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Sample records for blodsygdomme ii translation

  1. Minimal restsygdom ved maligne blodsygdomme II. Translation og terapeutiske konsekvenser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, Peter; Ommen, Hans Beier; Nyvold, Charlotte Guldborg;

    2009-01-01

    following patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib. Moreover, the methodology is being integrated in an increasing number of clinical trials, where it is expected to result in more rational and individualized clinical decision-making. A special point in...

  2. Biogenesis of photosystem II complexes: transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integral membrane proteins of photosystem II (PS II) reaction center complexes are encoded by chloroplast genomes. These proteins are absent from thylakoids of PS II mutants of algae and vascular plants as a result of either chloroplast or nuclear gene mutations. To resolve the molecular basis and the concurrent absence of the PS II polypeptides, protein synthesis rates and mRNA levels were measured in mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that lack PS II. The analyses show that one nuclear gene product regulates the levels of transcripts from the chloroplast gene encoding the 51-kD chlorophyll α-binding polypeptide (polypeptide 5) but is not involved in the synthesis of other chloroplast mRNAs. The other nuclear product is specifically required for translation of mRNA encoding the 32-34-kD polypeptide, D1. The absence of either D1 or polypeptide 5 does not eliminate the synthesis and thylakoid insertion of two other integral membrane proteins of PS II, the chlorophyll α-binding polypeptide of 46 kD (polypeptide 6) and the 30-kD D1-like protein, D2. However, these two unassembled subunits cannot be properly processed and/or are degraded in the mutants even though they reside in the membrane. In addition, pulse labeling of the nuclear mutants and a chloroplast mutant that does not synthesize D1 mRNA indicates that synthesis of polypeptide 5 and D1 is coordinated at the translational level. A model is presented to explain how absence of one of the two proteins could lead to translational arrest of the other

  3. D. Pedro II as translator: an analysis of the creative process

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Romanelli; Adriano Mafra; Rosane Souza

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the translation work of D. Pedro II. Throughout his life he showed great interest in languages. He spoke German, Italian, Spanish, French, Latin, Hebrew and Tupi-Guarani. He read Greek, Arabic, Sanskrit and “Provençal”. He translated from Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, French, German, Italian and English. The aim of this research is to delineate the creative process of the translator through the Genetics Critics and the Descriptive Studies of Translation, because both of them ...

  4. Limits of PGL(3)-translates of plane curves, II

    OpenAIRE

    Aluffi, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Every complex plane curve C determines a subscheme S of the $P^8$ of 3x3 matrices, whose projective normal cone (PNC) captures subtle invariants of C. In "Limits of PGL(3)-translates of plane curves, I" we obtain a set-theoretic description of the PNC and thereby we determine all possible limits of families of plane curves whose general element is isomorphic to C. The main result of this article is the determination of the PNC as a cycle; this is an essential ingredient in our computation in ...

  5. D. Pedro II as translator: an analysis of the creative process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Romanelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the translation work of D. Pedro II. Throughout his life he showed great interest in languages. He spoke German, Italian, Spanish, French, Latin, Hebrew and Tupi-Guarani. He read Greek, Arabic, Sanskrit and “Provençal”. He translated from Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, French, German, Italian and English. The aim of this research is to delineate the creative process of the translator through the Genetics Critics and the Descriptive Studies of Translation, because both of them privilege the process in relation to the final product. The main documentary sources on which this research is based on are autograph manuscripts of direct translations from Arabic, Italian, Spanish, French and Sanskrit, the Emperor's diary, in addition to letters and books from his personal library. The paper intends to rebuild not only the translator profile of D. Pedro II, his ideas and attitudes towards the translation  activity, but also the study of the unique network of contacts, readings and influences proceeding from many cultures, not only Europeans, that the Emperor was able to intertwined.

  6. A family of insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding proteins represses translation in late development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Christiansen, J; Lykke-Andersen, J;

    1999-01-01

    day 12.5 followed by a decline towards birth, and, similar to IGF-II, IMPs are especially expressed in developing epithelia, muscle, and placenta in both mouse and human embryos. The results imply that cytoplasmic 5' UTR-binding proteins control IGF-II biosynthesis during late mammalian development.......Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a major fetal growth factor. The IGF-II gene generates multiple mRNAs with different 5' untranslated regions (5' UTRs) that are translated in a differential manner during development. We have identified a human family of three IGF-II mRNA-binding proteins...

  7. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications: II, Clouds. Issue 159

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents abstracts (translated into English) of important Russian-language literature concerning clouds as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  8. Hydrodynamic Interactions between Two Forced Objects of Arbitrary Shape: II Relative Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfriend, Tomer; Witten, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    We study the relative translation of two arbitrarily shaped objects, caused by their hydrodynamic interaction as they are forced through a viscous fluid in the limit of zero Reynolds number. It is well known that in the case of two rigid spheres in an unbounded fluid, the hydrodynamic interaction does not produce relative translation. More generally such an effective pair-interaction vanishes in configurations with spatial inversion symmetry, for example, an enantiomorphic pair in mirror image positions has no relative translation. We show that the breaking of inversion symmetry by boundaries of the system accounts for the interactions between two spheres in confined geometries, as observed in experiments. The same general principle also provides new predictions for interactions in other object configurations near obstacles. We examine the time-dependent relative translation of two self-aligning objects, extending the numerical analysis of our preceding publication [Goldfriend, Diamant and Witten, arXiv:1502....

  9. Calculation of translational friction and intrinsic viscosity. II. Application to globular proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, X Z

    1995-01-01

    The translational friction coefficients and intrinsic viscosities of four proteins (ribonuclease A, lysozyme, myoglobin, and chymotrypsinogen A) are calculated using atomic-level structural details. Inclusion of a 0.9-A-thick hydration shell allows calculated results for both hydrodynamic properties of each protein to reproduce experimental data. The use of detailed protein structures is made possible by relating translational friction and intrinsic viscosity to capacitance and polarizability...

  10. Primate translational vestibuloocular reflexes. II. Version and vergence responses to fore-aft motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, M. Q.; Angelaki, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    To maintain binocular fixation on near targets during fore-aft translational disturbances, largely disjunctive eye movements are elicited the amplitude and direction of which should be tuned to the horizontal and vertical eccentricities of the target. The eye movements generated during this task have been investigated here as trained rhesus monkeys fixated isovergence targets at different horizontal and vertical eccentricities during 10 Hz fore-aft oscillations. The elicited eye movements complied with the geometric requirements for binocular fixation, although not ideally. First, the corresponding vergence angle for which the movement of each eye would be compensatory was consistently less than that dictated by the actual fixation parameters. Second, the eye position with zero sensitivity to translation was not straight ahead, as geometrically required, but rather exhibited a systematic dependence on viewing distance and vergence angle. Third, responses were asymmetric, with gains being larger for abducting and downward compared with adducting and upward gaze directions, respectively. As frequency was varied between 4 and 12 Hz, responses exhibited high-pass filter properties with significant differences between abduction and adduction responses. As a result of these differences, vergence sensitivity increased as a function of frequency with a steeper slope than that of version. Despite largely undercompensatory version responses, vergence sensitivity was closer to ideal. Moreover, the observed dependence of vergence sensitivity on vergence angle, which was varied between 2.5 and 10 MA, was largely linear rather than quadratic (as geometrically predicted). We conclude that the spatial tuning of eye velocity sensitivity as a function of gaze and viewing distance follows the general geometric dependencies required for the maintenance of foveal visual acuity. However, systematic deviations from ideal behavior exist that might reflect asymmetric processing of

  11. Calculation of translational friction and intrinsic viscosity. II. Application to globular proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X Z

    1995-12-01

    The translational friction coefficients and intrinsic viscosities of four proteins (ribonuclease A, lysozyme, myoglobin, and chymotrypsinogen A) are calculated using atomic-level structural details. Inclusion of a 0.9-A-thick hydration shell allows calculated results for both hydrodynamic properties of each protein to reproduce experimental data. The use of detailed protein structures is made possible by relating translational friction and intrinsic viscosity to capacitance and polarizability, which can be calculated easily. The 0.9-A hydration shell corresponds to a hydration level of 0.3-0.4 g water/g protein. Hydration levels within this narrow range are also found by a number of other techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, calorimetry, and computer simulation. The use of detailed protein structures in predicting hydrodynamic properties thus allows hydrodynamic measurement to join the other techniques in leading to a unified picture of protein hydration. In contrast, earlier interpretations of hydrodynamic data based on modeling proteins as ellipsoids gave hydration levels that varied widely from protein to protein and thus challenged the existence of a unified picture of protein hydration. PMID:8599637

  12. Vibration-translation energy transfer in anharmonic diatomic molecules. II - The vibrational quantum-number dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenzie, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    A semiclassical model of the inelastic collision between a vibrationally excited anharmonic oscillator and a structureless atom is used to predict the variation of thermally averaged vibrational-translational rate coefficients with temperature and initial-state quantum number. Multiple oscillator states are included in a numerical solution for collinear encounters. The results are compared with CO-He experimental values for both ground and excited initial states using several simplified forms of the interaction potential. The numerical model is also used as a basis for evaluating several less complete, but analytic, models. Two computationally simple analytic approximations are found that successfully reproduce the numerical rate coefficients for a wide range of molecular properties and collision partners. Their limitations are identified, and the relative rates of multiple-quantum transitions from excited states are evaluated for several molecular types.

  13. Measuring translation competence acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco Jutorán, Mariana; Hurtado Albir, Amparo

    2002-01-01

    The following article describes the development of instruments for measuring the process of acquiring translation competence in written translation. Translation competence and its process of acquisition are firstly described, and then the lack of empirical research in our field is tackled. Thirdly, three measuring instruments especially developed to measure translation competence acquisition are presented: (i) to measure notions about translation, (ii) to measure students’ behaviour when face...

  14. Lost in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Steffen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    translated texts. Our results suggest (i) that frame-based classifiers are usable for author attribution of both translated and untranslated texts; (ii) that framebased classifiers generally perform worse than the baseline classifiers for untranslated texts, but (iii) perform as well as, or superior to the...... baseline classifiers on translated texts; (iv) that—contrary to current belief—naïve classifiers based on lexical markers may perform tolerably on translated texts if the combination of author and translator is present in the training set of a classifier....

  15. Translating China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    sidney Shapiro, an American-born translator famous for his translation of Chinese literary works, received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Translation by the Translators Association of China on December 2, 2010.

  16. Pseudo minimum translational distance between convex polyhedra (II) ——Robot collision-free path planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Xiangyang; DING; Han; XIONG; Youlun

    2001-01-01

    By using the pseudo minimum translational distance between convex objects, this paper presents two algorithms for robot path planning. First, an analytically tractable potential field is defined in the robot configuration space, and the concept of virtual obstacles is introduced and incorporated in the path planner to handle the local minima of the potential function. Second, based on the Lipschitz continuity and differentiability of the pseudo minimum translational distance, the flexible-trajectory approach is implemented. Simulation examples are given to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the path planners for both mobile robots and manipulators.

  17. Monte Carlo simulation of the crystal structure of the rotator phase of n-paraffins. II. Effects of rotation and translation of the rigid molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi

    1988-08-01

    Structures and molecular motions in the rotator phases of n-paraffins are simulated by use of the Monte Carlo method—both rotational and translational degrees of freedom of the molecules being taken into account. Molecules of rigid trans-planar structure are assumed to be placed in a two-dimensional orthorhombic or orthohexagonal lattice with lattice parameters a and b. A model of the nearly continuous molecular motion is adopted in this work; each molecule is assumed to have 36 discrete orientations (in 10° intervals) and 10 discrete translations (in 0.128 Å intervals) around and along the molecular axis, respectively. Molecular packing modes in various lattice systems of different a/b values are examined ranging from that of the ordinary orthorhombic phase (a/b=1.50) to that of the rotator-II (R-II) phase (a/b=31/2). It is found that the crystals in the rotator phases are generally composed of many domains within which molecules are packed more or less in order. In the rotator-I (R-I) phase, fairly large structural changes are observed with the change in a/b value; the structure of the R-I phase reported in our previous MC work should be slightly modified. The structure of the R-II phase, on the other hand, is found to be essentially the same as that of our previous MC work. Modes of the molecular motion in the R-II phase are studied by monitoring the time evolution of the rotational and translational states of all molecules in the system. It is found that the molecules are making fairly active rotational oscillation around one of the six equivalent directions connecting nearest neighbor molecular pairs. The molecules are also making sporadic large rotations to the different directions. The translational motion of the molecules is found to be very active and evidently independent of the rotational motion. The overall molecular motions in the rotator phase are found to be described in terms of the movement of the boundaries of the ordered domains.

  18. Post-translational hydroxylation by 2OG/Fe(II-dependent oxygenases as a novel regulatory mechanism in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M van Staalduinen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein hydroxylation has been well-studied in eukaryotic systems. The structural importance of hydroxylation of specific proline and lysine residues during collagen biosynthesis is well established while, recently, key roles for post-translational hydroxylation in signalling and degradation pathways have been discovered. The function of hydroxylation in signalling is highlighted by its role in the hypoxic response of eukaryotic cells, where oxygen dependent hydroxylation of the hypoxia inducible transcription factor both targets it for degradation and blocks its activation. In contrast, the role of protein hydroxylation has been largely understudied in prokaryotes. Recently, an evolutionarily conserved class of ribosomal oxygenases (ROX that catalyze the hydroxylation of specific residues in the ribosome has been identified in bacteria. ROX activity has been linked to cell growth, and has been found to have a direct impact on bulk protein translation. This discovery of ribosomal protein hydroxylation in bacteria could lead to new therapeutic targets for regulating bacterial growth, as well as, shed light on new prokaryotic hydroxylation signalling pathways. In this review, recent structural and functional studies will be highlighted and discussed, underscoring the regulatory potential of post-translational hydroxylation in bacteria.

  19. Human Translator and Translation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辰

    2016-01-01

    With the great development of technology, translation technology exerts great influence on human translators because during their translation process, they may use many computer-aided translation tools, such as TRADOS, Snowman, WordFisher and etc. However, they always misunderstand the concept of computer-aided translation, so this thesis managed to providedetails about some translation technology and human translators' strengths so as to help them improve the productivity and the quality of theirtranslation works effectively and efficiently.

  20. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation......Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding of the...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  1. Translators and Translation: 1974 Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caille, Pierre-Francois

    1974-01-01

    An international survey of conditions and practices involving translators deals with the following points: (1) change in the legal status and material situation of translators since 1968; (2) translators' associations; (3) translators' training, and (4) encouraging translation of contemporary works. (CK)

  2. Translation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because a...

  3. Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.

  4. Translatress, Translator, Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Margala, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    I still manage to surprise a few scholars from other fields when they hear that there is such a thing as research of gender issues within the field of translation studies. It may seem as such a narrow niche – but only deceivingly so. It is language, linguistics, pragmatics, culture, history, literature, anthropology, gender metaphorics, communication, interpreting, cultural politics, social studies and politics, psychology and I can go on and on. History seems to be a very appropriate startin...

  5. Comprehensive analysis of published phase I/II clinical trials between 1990-2010 in osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma confirms limited outcomes and need for translational investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Maldegem Annemiek M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High grade primary bone sarcomas are rare cancers that affect mostly children and young adults. Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are the most common histological subtypes in this age group, with current multimodality treatment strategies achieving 55-70% overall survival. As there remains an urgent need to develop new therapeutic interventions, we have reviewed published phase I/II trials that have been reported for osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma in the last twenty years. Results We conducted a literature search for clinical trials between 1990 and 2010, either for trials enrolling bone sarcoma patients as part of a general sarcoma indication or trials specifically in osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. We identified 42 clinical trials that fulfilled our search criteria for general sarcoma that enrolled these patient groups, and eight and twenty specific trials for Ewing and osteosarcoma patients, respectively. For the phase I trials which enrolled different tumour types our results were incomplete, because the sarcoma patients were not mentioned in the PubMed abstract. A total of 3,736 sarcoma patients were included in these trials over this period, 1,114 for osteosarcoma and 1,263 for Ewing sarcoma. As a proportion of the worldwide disease burden over this period, these numbers reflect a very small percentage of the potential patient recruitment, approximately 0.6% for Ewing sarcoma and 0.2% for osteosarcoma. However, these data show an increase in recent activity overall and suggest there is still much room for improvement in the current trial development structures. Conclusion Lack of resources and commercial investment will inevitably limit opportunity to develop sufficiently rapid improvements in clinical outcomes. International collaboration exists in many well founded co-operative groups for phase III trials, but progress may be more effective if there were also more investment of molecular and translational research into

  6. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention is...... given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention. This...... creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  7. Translation Nation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The International Federation of Translators will hold its largest ever world congress in China on the eve of 2008 Olympic Games china’ s position as a powerhouse of the translation industry is to be cemented,

  8. Translating Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jaques, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Generative Linguistics can and should be engaged by those with an interest in Translation Studies while developing their own positions on literary theory in general, but translation theory in particular. Generative theory provides empirical evidence for a free, creative mind that can comprehend, read, speak and translate a language. What is being proposed here contrasts radically with the dominant position of this generation's Translation Studies specialists, who freely incorporate Post-struc...

  9. MiR-152 May Silence Translation of CaMK II and Induce Spontaneous Immune Tolerance in Mouse Liver Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingcheng; Yan, Sheng; Zhou, Lin; Xie, Haiyang; Chen, Hui; Li, Hui; Zhang, Jinhua; Zhao, Jiacong; Zheng, Shusen

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous immune tolerance in mouse liver transplantation has always been a hotspot in transplantation-immune research. Recent studies revealed that regulatory T cells (Tregs), hepatic satellite cells and Kupffer cells play a potential role in spontaneous immune tolerance, however the precise mechanism of spontaneous immune tolerance is still undefined. By using Microarray Chips, we investigated different immune regulatory factors to decipher critical mechanisms of spontaneous tolerance after mouse liver transplantation. Allogeneic (C57BL/6-C3H) and syngeneic (C3H-C3H) liver transplantation were performed by 6-8 weeks old male C57BL/6 and C3H mice. Graft samples (N = 4 each group) were collected from 8 weeks post-operation mice. 11 differentially expressed miRNAs in allogeneic grafts (Allografts) vs. syngeneic grafts (Syngrafts) were identified using Agilent Mouse miRNA Chips. It was revealed that 185 genes were modified by the 11 miRNAs, furthermore, within the 185 target genes, 11 of them were tightly correlated with immune regulation after Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis and Genbank data cross-comparison. Verified by real-time PCR and western blot, our results indicated that mRNA expression levels of IL-6 and TAB2 were respectively down regulated following miR-142-3p and miR-155 augment. In addition, increased miR-152 just silenced mRNA of CaMK II and down-regulated translation of CaMK II in tolerated liver grafts, which may play a critical role in immune regulation and spontaneous tolerance induction of mouse liver transplantation. PMID:25133393

  10. MiR-152 may silence translation of CaMK II and induce spontaneous immune tolerance in mouse liver transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Spontaneous immune tolerance in mouse liver transplantation has always been a hotspot in transplantation-immune research. Recent studies revealed that regulatory T cells (Tregs, hepatic satellite cells and Kupffer cells play a potential role in spontaneous immune tolerance, however the precise mechanism of spontaneous immune tolerance is still undefined. By using Microarray Chips, we investigated different immune regulatory factors to decipher critical mechanisms of spontaneous tolerance after mouse liver transplantation. Allogeneic (C57BL/6-C3H and syngeneic (C3H-C3H liver transplantation were performed by 6-8 weeks old male C57BL/6 and C3H mice. Graft samples (N = 4 each group were collected from 8 weeks post-operation mice. 11 differentially expressed miRNAs in allogeneic grafts (Allografts vs. syngeneic grafts (Syngrafts were identified using Agilent Mouse miRNA Chips. It was revealed that 185 genes were modified by the 11 miRNAs, furthermore, within the 185 target genes, 11 of them were tightly correlated with immune regulation after Gene Ontology (GO, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis and Genbank data cross-comparison. Verified by real-time PCR and western blot, our results indicated that mRNA expression levels of IL-6 and TAB2 were respectively down regulated following miR-142-3p and miR-155 augment. In addition, increased miR-152 just silenced mRNA of CaMK II and down-regulated translation of CaMK II in tolerated liver grafts, which may play a critical role in immune regulation and spontaneous tolerance induction of mouse liver transplantation.

  11. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  12. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    survey. Results clearly show that most translation companies regard both unilingual and comparative revisions as essential components of professional quality assurance. Data indicate that revision is rarely fully comparative, as the preferred procedure seems to be a unilingual revision followed by a more...... or less comparative rereading. Though questionnaire data seem to indicate that translation companies use linguistic correctness and presentation as the only revision parameters, interview data reveal that textual and communicative aspects are also considered. Generally speaking, revision is not...... carried out by specialised revisers, but by staff translators, who revise the work of colleagues and freelancers on an ad hoc basis. Corrections are mostly given in a peer-to-peer fashion, though the work of freelancers and inexperienced in-house translators is often revised in an authoritative...

  13. Can neural machine translation do simultaneous translation?

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, KyungHyun; Esipova, Masha

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the potential of attention-based neural machine translation in simultaneous translation. We introduce a novel decoding algorithm, called simultaneous greedy decoding, that allows an existing neural machine translation model to begin translating before a full source sentence is received. This approach is unique from previous works on simultaneous translation in that segmentation and translation are done jointly to maximize the translation quality and that translating each segmen...

  14. Translation model, translation analysis, translation strategy: an integrated methodology

    OpenAIRE

    VOLKOVA TATIANA A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper revisits the concepts of translation model, translation analysis, and translation strategy from an integrated perspective: a translation strategy naturally follows translation analysis performed on a given set of textual, discursive and communicative parameters that form a valid translation model. Translation modeling is reconsidered in terms of a paradigm shift and a distinction between a process-oriented (descriptive) model and an action-oriented (prescriptive) model. Following th...

  15. A novel point mutation in the translation initiation codon of the pre-pro-vasopressin-neurophysin II gene: Cosegregation with morphological abnormalities and clinical symptoms in autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutishauser, J.; Boeni-Schnetzler, M.; Froesch, E.R.; Wichmann, W.; Huisman, T. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    Autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (ADNDI) is a rare variant of idiopathic central diabetes insipidus. Several different mutations in the human vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NP II) gene have been described. We studied nine family members from three generations of an ADNDI pedigree at the clinical, morphological, and molecular levels. AVP concentrations were measured during diagnostic fluid restriction tests. Coronal and sagittal high resolution T1-weighted images of the pituitary were obtained from affected and healthy family members. PCR was used to amplify the AVP-NP II precursor gene, and PCR products were directly sequenced. Under maximal osmotic stimulation, AVP serum levels were close to or below the detection limit in affected individuals. Magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed the characteristic hyperintense ({open_quotes}bright spot{close_quotes}) appearance of the posterior pituitary in two healthy family members. This signal was absent in all four ADNDI patients examined. The coding sequences of AVP and its carrier protein, neurophysin II, were normal in all family members examined. Affected individuals showed a novel single base deletion (G 227) in the translation initiation codon of the AVP-NP II signal peptide on one allele. The mutation in the AVP-NP II leader sequence appears to be responsible for the disease in this kindred, possibly by interfering with protein translocation. The absence of the hyperintense posterior pituitary signal in affected individuals could reflect deficient posterior pituitary function. 56 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Beyond Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2013-01-01

    discourse, policy and practice spurred by new challenges deriving from climate change anxiety, the study shows how local practitioners often make local activities fit into travelling development rationalities as a matter of habit, rather than as a conscious strategy. They may therefore cease to ‘translate......This article contributes to the growing scholarship on local development practitioners by re-examining conceptualizations of practitioners as ‘brokers’ strategically translating between ‘travelling’ (development institution) rationalities and ‘placed’ (recipient area) rationalities in relation to...

  17. Minimal restsygdom ved maligne blodsygdomme I. Baggrund og praeklinisk validering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, Peter; Nyvold, Charlotte Guldborg; Stentoft, Jesper;

    2009-01-01

    In haematological malignancies, molecular markers like fusion DNA from balanced translocations, point mutations, or over-expressed genes can now be used not only for diagnosis, but also for determination of the minimal residual disease (MRD) after cytoreduction with a sensitivity by far exceeding...

  18. Translation Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandepitte, Sonia; Mousten, Birthe; Maylath, Bruce;

    2014-01-01

    After Kiraly (2000) introduced the collaborative form of translation in classrooms, Pavlovic (2007), Kenny (2008), and Huertas Barros (2011) provided empirical evidence that testifies to the impact of collaborative learning. This chapter sets out to describe the collaborative forms of learning at...

  19. Word translation entropy in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard;

    2016-01-01

    particular, the current study investigates the effect of these variables on early and late eye movement measures. Early eye movement measures are indicative of processes that are more automatic while late measures are more indicative of conscious processing. Most studies that found evidence of target...... language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...

  20. Translation problems and translation difficulties : tools for teaching specialized translation

    OpenAIRE

    Linder, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    [ENG] This article and the exercises proposed below make use of the distinction between translation problems and translation difficulties. Many authors seem to equate these terms in their writings, but severa! authors have used the distinction in very helpful ways. Peter Newmark has used the term "translation problem" more or less as a unit of translation. Newmark defines translation problem as an instance when literal translation becomes inadequate ( 1988: 30-31 ). When this happens, the tra...

  1. Anatomy of a reindeer dissected in Copenhagen in 1672 by Niels Stensen as reported by Thomas Bartholin. I. Introduction by Troels Kardel. II. Translation by Paul Maquet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troels Kardel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A report by Professor Thomas Bartholin on the dissection of a reindeer performed in 1672 by his former student Niels Stensen as Royal Anatomist in Copenhagen is presented in English translation with biographical introduction and bibliographical notes. The report is most likely the first of its kind being an early contribution to comparative anatomy.

  2. Translational genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kussmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.

  3. Interpolation and extrapolation of creep rupture data by the Minimum Commitment Method. I - Focal-point convergence. II - Oblique translation. III - Analysis of multiheats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, S. S.; Ensign, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    The framework in which minimum-commitment analyses of creep-rupture data can be implemented is outlined. The approach is termed the focal point convergence method (FPCM) because the basic parameter A, also known as stability factor, is geometrically the (imaginary) focal point of convergence of all isothermals when extended to the very long or very short times necessary for such convergence to occur. The method can be implemented either by manual-graphical analysis or by computer code. The method is illustrated in detail for the nickel-base alloy Astroloy, as well as for steels, other nickel-base alloys, and aluminum alloys. The minimum-commitment concept is extended to the analysis of creep-rupture data where each isothermal is generated by an oblique translation of the 'master curve' when plotted on log rupture time and log stress axes. The oblique translation method uses the same types of functions in the FPCM. Approaches for treating multiheats on the basis of the FPCM are discussed in detail.

  4. Mutations in domain II of 23 S rRNA facilitate translation of a 23 S rRNA-encoded pentapeptide conferring erythromycin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, M; Douthwaite, S; Tenson, T;

    1996-01-01

    Mutations in domain II of Escherichia coli 23 S rRNA that cause resistance to erythromycin do so in a manner fundamentally different from mutations at the drug binding site in domain V of the 23 S rRNA. The domain II mutations are located in a hairpin structure between nucleotides 1198 and 1247....... This is close to a short open reading frame in the 23 S rRNA that encodes a pentapeptide (E-peptide) whose expression in vivo renders cells resistant to erythromycin. Therefore, a possible mechanism of resistance caused by domain II mutations may be related to an increased expression of the E-peptide. To test...... this hypothesis, a range of point mutations was generated in domain II of 23 S rRNA in the vicinity of the E-peptide open reading frame. We find a correlation between erythromycin resistance of the mutant clones and increased accessibility of the ribosome binding site of the E-peptide gene. Furthermore...

  5. Memes of Translation Revisited: From Translating Poetry to 'Poeming' Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Mounir Jilani Ben Zid

    2014-01-01

    Despite different approaches, mainstream translation theorists and practitioners have always grappled with some notion of formal cultural and linguistic equivalence to translate literary works. Taking up the question of whether a faithful translation should maintain cultural heterogeneity and linguistic differences, the primary intent of this paper is to destabilize "safe" conceptions associated with literary translation and deconstruct the "comfortable fallacy" of conventional iron-clad rule...

  6. Deconstructive Reconsideration of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳清

    2014-01-01

    This paper is on the deconstructive reconsideration of the definition of translation, the relation of source text and translation, as well as the relation of translator and author. It also points out the differences between tranditioanal concepts of translation and deconstructive reconsideration of translation.

  7. Speaking your Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio...

  8. Equivalence in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良杰

    2013-01-01

    There are many researches about translation theories and methods in western translation history. Equivalence in transla⁃tion has always been the central issue for discussion. This paper gives a general review and comment on equivalence in translation in terms of three representative translation theorists and their views about equivalence in translation.

  9. On Becoming a Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Douglas Robinson’s Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.

  10. On Becoming a Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Douglas Robinson's Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.

  11. Translator Studies in Retrospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭勤

    2009-01-01

    The concern about translator has run for thousands of years on which many translators and translation scholars have made comments.A rough examination of the translator within translation studies at home and abroad is expounded in a loosely chronological way as follows.

  12. The implementation of a community-based aerobic walking program for mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis: A knowledge translation randomized controlled trial: Part II: Clinical outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brosseau Lucie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common joint disorder in the world, as it is appears to be prevalent among 80% of individuals over the age of 75. Although physical activities such as walking have been scientifically proven to improve physical function and arthritic symptoms, individuals with OA tend to adopt a sedentary lifestyle. There is therefore a need to improve knowledge translation in order to influence individuals to adopt effective self-management interventions, such as an adapted walking program. Methods A single-blind, randomized control trial was conducted. Subjects (n = 222 were randomized to one of three knowledge translation groups: 1 Walking and Behavioural intervention (WB (18 males, 57 females which included the supervised community-based aerobic walking program combined with a behavioural intervention and an educational pamphlet on the benefits of walking; 2 Walking intervention (W (24 males, 57 females wherein participants only received the supervised community-based aerobic walking program intervention and the educational pamphlet; 3 Self-directed control (C (32 males, 52 females wherein participants only received the educational pamphlet. One-way analyses of variance were used to test for differences in quality of life, adherence, confidence, and clinical outcomes among the study groups at each 3 month assessment during the 12-month intervention period and 6-month follow-up period. Results The clinical and quality of life outcomes improved among participants in each of the three comparative groups. However, there were few statistically significant differences observed for quality of life and clinical outcomes at long-term measurements at 12-months end of intervention and at 6- months post intervention (18-month follow-up. Outcome results varied among the three groups. Conclusion The three groups were equivalent when determining the effectiveness of knowledge uptake and improvements in quality of life

  13. Translation Theory and Translation Studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a comparative study of "translation theory" and "translation studies" in China and the West. Its focus is to investigate whether there is translation theory in the Chinese tradition. My study begins with an examination of the debate in China over whether there has already existed a system of translation…

  14. Translation and relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Gutt, E. A.

    1989-01-01

    In this study I argue that the phenomenon commonly referred to as "translation" can be accounted for naturally within the relevance theory of communication developed by Sperber and Wilson: there is no need for a distinct general theory of translation. Most kinds of translation can be analysed as varieties of Interpretive use. I distinguish direct from indirect translation, where direct translation corresponds to the idea that translation should convey the same meaning ...

