally symmetric optical device. This quality, referred to herein as the translational skew invariant, is analogous to the conventional skew invariant, which is conserved in rotationally symmetric optical systems. The invariance of both of these quantities is a consequence of Noether's theorem. We show how performance limits for translationally symmetric nonimaging optical devices can be derived from the distributions of the translational skew invariant for the optical source and for the target to which flux is to be transferred. Examples of computed performance limits are provided. In addition, we show that a numerically optimized non-tracking solar concentrator utilizing symmetry-breaking surface microstructure can overcome the performance limits associated with translational symmetry. The optimized design provides a 47.4% increase in efficiency and concentration relative to an ideal translationally symmetric concentrator.

  5. The Role of Localisation in Advertising Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying

    2016-01-01

    Today, a growing number of international corporations have been seeking to boost their sales on the global scale. To achieve this, adverting, one of the most common way to stimulate consumption, is widely used in which translation is involved because of diverse languages. Thus, how to translate a source advertising in a target culture has a decisive influence on a compa-ny’s marketing. The aim of the target advertising is to sell products to the locals. In this sense, localisation plays a significant role in the translation of advertising. This essay will discuss the importance of localisation in the translation of advertising and analyse cases of English-Chinese advertising translation based on the purpose of advertising and advertising translation.

  6. The ICNP BaT - from translation tool to translation web service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The ICNP BaT has been developed as a web application to support the collaborative translation of different versions of the ICNP into different languages. A prototype of a web service is described that could reuse the translations in the database of the ICNP BaT to provide automatic translations of nursing content based on the ICNP terminology globally. The translation web service is based on a service-oriented architecture making it easy to interoperate with different applications. Such a global translation server would free individual institutions from the maintenance costs of realizing their own translation services.

  7. Language policies and sign language translation and interpreting: connections between Brazil and Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Aguiar dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-8420.2015v16n2p101 This paper is the result of an initial attempt to establish a connection between Brazil and Mozambique regarding sign language translation and interpreting. It reviews some important landmarks in language policies aimed at sign languages in these countries and discusses how certain actions directly impact political decisions related to sign lan­guage translation and interpreting. In this context, two lines of argument are developed. The first one addresses the role of sign language translation and interpreting in the Por­tuguese-speaking context, since Portuguese is the official language in both countries; the other offers some reflections about the Deaf movements and the movements of sign lan­guage translators and interpreters, the legal recognition of sign languages, the develop­ment of undergraduate courses and the contemporary challenges in the work of transla­tion professionals. Finally, it is suggested that sign language translators and interpreters in both Brazil and Mozambique undertake efforts to press government bodies to invest in: (i area-specific training for translators and interpreters, (ii qualification of the ser­vices provided by such professionals, and (iii development of human resources at mas­ter’s and doctoral levels in order to strengthen research on sign language translation and interpreting in the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries.

  8. Wild translation surfaces and infinite genus

    OpenAIRE

    Randecker, Anja

    2014-01-01

    The Gauss-Bonnet formula for classical translation surfaces relates the cone angle of the singularities (geometry) to the genus of the surface (topology). When considering more general translation surfaces, we observe so-called wild singularities for which the notion of cone angle is not applicable any more. In this article, we study whether there still exist relations between the geometry and the topology for translation surfaces with wild singularities. By considering short saddle connectio...

  9. IQ and Reading Comprehension in Translation Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Askari; Azam Samadi Rahim

    2017-01-01

    Having a deeper understanding of determining factors in the quality of translation is in the interest of almost all scholars of translation studies. Students’ intelligence is being measured constantly in order to determine their aptitude for entering into different programs. However, in translation studies, the variable of intelligence quotient (IQ) has been curiously ignored among researchers. This study aimed to explore the strength of both IQ and reading comprehension in predicting transla...

  10. Rietveld analysis system RIETAN (translation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Fujio

    1991-09-01

    This is the manual of the RIETAN system (a Rietveld analysis program) which is originally written in Japanese by Fujio Izumi. The manual consists of two parts. Part I is a general description of the fundamental concepts and methods of the RIETAN system. Part II is the user's manual of the RIETAN which mainly describes in detail how to create user's data sets, procedures of Rietveld analysis and how to read the results of analysis. (author)

  11. An Image Processing Approach to Linguistic Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubatur, Shruthi; Sreehari, Suhas; Hegde, Rajeshwari

    2011-12-01

    The art of translation is as old as written literature. Developments since the Industrial Revolution have influenced the practice of translation, nurturing schools, professional associations, and standard. In this paper, we propose a method of translation of typed Kannada text (taken as an image) into its equivalent English text. The National Instruments (NI) Vision Assistant (version 8.5) has been used for Optical character Recognition (OCR). We developed a new way of transliteration (which we call NIV transliteration) to simplify the training of characters. Also, we build a special type of dictionary for the purpose of translation.

  12. Shared Representations and the Translation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present chapter is to investigate automated processing during translation. We provide evidence from a translation priming study which suggests that translation involves activation of shared lexico-semantic and syntactical representations, i.e., the activation of features of both...... source and target language items which share one single cognitive representation. We argue that activation of shared representations facilitates automated processing. The chapter revises the literal translation hypothesis and the monitor model (Ivir 1981; Toury 1995; Tirkkonen-Condit 2005), and re...

  13. Shared Representations and the Translation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to investigate automated processing during translation. We provide evidence from a translation priming study which suggests that translation involves activation of shared lexico-semantic and syntactical representations, i.e., the activation of features of both...... source and target language items which share one single cognitive representation. We argue that activation of shared representations facilitates automated processing. The paper revises the literal translation hypothesis and the monitor model (Ivir 1981; Toury 1995; Tirkkonen-Condit 2005), and re...

  14. Considerations for acceptability in Bible translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diphus C. Chemorion

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The ministry of Bible translation is an important component of the Great Commission (Matthew 28:18�20 and its mandate is to reach everyone with the word of God. One of the main goals of a Bible translation project is to produce a translation that will be used by the church in a given language group. Bible translation teams believe that the lives of the intended recipients will be changed positively when they gain access to Scripture in their own language. However, recent developments regarding Scripture use have shown that the success of any Bible translation project depends on whether or not its products are acceptable. If a translation is not acceptable to the intended audience, it may not be used, and as a result, it may fail to bring about the desired impact. This article explores the concept of �acceptability� as used in Bible translation and highlights important considerations that translators need to keep in mind in order to enhance the acceptability of their translation products.

  15. PC-assisted translation of photogrammetric papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güthner, Karlheinz; Peipe, Jürgen

    A PC-based system for machine translation of photogrammetric papers from the English into the German language and vice versa is described. The computer-assisted translating process is not intended to create a perfect interpretation of a text but to produce a rough rendering of the content of a paper. Starting with the original text, a continuous data flow is effected into the translated version by means of hardware (scanner, personal computer, printer) and software (OCR, translation, word processing, DTP). An essential component of the system is a photogrammetric microdictionary which is being established at present. It is based on several sources, including e.g. the ISPRS Multilingual Dictionary.

  16. The Hermeneutical Approach in Translation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Stefanink

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to convince the reader of the validity of the hermeneutical approach in translation studies. In a first part, we will show that this validity is based on the fact that the hermeneutical approach integrates factors like subjectivity, intuition, corporeality and creativity in its theoretical reflection, being thus close to the reality of the translation process. In a second part, we will situate this approach in the context of the development of modern translation studies since the 1950s, and show that this development was characterized by a dominating tendency that led from an atomistic to a more and more holistic view of the translation unit, legitimating the holistic approach, which is fundamental in translational hermeneutics. Our third part relates the history of philosophical hermeneutics as the legitimate foundation of translational hermeneutics. In a fourth part, devoted to the “outcoming perspectives”, we will try to reinforce the legitimacy of the hermeneutical approach by showing how it is supported by recent results of research in cognitive science. In order to foster further research in translational hermeneutics we also offer a methodology based on hermeneutic principles to study the translation process. Finally, we give an example of legitimation of a creative problemsolving based on a hermeneutical approach of a translation problem which finds its validation in the results of cognitive research.

  17. Rosmary Waldrop and Theories of Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy Nikolai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, the German-born US-American poet, Rosmarie Waldrop, has translated over 40 different works, largely from French and German, including 14 volumes by the Jewish French-language writer, Edmond Jabès (Jabès was expelled from Egypt in 1956 during the Suez Crisis. In 2003, Waldrop was made a Chevalier des Arts et des Lettres by the French Government, and in 2008 she received the PEN Award for Poetry in Translation in 2008, for her translation of Ulf Stolterfoht’s book, Lingos I-IX. As well as practising translation, however, Waldrop has also written several significant essays which reflect on different theories of translation and their implications for practice. Much of these considerations are taken up with the question of the relation between translation and writing, of thinking the ways in which theories of writing might suggest the lines for developing a specific form of poetic practice.This essay provides an overview of Waldrop’s central thoughts on translation and contextualises these in relation to some of the major theories of literary translation. In the latter part of the essay, these ideas are developed in specific relation to Waldrop’s translations of the work of Edmond Jabès and to the notion of writing practice it suggests.

  18. Gregory Rabassa’s Views on Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaños Cuéllar Sergio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gregory Rabassa is noted for his translations of famous Latin American authors (García Márquez, Vargas Llosa, Clarice Lispector, Jorge Amado, etc.. Less known are his views on translating. In this paper I aim at presenting and discussing his viewpoints as to the definition of translation (with a key discussion of the concept of equivalence, the role of the translator (a model speaker-listener of the target text, and some of the translation strategies he applies in his translational work (original's pre-eminence, problem solving, foreignizing, fictionalizing, and semantic networking. I argue that most of Rabassa's stances towards translating can be explained and are still valid within the framework of a modern translation approach. Examples from the English, French, German, Portuguese and Russian translations of García Márquez's Cien años de soledad are taken from a multilingual parallel corpus collected by the author of this paper.

  19. [The role of Hunayn, physician and translator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbi, J

    1994-01-01

    Hunayn ibn Ishāq is one of the most important translators of scientific and medical texts in the 'abbāsid era. He played a fundamental role in the transmission of Greek medical science to the Arab world, because of his deep knowledge of the Syriac, Arabic and Persian languages. He translated about 300 texts, especially medical ones, and he founded a school in which many disciples were instructed in the art of translation, like his son Ishāq and his nephew Hubays. Hunayn composed a lexicon of scientific terminology, using a new method of translation which represents his great innovation.

  20. Intercultural communication. Prerequisites for translation effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titela Vîlceanu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is intended to raise awareness of some recurrent problems related to cultural and linguistic security in translation alongside strategies of achieving it. Globalisation means global thinking, individual accountability and the development of new sensitivities and capabilities. Different models of Intercultural Communicative Competence are scrutinised in an attempt to identify a common core of generalisable traits, which could be further applied to a wide range of translation situations. The (intercultural load is of paramount importance in translation being, more often than not, the cause of serious misunderstanding if the translator does not adequately equate the two cultures or bridge the cultural gap.

  1. Characterization of in vitro translation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagus, R.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter describes the characterization of in vitro translation products by the most commonly used techniques. The methods include SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), combined with immunoprecipitation and/or fluorography of [ 35 S]methionine-labeled translation products. The other frequently used characterization tool, translation of hybrid-selected mRNA or hybrid-arrested translation, is treated separately in this volume. Methods are also given for the recognition of mRNAs coding for secreted or membrane proteins

  2. Expectancy and Professional Norms in Legal Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Dorrit; Hjort-Pedersen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    . These parameters focus on the degree to which the use of explicitation and implicitation is considered to influence meaning transfer, authentic English legal language and style, and the informative function of the translation in a defined translational situation. Based on Chesterman’s categorization of norms...... perceived norms influence the use of explicitation and implicitation. The findings are based on experiments involving Danish translators and legal experts who were asked to evaluate three different translations into English of the same Danish legal source text on a set of defined parameters...

  3. Translation and Manipulation in Renaissance England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Denton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This supplementary volume to JEMS is part of an ongoing research project which began with a series of articles published by the author in the 1990s on the translation of Classical historical texts in Renaissance England. The methodology followed is that of Descriptive Translation Studies as developed by scholars such as Lefevere and Hermans with the accent on manipulation of the source text in line with the ideological stance of the translator and the need to ensure that readers of the translation received the ‘correct’ moral lessons.  Particular attention is devoted to a case study of the strategies followed in Thomas North’s domesticating English translation of Jacques Amyot’s French translation of Plutarch’s Lives and the consequences for Shakespeare’s perception of Plutarch.Biography John Denton was associate professor of English Language and Translation at the University of Florence until retirement in 2015. He  has published on contrastive analysis, history of translation (with special reference to the Early Modern England, religious discourse, literary and audiovisual translation

  4. Bastyr/UW Oncomycology Translational Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research Area: FungiProgram: Partnerships for CAM Clinical Translational ResearchDescription:Trametes versicolor is an immunologically active medicinal mushroom that...

  5. Translating Chicana Rap: Snow Tha Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Onita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This project examines rap lyrics, interviews, and music videos by Chicana artist Snow Tha Product to show how rap has been culturally translated, performed, and appropriated by females in order to “flip the script,” or subvert the dichotomous model of female sexuality that has been imposed upon them. Weaving insights from three academic fields (cultural translation, Chican@ studies, and hip-hop feminism, this paper also aims to creatively expand the definition of translation by positioning rap music as a performative language in its own right, capable of encoding and translating complex cultural issues related to race, gender, and sexuality.

