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Sample records for blocks kainic acid-induced

  1. A dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase protects against kainic acid-induced brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutoli, Letteria; Marini, Herbert; Rinaldi, Mariagrazia; Bitto, Alessandra; Irrera, Natasha; Pizzino, Gabriele; Pallio, Giovanni; Calò, Margherita; Adamo, Elena Bianca; Trichilo, Vincenzo; Interdonato, Monica; Galfo, Federica; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica

    2015-06-01

    Systemic administration of kainic acid causes inflammation and apoptosis in the brain, resulting in neuronal loss. Dual cyclooxygenase/5-lipoxygenase (COX/5-LOX) inhibitors could represent a possible neuroprotective approach in preventing glutamate excitotoxicity. Consequently, we investigated the effects of a dual inhibitor of COX/5-LOX following intraperitoneal administration of kainic acid (KA, 10 mg/kg) in rats. Animals were randomized to receive either the dual inhibitor of COX/5-LOX (flavocoxid, 20 mg/kg i.p.) or its vehicle (1 ml/kg i.p.) 30 min after KA administration. Sham brain injury rats were used as controls. We evaluated protein expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK1/2) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in the hippocampus. Animals were also observed for monitoring behavioral changes according to Racine Scale. Finally, histological analysis and brain edema evaluation were carried out. Treatment with the dual inhibitor of COX/5-LOX decreased protein expression of p-ERK1/2 and TNF-α in hippocampus, markedly reduced MDA, LTB4 and PGE2 hippocampal levels, and also ameliorated brain edema. Histological analysis showed a reduction in cell damage in rats treated with the dual inhibitor of COX/5-LOX, particularly in hippocampal subregion CA3c. Moreover, flavocoxid significantly improved behavioral signs following kainic acid administration. Our results suggest that dual inhibition of COX/5-LOX by flavocoxid has neuroprotective effects during kainic acid-induced excitotoxicity. PMID:25893744

  2. Blueberry polyphenols attenuate kainic acid-induced decrements in cognition and alter inflammatory gene expression in rat hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Lau, Francis C.; Carey, Amanda N.; Galli, Rachel L.; Spangler, Edward L.; Ingram, Donald K.; Joseph, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease may be partly due to long-term exposure and increased susceptibility to inflammatory insults. In the current study, we investigated whether polyphenols in blueberries can reduce the deleterious effects of inflammation induced by central administration of kainic acid by altering the expression of genes associated with inflammation. To this end, 4-month-old male Fischer-344 (F344) rats were fed a control, 0.015% piroxicam (an NSAID) or 2% blueberry diet for 8 weeks before either Ringer's buffer or kainic acid was bilaterally micro-infused into the hippocampus. Two weeks later, following behavioral evaluation, the rats were killed and total RNA from the hippocampus was extracted and used in real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression of inflammation-related genes. Kainic acid had deleterious effects on cognitive behavior as kainic acid-injected rats on the control diet exhibited increased latencies to find a hidden platform in the Morris water maze compared to Ringer's buffer-injected rats and utilized non-spatial strategies during probe trials. The blueberry diet, and to a lesser degree the piroxicam diet, was able to improve cognitive performance. Immunohistochemical analyses of OX-6 expression revealed that kainic acid produced an inflammatory response by increasing the OX-6 positive areas in the hippocampus of kainic acid-injected rats. Kainic acid up-regulated the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, the neurotrophic factor IGF-1, and the transcription factor NF-κB. Blueberry and piroxicam supplementations were found to attenuate the kainic acid-induced increase in the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and NF-κB, while only blueberry was able to augment the increased IGF-1 expression. These results indicate that blueberry polyphenols attenuate learning impairments following neurotoxic insult and exert anti-inflammatory actions

  3. Soman- or kainic acid-induced convulsions decrease muscarinic receptors but not benzodiazepine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [3H]Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding to muscarinic receptors decreased in the rat forebrain after convulsions induced by a single dose of either soman, a potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, or kainic acid, an excitotoxin. A Rosenthal plot revealed that the receptors decreased in number rather than affinity. When the soman-induced convulsions were blocked, the decrease in muscarinic receptors at 3 days was less extensive than when convulsions occurred and at 10 days they approached control levels in most of the brain areas. The most prominent decrements in QNB binding were in the piriform cortex where the decline in QNB binding is probably related to the extensive convulsion-associated neuropathology. The decrements in QNB binding after convulsions suggest that the convulsive state leads to a down-regulation of muscarinic receptors in some brain areas. In contrast to the decrease in QNB binding after convulsions, [3H]flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptors did not change even in the piriform cortex where the loss in muscarinic receptors was most prominent. Thus, it appears that those neuronal processes that bear muscarinic receptors are more vulnerable to convulsion-induced change than those with benzodiazepine receptors

  4. Reduced expression of calsenilin/DREAM/KChIP3 in the brains of kainic acid-induced seizure and epilepsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yeon-Mi; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Lee, Min-Cheol; Kim, So-Young; Jung, Yong-Keun