  15. Corpora and Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅丽莉

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Recent years have witnessed a significant growth of corpora heat. One of the many fields where corpora have a growing impact is translation, both at a descriptive and a practical level. Chesterman pointed out that the focus of Translation Studies shifted from translation itself to translators, from regulative to descriptive studies, from philosophical to empirical studies (Chesterman, 1998).

  16. Lost in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Zhitao; Chen Wen

    2011-01-01

    IT is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  17. Translation Theory 'Translated': Three Perspectives on Translation in Organizational Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....

  18. FACTORS REGULATING LIBERAL TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚海红

    2012-01-01

    Literal translation and liberal translation are two important methods and both play key roles in translation.However,some textbooks say that most translations are literal translations while others maintain most are liberal ones,besides,some others suggest a combination of the two.This paper focuses on the facts that regulate liberal translation.Because of the differences in culture,society,history,geography,and so on,there exists a great difference between Chinese language and English language,which does naturally lead to the liberal translation.

  19. Cultural Context and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  20. Translation Quality Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Williams

    2009-01-01

    The relevance of, and justification for, translation quality assessment (TQA) is stronger than ever: professional translators, their clients, translatological researchers and trainee translators all rely on TQA for different reasons. Yet whereas there is general agreement about the need for a translation to be "good," "satisfactory" or "acceptable," the definition of acceptability and of the means of determining it are matters of ongoing debate. National and international translation standard...

  1. LSP Translation and Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, MA

    2011-01-01

    Specialised or LSP translation is often compared unfavourably with literary translation in terms of the creative input required from the translator to produce a „good‟ translation. The supposed formulaic nature of LSP texts is contrasted with the creative nature of literary texts. The authors of LSP texts are often anonymous, possibly working in a team, and not necessarily native speakers of the language used. By contrast, literary translators − notably of the canon − derive their higher stat...

  2. Screen translations in Rango

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Xenia Østerby

    2012-01-01

    This project investigates two Danish screen translations of the animated film “Rango” (2011) centrering on translational strategies. The focus of the project is to research to what extent the two translations, subtitles and dubbing, appear to have been produced with specific translational micro- and macrostrategies in mind, and whether the identified patterns can be said to reflect deliberate choices on the part of the translators, or if they rather seem to be influenced by media constraints....

  3. Translation-coupling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  4. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of

  5. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge;

    2013-01-01

    ), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation, or......On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have...... implications for the curriculum, (3) be pedagogically motivating, and (4) prepare students for employing translation technology in their future practice as translators. In a two-phase study in which 14 MA students translated texts in three modalities (sight, written, and oral translation using an SR program...

  6. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge;

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have...... implications for the curriculum, (3) be pedagogically motivating, and (4) prepare students for employing translation technology in their future practice as translators. In a two-phase study in which 14 MA students translated texts in three modalities (sight, written, and oral translation using an SR program......), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation, or...

  7. Film Name Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师晓晓

    2014-01-01

    <正>1.Introduction A good translation of the name should convey the information of the film and attract the audience’s desire for going to the cinema.Translation of film names should have business,information,culture,aesthetic features,while a short eye-catching name aims to leave the audience an unforgettable impression.This thesis discusses the translation of English film names from the aspects of the importance of English film name translation,principles for translating English film names and methods of English film name translation.

  8. On Advertisement Language Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ya-lu

    2015-01-01

    Advertisement language is a special practical writing with abundant imagination, great creativity and instigation. During translation the diversity in social culture, language and ethnic psychology, etc. will be directly reflected into its effect, presenting both the trouble in business of translators and also significant influences on the business brand. Starting from the features of adver⁃tisement language itself, this paper integrates translation situations and measures from several schools over the latest 20 years, gives typical examples in advertising translation and analyzes from varies perspectives and points out some problems in today ’s ad⁃vertisement translation,aiming to provide some constructive opinions for translation of advertisements.

  9. Translation, Quality and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    applied to translation and goes on to present a case study which involves a firm in the translation industry and which illustrates quality management in practice. The paper shows that applying quality management to translation is feasible and that doing so may translate into sustained growth.......The paper investigates the feasibility and some of the possible consequences of applying quality management to translation. It first gives an introduction to two different schools of translation and to (total) quality management. It then examines whether quality management may, in theory, be...

  10. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  11. Expanding vocabulary through translation

    OpenAIRE

    Koletnik, Melita

    2015-01-01

    Owing mostly to the overwhelming tide of a communicative approach in foreign language teaching, translation was widely excluded from language classes for much of the 20th century. Nevertheless, translation never went away completely

  12. Translating person-centered care into practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoffmann, Vibeke; Hörnsten, Åsa; Storbækken, Solveig;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Person-centred care [PCC] can engage people in living well with a chronic condition. However, translating PCC into practice is challenging. We aimed to compare the translational potentials of three approaches: motivational interviewing [MI], illness integration support [IIS] and guided...... managing ambivalence. IIS and GSD were based on grounded theories, and MI was intuitively developed. All apply processes and strategies to advance professionals' communication skills and engagement; GSD includes context-specific reflection sheets. All offer training programs; MI and GSD include fidelity...

  13. Translation and Creation

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Bezerra

    2012-01-01

    The article begins with the differences betweenscientific and fictional translations, and focus on the second.The fictional translation works with meanings, opens itselfto the plurissignification in the purpose to create a similarity of the dissimilarity; in this process, the translator does nottranslate a language, but what a creative individuality makeswith a language. At last there is an approach to the knowledgeand skills necessaries to a translator of literature: theknowledge of the theo...

  14. Creativity, Culture and Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Siamak Babaee; Wan Roselezam Wan Yahya; Ruzbeh Babaee

    2014-01-01

    Some scholars (i.e. Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original textwhile some others (i.e. Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging issue. The present study examines the relationship between translation and culture. The purpose of this study is to consider translation as a...

  15. Machine Translation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alrajeh, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Machine translation is one of the oldest and hardest problems in artificial intelligence. It is studied as a subfield of natural language processing or computational linguistics. Although machine translation has a long history, full automatic translation with high quality seems hard to achieve at least in the near future. Nowadays due to the increase in computing power and the accessibility of huge date in the Internet, the field has taken a new direction and started to grow rabidly. Translat...

  16. Algebraically periodic translation surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Calta, Kariane; Smillie, John

    2007-01-01

    Algebraically periodic directions on translation surfaces were introduced by Calta in her study of genus two translation surfaces. We say that a translation surface with three or more algebraically periodic directions is an algebraically periodic surface. We show that for an algebraically periodic surface the slopes of the algebraically periodic directions are given by a number field which we call the periodic direction field. We show that translation surfaces with pseudo-Anosov automorphisms...

  17. Toward Balance in Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Nancy A.

    A study compared translations of biblical passages into different languages in Papua New Guinea. The study looked for evidence of balance between literal and free interpretation in translation style in the gospel of Mark, which is narrative and didactic material, in 12 languages, and the mainly hortatory genre in translations of 4 epistles:…

  18. For "Translation and Theories"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lili

    2009-01-01

    Translation studies stem from comparative literature and contrastive analysis. It involves the transfer of messages between two different language systems and cultures, and Munday (2001, p.1) notes that translation "by its nature" "is multilingual and also interdisciplinary". Translation subjects are the texts in various…

  19. Application of the method ELECTRE II (Elimination and Choice Translating Algorithm) to support the customers order in liquefied petroleum gas distributors; Aplicacao do metodo ELECTRE II (Elimination and Choice Translating Algorithm) na ordenacao de clientes em uma distribuidora de gas liquefeito do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobral, Marcos Felipe Falcao; Costa, Ana Paula Cabral Seixas [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to promote the use of multi criteria decision method ELECTRE II to support the customers order in liquefied petroleum gas distributors, located in the Northeast of Brazil. The company has difficulties to rank the customers their factory, causing various difficult related like reduction of performance indicators and high costs with extra-hours. Finally, is presented a results comparison obtained by the method with the current results, performing a utilization viability analysis of method for this problem. (author)

  20. OVERVIEW OF TRANSLATION- JAHIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Yuslina Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research tries to contrive Jahiz's stands and ideas in translation which he has discussed in his two books named "Al-Bayan Wal-Tabyeen" and "Al-Haiwan". As it was known this issue of translation was emergence since long period of time, and there was no need toward translation, however, after Arabian and Persian assembled with Greek philosophers had increasingly the need and concerned on Religion Sciences and others, for instances: Mathematics, Medicine, Logic, Engineering, Business and others which were existed during that time. The translation movement had gone by several stages in the different periods and being developed during Abassid period for example, the works of "Hanen Ibn Ishaq" and his own school which the translators had faced difficulties and problems in their translation. To summarize, this research has found a number of results that the "Jahiz" was precedence than others who had stated the conditions of translation before 12th century ago. Besides, these conditions appropriate till nowadays, he had also pointed these conditions cannot be applied in translation of literature texts and holy texts because its might be obliterated the savoir faire. "Jahiz" had looked through this issue seriously, he tried to help translators in this area and he had stated in his famous books the conditions of translation and he had given his ideas toward translation benefited from his previous experience in translation the ancient philosopher's books from Persian to Arabic. Though, the readers could benefit his ideas in translation generally and for the translator specifically, also his books became as a heritage references and cannot be neglected at all in translation work.

  1. Translation, Cultural Translation and the Hegemonic English

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Horak

    2015-01-01

    This brief chapter problematizes the hegemonic position of the English language in Cultural Studies, which, in the author's view, can be understood as a moment that stands against a true internationalisation of the project. Following an argu-ment referring to the necessary 'translation' process (here seen as 're-articulation', 'transcoding' or 'transculturation') Stuart Hall has put forward almost two decades ago, the essay, firstly, turns to the notion of 'linguistic translations', and deal...

  2. Living in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    Exaugural presentation. A retrospect of my personal itinerary from literature, across translation studies to translation process research and a look ahead. In the retrospect, I range over diverse topics, all of which have sprung from my concern with the phenomenon of translation. I reflect on how...... of Danish for global communication purposes, and for improving research into translation, the phenomenon of translation and the world of translation in which we all live.......Exaugural presentation. A retrospect of my personal itinerary from literature, across translation studies to translation process research and a look ahead. In the retrospect, I range over diverse topics, all of which have sprung from my concern with the phenomenon of translation. I reflect on how......, as humans, we generate meaning, interpret meaning, and reformulate or translate meaning. I also reflect on the way computing has influenced research into these phenomena as seen e.g. in my creation of the Translog program and in projects I have been involved in, such as OFT (Translation of...

  3. Lost in translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granas, Anne Gerd; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The "Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire" (BMQ) assess balance of necessity and concern of medicines. The BMQ has been translated from English to many languages. However, the original meaning of statements, such as "My medicine is a mystery to me", may be lost in translation. The aim...... of this study is to compare three Scandinavian translations of the BMQ. (1) How reliable are the translations? (2) Are they still valid after translation? METHODS: Translated Norwegian, Swedish and Danish versions of the BMQ were scrutinized by three native Scandinavian researchers. Linguistic...... differences and ambiguities in the 5-point Likert scale and the BMQ statements were compared. RESULTS: In the Scandinavian translations, the Likert scale expanded beyond the original version at one endpoint (Swedish) or both endpoints (Danish). In the BMQ statements, discrepancies ranged from smaller...

  4. Foreignizing Translation and Domesticating Translation of Hong Kong Movie Titles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林慧韵

    2014-01-01

    Generally,the movie title translation strategy would be divided into two:domesticating translation strategy and foreignizing translation strategy.The movie title translation in Hong Kong is chosen to be the material for the analysis of the domesticating translation strategy and foreignizing translation strategy,compared with that of Mainland China.

  5. Teaching translation through phraseology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Leipnitz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the teaching of translation realized that there are compounds formed by verbal phraseology and co-occurring verbs, eg. Herzinfarkt erleiden [suffering cardiac infarction]. I used corpora of newspaper articles for the recognition of such phraseology and tried to draw the attention of learners of German and translated into the languages syntagmatic operation. The study intended to assist in teaching translation, pointing to the need for a translation syntagmatic blocks for a quality final product in the target language - Brazilian Portuguese. There are generally in the classes of translation, lack of rapport with the object text in a foreign language. From the medical noun compounds, raised co-occurring verbs in Database Project Cosmas from the University of Mannheim. The extraction of combinatorial through corpora and presentation of text equivalents in both languages (German and Portuguese pointed out the complexity of the translation process and the need for recognition of the surrounding text of the texts of departure and arrival for producing translational. This “recognition” is fundamental to trigger mechanisms of association and reveal the particular way of saying each of the languages involved in the translation process. The phraseology correspond to a certain extent, the idiomatic expressions that must be translated into blocks to produce a quality text in the target language. This is a research that aims to qualify lexicographic teaching translation through recognition of phraseology in both the source language and in the target language.

  6. Text Type and Translation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘福娟

    2015-01-01

    Translation strategy and translation standards are undoubtedly the core problems translators are confronted with in translation. There have arisen many kinds of translation strategies in translation history, among which the text type theory is considered an important breakthrough and a significant complement of traditional translation standards. This essay attempts to demonstrate the value of text typology (informative, expressive, and operative) to translation strategy, emphasizing the importance of text types and their communicative functions.

  7. Current Trends in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Maylath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the growth of a global economy and developments in high technology, the process of creating and translating technical documentation has been evolving rapidly. In particular, machine translation (MT has shown increasing capabilities of efficaciously accomplishing the early stages of the eight stages of translation identified years ago by Robert Bly. As a consequence, translators have learned to use MT as a tool to accelerate their work, but they have also grown wary of MT’s potential for replacing them. To ensure steady employment, some translators have begun cross-training as technical writers; correspondingly, a few technical writers have begun cross-training as translators, as the two professions appear to be undergoing a gradual trend of convergence. Academic programs are urged to respond to the evolving trends.

  8. Translation description and prescription

    OpenAIRE

    van Doorslaer, Luc

    2006-01-01

    In many countries, the teaching of translation institutionally vacillates between an academically based education and a mainly practically oriented translator training. With the introduction of the new Bachelor-Master structures, the authorities in Flanders (the Dutch speaking part of Belgium) have clearly opted for an academic Master that will be fully integrated in existing university structures. The development of Translation Studies in the last decades has offered many instruments and ...

  9. Relevance Theory in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Jun; Jiang Min

    2008-01-01

    In perspective of relevance theory, translation is regarded as communication. According to relevance theory, communication not only requires encoding, transfer and decoding processes, but also involves inference in addition. As communication, translation decision-making is also based on the human beings' inferential mental faculty. Concentrating on relevance theory, this paper tries to analyze and explain some translation phenomena in two English versions of Cai Gen Tan-My Crude Philosophy of Life.

  10. Trusted Translation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Yacine; Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Campbell, Piers; Mathew, Sujith Samuel

    Administering multilingual Web sites and applications reliably, involves interconnected and multipart tasks, where trust in the involved parties and content translation sources is paramount. Published Web sites may reflect content from databases, content management systems and other repositories to manage related Web content. But a Web site mirrored wholly or selectively onto a target language version requires streamlined trusted processes. Traditionally, files are translated and transferred via FTP, e-mail, or other communication means. Similarly, translation instructions are communicated between involved parties through verbal instruction, e-mail, and instruction files lead to a variety of inconsistencies and lack of trust in the translation process. This paper proposes a Web service approach to streamline the translation processes and an integration of trust properties in the proposed translation Web services. Web Services have been instrumental in handling problems inherent to systems integration, allowing web-based systems to converse and communicate data automatically. The OASIS Translation Web Services Technical Committee has released a standard way for Web Services to serve the translation and localization business. This article proposes a framework to centralize translation services at a reputable source providing a workflow and a mechanism to quantify service trust. An implementation of the framework is also described in the context of a localization case study.

  11. Translation and corpus design

    OpenAIRE

    Zanettin, Federico

    2011-01-01

    In this article I discuss the role of translated texts in different types of corpora. I first consider the role of translations in corpus-based monolingual linguistics, arguing that while translated texts are often excluded from corpora on the basis of a more or less implicit assumption that they “corrupt” the reference norm for a language, this assumption does not seem to be justified on theoretical grounds. For the same reason, translated texts should also be included in bi- and multi-lingu...

  12. Translation and Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bánhegyi Mátyás

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the text linguistic research of political texts in the field of Translation Studies and presents an overview of critical discourse analysis-based studies. First, the relationship between text, power and ideology and its implications on the role of translation are explored. This is followed by a review of a number of studies on the translation of political texts and on the power relations involved. The paper classifies such studies into the following six categories representing distinct research fields: translators' professional roles and politics; translators acting as mediators in situations of political conflict; translators' professional responsibilities and the strategies they apply; the inference of translators' own historical, social and cultural backgrounds; manipulation in the translation of literary texts and other text types; and critical discourse awareness in Translation Studies. The most recent studies in the above research fields and their results are also presented. It is concluded that these approaches exhibit quite varied research methods and their results are almost impossible to compare. With a view to the future development of this research field, it seems expedient to introduce a unified research theory, method and tool.

  13. Feminist Translation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伟

    2008-01-01

    Feminist translation studies have underg one rapid development in China in recent years.However,most of its research rema ins on the inquiry of the influence on the theoretical layer.In this thesis,I tr y to probe carefully into the translation of "Men and Women,Women and the City" done by Zhu Hong in an attempt to find out wh at is the difference that exits in the translation between the Chinese female tr anslators and the western feminist translators.

  14. A Writer, a Translator and a Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Marinčič

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the French translation of the short story Amy by the Slovenian writer Mira Mihelič, made by Elza Jereb for the anthology Nouvelles slovènes (Paris, 1969. The original text, a classical narrative involving some modernist strategies, presents a syntactical feature rather unusual in Slovenian (although typical of the author Mira Mihelič: a very frequent use of participles and participial structures. Elza Jereb’s translation is accurate and precise, preserving not only the basic meaning but also the stylistic qualities, particularly the internal rhythm of the original. Some slight changes (such as for example a more consequent and logical use of italics render the text accessible to the French reader without undue simplifications. The only part of the original that seems to get lost in translation are some minor parts of the dialogue: the phonetically transcribed provincial German of the original, rich in social connotations, is translated into standard literary German, thereby losing some of its sociohistorical implications as well as some of its comical potential. 

  15. Creativity, Culture and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Siamak; Wan Yahya, Wan Roselezam; Babaee, Ruzbeh

    2014-01-01

    Some scholars (Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original text while some others (Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging…

  16. Staging Ethnographic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Pia

    Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))......Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))...

  17. Culture Difference and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冬兰

    2012-01-01

    Culture difference is necessary to be paid attention to during the process of translating.Culture difference is caused by different history,regions,customs,religions and the modes of thinking.Having the awareness of the culture difference will make translation more accurate and successful.

  18. Stimulating translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim; van Luenen, Henri G A M; Kubicek, Stefan; Andersen, Jesper B; Saarela, Janna; Cook, Simon J; Van Minnebruggen, Geert; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Maurer, Cornelia; Erler, Janine T; Bertero, Michela G

    2015-01-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom....

  19. Teaching Commercial French Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relihan, Heather M.

    1982-01-01

    An introduction to commercial translation, a required course in the applied French track at the University of Iowa and geared to French majors with substantial background in composition, business French, and translation, is described. Texts and materials, course organization, discussion topics and lectures, and assignments are outlined. (MSE)

  20. Text Coherence in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanping

    2009-01-01

    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  1. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  2. Idioms and Back Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of intercultural communication are an integral part of many undergraduate business communication courses. Marketing gaffes clearly illustrate the pitfalls of translation and underscore the importance of a knowledge of the culture with which one is attempting to communicate. A good way to approach the topic of translation pitfalls in…

  3. Universal Semantics in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenying

    2009-01-01

    What and how we translate are questions often argued about. No matter what kind of answers one may give, priority in translation should be granted to meaning, especially those meanings that exist in all concerned languages. In this paper the author defines them as universal sememes, and the study of them as universal semantics, of which…

  4. Translation as Literary Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Stefano, B. Follkart

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that literary translation is intrinsically an act of literary criticism. This theory is illustrated by discussion of specific problems in translating Sartre's "La Nausee" and Leonard Forest's "Le pays de la Sagouine," especially the use of verb tense. (MSE)

  5. Translating VDM to Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  6. Medical translation in arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Didouche - Zidi, Fayza

    2013-01-01

    The present thesis is based on the translation of International Union against Cancer’s report “Protection Against Cancer-causing Infections” in the framework of World Cancer Campaign 2010. It deals with the specificities of specialized language and difficulties of translation in specialized field of medical science from the Interpretative theory perspective.

  7. TRANSLATION PROBLEMS IN MEDICAL TEXTS

    OpenAIRE

    OĞUZ, Derya

    2014-01-01

    In this study, our aim was to emphasize the fact that the translation of medical texts represents a special area in translation, and that the most important aspect of medical text translation is being aware of the purpose and intent behind these translations. Medical text translation is not an area in which any person engaged in translation can work effectively. The translator first needs to have a considerable scientific background and experience. The translator’s task, in this context, is t...

  8. Influence of Cultural Differences on Advertisement Translation and Trademark Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓玮

    2014-01-01

    Advertisement translation and trademark translation are becoming more and more prevailing and influential under the increasing development of internationalization of business. This paper attempts to analyze the influence of cultural differences on advertisement translation and trademark translation. It finds that advertisement translation and trademark translation are under the impressive influence of the differences between Chinese and Western cultures. This paper aims to stress the cultural differences in advertisement translation and trademark translation and reminds translators of the importance of noticing cultural differences and finding a proper point between foreign cultures and native cultures.

  9. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  10. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  11. Translation and Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    1996-01-01

    of translation would be. To provide a backdrop against which the issue may be discussed, I present an overview of the two areas which seem most likely to hold potential answers, viz., that of translation theory and that of quality management. Section 1. gives a brief outline of some contributions to translation...... theory which would seem likely to be of interest in this connection and section 2. gives a linguist's introduction to the part of the area of quality management which I consider relevant for present purposes. Section 3. is devoted to the case study of a small translation firm which has been certified...... under the ISO 9001 standard, and section 4. discusses the implications which quality management seems to hold for the field of translation in a broad sense. Finally, section 5. concludes the article....

  12. Translation skills of Business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Lu; He; Yan-ni

    2014-01-01

    With the deepening of economic globalization,business English plays an increasingly vital role.In order to better translate business English,the translator has to adopt some important translation techniques.Thus,emphasis is placed on business English translation skills,such as omission,supplement and word conversion,etc,which provides some practical advice to the translation of business English.

  13. Translation in Global News Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Othman, Zeineb

    2012-01-01

    The work is divided into two parts. The 1st part is the translation of Chapter One "Power language and translation" and the Chapter Four "Translation in Global News Agencies". The 2nd part is about the characteristics and theories of translation particularly in News Agencies and Institutions as well as the difficulties I found in the translation of a specialized book.

  14. Theory of Test Translation Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…

  15. Translation: An Integration of Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Niranjan

    1994-01-01

    Discusses translation in the Indian context. Posits that translation involves cultural transfer in addition to linguistic meaning. Shows that several established models of translation can accommodate the inclusion of cultural features. Illustrates this with two translations of Orissan poetry. Concludes that the translator is a creative agent in…

  16. Translation skills of Business English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Lu; He Yan-ni

    2014-01-01

    With the deepening of economic globalization, business English plays an increasingly vital role. In order to better translate business English, the translator has to adopt some important translation techniques. Thus, emphasis is placed on business English translation skills, such as omission, supplement and word conversion, etc, which provides some practical advice to the translation of business English.

  17. CLAUSE AS THE TRANSLATION UNIT IN CHINESE TO ENGLISH TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向阳

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of Halliday' s theory, this paper makes it clear that clause as the translation unit is operational in Chinese to English translation and expounds the application of clause as the translation unit with some examples.

  18. The integration of machine translation and translation memory

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yifan

    2011-01-01

    We design and evaluate several models for integrating Machine Translation (MT) output into a Translation Memory (TM) environment to facilitate the adoption of MT technology in the localization industry. We begin with the integration on the segment level via translation recommendation and translation reranking. Given an input to be translated, our translation recommendation model compares the output from the MT and the TMsystems, and presents the better one to the post-editor. Our tra...

  19. Combining statistical machine translation and translation memories with domain adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Läubli, Samuel; Fishel, Mark; Volk, Martin; Weibel, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Since the emergence of translation memory software, translation companies and freelance translators have been accumulating translated text for various languages and domains. This data has the potential of being used for training domain-specific machine translation systems for corporate or even personal use. But while the resulting systems usually perform well in translating domain-specific language, their out-of-domain vocabulary coverage is often insufficient due to the limited size of the t...

  20. Changes of Translation Definition and Turns of Translation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Jixing LONG

    2012-01-01

    Since the twentieth century, translation studies has made great progress. The study of translation ushers one turn after another. Throughout the recent history of translation studies, few scholars review the appearance of the turns from the perspective of translation definition. From the academic perspective and on the basis of Thomas Samuel Kuhn’s paradigm theory, this article discusses the relationships between the changing definitions of translation and the turns of translation st...

  1. Machine Translation Tools - Tools of The Translator's Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this article three of the more common types of translation tools are presented, discussed and critically evaluated. The types of translation tools dealt with in this article are: Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided Machine Translation (or HAMT) and Machine Aided Human Tr...... with a sound basis for considering what translation tool (if any) is the most appropriate in order to meet his or her specific translation needs....

  2. Translating concrete poetry Translating concrete poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Malmkjaer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available It is interesting to examine the art form known as concrete poetry with translation -- both practical and theoretical -- in mind, because it was, according to Kopfermann (1974:x1, considered international by its creators: the language-elements are not tied to the author's mother tongue, reduction and reproduction allow elements of different languages to be combined in the scone text. The basis for this is the materiality (mostly understood in an optical or acoustic sense of the vocable° and elementary structures which are the sane in all (or at least the Indo- -European languages. This theoretical stance might suggest that it is not necessary to translate concrete poetry from one Indo-European language to another. However, most anthologies of concrete poetry contain translations and/or word glosses (see, for instance, Bann (1967, Solt (1968 and Williams (1967, so there is obviously a perceived need to provide some assistance to speakers of languages other than that in which any particular poem is composed.

  3. Translation, Cultural Translation and the Hegemonic English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Horak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This brief chapter problematizes the hegemonic position of the English language in Cultural Studies, which, in the author's view, can be understood as a moment that stands against a true internationalisation of the project. Following an argu-ment referring to the necessary 'translation' process (here seen as 're-articulation', 'transcoding' or 'transculturation' Stuart Hall has put forward almost two decades ago, the essay, firstly, turns to the notion of 'linguistic translations', and deals, secondly, with what has been coined 'cultural translation'. Discussing approaches developed by Walter Benjamin, Umberto Eco and Homi Bhabha, the complex relationship between the two terms is being investigated. Finally, in a modest attempt to throw some light on this hegemonic structure, central aspects of the output of three important journals (European Journal of Cultural Studies, International Journal of Cultural Studies, Cultural Studies, i. e. an analysis of the linguistic and institutional backgrounds of the authors of the ten most-read and most-cited essays, are presented. Based on these findings I argue that it is not simply the addition of the discursive field (language to the academic space (institution that defines the mecha-nism of exclusion and inclusion. Rather, it is the articulation of both moments, i.e. that of language and that of the institution, which - in various contexts (but in their own very definite ways - can help to develop that structure which at present is still hindering a further, more profound internationalisation of the project that is Cultural Studies.

  4. Cultural Considerations in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嫔荣

    2009-01-01

    Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experi-enced, explained, and shared. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. But as it has been long taken for granted, translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This paper first analyses the definitions of translation and culture, and then discusses why we should take culture into consideration and in the end, two translating strategies:domestication and foreignization are introduced.

  5. Cultural Considerations in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嫔荣

    2009-01-01

    Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experi- enced, explained, and shared. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. But as it has been long taken for granted, translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This paper first analyses the definitions of translation and culture, and then discusses why we should take culture into consideration and in the end, two translating strategies: domestication and foreignization are introduced.

  6. Perceived radial translation during centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Correia Grácio, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Linear acceleration generally gives rise to translation perception. Centripetal acceleration during centrifugation, however, has never been reported giving rise to a radial, inward translation perception. OBJECTIVE: To study whether centrifugation can induce a radial translation percepti

  7. Translation Strategies of English Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令会

    2010-01-01

    Metaphor is one of the important and forceful figures of speech in English. In practice of translating English metaphors into Chinese, some approaches are available: literal translation, changing metaphor into sim/h, conversion, liberal translation and complement.

  8. KVSA VERTAALPRYS / CASA TRANSLATION PRIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie De Villiers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A translation competition was initiated and sponsored by theClassical Association of South Africa in 2011. This translation wasjudged to be the best student translation submitted to CASA duringthis past year.

  9. Translation for language purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English)....

  10. On Chinese Parody Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊俊

    2013-01-01

    Chinese parody, as a traditional figure of speech, has captured more and more attention from scholars. The researches conducted up to date are inadequate in theorizing and exploring its translation. This paper, based on the comparative data analysis of Chinese parody translation examples in different types of texts, attempts to probe into the means about how to achieve the clos⁃est function equivalence in rendering Chinese parody under the guidance of Sociosemiotic Approach. It is found that the nature of Chinese parody translation is to achieve the closest natural equivalence or similarity in expressive function, informative func⁃tion, vocative function and aesthetic function in its equivalents in English. And it is suggested that borrowing, imitating, para⁃phrasing and adapting are effective strategies in translating Chinese parody.

  11. Translation and Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Bezerra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the differences betweenscientific and fictional translations, and focus on the second.The fictional translation works with meanings, opens itselfto the plurissignification in the purpose to create a similarity of the dissimilarity; in this process, the translator does nottranslate a language, but what a creative individuality makeswith a language. At last there is an approach to the knowledgeand skills necessaries to a translator of literature: theknowledge of the theories of the literature and of thetranslation, the capacity to preserve the national color ofthe original text and at the same time to respect the arrivallanguage, and the sensibility to his national languagevariations present in the daily and in the literary spheres.

  12. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven; Dam, Helle Vrønning

    2017-01-01

    in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective......Translation, interpreting and lexicography represent three separate areas of human activity, each of them with its own theories, models and methods and, hence, with its own disciplinary underpinnings. At the same time, all three disciplines are characterized by a marked interdisciplinary dimension......, the three disciplines frequently come into touch with each other. This chapter discusses and explores some of the basic aspects of this interrelationship, focusing on the (potential) contribution of lexicography to translation and interpreting and on explaining the basic concepts and methods of the...

  13. Lost in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well

  14. Statistical computer-assisted translation

    OpenAIRE

    Khadivi, Shahram

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, significant improvements have been achieved in statistical machine translation (MT), but still even the best machine translation technology is far from replacing or even competing with human translators. However, an MT system helps to increase the productivity of human translators. Usually, human translators edit the MT system output to correct the errors, or they may edit the source text to limit vocabulary. A way of increasing the productivity of the whole translation proce...