  6. De Sitter structured connection and gauge translations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldinger, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    A local gauge field description of space-time is discussed using fiber bundle techniques as a theoretical framework. The basic idea is to endow ordinary Minkowski space, M 4 , with a somewhat richer structure than that implied by relativity by attaching to each position x epsilon M 4 a copy of a four-dimensional micro-space of constant curvature characterized by an elementary subatomic length parameter R of the order of a Fermi, thus allowing for additional internal degrees-of-freedom. Therefore, two sets of variables are introduced: (i) the usual space-time variables x which determine an element of M 4 and (ii) a second set zeta which are elements of an internal space F (which is identified with the fiber of a bundle constructed over M 4 ). Consequently, they consider a fiber bundle E(B,F,G,P) constructed over a four-dimensional base manifold B (which is taken to be the usual Minkowski space, M 4 ), possessing a four-dimensional fiber F, and associated with the principal bundle P=P(B,G) (on which the connection is defined). The structural (gauge) group G of the bundle plays the role of an internal symmetry group and therefore determines the possible motions of the internal degrees-of-freedom belonging to the fibers. As fiber they choose a four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian space of constant (negative) curvature R:F = SO(4,1)/SO(3,1) (i.e., a de Sitter space) which contains, at each point of contact with base manifold M 4 , a tangent space which is isomorphic to Minkowski space. The structural group of the bundle is a de Sitter SO(4,1) which contains a Lorentz subgroup and a four parameter family of transformations (the de Sitter boosts), which in the limit R → ∞ corresponding to translations. 10 references

  7. Thinking Chinese Translation A Course in Translation Method; Chinese to English

    CERN Document Server

    Valerie, Pellatt

    2010-01-01

    Suitable for advanced undergraduates and postgraduate students of Chinese. "Thinking Chinese Translation", this book explores the ways in which memory, general knowledge, and creativity (summed up as 'schema') contribute to the linguistic ability necessary to create a good translation

  8. Integrating Automatic Speech Recognition and Machine Translation for Better Translation Outputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi

    translations, combining machine translation with computer assisted translation has drawn attention in current research. This combines two prospects: the opportunity of ensuring high quality translation along with a significant performance gain. Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) is another important area......, which caters important functionalities in language processing and natural language understanding tasks. In this work we integrate automatic speech recognition and machine translation in parallel. We aim to avoid manual typing of possible translations as dictating the translation would take less time...... to the n-best list rescoring, we also use word graphs with the expectation of arriving at a tighter integration of ASR and MT models. Integration methods include constraining ASR models using language and translation models of MT, and vice versa. We currently develop and experiment different methods...

  9. TRANSLATION PROCESS AND THE USE OF COMPUTER A REPORT ON PROBLEM-SOLVING BEHAVIOUR DURING TRANSLATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engliana Engliana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Emphasising on translation process including pre- and post-editing task using a text taken randomly from news on the Internet, this paper attempts to illustrate the behaviour patterns of some students currently studying English language at the university level in Jakarta. The students received texts to be translated using the computer equipped with screen recording software aimed to record all related activities during the translation process, including the pre- and post-editing. The method involves observing the participants‘ behaviour during translating focusing on the actions performed before and after using translation tool(s. The purposes of this investigation are to determine if the students: 1 use any software and the Internet to help them; 2 use the information in the translation process; 3 apply the translation theories. The results indicates that no pre-editing task was performed prior to translation

  10. The Pitfalls of Musical Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Buhler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the triangular links between a text in a given source language, its “translation” into music and an eventual retranslation into another language. As everybody knows, music is a language per se, with all the characteristics of an articulated language, its own syntax, grammar, even its own dialects and “regionalisms.” The bilateral link between a language and music is rather simple and can be summarized in the following principle: when a composer sets a text to music, it is always a one-way-only “translation”; this text cannot and should not eventually be retranslated into another language, there is no going back because music is the most constricting of all languages. Between two “normal” languages, like English or French for instance, solutions can always be found, even deficient ones if necessary, arrangements that are more or less satisfactory, one can compromise, adapt. It is not desirable to translate a text from Chinese into English and then from English into French but it can be done. However, once music has imposed its rules on a text, it becomes the main source language, with which it is impossible to cheat; everything must be literally respected: the musical words and sentences, the general form, the rhythm, the styles, the melodic, harmonic, tonal aspects… There are no possible arrangements or compromises, music comes first and dictates its rules, there are no choices other than to respect, literally, what the music says and hope that it will work or, if it does not, which is most often the case, abandon. And yet in some cases it is necessary to find a way to retranslate the same text. This is when translators are faced with real, at times unsolvable, problems because they are dealing with two source languages, one of which being Music that prevents any continuation to full triangulation. In this article, I will first analyze a few examples to show some of the main difficulties and then propose

  11. Translation Meets Cognitive Science: The Imprint of Translation on Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Translation has long played a role in linguistic and literary studies research. More recently, the theoretical and methodological concerns of process research have given translation an additional role in cognitive science. The interest in the cognitive aspects of translation has led scholars to turn to disciplines such as cognitive linguistics,…

  12. Bean Soup Translation: Flexible, Linguistically-Motivated Syntax for Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehay, Dennis Nolan

    2012-01-01

    Machine translation (MT) systems attempt to translate texts from one language into another by translating words from a "source language" and rearranging them into fluent utterances in a "target language." When the two languages organize concepts in very different ways, knowledge of their general sentence structure, or…

  13. The Beads of Translation: Using Beads to Translate mRNA into a Polypeptide Bracelet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Dacey; Patrick, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    During this activity, by making beaded bracelets that represent the steps of translation, students simulate the creation of an amino acid chain. They are given an mRNA sequence that they translate into a corresponding polypeptide chain (beads). This activity focuses on the events and sites of translation. The activity provides students with a…

  14. The Impact of Translators' Epistemological Beliefs and Gender on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araghizade, Elmira; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between translators' epistemological beliefs and gender on their Persian-to-English translation quality. To do so, a group of 53 MA translation students both male and female were selected, through convenient sampling to participate in this study. For data collection two instruments were employed: 1…

  15. Translation Training in the Jordanian Context: Curriculum Evaluation in Translator Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Anjad

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at drawing a clear picture of translator training in Jordan through the evaluation of translation programs at the Master's level. The framework of the Context, Input, Process, and Product components of the CIPP evaluation model developed by Daniel Stufflebeam in 1971 was used to evaluate the three translation Master's programs at…

  16. Semiotics of Umberto Eco in a Literary Translation Class: The Model Reader as the Competent Translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk Kasar, Sündüz; Can, Alize

    2017-01-01

    Classroom environment can be thought as an absolute place to practice and improve translation skills of students. They have the possibility to brainstorm and discuss problematic points they face with each other during a translation activity. It can be estimated in the same way in a literary translation class. Students who are supposed to become…

  17. An Evaluation of Output Quality of Machine Translation (Padideh Software vs. Google Translate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Haniyeh Sadeghi; Aghayi, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the translation quality of two machine translation systems in translating six different text-types, from English to Persian. The evaluation was based on criteria proposed by Van Slype (1979). The proposed model for evaluation is a black-box type, comparative and adequacy-oriented evaluation. To conduct the evaluation, a…

  18. Translation Appreciation and Criticism of Fengqiaoyebo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹粟

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, some people argue that poems are untranslatable for the deep cultural meaning and rhyme. To some extent, poem translation is a kind of re-creation. This paper takes Fengqiaoyebo's version by Bynner as an example to show its merits and demerits. Actually, poem translation poses great challenges under the situation of multiculturalism.

  19. Latent domain models for statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoàng, C.

    2017-01-01

    A data-driven approach to model translation suffers from the data mismatch problem and demands domain adaptation techniques. Given parallel training data originating from a specific domain, training an MT system on the data would result in a rather suboptimal translation for other domains. But does

  20. Beatrix Potter: A Hundred Years in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocargeanu, Dana; O'Connell, Eithne; McGillicuddy, Áine

    2016-01-01

    This year, 2016, marks the 150th anniversary of the birth of Beatrix Potter (1866-1943), the much-loved author and illustrator of children's books. Although translation has made a vital contribution to her international success, Potter's work remains relatively under-researched from a translation studies perspective. This article aims to provide a…

  1. Six questions about translational due diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinger, Evan

    2010-04-28

    To maintain stable respect and support, translational research must be guided by appropriate ethical, social, legal, and political concerns and carry out culturally competent practices. Considering six key questions concerning due diligence will enable the translational research community to examine critically how it approaches these endeavors.

  2. Correlation of Translation and Other Language Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenkova, Nataliya; Davtyan, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    International cooperation in all professional settings makes translation a very important tool of interpersonal and professional relations of specialists in different domains. Training of undergraduates and graduates' translation skills in a special setting is included in the curriculum of non-linguistic higher education institutions and studied…

  3. Phraseological comptence and the translation of phrasemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallsteinsdóttir, Erla

    2011-01-01

    In this article, that is based on my contribution to the workshop Multilingual phraseology and translation, I’ll focus on the aspects and the role of language competence in the translation of phrasemes, i.a. the phraseological competence. At first, I’ll describe the context of language competence...

  4. Translational physiology: from molecules to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Douglas R

    2013-07-15

    The term 'translational research' was coined 20 years ago and has become a guiding influence in biomedical research. It refers to a process by which the findings of basic research are extended to the clinical research setting (bench to bedside) and then to clinical practice and eventually health policy (bedside to community). It is a dynamic, multidisciplinary research approach. The concept of translational physiology applies the translational research model to the physiological sciences. It differs from the traditional areas of integrative and clinical physiology by its broad investigative scope of basic research to community health. Translational physiology offers exciting opportunities, but presently is under-developed and -utilized. A key challenge will be to expand physiological research by extending investigations to communities of patients and healthy (or at risk) individuals. This will allow bidirectional physiological investigation throughout the translational continuum: basic research observations can be studied up to the population level, and mechanisms can be assessed by 'reverse translation' in clinical research settings and preclinical models based on initial observations made in populations. Examples of translational physiology questions, experimental approaches, roadblocks and strategies for promotion are discussed. Translational physiology provides a novel framework for physiology programs and an investigational platform for physiologists to study function from molecular events to public health. It holds promise for enhancing the completeness and societal impact of our work, while further solidifying the critical role of physiology in the biomedical research enterprise.

  5. Going Online: Helping Technical Communicators Help Translators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Patricia; Lord van Slyke, Melanie; Starke-Meyerring, Doreen; Thompson, Aimee

    1999-01-01

    Explains why technical communicators should help translators. Offers tips for creating "translation-friendly" documentation. Describes the research and design process used by the authors to create an online tutorial that provides technical communicators at a medical technology company the information they need to help them write and…

  6. Quasi-greedy systems of integer translates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Sikic, Hrvoje

    We consider quasi-greedy systems of integer translates in a finitely generated shift invariant subspace of L2(Rd), that is systems for which the thresholding approximation procedure is well behaved. We prove that every quasi-greedy system of integer translates is also a Riesz basis for its closed...

  7. Quasi-greedy systems of integer translates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Sikic, Hrvoje

    2008-01-01

    We consider quasi-greedy systems of integer translates in a finitely generated shift-invariant subspace of L2(Rd), that is systems for which the thresholding approximation procedure is well behaved. We prove that every quasi-greedy system of integer translates is also a Riesz basis for its closed...

  8. PATSTAGS: PATRAN-To-STAGSC-1 Translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Neil

    1993-01-01

    PATSTAGS computer program translates data from PATRAN finite-element mathematical model into STAGS input records used for engineering analysis. Reads data from PATRAN neutral file and writes STAGS input records into STAGS input file and UPRESS data file. Supports translations of nodal constraints, and of nodal, element, force, and pressure data. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  9. On Translators' Cultural Frame of Functionist Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhiyi

    2009-01-01

    A deep cognition with translators' cultural frame of functionist reference can help instructors and teachers adjust and extend patterns and schemes of translation and generate the optimal classroom conditions for acquisition of the target language. The author of the paper, in the perspectives of motivational, cognitive and communicative…

  10. Tension and Approximation in Poetic Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shabab, Omar A. S.; Baka, Farida H.

    2015-01-01

    Simple observation reveals that each language and each culture enjoys specific linguistic features and rhetorical traditions. In poetry translation difference and the resultant linguistic tension create a gap between Source Language and Target language, a gap that needs to be bridged by creating an approximation processed through the translator's…

  11. Application of LSP Texts in Translator Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilynska, Larisa; Smirnova, Tatjana; Platonova, Marina

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents discussion of the results of extensive empirical research into efficient methods of educating and training translators of LSP (language for special purposes) texts. The methodology is based on using popular LSP texts in the respective fields as one of the main media for translator training. The aim of the paper is to investigate…

  12. SEMANTIC REPRESENTATION AND THE TRANSLATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    process, making use of current advances in cognitive science, artificial intelligence and text linguistics, basing .... type of translation - a translator will endeavour to preserve the polyvalent quality of the poem as in the ... plays some part in the life of the text and brings a different background to it. ... of human beliefs, actions,.

  13. Are Literary Translators (still) Lone Wolves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    of a questionnaire on collaboration within literary translation in Scandinavia. Concepts from Community Studies, such as generalized reciprocity, interpersonal trust and active participation, are employed to discuss whether literary translators feel like members of a community, lone wolves, or simply lonely....

  14. A Pragmatic Perspective on Advertisement Translating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管虎元

    2008-01-01

    With the strengthening of intercultural communication,advertisement translating becomes more and more impor tant in the field of commerce.Based on an analysis and comparison of English and Chinese advertisements,this paper discusses the strategies of translating advertisement from a pragmatic pernpective, including the speech act theory,the context theory and cultural consideration,etc.

  15. A Distinctive Aspect of Translation: The Cultural

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Abstract. Simply put, translation can be said to be the re-expression of the meaning contained in a language A into another language B. Translation involves language and can equally involve culture. Culture is the way people from the same linguistic background live their lives. This includes their customs and traditions, ...

  16. Translational nanomedicine : Through the therapeutic window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierce, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Translational nanomedicine occurs only through the successful integration of multiple inputs and iterative modifications. The therapeutic window plays a pivotal role in the trajectory of translational nanomedicine. Often defined in terms of the range of dosage for safe and effective therapeutic

  17. Translation as secondary communication. The relevance theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ernst-August Gutt started one of the greatest translation debates of the past ten years when he suggested that relevance theory holds the key to providing a unified account of translation. The bulk of the debate has been between practitioners of functional equivalence and advocates of a relevance theoretic approach to ...

  18. ACTOG - AUTOCAD TO GIFTS TRANSLATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.

    1994-01-01

    The AutoCad TO Gifts Translator program, ACTOG, was developed to facilitate quick generation of small finite element models using the CASA/Gifts finite element modeling program. ACTOG reads the geometric data of a drawing from the Data Exchange File (DXF) used in AutoCAD and other PC based drafting programs. The geometric entities recognized by ACTOG include POINTs, LINEs, ARCs, SOLIDs, 3DLINEs and 3DFACEs. From this information ACTOG creates a GIFTS SRC file which can then be read into the GIFTS preprocessor BULKM or can be modified and read into EDITM to create a finite element model. The GIFTS commands created include KPOINTs, SLINEs, CARCs, GRID3s and GRID4s. The SRC file can be used as is (using the default parameters) or edited for any number of uses. It is assumed that the user has at least a working knowledge of AutoCAD and GIFTS. ACTOG was written in Microsoft QuickBasic (Version 2.0). The program was developed for the IBM PC and has been implemented on an IBM PC compatible under DOS 3.21. ACTOG was developed in 1988.