    2003-04-01

    Calsenilin is a neuronal calcium binding protein that may function in calcium signaling and cell death. Kainic acid, an analog of the excitatory amino acid L-glutamate, produced excitotoxic cell death and induced the pathophysiology of status epilepticus. The expression of calsenilin was investigated in the mouse brain after kainic acid-induced seizure and seizure-induced hippocampal neuronal cell culture system using immunostaining analysis. Calsenilin was markedly decreased not only in the damaged cortex and CA3 region of hippocampus at 24 h after kainic acid-induced seizure but also in a cell-culture model of seizure-like activity. In addition, immunoreactivity of calsenilin in the hippocampus derived from human epilepsy patient was significantly decreased compared with normal brain. These results demonstrate that the reduced expression of calsenilin may functionally be associated with the pathophysiology of status epilepticus. PMID:12648752

  5. Statin Inhibits Kainic Acid-Induced Seizure and Associated Inflammation and Hippocampal Cell Death

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jin-Koo; Won, Je-Seong; Singh, Avtar K; Singh, Inderjit

    2008-01-01

    Statins are inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase that have been recently recognized as anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective drugs. Herein, we investigated anti-excitotoxic and anti-seizure effects of statins by using kainic acid (KA)-rat seizure model, an animal model for temporal lobe epilepsy and excitotoxic neurodegeneration. We observed that pretreatment with Lipitor (atorvastatin) effeiciently reduced KA-induced seizure activities, hippocampal neuron death, monocyte infiltration and proinfla...

  6. Transient changes in the limbic histaminergic system after systemic kainic acid-induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Minnamaija; Sallmen, Tina; Karlstedt, Kaj; Panula, Pertti

    2005-10-01

    Increased brain histamine is reported to protect against convulsions. We used systemic kainic acid (KA) administration to study possible changes of the histaminergic system in rat brain in status epilepticus (SE). Robust increases in brain histamine concentrations and numbers of histamine-immunoreactive nerve fibers were detected in the piriform cortex (Pir) and amygdala after KA injection, suggesting a reactive increase, which is opposite to other published aminergic transmitter responses. These changes, lasting several weeks, might be coupled to a mechanism unrelated to the anticonvulsive function of histamine. Transient increases in mRNA expression of H(3) receptor isoforms with a full-length third intracellular loop, coupled to mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, were detected first in the hippocampal CA3c area, followed by the Pir and amygdala and then the hippocampal CA1 area. These results suggest that histamine and H3 receptors, which also control the release of GABA and glutamate, might be involved in convulsive SE. PMID:16137576

  7. Protective role of miR-23b-3p in kainic acid-induced seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lianbo; Yao, Yi; Fu, Huajun; Li, Zhenghui; Wang, Fengpeng; Zhang, Xiaobin; He, Wencan; Zheng, Weihong; Zhang, Yunwu; Zheng, Honghua

    2016-07-01

    Dysregulation of microRNAs has been proposed to contribute toward epilepsy. The miRNA miR-23b-3p has been found to protect against neuronal apoptosis and the production of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we assessed the potential role of miR-23b-3p in the kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure model. We found that miR-23b-3p levels were significantly decreased in the brain cortex of mice and in cultured mouse primary neurons treated with KA. Importantly, supplement of miR-23b-3p agomir by an intacerebroventricular injection alleviated seizure behaviors and abnormal cortical electroencephalogram recordings in KA-treated mice. Together, these results indicate that miR-23b-3p plays a crucial role in suppressing seizure formation in experimental models of epilepsy and that miR-23b-3p supplement may be a potential anabolic strategy for ameliorating seizure. PMID:27232518

  8. Conditioned Medium Reconditions Hippocampal Neurons against Kainic Acid Induced Excitotoxicity: An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevinahal, Pradeep Kumar K.; Venugopal, Chaitra; Yencharla, Harish Chandra Prasad S.; Chandanala, Shashank; Trichur, Raju R.; Talakad, Sathyaprabha N.; Bhonde, Ramesh R.; Dhanushkodi, Anandh

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is gaining attention as a promising treatment option for neurodegenerative diseases. The functional efficacy of grafted cells is a matter of debate and the recent consensus is that the cellular and functional recoveries might be due to “by-stander” effects of grafted cells. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of conditioned medium (CM) derived from human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells in a kainic acid (KA) induced hippocampal degeneration model system in in vitro condition. Hippocampal cell line was exposed to KA (200 µM) for 24 hrs (lesion group) whereas, in the treatment group, hippocampal cell line was exposed to KA in combination with HEK-CM (KA + HEK-CM). We observed that KA exposure to cells resulted in significant neuronal loss. Interestingly, HEK-CM cotreatment completely attenuated the excitotoxic effects of KA. In HEK-CM cotreatment group, the cell viability was ~85–95% as opposed to 47% in KA alone group. Further investigation demonstrated that treatment with HEK-CM stimulated the endogenous cell survival factors like brain derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) and antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2, revealing the possible mechanism of neuroprotection. Our results suggest that HEK-CM protects hippocampal neurons against excitotoxicity by stimulating the host's endogenous cell survival mechanisms. PMID:25505907