  15. False Psychology Treaty for Translators

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Frosin

    2015-01-01

    The publication of a book containing translations of our great writers should not leave anyone indifferent, even less the experienced translators. By using objective criticism and based on examples from translations, we have chosen in this study to examine the feat, as we say, the feat of Annie Bentoiu, for the translation of Eminescu, for the reason that his translation of the LAC is resumed in 4 covers. This poem is viewed under the microscope by the translator's experience of m...

  16. Asymmetries of Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Gorčeva

    2015-01-01

    Given the incompatibility between aesthetic and economic approaches to literary translation, the A. perceives a lack of creative initiative in the international socialisation of Bulgarian literature within its literary field (and especially in the subfield of criticism). Together with a probable inability to (re)integrate ethnically Bulgarian emigré writers, this gives Bulgarian literature a “repellent capacity”. Pointing at non-mainstream developments in both literature and translation may o...

  17. CULTURAL DOMAINS: TRANSLATION PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Negro Alousque

    2009-01-01

    Much of the lexis of a language has a cultural referent and is thus specific to a speech community. The meaning of culturally marked words is often difficult to grasp without some cultural knowledge and poses translation problems, particularly when the words are associated with cultural domains (Nida, 2001). In the present paper we focus on the French cultural domain of cooking. After outlining the elements of the domain, we analyse the difficulties in translating the lexical units from the d...

  18. Juliane House, Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelle, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Many young doctors in linguistics or literature are filling positions in departments of translation studies but might not necessarily have a clear idea of the kind of research carried out by their new-found colleagues. For them, Juliane House's brief introduction to the field of translation theory provides a welcome survey of the main concepts and issues in this area, even though the book is actually intended for readers with little or no background in language study at all.

  19. Semantics on Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦

    2014-01-01

    Semantics is the study of the meanings of words and sentences. While word is the most basic unit in every language and the understanding of the word meaning is the most important problem in translation. Therefore, the analysis of semantics just provides a very direct approach to doing translation. In this paper, I’d like to focus on the three kinds of word meaning in transla- tion, the ambiguities caused by the word meaning and how to deal with such ambiguities.

  20. Text Coherence in Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Yanping Zheng

    2009-01-01

    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can utilize the following approaches: retention of the continuity of senses of a text; reconstruction of the target text for the purpose of continuity;...

  1. Stochastic noise in translation

    OpenAIRE

    Stefaniuk, Adam; Racle, Julien; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily

    2011-01-01

    Translation lies at the heart of every living organism, it is the process synthesizing the proteins, a main component in the cells. Earlier studies have considered protein synthesis as mainly initiation limited, modeling it as a first-order reaction with respect to free ribosomes and mRNA. In such studies, the noise is therefore coming from initiation phase only. We have previously studied a continuous deterministic model for translation, taking into account the ribosome elongation and a poss...

  2. Translating Alcohol Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Angela M.; Miles, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of streamlining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085

  3. Strategies of English Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Yu; WANG; Jin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract:Translation is an independent discipline(Jean Delisle,1988).With the deepening of translation studies,translation teaching aroused widespread concern among translation academia,and gradually separated from language teaching,being a subj ect with its own obj ectives and a special position.This paper,firstly introduces the obj ectives and content of translation teaching,then points out several common problems in translation teaching.Finally,associated with the basic principles of translation teaching,it analyzes the strategies of English translation teaching.

  4. The Impact of Translators' Academic Experience on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge and professional conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' academic experience on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study", a sample of 100 male and…

  5. Translation and Language Teaching: Translation as a useful teaching Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Randaccio, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Both language teaching experts and translation theorists have proposed detailed analyses of the advantages and disadvantages of using translation in language teaching. However, in order to make translation a useful teaching resource, they have provided new and challenging insights into the nature of translation itself. Some of the principles among these insights will be outlined and discussed in this paper.

  6. The Effect of Translators' Emotional Intelligence on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge, professional and psychological conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' Emotional Intelligence on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study," a sample of…

  7. Analysis of translation initiation using a translation control reporter system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiesenthal, Volker; Leutz, Achim; Calkhoven, Cornelis F

    2006-01-01

    The study of translational control has become increasingly important, as aberrant translation has been linked to the etiology of human diseases. Nevertheless, a convenient research tool to measure and quantify cellular translational activity has not been developed to date. Here we present a translat

  8. Translating Signs, Producing Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Neilson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and

  9. Advertisement Translation under Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严妙

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience.Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.

  10. Advertisement Translation under Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严妙

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience. Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.

  11. Explorations of Corpus Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琳琳

    2014-01-01

    Corpus-based translation studies belong to a new translation study paradigm which rose at the beginning of 1990s. The rise of corpus brings the update of research tools and research methods, and lead to the emerging of Corpus Translation Stud-ies. It is necessary to introduce the theory basis of Translational English Corpus and its application in the translation, especially in the science and technology translation. Besides, it makes an analysis and discussion about the potential of Corpus Translation Stud-ies.

  12. Asymmetries of Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Gorčeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the incompatibility between aesthetic and economic approaches to literary translation, the A. perceives a lack of creative initiative in the international socialisation of Bulgarian literature within its literary field (and especially in the subfield of criticism. Together with a probable inability to (reintegrate ethnically Bulgarian emigré writers, this gives Bulgarian literature a “repellent capacity”. Pointing at non-mainstream developments in both literature and translation may offer a way out: Gorčeva recommends abundant analytical and not self-exoticising self-representation. She also stresses that not only interliterary ‘export’ but also ‘import’ forges a literature’s status, and suggests that “small” literatures can take part in interliterary communication as equals in so far as they have the opportunity to keep on translating not in an assimilative but in a foreignising manner.

  13. Engineering in translational medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area.

  14. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard;

    particular, the current study investigates the effect of these variables on early and late eye movement measures. Early eye movement measures are indicative of processes that are more automatic while late measures are more indicative of conscious processing. Most studies that found evidence of target...... language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...

  15. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard;

    2016-01-01

    particular, the current study investigates the effect of these variables on early and late eye movement measures. Early eye movement measures are indicative of processes that are more automatic while late measures are more indicative of conscious processing. Most studies that found evidence of target...... language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...

  16. Data format translation routines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To enable the effective connection of several dissimilar computers into a network, modification of the data being passed from one computer to another may become necessary. This document describes a package of routines which permit the translation of data in PDP-8 formats to PDP-11 or DECsystem-10 formats or from PDP-11 format to DECsystem-10 format. Additional routines are described which permit the effective use of the translation routines in the environment of the Fusion Energy Division (FED) network and the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) data base

  17. Data format translation routines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burris, R.D.

    1981-02-01

    To enable the effective connection of several dissimilar computers into a network, modification of the data being passed from one computer to another may become necessary. This document describes a package of routines which permit the translation of data in PDP-8 formats to PDP-11 or DECsystem-10 formats or from PDP-11 format to DECsystem-10 format. Additional routines are described which permit the effective use of the translation routines in the environment of the Fusion Energy Division (FED) network and the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) data base.

  18. TRANSLATION: A MULTIDIMENSIONAL TASK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Raddawi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to shed light on the pedagogical function of translation, and how it can contribute to teaching or fostering language acquisition using either traditional tools of language teaching such as textbooks, and handouts, or by technological means. In this paper the role of L1 (the learner's first language is emphasized as an assistant to second language teaching (L2. The facts presented in this article are the results of my experience working on translation shared with a group of students enrolled in the Intensive English Program before they were admitted in their major.

  19. Translation in Lydia Davis's work

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis analyses the position of translations in the work of the American writer and translator Lydia Davis. Davis has been publishing stories and translations since the early 1970s, and has translated works by Maurice Blanchot, Michel Leiris, and Marcel Proust among others. This thesis argues that her translations form a graft onto the body of her own fiction; they are both part of her work and retain their identity as being written by someone else. The first chapter builds on theory...

  20. SENSEVAL-2 Japanese Translation Task

    OpenAIRE

    Kurohashi, Sadao; Uchimoto, Kiyotaka

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the Senseval-2 Japanese translation task. In this task, word senses are defined according to distinct translations in a given target language. A translation memory (TM) was constructed which contains, for each Japanese head word, a list of typical Japanese expressions and their English translations. For each test word instance, participants were required to submit the TM record best approximating that usage, or alternatively, actual target word translations. There were 9 ...

  1. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-02-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  2. Translating Terms and Concepts in the Texts of Translation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Birkan Baydan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to explore challenges in translating terms and concepts of the social sciences within the frame of scholarly texts of translation studies translated into Turkish. Conceptual problems in the translation of scholarly texts in translation studies arise both from the “interdisciplinary” and “independent” nature of the field. Given the interdisciplinary nature of translation studies, key concepts of the influential movements of thought from adjacent fields pose challenges for the translator. Furthermore, terms which specifically belong to the field of translation studies require the translator to be familiar with the literature of the field in both source and target languages. Immanuel Wallerstein’s suggestions for translating concepts of the social sciences are evaluated within this context with certain reservations. The translator of the scholarly texts of translation studies encounters challenges both with regard to “commonly shared” and “specific” concepts. Already existent Turkish translations of “common” concepts shared with the other disciplines are often diverse and varied, while some of the “specific” concepts of the field have not yet been translated. Both instances bring to the fore the translator’s agency as the decision-maker who makes informed decisions among various alternatives. Examples[i] of two Derridean concepts and two terms specific to the field of translation studies are provided to illustrate the problem-solving and decision-making process of the translator.Keywords: Concept translation, Derridaen concepts, common concepts, specific concepts, translator’s agency[i] Examples are selected from my unpublished translations (completed for MA and PhD projects of Arrojo (1995, Arrojo (1998 and Hermans (2007.

  3. Lost in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askehave, Inger; Zethsen, Karen Korning

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with an aspect of patient information that differs somewhat from the traditional scope of this journal; namely the linguistic and translational aspects of Patient Information Leaflets (PILs). During the past decade much work has been dedicated to making the English PILs as info...

  4. Cultural Knowledge in Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olk, Harald

    2003-01-01

    Describes a study exploring the influence of cultural knowledge on the translation performance of German students of English. Found that the students often lacked sufficient knowledge about British culture to deal with widely-used cultural concepts. Findings suggest that factual reference sources have an important role to play in translation…

  5. Translating Fashion into Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riegels Melchior, Marie; Skov, Lise; Csaba, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    theoretical frame for understanding the cultural economic policy and the motives, principles and strategies behind it. Then – drawing inspiration from Michel Callon’s “sociology of translation” with its moments of translation: problematization, interessement, enrolment and mobilization – we identify the...

  6. Thinking translation a course in translation method French to English

    CERN Document Server

    Hervey, Sandor

    2014-01-01

    Thinking Translation is a comprehensive and revolutionary 20-week course in translation method. It has been fully and successfully piloted at the University of St. Andrews. The course offers a challenging and entertaining approach to the acquisition of translation skills.Translation is presented as a problem-solving discipline. Discussion, examples and a full range of exercise work allows students to acquire the skills necessary for a broad range of translation problems.Thinking Translation draws on a wide range of material from technical texts to poetry and song.

  7. Chinese Meter in Translating English Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温荣芬

    2009-01-01

    <正>Translation is not easy and poetry translation is troublesome,while meter poetry translation is the most difficult. This paper will focus on the meter in translating English poetry into Chinese. From the review of translation history to

  8. A Probe into Translation Strategies from Relevance Perspective—Direct Translation and Indirect Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Xi, Dong

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on Gutt’s notion of relevance-theoretic account of translation. Through the examination of a number of cases of literary translation, it aims to clarify some of the misunderstandings about relevance theory and prove this theory can provide an adequate interpretation of translation as cross-cultural and interlingual communication.Key words: Relevance theory; Processing cost; Contextual effect; Direct translation; Indirect translation

  9. Forms of creativity in translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia V Aranda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2009v1n23p23This paper explores the creative constructs utilized by translators in the reformulation of texts. As translation studies realigns the definition of translation vis-à-vis the original, a number of factors inform translations: the agency and subjectivity of the translator, as well as questions of form, and the more obvious social factors. This discussion addresses the articulation of creativity as a response to specific cases and repositions translation as part of a greater creative project.

  10. Machine Translation Based on Translation Corresponding Tree Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A representation schema called translation corresponding tree (TCT) has been applied to a Portuguese to Chinese example-based machine translation system. The translation examples are annotated by the representation of the TCT structure. Each TCT describes not only the syntactic structure of the source sentence (i.e., Portuguese in our system) but also the translation correspondences (i.e., Chinese translation). In addition, the TCT nodes describe the corresponding linguistic relationships between the source and target languages. The translation examples can be effectively represented with this annotation schema and organized in the bilingual knowledge database or example base. In the real machine translation process, the target language is synthesized with higher quality by referring to the TCT translation information.

  11. «Translation Journal & Translation Journal Blog»: an on-line publication for translators, by translators, about translators and translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabe Bokor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available «The Translation Journal» is the oldest continuously published translation-oriented on-line journal in the U.S. Appearing on a quarterly basis, each issue contains 10 - 15 feature articles on different aspects of translation. The TJ is fully searchable by author or keyword. Its companion publication, the «Translation Journal Blog», launched in 2004, deals with topical issues of the translation industry. ------------------------------------------- «Translation Journal» y «Translation Journal Blog»: una publicación en línea para traductores, hecha por traductores y sobre traductores y traducción. «Translation Journal» es la más antigue de las revistas electrónicas sobre traducción publicadas ininterrumpidamente en los Estados Unidos. Cada número, de periodicidad trimestral, contiene entre diez y quince artículos sobre diversos aspectos de la traducción. La revista permite las búsquedas por autores o palabras clave. Su publicación hermana, la bitácora «Translation Journal Blog», nacida en 2004, aborda temas relacionados con el sector de la traducción.

  12. Translation of Cosmetics Trademarks from the Perspective of Translation Aesthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Shuai Wang

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the process of cosmetics trademarks translation from the perspective of artistic conception of translation aesthetics. The source name and target name of a cosmetics trademark are born in different cultural context. The two artistic conceptions created by the two names are connected by translation subjects’ aesthetic experience and humane attainments based on the exchange of two languages. It studies successfully-translated cosmetics trademarks in Chinese market as ...

  13. Translation Quality and Awareness of Cultural Translation Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Farahzad; Parviz Azhideh; Leila Razmjou

    2011-01-01

    The present paper reports a study carried out to examine the possible outcomes of incorporating cultural translation theories and its subcomponents to translation syllabi and highlight their possible positive effects on translation quality of EFL learners and translation trainees in Iranian universities.150 Iranian undergraduate students took part in this study. They were divided into three groups –one experimental and two control groups. After homogenizing the participants through a TO...

  14. The relevance of translation studies The relevance of translation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsten Malmkjaer

    2008-01-01

    Most translation theorists today would like to see translation studies firmly established as an independent discipline which, although it draws on insights from other disciplines, should be subsumed under none, (Hatim and Mason, 1990; Snell-Hornby, 1988; Bassnett-McGuire, 1980). The discipline which the majority translation theorists draw on most heavily is linguistics — indeed many books on translation theory and/or practice take the form of expositions of their authors' favourite linguistic...

  15. Translation Methodology in the Spoken Language Translator An Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, D; Rayner, M; Eklund, R; MacDermid, C; Wiren, M; Kirchmeier-Andersen, S; Philp, C; Carter, David; Becket, Ralph; Rayner, Manny; Dermid, Catriona Mac; Wiren, Mats; Philp, Christina

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe how the translation methodology adopted for the Spoken Language Translator (SLT) addresses the characteristics of the speech translation task in a context where it is essential to achieve easy customization to new languages and new domains. We then discuss the issues that arise in any attempt to evaluate a speech translator, and present the results of such an evaluation carried out on SLT for several language pairs.

  16. A Stylistic Study of Translator Based on Western Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators' style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in thisfield.

  17. On Translatability of Metaphors and Relevant Translating Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱采真; 张文普

    2012-01-01

    Metaphor is one of the most poetic forms of language.It is widely used in daily life and good translation of it is of great significance.In spite of the cultural and lingual hindrance,to some extent,good translation of metaphors can be achieved because of the similarities between two cultures and the overlaps of two languages.This paper explores translatability of metaphores from cultural and linguistic perspectives as well as specific techniques in terms of metaphor translation.

  18. Lost in Translation: Examining Translation Errors Associated with Mathematical Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Stiff, Lee V.; Bosse, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Translation errors and conceptual misunderstandings made by students translating among graphical, tabular, and symbolic representations of linear functions were examined. The study situated student errors in the context of the "Translation-Verification Model" developed specifically for the purpose of explaining student behavior during the process…

  19. Cross-Cultural Instrument Translation: Assessment, Translation, and Statistical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Teresa Crowe

    2005-01-01

    This article has four major sections: (a) general issues of assessment; (b) assessment of ethnic-group members, including those who are deaf; (c) translation of assessment tools, emphasizing translation into American Sign Language (ASL); and (d) statistical applications for translated instruments. The purpose of the article is to provide insight…

  20. Translating organizational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2016-01-01

    in organizational studies for making descriptions of studied empirical phenomena rather than developing theories and giving normative advice about how organizations or organizational change processes may be theorized, analyzed, managed and/or organized better. A new ANT-inspired theory about the characteristics...... of organizations, organizational change and change agents is therefore developed combining ANT with other theories. The relevance of this view is demonstrated in an analysis of a case where a nurse and the leader of a clinic for orthopedic surgery try to translate and thus implement a risk-management and deviation......This paper takes it point of departure in actor-network-theory (ANT). It responds to the Next Management Theory tracks call for papers that address and further develops our understanding of organizational change as translation processes. It moreover addresses a critique of ANT researchers...

  1. Translation, Sprache und Wahrnehmung

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Traditional issues of hermeneutics on language, comprehension and interpretation are retaken here in their relation to translation studies, under the less common philosophical perspective of the late Wittgenstein, taking into account also some aspects of linguistic pragmatics. Main target is a prophylaxis of the dogmatism that emerges when properties of the theoretical model are projected into the object under examination. Two kinds of necessity are to be distinguished: on one hand, a necessi...

  2. Promoter control of translation in Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunkel, N; Braddock, M; Thorburn, A M; Muckenthaler, M; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

    1995-02-11

    The HIV-1 promoter directs the high level production of transcripts in Xenopus oocytes. However, despite being exported to the cytoplasm, the transcripts are not translated [M. Braddock, A. M. Thorburn, A. Chambers, G. D. Elliott, G. J. Anderson, A. J. Kingsman and S. M. Kingsman (1990) Cell, 62, 1123-1133]. We have shown previously that this is a function of promoter sequences and is independent of the TAR RNA element that is normally located at the 5' end of all HIV mRNAs. We now show that a three nucleotide substitution at position -340, upstream of the RNA start site, reverses the translation inhibition. This site coincides with a sequence that can bind the haematopoietic transcription factor GATA. The inhibition of translation can also be reversed by treatment with inhibitors of casein kinase II or by injection into the nucleus of antibodies specific for the FRGY2 family of RNP proteins. We suggest that the -340 site influences the quality of the transcription complex such that transcripts are diverted to a nucleus-dependent translation inhibition pathway. PMID:7885836

  3. Translational research in retinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira RC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubens Camargo Siqueira1,2, Rodrigo Jorge21Rubens Siqueira Research Center, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Retina and Vitreous Section, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Clinical laboratories are strong, integral partners in personalized health care. Laboratory databases hold a vast amount of data on human phenotypes, genotypes, biomarkers, progression of disease, and response to therapy. These structured and unstructured free text data are critical for patient care and a resource for personalized medicine and translational research. Laboratory data are integrated into many electronic medical records that provide “summary reports” and “trending” to visualize longitudinal patient data. Recent advances in ophthalmology such as gene therapy, cell therapy using stem cells, and also retinal prosthesis explore the potential of translational research marking a new era in research into the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases.Keywords: translational, retinal diseases, stem cell, gene therapy

  4. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  5. Translation Definitions in Different Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Jixing LONG

    2013-01-01

    In the field of translation studies, owing to the factors such as the interests of scholar, cultural and historical reasons, scholars usually choose a definition of translation as the research orientation in a certain period of time. That is, as a scholastic community, they study under the same paradigm. Since the definition of translation not only describes and interprets the basic properties of translation, but also determines its connotation and extension, it is the core and basic part of ...

  6. Strategies for Translating Vocative Texts

    OpenAIRE

    Olga COJOCARU

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the linguistic and cultural elements of vocative texts and the techniques used in translating them by giving some examples of texts that are typically vocative (i.e. advertisements and instructions for use). Semantic and communicative strategies are popular in translation studies and each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages in translating vocative texts. The advantage of semantic translation is that it takes more account of the aesthetic value of the SL te...

  7. New Historicism in Translation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Mir Mohammad Khadem-Nabi; Elaheh Gharesoufloo

    2014-01-01

    Translation Studies has moved from linguistically oriented approaches to a historicist one. This is evident in many recent publications, and has brought about new trends in Translation Studies as well as in Cultural Studies. This paper is an attempt at summarizing the influence of the historicist approaches on translation. Of specific importance for this paper is New Historicism, which has poststructuralist tendencies. Keywords: New Historicism, translation studies, cultural studies

  8. New Historicism in Translation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mohammad Khadem-Nabi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Translation Studies has moved from linguistically oriented approaches to a historicist one. This is evident in many recent publications, and has brought about new trends in Translation Studies as well as in Cultural Studies. This paper is an attempt at summarizing the influence of the historicist approaches on translation. Of specific importance for this paper is New Historicism, which has poststructuralist tendencies. Keywords: New Historicism, translation studies, cultural studies

  9. Optimising Comprehensibility in Interlingual Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbeth Jensen, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    . It is argued that Plain Language writing is a type of intralingual translation as it involves rewriting or translating a complex monolingual text into comprehensible language. Based on Plain Language literature, a comprehensibility framework is elaborated, which is subsequently exemplified through...... the functional text type of Patient Information Leaflet. Finally, the usefulness of applying the principles of Plain Language and intralingual translation for optimising comprehensibility in interlingual translation is discussed....

  10. On Literal Translation of English Idioms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linli

    2009-01-01

    There are six translation tactics in translating English idioms into Chinese: literal translation, compensatory translation, free translation, explanational translation, borrowing, integrated approach. Each tactic should be reasonably employed in the process of translating, so as to keep the flavor of the original English idioms as well as to…

  11. Cultural Constraints on Literary Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Lou

    2009-01-01

    Translation is no longer considered a single, unified reproduction of the original but a kind of rewriting which reflects a certain ideology and literary norm and literary translation is no exception. This essay tends to explore the cultural constraints on literary translation.

  12. Translational plant proteomics: A perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, G.K.; Pedreschi, R.; Barkla, B.J.; Bindschedler, L.V.; Cramer, R.; Sarkar, A.; Renaut, J.; Job, D.; Rakwal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Translational proteomics is an emerging sub-discipline of the proteomics field in the biological sciences. Translational plant proteomics aims to integrate knowledge from basic sciences to translate it into field applications to solve issues related but not limited to the recreational and economic v

  13. Ideological Manipulation in Translation Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张靖

    2011-01-01

    Lefevere's rewriting theory states that translation is a rewriting of the original text,all rewritings reflect a certain ideology and a poetics and as such manipulate literature to function in a given society.Based on this theory,some translation examples are illustrated and analyzed here to show that political and aesthetic ideology will inevitably manipulate translation in different aspects.

  14. Computer-aided translation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on a questionnaire survey from 2013 of the uptake and use of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools by Danish translation service providers (TSPs) and discusses how these tools appear to have impacted on the Danish translation industry. According to our results, the uptake in...

  15. The Manipulation of Translator's Ideology in Translating In Liu Village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何霞; 李莎莎

    2014-01-01

    Traditional studies on translation have generally been source-oriented. Since 1980s, translation theorists shifted their eyes on new areas, such as culture, history, and ideology. Andre Lefevere puts forward the theory of rewriting, including such three important factors as ideology, poetics and patronage. This paper focuses on the study of manipulation of ideology over trans-lation of In Liu Village by a famous writer-cum-translator Yu Lihua. Based on the data collected, the present paper argues that during the process of translation, ideology exerts constraints on the translator and influences her in such aspects as the choice of texts, the process of decoding and the choice of translation strategy.

  16. E-C Advertisement Translation on Communicative Translation and Semantic Translation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Xuedong Shi

    2014-01-01

    Advertisement has been playing a more and more important role in both our life and society because of the world's commercialization and globalization. So there is an urgent need to study on which way is better for advertisement translation. According to Newmark's theory, communicative translation tries to produce the same effect to the readers as the original readers who read the SL. While semantic translation attempts to translate word for word without even changing the sequence or the struc...

  17. Forms of creativity in translation

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia V Aranda

    2009-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2009v1n23p23This paper explores the creative constructs utilized by translators in the reformulation of texts. As translation studies realigns the definition of translation vis-à-vis the original, a number of factors inform translations: the agency and subjectivity of the translator, as well as questions of form, and the more obvious social factors. This discussion addresses the articulation of creativity as a response to specific cases and repositions tran...

  18. Translation-Memory (TM) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2010-01-01

      It is no exaggeration to say that the advent of translation-memory (TM) systems in the translation profession has led to drastic changes in translators' processes and workflow, and yet, though many professional translators nowadays depend on some form of TM system, this has not been the object of...... much research. Our paper attempts to find out what we know about the nature, applications and influences of TM technology, including translators' interaction with TMs, and also how we know it. An essential part of the analysis is based on a selection of empirical TM studies, which we assume to be...

  19. Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Mercedes Garcia; Koglin, Arlene; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé;

    2015-01-01

    The availability of systems capable of producing fairly accurate translations has increased the popularity of machine translation (MT). The translation industry is steadily incorporating MT in their workflows engaging the human translator to post-edit the raw MT output in order to comply with a set......-editing effort as it is shown in post-editing process data collected under experimental conditions. Using the CasMaCat workbench as a post-editing tool, process data were collected using keystrokes and eye-tracking data from five professional translators under two different conditions: i) traditional post...

  20. Ebola: translational science considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Bakhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli; Manfrini, Ercolano; Piva, Francesco; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; Maida, Carl A

    2015-01-01

    We are currently in the midst of the most aggressive and fulminating outbreak of Ebola-related disease, commonly referred to as "Ebola", ever recorded. In less than a year, the Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire ebolavirus species) has infected over 10,000 people, indiscriminately of gender or age, with a fatality rate of about 50%. Whereas at its onset this Ebola outbreak was limited to three countries in West Africa (Guinea, where it was first reported in late March 2014, Liberia, where it has been most rampant in its capital city, Monrovia and other metropolitan cities, and Sierra Leone), cases were later reported in Nigeria, Mali and Senegal, as well as in Western Europe (i.e., Madrid, Spain) and the US (i.e., Dallas, Texas; New York City) by late October 2014. World and US health agencies declared that the current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has a strong likelihood of growing exponentially across the world before an effective vaccine, treatment or cure can be developed, tested, validated and distributed widely. In the meantime, the spread of the disease may rapidly evolve from an epidemics to a full-blown pandemic. The scientific and healthcare communities actively research and define an emerging kaleidoscope of knowledge about critical translational research parameters, including the virology of EBOV, the molecular biomarkers of the pathological manifestations of EVD, putative central nervous system involvement in EVD, and the cellular immune surveillance to EBOV, patient-centered anthropological and societal parameters of EVD, as well as translational effectiveness about novel putative patient-targeted vaccine and pharmaceutical interventions, which hold strong promise, if not hope, to curb this and future Ebola outbreaks. This work reviews and discusses the principal known facts about EBOV and EVD, and certain among the most interesting ongoing or future avenues of research in the field, including vaccination programs for the wild animal vectors of the virus

  1. Structural Coupling and Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    structural couplings between psychic and social systems (Luhmann 2002: 275, Tække 2011). In this way media are seen as a necessary third, making it possible for two different kinds of systems to process, using complexity from one another - leaving out the idea of direct transmission. In actor-network theory...... compare the semantics of their concepts. The paper first provides an analysis and discussion of language as the mechanism of structural coupling between the levels of psychic and social systems. Then the article provides an analysis and discussion of translation as a transformation process between actors...

  2. Applicability and Challenges of Using Machine Translation in Translator Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Koletnik Korošec

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, translation as well as translator training have experienced a significant change. This change has been significantly influenced by the development of the Internet and the successive availability of web-based translation resources, such as Google Translate. Their introduction into the translation didactic process and training is no longer a matter of a teacher’s personal preference and IT skills, but a necessity imposed by the ever-swifter advancement of technology. This article presents the experimental results of an ongoing broader research study focusing on the modes and frequency of use of the Internet, Google Translate and Google Translator Toolkit among translation students at the undergraduate level. The preliminary results, presented in this article, are based on a questionnaire which was prepared in relation to the use of Google Translate while considering the latest professional findings. The article concludes with the author’s observations as to the applicability of these resources in translator training and the challenges thereof.

  3. Speech-enabled Computer-aided Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2014-01-01

    The present study has surveyed post-editor trainees’ views and attitudes before and after the introduction of speech technology as a front end to a computer-aided translation workbench. The aim of the survey was (i) to identify attitudes and perceptions among post-editor trainees before performing...... a post-editing task using automatic speech recognition (ASR); and (ii) to assess the degree to which post-editors’ attitudes and expectations to the use of speech technology changed after actually using it. The survey was based on two questionnaires: the first one administered before the...

  4. The translating techniques analyzation of Oliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Ran

    2014-01-01

    In order to deeply understanding the translation methods and further improving translation skil s, the article provides notions of Translation methods with examples form the translating version by Mr.Rong from shanghai.

  5. Application of translation strategies in the translation of trademark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾丽晔

    2014-01-01

    The trademark propaganda is an important means of sel ing goods and way of competition in international market. Cultivating famous brand serves as an important links in opening up the international market. So the importance of a good trademark translation is evident. Through discussing the importance of the Chinese-English trademark translation, the translation of the principles, tactics, errors and trademark translation of cultural taboos, this paper studies initial y several aspects about how to translate the Chinese trademark into English, which is in order to make the translation of the original brand names and the products match perfectly in the sound, shape, meaning, and beauty. Thus, commodity exchanges and cultural exchanges both can be achieved.

  6. Teaching machine translation and translation technology: a contrastive study

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Dorothy; Way, Andy

    2001-01-01

    The Machine Translation course at Dublin City University is taught to undergraduate students in Applied Computational Linguistics, while Computer-Assisted Translation is taught on two translator-training programmes, one undergraduate and one postgraduate. Given the differing backgrounds of these sets of students, the course material, methods of teaching and assessment all differ. We report here on our experiences of teaching these courses over a number of years, which we hope will be of...