  19. ACTON - AUTOCAD TO NASTRAN TRANSLATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.

    1994-01-01

    The AutoCAD to NASTRAN translator, ACTON, was developed to facilitate quick generation of small finite element models for use with the NASTRAN finite element modeling program. (NASTRAN is available from COSMIC.) ACTON reads the geometric data of a drawing from the Data Exchange File (DXF) used in AutoCAD and other PC based drafting programs. The geometric entities recognized by ACTON include POINTs, LINEs, SOLIDs, 3DLINEs and 3DFACEs. From this information ACTON creates a NASTRAN bulk data deck which can be used to create a finite element model. The NASTRAN elements created include CBARs, CTRIAs, CQUAD4s, CPENTAs, and CHEXAs. The bulk data deck can be used to create a full NASTRAN deck. It is assumed that the user has at least a working knowledge of AutoCAD and NASTRAN. ACTON was written in Microsoft QuickBasic (Version 2.0). The program was developed for the IBM PC and has been implemented on an IBM PC compatible under DOS 3.21. ACTON was developed in 1988.

  20. Cellular Senescence: A Translational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Kirkland

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cellular senescence entails essentially irreversible replicative arrest, apoptosis resistance, and frequently acquisition of a pro-inflammatory, tissue-destructive senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP. Senescent cells accumulate in various tissues with aging and at sites of pathogenesis in many chronic diseases and conditions. The SASP can contribute to senescence-related inflammation, metabolic dysregulation, stem cell dysfunction, aging phenotypes, chronic diseases, geriatric syndromes, and loss of resilience. Delaying senescent cell accumulation or reducing senescent cell burden is associated with delay, prevention, or alleviation of multiple senescence-associated conditions. We used a hypothesis-driven approach to discover pro-survival Senescent Cell Anti-apoptotic Pathways (SCAPs and, based on these SCAPs, the first senolytic agents, drugs that cause senescent cells to become susceptible to their own pro-apoptotic microenvironment. Several senolytic agents, which appear to alleviate multiple senescence-related phenotypes in pre-clinical models, are beginning the process of being translated into clinical interventions that could be transformative.

  1. TBscore II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Lemvik, Grethe; Abate, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: The TBscore, based on simple signs and symptoms, was introduced to predict unsuccessful outcome in tuberculosis patients on treatment. A recent inter-observer variation study showed profound variation in some variables. Further, some variables depend on a physician assessing...... them, making the score less applicable. The aim of the present study was to simplify the TBscore. Methods: Inter-observer variation assessment and exploratory factor analysis were combined to develop a simplified score, the TBscore II. To validate TBscore II we assessed the association between start...

  2. Eye tracking and the translation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Eye tracking has become increasingly popular as a quantitative research method in translation research. This paper discusses some of the major methodological issues involved in the use of eye tracking in translation research. It focuses specifically on challenges in the analysis and interpretation...... of eye-tracking data as reflections of cognitive processes during translation. Four types of methodological issues are discussed in the paper. The first part discusses the preparatory steps that precede the actual recording of eye-tracking data. The second part examines critically the general assumptions...... linking eye movements to cognitive processing in the context of translation research. The third part of the paper discusses two popular eye-tracking measures often used in translation research, fixations and pupil size, while the fourth part proposes a method to evaluate the quality of eye-tracking data....

  3. Ethical perspectives on knowledge translation in rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banja, John D; Eisen, Arri

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature on the ethical dimensions of knowledge creation, use, and dissemination is voluminous, it has not particularly examined the ethical dimensions of knowledge translation in rehabilitation. Yet, whether research is done in a wet lab or treatments are provided to patients in therapeutic settings, rehabilitation professionals commonly use (as well as create) knowledge and disseminate it to peers, patients, and various others. This article will refer to knowledge creation, use, and transfer as knowledge translation and examine some of its numerous ethical challenges. Three ethical dimensions of knowledge translation will particularly attract our attention: (1) the quality of knowledge disseminated to rehabilitationists; (2) ethical challenges in being too easily persuaded by or unreasonably resistant to putative knowledge; and (3) organizational barriers to knowledge translation. We will conclude with some recommendations on facilitating the ethical soundness of knowledge translation in rehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. FRC translation into a compression coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Several features of the problem of FRC translation into a compression coil are considered. First, the magnitude of the guide field is calculated and found to exceed that which would be applied to a flux conserver. Second, energy conservation is applied to FRC translation from a flux conserver into a compression coil. It is found that a significant temperature decrease is required for translation to be energetically possible. The temperature change depends on the external inductance in the compression circuit. An analogous case is that of a compression region composed of a compound magnet; in this case the temperature change depends on the ratio of inner and outer coil radii. Finally, the kinematics of intermediate translation states are calculated using an ''abrupt transition'' model. It is found, in this model, that the FRC must overcome a potential hill during translation, which requires a small initial velocity

  5. Universal Reconfigurable Translator Module (URTM) Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Edward; Machan, Roman; Jones, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the Universal Reconfigurable Translation Module, or URTM. The URTM was developed by Sigma Space Corporation for NASA in order to translate specific serial protocols, both logically and physically. At present, the prototype configuration has targeted MIL-STD-1553B (RT and BC), IEEE 1394b (Firewire), and ECSS-E-50-12A (SpaceWire). The objectives of this program were to study the feasibility of a configurable URTM to translate serial link data as might be used in a space-flight mission and to design, develop, document, and deliver an engineering prototype model of the URTM with a path to spaceflight. By simply connecting two of the three Physical Interface Modules (PIM) on either end of the RPTM (Reconfigurable Protocol Translator Module), the URTM then self configures via a library of interface translation functions, thereby allowing the two data links to communicate seamlessly.

  6. MSD Recombination Method in Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Jerneja Žganec

    2008-11-01

    Freely available tools and language resources were used to build the VoiceTRAN statistical machine translation (SMT) system. Various configuration variations of the system are presented and evaluated. The VoiceTRAN SMT system outperformed the baseline conventional rule-based MT system in all English-Slovenian in-domain test setups. To further increase the generalization capability of the translation model for lower-coverage out-of-domain test sentences, an "MSD-recombination" approach was proposed. This approach not only allows a better exploitation of conventional translation models, but also performs well in the more demanding translation direction; that is, into a highly inflectional language. Using this approach in the out-of-domain setup of the English-Slovenian JRC-ACQUIS task, we have achieved significant improvements in translation quality.

  7. Borges and Textual Quality in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Carlos Costa

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available THROUGHOUT HIS LIFE BORGES dealt with translation problems. In hischildhood translation was a daily experience for him since he spokeboth Spanish and English at home. Later on he learnt French and German in Lausane, Switzerland, where he spent three years whenhe was a teenager. Most of his reading was. done in foteign languages, especially in English but also in French, German, and to a lesser extent in Italian and Portuguese. Borges translated little but regularly through his entire literarycareer, which was very long indeed. Among others, he translated into Spanish some pages of Ulysses, Faulkner's Wild Palms, Virginia Woolf 's A Room of One's Own, a selection of Whitman's Leaves ofGrass. Moreover, he translated a great number of quotations of writersand philosophers that he inserted copiously in his writings, includinghis fiction and poems.

  8. Impact of Online Versus Hardcopy Dictionaries‟ Application on Translation Quality of Iranian M. A. Translation Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheida Zarei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at investigating the impact of online versus hardcopy dictionaries‟ application on translation quality of senior M.A. students of translation based on Bleu model introduced by Papineni et al. (2002. To this end, using Oxford Proficiency test 50 (out of 70 female senior M.A. students of translation were selected and they were assigned to two groups: Online and hardcopy, using systematic sampling. Next, an English text was selected as the reference text. This reference text was given to three translators: 1 A male English translation expert with a Ph.D. degree in Computational Linguistics (Ref. 1; 2 A female English translation expert with an M.A. degree working at an English Translation Center and with more than 5 years of experience (Ref. 2, and 3 A male Ph.D. candidate in English translation (Ref. 3. These three versions were used as reference Persian standard translations to be entered into Bleu. Later, the English text was given to the hardcopy and online groups. Then, the translations of the participants were compared with the three reference Persian translations using Bleu. The time taken by each student to translate the text into Persian was also recorded. The results indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the translations of the hardcopy and online groups from fluency/precision points of view. Comparison of the speed of translation in the two groups indicated that the online group was meaningfully faster. The possible beneficiaries of the findings of this research can be university professors, policy makers, and students in the realm of translation.

  9. Translation and Culture:Translation as a Cross-cultural Mediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶谋锦

    2013-01-01

    Translation is a complex activity which involves language competence as well as proficiency in multiculturalism. From the perspective of multiculturalism, translation resembles recreation of source text by grasping essential meanings to produce a sub-tle target text which can be clearly perceived by target readers. Ignoring cultural issues can present serious mistranslations in the field of advertising translation. This paper aims to explore the significance of connotation confined by the framework of culture and point out that verbal translation is a dangerous inclination by illustrating three business examples. This paper argues that cross-cultural mediation plays an important role in translation.

  10. How Italian dialect poets translate themselves and how they translate other poets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Zuccato

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Part one of this essay discusses the way most contemporary Italian dialect poets translate themselves into Italian. Part two of the essay examines examples of poetry translation into dialect made by some of the same contemporary authors. A comparison between the style of the self-translations, which is mainly lyrical, and the variety of styles of the translations from other poets, shows that each choice is an intentional strategy rather than a missed opportunity for a more creative self-translation, as some scholars have argued.

  11. Translation Methods Applied in Translating Quotations in “the Secret” by Rhonda

    OpenAIRE

    FEBRIANTI, VICKY

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: Translation Methods, The Secret, Quotations.Translation helps human to get information written in any language evenwhen it is written in foreign languages. Therefore translation happens in printed media. Books have been popular printed media. The Secret written by Rhonda Byrne is a popular self-help book which has been translated into 50 languages including Indonesian (“The Secret”, n.d., para.5-6).This study is meant to find out the translation methods applied in The Secret. The wr...

  12. Pb II

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    This investigation describes the use of non-living biomass of Aspergillus caespitosus for removal of ... Pb(II) production has exceeded 3.5 million tons per year. It has been used in the ... This biomass was selected after screening a wide range of microbes. .... prolonged, which proved better biopolymer in metal uptake (Gadd ...

  13. Lost in translation?: Comparing three Scandinavian translations of the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granas, Anne Gerd; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2014-08-01

    The "Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire" (BMQ) assess balance of necessity and concern of medicines. The BMQ has been translated from English to many languages. However, the original meaning of statements, such as "My medicine is a mystery to me", may be lost in translation. The aim of this study is to compare three Scandinavian translations of the BMQ. (1) How reliable are the translations? (2) Are they still valid after translation? Translated Norwegian, Swedish and Danish versions of the BMQ were scrutinized by three native Scandinavian researchers. Linguistic differences and ambiguities in the 5-point Likert scale and the BMQ statements were compared. In the Scandinavian translations, the Likert scale expanded beyond the original version at one endpoint (Swedish) or both endpoints (Danish). In the BMQ statements, discrepancies ranged from smaller inaccuracies toward completely different meaning. Some dissimilarities reflect different cultural beliefs about medicines. When translating questionnaires, bilingual researchers should scrutinize translations across similar languages to address content validity across different countries and languages. Our findings are of relevance to other BMQ translations in non-English countries, as direct comparisons between different translations might not be reliable or valid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Word reading and translation in bilinguals: The impact of formal and informal translation expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo M. García

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies on bilingual word reading and translation have examined the effects of lexical variables (e.g., concreteness, cognate status by comparing groups of non-translators with varying levels of L2 proficiency. However, little attention has been paid to another relevant factor: translation expertise (TI. To explore this issue, we administered word reading and translation tasks to two groups of non-translators possessing different levels of informal TI (Experiment 1, and to three groups of bilinguals possessing different levels of translation training (Experiment 2. Reaction-time recordings showed that in all groups reading was faster than translation and unaffected by concreteness and cognate effects. Conversely, in both experiments, all groups translated concrete and cognate words faster than abstract and non-cognate words, respectively. Notably, an advantage of backward over forward translation was observed only for low-proficiency non-translators (in Experiment 1. Also, in Experiment 2, the modifications induced by translation expertise were more marked in the early than in the late stages of training and practice. The results suggest that TI contributes to modulating inter-equivalent connections in bilingual memory.

  15. Translational vibrations between chains of hydrogen-bonded molecules in solid-state aspirin form I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masae; Ishikawa, Yoichi

    2013-06-01

    We perform dispersion-corrected first-principles calculations, and far-infrared (terahertz) spectroscopic experiments at 4 K, to examine translational vibrations between chains of hydrogen-bonded molecules in solid-state aspirin form I. The calculated frequencies and relative intensities reproduce the observed spectrum to accuracy of 11 cm-1 or less. The stronger one of the two peaks assigned to the translational mode includes the stretching vibration of the weak hydrogen bond between the acetyl groups of a neighboring one-dimensional chain. The calculation of aspirin form II performed for comparison gives the stretching vibration of the weak hydrogen bond in one-dimensional chain.

  16. A new framework for Bible translation | Wilt | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as well as translators and choosing a particular translation approach in terms of mutually agreed upon goals. The Bible translation process may involve not just producing a text to represent the sacred text, but also supplementary texts to enhance understanding and appreciation of both the translation and the translated.

  17. The Subjectivity of the Translator and Socio-Cultural Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Denghua

    2010-01-01

    This thesis attempts to probe into the dialectical relationship between the subjectivity of the translator and socio-cultural norms. The socio-cultural norms inevitably regulate the translator's translating activity, as acceptability of the translated text is the primary concern of most translators. However, this does not mean that the…

  18. The Effect of Holly Quran Voice With and Without Translation on Stress, Anxiety and Depression During Pregnancy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Batoul; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Sehhatie, Fahimeh; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh

    2017-05-30

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of Holy Quran on stress, anxiety and depression in Iranian pregnant women. A total of 168 participants were allocated randomly into three groups. Group I received broadcast of the Holy Quran with translation, group II received broadcast of the Holy Quran without translation, and group III was the control group. After intervention, scores of perceived stress, state anxiety, trait anxiety and depression in group I and group II were significantly lower compared with the control group. The Holly Quran with translation and without it, both are the effective for reducing stress, anxiety and depression during pregnancy.