  9. Conditioned Medium Reconditions Hippocampal Neurons against Kainic Acid Induced Excitotoxicity: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar K. Bevinahal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy is gaining attention as a promising treatment option for neurodegenerative diseases. The functional efficacy of grafted cells is a matter of debate and the recent consensus is that the cellular and functional recoveries might be due to “by-stander” effects of grafted cells. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of conditioned medium (CM derived from human embryonic kidney (HEK cells in a kainic acid (KA induced hippocampal degeneration model system in in vitro condition. Hippocampal cell line was exposed to KA (200 µM for 24 hrs (lesion group whereas, in the treatment group, hippocampal cell line was exposed to KA in combination with HEK-CM (KA + HEK-CM. We observed that KA exposure to cells resulted in significant neuronal loss. Interestingly, HEK-CM cotreatment completely attenuated the excitotoxic effects of KA. In HEK-CM cotreatment group, the cell viability was ~85–95% as opposed to 47% in KA alone group. Further investigation demonstrated that treatment with HEK-CM stimulated the endogenous cell survival factors like brain derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF and antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2, revealing the possible mechanism of neuroprotection. Our results suggest that HEK-CM protects hippocampal neurons against excitotoxicity by stimulating the host’s endogenous cell survival mechanisms.

  10. Fresh green tea and gallic acid ameliorate oxidative stress in kainic acid-induced status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Jeng, Kee-Ching G; Yao, Pei-Wun; Chuang, Lu-Te; Kuo, Su-Ling; Hou, Chien-Wei

    2012-03-01

    Green tea is one of the most-consumed beverages due to its taste and antioxidative polyphenols. However, the protective effects of green tea and its constituent, gallic acid (GA), against kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure have not been studied. We investigated the effect of fresh green tea leaf (GTL) and GA on KA-induced neuronal injury in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that GTL and GA reduced the maximal seizure classes, predominant behavioral seizure patterns, and lipid peroxidation in male FVB mice with status epilepticus (SE). GTL extract and GA provided effective protection against KA-stressed PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In the protective mechanism study, GTL and GA decreased Ca(2+) release, ROS, and lipid peroxidation from KA-stressed PC12 cells. Western blot results revealed that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), RhoA, and COX-2 expression were increased in PC12 cells under KA stress, and expression of COX-2 and p38 MAPK, but not RhoA, was significantly reduced by GTL and GA. Furthermore, GTL and GA were able to reduce PGE(2) production from KA-stressed PC12 cells. Taken together, the results showed that GTL and GA provided neuroprotective effects against excitotoxins and may have a clinical application in epilepsy. PMID:22324774

  11. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts

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    Nur Shafika Mohd Sairazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS. In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA. KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration.

  12. Acacetin inhibits glutamate release and prevents kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

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    Tzu-Yu Lin

    Full Text Available An excessive release of glutamate is considered to be a molecular mechanism associated with several neurological diseases that causes neuronal damage. Therefore, searching for compounds that reduce glutamate neurotoxicity is necessary. In this study, the possibility that the natural flavone acacetin derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Clerodendrum inerme (L. Gaertn is a neuroprotective agent was investigated. The effect of acacetin on endogenous glutamate release in rat hippocampal nerve terminals (synaptosomes was also investigated. The results indicated that acacetin inhibited depolarization-evoked glutamate release and cytosolic free Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+]C in the hippocampal nerve terminals. However, acacetin did not alter synaptosomal membrane potential. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of acacetin on evoked glutamate release was prevented by the Cav2.2 (N-type and Cav2.1 (P/Q-type channel blocker known as ω-conotoxin MVIIC. In a kainic acid (KA rat model, an animal model used for excitotoxic neurodegeneration experiments, acacetin (10 or 50 mg/kg was administrated intraperitoneally to the rats 30 min before the KA (15 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection, and subsequently induced the attenuation of KA-induced neuronal cell death and microglia activation in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. The present study demonstrates that the natural compound, acacetin, inhibits glutamate release from hippocampal synaptosomes by attenuating voltage-dependent Ca(2+ entry and effectively prevents KA-induced in vivo excitotoxicity. Collectively, these data suggest that acacetin has the therapeutic potential for treating neurological diseases associated with excitotoxicity.

  13. Phenolic antioxidants attenuate hippocampal neuronal cell damage against kainic acid induced excitotoxicity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M S Parihar; Taruna Hemnani

    2003-02-01

    Increasing evidence supports the role of excitotoxicity in neuronal cell injury. Thus, it is extremely important to explore methods to retard or reverse excitotoxic neuronal injury. In this regard, certain dietary compounds are begining to receive increased attention, in particular those involving phytochemicals found in medicinal plants in alleviating neuronal injury. In the present study, we examined whether medicinal plant extracts protect neurons against excitotoxic lesions induced by kainic acid (KA) in female Swiss albino mice. Mice were anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine (200 mg and 2 mg/kg body wt. respectively) and KA (0.25 g in a volume of 0.5 l) was administered to mice by intra hippocampal injections. The results showed an impairment of the hippocampus region of brain after KA injection. The lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content were significantly ( < 0.05) increased in comparison to controls. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (EC 1.11.1.9) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content declined after appearance of excitotoxic lesions. As GPx and GSH represent a major pathway in the cell for metabolizing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), their depletion would be expected to allow H2O2 to accumulate to toxic levels. Dried ethanolic plant extracts of Withania somnifera (WS), Convolvulus pleuricauas (CP) and Aloe vera (AV) dissolved in distilled water were tested for their total antioxidant activity. The diet was prepared in terms of total antioxidant activity of plant extracts. The iron (Fe3+) reducing activity of plant extracts was also tested and it was found that WS and AV were potent reductants of Fe3+ at pH 5.5. CP had lower Fe3+ reducing activity in comparison to WS and AV. Plant extracts given singly and in combination 3 weeks prior to KA injections resulted in a decrease in neurotoxicity. Measures of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl declined. GPx activity and GSH content were elevated in hippocampus supplemented with WS and combination of