  7. Referential translation machines for predicting translation quality and related statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Bicici, Mehmet Ergun; Qun LIU; Way, Andy

    2015-01-01

    We use referential translation machines (RTMs) for predicting translation performance. RTMs pioneer a language independent approach to all similarity tasks and remove the need to access any task or domain specific information or resource. We improve our RTM models with the ParFDA instance selection model (Bicici et al., 2015), with additional features for predicting the translation performance, and with improved learning models. We develop RTM models for each WMT15 QET (QET15) subtask and ob...

  8. A Stylistic Study of Translator Based on Western Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators’ style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in this field.

  9. On Integrated Translation Approach of English Idioms

    OpenAIRE

    Linli Chen

    2010-01-01

    Idioms are the gems of a language. Translating idioms is not an easy task because not all English idioms have equivalents in Chinese idioms due to linguistic, especially cultural differences. Research indicates that there are six translation tactics in translating English idioms into Chinese: literal translation, free translation, compensatory translation, explanational translation, borrowing, integrated approach. This paper aims to propose the integrated translation approach, one indispensab...

  10. A Review of Translation and Gender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄东睿

    2012-01-01

    Around 1970th, translation theory comes across feminism, thus the feminist translation theory emerged as the times required. The appearance of feminist translation enriches the modern translation theory, and extends the horizon of translation theory. At the same time, feminist translation has its shortcomings, especially in its exaggeration and arbitrariness. This paper explores the similarities between feminism and translation, the contributions and limitations of feminist translation theory.

  11. A. Schopenhauer, "De doctrina deque viris doctis" [translation

    OpenAIRE

    Baasten, M.F.J.

    2014-01-01

    An annotated Latin translation of Arthur Schopenhauer, "Über Gelehrte und Gelehrsamkeit", Parerga und Paralipomena. Kleine philosophische Schriften II (1851; Sämtliche Werke V; ed. W. von Lohneysen; Darmstadt 1976) cap. 21, §§ 244-256 by Martin F.J. Baasten.

  12. Translation Aestheticsand Communication Theory of Journalism English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曜

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the present translation theories and standards especially in journalism English translation and imply these theories in my issue. Moreover, I will explain how to apply the translation aesthetics and communication theory of translation in the course of journalism English translation activities. So that translation will achieve elegance in English news text and its Chinese version as well.

  13. Translation through argumentation in medical research and physician-citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gordon R; McTigue, Kathleen M

    2012-06-01

    While many "benchtop-to-bedside" research pathways have been developed in "Type I" translational medicine, vehicles to facilitate "Type II" and "Type III" translation that convert scientific data into clinical and community interventions designed to improve the health of human populations remain elusive. Further, while a high percentage of physicians endorse the principle of citizen leadership, many have difficulty practicing it. This discrepancy has been attributed, in part, to lack of training and preparation for public advocacy, time limitation, and institutional resistance. As translational medicine and physician-citizenship implicate social, political, economic and cultural factors, both enterprises require "integrative" research strategies that blend insights from multiple fields of study, as well as rhetorical acumen in adapting messages to reach multiple audiences. This article considers how argumentation theory's epistemological flexibility, audience attentiveness, and heuristic qualities, combined with concepts from classical rhetoric, such as rhetorical invention, the synecdoche, and ethos, yield tools to facilitate translational medicine and enable physician-citizenship. PMID:22392535

  14. Defining translation functions. The translation brief as a guideline for the trainee translation Defining translation functions. The translation brief as a guideline for the trainee translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Nord

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available It can be regarded as widely known that, from a functionalist point of view (cf. Reiss/Vermeer 1984, Nord 1991, the translator’s decisions in the translation process should be governed by the function or communicative purpose the target text (TT is intended to fulfil in a particular target-culture situation. This is a normative statement which does not describe an existing state of things (otherwise we would not have to lament the poor quality of so many translations but rather an aim towards which prospective professional translators should be geared in their training. It can be regarded as widely known that, from a functionalist point of view (cf. Reiss/Vermeer 1984, Nord 1991, the translator’s decisions in the translation process should be governed by the function or communicative purpose the target text (TT is intended to fulfil in a particular target-culture situation. This is a normative statement which does not describe an existing state of things (otherwise we would not have to lament the poor quality of so many translations but rather an aim towards which prospective professional translators should be geared in their training.

  15. Writing or Translating Otherness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Federici

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to investigate a new voice in the Italian literary panorama, a voice which makes visible how the notions of nationality, literary canon and mother tongue should be revisioned and rethought.In this age of intensified migration in Europe (and in Italy transnational women writers are an enriching and challenging factor in many European literatures for the many issues discussed in their novels, among which identity, nationality, ethnicity, gender and language.The essay is divided into two main parts: 1 a theoretical approach aimed at a outlining the recent debate on World Literature and Transnational literatures, b rethinking the fruitful discussion within Translation Studies in the last decades, and 2 a textual analysis of a novel, Con il Vento Nei Capelli, written by a Palestinian woman, Salwa Salem.

  16. Translating science into action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgensen, Nanna; Petersen, Poul E; Ogawa, Hiroshi;

    2012-01-01

    for periodontal health but periodontal research needs to be further strengthened by the provision of sound evidence. It is somewhat remarkable that research on true population-directed actions in prevention of periodontal disease is most unusual. The high need for reorientation of periodontal research toward......Clinical and public health research data have shown that a number of individual, professional and community health measures may be valuable in preventing the major oral diseases. The fundamental gap in knowledge, however, is not confined to 'what to do' but rather 'how' to translate the scientific...... findings into effective and sustainable programs for groups and populations. The advances in oral health science have not yet benefitted the poor and disadvantaged population groups around the world to the fullest extent possible and this has led to inequalities in periodontal health as well as in other...

  17. Transferring communicative clues in translation

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Errasti, María Pilar

    2001-01-01

    In this essay I make use of the category communicative clue, as defined by Gutt (1991/2000), to explain certain differences between an original work and its various translations. Communicative clues are very useful analytical devices that show nuances of meaning and style. In the source texts, they sometimes go unnoticed. But when a translation is done the translator may come across these features and must desirably transfer them. Very frequently, however, they are ignored. Here a particular ...

  18. On translating "The Sunday Drive"

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Heide

    1991-01-01

    What difficulties confront the translator of a text by William H. Gass? Apart, that is, from the difficulties known to any translator of any literary text, differences of environment, culture, and mental habits, as well as linguistic problems regarding tense, aspect, or mode? The following text will point out a few of those difficulties by facing eight paragraphs from Gass's piece "The Sunday Drive" with a German translation, each section to be followed by a commentary on the text and an eval...

  19. Toward a poetics of translation

    OpenAIRE

    Janaina Rocha de Paula

    2012-01-01

    From the essay "Die Aufgabe des Übersetzers" by Walter Benjamin, and its connection with the book Des tours de Babel by Jacques Derrida, we seek to address translations done by Maria Gabriela Llansol from the concepts of resignation and free giving. Surrending to a translation method within the melancholic/maniac tradition, Llansol’s translation task approaches a poetic practice, having love as its opening element

  20. Nonverbal Communication and Its Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yuan

    2007-01-01


    Nonverbal communication, mainly based on nonverbal signals, carry different connotations in different cultures. This essay is going to give a brief account on nonverbal communication and the measures adopted in the translation of nonverbal communication. It is concluded that when translating the nonverbal communication, the most important thing is to convey the cultural connotations carried by nonverbal signals.
    Key words: nonverbal, communication, translation, measure...

  1. Anusaaraka: Machine Translation in Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Bharati, Akshar; Chaitanya, Vineet; Kulkarni, Amba P; Sangal, Rajeev

    2003-01-01

    Fully-automatic general-purpose high-quality machine translation systems (FGH-MT) are extremely difficult to build. In fact, there is no system in the world for any pair of languages which qualifies to be called FGH-MT. The reasons are not far to seek. Translation is a creative process which involves interpretation of the given text by the translator. Translation would also vary depending on the audience and the purpose for which it is meant. This would explain the difficulty of building a ma...

  2. Functionalist Approaches to Advertisement Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乐

    2009-01-01

    The 1970s saw a development of the Functionalism, with its three representative scholars Katharina Reiss, Hans. Vermeer and Justa Holz Manttari. Katharina Reiss proposed the text type theory; Vermeer brought up the skopostheory and Mantarri translational action theory. The Functional theories are very useful for the translators to adopt a fight translation strategy. In these years, various kinds of advertisement have appeared in people's daily life. They are becoming one important part in our culture. The companies need advertisements to sell their products and the consumers need the advertisement to decide which brand to buy after comparison. This paper will discuss how they are ap-plied to the advertisement translation.

  3. Specialised Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Specialised translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain discourse in a foreign language in connection with translation. The most common type is the business dictionary covering several more or less related subject fields. However, business dictionaries...... needs of learners, it is proposed that specialised translation dictionaries should be designed as augmented reference tools. It is argued that electronic and printed dictionaries should include sections or CD-ROMs with syntactic, translation etc. data as well as exercises and illustrative documents. The...

  4. Semantic Translation and Communicative Translation:A Case Study in My Chinese Translation of Alnwick’s Inspired Heritage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶谋锦

    2013-01-01

      This essay deals with my Chinese translation of a tour brochure and highlights some issues in translation. The translation strategies semantic translation and communicative translation are famous approaches proposed by Peter Newmark in his book Approaches to Translation. He puts forward his text typology and categorizes all text types into three types, i.e. expressive text, informative text and vocative text. In order to solve problems emerging in different types, he presents two dominant translation approaches, namely, semantic translation and communicative translation (Newmark, 2001). These translation methods are regarded as a milestone in translation theory and highly quoted by many scholars. Semantic translation emphasizes the thinking process of the author and represents the origin meanings of the source text. In this case, translator makes little interference with the harmony of the source text. Semantic translation can preserve the characteristics and expression patterns of the source language, forcing readers to follow the thinking pattern of the author. While communicative translation indicates that the influence of translation on target readers should be identical to the effect of original article on source readers. Communicative translation is target-language-orientated and focuses on transference of information. This translation strategy allows translator to reorganize sentences with classical phrases in the target language to make his translation accessible to target readers. Of course, these different translation strategies often com⁃plement with each other, and should be combined together in translation.

  5. Do clinical, histological or immunohistochemical primary tumour characteristics translate into different {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT volumetric and heterogeneity features in stage II/III breast cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groheux, David; Martineau, Antoine; Merlet, Pascal [Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Majdoub, Mohamed; Hatt, Mathieu; Visvikis, Dimitris [INSERM, UMR 1101 LaTIM, Brest (France); Tixier, Florent; Le Rest, Catherine Cheze [Miletrie Hospital, DACTIM, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Poitiers (France); Espie, Marc [Saint-Louis Hospital, Breast Diseases Unit and Department of Medical Oncology, Paris (France); Roquancourt, Anne de [Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Pathology, Paris (France); Hindie, Elif [University of Bordeaux, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France)

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine if some features of baseline {sup 18}F-FDG PET images, including volume and heterogeneity, reflect clinical, histological or immunohistochemical characteristics in patients with stage II or III breast cancer (BC). Included in the present retrospective analysis were 171 prospectively recruited patients with stage II/III BC treated consecutively at Saint-Louis hospital. Primary tumour volumes were semiautomatically delineated on pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET images. The parameters extracted included SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub mean}, metabolically active tumour volume (MATV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and heterogeneity quantified using the area under the curve of the cumulative histogram and textural features. Associations between clinical/histopathological characteristics and {sup 18}F-FDG PET features were assessed using one-way analysis of variance. Areas under the ROC curves (AUC) were used to quantify the discriminative power of the features significantly associated with clinical/histopathological characteristics. T3 tumours (>5 cm) exhibited higher textural heterogeneity in {sup 18}F-FDG uptake than T2 tumours (AUC <0.75), whereas there were no significant differences in SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean}. Invasive ductal carcinoma showed higher SUV{sub max} values than invasive lobular carcinoma (p = 0.008) but MATV, TLG and textural features were not discriminative. Grade 3 tumours had higher FDG uptake (AUC 0.779 for SUV{sub max} and 0.694 for TLG), and exhibited slightly higher regional heterogeneity (AUC 0.624). Hormone receptor-negative tumours had higher SUV values than oestrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) and progesterone receptor-positive tumours, while heterogeneity patterns showed only low-level variation according to hormone receptor expression. HER-2 status was not associated with any of the image features. Finally, SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub mean} and TLG significantly differed among the three

  6. Do clinical, histological or immunohistochemical primary tumour characteristics translate into different 18F-FDG PET/CT volumetric and heterogeneity features in stage II/III breast cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine if some features of baseline 18F-FDG PET images, including volume and heterogeneity, reflect clinical, histological or immunohistochemical characteristics in patients with stage II or III breast cancer (BC). Included in the present retrospective analysis were 171 prospectively recruited patients with stage II/III BC treated consecutively at Saint-Louis hospital. Primary tumour volumes were semiautomatically delineated on pretreatment 18F-FDG PET images. The parameters extracted included SUVmax, SUVmean, metabolically active tumour volume (MATV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and heterogeneity quantified using the area under the curve of the cumulative histogram and textural features. Associations between clinical/histopathological characteristics and 18F-FDG PET features were assessed using one-way analysis of variance. Areas under the ROC curves (AUC) were used to quantify the discriminative power of the features significantly associated with clinical/histopathological characteristics. T3 tumours (>5 cm) exhibited higher textural heterogeneity in 18F-FDG uptake than T2 tumours (AUC <0.75), whereas there were no significant differences in SUVmax and SUVmean. Invasive ductal carcinoma showed higher SUVmax values than invasive lobular carcinoma (p = 0.008) but MATV, TLG and textural features were not discriminative. Grade 3 tumours had higher FDG uptake (AUC 0.779 for SUVmax and 0.694 for TLG), and exhibited slightly higher regional heterogeneity (AUC 0.624). Hormone receptor-negative tumours had higher SUV values than oestrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) and progesterone receptor-positive tumours, while heterogeneity patterns showed only low-level variation according to hormone receptor expression. HER-2 status was not associated with any of the image features. Finally, SUVmax, SUVmean and TLG significantly differed among the three phenotype subgroups (HER2-positive, triple-negative and ER-positive/HER2

  7. Application of Relevance Translation Theory in Humor Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀丽

    2013-01-01

    This thesis,aiming to investigate the process of English-Chinese translation of humor from the perspective of RT theory(relevance translation theory),endeavors to apply its principles and methods to the re-construction of humor in the target language.

  8. Thick Translation as a New Trend of Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶莉

    2016-01-01

    This paper, based on the development and history of thick translation, is intended to carry out a comparative critic of the interpretations of“thick translation”proposed by different scholars so as to explore the profound meanings and significance of“thick translation”as a new strategy, which has reflected and predicted the new trend of translation studies.

  9. Creative Translation, Transcreation or Simply Translation. How Can Literature Be Translated

    OpenAIRE

    Valarini Oliver, Elide

    2005-01-01

    Theories of originality centered on the author/artist in 18th century Britain and could apply to the contemporary concept of translation. In France, however, the days of great invention of Rabelais were over, grammarians were guardians of the bon usage and the predominant idea was that works written in other languages should adapt to the rules and limits of the French language and the tastes of the French public once translated. Considering these ideas, the author explores which translation i...

  10. Translation of Poetic Diction in Literary Translation: A Case Study of Macbeth and Its Persian Translations

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjad Jahansepas; Manijeh Youhanaee; Hossein Pirnajmuddin

    2012-01-01

    This study is an attempt to identify and examine the poetic diction in dramatic/literary texts and their translations. Diction is an important stylistic element of all literary texts. The present study focuses on this element in texts of drama and the strategies used for its translation. To show such strategies at work a dramatic/literary text, namely Macbeth by Shakespeare, and its four Persian translations, (Ahmadi (1957) - Shadman (1972) - Ashouri (1992) and Pasargadi (1999)), were selecte...

  11. Approaches to translational plant science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Christensen, Brian; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Translational science deals with the dilemma between basic research and the practical application of scientific results. In translational plant science, focus is on the relationship between agricultural crop production and basic science in various research fields, but primarily in the basic plant...

  12. Rescuing the Lost in Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehr, Sinje; Garner, Craig C

    2016-05-01

    The translation of medically relevant academic inventions that could transform public health has been notoriously difficult, stemming largely from cultural differences been academia and industry. New initiatives to kindle academic entrepreneurship and establish stronger public/private partnerships are helping to align these differences and accelerating the translation of promising new therapies. PMID:27153487

  13. Translation as a Psycholinguistic Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasyekin, Serhiy

    2010-01-01

    The article sketches the outlines of a theoretical framework for the analysis of translation of literary texts, viewed as psycho-semiotic phenomenon and based on evaluation of earlier attempts in this direction, and on the results of a psycholinguistic empirical study of translations. Central to this framework is the recent insight that the human…

  14. Eye-movements During Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    texts as well as both eye-tracking and keylogging data. Based on this database, I present a large-scale analysis of gaze on the source text based on 91 translators' translations of six different texts from English into four different target languages. I use mixed-effects modelling to compare from...

  15. Translation Process of Multilingual Web Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Salomaa, Jani

    2013-01-01

    The main goal for this master’s thesis was to improve Avanade’s capability to manage translation of multilingual web applications. For this purpose I created translation process, synchronization tool, and translation list. The translation process helps Avanade to reduce the time used for managing translation. The synchronization tool automates the process of copying words manually and the translation list provides real time access to all translated items for the customer. The customer can tra...

  16. Sight Translation and written translation. A comparative Analysis of causes of problems, Strategies and Translation Errors within the PACTE Translation Competence Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Ivars, María Amparo

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative empirical exploratory study of some cognitive aspects of the oral and written translation process within the translation competence construct. This research has a twofold objective: finding some evidence of specific translation competence skills in translation tasks and comparing these data in sight translation and written translation in order to empirically check if sight translation can really be considered an interpreting modality. A sample ...

  17. Translation Strategies of Non-literary Texts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静

    2015-01-01

    Translator's subjectivity is closely related to the choice of the style of the translated texts and translation strategies.This paper presents an analytical study of translation strategies of non-literary texts.It introduces different non-literary texts,and then generalizes some factors influencing the selection of translation strategies.Take these Influencing factors into account,Translators should adopt different translation strategies

  18. Revising and editing for translators

    CERN Document Server

    Mossop, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Revising and Editing for Translators provides guidance and learning materials for translation students learning to edit texts written by others, and professional translators wishing to improve their self-revision ability or learning to revise the work of others. Editing is understood as making corrections and improvements to texts, with particular attention to tailoring them to the given readership. Revising is this same task applied to draft translations. The linguistic work of editors and revisers is related to the professional situations in which they work. Mossop offers in-depth coverage of a wide range of topics, including copyediting, style editing, structural editing, checking for consistency, revising procedures and principles, and translation quality assessment. This third edition provides extended coverage of computer aids for revisers, and of the different degrees of revision suited to different texts. The inclusion of suggested activities and exercises, numerous real-world examples, a proposed gra...

  19. Defining translation functions. The translation brief as a guideline for the trainee translation Defining translation functions. The translation brief as a guideline for the trainee translation

    OpenAIRE

    Christiane Nord

    2008-01-01

    It can be regarded as widely known that, from a functionalist point of view (cf. Reiss/Vermeer 1984, Nord 1991), the translator’s decisions in the translation process should be governed by the function or communicative purpose the target text (TT) is intended to fulfil in a particular target-culture situation. This is a normative statement which does not describe an existing state of things (otherwise we would not have to lament the poor quality of so many translations) but rather an aim...

  20. Knowledge translation of research findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimshaw Jeremy M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health. We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting, and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge

  1. Translating Fashion into Danish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Riegels Melchior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available With their association to enterprise and innovation, creative industries have emerged as a legitimate concern in national cultural and economical policy in many countries across the world. In Denmark, the fashion business, in particular, has been hailed as a model for successful (postindustrial transformation. In this paper, we explore the birth of Danish fashion from the ashes of the country’s clothing manufacturing industry, suggesting that the very notion of Danish fashion is indicative of – and enabled by – a development towards a polycentric fashion system. The intriguing idea that fashion could emanate from Denmark and secure growth, jobs and exports even outside the fashion business has taken hold among policymakers, and compelled the government to embrace fashion as a national project. In investigating the emergence and rising stature of Danish fashion, particular at home, we first establish a theoretical frame for understanding the cultural economic policy and the motives, principles and strategies behind it. Then – drawing inspiration from Michel Callon’s “sociology of translation” with its moments of translation: problematization, interessement, enrolment and mobilization – we identify the actors and analyze their strategic roles and interrelationship through various phases of the development of Danish fashion. Callon’s actor network theory (ANT is based on the principle of “generalized symmetry” – originally using a single repertoire to analyze both society and nature. We adapt this principle to study the realms of market, culture and politics within a common analytical framework. In our analysis, the state responds to industry transformation, interprets it and develops its own agenda. But it can hardly be said to develop policies for the industry. On the contrary, we suggest, fashion is mobilized to lend its luster to the nation, its institutions and politicians.

  2. Analysis on the German Functionalist Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying

    2013-01-01

    German functionalist approach makes considerable contributions to translation studies for considering translation as an fact of intercultural communication and concentrate on the purpose and function of the target text. It distinctively promoted translation theory against the traditional translation views. The paper analyzes its main ideas ,contribution and criticism of the Ger⁃man Functionalist Translation Theory.

  3. On Cultivating Students' Ability to Utilize Automatic Translation Tools in Translation%On Cultivating Students'Ability to Utilize Automatic Translation Tools in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪宇红

    2016-01-01

    The information age has put forward higher demand for the translator not only to possess sound grounding in basic skills of translation, but also to grasp the advanced equipment and modern information technology to assist in their translation work. This paper explores the problems in automatic translation and proposes solutions in translation teaching.

  4. Translating Romans: some persistent headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. du Toit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Translating Romans: some persistent headaches Gone are the days when it was axiomatic that expertise in biblical languages automatically qualified one as a Bible translator. In 1949, Ronald Knox, who for nine years conscientiously struggled with translating the Bible for his generation, published a booklet under the title The trials of a translator. At that stage Bible translation as the subject of scientific study was still in its infancy. Since then, research into the intricacies of communicating the biblical message in an authentic but understandable manner, has made significant progress (cf. Roberts, 2009. However, the frustrations of Bible translators, first of all to really understand what the biblical authors wanted to convey to their original addressees, and then to commu-nicate that message to their own targeted readers in a meaningful way, have not disappeared. In fact, the challenge to meet the vary-ing requirements of the multiple kinds of translation that are present-ly in vogue, has only increased.

  5. Strategies for Translating Vocative Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga COJOCARU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the linguistic and cultural elements of vocative texts and the techniques used in translating them by giving some examples of texts that are typically vocative (i.e. advertisements and instructions for use. Semantic and communicative strategies are popular in translation studies and each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages in translating vocative texts. The advantage of semantic translation is that it takes more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, while communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original text in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership. Focus is laid on the strategies used in translating vocative texts, strategies that highlight and introduce a cultural context to the target audience, in order to achieve their overall purpose, that is to sell or persuade the reader to behave in a certain way. Thus, in order to do that, a number of advertisements from the field of cosmetics industry and electronic gadgets were selected for analysis. The aim is to gather insights into vocative text translation and to create new perspectives on this field of research, now considered a process of innovation and diversion, especially in areas as important as economy and marketing.

  6. Understanding Discourse Competence in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masduki Masduki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Discourse as a communication event is influenced by topic being communicated, interpersonal relationship between the communicants, and communication channel used in context. Whatever senses created by the communicants is fully related to culture and situation being involved. Participating in conversation, reading, writing, and translating, activates discourse competence, which requires the use of a set of strategy to realize or mobilize all declarative knowledge in the real context of communication. Further, this article highlights the discourse competence and how it is culturally implemented in translation as an activity of transferring messages. The discussion covers the overview of discourse competence, discourse approach, and discourse competence in translation.

  7. Translation and spaces of reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Scott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses relations between the original and translation in terms of imaginary spaces. Target text is understood here as one of the possible images of the source text, from the perspective which could not be accessible to the original. In accordance with the concept presented here, artistic translation can be not so much reconstructed, as conceptually constructed, in the manner of a cubist object. Acts of creative reading are commented on by the author with examples of his own experimental translations from contemporary French poetry.

  8. Translation Expert (TranslationQ & RevisionQ): Automated translation process with real-time feedback & evaluation/ revision with PIE

    OpenAIRE

    Steurs, Frieda; Segers, Winibert; Kockaert, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Translation Expert (TranslationQ & RevisionQ): Automated translation process with real-time feedback & evaluation/ revision with PIE Winibert Segers, Hendrik Kockaert & Frieda Steurs KU Leuven This paper reports on an experiment working with a new evaluation technique for translator training. Organizing high level translation classes in a master in translation involves intensive assessment of the work delivered by the students. The evaluation has to be precise, professional, and at...

  9. Translation-A Process of Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viola Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Translation is a process that involves transformation and reproduction. This essay discusses some useful techniques of trans-lating practice by introducing a simple model. A few examples of good translation are presented to support explaining the model cleady.

  10. The Translator's Turn: in the Cultural Turn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玮玮

    2003-01-01

    @@ Introduction: Douglas Robinson rose to the defense of the " atheoretical" American literary translator in The Translator's Turn (1991). Here, I borrowed the title from him, but I will write my paper in the thought of the translator's role in translating. In his book, Robinson argued that the literary translator embodies an integration of feeling and thought, of intuition and systematization. In analyzing the " turn" that the translator take from the source text to the target text, Robinson offered a " dialogical" model, that is the translator's dialogical engagement with the source language and with the ethic of the target language. Robinson allows for the translator to intervene, subvert, divert, even entertain, emphasizing the creative aspect of literary translation. The translation linguists, scientists, and philosophers have had their chance at translation theory; now it is time, he argued, for the literary translators to have their " turn".

  11. Regulation of mRNA translation influences hypoxia tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypoxia is a heterogenous but common characteristic of human tumours and poor oxygenation is associated with poor prognosis. We believe that the presence of viable hypoxic tumor cells reflects in part an adaptation and tolerance of these cells to oxygen deficiency. Since oxidative phosphorylation is compromized during hypoxia, adaptation may involve both the upregulation of glycolysis as well as downregulation of energy consumption. mRNA translation is one of the most energy costly cellular processes, and we and others have shown that global mRNA translation is rapidly inhibited during hypoxia. However, some mRNAs, including those coding for HIF-1 α and VEGF, remain efficiently translated during hypoxia. Clearly, the mechanisms responsible for the overall inhibition of translation during hypoxia does not compromize the translation of certain hypoxia-induced mRNA species. We therefore hypothesize that the inhibition of mRNA translation serves to promote hypoxia tolerance in two ways: i) through conservation of energy and ii) through differential gene expression involved in hypoxia adaptation. We have recently identified two pathways that are responsible for the global inhibition of translation during hypoxia. The phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2 α by the ER resident kinase PERK results in down-regulation of protein synthesis shortly after the onset of hypoxia. In addition, the initiation complex eIF4F is disrupted during long lasting hypoxic conditions. The identification of the molecular pathways responsible for the inhibition of overall translation during hypoxia has rendered it possible to investigate their importance for hypoxia tolerance. We have found that mouse embryo fibroblasts that are knockout for PERK and therefore not able to inhibit protein synthesis efficiently during oxygen deficiency are significantly less tolerant to hypoxia than their wildtype counterparts. We are currently also investigating the functional significance

  12. The ubiquity of conservative translations

    CERN Document Server

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2011-01-01

    We study the notion of conservative translation between logics introduced by Feitosa and D'Ottaviano. We show that classical propositional logic (CPC) is universal in the sense that every finitary consequence relation over a countable set of formulas can be conservatively translated into CPC. The translation is computable if the consequence relation is decidable. More generally, we show that one can take instead of CPC a broad class of logics (extensions of a certain fragment of full Lambek calculus FL) including most nonclassical logics studied in the literature, hence in a sense, (almost) any two reasonable deductive systems can be conservatively translated into each other. We also provide some counterexamples, in particular the paraconsistent logic LP is not universal.

  13. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Legal translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain-specific discourse in a foreign language. The most common type is the bilingual law dictionary covering several or all the sub-fields within the general field of law. However, such law dictionaries tend...... strategies. When learners translate legal texts into a foreign language, it is important that their dictionaries can help them produce texts that conform to the expected style. This style requirement may be met by producing translations that use natural and idiomatic language, and really crafted dictionaries...... may provide the help needed. Beginners and intermediate learners are unlikely to be familiar with the syntactic structures used in legal language and which distinguish it from LGP and other LSPs, especially those structures that are unusual and complex. The optimal legal translation dictionary...

  14. Untrained Forward Observer (UFO) Translator

    OpenAIRE

    King, Regan

    2012-01-01

    MOVES Research & Education Systems Seminar: Presentation; Session 3c: Human Systems and Training (Operational Systems); Moderator: Mike McCauley; Untrained Forward Observer (UFO) Translator; speaker: Capt. Regan R. King

  15. User Expressions Translated Into Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Bergvall-Kåreborn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Grounding the development of mobile and ubiquitous services on actual needs and behaviors of users, rather than on designers' intuition, is a well-established tradition. However, gathering data about users in different contexts usually results in large amounts of data that have to be analyzed and translated into requirements. This crucial activity and its outcome are often shaped by the preconceptions of the developers or researchers. Despite this subjectivity, the translation process is seldom transparent. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to contribute to the field by presenting a process for translating user expressions into needs and later into requirements using Reiss' taxonomy of human needs. By adopting this process of translation, we were able to identify two hierarchical levels of needs: needs of a service and needs in a service. These two levels provide a transparent bridge between user expressions and system requirements.

  16. Foregrounding Theory and Fiction Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳

    2014-01-01

    Foregrounding is a concept that originally introduced from pictorial art. The function of foregrounding is to attract the audiences' attention so as to achieve certain expected artistic effects with the rest persons or things backgrounded.For a long time, foregrounding theory has been widely applied to linguistics, stylistics, literary creation and research whereas rarely being employed to translation activities. Not until late 19th century did Ye Zinan proposed that this theory could be applied to translation practice. He only put forward the relevant assumption on foregrounding theory. Based on English linguist Geoffrey Leech's deviation theory and Ye Zinan's assumption on the application of foregrounding theory to translation practice, this paper aims to draw translators' attention to foregrounding factors concealed in literary works, especially in novels, and to provide some basic means for them to render these foregrounding features into the relevant foregrounding expressions in the target language.

  17. High-level programming languages translator

    OpenAIRE

    Tonchev, Ognyan; Salih, Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses a high level language translator. If we divide translators of programming languages in two types: those working for two specific languages and universal translators that can be used for translation between different programming languages, the solution that will be presented in this work can be classified as both, specific language oriented and an universal translator. For the purpose of the research it was limited to translate only from Java to C++, but it can easily be e...

  18. Evaluating Arabic to English Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Laith S. Hadla; Taghreed M. Hailat; Mohammed N. Al-Kabi

    2014-01-01

    Online text machine translation systems are widely used throughout the world freely. Most of these systems use statistical machine translation (SMT) that is based on a corpus full with translation examples to learn from them how to translate correctly. Online text machine translation systems differ widely in their effectiveness, and therefore we have to fairly evaluate their effectiveness. Generally the manual (human) evaluation of machine translation (MT) systems is better than the automatic...