  19. Translational Science Research: Towards Better Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Festic

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Even though it is considered a 21st century term, translational research has been present for much longer. Idea of translating experimental discovery to its’ clinical application and use is old as research itself. However, it is the understanding of missing links between the basic science research and clinical research that emerged in the past decade and mobilized scientific and clinical communities and organizations worldwide. Hence term, translational research, which represents an “enterprise of harnessing knowledge from basic sciences to produce new drugs, devices, and treatment options for patients” (1. It has been also characterized as “effective translation of the new knowledge, mechanisms, and techniques generated by advances in basic science research into new approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, which is essential for improving health” (2.This translation is a complex process and involves more than one step for transfer of research knowledge. At least 3 such roadblocks have been identified (Figure 1 ; T1 translation: “The transfer of new understandings of disease mechanisms gained in the laboratory into the development of new methods for diagnosis, therapy, and prevention and their first testing in humans”, T2 translation: “The translation of results from clinical studies into everyday clinical practice and health decision making”, and T3 translation: “Practice-based research, which is often necessary before distilled knowledge (e.g., systematic reviews, guidelines can be implemented in practice” (3-5.The international research community rapidly recognized importance for promotion of translational research and made it their priority(5. In the USA, National Institutes of Health, (NIH expects to fund 60 translational research centers with a budget of $500 million per year by 2012 (6. Besides academic centers, foundations, industry, disease-related organizations, and individual hospitals and

  20. Translational control in plant antiviral immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo B. Machado

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the limited coding capacity of viral genomes, plant viruses depend extensively on the host cell machinery to support the viral life cycle and, thereby, interact with a large number of host proteins during infection. Within this context, as plant viruses do not harbor translation-required components, they have developed several strategies to subvert the host protein synthesis machinery to produce rapidly and efficiently the viral proteins. As a countermeasure against infection, plants have evolved defense mechanisms that impair viral infections. Among them, the host-mediated translational suppression has been characterized as an efficient mean to restrict infection. To specifically suppress translation of viral mRNAs, plants can deploy susceptible recessive resistance genes, which encode translation initiation factors from the eIF4E and eIF4G family and are required for viral mRNA translation and multiplication. Additionally, recent evidence has demonstrated that, alternatively to the cleavage of viral RNA targets, host cells can suppress viral protein translation to silence viral RNA. Finally, a novel strategy of plant antiviral defense based on suppression of host global translation, which is mediated by the transmembrane immune receptor NIK1 (nuclear shuttle protein (NSP-Interacting Kinase1, is discussed in this review.

  1. Application of LSP texts in translator training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Ilynska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents discussion of the results of extensive empirical research into efficient methods of educating and training translators of LSP (language for special purposes texts. The methodology is based on using popular LSP texts in the respective fields as one of the main media for translator training. The aim of the paper is to investigate the efficiency of this methodology in developing thematic, linguistic and cultural competences of the students, following Bloom’s revised taxonomy and European Master in Translation Network (EMT translator training competences. The methodology has been tested on the students of a professional Master study programme called Technical Translation implemented by the Institute of Applied Linguistics, Riga Technical University, Latvia. The group of students included representatives of different nationalities, translating from English into Latvian, Russian and French. Analysis of popular LSP texts provides an opportunity to structure student background knowledge and expand it to account for linguistic innovation. Application of popular LSP texts instead of purely technical or scientific texts characterised by neutral style and rigid genre conventions provides an opportunity for student translators to develop advanced text processing and decoding skills, to develop awareness of expressive resources of the source and target languages and to develop understanding of socio-pragmatic language use.

  2. PCI: A PATRAN-NASTRAN model translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerer, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    The amount of programming required to develop a PATRAN-NASTRAN translator was surprisingly small. The approach taken produced a highly flexible translator comparable with the PATNAS translator and superior to the PATCOS translator. The coding required varied from around ten lines for a shell element to around thirty for a bar element, and the time required to add a feature to the program is typically less than an hour. The use of a lookup table for element names makes the translator also applicable to other versions of NASTRAN. The saving in time as a result of using PDA's Gateway utilities was considerable. During the writing of the program it became apparent that, with a somewhat more complex structure, it would be possible to extend the element data file to contain all data required to define the translation from PATRAN to NASTRAN by mapping of data between formats. Similar data files on property, material and grid formats would produce a completely universal translator from PATRAN to any FEA program, or indeed any CAE system.

  3. Developing Evaluation Skills with Legal Translation Trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vîlceanu Titela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Axiomatically, translation is twofold: an activity/process (more accurately designated by the term translating and a product (the term translation can be restricted to the product. It seems that the product dimension has gained increased importance, being the most visible part of translation as market-driven, design-oriented, precise and measurable - complying with specifications. Translation engenders a sequence: identification of text type and of end users’ needs (experts or non-experts in the field, evaluation of the complexity of the source text via global reading, followed by a close reading of its parts, the translating of the document, the translator’s checking of final version, editing and proofreading. The translator’s choices are accountable in point of cost-effectiveness (efficiency and effectiveness. Therefore, the legal translator should master the methodological toolkit, conceptual frame and related terminology, and adopt an inward-looking perspective (intuition, subjectivity, ingrained habits, insights deriving from his/her expertise and experience alongside an outward-looking one (working against objective criteria, standards of quality, benchmarks, etc.

  4. Chapter 16: text mining for translational bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2013-04-01

    Text mining for translational bioinformatics is a new field with tremendous research potential. It is a subfield of biomedical natural language processing that concerns itself directly with the problem of relating basic biomedical research to clinical practice, and vice versa. Applications of text mining fall both into the category of T1 translational research-translating basic science results into new interventions-and T2 translational research, or translational research for public health. Potential use cases include better phenotyping of research subjects, and pharmacogenomic research. A variety of methods for evaluating text mining applications exist, including corpora, structured test suites, and post hoc judging. Two basic principles of linguistic structure are relevant for building text mining applications. One is that linguistic structure consists of multiple levels. The other is that every level of linguistic structure is characterized by ambiguity. There are two basic approaches to text mining: rule-based, also known as knowledge-based; and machine-learning-based, also known as statistical. Many systems are hybrids of the two approaches. Shared tasks have had a strong effect on the direction of the field. Like all translational bioinformatics software, text mining software for translational bioinformatics can be considered health-critical and should be subject to the strictest standards of quality assurance and software testing.

  5. Evaluating Translational Research: A Process Marker Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trochim, William; Kane, Cathleen; Graham, Mark J.; Pincus, Harold A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: We examine the concept of translational research from the perspective of evaluators charged with assessing translational efforts. One of the major tasks for evaluators involved in translational research is to help assess efforts that aim to reduce the time it takes to move research to practice and health impacts. Another is to assess efforts that are intended to increase the rate and volume of translation. Methods: We offer an alternative to the dominant contemporary tendency to define translational research in terms of a series of discrete “phases.”Results: We contend that this phased approach has been confusing and that it is insufficient as a basis for evaluation. Instead, we argue for the identification of key operational and measurable markers along a generalized process pathway from research to practice. Conclusions: This model provides a foundation for the evaluation of interventions designed to improve translational research and the integration of these findings into a field of translational studies. Clin Trans Sci 2011; Volume 4: 153–162 PMID:21707944

  6. Linguistic Levels of Translation: A Generic Exploration of Translation Difficulties in Literary Textual Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Madkour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study research was based on a generic exploration of the translation problems that graduate students face in literary translation. Literary translation is fundamental to translation programs at higher education due to the upsurge that has occurred in publishing classical and modern literary works from various cultures. However, literary texts have special characteristics that make the process of transferring them from one language into another a daunting task. Translating literary texts is difficult even for professional translators because misinterpreting the messages of the source texts can lead to distorting the aesthetic aspects of the literary work. Students need to learn various linguistic levels of literary translation as well as strategies and methods of translation. Learning the linguistics levels of translation necessitates providing adequate training that is based on enhancing students’ cognitive abilities. Cognitive-based translation training helps students learn the procedures of solving the problems of translating sound and literary devices. Cognitive approaches are relevant to the translation process since cognition implies mental activities that students can use to understand and synthesize the literary text, and reconstruct it creatively. Therefore, the current study aimed at examining the relationship between cognitive teaching methodologies and students’ performance in literary translation. To examine this relationship, qualitative and quantitative data was collected from graduate students at the College of Languages and Translation at Imam Mohammed bin Saud Islamic University (IMAMU University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In addition, corpus data was gathered from authentic literary texts including, novels, short stories, and poetry, to investigate the effect of linguistic analysis and cognitive strategies on the quality of literary translation. Quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the

  7. Poetry by Stephanos Stephanides in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanos Stephanides

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stephanos Stephanides visited the Australian Studies Centre and gave a lecture and poetry reading to poetry undergraduate classes. The students were so impressed by his poetry that the idea of translating some of his work for this edition of Coolabah. For both the students and the journal this has been a great priviledge. Stephanos Stephanides, himself a Spanish speaker, worked with the students as they translated. A rare chance indeed to work with a poet while translating his work. We are grateful to Stephanos Stephanides for providing this wonderful opportunity for the students.

  8. A Comparative Study of "Google Translate" Translations: An Error Analysis of English-to-Persian and Persian-to-English Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Hadis; Hashemian, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Both lack of time and the need to translate texts for numerous reasons brought about an increase in studying machine translation with a history spanning over 65 years. During the last decades, Google Translate, as a statistical machine translation (SMT), was in the center of attention for supporting 90 languages. Although there are many studies on…

  9. Translation modalities: an investigation of the translated short story “Dez de dezembro”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Peron da Silva Guedes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available During the translation process translators adopt linguistic strategies in order to make decisions that help to render a translated text suitable to the target language and culture. The translation modalities proposed by Aubert (105-10 constitute a tool that enables one to identify some of these strategies. In addition, they permit to measure the level of linguistic differentiation between a source text and a target text verifying the distance or the proximity of the target text to the linguistic and cultural issues of the source text. Thus, this paper aims to investigate the translation modalities in the short story “Dez de dezembro” (Saunders 204-38, a translation of the short story “Tenth of December” (Saunders 215-51. For quantifying the translation modalities in the translated text the noun phrases from the source text were selected and their counterparts in the target text were classified and annotated within Notepad++ software. The most recurrent translation modalities in the corpus were Literal Translation and Transposition, categories considered intermediate ones in the rank proposed by Aubert (105-10. Therefore, a relation of equivalence can be established between the target and the source texts.

  10. Who translates the translation? (Retraduire les héros marginaux d'Alan Moore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice RAY

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The retranslation phenomenon is essential to the translation process. It is considered as the logical progression of this process which allows the translated literary work to regenerate in a restless cultural and language space. To a lesser extent, we can observe the same phenomenon in the translation of comics. However, this specific translation requires other competencies and a translating approach somehow different from the ones required to translate fiction literature, especially because of the presence of the visual system of drawings which is strongly bound to its own culture and the endless mutations it goes through. The comic book Watchmen (Les Gardiens, in the first French translation by Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons, is known in the whole world as the comic which had not only remodeled the vision we had of super-heroes, but had also given the comic books another voice. Watchmen was published between 1986 and 1987 in the United States and translated in French from 1987 to 1988. Fifteen years after this first translation by Jean-Patrick Manchette, Panini publishing decided to retranslate this famous comic in 2007. However, if the reviews of the first translation were laudatory, the retranslation did not enjoy a great reception from the readers or from the reviewers. This paper proposes a comparative analysis of both these translations and of their original version as well as an experiment on the readers, comic books readers or not, in order to establish why the first translation was a success and the retranslation a failure. Thus, we could withdraw the elements which allow us to understand the reception of comic translation.

  11. Field convergence between technical writers and technical translators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnecchi, M.; Maylath, B.; Mousten, Birthe

    2011-01-01

    As translation of technical documents continues to grow rapidly and translation becomes more automated, the roles of professional communicators and translators appear to be converging. This paper updates preliminary findings first presented at the 2008 International Professional Communication...

  12. Applying Google Translate in a higher education environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applying Google Translate in a higher education environment: Translation products assessed. ... Five raters assessed the quality of the 36 translation products using Colina's assessment tool (2009). The results ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  13. Communication and Translation: The Search for an Interface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communication and Translation: The Search for an Interface. ... This paper focuses on the dependence of translation theories on other disciplines, especially communication. It argues that translation ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  14. The quality of translated medical research questionnaires | Fourie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The various steps researchers follow when translating their questionnaires or other texts are considered, ... The design, translation approach and quality of the original translations are explained, along with the ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  15. The translation of biblical texts into South African Sign Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The translation of biblical texts into South African Sign Language. ... Native signers were used as translators with the assistance of hearing specialists in the fields of religion and translation studies. ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  16. Can academic/scientific discourse really be translated across ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The translators were selected according to their experience as professional translators and their level of English proficiency at an academic level. The translations were analysed within a ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  17. Designing Course An Initial Approach To Translation Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roswani Siregar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Along with the human history translation is the sustainable communication tool among the cultures to preserve this knowledge from generation to generations. Undoubtedly both translation plays a very important role in an increasingly globalized world and translators have the prominent roles in the development of countries. Many translators really enjoy their work but hesitated to teach a course due to their lack of pedagogical knowledge and believe that the translation skill is gained by personal experiences and talents. Thus this paper attempt to promote the translation teaching in classroom by set the preliminary approach to teach translation. The sequences of teaching design are described by propose the brief definition to the nature of translation the importance translation teaching the translator competence and design of translation course. This paper is the preliminary approach to translation teaching for beginners in university setting.

  18. History and theory of Scripture Translations | Loba-Mkole | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    History and theory of Scripture Translations. ... the functional equivalence, relevance, literaryfunctional equivalence and intercultural mediation. ... on Bible translation theories the article aims to focus on the role of Africa in translation history.

  19. A Brief Analysis of Strategies in English Advertisement Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游丽

    2015-01-01

    For both Chinese and foreign enterprises,there is an advertisement internationalization problem,that is product advertising translation.In this thesis,the author puts forward the translation strategies which provide the reference to the advertising translation.

  20. twentieth-century english bible translations 1. introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fashioned vocabulary and .... somewhat traditional translation in terms of translation theory. This ... the focus is to make the original meaning accessible to its readers. Eugene A. .... Old Testament translation and on the Nestle-Aland 25th edition of the.