  14. Interleukin-6 deficiency reduces the brain inflammatory response and increases oxidative stress and neurodegeneration after kainic acid-induced seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Molinero, A; Carrasco, J;

    2001-01-01

    and were killed six days later. Morphological damage to the hippocampal field CA1-CA3 was seen after kainic acid treatment. Reactive astrogliosis and microgliosis were prominent in kainic acid-injected normal mice hippocampus, and clear signs of increased oxidative stress were evident. Thus...... was caused by kainic acid, as revealed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling and interleukin-1beta converting enzyme/Caspase-1 stainings. In kainic acid-injected interleukin-6 null mice, reactive astrogliosis and microgliosis were reduced, while...... morphological hippocampal damage, oxidative stress and apoptotic neuronal death were increased. Since metallothionein-I+II levels were lower, and those of inducible nitric oxide synthase higher, these concomitant changes are likely to contribute to the observed increased oxidative stress and neuronal death...

  15. Metallothionein reduces central nervous system inflammation, neurodegeneration, and cell death following kainic acid-induced epileptic seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Florit, Sergi; Giralt, Mercedes;

    2005-01-01

    We examined metallothionein (MT)-induced neuroprotection during kainic acid (KA)-induced excitotoxicity by studying transgenic mice with MT-I overexpression (TgMT mice). KA induces epileptic seizures and hippocampal excitotoxicity, followed by inflammation and delayed brain damage. We show...... for the first time that even though TgMT mice were more susceptible to KA, the cerebral MT-I overexpression decreases the hippocampal inflammation and delayed neuronal degeneration and cell death as measured 3 days after KA administration. Hence, the proinflammatory responses of microglia...

  16. Enhanced seizures and hippocampal neurodegeneration following kainic acid-induced seizures in metallothionein-I + II-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Penkowa, M; Hadberg, H;

    2000-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are major zinc binding proteins in the CNS that could be involved in the control of zinc metabolism as well as in protection against oxidative stress. Mice lacking MT-I and MT-II (MT-I + II deficient) because of targeted gene inactivation were injected with kainic acid (KA...... (ICE) and caspase-3 levels. Histochemically reactive zinc in the hippocampus was increased by KA to a greater extent in MT-I + II-deficient compared with control mice. KA-induced seizures also caused increased oxidative stress, as suggested by the malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein tyrosine nitration......), a potent convulsive agent, to examine the neurobiological importance of these MT isoforms. At 35 mg/kg KA, MT-I + II deficient male mice showed a higher number of convulsions and a longer convulsion time than control mice. Three days later, KA-injected mice showed gliosis and neuronal injury in the...

  17. Auditory brain-stem evoked potentials in cat after kainic acid induced neuronal loss. II. Cochlear nucleus.

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    Zaaroor, M; Starr, A

    1991-01-01

    Auditory brain-stem potentials (ABRs) were studied in cats for up to 6 weeks after kainic acid had been injected unilaterally into the cochlear nucleus (CN) producing extensive neuronal destruction. The ABR components were labeled by the polarity at the vertex (P, for positive) and their order of appearance (the arabic numerals 1, 2, etc.). Component P1 can be further subdivided into 2 subcomponents, P1a and P1b. The assumed correspondence between the ABR components in cat and man is indicated by providing human Roman numeral designations in parentheses following the feline notation, e.g., P2 (III). To stimulation of the ear ipsilateral to the injection, the ABR changes consisted of a loss of components P2 (III) and P3 (IV), and an attenuation and prolongation of latency of components P4 (V) and P5 (VI). The sustained potential shift from which the components arose was not affected. Wave P1a (I) was also slightly but significantly attenuated compatible with changes of excitability of nerve VIII in the cochlea secondary to cochlear nucleus destruction. Unexpectedly, to stimulation of the ear contralateral to the injection side, waves P2 (III), P3 (IV), and P4 (V) were also attenuated and delayed in latency but to a lesser degree than to stimulation of the ear ipsilateral to the injection. Changes in binaural interaction of the ABR following cochlear nucleus lesions were similar to those produced in normal animals by introducing a temporal delay of the input to one ear. The results of the present set of studies using kainic acid to induce neuronal loss in auditory pathway when combined with prior lesion and recording experiments suggest that each of the components of the ABR requires the integrity of an anatomically diffuse system comprising a set of neurons, their axons, and the neurons on which they terminate. Disruption of any portion of the system will alter the amplitude and/or the latency of that component. PMID:1716569

  18. Transcriptome analysis of the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell region after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus in juvenile rats.