  19. James Joyce and the rhetoric of translation

    OpenAIRE

    McMurren, Blair R.; Tom Paulin

    2002-01-01

    This thesis examines theories of translation which are explicit in the themes and implicit in the rhetorical uses of form in the work of Joyce, with a focus on the French translations of Ulysses and Finnegans Wake produced with his collaboration between 1921 and 1931. Philosophies of translation from Jerome through Benjamin plus work in translation theory by Even-Zohar and Toury inform this study of the ethics both of translating and of being translated in the modernist idiom....

  20. The Culture Turn in Translation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Yan; Jingjing Huang

    2014-01-01

    The culture turn of translation studies was initially put forward by Bassnett and Lefevere (1990) cultural approach in 1990. As important representatives of cultural approach in translation studies, Bassnett and Lefevere attached great importance to the role of culture in translation, the social background, the influence that cultural tradition imposed on translation, the subjectivity of translators and researching shift from linguistic to culture, thus improving the literariness of translate...

  1. From Polarity to Plurality in Translation Scholarship

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolla Karimzadeh; Ebrahim Samani

    2012-01-01

    Review of the literature in translation studies shows that translation scholarship can be discussed in 3 Macro-levels including 1) Corpus-based studies, 2) Protocol-based studies, and 3) Systems- based studies. Researchers in the corpus-based studies test the hypothesis about the universals of translation. They also try to identify translation norms and regular linguistic patterns. This scholarship aims at showing that the language of translation is different from that of non-translation. The...

  2. Working with corpora in the translation classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to illustrate possible applications of electronic corpora in the translation classroom. Starting with a survey of corpus use within corpus-based translation studies, the didactic value of corpora in the translation classroom and their epistemic value in translation teaching and practice will be elaborated. A typology of translation practice-oriented corpora will be presented, and the use of corpora in translation will be positioned within two general model...

  3. Chinese translation norms for 1429 English words

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Yun; Walter J B van Heuven

    2016-01-01

    We present Chinese translation norms for 1429 English words. Chinese-English bilinguals (N=28) were asked to provide the first Chinese translation that came to mind for 1429 English words. The results revealed that 71% of the English words received more than one correct translation indicating the large amount of translation ambiguity when translating from English to Chinese. The relationship between translation ambiguity and word frequency, concreteness and language proficiency was investigat...

  4. Discussion on Misunderstandings of Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莎

    2008-01-01

    Translation is required as a compulsory course for English majors in many universities in China. With the development of globalization, a large number of translators are needed. Therefore, translation teaching is significant for the training of high-qualified translation personnel for the society. The purpose of this study is to give a basic introduction of the misunderstandings existing in translation teaching in China and to offer some advices in hope of promoting translation teaching in China.

  5. Discussion on Misunderstandings of Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莎

    2008-01-01

    Translation is required as a compulsory course for English majors in many universities in China.With the development of globalization,a large number of translators are needed.Therefore, translation teaching is significant for the training of high-qualified translation personnel for the society.The purpose of this study is to give a basic introduction of the misunderstandings existing in translation teaching in China and to offer some advices in hope of promoting translation teaching in China.

  6. On Technical Translation-Usability Strategies for Translating Technical Documentation by Jody Byrne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪辉

    2013-01-01

      Numerous books concerning technical translation deal with specific translation skills, or function as a summary of the au⁃thors’own translation experience with few of them devoted to the theorized study on technical translation. Jody Byrne’s book pio⁃neers in theoretical study on technical translation and is of great value to our Chinese technical translation study.

  7. Developing a Process-Oriented Translation Test for Assessing English-Arabic Basic Translation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellah, Antar Solhy

    2007-01-01

    The study reviews translation validated tests and proposes a process-oriented translation test for assessing basic translation skills for freshmen English majors at the faculty of Education. The proposed test is developed based on the process approach to translating and translation teaching, and is confined to translation from English to Arabic.…

  8. Geometric Reasoning About Translational Motions

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarzer, Fabian

    2007-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problems of planning highly coordinated collision-free translational motions of multiple objects (general polygons or polyhedra) and finding sequences of translations that allow for the removal of one or more objects. These problems are known to be PSPACE-hard in general. Our main focus is therefore on the design and analysis of adaptive algorithms that can cope with practically relevant cases such as tightly interlaced placements. Exact and complete algorithms are i...

  9. A Cultural View on Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜莉莉

    2009-01-01

    The most common difficulty in transhdon studies has traditionally been the dilemma between the historical and synchronic approaches in the analysis and description of the culture of transhdon. Most of works of other culture are read in translation. At the same time,transhtion could provide a way into an analysis for the transmission of culture such as across linguistic boundaries and generations. So readers may know other culture directly or indirectly by translation. The two are interdependent in some extent.

  10. Postcolonial studies and translation theory

    OpenAIRE

    Shamma, Tarek

    2009-01-01

    What distinguishes postcolonial approaches to translation is that they examine intercultural encounters in contexts marked by unequal power relations. Herein lie their strengths as well as their weaknesses. Their major contribution has been to illuminate the role of power in the production and reception of translation. But it is not certain that the postcolonial framework can be applied to other interlingual exchanges with minimal inequality of power relations. Moreover, there is a general te...

  11. Translation and spaces of reading

    OpenAIRE

    Clive Scott

    2014-01-01

    The author discusses relations between the original and translation in terms of imaginary spaces. Target text is understood here as one of the possible images of the source text, from the perspective which could not be accessible to the original. In accordance with the concept presented here, artistic translation can be not so much reconstructed, as conceptually constructed, in the manner of a cubist object. Acts of creative reading are commented on by the author with examples of his own expe...

  12. Interdisciplinary approach in translation didactics

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Jahnke, Hannelore

    2011-01-01

    The question why interdisciplinary research and approach in translation didactics has become essential and of interest to translation studies will be outlined prior to highlighting three to our thinking major disciplines of interest. Those are: 1. cognitive and affective sciences with a specific interest of evaluation methods and the implicit and explicit knowledge; 2. cognitive sciences and neurosciences leading to a more proficient structuring of a course; 3. research in comp...

  13. Style and ideology in translation

    CERN Document Server

    Munday, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, this book investigates the style, or 'voice,' of English language translations of twentieth-century Latin American writing, including fiction, political speeches, and film. Existing models of stylistic analysis, supported at times by computer-assisted analysis, are developed to examine a range of works and writers, selected for their literary, cultural, and ideological importance. The style of the different translators is subjected to a close linguistic investigation within their cultural and ideological framework.

  14. Translating Linguistic Jokes for Dubbing

    OpenAIRE

    Elena ALEKSANDROVA

    2012-01-01

    This study has attempted to establish the possible ways of translating linguistic jokes whendubbing. The study is also intended to identify the most problematic cases of screen translation andthe factors which cause these problems. In order to support such an approach a corpus of 7American and British films has been compiled, including as many as 16 as their various dubbingtranslations into Russian. In the films, almost 12 instances of original linguistic jokes have beenidentified.

  15. Translating Linguistic Jokes for Dubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ALEKSANDROVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has attempted to establish the possible ways of translating linguistic jokes whendubbing. The study is also intended to identify the most problematic cases of screen translation andthe factors which cause these problems. In order to support such an approach a corpus of 7American and British films has been compiled, including as many as 16 as their various dubbingtranslations into Russian. In the films, almost 12 instances of original linguistic jokes have beenidentified.

  16. Equivalence translation of phraseological synonyms.

    OpenAIRE

    Yashchuk, Olena

    2014-01-01

    This article is devoted to phraseological English synonyms, interchangeability and translation equivalence. This paper examines the state of the phenomenon of synonymy in phraseology at present, classifies phraseological units and phraseological synonyms in particular, common translation techniques of idiomatic synonyms, according to different levels of equivalence. The scientific relevance of the work is a synthesis of the linguistic nature of phraseological synonyms, as well as organizing m...

  17. Cutting sequences on translation surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Diana

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the cutting sequences associated to geodesic flow on a large class of translation surfaces, including Bouw-Moller surfaces. We give a combinatorial rule that relates a cutting sequence corresponding to a given trajectory, to the cutting sequence corresponding to the image of that trajectory under the parabolic element of the Veech group. This extends previous work for regular polygon surfaces to a larger class of translation surfaces. We find that the combinatorial rule is the same...

  18. On the Systematicity of Human Translation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    characteristic steps in human translation processes. Based on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles, which are characteristic for different kinds of translators. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis......While translation careers and the translation profession become more globalised and more technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we attempt to outline a method which helps to uncover...

  19. Elementary operations on histograms - translation - contraction - expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple model is proposed for describing the working of analyzer systems which carry out successively the transformations from a physical system to its analogue expression, and then finally to a numerical scale. The model leads to a process for determining the physical zero in which, intentionally, only instrumental adjustments of immediate access are made to intervene. When it is possible to consider that the indispensable knowledge of the correspondence between the physical origin and the numerical scale has been acquired, one can correct by numerical treatment the possible deformations, which affect the recorded distributions in spite of the use of electronic stabilizing systems. With this in view, a programme of very general structure has been written which makes it possible to carry out simple operations of the translation type and homothetic transformations with constant area; the major part of is this report is devoted to a description of this programme and to its expression in MAGE II and FORTRAN IV. (author)

  20. The Complexities of Translating Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Bassnett

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers some of the long-standing debates about translating poetry, and explores the strategies used to bring about creative transposition through a series of examples, including translations from Persian, Korean and Welsh. The author drawsupon her own experiences both as a translator and translation scholar, also as one of the judges of the prestigious Stephen Spender poetry in translation prize for the last decade. The essay argues that the translator of a poem is both its rewriter and its recreator, and highlights the organic metaphor used by poets such as Percy Bysse Shelley proposing that the translation of poetry necessarily involves transplantation into new soil. The essay concludes by pointing out that the two crucial elements in translating poetry are joyfulness and playfulness, which gives the lie to the old negative idea of poetry being what is lost in translation.The translation of poetry is therefore a creative act, since it results in the blossoming of a new poem in a new language.Il saggio prende in esame una parte del dibatto di lunga data sulla traduzione della poesia e analizza le strategie utilizzate per trasporre la creatività attraverso una serie di esempi, tra i quali anche versioni dal persiano, coreano e gallese. L’autrice attinge allapropria esperienza di traduttrice e di studiosa della traduzione, anche in qualità di giudice nel corso dell’ultimo decennio del prestigioso premio per la traduzione poetica Stephen Spender. L’articolo sostiene che il traduttore di poesia è  contemporaneamente ri-scrittore e ri-creatore della stessa, e sottolinea la metafora biologica impiegata da poeti quali Percy Bysse Shelley secondo la quale la traduzione di poesia implica necessariamente il trapianto in un nuovo terreno. Il saggio si conclude mostrando come i due elementi cruciali nella traduzione di poesia siano la gioiosità e la giocosità, le quali sconfessano l’antica concezione della poesia come di

  1. Using example-based machine translation to translate DVD subtitles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian

    allotted to produce the subtitles have both decreased. Therefore, this market is recognised as a potential real-world application of MT. Recent publications have introduced Corpus-Based MT approaches to translate subtitles. An SMT system has been implemented in a Swedish subtitling company to translate...... between Swedish and Danish and Swedish and Norwegian subtitles, with the company already reporting a successful return on their investment. The hybrid EBMT/SMT system used in the current research, on the other hand, remains within the confines of academic research, and the real potential of the system is...... not fully known. In this paper we report on the success to date of using this hybrid system to translate English-German DVD subtitles, based on a human evaluation of the system output using real end-users of the subtitles. We then comment on the developments that are required to make the EBMT...

  2. The interdisciplinary, diachronic and prefigurative translations of Blodlopp

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Ola; Newall, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The video work Blodlopp cut across three disciplinary demarcations and thus required spectatorial translations of (i) applied performance | moving image (ii) immunology | costume work (iii) artistic research | activism The artwork emerged as artistic research (immunological studies, workshops with actors and non-actors, experimental laboratory work with the artists’ own blood) in a double residency at the bio-artistic institute SymbioticA and Fremantle Arts Centre. The project...

  3. Localizing apps a practical guide for translators and translation students

    CERN Document Server

    Roturier, Johann

    2015-01-01

    The software industry has undergone rapid development since the beginning of the twenty-first century. These changes have had a profound impact on translators who, due to the evolving nature of digital content, are under increasing pressure to adapt their ways of working. Localizing Apps looks at these challenges by focusing on the localization of software applications, or apps. In each of the five core chapters, Johann Roturier examines:The role of translation and other linguistic activities in adapting software to the needs of different cultures (localization);The procedures required to prep

  4. Translating the “literary” in literary translation in practice

    OpenAIRE

    David Katan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract - The aim of this paper is to explore the ‘literary’ in literary translation. It begins with a discussion of what makes a text literary, focussing on some very famous literary works which did not (and indeed do not) necessarily fit what is generally considered the literary canon. The features that translators should identify when first reading a text, on the look-out for potential literary value, are then outlined. These features are both textual (covering non-casual language, rhetor...

  5. Comparing spoken and written translation with post-editing in the -> English à Japanese Translation Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Carl, Michael; Lacruz, Isabel; Yamada, Masaru; Aizawa, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Spoken language applications are becoming increasingly operational and are used in many computer applications today. Translation dictation is a mode of translation by which a translator reads a source text and speaks out its translation, instead of typing it. Translation dictation is thus a method of translation situated in between interpretation, where the interpreter hears a text and speaks out the translation (e.g., during conference interpreting) and conventional tran...

  6. Translation Memory System Optimization : How to effectively implement translation memory system optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Ting-Hey

    2015-01-01

    Translation of technical manuals is expensive, especially when a larger company needs to publish manuals for their whole product range in over 20 different languages. When a text segment (i.e. a phrase, sentence or paragraph) is manually translated, we would like to reuse these translated segments in future translation tasks. A translated segment is stored with its corresponding source language, often called a language pair in a Translation Memory System. A language pair in a Translation Memo...

  7. A. Bukeykhanov’s Literary Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandos Smagulov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines one of the burning issues of modern Kazakh literature – translation theory. Having studied A. Bukeykhanov’s translations, the author comes to the conclusion that translation is the integral part of any national literature and culture. As a result, the researcher concludes that literary translation enriches both literature and culture of different nations

  8. Daisaku Ikeda and the Culture of Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Although not functionally multilingual or a translator himself, Daisaku Ikeda has been deeply involved in translation processes, both as a reader and as someone who has produced texts for translation into various languages. This article examines two sources of influence shaping Ikeda's attitude toward translation culture: the flourishing culture…

  9. The Role of Semantics in Translation Recognition: Effects of Number of Translations, Dominance of Translations and Semantic Relatedness of Multiple Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxen, Jannika; Lavaur, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of multiple translations of a word on bilingual processing in three translation recognition experiments during which French-English bilinguals had to decide whether two words were translations of each other or not. In the first experiment, words with only one translation were recognized as translations…

  10. Translation Ambiguity in and out of Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Wintner, Shuly; MacWhinney, Brian; Lavie, Alon

    2011-01-01

    We compare translations of single words, made by bilingual speakers in a laboratory setting, with contextualized translation choices of the same items, made by professional translators and extracted from parallel language corpora. The translation choices in both cases show moderate convergence, demonstrating that decontextualized translation…

  11. Allocation of Cognitive Resources in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    The present study is an empirical investigation of translators' allocation of cognitive resources during the translation process, and it aims at investigating how translators' mental processing resources are put to use during translation. The study bases ts analyses on quantitative eye-tracking and...

  12. Power Relations and Translational Inequality in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianbin, He

    2007-01-01

    Chinese translation to and from Japanese and English verifies the hypothesis that power differentials influence the flow and reception of translations. The Chinese tradition of translation has been characterised by fluency, but some scholars have recently advocated foreignisation for English to Chinese translation, and domestication for Chinese to…

  13. Media Translation and Cultural Soft Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段蕾

    2015-01-01

    Media translation is a kind of applied translation,itis the symbol of a country’s development,and the demonstration of its cultural soft power.This essay mainly talks about how does media translation affect a country’s cultural soft power from three forms of media translation-news,movie and television,newspapers and magazines.

  14. Translator-computer interaction in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Kristine; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Though we lack empirically-based knowledge of the impact of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools on translation processes, it is generally agreed that all professional translators are now involved in some kind of translator-computer interaction (TCI), using O’Brien’s (2012) term. Taking a TCI...

  15. A Taxonomy of Human Translation Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2011-01-01

    While the translation profession becomes increasingly technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we outline a method which helps to uncover characteristics of human translation processes. Based o...... on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis for a felicitous and grounded integration of human machine interaction in translation....

  16. Translation initiation in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsyan, Armen; Hernández, Greco; Meterissian, Sarkis

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancers (CRC) are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in high-income countries. Targeted screening programs have resulted in early treatment and a substantial decrease in mortality. However, treatment strategies for CRC still require improvement. Understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of CRC would provide tools for improving treatment of patients with this disease. It is only recently that deregulation of the protein synthesis apparatus has begun to gain attention as a major player in cancer development and progression. Among the numerous steps of protein synthesis, deregulation of the process of translation initiation appears to play a key role in cancer growth and proliferation. This manuscript discusses a fascinating and rapidly growing field exploring translation initiation as a fundamental component in CRC development and progression and summarizing CRC treatment perspectives based on agents targeting translation initiation. PMID:22418835

  17. Translation as a psycholinguistic phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasyekin, Serhiy

    2010-06-01

    The article sketches the outlines of a theoretical framework for the analysis of translation of literary texts, viewed as psycho-semiotic phenomenon and based on evaluation of earlier attempts in this direction, and on the results of a psycholinguistic empirical study of translations. Central to this framework is the recent insight that the human cerebral hemisphere functional asymmetry somehow plays a role in structuring the fictional text by its author and in its processing by the interpreter. It is argued that the texts of modernism and post-modernism contain information blocks describing a character's perception of events in altered states of consciousness. This model helps to explain how a translator's inappropriate linguistic choice may influence the target language reader's aesthetic reaction. PMID:19894118

  18. Literary Translation and Identity Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabih, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    diaspora, a very few Moroccan writers have been translated into Hebrew. This paper will investigate the issue of reception of two prominent Moroccan/transnational writers: Taher ben Jelloun´s eight translated novels and Mohammed Choukri´s novel Bread alone and the issue of identity politics vis-à-vis the...... particular group of Moroccan Jewish authors in Isreal that either continue writing in French or shifted completely into writing in Hebrew. Due to the increasing influence of this Moroccan-Israeli writers in the cultural and literary Israeli landscape, the issue of the Moroccan Jewish identity has in recent...... years contributed to a change with regard to the perception of Arabic literary works, their selection for translation, readers’ expectations....

  19. History and theory of Scripture translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Loba-Mkole

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article argues for the importance of Bible translations through its historical achievements and theoretical frames of reference. The missionary expansion of Christianity owes its very being to translations. The early Christian communities knew the Bible through the LXX translations while churches today still continue to use various translations. Translations shape Scripture interpretations, especially when a given interpretation depends on a particular translation. A particular interpretation can also influence a given translation. The article shows how translation theories have been developed to clarify and how the transaction source-target is culturally handled. The articles discuss some of these “theoretical frames”, namely the functional equivalence, relevance, literary functional equivalence and intercultural mediation. By means of a historical overview and a reflection on Bible translation theories the article aims to focus on the role of Africa in translation history.

  20. Rhythm as Knowledge-Translation, Knowledge as Rhythm-Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Robinson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores Henri Meschonnic’s conception of rhythm as a vehicle of subjectivization—but specifically of intersubjectization, and thus as a key channel of knowledge transfer or knowledge translation. Because we experience rhythm in time, knowledge-translation that comes to us as rhythm-as-intersubjectivization is experienced serially; because it is a phenomenology of body-becoming-mind, it is experienced kinesthetically-becoming-affectively-becoming-conatively, which is to say, in the model this paper develops, “icotically”—through the collective move toward the normativization of opinion as “truth” or “fact”. Key to knowledge-translation-as-rhythm is the ear, which is the icotic agent of the group in each individual, that which helps us hear style as truth. The first question for knowledge-translation, how many subjects it creates—one for each text (source and target? one for each reader? one for each reading?—is superseded by the icotic take on subjectivization, which collectivizes it, meaning that the exact number is less important than the social entelechies in which subjects participate.

  1. Wiki-Translator: Multilingual Experiments for In-Domain Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tufis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of using comparable corpora for improving translation quality for statistical machine translators have been already shown by various researchers. The usual approach is starting with a baseline system, trained on out-of-domain parallel corpora, followed by its adaptation to the domain in which new translations are needed. The adaptation to a new domain, especially for a narrow one, is based on data extracted from comparable corpora from the new domain or from an as close as possible one. This article reports on a slightly different approach: building an SMT system entirely from comparable data for the domain of interest. Certainly, the approach is feasible if the comparable corpora are large enough to extract SMT useful data in sufficient quantities for a reliable training. The more comparable corpora, the better the results are. Wikipedia is definitely a very good candidate for such an experiment. We report on mass experiments showing significant improvements over a baseline system built from highly similar (almost parallel text fragments extracted from Wikipedia. The improvements, statistically significant, are related to what we call the level of translational similarity between extracted pairs of sentences. The experiments were performed for three language pairs: Spanish-English, German-English and Romanian-English, based on sentence pairs extracted from the entire dumps of Wikipedia as of December 2012. Our experiments and comparison with similar work show that adding indiscriminately more data to a training corpus is not necessarily a good thing in SMT.

  2. Language and culture in translation

    OpenAIRE

    Tramontana, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of this project is the relationship between language and culture and the relation to the process of translating a text from its original language to a foreign language such as Italian. The text analyzed in this project is a fragment from Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire by J.K Rowling as an example of the attempt to maintain the different cultural background feature in a writing text when translated. The background theories have been collected from three main article...

  3. A syntax-oriented translator

    CERN Document Server

    Ingerman, Peter Zilahy

    1966-01-01

    A Syntax-Oriented Translator focuses on the field of programming and the characteristics and functions of compilers and translators.The book first offers information on the metasyntactic language and the details of a parsing processor. Discussions focus on processing, recovery, and output sections, detailed flow-chart of the parsing processor, parsing form of a grammar, canonical ordering, and the metasyntactic language in general. The text then elaborates on some extensions to the metasyntactic language and metasemantic and metapragmatic language, including punctuation marks and format contro

  4. Translation as human-computer interaction

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to characterise translation as a form of human-computer interaction. The evolution of translator-computer interaction is explored and the challenges and benefits are enunciated. The concept of cognitive ergonomics is drawn on to argue for a more caring and inclusive approach towards the translator by developers of translation technology. A case is also made for wider acceptance by the translation community of the benefits of the technology at their disposal and for more human...

  5. Translation and human-computer interaction

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to characterise translation as a form of human-computer interaction. The evolution of translator-computer interaction is explored and the challenges and benefits are enunciated. The concept of cognitive ergonomics is drawn on to argue for a more caring and inclusive approach towards the translator by developers of translation technology. A case is also made for wider acceptance by the translation community of the benefits of the technology at their disposal and for more human...

  6. TRANSLATION OF THE HOLY QURAN IN RUSSIAN

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamadzade, Sh

    2013-01-01

    Translation of religious books including «the Holy Koran» has always made translators encounter at the Source Language (SL) comparing Target Language (TL) different practical difficulties. In this regard Russian translators of Koran were no exception. Over the past three centuries more than ten translations of Koran has been published in Russia. Each of them contains special characters, reflecting the philosophy and knowledge of its translator. This article provides an analysis of three trans...

  7. Chapter 16: Text Mining for Translational Bioinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Bretonnel Cohen, K; Hunter, Lawrence E.

    2013-01-01

    Text mining for translational bioinformatics is a new field with tremendous research potential. It is a subfield of biomedical natural language processing that concerns itself directly with the problem of relating basic biomedical research to clinical practice, and vice versa. Applications of text mining fall both into the category of T1 translational research-translating basic science results into new interventions-and T2 translational research, or translational research for public health. P...

  8. Is translation always an intercultural process?

    OpenAIRE

    Rovira-Esteva, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This presentation problematizes the idea translation as an example of intercultural exchange by carrying out a contrastive analysis of textual and paratextual elements of three translations of Chun Sue's (春树) Beijing wawa (北京娃娃) (2002). The presentation concludes there is a distortion of the original's identity through the process of translation, especially in the English version. It is shown how the ethics of translation behind the English translation silences the author's voice, both the ve...

  9. Cultural Awareness in Chinese-English Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Jinhong Yu

    2013-01-01

    There are very important cultural factors in translation practice, especially in Chinese-English translation. The learners’ cultural awareness is of utmost importance in Chinese-English translation. Translation refers to the interaction between two languages, and also the communication between two cultures. However, owing to the differences between Chinese and western cultures, it is not easy for translators to convey the exact meaning of the languages without good understanding of the ...

  10. Techniques of the Translation of Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Geng

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the basic principle of the translation of the culture and explores some techniques of the translation of culture. It also studies the impact of cultural differences on translation in several aspects. Language is a social behavior that reflects culture. Being ignorant of the target language culture, we would be a failure in translating, thus translating a langue into another foreign language necessarily involves culture integration. It is not enough to be aware of the im...

  11. Film remakes, the black sheep of translation

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Film remakes have often been neglected by translation studies in favour of other forms of audiovisual translation such as subtitling and dubbing. Yet, as this article will argue, remakes are also a form of cinematic translation. Beginning with a survey of previous, ambivalent approaches to the status of remakes, it proposes that remakes are multimodal, adaptive translations: they translate the many modes of the film being remade and offer a reworking of that source text. The multimodal nature...

  12. Cultural Identity and Otherness in Literary Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞凌

    2011-01-01

    Culture and language are close bounded.Cultural similarities provide a basis for translation and cultural exchange.It is widely agreed that cultural differences pose the greatest difficulties in translation.Cultural difference can be categorized into cultural blank and cultural conflict.When translating cultural otherness,different translators employ different translating strategies which are determined by translators’ idiosyncrasy,either to preserve or transform cultural images.

  13. Cross-cultural equivalence in translations of the oral health impact profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEntee, Michael I; Brondani, Mario

    2016-04-01

    The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) has been translated for comparisons across cultural boundaries. This report on a systematic search of literature published between 1994 and 2014 aims to identify an acceptable method of translating psychometric instruments for cross-cultural equivalence, and how they were used to translate the OHIP. An electronic search used the keywords 'cultural adaptation', 'validation', 'Oral Health Impact Profile' and 'OHIP' in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases supplemented by reference links and grey literature. It included papers on methods of cross-cultural translation and translations of the OHIP for dentulous adults and adolescents, and excluded papers without translational details or limited to specific disorders. The search identified eight steps to cross-cultural equivalence, and 36 (plus three supplemental) translations of the OHIP. The steps involve assessment of (i) forward/backward translation by committee, (ii) constructs, (iii) item interpretations, (iv) interval scales, (v) convergent validity, (vi) discriminant validity, (vii) responsiveness to clinical change and (viii) pilot tests. Most (>60%) of the translations involved forward/backward translation by committee, item interpretations, interval scales, convergence, discrimination and pilot tests, but fewer assessed the underlying theory (47%) or responsiveness to clinical change (28%). An acceptable method for translating quality of life-related psychometric instruments for cross-cultural equivalence has eight procedural steps, and most of the 36 OHIP translations involved at least five of the steps. Only translations to Saudi Arabian Arabic, Chinese Mandarin, German and Japanese used all eight steps to claim cultural equivalence with the original OHIP. PMID:26471978

  14. Literary translation and quality assessment analysis – its significance in translation training

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Beatriz Maria

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight the role of translation quality assessment in translation training so as to develop students’ translation competence and skills to face translation problems. An analysis to assess literary translation quality is proposed before proceeding to discuss its pedagogical implementation.

  15. (Con)figuring gender in Bible translation: Cultural, translational and gender critical intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy Punt

    2014-01-01

    The gendered intersection of cultural studies and Bible translation is under acknowledged. Accounting for gender criticism in translation work requires, besides responsible theory and practice of translation, also attention to interwoven gender critical aspects. After a brief investigation of the intersections between biblical, translation and gender studies, translation in a few Pauline texts with bearing on gender and sexuality are investigated.

  16. (Configuring gender in Bible translation: Cultural, translational and gender critical intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Punt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The gendered intersection of cultural studies and Bible translation is under acknowledged. Accounting for gender criticism in translation work requires, besides responsible theory and practice of translation, also attention to interwoven gender critical aspects. After a brief investigation of the intersections between biblical, translation and gender studies, translation in a few Pauline texts with bearing on gender and sexuality are investigated.

  17. From Polarity to Plurality in Translation Scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolla Karimzadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of the literature in translation studies shows that translation scholarship can be discussed in 3 Macro-levels including 1 Corpus-based studies, 2 Protocol-based studies, and 3 Systems- based studies. Researchers in the corpus-based studies test the hypothesis about the universals of translation. They also try to identify translation norms and regular linguistic patterns. This scholarship aims at showing that the language of translation is different from that of non-translation. The other purpose is to identify the techniques and strategies adopted by the translators. In protocol –based studies, the researchers study the mental activities and the individual behaviors of the translators while translating. They aim to describe the behavior of professional translators (versus translator trainees during the process of translation in a bid to identify how they chunk the source text (unit of translation and to describe how the translation trainees develop their translation competence. These studies are longitudinal for the reason that they aim to investigate the change of intended behaviors in the subjects of the study. Like corpus-based studies, they are experimental and data for analysis are collected by various methods including the translators’ verbal report, keystroke logging, eye tracking, and so on. Recently, in a method called “triangulation”, they combine the above-mentioned methods of data collection to test their hypotheses on a stronger experimental basis. To collect the data, they also employ the methods used in neurology (for example the technology of Electroencephalogram in order to obtain information on the physiological processes in the brains of the translators while translating. And finally in the systems-based studies, the researchers analyze more extended systems of production, distribution, and consumption of translations and their impacts on the target culture in a specific socio-cultural context. Differentiating

  18. Evaluating Arabic to English Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith S. Hadla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Online text machine translation systems are widely used throughout the world freely. Most of these systems use statistical machine translation (SMT that is based on a corpus full with translation examples to learn from them how to translate correctly. Online text machine translation systems differ widely in their effectiveness, and therefore we have to fairly evaluate their effectiveness. Generally the manual (human evaluation of machine translation (MT systems is better than the automatic evaluation, but it is not feasible to be used. The distance or similarity of MT candidate output to a set of reference translations are used by many MT evaluation approaches. This study presents a comparison of effectiveness of two free online machine translation systems (Google Translate and Babylon machine translation system to translate Arabic to English. There are many automatic methods used to evaluate different machine translators, one of these methods; Bilingual Evaluation Understudy (BLEU method. BLEU is used to evaluate translation quality of two free online machine translation systems under consideration. A corpus consists of more than 1000 Arabic sentences with two reference English translations for each Arabic sentence is used in this study. This corpus of Arabic sentences and their English translations consists of 4169 Arabic words, where the number of unique Arabic words is 2539. This corpus is released online to be used by researchers. These Arabic sentences are distributed among four basic sentence functions (declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, and imperative. The experimental results show that Google machine translation system is better than Babylon machine translation system in terms of precision of translation from Arabic to English.