  1. Translating children's stories - reflections and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muguras Constantinescu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36n1p155 The present article is concerned with the specificity of translations for children with an emphasis on the cultural dimension to be preserved in the target text. Following a brief historical and theoretical overview on the issue of translating texts for children, we undertake a succint analysis on a corpus made up of tales which display an overtness to the other while treating the identity-alterity issue. Starting from our own translation practice, we will insist upon those strategies and techniques fit to render the cultural dimension of the source text in order to give young readers access to a foreign culture. Translational strategies are analysed along editorial and pedagogical strategies, with a special focus on the paratext which aims at satisfying the readers’ curiosity and contributing to the development of their encyclopedic competence.

  2. GOAL-to-HAL translation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, J. H.; Helmers, C. T.; Stanten, S. F.

    1973-01-01

    This report deals with the feasibility, problems, solutions, and mapping of a GOAL language to HAL language translator. Ground Operations Aerospace Language, or GOAL, is a test-oriented higher order language developed by the John F. Kennedy Space Center to be used in checkout and launch of the space shuttle. HAL is a structured higher order language developed by the Johnson Space Center to be used in writing the flight software for the onboard shuttle computers. Since the onboard computers will extensively support ground checkout of the space shuttle, and since these computers and the software development facilities on the ground use the HAL language as baseline, the translation of GOAL to HAL becomes significant. The issue of feasibility was examined and it was found that a GOAL to HAL translator is feasible. Special problems are identified and solutions proposed. Finally, examples of translation are provided for each category of complete GOAL statement.

  3. Overview of the Inland California Translational Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkas, Linda H.

    2017-05-01

    The mission of the Inland California Translational Consortium (ICTC), an independent research consortium comprising a unique hub of regional institutions (City of Hope [COH], California Institute of Technology [Caltech], Jet Propulsion Laboratory [JPL], University of California Riverside [UCR], and Claremont Colleges Keck Graduate Institute [KGI], is to institute a new paradigm within the academic culture to accelerate translation of innovative biomedical discoveries into clinical applications that positively affect human health and life. The ICTC actively supports clinical translational research as well as the implementation and advancement of novel education and training models for the translation of basic discoveries into workable products and practices that preserve and improve human health while training and educating at all levels of the workforce using innovative forward-thinking approaches.

  4. Precise machine translation of computer science study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available mobile (Android) application for translating discrete mathematics definitions between English and Afrikaans. The main component of the system is a Grammatical Framework (GF) application grammar which produces syntactically and semantically accurate...

  5. Variables as Contextual Constraints in Translating Irony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babîi Oana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The translator’s role and responsibility are high in any act of interlingual communication, and even higher when irony, an indirect and deliberately elusive form of communication, is involved in the translation process. By allowing more than one possible interpretation, irony is inevitably exposed to the risk of being misunderstood. This paper attempts to capture the complexity of translating irony, making use of theoretical frameworks provided by literary studies and translation studies. It analyses if and how the types of irony, the literary genres and the cultural, normative factors, perceived as potential contextual constraints, have an impact on the translator’ choices in rendering irony in translation, taking illustrative examples from Jonathan Swift, Oscar Wilde, Aldous Huxley and David Lodge’s works.

  6. Beyond Literal Translation | Nginye | Journal of Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa ... This article reviews some of the challenges and options that translators have to contend with in the dicey game of reconstructing intended ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Serial-data correlator/code translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    System, consisting of sampling flip flop, memory (either RAM or ROM), and memory buffer, correlates sampled data with predetermined acceptance code patterns, translates acceptable code patterns to nonreturn-to-zero code, and identifies data dropouts.

  8. Translational Bioinformatics and Clinical Research (Biomedical) Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cheng, Donavan T

    2015-06-01

    Translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics are the primary domains related to informatics activities that support translational research. Translational bioinformatics focuses on computational techniques in genetics, molecular biology, and systems biology. Clinical research (biomedical) informatics involves the use of informatics in discovery and management of new knowledge relating to health and disease. This article details 3 projects that are hybrid applications of translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics: The Cancer Genome Atlas, the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center clinical variants and results database, all designed to facilitate insights into cancer biology and clinical/therapeutic correlations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Syntactic Variance and Priming Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangalore, Srinivas; Behrens, Bergljot; Carl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the relationship between syntactic variation and priming in translation. It is based on the claim that languages share a common cognitive network of neural activity. When the source and target languages are solicited in a translation context, this shared network can...... lead to facilitation effects, so-called priming effects. We suggest that priming is a default setting in translation, a special case of language use where source and target languages are constantly co-activated. Such priming effects are not restricted to lexical elements, but do also occur...... on the syntactic level. We tested these hypotheses with translation data from the TPR database, more specifically for three language pairs (English-German, English-Danish, and English-Spanish). Our results show that response times are shorter when syntactic structures are shared. The model explains this through...

  10. Factored Translation with Unsupervised Word Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Christian; Søgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Unsupervised word clustering algorithms — which form word clusters based on a measure of distributional similarity — have proven to be useful in providing beneficial features for various natural language processing tasks involving supervised learning. This work explores the utility of such word...... clusters as factors in statistical machine translation. Although some of the language pairs in this work clearly benefit from the factor augmentation, there is no consistent improvement in translation accuracy across the board. For all language pairs, the word clusters clearly improve translation for some...... proportion of the sentences in the test set, but has a weak or even detrimental effect on the rest. It is shown that if one could determine whether or not to use a factor when translating a given sentence, rather substantial improvements in precision could be achieved for all of the language pairs evaluated...

  11. A NEW FRAMEWORK FOR BIBLE TRANSLATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compare, for example, Nida's (1960) chapter “Scripture translation and revi- ..... The participants' goals and their selection, arrangement, perception .... text and the hearer be bi-directional, saying that, as well as being perceived and.

  12. The translation factors of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marygold, Steven J; Attrill, Helen; Lasko, Paul

    2017-01-02

    Synthesis of polypeptides from mRNA (translation) is a fundamental cellular process that is coordinated and catalyzed by a set of canonical 'translation factors'. Surprisingly, the translation factors of Drosophila melanogaster have not yet been systematically identified, leading to inconsistencies in their nomenclature and shortcomings in functional (Gene Ontology, GO) annotations. Here, we describe the complete set of translation factors in D. melanogaster, applying nomenclature already in widespread use in other species, and revising their functional annotation. The collection comprises 43 initiation factors, 12 elongation factors, 3 release factors and 6 recycling factors, totaling 64 of which 55 are cytoplasmic and 9 are mitochondrial. We also provide an overview of notable findings and particular insights derived from Drosophila about these factors. This catalog, together with the incorporation of the improved nomenclature and GO annotation into FlyBase, will greatly facilitate access to information about the functional roles of these important proteins.

  13. Type 2 Translational Research for CKD

    OpenAIRE

    Tuttle, Katherine R.; Tuot, Delphine S.; Corbett, Cynthia L.; Setter, Stephen M.; Powe, Neil R.

    2013-01-01

    Strategies to effectively treat people with CKD have been identified by conventional clinical research. Despite this evidence, awareness, screening, detection, diagnosis, risk factor control, treatment, and outcomes remain substandard. Translating clinical evidence into actionable measures that reduce the burden of CKD is a pressing need. Expansion from a “bench-to-bedside” paradigm (conventional type 1 translation) to research that encompasses “clinic and community” is the core concept of ty...

  14. THE CONCEPT OF FIDELITY IN COMICS TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erico Assis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The long-discussed – and frequently dismissed – concept of translation faithfulness or translation fidelity, though usually applied to literary texts, has its fair share of applications when considered for comics translation. In literary translation, non-linguistic portions such as illustrations are often considered addenda or “paratexts” relative to the main, linguistic text. Comics, by its turn, present a certain set of features which single them out as a form that demands a new concept of “text” and, therefore, of translation fidelity. The comic-reading process, as pertaining to cognitive apprehension, implies interpretative accords that differ from the ones in purely linguistic texts: each and every element of the comics page – non-linguistic (mainly imagetic signs, linguistic signs, panel borders, typography and such – are intertwined and should be perceived in regards to its spatial and topological relations. This approach to understanding comics is based on Groensteen (1999 and his concepts of arthrology, spatio-topia, page layout, breakdown and braiding. As for translation fidelity, we rely on authors such as Berman (1984, Guidere (2010 and Aubert (1993. On comics translation, Zanettin (2008, Rota (2008 and Yuste Frías (2010, 2011 are of particular interest. Based on various concepts of fidelity – supported by samples of translated comics with varied degrees of fidelity to the source text – we discuss the different grounds of source-text fidelity, target-reader fidelity and source-author fidelity in the following instances: linguistic sign fidelity, imagetic sign fidelity, spatio-topia fidelity, typographic fidelity and format fidelity.

  15. Human resources management in a translation process

    OpenAIRE

    Rogelj, Jure

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the web application development is the modernization of the current data acquisition and management model for new and existing translators in the company Iolar d.o.o. Previously data on translators who signed up to work in the company were entered multiple times as they were entered through several entry points. The acquired data were then manually entered into an MS Excel sheet and the Projetex program. We analyzed the current data acquisition and management model as well ...

  16. Human resources management in a translation process

    OpenAIRE

    Rogelj, Jure

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the web application development is the modernization of the current data acquisition and management model for new and existing translators in the company Iolar d.o.o. Previously data on translators who signed up to work in the company were entered multiple times as they were entered through several entry points. The acquired data were then manually entered into an MS Excel sheet and the Projetex program. We analyzed the current data acquisition and management model as well ...

  17. Introduction: Borders in Translation and Intercultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Evans

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction to this special issue discusses the notion of border and its position in current scholarship in translation studies and intercultural communication. It then analyses ways in which borders can be useful for thinking, focusing particularly on Walter Mignolo’s notion of “border thinking”. It reviews how borders are viewed in both translation studies and intercultural communication and offers some possible directions for future research before introducing the papers in this special issue.

  18. Brake Stops Both Rotation And Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Johnny W.; Fleck, Vincent J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Combination of braking and positioning mechanisms allows both rotation and translation before brake engaged. Designed for use in positioning model airplane in wind tunnel. Modified version used to position camera on tripod. Brake fast and convenient to use; contains single actuator energizing braking actions against both rotation and translation. Braking actuator electric, but pneumatic actuator could be used instead. Compact and lightweight, applies locking forces close to load, and presents minimal cross section to airflow.

  19. JOVIAL (J73) to Ada Translator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    editors, file managers , and other APSE , the Translator will Provide significant (though not total) Ltion of the conversion of J73 Proorams for use...vlobal knowlede only of compool declarationsi externals are not resolved until the compiled modules are linked. Creatinv a vlobal data base durin...translation (as shown in Figure 2-1) will require the Job control, file management , and text editing capabilities which are provided by a typical

  20. Treatment of Markup in Statistical Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    We present work on handling XML markup in Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). The methods we propose can be used to effectively preserve markup (for instance inline formatting or structure) and to place markup correctly in a machine-translated segment. We evaluate our approaches with parallel data that naturally contains markup or where markup was inserted to create synthetic examples. In our experiments, hybrid reinsertion has proven the most accurate method to handle markup, while alignm...

  1. Tracking Small Satellites using Translated GPS

    OpenAIRE

    Lefevre, Don; Mulally, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses using translated GPS for tracking small satellites, the technical trade-offs involved, and the position and timing accuracies which are achievable using translated GPS. The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses the relative times-of-arrival of multiple spread-spectrum signals at an antenna to determine the position of the antenna. The system can also determine the time the antenna was at that position. The direct sequence spread spectrum signals are transmitted from GPS sa...

  2. Unlocking the potential of translation for FLT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Kocbek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes unlocking the potential of translation for foreign language teaching (FLT by seeking to create synergies with the related discipline of translation science (TS. This aim is in keeping with the guidelines for language teaching provided in the Common European Framework of Languages, which introduced a model of communicative competences including communicative language competences as those which enable a person to act by drawing on specific linguistic means. First, an overview of the changing status of translation in FLT is presented – from its being considered a fundamental teaching method and basic skill in the Grammar-Translation Method, to its being all but outlawed in more recent communicative and task-based approaches, to its final rehabilitation in recent decades. It is then shown that, in the development of FLT, the parallel evolution of TS somehow failed to be acknowledged and, consequently, the opportunity to create valuable synergies between the two disciplines was missed. Following the stance of authors who have advocated the use of translation in FLT, it is argued that translation can effectively supplement the development of the four traditional language skills and, moreover, that some of the insights developed by TS can effectively be integrated into FLT as strategies aimed at enhancing leaners’ cross-cultural communicative competences. To this purpose, selected insights from TS (e.g. the functional approach and the skopos theory, the cultureme model, the theory of memes are discussed and their potential for creating synergies with FLT are explored. Finally, the paper discusses the omnipresence of different forms of translation and interpreting in contemporary societies and shows that this naturally and logically calls for a systematic inclusion of translation in FLT.

  3. The patterns of interaction between professional translators and online resources.

    OpenAIRE

    Gough, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the Internet and the recent developments in translation technology, the way translators carry out their translation-oriented research has changed dramatically. Resources used by translators to conduct such research have diversified and largely moved from paper to online. However, whilst the number and the variety of online resources available to translators is growing exponentially, little is known about the interactions between translators and these resources. The pr...

  4. Effective knowledge management in translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalma, Sándor; Koka, Venkata; Khasanova, Tatiana; Perakslis, Eric D

    2010-07-19

    The growing consensus that most valuable data source for biomedical discoveries is derived from human samples is clearly reflected in the growing number of translational medicine and translational sciences departments across pharma as well as academic and government supported initiatives such as Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) in the US and the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) of EU with emphasis on translating research for human health. The pharmaceutical companies of Johnson and Johnson have established translational and biomarker departments and implemented an effective knowledge management framework including building a data warehouse and the associated data mining applications. The implemented resource is built from open source systems such as i2b2 and GenePattern. The system has been deployed across multiple therapeutic areas within the pharmaceutical companies of Johnson and Johnsons and being used actively to integrate and mine internal and public data to support drug discovery and development decisions such as indication selection and trial design in a translational medicine setting. Our results show that the established system allows scientist to quickly re-validate hypotheses or generate new ones with the use of an intuitive graphical interface. The implemented resource can serve as the basis of precompetitive sharing and mining of studies involving samples from human subjects thus enhancing our understanding of human biology and pathophysiology and ultimately leading to more effective treatment of diseases which represent unmet medical needs.