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    Hanna B Laurén

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanisms involved in epileptogenesis in the developing brain remain poorly understood. The gene array approach could reveal some of the factors involved by allowing the identification of a broad scale of genes altered by seizures. In this study we used microarray analysis to reveal the gene expression profile of the laser microdissected hippocampal CA1 subregion one week after kainic acid (KA-induced status epilepticus (SE in 21-day-old rats, which are developmentally roughly comparable to juvenile children. The gene expression analysis with the Chipster software generated a total of 1592 differently expressed genes in the CA1 subregion of KA-treated rats compared to control rats. The KEGG database revealed that the identified genes were involved in pathways such as oxidative phosporylation (26 genes changed, and long-term potentiation (LTP; 18 genes changed. Also genes involved in Ca(2+ homeostasis, gliosis, inflammation, and GABAergic transmission were altered. To validate the microarray results we further examined the protein expression for a subset of selected genes, glial fibrillary protein (GFAP, apolipoprotein E (apo E, cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1, Purkinje cell protein 4 (PEP-19, and interleukin 8 receptor (CXCR1, with immunohistochemistry, which confirmed the transcriptome results. Our results showed that SE resulted in no obvious CA1 neuronal loss, and alterations in the expression pattern of several genes during the early epileptogenic phase were comparable to previous gene expression studies of the adult hippocampus of both experimental epileptic animals and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. However, some changes seem to occur after SE specifically in the juvenile rat hippocampus. Insight of the SE-induced alterations in gene expression and their related pathways could give us hints for the development of new target-specific antiepileptic drugs that interfere with the progression of the disease in the

  19. Auditory brain-stem evoked potentials in cat after kainic acid induced neuronal loss. I. Superior olivary complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaaroor, M; Starr, A

    1991-01-01

    Auditory brain-stem potentials (ABRs) were studied in cats for up to 45 days after kainic acid had been injected unilaterally or bilaterally into the superior olivary complex (SOC) to produce neuronal destruction while sparing fibers of passage and the terminals of axons of extrinsic origin connecting to SOC neurons. The components of the ABR in cat were labeled by their polarity at the vertex (P, for positive) and their order of appearance (the arabic numerals 1, 2, etc.). Component P1 can be further subdivided into 2 subcomponents labeled P1a and P1b. The correspondences we have assumed between the ABR components in cat and man are indicated by providing a Roman numeral designation for the human component in parentheses following the feline notation, e.g., P4 (V). With bilateral SOC destruction, there was a significant and marked attenuation of waves P2 (III), P3 (IV), P4 (V), P5 (VI), and the sustained potential shift (SPS) amounting to as much as 80% of preoperative values. Following unilateral SOC destruction the attenuation of many of these same ABR components, in response to stimulation of either ear, was up to 50%. No component of the ABR was totally abolished even when the SOC was lesioned 100% bilaterally. In unilaterally lesioned cats with extensive neuronal loss (greater than 75%) the latencies of the components beginning at P3 (IV) were delayed to stimulation of the ear ipsilateral to the injection site but not to stimulation of the ear contralateral to the injection. Binaural interaction components of the ABR were affected in proportion to the attenuation of the ABR. These results are compatible with multiple brain regions contributing to the generation of the components of the ABR beginning with P2 (III) and that components P3 (IV), P4 (V), and P5 (VI) and the sustained potential shift depend particularly on the integrity of the neurons of the SOC bilaterally. The neurons of the lateral subdivision (LSO) and the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body

  20. Sesamin ameliorates oxidative stress and mortality in kainic acid-induced status epilepticus by inhibition of MAPK and COX-2 activation

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Ching-Huei; Shen Mei-Lin; Peng Yu-Fen; Wu Szu-Pei; Yao Pei-Wun; Hou Chien-Wei; Hsieh Peiyuan F; Chao Ya-Yun; Chang Ming-Hong; Jeng Kee-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) was involved with release of free radicals. Sesamin is a well-known antioxidant from sesame seeds and it scavenges free radicals in several brain injury models. However the neuroprotective mechanism of sesamin to KA-induced seizure has not been studied. Methods Rodents (male FVB mice and Sprague-Dawley rats) were fed with sesamin extract (90% of sesamin and 10% sesamolin), 15 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg, for 3 days before KA subcutane...

  1. Overexpression of γ-aminobutyric acid transporter subtype I leads to susceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizure in transgenic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter,and the GABAergic synaptic transmission is normally terminated by the rapid uptake through GABA transporters.With transgenic mice ubiquitously overexpressing GABA transporter subtype I (GAT1),the present study explored the pathophysiological role of GAT1 in epileptogenesis.Though displaying no spontaneous seizure activity,these mice exhibit altered electroencephalographic patterns and increased susceptibility to seizure induced by kainic acid.In addition,the GABAA receptor and glutamate transporters are up-regulated in transgenic mice,which perhaps reflects a compensatory or corrective change to the elevated level of GAT1.These preliminary findings support the hypothesis that excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission,and seizure susceptibility can be altered by neurotransmitter transporters.