  19. Livestock models in translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, James A; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    This issue of the ILAR Journal focuses on livestock models in translational medicine. Livestock models of selected human diseases present important advantages as compared with rodent models for translating fundamental breakthroughs in biology to useful preventatives and therapeutics for humans. Livestock reflect the complexity of applying medical advances in an outbred species. In many cases, the pathogenesis of infectious, metabolic, genetic, and neoplastic diseases in livestock species more closely resembles that in humans than does the pathogenesis of rodent models. Livestock models also provide the advantage of similar organ size and function and the ability to serially sample an animal throughout the study period. Research using livestock models for human disease often benefits not only human health but animal health and food production as well. This issue of the ILAR Journal presents information on translational research using livestock models in two broad areas: microbiology and infectious disease (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, mycobacterial infections, influenza A virus infection, vaccine development and testing, the human microbiota) and metabolic, neoplastic, and genetic disorders (stem cell therapy, male germ line cell biology, pulmonary adenocarcinoma, muscular dystrophy, wound healing). In addition, there is a manuscript devoted to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees' responsibilities for reviewing research using livestock models. Conducting translational research using livestock models requires special facilities and researchers with expertise in livestock. There are many institutions in the world with experienced researchers and facilities designed for livestock research; primarily associated with colleges of agriculture and veterinary medicine or government laboratories. PMID:25991694

  20. Strategies Employed in Idiom Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛

    2008-01-01

    Idioms which are regarded as the essence of language have drawn great attention from scholars.Most of them just focus Oil its cultural consideration.In this thesis the author intends to make a comprehensive study on practical strategies employed in idiom translation.

  1. Translation-invariant noncommutative renormalization

    CERN Document Server

    Tanasa, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    We review here the construction of a translation-invariant scalar model which was proved to be renormalizable on Moyal space. Some general considerations on non-local renormalizability are given. Finally, we present perspectives for generalizing these quantum field theoretical techniques to group field theory, a new setting for quantum gravity.

  2. Localising, Translating and Stretching Conduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    translated in and across nexus of practice. In order to do this, conversation analysis (CA) and mediated discourse analysis (MDA) are drawn upon in combination with actor-network theory (ANT) and contemporary theories of space, governmentality and agential realism. I will assume a knowledge of conversation...

  3. TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH IN NEUROLOGY: DEMENTIA

    OpenAIRE

    Honig, Lawrence S.

    2012-01-01

    Dementia disorders are characterized by clinicopathological criteria. Molecular understandings of these disorders, based on immunohistochemical studies, biochemical investigations, genetic approaches, and animal models have resulted in advances in diagnosis. Likewise translational research has allowed application of increasing basic scientific knowledge regarding neurodegeneration, to the rational development of new investigational therapies based on current understanding of disease pathogene...

  4. Genetic Analysis of Chloroplast Translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkan, Alice

    2005-08-15

    The assembly of the photosynthetic apparatus requires the concerted action of hundreds of genes distributed between the two physically separate genomes in the nucleus and chloroplast. Nuclear genes coordinate this process by controlling the expression of chloroplast genes in response to developmental and environmental cues. However, few regulatory factors have been identified. We used mutant phenotypes to identify nuclear genes in maize that modulate chloroplast translation, a key control point in chloroplast gene expression. This project focused on the nuclear gene crp1, required for the translation of two chloroplast mRNAs. CRP1 is related to fungal proteins involved in the translation of mitochondrial mRNAs, and is the founding member of a large gene family in plants, with {approx}450 members. Members of the CRP1 family are defined by a repeated 35 amino acid motif called a ''PPR'' motif. The PPR motif is closely related to the TPR motif, which mediates protein-protein interactions. We and others have speculated that PPR tracts adopt a structure similar to that of TPR tracts, but with a substrate binding surface adapted to bind RNA instead of protein. To understand how CRP1 influences the translation of specific chloroplast mRNAs, we sought proteins that interact with CRP1, and identified the RNAs associated with CRP1 in vivo. We showed that CRP1 is associated in vivo with the mRNAs whose translation it activates. To explore the functions of PPR proteins more generally, we sought mutations in other PPR-encoding genes: mutations in the maize PPR2 and PPR4 were shown to disrupt chloroplast ribosome biogenesis and chloroplast trans-splicing, respectively. These and other results suggest that the nuclear-encoded PPR family plays a major role in modulating the expression of the chloroplast genome in higher plants.

  5. ERRORS AND DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING LEGAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, CHIRILA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.

  6. Translating a health service intervention into a rural setting: lessons learned

    OpenAIRE

    Dent, Elsa; Hoon, Elizabeth; Kitson, Alison; Karnon, Jonathan; Newbury, Jonathan; Harvey, Gillian; Gill, Tiffany K; Gillis, Lauren; Beilby, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Background Limited research exists on the process of applying knowledge translation (KT) methodology to a rural-based population health intervention. Methods This study reports on the implementation and translational stages of a previously described Co-creating KT (Co-KT) framework in the rural town of Port Lincoln, South Australia (population: 14,000). The Co-KT framework involves five steps: (i) collecting local data; (ii) building stakeholder relationships; (iii) designing an evidence-base...

  7. Shared Representations and the Translation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael

    The purpose of the present chapter is to investigate automated processing during translation. We provide evidence from a translation priming study which suggests that translation involves activation of shared lexico-semantic and syntactical representations, i.e., the activation of features of both...... source and target language items which share one single cognitive representation. We argue that activation of shared representations facilitates automated processing. The chapter revises the literal translation hypothesis and the monitor model (Ivir 1981; Toury 1995; Tirkkonen-Condit 2005), and re......-defines it in terms of findings from translation process research. On the basis of the evidence, we propose a recursive model of translation....

  8. Shared Representations and the Translation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to investigate automated processing during translation. We provide evidence from a translation priming study which suggests that translation involves activation of shared lexico-semantic and syntactical representations, i.e., the activation of features of both...... source and target language items which share one single cognitive representation. We argue that activation of shared representations facilitates automated processing. The paper revises the literal translation hypothesis and the monitor model (Ivir 1981; Toury 1995; Tirkkonen-Condit 2005), and re......-defines it in terms of findings from translation process research. On the basis of the evidence, we propose a recursive model of translation....

  9. Intercultural Communication and Chinese-English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Yong-ju

    2014-01-01

    Translation is formally a process of language transferring but in essence a process of intercultural communication. Trans-lation serves as a bridge of communication between people from different cultures. Language, culture and communication form the basis of translation. Successful translation requires proficiency in languages and complete understanding two relevant cultures. This paper elaborates on five common cultural obstacles hindering CE translation:cultural differences, cultural conflicts, cultural-loaded words or expressions, cultural defaults, and cultural images and then gives corresponding translation solutions.

  10. The Translation of English News Headlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xiaona

    2013-01-01

    News headline translation is one of the most important types of news translation. As news headline is strongly purposeful, the translation of it must be achieved by some special methods. The history of news headline translation is almost as long as that of newspapers, but it has not been attached enough attention to. In the last twenty years, Chinese scholars of this field have paid much greater attention to news headline translation. Concerned studies of principles of news headline translation have also been made remarkable progress.

  11. Translation as a critical practice:using retranslation when teaching translation

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the question of how to relate translation theory to translation practice when teaching translation. Retranslation is viewed as a critical practice (kydd 2011) that integrates critical engagement with existing translations and theory into practice. This critical reflexion is part of translation competence, both in Pym’s (2003) minimalist formulation and the European Master’s in Translation guidelines. Retranslation can therefore be seen to help students achieve the sort ...

  12. Translator-computer interaction in action:An observational process study of computer-aided translation

    OpenAIRE

    Bundgaard, Kristine; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Though we lack empirically-based knowledge of the impact of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools on translation processes, it is generally agreed that all professional translators are now involved in some kind of translator-computer interaction (TCI), using O’Brien’s (2012) term. Taking a TCI perspective, this paper investigates the relationship between machines and humans in the field of translation, analysing a CAT process in which machine-translation (MT) technology was integrated into a...

  13. On the translation skills of English proverbs from the factors affecting the translation of English proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟建

    2016-01-01

    English proverb, the treasure of the English language, is the crystallization of English nation. The thesis introduces several methods to the translation of English proverb. The paper concludes the definition of English proverbs. English proverb has its own characteristics in form and content. This thesis also analyses the factors that affect the translation of English proverb. According to these factors, three translation methods are discussed in this paper, which are word-for-word translation, free translation, and applying translation.

  14. A Study on Liang Shiqiu’s Translation Theory from the Prospective of Translation Sociology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning

    2015-01-01

    Translation activities, social environment and translators’individual particularities are combined in translation sociolo⁃gy which are provided broader theoretical perspective for translation studies. In this paper, Liang Shiqiu’s translation theory is ana⁃lyzed from the perspective of translation sociology and there should be a new perspective which has expanded in the research of Li⁃ang Shiqiu’s translation theory.

  15. Semi-Automatic Translation of Medical Terms from English to Swedish : SNOMED CT in Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare has been overseeing translations of the international clinical terminology SNOMED CT from English to Swedish. This study was performed to find whether semi-automatic methods of translation could produce a satisfactory translation while requiring fewer resources than manual translation. Using the medical English-Swedish dictionary TermColl translations of select subsets of SNOMED CT were produced by ways of translation memory and statistical tra...

  16. A MEMS Micro-Translation Stage with Long Linear Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Cynthia K.; English, J. M.; Nordin, G. P.; Ashley, P. R.; Abushagur, M. A. G.

    2004-01-01

    A MEMS Micro-Translation Stage (MTS) actuator concept has been developed that is capable of traveling long distances, while maintaining low power, low voltage, and accuracy as required by many applications, including optical coupling. The Micro-Translation Stage (MTS) uses capacitive electrostatic forces in a linear motor application, with stationary stators arranged linearly on both sides of a channel, and matching rotors on a moveable shuttle. This creates a force that allows the shuttle to be pulled along the channel. It is designed to carry 100 micron-sized elements on the top surface, and can travel back and forth in the channel, either in a stepping fashion allowing many interim stops, or it can maintain constant adjustable speeds for a controlled scanning motion. The MTS travel range is limited only by the size of the fabrication wafer. Analytical modeling and simulations were performed based on the fabrication process, to assure the stresses, friction and electrostatic forces were acceptable to allow successful operation of this device. The translation forces were analyzed to be near 0.5 micron N, with a 300 micron N stop-to-stop time of 11.8 ms.

  17. Translation and Poetry: Preface to Lost in Translation, the collection of poems and translations by Yihai Chen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan Bassnett

    2010-01-01

    @@ The American poet Robert Frost (1874-1963) suggested that poetry gets lost in translation, an opinion that unfortunately has been widely publicised. This view, of course, is a conceit: not only does poetry NOT always get lost in translation, often it is through translation that poetry flourishes. For translation is one of the principal ways in which a literature can reinvigorate itself, can look outwards at other forms of writing and discover and then develop those forms.

  18. Translating the “literary” in literary translation in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Katan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The aim of this paper is to explore the ‘literary’ in literary translation. It begins with a discussion of what makes a text literary, focussing on some very famous literary works which did not (and indeed do not necessarily fit what is generally considered the literary canon. The features that translators should identify when first reading a text, on the look-out for potential literary value, are then outlined. These features are both textual (covering non-casual language, rhetorical features and equivalences and contextual (connotations, implicatures, intratextual and culture-bound associations. The paper then discusses changing translation theory and practice, in particular illustrating points with comments made by translators and theorists in this book and elsewhere. Importance is also given to the profession itself, to literary translator beliefs about their role, the changing importance of the model reader and to changing beliefs about accepted style, making reference also to results of a global survey recently carried out on the subject. Riassunto -L’articolo si propone di esplorare il “letterario” nella traduzione letteraria. Si parte da una discussione di ciò che rende letterario un testo, facendo riferimento ad alcune opere letterarie molto famose che non rientravano (e non rientrano tuttora in ciò che viene generalmente ritenuto il canone letterario. Si definiscono, poi, gli aspetti che i traduttori dovrebbero individuare leggendo un testo per la prima volta nella prospettiva di ricerca di un potenziale valore letterario. Tali aspetti sono sia testuali (il linguaggio ‘non casuale’, le figure retoriche e le equivalenze sia contestuali (connotazioni, implicature, associazioni intratestuali e legate alla cultura. L’articolo discute, poi, l’evolversi della teoria e pratica della traduzione, illustrando in particolare alcuni punti commentati da traduttori e teorici di questo volume e al di fuori. Si

  19. Theory of Creative Treason and Drama Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-ting

    2015-01-01

    Due to the specific characteristic which is related to stage performance, the academic researches of drama translation have so far been limited. Before the mid 1970s, discussions about drama translation were mainly limited to the study of the trans⁃lated text of drama by applying the prescribed method of comparative analysis in order to explore the equivalence between the translation and the original. While after the mid 1970s, researches on drama translation started to be done by applying the descrip⁃tive method. Some translation theorists and scholars began to study the translated text of drama on the background of target lan⁃guage culture, which had made fruitful achievements. Recently, studies on drama translation mostly paid attention to such issues as the nature of drama translation, the purpose of drama translation, the characteristics of the translated text of drama, performabili⁃ty and orality in drama translation, transformation of dramatic culture and the status of drama translators, etc. By applying Xie Tianzhen’s theory of creative treason, this drama translation can be studied from a new perspective.

  20. The curious case of legal translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cornelius

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the nature and scope of legal translation which is an under-researched area in South Africa. In this article the author predicts that the demand for competent legal translators will increase in the future, evidenced by a recent call by the Department of Justice and Constitutional Development(DoJ&CD, inviting applications for ten positions for “legislative language practitioners”. However, legal translation differs substantially from general translation in the sense that legal translation is subject to heavy restrictions at all levels and legal considerations are of paramount importance in a country such as South Africa, which provides for eleven official languages. Legal translation involves different legal languages, different legal systems and different cultural systems that require specialised knowledge and skills of the translator. The aim of this article is to investigate the core competencies and skills the legal translator must have; to consider the balance between legal competence and translation or linguistic competence; and to propose a discourse-analytical method of source text analysis, developed by Bhatia as a simplification strategy, as this may be a powerful tool in the training of legal translators in South Africa. Recent developments in South Africa relating to the Department of Arts and Culture’s obligation to translate legislation into all official languages, have important consequences for legal translation in general and the training of legal translators in particular.

  1. Translation Competence and Translation Performance: Lexical, Syntactic and Textual Patterns in Student Translations of a Specialized EU Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Adrienn

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study aiming to reveal the recurring patterns of lexical, syntactic and textual errors in student translations of a specialized EU genre from English into Hungarian. By comparing the student translations to the official translation of the text, this article uncovers the most frequent errors that students made…

  2. Translational research on advanced therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Belardelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  3. Translating connexin biology into therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, David L; Phillips, Anthony R; Duft, Bradford J; Kim, Yeri; Green, Colin R

    2016-02-01

    It is 45 years since gap junctions were first described. Universities face increasing commercial pressures and declining federal funding, with governments and funding foundations showing greater interest in gaining return on their investments. This review outlines approaches taken to translate gap junction research to clinical application and the challenges faced. The need for commercialisation is discussed and key concepts behind research patenting briefly described. Connexin channel roles in disease and injury are also discussed, as is identification of the connexin hemichannel as a therapeutic target which appears to play a role in both the start and perpetuation of the inflammasome pathway. Furthermore connexin hemichannel opening results in vascular dieback in acute injury and chronic disease. Translation to human indications is illustrated from the perspective of one connexin biotechnology company, CoDa Therapeutics, Inc. PMID:26688335

  4. Research Methods in Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭芳芳; 常利娜; 李冬媛; 郝继亭

    2008-01-01

    My essay will present an analysis ofthe features of a text that may be parficular]y challenging for translation into Chinese.Though various text-linguistic models can be used to analyze the source text,I would concentrate on the aspects of collocation and idiomaticity.Furthermore,the difficulties encountered as a result of differences in the lexicaI patterning of the source and target languages would be explored

  5. An Assessment Tool Translation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Joan L.; Andres, Patricia L.; Haley, Stephen M; Paddock, Susan M.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2003-01-01

    Policymakers hoped to substitute a new, multi-purpose, functional assessment instrument, the minimum data set post-acute care (MDS-PAC), into the planned prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient rehabilitation hospitals. PPS design requires a large database linking treatment costs with measures of the need for care, so the PPS was designed using the functional independence measure (FIM™) database linked to Medicare hospital claims. An accurate translation from the MDS-PAC items to FIM™-...

  6. Cognitive Mechanism for Metaphor Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Wang

    2013-01-01

    This research carries out a detailed study on the cognitive mechanism for translation of metaphors, which involves dual phases of comprehension and reproduction. Recognized as the basis of appropriate rendering, a proper comprehension of the target metaphor is highly appreciated. Moreover, there are various factors in the comprehension of metaphor, namely, the semantic discrepancy, in the discerning of sense, cultural differences, individual characteristics in image conjuring, and the role of...

  7. The ubiquity of conservative translations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2012), s. 666-678. ISSN 1755-0203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : conservative translation * deductive system * nonclassical logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2012 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8757256

  8. Methodological considerations when translating "burnout"

    OpenAIRE

    Allison Squires; Catherine Finlayson; Lauren Gerchow; Cimiotti, Jeannie P.; Anne Matthews; Rene Schwendimann; Peter Griffiths; Reinhard Busse; Maude Heinen; Tomasz Brzostek; Maria Teresa Moreno-Casbas; Aiken, Linda H.; Walter Sermeus

    2014-01-01

    No study has systematically examined how researchers address cross-cultural adaptation of burnout. We conducted an integrative review to examine how researchers had adapted the instruments to the different contexts. We reviewed the Content Validity Indexing scores for the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey from the 12-country comparative nursing workforce study, RN4CAST. In the integrative review, multiple issues related to translation were found in existing studies. In the cross...

  9. Cultural Intervention in English and Chinese Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Wei-he

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the author defines translation as an act of communication in a cross-cultural context, the main aim of which is to establish communication between members of different cultures in accordance with previously determined communicative target purpose. He then discusses the unavoidable cultural intervention in the process of translation. Cases in aesthetic preference, political involvement and ethical tradition are studied to prove his proposition that translation is not only linguistic transfer, but also cultural transfer, and that "the more inclusive the target culture is, the closer the translation is to the source culture, the more exclusive the target culture is, the closer the translation must be to the target culture." In the last part of the paper, he proposes strategies of translation (especially for the translation between English and Chinese) with which we can tackle the cultural barriers in the process of translation, i.e. distortion,ignoring and coinage.

  10. The translational metaphor in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Lewis

    2015-02-01

    The translational metaphor in psychoanalysis refers to the traditional method of interpreting or restating the meaning of verbal and behavioral acts of a patient in other, presumably more accurate terms that specify the forces and conflicts underlying symptoms. The analyst translates the clinical phenomenology to explain its true meaning and origin. This model of analytic process has been challenged from different vantage points by authors presenting alternative conceptions of therapeutic action. Although the temptation to find and make interpretations of clinical material is difficult to resist, behaving in this way places the analyst in the position of a teacher or diagnostician, seeking a specific etiology, which has not proven fruitful. Despite its historical appeal, I argue that the translational model is a misleading and anachronistic version of what actually occurs in psychoanalysis. I emphasize instead the capacity of analysis to promote the emergence of new forms of representation, or figuration, from the unconscious, using the work of Lacan, Laplanche, and Modell to exemplify this reformulation, and provide clinical illustrations of how it looks in practice. PMID:25220412

  11. Expertise and Environment in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Muñoz Martin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of the research team Expertise and Environment in Translation (PETRA, Spanish acronym is to study as many aspects of the translation process as possible under the same scope. PETRA is interested in expertise and its development, considers intuitive problem-solving in translation as related to emergence and construction of meaning, and interprets skills acquisition and development as routine interiorization and improvement of mental efficiency. Characteristic of PETRA's approach are homogeneous research methodologies through internal standards, and theoretical feedback from cognitive linguistics, situated and embodied cognition, and social constructivism. Research methods include pilot testing, subjects' and texts' profiling, test repetition, non-invasive data collection, previous typing period, length and frequency to determine pause relevance, post-test questionnaires, data triangulation, blind product cross-evaluation, statistical and ecological validity checks. Results of Martín de León (2003, Lachat (2003, De Rooze (2003, Gómez (2006 and Conde (2009, and ongoing projects by Castro, Marín, Muñoz, and Perea are summarized.

  12. Translational Control during Calicivirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royall, Elizabeth; Locker, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of the strategies developed by caliciviruses to subvert or regulate the host protein synthesis machinery to their advantage. As intracellular obligate parasites, viruses strictly depend on the host cell resources to produce viral proteins. Thus, many viruses have developed strategies that regulate the function of the host protein synthesis machinery, often leading to preferential translation of viral mRNAs. Caliciviruses lack a 5' cap structure but instead have a virus-encoded VPg protein covalently linked to the 5' end of their mRNAs. Furthermore, they encode 2-4 open reading frames within their genomic and subgenomic RNAs. Therefore, they use alternative mechanisms for translation whereby VPg interacts with eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) to act as a proteinaceous cap-substitute, and some structural proteins are produced by reinitiation of translation events. This review discusses our understanding of these key mechanisms during caliciviruses infection as well as recent insights into the global regulation of eIF4E activity. PMID:27104553

  13. Impact of Deconstruction on Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄浩

    2009-01-01

    Deconstruction theory is a translation theory which is worthy our great attention. This paper expounds the effects of deconstruction theory on translation theory and practice, points out the limitations of the theory, and puts forward the necessity to construct a new translation standard after deconstruction. The ideas and methods it illustrated bring us many new inspirations, which have important reference value and significance to reconstruct Chinese translation theory.

  14. Assessment in translation studies : research needs

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Nicole; Hurtado Albir, Amparo

    2001-01-01

    On the whole, most research into assessment in translation only concentrates on one area — evaluation of translations of literary and sacred texts — and other areas are ignored. In fact, this field of research includes two other areas, each with its own characteristics: assessment of professionals at work and assessment of trainee translators.Starting with this presupposition, we describe the three areas and analyze the notion of translation assessment, so as to define the characteristics of ...

  15. AUROBINDO'S PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL THEORIES OF TRANSLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja Rani Jain

    2014-01-01

    The theory of translation in the Indian languages has always been something essential in practice. In the ancient period, no specific theory of translation was recorded since creative writing and translation were never considered as two separate processes in India. But with the passage of time some difference has been noticed in this course as many individual translators have recorded their experiences and reflections. Sri Aurobindo's development of psycho spiritual theory...

  16. Treatment of Cultural Differences in Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    With more and more frequent interaction between China and the West, translation plays an extremely important role in communication. Translation is no longer viewed as simple linguistic transference between two languages; cultural factors should be taken into consideration in translation process. This paper tries to analyze how the cultural differences should be dealt with in translation process. Three concrete methods are proposed to deal with different kinds of cultural factors: literal tran...

  17. The English Film Title Translation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Xuedong Shi

    2014-01-01

    Based on the research of characteristics, functions, translation principles and methods of English film titles, this paper discusses the English film title translation and mainly focus on English film titles domestication and foreignization translation. Good English film should be attractive, attracting the audience to watch the film. A good English film title has a value of artistic, aesthetic and commercial. Cultural translation leads to translators’ using domestication, foreignizatio...

  18. Textual properties, communicative clues and the translator

    OpenAIRE

    Gutt, Dr Ernst-August

    2000-01-01

    This paper builds on the relevance-theoretic account of communication. It attempts to show that the question whether a textual feature of the original should be represented in the translated text as a "communicative clue" depends on a) the intentions of the original communicator and b) the translator's notion of what his or her task is. Regarding the impact of the translation, it also depends on how well the translator's intentions match the expectations of the audience.

  19. Doing Translation History in EEBO and ECCO

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Kristine J.

    2006-01-01

    Burgeoning interest in the history of translation is evident in the recent publication of such works as the ongoing 5-volume Oxford History of Literary Translation into English (Oxford University Press, 2005- ) and the Encyclopedia of Literary Translation Into English (Fitzroy Dearborn, 2000). The fact that massive corpora of English texts are now available as EEBO and ECCO opens up possibilities to take this research to a new level and move it beyond the realm of literary translation where ...

  20. The curious case of legal translation

    OpenAIRE

    E. Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the nature and scope of legal translation which is an under-researched area in South Africa. In this article the author predicts that the demand for competent legal translators will increase in the future, evidenced by a recent call by the Department of Justice and Constitutional Development(DoJ&CD), inviting applications for ten positions for “legislative language practitioners”. However, legal translation differs substantially from general translation in the sense ...

  1. Single-Molecule Analysis of Translational Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, Alexey; CHEN, JIN; O’Leary, Seán; Tsai, Albert; Puglisi, Joseph D.

    2012-01-01

    Decades of extensive biochemical and biophysical research have outlined the mechanism of translation. Rich structural studies have provided detailed snapshots of the translational machinery at all phases of the translation cycle. However, the relationship between structural dynamics, composition, and function remains unknown. The multistep nature of each stage of the translation cycle results in rapid desynchronization of individual ribosomes, thus hindering elucidation of the underlying mech...

  2. Translation technologies. Scope, tools and resources

    OpenAIRE

    Alcina Caudet, Amparo

    2008-01-01

    Translation technologies constitute an important new field of interdisciplinary study lying midway between computer science and translation. Its development in the professional world will largely depend on its academic progress and the effective introduction of translation technologies in the translators training curriculum. In this paper different approaches to the subject are examined so as to provide us with a basis on which to conduct an internal analysis of the field of Tr...

  3. On translation strategies of petroleum technical English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阳

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the petroleum energy has achieved the prime competitiveness around the world.Therefore,translation of petroleum technical English leaves a significant impact.This paper has studied the characteristics of the words and the discourse with specific instance.It also summarizes some useful methods such as literal translation and free translation.And strategies in dealing with long sentences and passive voice,therefore it will help the translators with petroleum technological English.

  4. Can subjectivity be avoided in translation evaluation?

    OpenAIRE

    Segers, Winibert; Kockaert, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    The didactics of translation and interpreting Testing and assessment criteria and methods Can subjectivity be avoided in translation evaluation? Winibert Segers & Hendrik J Kockaert, KU Leuven Camiel Paulusstraat 8, 2630 Aartselaar, België Is translation evaluation a subjective, personal matter? Is evaluating translations the same as beer tasting or listening to a piece of music? Is the judgment determined by personal taste? We will try to answe...

  5. Chinese-English Translation of Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珍凤; 李爱琴

    2013-01-01

    This paper is on the Chinese-English advertisement translation. It gives people an orderly discussion with examples in three parts: the problems in current advertisement translation, the causes of these problems, essential steps of making the Chinese-English translation of advertisement onto an appropriate way. This paper also suggests the principles of Chinese-English advertise⁃ment translation: natural, precise and understandable.

  6. The Translation of Chinese Dish Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚佳文

    2015-01-01

    The traditional food of a nation reflects its historical and cultural characteristics This thesis begins with an introduction to the translation situation of Chinese dish names and its existing problem nowadays, and proceeds to the translation principles and tactics for English translation of the names of Chinese dishes, based on Eugene A. Nida’ s Functional Equivalence, with an aim to improve translation efficiency and promote cross-cultural communication, and promoting Chinese food culture throughout the globe.

  7. Statistical machine translation for automobile marketing texts

    OpenAIRE

    Läubli, Samuel; Fishel, Mark; Weibel, Manuela; Volk, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We describe a project on introducing an in-house statistical machine translation system for marketing texts from the automobile industry with the final aim of replacing manual translation with post-editing, based on the translation system. The focus of the paper is the suitability of such texts for SMT; we present experiments in domain adaptation and decompounding that improve the baseline translation systems, the results of which are evaluated using automatic metrics as well as manual evalua...

  8. On English and Chinese Movie Title Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Ke-lan LIU; Xiang, Wei

    2006-01-01


    Movie is not only a popular form of entertainment but also an important medium in inter-cultural communication. More and more communication between Chinese and English movies goes with the globalization. As a result, movie translation has become more and more important, especially title translation. However, there are many problems in movie title translation. In the hope of improving the present situation, this paper makes a study on how to translate English and Chinese movie titl...

  9. Translators’ Subjectivity in External Publicity Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Fang

    2013-01-01

    As a means of making China known to the outside world and a bridge between China and foreign countries, external publicity translation functions as a helper for the target language readers to learn more about China. Therefore when it comes to the translation materials bearing cultural gaps and items specific to China, translators have the need to make these materials understandable to foreign readers, that is, adding further interpretation and explanation before and during the translation pro...

  10. Translators’ Subjectivity in External Publicity Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang SUN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As a means of making China known to the outside world and a bridge between China and foreign countries, external publicity translation functions as a helper for the target language readers to learn more about China. Therefore when it comes to the translation materials bearing cultural gaps and items specific to China, translators have the need to make these materials understandable to foreign readers, that is, adding further interpretation and explanation before and during the translation process.

  11. Approaches to Translation of Chinese Publicity Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Yin

    2009-01-01

    Chinese publicity materials are the windows for foreigners to know about China. There has been some problems in the translation for publicity materials both made by the enterprises and government departments. Especially for the growing international communication, the dispute between Chinese and its foreign counterpart is increasingly coming into being because of poor translation. Thus, how to translate Chinese publicity materials and whether you can translate them well have great impact on i...

  12. On the Translation Equivalence of Literature Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娟

    2013-01-01

    As for translation principle,people have different opinions.The principle of equivalent translation maybe is one of the most reasonable ones in today’s translation world in my eyes.This paper focuses on the possibility and the condition to be achieved the biggest equivalence of the semantic,pragmatic and culture in order to get the conclusion that the translation equivalence is the proper principle.Besides,this paper has also discussed the pragmatic equivalence and cultural equivalence.

  13. Professional Communication and Translation in Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnecci, Marusca; Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe;

    2008-01-01

    As translation of technical documents becomes commonplace, and as translation becomes more automated, the roles of translator and technical communicator appear to be converging. This paper examines the trend revealed from recent surveys, and it suggests further research to determine if the trend is...

  14. The status of translation in media newsrooms

    OpenAIRE

    van Doorslaer, Luc

    2010-01-01

    This presentation deals with some 'classical' topics and approaches in journalism studies and how they can be applied in translation studies. It takes a double extension of the translation concept as a starting point for a case study on global news selection in translation.

  15. WEB BASED TRANSLATION OF CHINESE ORGANIZATION NAME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Muyun; Liu Daxin; Zhao Tiejun; Qi Haoliang; Lin Kaiming

    2009-01-01

    A web-based translation method for Chinese organization name is proposed. After analyzing the structure of Chinese organization name, the methods of bilingual query formulation and maximum entropy based translation re-ranking are suggested to retrieve the English translation from the web via public search engine. The experiments on Chinese university names demonstrate the validness of this approach.