  5. Translational Control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Bradley R.; Sullivan, William J.; Nussenzweig, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The life cycles of apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are complex, consisting of proliferative and latent stages within multiple hosts. Dramatic transformations take place during the cycles, and they demand precise control of gene expression at all levels, including translation. This review focuses on the mechanisms that regulate translational control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, with a particular emphasis on the phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Phosphorylation of eIF2α (eIF2α∼P) is a conserved mechanism that eukaryotic cells use to repress global protein synthesis while enhancing gene-specific translation of a subset of mRNAs. Elevated levels of eIF2α∼P have been observed during latent stages in both Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, indicating that translational control plays a role in maintaining dormancy. Parasite-specific eIF2α kinases and phosphatases are also required for proper developmental transitions and adaptation to cellular stresses encountered during the life cycle. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of apicomplexan eIF2α kinases may selectively interfere with parasite translational control and lead to the development of new therapies to treat malaria and toxoplasmosis. PMID:23243065

  6. Translational control in Plasmodium and toxoplasma parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Joyce, Bradley R; Sullivan, William J; Nussenzweig, Victor

    2013-02-01

    The life cycles of apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are complex, consisting of proliferative and latent stages within multiple hosts. Dramatic transformations take place during the cycles, and they demand precise control of gene expression at all levels, including translation. This review focuses on the mechanisms that regulate translational control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, with a particular emphasis on the phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Phosphorylation of eIF2α (eIF2α∼P) is a conserved mechanism that eukaryotic cells use to repress global protein synthesis while enhancing gene-specific translation of a subset of mRNAs. Elevated levels of eIF2α∼P have been observed during latent stages in both Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, indicating that translational control plays a role in maintaining dormancy. Parasite-specific eIF2α kinases and phosphatases are also required for proper developmental transitions and adaptation to cellular stresses encountered during the life cycle. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of apicomplexan eIF2α kinases may selectively interfere with parasite translational control and lead to the development of new therapies to treat malaria and toxoplasmosis.

  7. Translating Alcohol Research: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Angela M; Miles, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of stream-lining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD.

  8. Bible translations into Italian (20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Wróbel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing twentieth-century translations of the Bible into Italian we have to make a crucial distinction: there are different translations and different editions; the latter are more numerous, as the same translation may appear in different forms. For many of them it is difficult to determine to whom they are addressed: some of the features show a broad willingness to promote the content of the Bible, while others make them a tool only for a group of specialists. The article discusses the issue of the Bibles, which were printed in Italy in the twentieth century; there were 27. It deliberately does not include translations and elaborations less prevalent or partial studies for professionals. The information is presented in a tangible and transparent scheme, which facilitates their mutual compatibility. Each description contains the name or title of work, author’s name, place and date of publication, publisher’s name, names of translators, editors, source of translation, editing characteristics, and other observations.

  9. Effective knowledge management in translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasanova Tatiana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing consensus that most valuable data source for biomedical discoveries is derived from human samples is clearly reflected in the growing number of translational medicine and translational sciences departments across pharma as well as academic and government supported initiatives such as Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA in the US and the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7 of EU with emphasis on translating research for human health. Methods The pharmaceutical companies of Johnson and Johnson have established translational and biomarker departments and implemented an effective knowledge management framework including building a data warehouse and the associated data mining applications. The implemented resource is built from open source systems such as i2b2 and GenePattern. Results The system has been deployed across multiple therapeutic areas within the pharmaceutical companies of Johnson and Johnsons and being used actively to integrate and mine internal and public data to support drug discovery and development decisions such as indication selection and trial design in a translational medicine setting. Our results show that the established system allows scientist to quickly re-validate hypotheses or generate new ones with the use of an intuitive graphical interface. Conclusions The implemented resource can serve as the basis of precompetitive sharing and mining of studies involving samples from human subjects thus enhancing our understanding of human biology and pathophysiology and ultimately leading to more effective treatment of diseases which represent unmet medical needs.

  10. FRC translation into a compression coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The equilibrium and translational kinematics of Field-Reversed Configurations (FRCs) in a cylindrical coil which does not conserve flux are problems that arise in connection with adiabatic compressional heating. In this paper, they consider several features of the problem of FRC translation into a compression coil. First, the magnitude of the guide field is calculated and found to exceed that which would be applied to a flux conserver. Second, energy conservation is applied to FRC translation from a flux conserver into a compression coil. It is found that a significant temperature decrease is required for translation to be energetically possible. The temperature change depends on the external inductance in the compression circuit. An analogous case is that of a compression region composed of a compound magnet; in this case the temperature change depends on the ratio of inner and outer coil radii. Finally, the kinematics of intermediate translation states are calculated using an abrupt transition model. It is found, in this model, that the FRC must overcome a potential hill during translation, which requires a small initial velocity

  11. Translation in cell-free systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagus, R.

    1987-01-01

    The simplest, unambiguous identification of a particular mRNA is the identification of its protein product. This can be established by translation of the mRNA of interest in a cell-free protein-synthesizing system. Messenger RNA protein product identification is important in the isolation of a particular mRNA species for cDNA cloning and in the identification of positive cDNA clones. The two high-activity translation systems in common use are those prepared from rabbit reticulocytes and from wheat germ. Both systems are easy to prepare, and both are available commercially. Each has advantages and disadvantages over the other and a choice between the two will depend on the type of mRNAs to be translated, the prejudices of experience, and availability. The main disadvantage of the reticulocyte system is that it requires removal of endogenous mRNA. However, this is a relatively simple procedure. The wheat germ system does not require removal of endogenous mRNA and may translate weakly initiating mRNAs more efficiently. However, ionic optima for translation in the wheat germ system are more sensitive to the nature and concentration of mRNA and may need to be determined for each template. The biggest problem with the use of the wheat germ system is its tendency to produce incomplete translation products due to premature termination

  12. Plant Translation Factors and Virus Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Sanfaçon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant viruses recruit cellular translation factors not only to translate their viral RNAs but also to regulate their replication and potentiate their local and systemic movement. Because of the virus dependence on cellular translation factors, it is perhaps not surprising that many natural plant recessive resistance genes have been mapped to mutations of translation initiation factors eIF4E and eIF4G or their isoforms, eIFiso4E and eIFiso4G. The partial functional redundancy of these isoforms allows specific mutation or knock-down of one isoform to provide virus resistance without hindering the general health of the plant. New possible targets for antiviral strategies have also been identified following the characterization of other plant translation factors (eIF4A-like helicases, eIF3, eEF1A and eEF1B that specifically interact with viral RNAs and proteins and regulate various aspects of the infection cycle. Emerging evidence that translation repression operates as an alternative antiviral RNA silencing mechanism is also discussed. Understanding the mechanisms that control the development of natural viral resistance and the emergence of virulent isolates in response to these plant defense responses will provide the basis for the selection of new sources of resistance and for the intelligent design of engineered resistance that is broad-spectrum and durable.

  13. The free translation in the slogan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晨

    2015-01-01

    With the further development of world economy and globalization,the relationship between China and the outside world has become closer than ever before. There is no doubt that commercial advertisements play a dispensable role in forming the relationship between them. However,because the existence of cultural diference between China and Western countries,there are lots of dificulties in translating slogan in diferent cultural background. Therefore,figuring out some proper methods in free translation in slogan becomes much more important in this special era. In order to improve the quality of free translation in slogan and make contribution to explore the new market,this essay wil make research on the similarity in English and Chinese free translation in slogan which wil be expressed in the aspect of rhetoric,sentence using and structure using. At the same time,the research on the intimate link between brand and culture from the angle of intercultural have been conducted. Based on the principles of free translation in slogan to introduce the methods of free translation in slogan and try to put forward the strategies in terms of economic,products’ characters and other factors.

  14. Identity approach in translation : sociocultural implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Żuchelkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this text consists in presenting how it is necessary for contemporary translators and interpreters (both literary and specialised to acquire and develop the ability to recognize elements of identity discourse in translated texts. Nowadays, the need for inter-cultural exchange is inevitably connected with the necessity of establishing harmonious co-existence for numerous cultures and identities. Therefore, it is crucial to educate translators in a way that enables them to pay special attention to identity and cultural perturbations present in translated texts (culture and language hybridisation, multiple identity, cultural dislocation, presence in linguistic and political discourse of minority cultures, regardless of their genre or form. Such a strong emphasis on identity problems in the translation is especially relevant in the European context, where the attention of researchers and politicians directed at identity problems stemming from ethnical and cultural issues sets the framework for a new cultural paradigm that determines the future development of the Eu. Becoming acquainted with this paradigm which emphasises fl uency, identity unmarkedness and the new model of European collectivity is indispensable for a translator aspiring to become a true cultural mediator.

  15. Dual axis translation apparatus and system for translating an optical beam and related method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Kelly

    1991-01-01

    A dual axis translation device and system in accordance with this invention, for translating an optical beam along both an x-axis and a y-axis which are perpendicular to one another, has a beam directing means acting on said optical beam for directing the beam along a particular path transverse to said x and y axes. An arrangement supporting said beam directing means for movement in the x and y direction within a given plane is provided. The arrangement includes a first means for translating said beam directing means along the x-axis in said given plane in order to translate the beam along said x-axis. The arrangement comprises a second means for translating said beam directing means along the y-axis in said given plane in order to translate the beam along said y-axis.

  16. Local health department translation processes: potential of machine translation technologies to help meet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anne M; Mandel, Hannah; Capurro, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Limited English proficiency (LEP), defined as a limited ability to read, speak, write, or understand English, is associated with health disparities. Despite federal and state requirements to translate health information, the vast majority of health materials are solely available in English. This project investigates barriers to translation of health information and explores new technologies to improve access to multilingual public health materials. We surveyed all 77 local health departments (LHDs) in the Northwest about translation needs, practices, barriers and attitudes towards machine translation (MT). We received 67 responses from 45 LHDs. Translation of health materials is the principle strategy used by LHDs to reach LEP populations. Cost and access to qualified translators are principle barriers to producing multilingual materials. Thirteen LHDs have used online MT tools. Many respondents expressed concerns about the accuracy of MT. Overall, respondents were positive about its potential use, if low costs and quality could be assured.

  17. Translation Method and Computer Programme for Assisting the Same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a translation method comprising the steps of: a translator speaking a translation of a written source text in a target language, an automatic speech recognition system converting the spoken translation into a set of phone and word hypotheses in the target language......, a machine translation system translating the written source text into a set of translations hypotheses in the target language, and an integration module combining the set of spoken word hypotheses and the set of machine translation hypotheses obtaining a text in the target language. Thereby obtaining...

  18. HIV-1 Replication and the Cellular Eukaryotic Translation Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Guerrero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic translation is a complex process composed of three main steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. During infections by RNA- and DNA-viruses, the eukaryotic translation machinery is used to assure optimal viral protein synthesis. Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1 uses several non-canonical pathways to translate its own proteins, such as leaky scanning, frameshifting, shunt, and cap-independent mechanisms. Moreover, HIV-1 modulates the host translation machinery by targeting key translation factors and overcomes different cellular obstacles that affect protein translation. In this review, we describe how HIV-1 proteins target several components of the eukaryotic translation machinery, which consequently improves viral translation and replication.

  19. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-439 Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense... Bomb Increment II (SDB II) DoD Component Air Force Joint Participants Department of the Navy Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Production...Mission and Description Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) is a joint interest United States Air Force (USAF) and Department of the Navy

  20. Translation, reliability, and clinical utility of the Melbourne Assessment 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Corinna N; Plebani, Anael; Labruyère, Rob

    2017-10-12

    The aims were to (i) provide a German translation of the Melbourne Assessment 2 (MA2), a quantitative test to measure unilateral upper limb function in children with neurological disabilities and (ii) to evaluate its reliability and aspects of clinical utility. After its translation into German and approval of the back translation by the original authors, the MA2 was performed and videotaped twice with 30 children with neuromotor disorders. For each participant, two raters scored the video of the first test for inter-rater reliability. To determine test-retest reliability, one rater additionally scored the video of the second test while the other rater repeated the scoring of the first video to evaluate intra-rater reliability. Time needed for rater training, test administration, and scoring was recorded. The four subscale scores showed excellent intra-, inter-rater, and test-retest reliability with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.90-1.00 (95%-confidence intervals 0.78-1.00). Score items revealed substantial to almost perfect intra-rater reliability (weighted kappa k w  = 0.66-1.00) for the more affected side. Score item inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the same extremity were, with one exception, moderate to almost perfect (k w  = 0.42-0.97; k w  = 0.40-0.89). Furthermore, the MA2 was feasible and acceptable for patients and clinicians. The MA2 showed excellent subscale and moderate to almost perfect score item reliability. Implications for Rehabilitation There is a lack of high-quality studies about psychometric properties of upper limb measurement tools in the neuropediatric population. The Melbourne Assessment 2 is a promising tool for reliable measurement of unilateral upper limb movement quality in the neuropediatric population. The Melbourne Assessment 2 is acceptable and practicable to therapists and patients for routine use in clinical care.

  1. The metacompiler system META-II/X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneis, W.

    1975-03-01

    It is the objective of this work to demonstrate by the properties of the META-II/X system and concrete compiler implementation for IML that a simple and universally applicable symbol processor allows to develop in a very easy manner precompilers for problem oriented languages. The main feature consists in the fact that no auxiliary routines coded manually had to be added for special implementation. The translation of IML is exclusively defined by the compiler description written in the META language. As a whole, META-II/X proves to be a system which is relatively convenient to handle in automating the translation of explicit languages. The decisive point is the choise of an assembler language as target language allowing to transfer to the assembler level references not completely resolved. Implementation includes the possibility of an uncomplicated transfer of the whole system inclusive of the internal compiler representations. (orig.) [de

  2. Incorporating translation into sociolinguistic research: translation policy in an international non-governmental organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tesseur, Wine

    2017-01-01

    This article explores aspects of translation, multilingualism and language policy in the field of transnational civil society. By focusing on translation policies at Amnesty International, an international non-governmental organisation that performs a key role in global governance, this article seeks to contribute to a globalisation-sensitive sociolinguistics. It argues that combining a sociolinguistic approach, more precisely linguistic ethnography, with translation studies leads to an incre...

  3. Poetic tradition and the voice of the translator: The first verse translations of Dante’s Commedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Marfany

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses and compares the variety of text types in the first verse translations of Dante’s Commedia: the Catalan translation by Andreu Febrer (1429, the Spanish translation by Pedro Fernández de Villegas (printed in 1515, and an anonymous French translation preserved in a manuscript dating from between 1491 and 1530. All these translations are the first verse translations of the work into their respective languages.