  2. Neuroprotective Effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla in Kainic Acid-Induced Epileptic Seizures by Modulating Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Sprouting, Neuron Survival, Astrocyte Proliferation, and S100B Expression

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    Chung-Hsiang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR, which is a traditional Chinese medicine, has anticonvulsive effect in our previous studies, and the cellular mechanisms behind this are still little known. Because of this, we wanted to determine the importance of the role of UR on kainic acid- (KA- induced epilepsy. Oral UR for 6 weeks can successfully attenuate the onset of epileptic seizure in animal tests. Hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting dramatically decreased, while neuronal survival increased with UR treatment in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas. Furthermore, oral UR for 6 weeks significantly attenuated the overexpression of astrocyte proliferation and S100B proteins but not γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA receptors. These results indicate that oral UR for 6 weeks can successfully attenuate mossy fiber sprouting, astrocyte proliferation, and S100B protein overexpression and increase neuronal survival in KA-induced epileptic rat hippocampus

  3. Uncaria rhynchophylla and rhynchophylline improved kainic acid-induced epileptic seizures via IL-1β and brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

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    Ho, Tin-Yun; Tang, Nou-Ying; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2014-05-15

    Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) has been used for the treatment of convulsions and epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine. This study reported the major anti-convulsive signaling pathways and effective targets of UR and rhynchophylline (RP) using genomic and immunohistochemical studies. Epileptic seizure model was established by intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid (KA) in rats. Electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings indicated that UR and RP improved KA-induced epileptic seizures. Toll-like receptor (TLR) and neurotrophin signaling pathways were regulated by UR in both cortex and hippocampus of KA-treated rats. KA upregulated the expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF), which were involved in TLR and neurotrophin signaling pathways, respectively. However, UR and RP downregulated the KA-induced IL-1β and BDNF gene expressions. Our findings suggested that UR and RP exhibited anti-convulsive effects in KA-induced rats via the regulation of TLR and neurotrophin signaling pathways, and the subsequent inhibition of IL-1β and BDNF gene expressions. PMID:24636743

  4. Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Activity Regulates Brain Expression of P-Glycoprotein in the Kainic Acid-Induced Seizure Rats

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    Nian Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the effect of NF-κB activity on the seizure susceptibility, brain damage, and P-gp expression in kainic acid- (KA- induced seizure rats. Male SD rats were divided into saline control group (NS group, KA induced epilepsy group (EP group, and epilepsy group intervened with NF-κB inhibitor-pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate salt (PDTC group or with dexamethasone (DEX group. No seizures were observed in the rats of NS group. Compared with NS group, increased P-gp expression and NF-κB activation in the rat brain of the EP group were observed after KA micro-injection. Both PDTC and DEX pre-treatment significantly increased the latency to grade III or V seizure onset compared to EP group but failed to show neuron-protective effect as the number of survival neurons didn't significantly differ from that in EP group. Furthermore, PDTC pre-treatment significantly decreased P-gp expression along with NF-κB activation in the hippocampus CA3 area and amygdala complex of rats compared with the EP group, implying that NF-κB activation involved in the seizure susceptibility and seizure induced brain P-gp over-expression. Additionally, DEX pre-treatment only decreased P-gp expression level without inhibition of NF-κB activation, suggesting NF-κB independent pathway may also participate in regulating seizure induced P-gp over-expression.

  5. Sesamin ameliorates oxidative stress and mortality in kainic acid-induced status epilepticus by inhibition of MAPK and COX-2 activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ching-Huei

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kainic acid (KA-induced status epilepticus (SE was involved with release of free radicals. Sesamin is a well-known antioxidant from sesame seeds and it scavenges free radicals in several brain injury models. However the neuroprotective mechanism of sesamin to KA-induced seizure has not been studied. Methods Rodents (male FVB mice and Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with sesamin extract (90% of sesamin and 10% sesamolin, 15 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg, for 3 days before KA subcutaneous injection. The effect of sesamin on KA-induced cell injury was also investigated on several cellular pathways including neuronal plasticity (RhoA, neurodegeneration (Caspase-3, and inflammation (COX-2 in PC12 cells and microglial BV-2 cells. Results Treatment with sesamin extract (30 mg/kg significantly increased plasma α-tocopherol level 50% and 55.8% from rats without and with KA treatment, respectively. It also decreased malondialdehyde (MDA from 145% to 117% (p = 0.017 and preserved superoxide dismutase from 55% of the vehicle control mice to 81% of sesamin-treated mice, respectively to the normal levels (p = 0.013. The treatment significantly decreased the mortality from 22% to 0% in rats. Sesamin was effective to protect PC12 cells and BV-2 cells from KA-injury in a dose-dependent manner. It decreased the release of Ca2+, reactive oxygen species, and MDA from PC12 cells. Western blot analysis revealed that sesamin significantly reduced ERK1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, Caspase-3, and COX-2 expression in both cells and RhoA expression in BV-2 cells. Furthermore, Sesamin was able to reduce PGE2 production from both cells under KA-stimulation. Conclusions Taken together, it suggests that sesamin could protect KA-induced brain injury through anti-inflammatory and partially antioxidative mechanisms.