  16. Translating Poetry: Seven Strategies and a Blueprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevere, Andre

    This book investigates the problems and possibilities in the translation of literature, especially poetry. The investigation is based on a comparison between Catullus' sixty-fourth poem and English translations of it published between 1870 and 1970. Several strategies for translating are analyzed, and their comparative merits and faults are…

  17. Staging "Swissness": Inter- and Intracultural Theatre Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jane

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the choice to translate plays from "Hochdeutsch" (the standard form of the German language) into local dialect in German-speaking Switzerland. It first looks at the creative process of translating for the amateur stage and then at the reasons behind the choice to translate. It argues that this choice reflects a desire to…

  18. Translation: American Doctoral Dissertations, 1970-1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Royal L., Jr.; Zohn, Harry

    1977-01-01

    The American academic community views translation as a mechanical craft; this article argues that it is a skill, an art and a science, requiring intellectual and creative use of language. The gradual acceptance of translation as a subject for dissertations is discussed, and a survey of translation-related dissertations included. (CHK)

  19. Translating the Poems of Louis Brauquier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Catherine

    1978-01-01

    An account by the translator herself of her collaboration with Brauquier in translating his poetry. Many poems are reproduced in both the original French and the English translation along with excerpts from their correspondence on the best rendering of his thought, expression and emotions. (AMH)

  20. On Cultural Differences and Translation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Hongmei Sun

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays translation is regarded essentially as a cross-cultural communication, and cultural differences pose major barriers in translating. After a brief overview of cultural differences in translation, this paper mainly explores foreignizing and domesticating methods in dealing with cultural differences and those possible factors affecting the choice of them.

  1. Guidelines for the Communicative Use of Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Ian

    1987-01-01

    Proposes several guidelines for the communicative exploitation of translation with advanced foreign language learners at the tertiary level and suggests that the communicative basis for the use of translation as a language teaching technique is derived from the communicative nature of translation as a professional activity. (Author/CB)

  2. Unexpected Translations in Urban Policy Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata, Patrik; Zapata Campos, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    study of La Chureca, the rubbish dump and slum of Managua, Nicaragua, and its renewal programme. The Acahualinca Programme was implemented via translation chains enacted by many policy translators. It was translated into residents' and waste collectors' interests, its language packaged in artefacts such...

  3. Unexpected Translations in Urban Policy Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata, Patrik; Zapata Campos, Maria José

    study of La Chureca, the rubbish dump and slum of Managua, Nicaragua, and its renewal programme. The Acahualinca Programme was implemented via translation chains enacted by many policy translators. It was translated into residents' and waste collectors' interests, its language packaged in artefacts such...

  4. Traveling Chaucer: Comparative Translation and Cosmopolitan Humanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Candace

    2014-01-01

    Through the comparative study of non-Anglophone translations of Geoffrey Chaucer's "The Canterbury Tales," we can achieve the progressive goals of Emily Apter's "translational transnationalism" and Edward Said's "cosmopolitan humanism." Both translation and humanism were intrinsic to Chaucer's…

  5. Media Translation and Cultural Soft Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段蕾

    2015-01-01

    Media translation is a kind of applied translation,it is the symbol of a country’s development,and the demonstration of its cultural soft power.This essay mainly talks about how does media translation affect a country’s cultural soft power from three forms of media translation—news,movie and television,newspapers and magazines.

  6. Translation Factors Specify Cellular Metabolic State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of Cell Reports, Shah et al. present evidence that a subcomplex of the eIF3 translation initiation factor regulates translation of mRNAs encoding components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and glycolytic enzymes, thus linking translational control with energy metabolism.

  7. Strategies for English translation of Chinese idioms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹霈

    2015-01-01

    There are several strategies for English translation of Chinese idioms.Domestication and Foreignization are the important points of these strategies.Foreignization and Domestication are the two terms created by American translation theorist Lawrence Venuti in 1995,in order to describe the translation strategies.

  8. Translator and Identity—Taking Lin Yutang as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春燕

    2016-01-01

    with the prosperous development of translation, the identity of translator has attracted more and more attention. The relationship of translator and identity is worth studying. This article takes translator Lin Yutang as an example to see how identities influence a translator. The conclusion is that the choice of translation martial, translation strategy, translation attitude and other aspects in translation are influenced by Li Yutang's identities such as his religious identity, class identity, national identity and personal identity.

  9. Acquiring Translation Competence through the Use of Subtitling. Enhancing Language Learning through Translation and Translating.

    OpenAIRE

    Panizzon, Raffaella

    2013-01-01

    The research work presented here is the result of two interconnected factors: on the one hand the results of a preliminary study on the skills of students of the degree courses “Mediazione Linguistica e Culturale” [Linguistic and Cultural Mediation] and “Lingue, Letterature e Culture Moderne” [Modern Languages, Literature and Cultures] to analyse and assess the translation of audiovisual products and on the other hand the analysis of the most recent literature on language learning and audiovi...

  10. Modulation of Translation Initiation Efficiency in Classical Swine Fever Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Martin Barfred; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Belsham, Graham

    2012-01-01

    amplified and inserted into dicistronic reporter plasmids encoding Fluc and Rluc under the control of a T7 promoter. The mutations were within domains II, IIId1 and IIIf of the IRES. The plasmids were transfected into BHK cells infected with the recombinant vaccinia virus, vTF7-3, which expresses the T7 RNA...... in vitro and electroporated into porcine PK15 cells. Rescued mutant viruses were obtained from RNAs that contained mutations within domain IIIf which retained more than 75% of wt translation efficiency. Sequencing of cDNA generated from these rescued viruses verified the maintenance of the introduced......Modulation of translation initiation efficiency on classical swine fever virus (CSFV) RNA can be achieved by targeted mutations within the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). In this study, cDNAs corresponding to the wild type (wt) or mutant forms of the IRES of CSFV strain Paderborn were...

  11. Machine-Aided Translation: From Terminology Banks to Interactive Translation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Concetta C.; Serain, Daniel

    The rapid growth of the need for technical translations in recent years has led specialists to utilize computer technology to improve the efficiency and quality of translation. The two approaches considered were automatic translation and terminology banks. Since the results of fully automatic translation were considered unsatisfactory by various…

  12. How Do English Translation Majors Use Translation Strategies? A Survey of the Iranian EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgarian, Amir; Vefali, Gülsen Musayeva

    2015-01-01

    Translation language learning strategies, especially in relation to translation students, have not received adequate attention in the research to date. Therefore, the present study attempted to explore Iranian translation students' use of translation strategies, related beliefs, and academic achievement. It was a survey study involving…

  13. Translating Proper Nouns: A Case Study on English Translation of Hafez's Lyrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirinzadeh, Seyed Alireza; Mahadi, Tengku Sepora Tengku

    2014-01-01

    Proper nouns are regarded so simple that they might be taken for granted in translation explorations. Some may believe that they should not be translated in transmitting source texts to target texts. But, it is not the case; if one looks at present translations, he will notice that different strategies might be applied for translating proper…

  14. Measuring Difficulty in English-Chinese Translation: Towards a General Model of Translation Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sanjun

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of a text's level of translation difficulty is critical for translator training and accreditation, translation research, and the language industry as well. Traditionally, people rely on their general impression to gauge a text's translation difficulty level. If the evaluation process is to be more effective and the…

  15. The Nucleus of Translating as One Critical Concern in Translation Pedagogy and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Helen Chau

    1999-01-01

    Studies the translation of nonliterary texts. The objective is to associate the nucleus of translating with the value of a source-language text, advancing the claim that appropriately translating the nucleus is among the most important concerns, and to propose an approach to assessment for translation quality based on how the nucleus is rendered.…

  16. The Translating Strategies of Prose Poem:Via the Comparison of Two Translations of Gitanjali

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁玉

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to find the proper way to translate the prose poem, a new genre of literary works.Under the translation criteria of “functional equivalence” and “Sublimation theory”, two Chinese translations of Gitanjali are compared and contrasted in order to conclude translating strategies of the prose poem.

  17. Enlightenment of Cognitive Linguistics on Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive linguistics is a young subject in linguistics. This paper is to inspire translators by explaining and analyzing translation practice from the perspective of cognitive linguistics and on the basis of its theories. This paper first briefly introduces the content of cognitive linguistics studies and its features;then, important translation theories in the west and in China and the limitations of those traditional theories are discussed;in the end, several examples are provided to il ustrate the close relation between cognitive linguistics and translation practices from the prospective of embodied experience, multiple interaction, restrained creativity and harmonious discourse in translation.

  18. Clinical translation of human neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Ann; Uchida, Nobuko; Capela, Alexandra; Gorba, Thorsten; Huhn, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Human neural stem cell transplants have potential as therapeutic candidates to treat a vast number of disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). StemCells, Inc. has purified human neural stem cells and developed culture conditions for expansion and banking that preserve their unique biological properties. The biological activity of these human central nervous system stem cells (HuCNS-SC®) has been analyzed extensively in vitro and in vivo. When formulated for transplantation, the expanded and cryopreserved banked cells maintain their stem cell phenotype, self-renew and generate mature oligodendrocytes, neurons and astrocytes, cells normally found in the CNS. In this overview, the rationale and supporting data for pursuing neuroprotective strategies and clinical translation in the three components of the CNS (brain, spinal cord and eye) are described. A phase I trial for a rare myelin disorder and phase I/II trial for spinal cord injury are providing intriguing data relevant to the biological properties of neural stem cells, and the early clinical outcomes compel further development. PMID:23987648

  19. The Translation of Numerals and its Limits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴贤雯

    2013-01-01

    Through probing into the diversity of numerals’functions in language use which gives prominence to the importance of numeral translation, this paper aims to analyze the limits of numeral translation and explain the cause for these limits. The analy-sis of the limits in numeral translation is guided by the principle of functional equivalence. It is discussed that in numeral transla-tion, the limits on different levels of culture, image, sound and form arise when the full functional equivalence can not be achieved. Furthermore, this paper finds that the differences in culture and formal structure as well as the semantic fuzziness are three reasons for the presence of limits in numeral translation. However, the author suggests that these limits in numeral transla-tion can be adjusted with the further development of research on translation methodology and the deep infiltration of different cultures.

  20. Probing for Relevance: Information Theories and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dejica

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies claim that the more translators know about the structure and the dynamics of discourse, the more readily and accurately they can translate both the content and the spirit of a text. Similarly, international research projects highlight directions of research which aim at helping translators make reasonable and consistent decisions as to the relevance and reliability of source text features in the target text. Other recent studies stress the importance of developing information structure theories for translation. In line with such current research desiderata, the aim of this article is to test the relevance of information theories for translation. In the first part, information theories are presented from different linguistic perspectives. In the second part, their relevance for translation is tested on a series of texts by examining how they have been or can be applied to translation. The last part presents the conclusions of the analysis.

  1. On English and Chinese Trademark Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喆群

    2008-01-01

    Trademark translation has become familiar to most translators in the context of economic globalization,but it is not such an easy thing as we imagined due to cultural differences.Translators should be fully aware of the cultural traditions of trademark receivers and adopt spec-ial translation strategies to achieve message equi-valence.Moreover,translators should lay stress on creation and standardization of the target tradem-ark language,and adhere to principles of tradem-ark translation.That will make the target langu-age effectively and faithfully repeat the culture,image and messages of the original trademarks,thus decrease the communication gap between source language readers and target language rea-ders in translation and achieve the economic va-lue of trademarks.

  2. Electronic Corpora as Translation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise; Mousten, Birthe; Jensen, Vigdis

    2012-01-01

    Small bilingual text corpora from a source and target language can be important sources of specialized language tracking for translators. A corpus platform can supplement or replace traditional reference works such as dictionaries and encyclopedia, which are rarely sufficient for the professional....... This article demonstrates how strategic steps of compiling and retrieving linguistic data by means of specific search strategies can be used to make electronic corpora an efficient tool in translators’ daily work with fields that involve new terminology, but where the skills requested to work correspond...

  3. Titu Maiorescu, Polyglot and Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Mihai DASCĂLU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since he was young, TM has studied the classical languages and many occidental languages, such as German, French and English. By means of these languages, he was directly connected with the great European cultures. Fond of literature and philosophy, he focused on some texts that he considered useful for the Romanians'spiritual progress. The most well-known text he translated was Aphorisms by Schopenhauer, a text which had a huge success and powerfully influenced some of the Romanian writers and thinkers.

  4. Translation and Culture: Translating Idioms between English and Chinese from a Cultural Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dayan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Translation is not only an interlingual communication, but a cross-cultural transfer, which involves a comparative study of the SL culture and TL culture. In translating cultural specificities, especially idioms, two criteria are proposed, informativeness and effectiveness, by which three translation methods are thus suggested: 1) literal translation; 2) literal translation with footnotes or explanatory phrases; 3) equivalent or corresponding TL idioms. A skillful use of those methods, subjec...

  5. New Approach to translation of Isolated Units in English-Korean Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Jon, Kim Song; Gum, An Hae

    2015-01-01

    It is the most effective way for quick translation of tremendous amount of explosively increasing science and technique information material to develop a practicable machine translation system and introduce it into translation practice. This essay treats problems arising from translation of isolated units on the basis of the practical materials and experiments obtained in the development and introduction of English-Korean machine translation system. In other words, this essay considers establ...

  6. Poetry Translation in English Teaching:Translation of Isles of Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭欣欣

    2012-01-01

    In English teaching,poetry translation is a difficult point which confuses many teachers and students.Different from other translations,poetry translation needs more background information and methods.In this article,the author choose Byron’s Isles of Greece as an example to analyze two different translations.With the comparison,we will have a better idea how to improve poetry translation in our teaching.

  7. The Application of Coordinate Translation Model (CTM) in Medical Translation Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Luu Trong Tuan

    2011-01-01

    Since human beings speak different tongues, translation exists (Steiner, 1975, p. 51). Translation, furthermore, exists partly as human contributions to science and technology need to be globally shared. Thus, scientific translation can not be ignored due to its mission to disseminate scientific knowledge beyond the national borders. This research sought to explore if medical students can grow out of medical translation difficulties and enjoy translation activity which Karra (2000) depicts as...

  8. Looking for Help in the Translation Process--The Role of Auxiliary Texts in Translator Training and Translation Practice%Looking for Help in the Translation Process——The Role of Auxiliary Texts in Translator Training and Translation Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.诺德

    2007-01-01

    The article analyses translation from a pedagogical point of view, focussing on the necessity of"jumping over the culture hurdle" and using existing texts from the target culture as a tool in the translation process. Traditional dictionaries and grammars often do not provide sufficient or appropriate information to allow satisfactory solutions of quite a number of translation problems, especially where stylistic, textual and genre conventions or technolect and terminology are concerned. Therefore, drawing on the useful concept of intertextuality, the author suggests a variety of auxiliary texts which may be useful in source-text analysis and target-text production for both trainee and professional translators.

  9. HDL to verification logic translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.

  10. Translational Medicine - doing it backwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schechter Alan N

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years the concept of "translational medicine" has been advanced in an attempt to catalyze the medical applications of basic biomedical research. However, there has been little discussion about the readiness of scientists themselves to respond to what we believe is a required new approach to scientific discovery if this new concept is to bear fruit. The present paradigm of hypothesis-driven research poorly suits the needs of biomedical research unless efforts are spent in identifying clinically relevant hypotheses. The dominant funding system favors hypotheses born from model systems and not humans, bypassing the Baconian principle of relevant observations and experimentation before hypotheses. Here, we argue that that this attitude has born two unfortunate results: lack of sufficient rigor in selecting hypotheses relevant to human disease and limitations of most clinical studies to certain outcome parameters rather than expanding knowledge of human pathophysiology; an illogical approach to translational medicine. If we wish to remain true to our responsibility and duty of performing research relevant to human disease, we must begin to think about fundamental new approaches. NIH is the nation's medical research agency - making important medical discoveries that improve health and save lives. NIH is the steward of medical and behavioral research for the Nation. Its mission is science in pursuit of fundamental knowledge about the nature and behavior of living systems and the application of that knowledge to extend healthy life and reduce the burdens of illness and disability 1.

  11. Indonesian Young Adults’ Interference in Translating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Nugraha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Interference has become a crucial matter to recognize in bilingual and multilingual communities. The phenomenon of interference has affected how we as at least members of bilingual or even multilingual communities speak to the others. As the members of multilingual communities, the Indonesian young adults receive many influences in the way they speak and understand languages. However, these influences often lead to the wrong way. In this case, many Indonesian young adults understand English cursing inappropriately. This misunderstanding may lead to the abuse of English cursing in daily conversations. This article provides the insight of how interference affects the way the Indonesian young adults understand English cursing. Using the questionnaire-based research method, this articles tends to find out the attitudes of Indonesian young adults towards translating English cursing to Indonesian, which interference that affects the translation process of English cursing resulting to the inappropriate understanding of English cursing among Indonesian young adults, and which suitable translation method for translating English cursing to Indonesian. Apparently, the present writer has found out that there are two attitudes towards translating English cursing to Indonesian, that is, first, the English cursing is translated to the Indonesian cursing and second, the English cursing is translated literaly to Indonesian. Further, the present writer has found out that the interlingual interference has affected the translation process of English cursing to Indonesian and the suitable method for translating English cursing to Indonesian is adaptation based on Newmark (1988.Keywords: Interference, Multilingual communities, Translating English cursing, Indonesian young adults

  12. Translational Research from an Informatics Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Turley, James P.; Smith, Jack W.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical and translational research (CTR) is an essential part of a sustainable global health system. Informatics is now recognized as an important en-abler of CTR and informaticians are increasingly called upon to help CTR efforts. The US National Institutes of Health mandated biomedical informatics activity as part of its new national CTR grant initiative, the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). Traditionally, translational re-search was defined as the translation of laboratory discoveries to patient care (bench to bedside). We argue, however, that there are many other kinds of translational research. Indeed, translational re-search requires the translation of knowledge dis-covered in one domain to another domain and is therefore an information-based activity. In this panel, we will expand upon this view of translational research and present three different examples of translation to illustrate the point: 1) bench to bedside, 2) Earth to space and 3) academia to community. We will conclude with a discussion of our local translational research efforts that draw on each of the three examples.

  13. The use of parentheses in Arabic translated and non-translated texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussein Ali Yehia Ali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at comparing the functions of parentheses in Arabic translated and non-translated texts. The study is carried out across genres; it includes texts from science, medicine, education, computers, and literary criticism. The texts constitute two corpora: a monolingual comparable corpus and bilingual parallel corpus. The monolingual comparable corpus is used to identify differences between Arabic translated and non-translated language in the uses of parentheses. The findings are then tested against a bilingual parallel corpus consisting of original English texts and their translations into Arabic. The study looks at the qualitative and quantitative differences between the uses of parentheses in translated and non-translated Arabic. Furthermore, the paper does not deal only with translation anomalies, but focuses as well on correct parallels. The paper can be seen then as a guide on the uses of parentheses in Arabic and in translation between Arabic and English.

  14. On Translation of Ren in The Analects in Terms of Cultural Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qin

    2013-01-01

    In 1980’s, the famous translator and scholar Bassnett proposes a new translation theory, namely cultural translation the-ory, in which Bassnett insists that culture should be taken as the basic unit of translation, which attracts the attentions all over the world. In the thesis, the translation of Ren, one of the main ideas of Confucianism, will be discussed from the perspective of Bassnett’s cultural translation theory. Ren, the essence of The Analects, also the symbol of Chinese traditional culture, is endowed with profound connotation and important status. There are more and more translations of Ren in contemporary era. After com-paring different kinds of translation and cultural translation theory, the most proper way of doing it may be transliterating it to Ren.

  15. The Standard Profile of the 21st Century Translator: Implications for Translator Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakwe George Mbotake

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the profile of the translator in Cameroon and posits that the translating activity is increasingly becoming part of the translation service, reflecting the market expectation to train translation service providers rather than translators. The paper demonstrates that the translation profession as it is performed in the field and portrayed in job adverts reveals that a wide range of employers are looking for translators and their services. A survey of the Cameroonian translation market was carried out to raise awareness of the language skills translators need in order to work successfully as language services providers. The data for this study was obtained from 36professionaltranslators drawn from the public service, the freelance and in-house corporate translation market in Cameroon. The study argues that today’s new translator’s profile and his activities are basically variants of interlingual communication in which the traditional concept of translation constitutes only one option and that these ‘add-ons,’which contribute to a better professionalization of the translator,pose new challenges to translation pedagogy in terms of both content and methodology.In this vein the study proposes a translational language teaching model aimed at making training more responsive to market exigencies in this era of modernization.

  16. Some Pitfalls of Translation Greek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Marcos, Natalio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In textual criticism it is important to detect the genesis of mistakes; sometimes the true reading is only reached through the unmasking of the wrong one. Likewise, in order to use critically the Septuagint it is indispensable to find out first its corruptions and mistranslations. The making of a Greek-Hebrew Index of the Antiochene Text in the Historical Books is an excellent occasion to observe the translation process and find out the most common errors made by the translators. A few examples will be commented concerning the following issues: inner-Greek corruptions and misleading translations caused by the graphic confusion of similar letters (paleography or sounds (phonetics, and by a different reading or vocalization of the consonantal text. In several cases this analysis may open a window towards a non-Masoretic Hebrew Vorlage.

    En crítica textual es muy importante descubrir la génesis de los errores; a veces la lectura verdadera sólo se descubre desenmascarando la falsa. De igual manera, para usar críticamente la Septuaginta es imprescindible descubrir primero las corrupciones y los errores de traducción. La confección de un índice griego-hebreo del texto antioqueno en los libros históricos es una ocasión excelente para analizar el proceso de traducción y detectar los errores más comunes cometidos por los traductores. En el artículo se estudian algunos ejemplos con relación a los siguientes fenómenos: corrupciones internas al griego y traducciones equivocadas motivadas por la confusión gráfica de letras (paleografía o sonidos (fonética semejantes y por una vocalización diferente del texto consonántico. En varios casos este análisis permite vislumbrar un texto base hebreo distinto del masorético.

  17. The Nuclear Transcription Factor RAR Associates with Neuronal RNA Granules and Suppresses Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    All-trans-retinoic acid stimulates dendritic growth in hippocampal neurons within minutes by activating mitogen-activated protein kinase and mTOR and increasing dendritic translation of calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha and the alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionat...

  18. Measuring the nursing work environment: translation and psychometric evaluation of the Essentials of Magnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, B.J.M. de; Kaljouw, M.J.; Kramer, M.; Schmalenberg, C.; Achterberg, T. van

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Translate the Essentials of Magnetism II(c) (EOMII; Dutch Nurses' Association, Utrecht, The Netherlands) and assess its psychometric properties in a culture different from its origin. BACKGROUND: The EOMII, developed in the USA, measures the extent to which organizations/units provide healthy,

  19. Translation Method and Computer Programme for Assisting the Same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a translation method comprising the steps of: a translator speaking a translation of a written source text in a target language, an automatic speech recognition system converting the spoken translation into a set of phone and word hypotheses in the target language...... obtaining a significantly improved and faster translation compared to what is achieved by known translation methods....

  20. Novel translational strategies in colorectal cancer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Defining translational research is still a complex task. In oncology, translational research implies using our basic knowledge learnt from in vitro and in vivo experiments to directly improve diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches in cancer patients. Moreover, the better understanding of human cancer and its use to design more reliable tumor models and more accurate experimental systems also has to be considered a good example of translational research. The identification and characterization of new molecular markers and the discovery of novel targeted therapies are two main goals in colorectal cancer translational research. However, the straightforward translation of basic research findings, specifically into colorectal cancer treatment and vice versa is still underway. In the present paper, a summarized view of some of the new available approaches on colorectal cancer translational research is provided. Pros and cons are discussed for every approach exposed.

  1. Application of Relevance theory to translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯仁爱

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of relevance theory, translation is regarded as a relevance-seeking communication. It involves three participant relationships:the source speaker, the translator and the target hearers. The translator is supposed to create a context that the target hearer can infer the intention of the source speaker. Comparing translation theories which fail to pay attention to the relevance between the source speakers and the target hearers, Relevance Theory is a relatively overall account of translation. For one thing, some points concerning the Relevance Theory are capable of facilitating the researches to the present translation field. For another, the information of the original text will be understood and comprehended accurately and promptly on the basis of the relevant theory.

  2. Translation: treason, serendipity or acquired instinct?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick John O. Sullivan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2008v2n22p75This article reviews Gregory Rabassa’s memoirs called “If this be treason”. It pays tribute to a brilliant translator and literary critic, who is one of the unsung heroes of Spanish and Portuguese Literature. His memoirs, enriched by years of experience and theoretical reflection, provide a profound and wonderfully readable meditation on the art of translation, without ever becoming pedantic. They are divided into three sections: a the translator, b the translated and, finally, c his verdict on the treason involved in the translation process. In this article, Aubert’s (1997 translation modalities are used to analyze Rabassa’s strategies when dealing with culture-specific items.

  3. The Role of Localisation in Advertising Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying

    2016-01-01

    Today, a growing number of international corporations have been seeking to boost their sales on the global scale. To achieve this, adverting, one of the most common way to stimulate consumption, is widely used in which translation is involved because of diverse languages. Thus, how to translate a source advertising in a target culture has a decisive influence on a compa-ny’s marketing. The aim of the target advertising is to sell products to the locals. In this sense, localisation plays a significant role in the translation of advertising. This essay will discuss the importance of localisation in the translation of advertising and analyse cases of English-Chinese advertising translation based on the purpose of advertising and advertising translation.

  4. New Trends outside the Translation Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Martínez Martínez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the study of different elements at the University of Granada’s Faculty of Translation and Interpreting and seeks to elaborate a prototype for a multilingual and accessible audio guide (audio description, SDHH and Spanish sign language interpretation. We defend a new methodology, one that focuses on teaching the translation process from previous museum-based learning experiences in the translation classroom using QR codes. Our main goal is to innovate translation-related teaching based on the new approaches acquired through learning workshop perspectives. In this sense, we will offer an ideal framework in developing the new concept of translation learning. This concept involves systemising a new means of learning and organising the realities of translation itself, encompassing objectives, competences, methodology and evaluation.

  5. Retrospect and Prospect of Translational Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Jifeng

    2013-01-01

    Being a great revolution of medical research, translational medicine tries to establish more directly linkage between the basic research and clinical medical treatment-two-sideway translational channel so as to quickly promote the clinical transformation and feedback of basic research achievements. So far, A lot of effective studies on translational medicine in various medical ifelds at home and abroad have been carried out,such as tumor, cardiocerebral vascular diseases, obesity, respiratory functional disorder, epilepsy, schizophrenia, organ transplantation, clinical application of stem cells and neural restoration, meanwhile, many fruitful studies on translational medicine are also performed or being performed in different disciplines or professions, and achieves better progress. But many problems are also presented. Therefore, the direction of medical development in 21 century should be fostering the concepts of translational medicine, encouraging the bidirectional cross between basic research staff and clinical doctors as well as focusing on translational achievements and practical application.

  6. 0n the Translation of Nicknames in Outlaws of the Marsh from the Perspective of Functional Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹玥俐

    2015-01-01

    According to the Functional Translation Theory which derived from Germany in the 1970s, the purpose of the entire translation behavior determines the basic principle of any translation process.?By analyzing translation of the heroes' nicknames in Sidney Shapiro's translation of Outlaws of the Marsh from the perspective of Functional Translation Theory, this paper aims to illustrate intercultural translation obstacles caused by the collision between eastern and western cultures, from which enlightenment about cross-cultural translation can be gained.

  7. TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES ON INDONESIAN SWORN TRANSLATOR’S LEGAL TEXTS TRANSLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Wuryantoro, Aris; Subroto, H.D. Edi; Nababan, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Legal translation is the transferring the meaning from source language text into target language which not only consists of language system but also legal system. This research aims to analyze the translation  techniques  used  by  the  Indonesian  sworn  translators  in  translating  legal  texts  from English into Indonesian. This research uses descriptive qualitative method. Data obtained through content analysis on translations of the Indonesian sworn translators containing Certificate of...

  8. Is Literal Translation Possible? Or the Ethos of a Dedicated Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolfgang; Kubin

    2012-01-01

    <正>Those who translate a verse literally are liars.——The Talmud According to popular opinion,all translations must be literal ones,that is,one should translate every text word for word without any additions.Although translation theory has developed very quickly since the 60s and shown that such a view of literal translation is much too simple,if not blatantly incorrect,these new insights into the true nature of translation work do not really play a role in

  9. NDAS Hardware Translation Layer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaretian, Ryan N.; Holladay, Wendy T.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Data Acquisition System (NDAS) project is aimed to replace all DAS software for NASA s Rocket Testing Facilities. There must be a software-hardware translation layer so the software can properly talk to the hardware. Since the hardware from each test stand varies, drivers for each stand have to be made. These drivers will act more like plugins for the software. If the software is being used in E3, then the software should point to the E3 driver package. If the software is being used at B2, then the software should point to the B2 driver package. The driver packages should also be filled with hardware drivers that are universal to the DAS system. For example, since A1, A2, and B2 all use the Preston 8300AU signal conditioners, then the driver for those three stands should be the same and updated collectively.

  10. Trademark Translation in International Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋露露

    2012-01-01

    Trademark is a sign of a certain product;the fundamental function of which is to distinguish the products of one producer from thoseof another.It is also "the first face" of the product which is put in front of the consumers,providing them with quite a lot of information.More andmore firms have come to realize that one of their most valuable assets isthe trademarks associated with their products or services,since the valueof a manufacturer’s brand finally lies in the trademark of the product.Consequently,the translation of trademarks has also drawn much greaterattention than ever before and has become an essential research problemin the business circle with the rapid development of economic globalization.

  11. An EPICS to TINE Translator

    CERN Document Server

    Kakucs, Z; Clausen, M; Kakucs, Zoltan; Duval, Phil; Clausen, Matthias

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator control at DESY has in the past been hampered by the many-control-systems syndrome, where different subsystems were controlled by completely different means offering no possibility of intercommunication. This was particularly true in HERA during the commissioning phase. Today, practically all subsystems of HERA are controlled by TINE. Important exceptions include the Proton Vacuum (DOOCS), cryogenics control (D3), and the super-conducting electron RF cavities and the power and cooling subsystems, the latter two of which are controlled by EPICS IOCs. A step toward integrating the EPICS IOCs into the HERA mainstream has been taken in that an EPICS to TINE translator process has been written, which runs directly on the EPICS IOC and offers a TINE view of the hardware control to the rest of the control system.