  4. The BIG Data Center: from deposition to integration to translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-04

    Biological data are generated at unprecedentedly exponential rates, posing considerable challenges in big data deposition, integration and translation. The BIG Data Center, established at Beijing Institute of Genomics (BIG), Chinese Academy of Sciences, provides a suite of database resources, including (i) Genome Sequence Archive, a data repository specialized for archiving raw sequence reads, (ii) Gene Expression Nebulas, a data portal of gene expression profiles based entirely on RNA-Seq data, (iii) Genome Variation Map, a comprehensive collection of genome variations for featured species, (iv) Genome Warehouse, a centralized resource housing genome-scale data with particular focus on economically important animals and plants, (v) Methylation Bank, an integrated database of whole-genome single-base resolution methylomes and (vi) Science Wikis, a central access point for biological wikis developed for community annotations. The BIG Data Center is dedicated to constructing and maintaining biological databases through big data integration and value-added curation, conducting basic research to translate big data into big knowledge and providing freely open access to a variety of data resources in support of worldwide research activities in both academia and industry. All of these resources are publicly available and can be found at http://bigd.big.ac.cn. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Translating DVD Subtitles English-German, English-Japanese, Using Example-based Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, Stephen; Caffrey, Colm; Flanagan, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Due to limited budgets and an ever-diminishing time-frame for the production of subtitles for movies released in cinema and DVD, there is a compelling case for a technology-based translation solution for subtitles. In this paper we describe how an Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) approach...... to the translation of English DVD subtitles into German and Japanese can aid the subtitler. Our research focuses on an EBMT tool that produces fully automated translations, which in turn can be edited if required. To our knowledge this is the first time that any EBMT approach has been used with DVD subtitle...

  6. Solubility Products of M(II) - Carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grauer, Rolf; Berner, Urs [ed.

    1999-01-01

    Many solubility data for M(II) carbonates commonly compiled in tables are contradictory and sometimes obviously wrong. The quality of such data has been evaluated based on the original publications and reliable solubility constants have been selected for the carbonates of Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb with the help of cross-comparisons. (author) translated from a PSI internal report written in German in 1994 (TM-44-94-05). 5 figs., 1 tab., 68 refs.

  7. Bringing translation out of the shadows: translation as an issue of methodological significance in cross-cultural qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Poon, Maurice Kwong-Lai

    2010-04-01

    Translation is an integral component of cross-cultural research that has remained invisible. It is commonly assumed that translation is an objective and neutral process, in which the translators are "technicians" in producing texts in different languages. Drawing from the field of translation studies and the findings of a translation exercise conducted with three bilingual Cantonese-English translators, the authors highlight some of the methodological issues about translation in cross-cultural qualitative research. They argue that only by making translation visible and through open dialogue can researchers uncover the richness embedded in the research data and facilitate multiple ways of knowing.

  8. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization

  9. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Paolo

    2009-06-29

    The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology.In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization supporting clinical trial recruitment

  10. MEANING AND FORM IN NURSERY RHYMES TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikke Dewi Pratama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MAKNA DAN BENTUK DALAM PENERJEMAHAN LAGU-LAGU ANAK Abstract Translating nursery rhymes is not an easy task. The problems of equivalence in meaning and form as well as in the harmony between the translated lyrics and the music are aspects that need to be considered by the translators. By considering nursery rhyme lyric as poetry text, this research analyzes the equivalence of meaning and form in nursery rhymes translation. This research focuses on five nursery rhymes. The meaning analysis was done by conducting particular procedures on translation quality assessment. Meanwhile, the analysis of the form was conducted by comparing the two versions of the nursery rhymes focusing on the sound values. From the equivalence of meaning, the result shows that most nursery rhymes are translated less accurately. On the other hand, the finding of the equivalence in form shows that most of the auditory devices are deleted while most of the rhymes are shifted. This research is expected to give a contribution to song translation activities especially those involving children as the target listeners. Keywords: equivalence, accuracy, sound values, auditory devices, rhymes Abstrak Menerjemahkan lagu anak bukanlah hal yang mudah. Masalah kesepadanan makna dan bentuk, serta harmonisasi antara lirik terjemahan dan musik adalah aspek-aspek yang harus dipertimbangkan oleh penerjemah. Dengan mempertimbangkan lirik lagu anak sebagai teks puisi, penelitian ini menganalisis kesepadanan antara makna dan bentuk dalam terjemahan lagu anak. Dengan menggunakan teknik sampling, penelitian ini berfokus kepada lima lagu anak. Analisis makna dilakukan dengan prosedur penelitian kualitas terjemahan sedangkan analisis bentuk dilakukan dengan membandingkan dua versi lagu anak dengan fokus kepada sound values (bunyi. Analisis kesepadanan makna menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar lagu anak diterjemahkan dengan kurang akurat. Dari segi bentuk, sebagian besar auditory devices

  11. Translations on North Korea, Number 563

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-29

    garment factories and furniture producers’ cooperative. A duck plant, chicken plant, and hog farm have sprung up on the Shinanju sector, and at the...food rations are distributed to fishery workers. 6 April ( Arbor Day) Arbor Day, enacted by a decree dated 25 March 1971. 15 April (Kim Il-song’s...100 50 billion kwh 20 million tons 5 5 5 10 100,000 chongbo [1 chongbo 2 .45 acres ] n II II II II II Actually it is still not clear

  12. Textos sobre Sostenibilidad II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciudades para un futuro más sostenible http://habitat.aq.upm.es

    2004-12-01

    This issue assembles a selection of articles publicly available on the website Ciudades para un Futuro más Sostenible (CF+S: http://habitat.aq.upm.es. This selection was originally used as a printed companion guide to the public lecture series on ‘‘Sustainability in the Architecture and Urban Project’’, held on March 2004 and organized by the Madrid School of Architecture within the Initiative for a more Sustainable Architecture and Urbanism (IAU+S. The compilation an overall vision on sustainability presents to average audience. The basic criterion to select these articles was therefore a pedagogical one, including those simpler and clearer papers dealing with all main topics in CF+S. However, due to space limitations, many excellent articles available on the website are unfortunately not included within this selection. CF+S was created in 1996 as a partnership between the Spanish Ministry of Works and Madrid School of Architecture. The objective was to translate into Spanish and publish the experiences selected at the International Award for Best Practices in Improving the Living Environment, organized by United Nations after the Istanbul Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II. CF+S aims to gather documents concerning any kind of actions and experiences both on the territory and the city actually improving people’s living conditions according to the sustainability concept in its strongest sense. It also offers papers, reports and theoretical reflections on the state of and the possible alternatives to urban development nowadays.

  13. Community-based knowledge translation: unexplored opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong Rebecca

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge translation is an interactive process of knowledge exchange between health researchers and knowledge users. Given that the health system is broad in scope, it is important to reflect on how definitions and applications of knowledge translation might differ by setting and focus. Community-based organizations and their practitioners share common characteristics related to their setting, the evidence used in this setting, and anticipated outcomes that are not, in our experience, satisfactorily reflected in current knowledge translation approaches, frameworks, or tools. Discussion Community-based organizations face a distinctive set of challenges and concerns related to engaging in the knowledge translation process, suggesting a unique perspective on knowledge translation in these settings. Specifically, community-based organizations tend to value the process of working in collaboration with multi-sector stakeholders in order to achieve an outcome. A feature of such community-based collaborations is the way in which 'evidence' is conceptualized or defined by these partners, which may in turn influence the degree to which generalizable research evidence in particular is relevant and useful when balanced against more contextually-informed knowledge, such as tacit knowledge. Related to the issues of evidence and context is the desire for local information. For knowledge translation researchers, developing processes to assist community-based organizations to adapt research findings to local circumstances may be the most helpful way to advance decision making in this area. A final characteristic shared by community-based organizations is involvement in advocacy activities, a function that has been virtually ignored in traditional knowledge translation approaches. Summary This commentary is intended to stimulate further discussion in the area of community-based knowledge translation. Knowledge translation, and exchange

  14. MANAGING THE TRANSLATION OF ECONOMIC TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Anamaria Mirabela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, translation may pass as science; practically, it seems closer to art. Translation is a challenging activity requiring a set of abilities and posing few difficulties that appear during the translation process. This paper investigates the extent to which sub-technical vocabulary can constitute a problem to Romanian students of economics reading in English, by looking at the translations produced as independent or pair work during English classes and analyzing the various errors which may appeared. The exigencies required by the efficient business communication have increased in the past few decades because of rising international trade, increased migration, globalization, the recognition of linguistic minorities, and the expansion of the mass media and technology. All these led us to approach the topic of translation which is actually a job that requires skills, stages of research necessary for disclosure of transfer characteristic into the target language, training, experience and a good sense of languages. The paper defines the theoretical issues and terminology: translation, types of translation, economic texts and then focuses on the presentation of the practical work carried out throughout the academic year of second year students. Considering that only 28% of the entire European population can read English, and even less people in South America and Asia can, it is obvious that an effective communication of business matters relies on an accurate understanding of terminology. Economics is a field of knowledge in accelerated scientific and technological development. As there is a permanent and ever increasing need to quickly update their knowledge, economists read and learn directly in the original language of the publication and stick to it in daily usage, including conferences, scientific events and articles written in Romanian. Besides researching properly the markets, finding distribution channels, and dealing with legal

  15. Scaffold translation: barriers between concept and clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Scott J; Murphy, William L

    2011-12-01

    Translation of scaffold-based bone tissue engineering (BTE) therapies to clinical use remains, bluntly, a failure. This dearth of translated tissue engineering therapies (including scaffolds) remains despite 25 years of research, research funding totaling hundreds of millions of dollars, over 12,000 papers on BTE and over 2000 papers on BTE scaffolds alone in the past 10 years (PubMed search). Enabling scaffold translation requires first an understanding of the challenges, and second, addressing the complete range of these challenges. There are the obvious technical challenges of designing, manufacturing, and functionalizing scaffolds to fill the Form, Fixation, Function, and Formation needs of bone defect repair. However, these technical solutions should be targeted to specific clinical indications (e.g., mandibular defects, spine fusion, long bone defects, etc.). Further, technical solutions should also address business challenges, including the need to obtain regulatory approval, meet specific market needs, and obtain private investment to develop products, again for specific clinical indications. Finally, these business and technical challenges present a much different model than the typical research paradigm, presenting the field with philosophical challenges in terms of publishing and funding priorities that should be addressed as well. In this article, we review in detail the technical, business, and philosophical barriers of translating scaffolds from Concept to Clinic. We argue that envisioning and engineering scaffolds as modular systems with a sliding scale of complexity offers the best path to addressing these translational challenges. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  16. Translating Regenerative Biomaterials Into Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stace, Edward T; Dakin, Stephanie G; Mouthuy, Pierre-Alexis; Carr, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Globally health care spending is increasing unsustainably. This is especially true of the treatment of musculoskeletal (MSK) disease where in the United States the MSK disease burden has doubled over the last 15 years. With an aging and increasingly obese population, the surge in MSK related spending is only set to worsen. Despite increased funding, research and attention to this pressing health need, little progress has been made toward novel therapies. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) strategies could provide the solutions required to mitigate this mounting burden. Biomaterial-based treatments in particular present a promising field of potentially cost-effective therapies. However, the translation of a scientific development to a successful treatment is fraught with difficulties. These barriers have so far limited translation of TERM science into clinical treatments. It is crucial for primary researchers to be aware of the barriers currently restricting the progression of science to treatments. Researchers need to act prospectively to ensure the clinical, financial, and regulatory hurdles which seem so far removed from laboratory science do not stall or prevent the subsequent translation of their idea into a treatment. The aim of this review is to explore the development and translation of new treatments. Increasing the understanding of these complexities and barriers among primary researchers could enhance the efficiency of biomaterial translation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Can Translation Improve EFL Students' Grammatical Accuracy? [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Ebbert-Hübner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This report focuses on research results from a project completed at Trier University in December 2015 that provides insight into whether a monolingual group of learners can improve their grammatical accuracy and reduce interference mistakes in their English via contrastive analysis and translation instruction and activities. Contrastive analysis and translation (CAT instruction in this setting focusses on comparing grammatical differences between students’ dominant language (German and English, and practice activities where sentences or short texts are translated from German into English. The results of a pre- and post-test administered in the first and final week of a translation class were compared to two other class types: a grammar class which consisted of form-focused instruction but not translation, and a process-approach essay writing class where students received feedback on their written work throughout the semester. The results of our study indicate that with C1 level EAP students, more improvement in grammatical accuracy is seen through teaching with CAT than in explicit grammar instruction or through language feedback on written work alone. These results indicate that CAT does indeed have a place in modern language classes.

  18. TRANSLATION OF ORALITY TRAITS IN LITERARY DIALOGUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorea Ajanić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates traits of fictive orality and their translations by studying dialogues from Bernhard Schlink’s novel Der Vorleser and their translations into the Croatian and English language. In the first part of the paper the term fictive orality is explained in the context of classification given by Koch and Oesterreicher (1985, which distinguishes between „the language of immediacy” (“Sprache der Nähe” which refers to speech, and “the language of distance” (“Sprache der Distanz” which refers to writing. The ways in which writers create orality in their works, as well as the ways in which it can be recognized in texts, are also represented. In the second part of the paper, selected dialogues from the novel Der Vorleser are analyzed in the source text and in translations. The analysis of dialogues indicates the presence of the following means for expressing fictive orality: punctuation, exclamations, repetition, and descriptions of nonverbal behaviour. These means refer to spoken communication and characters’ emotions – e.g. punctuation is used to express confusion, insecurity, or hesitation in conversations; exclamations are used to express emotions, tone and mood in the analyzed conversations. Additionally, the analysis of translation strategies reveals that the most frequently utilised translation strategies (as proposed by Baker are cultural substitution and paraphrase.

  19. Translational groups as generators of gauge transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaria, Tomy

    2003-01-01

    We examine the gauge generating nature of the translational subgroup of Wigner's little group for the case of massless tensor gauge theories and show that the gauge transformations generated by the translational group are only a subset of the complete set of gauge transformations. We also show that, just as in the case of topologically massive gauge theories, translational groups act as generators of gauge transformations in gauge theories obtained by extending massive gauge noninvariant theories by a Stueckelberg mechanism. The representations of the translational groups that generate gauge transformations in such Stueckelberg extended theories can be obtained by the method of dimensional descent. We illustrate these results with the examples of Stueckelberg extended first class versions of Proca, Einstein-Pauli-Fierz, and massive Kalb-Ramond theories in 3+1 dimensions. A detailed analysis of the partial gauge generation in massive and massless second rank symmetric gauge theories is provided. The gauge transformations generated by the translational group in two-form gauge theories are shown to explicitly manifest the reducibility of gauge transformations in these theories

  20. Recipe of the project Common Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio Cabello Fernández-Delgado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The recipe presented in this paper aims at synthetising metaphorically the methodology deployed in the project Commons Translation, an effort of distributed cooperative translation of books related to free culture and the commons carried out by university lecturers and students, as well as external collaborators. This recipe of what we call “commons-based peer translation” is inspired in the ideas of lots of cooks, and some of those ideas are extracted from the same works we translate. In this sense, two cookery books have been especially helpful: the first one is Yochai Benkler's The Wealth of Networks, a crucial recipe book about the art of commons-based peer production; the second one is Chris Kelty's Two Bits, where the anthropologist analyses thoroughly (and exquisitely the condiment characteristic of the best cooking of free software: recursion. Both works are an inspiration for our translation efforts and at the same time constituye the objects of such translation: the cooking of new communities and knowledges.