  6. 依达拉奉对海人酸致痫大鼠认知功能的影响%The effect of edaravone on cognitive function of kainic acid-induced epileptic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘惠卿; 孟丽; 冯荣芳; 张志英; 岳月红; 尹楠; 刘昌林; 郭宗成

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of edaravone on cognitive function of kainic acid-induced epileptic rats.Methods Thirty adult male Wistar rats ( weight 260±20g) , were randomly divided into three groups:①sham operation group ( n=6):administrated 0.9%saline the same volume as model group;②model group ( n=12):kainic acid ( 4μg· kg-1 ) was administrated in the right hippocampal CA3 region via stereotactic technique.③edaravone ( n=12): kainic acid ( 4μg · kg-1 · d-1 ) was administrated in the right hippocampus CA3 region via stereotactic technique, and immediately edaravone ( 10mg · kg-1 ) was administrated once daily i.p.until the time point of the sacrificed.The three groups of rats, respectively, were evaluated Morris water maze test in order to test cognitive function and learning capacity, at 24 h, 8w after operation.Results The escape latency periods in all rats at the beginning of place navigation test (PNT) at 24h were no significantly extended(P>0.05), and which in rats of model and edaravone groups was obviously prolonged in the PNT at 8w compared with the sham group( P0.05) ,the former was shortened, the latter decreased significantly in the model and edaravone groups at 8w SPT ( P>0.05) .The swimming time in the original platform quadrant in all rats was prolonger ( P<0.05) and the times of wear ring increased significantly compared with the model group( P<0.05) .Conclusion Repeated, chronic seizures can cause the declining of cognitive function, learning and memory capacity, edaravone can partly protect cognitive function.%目的:观察依达拉奉对海人酸( KA)致痫大鼠认知功能的影响。方法选用成年健康雄性Wistar大鼠30只,体质量260±20g,随机分为3组:①假手术组(sham)(n=6):右侧海马CA3区注入等量的生理盐水;②模型组(KA)(n=12):右侧海马CA3区注入KA 4μg· kg-1(4μg·μl-1);③依达拉奉组(n=12):右侧海马CA3区注入KA 4

  7. Radiation-induced apoptosis in developing rats and kainic acid-induced excitotoxicity in adult rats are associated with distinctive morphological and biochemical c-Jun/AP-1 (N) expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation produces apoptosis in the developing rat brain. Strong c-Jun immunoreactivity, as revealed with the antibody c-Jun/AP-1 (N) which is raised against the amino acids 91-105 mapping with the amino terminal domain of mouse c-Jun p39, is simultaneously observed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of apoptotic cells. Western blotting of total brain homogenates, using the same antibody, shows a p39 band in control rats which is accompanied by a strong, phosphorylated p62 double-band in irradiated animals. In addition, increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 expression, as found on western blots, is found in irradiated rats when compared with controls. Intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid at convulsant doses to the adult rat produces cell death with morphological features of necrosis, together with the appearance of cells with fine granular chromatin degeneration and small numbers of apoptotic-like cells, in the entorhinal and piriform cortices, basal amygdala, certain thalamic nuclei, and CA1 region of the hippocampus. c-Jun expression in kainic acid-treated rats, as revealed with the c-Jun/AP-1 (N) antibody, is found in the nuclei of a minority of cells in the same areas. The vast majority of c-Jun-immunoreactive cells have normal nuclear morphology, whereas necrotic cells are negative and only a few cells with fine granular chromatin condensation and apoptotic cells following kainic acid injection are stained with c-Jun antibodies. Western blotting, using the same antibody, shows a p39 band in control rats, which is accompanied by a band at about p26 from 6 h onwards following kainic acid injection. Decreased c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 expression, as revealed on western blots, is observed in kainic acid-treated rats.These results show that the antibody c-Jun/AP-1 (N) recognizes three different forms of c-Jun-related immunoreactivity in normal and pathological states, which are associated with the different outcome of cells. These results stress the necessity

  8. Systemic administration of kainic acid induces selective time dependent decrease in [125I]insulin-like growth factor I, [125I]insulin-like growth factor II and [125I]insulin receptor binding sites in adult rat hippocampal formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Administration of kainic acid evokes acute seizure in hippocampal pathways that results in a complex sequence of functional and structural alterations resembling human temporal lobe epilepsy. The structural alterations induced by kainic acid include selective loss of neurones in CA1-CA3 subfields and the hilar region of the dentate gyrus followed by sprouting and permanent reorganization of the synaptic connections of the mossy fibre pathways. Although the neuronal degeneration and process of reactive synaptogenesis have been extensively studied, at present little is known about means to prevent pathological conditions leading to kainate-induced cell death. In the present study, to address the role of insulin-like growth factors I and II, and insulin in neuronal survival as well as synaptic reorganization following kainate-induced seizure, the time course alterations of the corresponding receptors were evaluated. Additionally, using histological preparations, the temporal profile of neuronal degeneration and hypertrophy of resident astroglial cells were also studied. [125I]Insulin-like growth factor I binding was found to be decreased transiently in almost all regions of the hippocampal formation at 12 h following treatment with kainic acid. The dentate hilar region however, exhibited protracted decreases in [125I]insulin-like growth factor I receptor sites throughout (i.e. 30 days) the study. [125I]Insulin-like growth factor II receptor binding sites in the hippocampal formation were found to be differentially altered following systemic administration of kainic acid. A significant decrease in [125I]insulin-like growth factor II receptor sites was observed in CA1 subfield and the pyramidal cell layer of the Ammon's horn at all time points studied whereas the hilar region and the stratum radiatum did not exhibit alteration at any time. A kainate-induced decrease in [125I]insulin receptor binding was noted at all time points in the molecular layer of the dentate