  12. Relative motion: translation and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, George

    2010-08-01

    The central argument is that analysts/therapists and translators/interpreters have a great deal more in common than is commonly supposed. The key element in this sharing is their essential aloneness in the moment and act of interpreting, and their intellectual and affective response to that aloneness. What marks this off as both important and exceptional is its contrast with the untroubling world of study and the comforting world of professional membership and practice. The professional worlds are abundantly documented; the individual experience has had nothing like so much attention. The focus of the argument is on how significant meanings are established, in a context in which no meanings can be taken for granted. The purpose of the argument is to show that each kind of practitioner may have much to learn from the other. PMID:20840635

  13. Translating the concepts behind gateways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabachinski, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The intention of this installment of IT World is to bring the various aspects of gateways into view. You can see how loosely the gateway term is used and how the meaning of the term has changed over time. Keep concepts of gateways in order by considering their main function. The main function for gateways is to convert from one set of communication protocols to some other set of communication protocols-thus allowing access to otherwise incompatible networks. These functions include: Protocol Conversion--When a message is prepared for transmission, each layer adds control information unique to the protocol used at that layer (see Figure 1). The gateway must be able to convert control information to the format the receiving network expects. Services affected may include message segmentation and reassembly, data flow control, and error detection and recovery. Protocol converters connect networks that use different communication protocols. Address Translation--Different networks may employ different network addressing schemes, mechanisms, and network address structures. The gateway must be able to interpret network addresses in one network and convert them into appropriate network addresses for the other network while holding the validity of the address resolution. Examples that include both protocol conversion and address translation are when a gateway converts a TCP/IP packet to a NetWare IPX packet and vice versa or from AppleTalk to DECnet, and so on. Message Format Conversion--Different networks can employ different message formats, maximum message sizes, or character codes. The gateway must be able to convert messages to an appropriate format, size, and coding for the receiving network. Examples are CGI and an email gateway (which is a layer 7-application layer-gateway). Keep these main concepts in mind while surfing the web trying to find out more information about what your gateways are up to! PMID:16796324

  14. Teaching Translation of Poetry: A Collaborative Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Mustafa Halimah

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the application of a collaborative approach to the teaching of poetry translation as a literary genre to university Arabic speaking students. The collaborative approach is applied to the translation of Shakespeare’s Sonnet XVIII “To His Love” into the Arabic Language. The participants in the experiment are two groups of female students and a Monolingual Arabic Language Specialist (MALS). Additionally, a set of ACNCS criteria were used to assess the quality of the translate...

  15. Translation Studies Based on Pragmatic Equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇宁; 李丽丽

    2016-01-01

    As a newly created field, pragmatics has become more systematic during the years' continuous development. It provides us a wide range of insights into other fields—translation, linguistics, discourse analysis, semantics and psychologist, etc. To some extent, pragmatics is the facilitator of translation in cross-cultural and cross-linguistic communication and is expected to achieve the fulfillment of communicative effect. With the enforcement of pragmatics, pragmatic translation got rapid improvement.

  16. New Confidence Measures for Statistical Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Raybaud, Sylvain; Lavecchia, Caroline; Langlois, David; Smaïli, Kamel

    2009-01-01

    A confidence measure is able to estimate the reliability of an hypothesis provided by a machine translation system. The problem of confidence measure can be seen as a process of testing : we want to decide whether the most probable sequence of words provided by the machine translation system is correct or not. In the following we describe several original word-level confidence measures for machine translation, based on mutual information, n-gram language model and lexical features language mo...

  17. Translating Culture: Contemporary African American Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Kočan Šalamon

    2015-01-01

    The paper interrogates cultural specifics of contemporary African American poetry and exhibits translation problems when translating this poetic work. African American writers have always included much of their cultural heritage in their writing and this is immediately noticed by a translator. The cultural elements, such as African American cuisine, attire and style in general, as well as spiritual and religious practices, often play a significant role for African American poets who are procl...

  18. Review on Translation as Adaptive Variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiao-han

    2014-01-01

    Translation as Adaptive Variation originally is Professor Ma Xiao’s doctoral dissertation, providing a novel perspective and a theoretical concept for translation researchers. It will firstly have a review on the book, explaining Professor Ma’s theory in details and pointing out the key concepts, then analysis it’s significance to translation theory and study. Furthermore, several weakness may be presented for future improving.

  19. Problems and Countermeasures in Advertising Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜卉

    2015-01-01

    Advertisement is an important tie linking the international commercial activities.Advertisement language,as the main core of advertisements,plays an important role on conveying information.However,people usually suffer from some problems when they conduct advertising translation activities.This essay figures out the problems and the requirements of advertising translation, and some primary methods approaching to the most appropriate advertising translation.

  20. Introducing grounded theory into translation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Wehrmeyer

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces tenets of Grounded Theory into a reception-oriented model for translation studies, in which the basis of comparison (tertium comparationis) between source and target texts is constructed from target audience expectancy norms. The model is primarily designed for projects where conformity to target audience norms plays a large role in the translation's acceptance. It is not restricted to Translation Studies, but can also be used in Interpreting Studies, as is demonstrate...

  1. Novel translational strategies in colorectal cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-Bazo, Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    Defining translational research is still a complex task. In oncology, translational research implies using our basic knowledge learnt from in vitro and in vivo experiments to directly improve diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches in cancer patients. Moreover, the better understanding of human cancer and its use to design more reliable tumor models and more accurate experimental systems also has to be considered a good example of translational research. The identification and characteriz...

  2. Translational medicine promising personalized therapy in oncology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Xin ZENG; Xiao-Shi ZHANG; Qiang LIU

    2010-01-01

    @@ Translational medicine has newly emerged to bridge the gap between bench-related basic science research and bedside clinical practice. From early diagnosis to late-stage disease treatment, translational medicine has transformed the clinical practice by making personalized medicine possible. Attributing to the progress in translational medical research, cancer therapy has evolved from non-specific cytotoxic drugs against both tumor and normal proliferating cells to more specific small molecule chemical and immunotherapy approaches.

  3. Hijacking the translation apparatus by RNA viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Bushell, Martin; Sarnow, Peter

    2002-01-01

    As invading viruses do not harbor functional ribosomes in their virions, successful amplification of the viral genomes requires that viral mRNAs compete with cellular mRNAs for the host cell translation apparatus. Several RNA viruses have evolved remarkable strategies to recruit the host translation initiation factors required for the first steps in translation initiation by host cell mRNAs. This review describes the ways that three families of RNA viruses effectively usurp limiting translati...

  4. Translational Science: Epistemology and the Investigative Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dougherty, Edward R

    2009-01-01

    The term “translational science” has recently become very popular with its usage appearing to be almost exclusively related to medicine, in particular, the “translation” of biological knowledge into medical practice. Taking the perspective that translational science is somehow different than science and that sound science is grounded in an epistemology developed over millennia, it seems imperative that the meaning of translational science be carefully examined, especially how the scientific e...

  5. Probing translation using small molecule inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard, Scott C; Cooperman, Barry S.; Wilson, Daniel N

    2010-01-01

    The translational apparatus of the bacterial cell remains one of the principal targets of antibiotics for the clinical treatment of infection worldwide. Since the introduction of specific translation inhibitors into clinical practise in the late 1940’s, intense efforts have been made to understand their precise mechanisms of action. Such research has often revealed significant and sometimes unexpected insights into many fundamental aspects of the translation mechanism. Central to progress in ...

  6. Iran’s Approach to Knowledge Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Majdzadeh, R; S Nedjat; Fotouhi, A; Malekafzali, H

    2009-01-01

    "nKnowledge translation was created in response to the knowledge-do gap. With the growing number of research projects, utilization of research knowledge roused interest. One of its defects, which are seen more in developing countries, is the scarcity of recognized practical knowledge translation applications. The actions taken to strengthen knowledge translation can be classified into three categories of ‘push, pull and exchange'. In Iran, some of the interventions effecti...

  7. Helping Domain Experts Build Speech Translation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rayner, Manny; Armando, Alejandro; Bouillon, Pierrette; Ebling, Sarah; Gerlach, Johanna; Halimi, Sonia; Strasly, Irene; Tsourakis, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    We present a new platform, "Regulus Lite", which supports rapid development and web deployment of several types of phrasal speech translation systems using a minimal formalism. A distinguishing feature is that most development work can be performed directly by domain experts. We motivate the need for platforms of this type and discuss three specific cases: medical speech translation, speech-to-sign-language translation and voice questionnaires. We briefly describe initial experiences in devel...

  8. Genre-based teaching of medical translation

    OpenAIRE

    Keresztes, Csilla

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the advances in teaching medical translation in Hungary. since the 1950s English has become the dominant language in health sciences, and there is an increased need for English–Hungarian translators in the field. Our medical translator programme has undergone several changes in the past 25 years answering the current needs. Our main objective is to develop the textual and communicative competence of students, teach them problem solving strategies and tactics, and encourag...

  9. Translational tilings by a polytope, with multiplicity

    OpenAIRE

    Gravin, Nick; Robins, Sinai; Shiryaev, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    We study the problem of covering R^d by overlapping translates of a convex body P, such that almost every point of R^d is covered exactly k times. Such a covering of Euclidean space by translations is called a k-tiling. The investigation of tilings (i.e. 1-tilings in this context) by translations began with the work of Fedorov and Minkowski. Here we extend the investigations of Minkowski to k-tilings by proving that if a convex body k-tiles R^d by translations, then it is centrally symmetric,...

  10. Factored Translation with Unsupervised Word Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Christian; Søgaard, Anders

    clusters as factors in statistical machine translation. Although some of the language pairs in this work clearly benefit from the factor augmentation, there is no consistent improvement in translation accuracy across the board. For all language pairs, the word clusters clearly improve translation for some...... proportion of the sentences in the test set, but has a weak or even detrimental effect on the rest. It is shown that if one could determine whether or not to use a factor when translating a given sentence, rather substantial improvements in precision could be achieved for all of the language pairs evaluated...

  11. A Cultural Study of English Idioms Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄丽雯

    2014-01-01

    Language is the carrier of culture, bearing the national cultural information. As the most culturally-loaded element in any language's vocabulary, idioms have aroused more and more attention. This paper starts with the analysis of the relationship be-tween culture, idioms and translation, and makes an investigation of cultural factors affecting idiom translation such as subjective and objective factors. Based on these analyses, the paper will propose the cultural translation principles and strategies focusing on cultural connotations of idioms in order to transfer the English idioms translation from the language level to the cultural level.

  12. Integrating mitochondrial translation into the cellular context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter-Dennerlein, Ricarda; Dennerlein, Sven; Rehling, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial-encoded subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation system assemble with nuclear-encoded subunits into enzymatic complexes. Recent findings showed that mitochondrial translation is linked to other mitochondrial functions, as well as to cellular processes. The supply of mitochondrial-encoded proteins is coordinated by the coupling of mitochondrial protein synthesis with assembly of respiratory chain complexes. MicroRNAs imported from the cytoplasm into mitochondria were, surprisingly, found to act as regulators of mitochondrial translation. In turn, translation in mitochondria controls cellular proliferation, and mitochondrial ribosomal subunits contribute to the cytoplasmic stress response. Thus, translation in mitochondria is apparently integrated into cellular processes. PMID:26535422

  13. On Characteristics and Translation of Medical English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yao

    2015-01-01

    English has become a necessary tool in various medical academic conferences.The mastery of characteristics of medical English and adequate translating skills,therefore,is guarantee for medical students and workers,so that they can read and translate medical literature extensively,express source literature accurately,realize the newest development of medicine,and inspire thinking and creation.It firstly introduces international demands and the significance of medical English,then analyzes the features of it,and finally discusses how to concretely translate medical English into Chinese with basic principles of“fidelity”and“expressiveness”, aiming at providing some reference in medical English translation.

  14. Bastyr/UW Oncomycology Translational Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research Area: Fungi Program: Partnerships for CAM Clinical Translational Research Description: Trametes versicolor is an immunologically active medicinal mushroom...

  15. Anthropophagy, metissage and strangeness: translation on (discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Maria Araújo Ferreira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to rescue the anthropophagy in their paradigmatic relations with translation, and historically intends construct a continuity with the Semana de Arte Moderna of 1922 and the Manifesto Antropófago of 1928. In these sense, it’s important to see anthropophagy as a critical movement based in terms of  “devouring” /”digestion”/”transformation” because if art (as an object is at the same time a critical-theorical process and a artistical-creative one, when we translate,this act can be defined in these terms. That implies also rescue a double relation of translation, located between the “act” of translation andthe “think this translation act” in a movement based on autoreflectivity that supports the paradigm constructed in Translation Studies. The consequence is put the translator in three sites of speech : translator, critical and poiesis. In this sense, translation is defined as creative process (subject/times/space, and as a critical-theorical one

  16. Improving machine translation via triangulation and transliteration

    OpenAIRE

    Durrani, Nadir; Koehn, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we improve Urdu→Hindi-English machine translation through triangulation and transliteration. First we built an Urdu→Hindi SMT system by inducing triangulated and transliterated phrase-tables from Urdu–English and Hindi–English phrase translation models. We then use it to translate the Urdu part of the Urdu-English parallel data into Hindi, thus creating an artificial Hindi-English parallel data. Our phrase-translation strategies give an improvement of up to +3.35 BLEU points ove...

  17. On Chinese Translation Methods of English Pun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jin

    2015-01-01

    English pun is the humorous of a word to suggest different meanings or applications or of words having the same or nearly the same sound but different meanings. Due to the great discrepancy between English and Chinese in terms of pronuncia⁃tion, form, sentence structure and ways of expression, the translation of pun into Chinese has been generally thought as untranslat⁃able. Hence, the translator faces great challenges in its Chinese translation. However, puns are not necessarily untranslatable. Six methods are usually employed in English puns’translation into Chinese.

  18. Gazing and Typing Activities during Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Kay, Martin

    2011-01-01

    translators’ eye movements and keystrokes. We describe methods to detect patterns of keystrokes (production units) and patterns of gaze fixations on the source text (fixation units) and compare translation performance of student and professional translators. Based on 24 translations from English into Danish...... of a 160 word text we find major differences between students and professionals: Experienced professional translators are better able to divide their attention in parallel on ST reading (comprehension) and TT production, while students operate more in an alternating mode where they either read the ST...

  19. On Cultural Intension of Trademarks’Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁楚敏

    2014-01-01

    Trademark is developing rapidly nowadays, it has direct effects on people’s daily life in many aspects . Translation of trademark plays a very important role in this highly competitive society. This paper tries to approach the the translation of the de-scriptions of import and export goods and the trademarks from the angle of cultural differences. Translation of trademarks can transmit plentiful information from the commodities effectively. Here is the summary of some important principles and six meth-ods on how to translate the trademarks.

  20. Classification and Translation of Chinese Abbreviations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭颖婷

    2014-01-01

    Chinese abbreviation, containing fewer words and delivering a wealth of information, is a vital component of Chinese language. But the tremendous differences between Chinese and English make it an arduous task to translate Chinese abbreviations into English. Based on the analyses of the structure and patterns of word-formation of Chinese abbreviations, it makes a classifi-cation of Chinese abbreviations, summarize the translation methods, and point out some attention points in translation. A system-atic analysis on the structure and classification of Chinese abbreviations will be beneficial to reduce the mistakes in its translation.

  1. An Image Processing Approach to Linguistic Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubatur, Shruthi; Sreehari, Suhas; Hegde, Rajeshwari

    2011-12-01

    The art of translation is as old as written literature. Developments since the Industrial Revolution have influenced the practice of translation, nurturing schools, professional associations, and standard. In this paper, we propose a method of translation of typed Kannada text (taken as an image) into its equivalent English text. The National Instruments (NI) Vision Assistant (version 8.5) has been used for Optical character Recognition (OCR). We developed a new way of transliteration (which we call NIV transliteration) to simplify the training of characters. Also, we build a special type of dictionary for the purpose of translation.

  2. Gregory Rabassa’s Views on Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaños Cuéllar Sergio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gregory Rabassa is noted for his translations of famous Latin American authors (García Márquez, Vargas Llosa, Clarice Lispector, Jorge Amado, etc.. Less known are his views on translating. In this paper I aim at presenting and discussing his viewpoints as to the definition of translation (with a key discussion of the concept of equivalence, the role of the translator (a model speaker-listener of the target text, and some of the translation strategies he applies in his translational work (original's pre-eminence, problem solving, foreignizing, fictionalizing, and semantic networking. I argue that most of Rabassa's stances towards translating can be explained and are still valid within the framework of a modern translation approach. Examples from the English, French, German, Portuguese and Russian translations of García Márquez's Cien años de soledad are taken from a multilingual parallel corpus collected by the author of this paper.

  3. Translational Bioinformatics and Clinical Research (Biomedical) Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cheng, Donavan T

    2016-03-01

    Translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics are the primary domains related to informatics activities that support translational research. Translational bioinformatics focuses on computational techniques in genetics, molecular biology, and systems biology. Clinical research (biomedical) informatics involves the use of informatics in discovery and management of new knowledge relating to health and disease. This article details 3 projects that are hybrid applications of translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics: The Cancer Genome Atlas, the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center clinical variants and results database, all designed to facilitate insights into cancer biology and clinical/therapeutic correlations. PMID:26851671

  4. Rietveld analysis system RIETAN (translation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the manual of the RIETAN system (a Rietveld analysis program) which is originally written in Japanese by Fujio Izumi. The manual consists of two parts. Part I is a general description of the fundamental concepts and methods of the RIETAN system. Part II is the user's manual of the RIETAN which mainly describes in detail how to create user's data sets, procedures of Rietveld analysis and how to read the results of analysis. (author)

  5. Translating is the true way to read a text”: Calvino and translation, Calvino’s translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Barni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present and discuss Italo Calvino’s relationship with translation, starting from some texts that deal specifically with this subject and also taking in consideration one of his characters. Calvino's contributions in this field are numerous and consist of reflections and observations, as well as of his own translations experiences.

  6. Translating translational medicine into global health equity: What is needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson Barash, Carol

    2016-06-01

    While genomics, and other omics, research is rapidly advancing in the US and Europe, progress has been slower in less resourced countries. The imbalance has given rise to concern about whether the benefits of these advances, namely new and better tests, treatments, risk identification, and prevention strategies, will be shared and available to those living in less resourced reaches of the globe. In effort to give voice to researchers, an informal survey about barriers to advancing translational medicine was administered to attendees of the 11th Asia Pacific Conference on Human Genetics, 2015, Hanoi. The overall goal of the survey was to identify unmet needs and rank their importance. Most attendees completed the survey. Not surprisingly funding is indicated as a major need. Respondents reported that lack of bioinformatics and computational tools, trained data scientists and access to datasets is creating a significant lag behind better resourced regions. Results are intended to inform efforts to create a regional consensus statement of need. Such a regional statement could help funding organizations and policy makers seeking to promote global genomics benefit sharing. PMID:27354940

  7. Thinking Chinese Translation A Course in Translation Method; Chinese to English

    CERN Document Server

    Valerie, Pellatt

    2010-01-01

    Suitable for advanced undergraduates and postgraduate students of Chinese. "Thinking Chinese Translation", this book explores the ways in which memory, general knowledge, and creativity (summed up as 'schema') contribute to the linguistic ability necessary to create a good translation

  8. Translating Family-Focused Prevention Science Into Effective Practice: Toward a Translational Impact Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Spoth, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Family-focused preventive intervention research could serve as an exemplar for the translation of science into practice on a scale that achieves public health impact. This article outlines advances in the field and translational research that still is needed, presenting these within a heuristic framework. The framework is designed to guide a broad translational research agenda fostering a shift toward a paradigm of public health impact—called a translational impact paradigm. Current advances ...

  9. A Translation Quality Assessment of the English Translation of the Hilali Epic

    OpenAIRE

    Bahaa-eddin Abulhassan Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this article is to assess the translation quality of the Hilali Epic by using Juliane House's Translation Quality Assessment (TQA) (1997). The study aims at discussing translation problems arising from the differences between the source text (ST) and the target text (TT) with reference to register, genre, and ideational and interpersonal meanings. It utilizes the Hilali Epic as an example of travel narratives. It discusses how the translator can reproduce the situational dimension...

  10. Translation in Foreign Language Pedagogy: The Rise and Fall of the Grammar Translation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Siefert, Thomas Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is identified as dismissing translation, applying to all "translation" the restricted expression of translation within the discredited Grammar Translation Method (GTM). Recent, negative classifications of the GTM are considered and, this dissertation observes, the concept of the GTM is shown as prone to being mythologized. A summary definition of the GTM is offered. Of the five Prussian language teachers viewed by history as originating the GTM, Joahn...

  11. Translating Swedish University Webpages into English : A study of translation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Hägg, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on university webpages and the translation of these. With the help of existing translation strategies, it aims to map out the strategies used in Swedish web pages in English with a focus on names and words/expressions for which there are no direct equivalents in English. The study shows that the most common strategies regarding the translation of names were translating word for word and using the nearest equivalent. Regarding language-specific expressions, the most ...

  12. Translation Training in the Jordanian Context: Curriculum Evaluation in Translator Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Anjad

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at drawing a clear picture of translator training in Jordan through the evaluation of translation programs at the Master's level. The framework of the Context, Input, Process, and Product components of the CIPP evaluation model developed by Daniel Stufflebeam in 1971 was used to evaluate the three translation Master's programs at…

  13. The Beads of Translation: Using Beads to Translate mRNA into a Polypeptide Bracelet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Dacey; Patrick, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    During this activity, by making beaded bracelets that represent the steps of translation, students simulate the creation of an amino acid chain. They are given an mRNA sequence that they translate into a corresponding polypeptide chain (beads). This activity focuses on the events and sites of translation. The activity provides students with a…

  14. Translation Meets Cognitive Science: The Imprint of Translation on Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Translation has long played a role in linguistic and literary studies research. More recently, the theoretical and methodological concerns of process research have given translation an additional role in cognitive science. The interest in the cognitive aspects of translation has led scholars to turn to disciplines such as cognitive linguistics,…

  15. Effect of Multiple Translations and Cognate Status on Translation Recognition Performance of Balanced Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Roger; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa; Gavilan, Jose M.; Garcia-Albea, Jose E.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    When participants are asked to translate an ambiguous word, they are slower and less accurate than in the case of single-translation words (e.g., Laxen & Lavour, 2010; Tokowicz & Kroll, 2007). We report an experiment to further examine this multiple-translation effect by investigating the influence of variables shown to be relevant in bilingual…

  16. The Impact of Translators' Epistemological Beliefs and Gender on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araghizade, Elmira; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between translators' epistemological beliefs and gender on their Persian-to-English translation quality. To do so, a group of 53 MA translation students both male and female were selected, through convenient sampling to participate in this study. For data collection two instruments were employed: 1…

  17. A Few Ad Libs on Communicative and Semantic Translation, Translators, Interpreters, Their Teachers and Their Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaggio, Sergio

    The communicative approach to translation seeks to bring a text to a new audience, to be assimilated in its new environment. The semantic approach views the text as a cultural artifact, borrowed from its original environment, to be displayed or studied. Translations are usually semantic, not communicative, because few translators are truly…

  18. An Evaluation of Output Quality of Machine Translation (Padideh Software vs. Google Translate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haniyeh Sadeghi Azer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the translation quality of two machine translation systems in translating six different text-types, from English to Persian. The evaluation was based on criteria proposed by Van Slype (1979. The proposed model for evaluation is a black-box type, comparative and adequacy-oriented evaluation. To conduct the evaluation, a questionnaire was assigned to end-users to evaluate the outputs to examine and determine, if the machine-generated translations are intelligible and acceptable from their point of view and which one of the machine-generated translations produced by Padideh software and Google Translate is more acceptable and useful from the end-users point of view. The findings indicate that, the machine-generated translations are intelligible and acceptable in translating certain text-types, for end-users and Google Translate is more acceptable from end-users point of view.Keywords: Machine Translation, Machine Translation Evaluation, Translation Quality

  19. A Practical Guide for Translators (Third Revised Edition). Topics in Translation 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson-Brown, Geoffrey

    This third edition of a guide for translators contains more information than the second edition and looks at translation as a business as well as an occupation, focusing on marketing and quality control. It is designed for people with little or no practical experience with translation in a commercial environment. The 16 chapters examine these…

  20. The Translation Problems of English Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蓓

    2013-01-01

    In the process of learning English, reading comprehension is a very important part. Firstly, the paper analyzes the trans-lation’s role in reading comprehension. Secondly, it considers translation could enhance English reading comprehension. Thirdly, it mainly discusses the translation problem and skills of English Reading Comprehension.

  1. Entire spacelike translating solitons in Minkowski space

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Qi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study entire spacelike translating solitons in Minkowski space. By constructing convex spacelike solutions to (1.3) in bounded convex domains, we obtain many entire smooth convex strictly spacelike translating solitons by prescribing boundary data at infinity.

  2. Translations between Quaternion and Complex Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Leo, S.; Rotelli, P

    1994-01-01

    While in general there is no one-to-one correspondence between complex and quaternion quantum mechanics (QQM), there exists at least one version of QQM in which a {\\em partial} set of {\\em translations} may be made. We define these translations and use the rules to obtain rapid quaternion counterparts (some of which are new) of standard quantum mechanical results.

  3. SLOVAK CHILDREN''S LITERATURE IN TRANSLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kniazkova V.S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main milestones of Slovak children's literature and how it is represented in the translation into foreign languages. The work of writers who have contributed to the development of children's literature most of all is analyzed in the article, as well as the work of the translators who have contributed to the promotion of Slovak literature abroad.

  4. SLOVAK CHILDREN''S LITERATURE IN TRANSLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KNIAZKOVA V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main milestones of Slovak children's literature and how it is represented in the translation into foreign languages. The work of writers who have contributed to the development of children's literature most of all is analyzed in the article, as well as the work of the translators who have contributed to the promotion of Slovak literature abroad.

  5. TRANSLATE: New Strategic Approaches for English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Jiménez, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This teaching tip shares a research-based instructional model that uses translation to improve the English reading comprehension of English Learners. Within this instruction, English learners work collaboratively in small groups and use translation to facilitate understandings of their required English language arts curriculum. Students are taught…

  6. Research on the Translation of Public Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiannan, Ma

    2012-01-01

    Because of the increasing international image of China, the translation of public signs in city has become the very important issue. From the point of view of cross-cultural communication, the public signs have crucial influence on the image of the city, even for the whole China. However, there exist many translation errors of the public signs in…

  7. Students' Differentiated Translation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how students translate between mathematical representations is of both practical and theoretical importance. This study examined students' processes in their generation of symbolic and graphic representations of given polynomial functions. The purpose was to investigate how students perform these translations. The result of the…

  8. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The s...

  9. Compiling a Corpus for Teaching Medical Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth de la Teja Bosch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: medical translation has countless documentary sources; the major difficulty lies in knowing how to assess them. The corpus is the ideal tool to perform this activity in a rapid and reliable way, and to define the learning objectives based on text typology and oriented towards professional practice.Objective: to compile an electronic corpus that meets the requirements of the professional practice to perform specialized medical translation. Methods: a pedagogical research was conducted in the province of Cienfuegos. The units of analysis involved records from translators of the Provincial Medical Sciences Information Center and specialized translators in this field, who completed a questionnaire to accurately determine their information needs, conditioning the corpus design criteria. The analysis of a set of texts extracted from highly reputable sources led to the text selection and final compilation. Subsequently, the validation of the corpus as a documentary tool for teaching specialized medical translation was performed. Results: there was a concentration of translation assignments in the topics: malignant tumors, hypertension, heart disease, diabetes mellitus and pneumonias. The predominant text typologies were: evaluative and dissemination of current research, with plenty original articles and reviews. The text corpus design criteria were: unannotated, documented, specialized, monitor and comparable. Conclusions: the corpus is a useful tool to show the lexical, terminological, semantic, discursive and contextual particularities of biomedical communication. It allows defining learning objectives and translation problems. Key words: teaching; translating; medicine

  10. Translational control of gene expression and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calkhoven, Cornelis F; Müller, Christine; Leutz, Achim

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade, translational control has been shown to be crucial in the regulation of gene expression. Research in this field has progressed rapidly, revealing new control mechanisms and adding constantly to the list of translationally regulated genes. There is accumulating evidence that trans

  11. Creativity in Non-Literary Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnoulle, Christine

    1993-01-01

    Argues that nonliterary texts are often so muddled and inaccurate in their formulation that they call for exegesis and in-depth rewriting. Concludes that nonfiction translators become creative in their own right but in a different sense than the one usually connected with these terms in the context of literary translation. (NKA)

  12. Some Aspects of the Translation of Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osers, Ewald

    1978-01-01

    The true criterion of poetry is the internal tension or charge of the language. Alternative expression of words, figurative language or turns of phrases that will reproduce the emotional charge is the critical question for the translator. Examples of lines of poetry in the original and in translation are discussed. (AMH)

  13. Perspective on Translation from the Firthian Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Michael J.

    1980-01-01

    Expounds Firth's views on the problems of translation and surveys theories of translation by some Firthian linguists. Defines the concept of meaning and the concept of varieties within a language, discussing various dialect categories and other categories that relate to constant features of speakers' and writers' use. (MES)

  14. Travelling Languages? Land, Languaging and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Alison

    2011-01-01

    What does translation become if we uncouple language from culture and link language to perception and experience of the land? What would happen to translation if the culture concept was not the starting point for theorizing? In order to answer this question I examine the contributions of Eagleton, Keesing, Cronin and, most particularly, of the…

  15. Cultural Functions in the Translation of Metaphor

    OpenAIRE

    Lulu Wang

    2013-01-01

    Metaphor has been studied for over two thousand years. Modern science has broadened the field of metaphorical study. This thesis attempts to probe into the translation of metaphor from a cultural perspective by analyzing and identifying its cultural connotations so that we could possibly seek for appropriate translation strategies.

  16. Translation as the Catalyst of Cultural Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht Classen

    2012-01-01

    This essay reflects on the many different strategies involved in translation, which is both a linguistic and a cultural-historical strategy. Examples from the Middle Ages and the Modern Age are adduced to illustrate the huge impact which translations have had on peoples and societies throughout time.

  17. Ethnographic Encounters: The Processes of Cultural Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Shirley Ann

    2002-01-01

    Explores some of the ways in which the contested concept of cultural translation has been interpreted in anthropology. Describes what cultural translation now involves for practitioners who research and teach within interdisciplinary frameworks--particularly those constituted by the interface between anthropology and modern language learning.…

  18. Translation: Towards a Critical-Functional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Sima; Ketabi, Saeed

    2010-01-01

    The controversy over the place of translation in the teaching of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) is a thriving field of inquiry. Many older language teaching methodologies such as the Direct Method, the Audio-lingual Method, and Natural and Communicative Approaches, tended to either neglect the role of translation, or prohibit it entirely as a…

  19. On Translators' Cultural Frame of Functionist Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhiyi

    2009-01-01

    A deep cognition with translators' cultural frame of functionist reference can help instructors and teachers adjust and extend patterns and schemes of translation and generate the optimal classroom conditions for acquisition of the target language. The author of the paper, in the perspectives of motivational, cognitive and communicative…

  20. Translations of Intuitionistic Fuzzy B-algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Tapan Senapati

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the concept of intuitionistic fuzzy translation to intuitionistic fuzzy subalgebras and ideals in B-algebras are introduced with several related properties investigated. Examples are also given to illustrate results. The notion of intuitionistic fuzzy extensions and intuitionistic fuzzy multiplications of intuitionistic fuzzy subalgebras and ideals are introduced. Relationships are investigated between intuitionistic fuzzy translations, intuitionistic fuzzy extensions and intui...