  1. MODEL OF TEACHING PROFESSION SPECIFIC BILATERAL TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Fabrychna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the author’s interpretation of the process of teaching profession specific bilateral translation to student teacher of English in the Master’s program. The goal of the model of teaching profession specific bilateral translation development is to determine the logical sequence of educational activities of the teacher as the organizer of the educational process and students as its members. English and Ukrainian texts on methods of foreign languages and cultures teaching are defined as the object of study. Learning activities aimed at the development of student teachers of English profession specific competence in bilateral translation and Translation Proficiency Language Portfolio for Student Teachers of English are suggested as teaching tools. The realization of the model of teaching profession specific bilateral translation to student teachers of English in the Master’s program is suggested within the module topics of the academic discipline «Practice of English as the first foreign language»: Globalization; Localization; Education; Work; The role of new communication technologies in personal and professional development. We believe that the amount of time needed for efficient functioning of the model is 48 academic hours, which was determined by calculating the total number of academic hours allotted for the academic discipline «Practice of English as the first foreign language» in Ukrainian universities. Peculiarities of the model realization as well as learning goals and content of class activities and home self-study work of students are outlined.

  2. Translational groups as generators of gauge transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaria, Tomy

    2003-11-01

    We examine the gauge generating nature of the translational subgroup of Wigner’s little group for the case of massless tensor gauge theories and show that the gauge transformations generated by the translational group are only a subset of the complete set of gauge transformations. We also show that, just as in the case of topologically massive gauge theories, translational groups act as generators of gauge transformations in gauge theories obtained by extending massive gauge noninvariant theories by a Stückelberg mechanism. The representations of the translational groups that generate gauge transformations in such Stückelberg extended theories can be obtained by the method of dimensional descent. We illustrate these results with the examples of Stückelberg extended first class versions of Proca, Einstein-Pauli-Fierz, and massive Kalb-Ramond theories in 3+1 dimensions. A detailed analysis of the partial gauge generation in massive and massless second rank symmetric gauge theories is provided. The gauge transformations generated by the translational group in two-form gauge theories are shown to explicitly manifest the reducibility of gauge transformations in these theories.

  3. Translating the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders into Malay: evaluation of content and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Suan-Phaik; Yap, Adrian U Jin; Chan, Yiong Huak; Bulgiba, Awang M

    2008-01-01

    To develop a Malay-language version of the Axis II Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) through a formal translation/back-translation process and to summarize available data about the psychometric properties of the translated scales. To cross-culturally adapt the instrument, the RDC/TMD underwent translation using a forward-backward method. Subjects were recruited to test the congruency between translated and original versions of the RDC/TMD. The psychometric properties of 3 domains (Graded Chronic Pain Scale, Nonspecific Physical Symptoms, and Depression) of the RDC/TMD were examined, and the literature on this topic was reviewed. All the items scored 93% to 100% congruency. Cronbach's alphas for Graded Chronic Pain Scale, Nonspecific Physical Symptoms, and Depression were 0.77, 0.71, and 0.88, respectively (n = 40). The test-retest reliability of scores (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) and levels (Spearman's rho) for these domains showed ICCs of 0.97, 0.94, and 0.95, respectively, with a lowest ICC value of 0.84 (n = 40); the Spearman's rho values were 0.93, 0.74, and 0.74, respectively. The discriminant validity between patients with pain symptoms (n = 40) and normal pain-free controls (n = 40) were statistically significant (P cultural adaptation of the RDC/TMD into the Malay language is suitable for use in Malaysia.

  4. Measuring complexity with multifractals in texts. Translation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausloos, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Two texts in English and one in Esperanto are transformed into 6 time series. ► D(q) and f(alpha) of such (and shuffled) time series are obtained. ► A model for text construction is presented based on a parametrized Cantor set. ► The model parameters can also be used when examining machine translated texts. ► Suggested extensions to higher dimensions: in 2D image analysis and on hypertexts. - Abstract: Should quality be almost a synonymous of complexity? To measure quality appears to be audacious, even very subjective. It is hereby proposed to use a multifractal approach in order to quantify quality, thus through complexity measures. A one-dimensional system is examined. It is known that (all) written texts can be one-dimensional nonlinear maps. Thus, several written texts by the same author are considered, together with their translation, into an unusual language, Esperanto, and asa baseline their corresponding shuffled versions. Different one-dimensional time series can be used: e.g. (i) one based on word lengths, (ii) the other based on word frequencies; both are used for studying, comparing and discussing the map structure. It is shown that a variety in style can be measured through the D(q) and f(α) curves characterizing multifractal objects. This allows to observe on the one hand whether natural and artificial languages significantly influence the writing and the translation, and whether one author’s texts differ technically from each other. In fact, the f(α) curves of the original texts are similar to each other, but the translated text shows marked differences. However in each case, the f(α) curves are far from being parabolic, – in contrast to the shuffled texts. Moreover, the Esperanto text has more extreme values. Criteria are thereby suggested for estimating a text quality, as if it is a time series only. A model is introduced in order to substantiate the findings: it consists in considering a text as a random Cantor set

  5. Literary Translation, Translating Culture: The Case of Shahriyar, the Famous Iranian Azeri Poet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianbakht, Saijad

    2016-01-01

    A literary translation is a device of art used to release the text from its dependence on prior cultural knowledge (Herzfeld, 2003). The present research investigates the use of pragmatic equivalence in two translations of the Azeri Turkish long poem "Haydar Babaye Salam" by "Shahriyar." Based on Koller's theory of equivalence…

  6. Findings of the 2010 Joint Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation and Metrics for Machine Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callison-Burch, C.; Koehn, P.; Monz, C.; Peterson, K.; Przybocki, M.; Zaidan, O.F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the WMT10 and MetricsMATR10 shared tasks, which included a translation task, a system combination task, and an evaluation task. We conducted a large-scale manual evaluation of 104 machine translation systems and 41 system combination entries. We used the ranking of

  7. The Potentiation of Meaning through Translative Reading: Poetic Translation and the Case of Gottfried Benn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ian Egon

    2009-01-01

    The theory of literary translation has been plagued by a disregard of the comprehensive aspect of the task since its inception, largely focusing on the challenges of the expressive aspect instead. This development throughout the history of translation--with the notable exceptions of Martin Luther and Friedrich Schleiermacher--has led to…

  8. Problems in Translating Figures of Speech: A Review of Persian Translations of Harry Potter Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Masroor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the important role of figures of speech in prose, the present research tried to investigate the figures of speech in the novel, Harry Potter Series, and their Persian translations. The main goal of this research was to investigate the translators’ problems in translating figures of speech from English into Persian. To achieve this goal, the collected data were analyzed and compared with their Persian equivalents. Then, the theories of Newmark (1988 & 2001, Larson (1998, and Nolan (2005 were used in order to find the applied strategies for rendering the figures of speech by the translators. After identifying the applied translation strategies, the descriptive and inferential analyses were applied to answer the research question and test its related hypothesis. The results confirmed that the most common pitfalls in translating figures of speech from English into Persian based on Nolan (2005 were, not identifying of figures of speech, their related meanings and translating them literally. Overall, the research findings rejected the null hypothesis. The findings of present research can be useful for translators, especially beginners. They can be aware of the existing problems in translating figures of speech, so they can avoid committing the same mistakes in their works.

  9. Tomo II

    OpenAIRE

    Llano Zapata, José Eusebio

    2015-01-01

    Memorias, histórico, físicas, crítico, apologéticas de la América Meridional con unas breves advertencias y noticias útiles, a los que de orden de Su Majestad hubiesen de viajar y describir aquellas vastas regiones. Reino Vegetal, Tomo II. Por un anónimo americano en Cádiz por los años de 1757. Muy Señor mío, juzgo que los 20 artículos del libro que remití a Vuestra Merced le habrán hecho formar el concepto que merece la fecundidad de aquellos países en las producciones minerales. Y siendo es...

  10. Cultural adaptation and the Clavien-Dindo surgical complications classification translated to Brazilian Portuguese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS FERNANDO MOREIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to generate a translated and validated version of the Clavien-Dindo Classification of Surgical Complications (CDC to Brazilian Portuguese (CDC-BR. Methods: the process of translation and adaptation followed the guideline of Beaton et al., 2000. We divided 76 participating surgeons, in different levels of experience, from the Department Surgery of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, into two groups: Group I applied the original version (CDC, n=36;r Group II used the modified version (CDC-BR, n=40. Each group classified 15 clinical cases of surgical complications. We compared performance between the groups (Mann-Whitney test relating to the level of experience of the surgeon (Kruskal-Wallis test, considering p value <0.05 as significant. Results: the performance of the Group II (CDC-BR was higher, with 85% accuracy, compared with 79% of Group I (CDC, p-value =0.012. The performance of the groups as for surgeons experience displayed p=0.171 for Group I, p=0.528 for Group II, and p=0.135 for overall performance. Conclusion: we produced a translated and validated version of the CDC for Brazilian Portuguese. The instrument will be a useful tool in the production of evidence on surgical outcomes.

  11. Genome-wide RIP-Chip analysis of translational repressor-bound mRNAs in the Plasmodium gametocyte

    KAUST Repository

    Guerreiro, Ana; Deligianni, Elena; Santos, Jorge M; Silva, Patricia AGC; Louis, Christos; Pain, Arnab; Janse, Chris J; Franke-Fayard, Blandine; Carret, Celine K; Siden-Kiamos, Inga; Mair, Gunnar R

    2014-01-01

    of RNA polymerase II transcription. Using GFP-tagging, we validate the repression phenotype of selected genes and identify mRNAs relying on the 5′ untranslated region for translational control. Gene deletion reveals a novel protein located in the ookinete

  12. Translating the REACH Caregiver Intervention for Use by Area Agency on Aging Personnel: the REACH OUT Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Louis D.; Collins, Irene B.; Schmid, Bettina; Wharton, Tracy; McCallum, Debra; DeCoster, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to translate the evidence-based Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) II intervention for use in 4 Area Agencies on Aging (AAAs). A secondary aim was to examine possible moderators of treatment outcome. Design and Methods: We used a quasi-experimental pre-post treatment design with no…

  13. Translation system engineering in Escherichia coli enhances non-canonical amino acid incorporation into proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Rui; Perez, Jessica G; Carlson, Erik D; Ntai, Ioanna; Isaacs, Farren J; Kelleher, Neil L; Jewett, Michael C

    2017-05-01

    The ability to site-specifically incorporate non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins has made possible the study of protein structure and function in fundamentally new ways, as well as the bio synthesis of unnatural polymers. However, the task of site-specifically incorporating multiple ncAAs into proteins with high purity and yield continues to present a challenge. At the heart of this challenge lies the lower efficiency of engineered orthogonal translation system components compared to their natural counterparts (e.g., translation elements that specifically use a ncAA and do not interact with the cell's natural translation apparatus). Here, we show that evolving and tuning expression levels of multiple components of an engineered translation system together as a whole enhances ncAA incorporation efficiency. Specifically, we increase protein yield when incorporating multiple p-azido-phenylalanine(pAzF) residues into proteins by (i) evolving the Methanocaldococcus jannaschii p-azido-phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase anti-codon binding domain, (ii) evolving the elongation factor Tu amino acid-binding pocket, and (iii) tuning the expression of evolved translation machinery components in a single vector. Use of the evolved translation machinery in a genomically recoded organism lacking release factor one enabled enhanced multi-site ncAA incorporation into proteins. We anticipate that our approach to orthogonal translation system development will accelerate and expand our ability to site-specifically incorporate multiple ncAAs into proteins and biopolymers, advancing new horizons for synthetic and chemical biotechnology. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1074-1086. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Findings of the 2014 Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bojar, O.; Buck, C.; Federmann, C.; Haddow, B.; Koehn, P.; Leveling, J.; Monz, C.; Pecina, P.; Post, M.; Saint-Amand, H.; Soricut, R.; Specia, L.; Tamchyna, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the WMT14 shared tasks, which included a standard news translation task, a separate medical translation task, a task for run-time estimation of machine translation quality, and a metrics task. This year, 143 machine translation systems from 23 institutions were

  15. 8 CFR 1003.33 - Translation of documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Translation of documents. 1003.33 Section... PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.33 Translation... by an English language translation and a certification signed by the translator that must be printed...

  16. Levelling the playing field: an investigation into the translation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A possible solution to the benchmarking problem was to translate the Afrikaans test into English. The translation framework, adopted for this study, was Nord's functionalist model. This paper will elaborate on the translation procedure, and the variance in students' performance on the translated version compared to previous ...

  17. Importancia de la traduccion (The Importance of Translation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Yebra, Valentin

    1975-01-01

    This article emphasizes the cultural importance of activities furthering good translation. The value of a translated work rests as much on the skill of the translator as on the original author. Translation is important to Spain in order for the country to raise its cultural and economic level. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  18. an overview of recent developments in translation studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adopt a descriptive approach towards the study of translated literature. .... During the 1990s the growing discipline of translation studies achieved ... new millennium, translation studies is an international network of scholar- ... In these terms, translation means communicating the foreign ..... the intercultural communication.

  19. A Model of Translator's Competence from an Educational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eser, Oktay

    2015-01-01

    Translation as a business is a service. The concept of translation competence is a term covering the various skills and knowledge that a translator needs to have in order to translate functionally. The term which is often studied as a multi-componential concept in literature may not cover the necessary skills if it is taken from an organizational…

  20. 47 CFR 74.733 - UHF translator signal boosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false UHF translator signal boosters. 74.733 Section... Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.733 UHF translator signal boosters. (a) The licensee of a UHF television broadcast translator station may be authorized to operate one or more signal boosters for the...