  9. EFFECTS OF KAINIC ACID ON GLUTATIONE AND NITRITE IN RAT HIPPOCAMPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadka I. Boyadjieva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Epileptiformic activity could result in apoptotic neuronal death, in which oxidative stress could play an important role. In case of decreased antioxidant brain status cellular death could be facilitated. Kainic acid is often used in a model of epilepsy in rats. Up to now there is not enough data evaluating levels of glutathione and nitric oxide in kainic acid-induced epilepsy acutely and several days after the kainic acid exposure. This information will be useful for assessing long term prognosis on a risk of further brain damage.We studied hippocampal levels of glutathione and nitric oxide at the 3th hour (acute group and after 7 days of kainic (chronic group acid exposure. We found that glutathione level is statistically significantly lower in the hippocampus 7 days after kainic acid exposure, as compared with values measured in the acute group. For both kainic acid treated groups glutathione levels were significantly lower than controls.Levels of nitric oxide were found to be significantly higher 7 days after kainic acid exposure as compared with acute group. For both kainic acid treated groups nitric oxyde levels were significantly lower than controls.We conclude that in kainic acid treated rats oxidative stress could be present even after a single treatment. This could be a potentially pathogenic factor for further brain damages.

  10. 红藻氨酸诱导癫痫发作大鼠脑内GLAST表达的动态研究%Expression of glutamate transporter GLAST in rat brains following kainic acid induced seizure activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓红; 黄远桂; 杨金升; 夏峰; 刘惠铃

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To observe expression of glutamate transporter GLAST in rat brains following KA induced seizure activity.Methods:GLAST expression in rat brains following KA injection was studied by immunocytochemistry staining with guinea pig anti-glutamate transporter GLAST polyclonal antibody. Results:GLAST-immunoreactive cells were found in both neurons and astroglia. After KA treatment,a rapid increase of GLAST-positive immunoreactive cells in cerebellum was observed which began at 30 min post-injection, reached a peak at 3 h and then a decrease trend was followed. The GLAST immunoreactivity in cerebellum was lower than that of controls by 12 h and returned to normal level by 72 h after KA injection. The GLAST-positive astrocytes in hippocampus region had a similar increase within 3~6 h following KA treatment and this change was prominent in CA3 .Conclusion:GLAST expression in rat brains following KA-induced seizure activity had a rapid and transient upregulation which may be a protective response of cells to injury, and this change would allow the scavenging of excess extracelluar glutamate and prevention of excitotoxicity. It could also have a significant role in controlling levels of excitability in limbic circuitry.%目的:观察红藻氨酸(kainic acid ,KA)诱导大鼠癫痫发作时脑内谷氨酸转运蛋白亚型GLAST表达的变化。方法:用豚鼠抗GLAST多克隆抗体及免疫细胞化学ABC法观察KA注射后不同时间脑内GLAST的表达。结果:KA注射后1 h,小脑分子层和蒲肯野氏细胞层的GLAST免疫反应强度开始增加,至3 h达高峰(P<0.01),随后呈下降趋势,12 h时低于发作前水平(P<0.05),72 h恢复正常。海马区表达的GLAST阳性星形胶质细胞于KA注射后3~6 h内亦有相应的升高,以CA3区改变最明显(P<0.05)。结论:KA诱导大鼠癫痫发作时脑内GLAST的表达早期呈现快速上调,其机理可能是细胞对损伤的一种保护性反应,有

  11. Mercaptoacetate blocks fatty acid-induced GLP-1 secretion in male rats by directly antagonizing GPR40 fatty acid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Jun; Wang, Qing; Dinh, Thu T; Simasko, Steve M; Ritter, Sue

    2016-04-15

    Mercaptoacetate (MA) is an orexigenic agent reported to block fatty acid (FA) oxidation. Recently, however, we reported evidence from isolated nodose ganglion neurons that MA antagonizes the G protein-coupled long- and medium-chain FA receptor GPR40. GPR40 mediates FA-induced secretion of the satietogenic incretin peptide glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), by enteroendocrine L cells, as well as FA-induced enhancement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Our results in cultured nodose neurons suggest that MA would also block GPR40 in enteroendocrine cells controlling GLP-1 secretion. If so, this would suggest an alternative mechanism by which MA increases food intake. We tested the hypothesis that MA blocks FA-induced GLP-1 secretion in vitro using cultured STC-1 cells (a murine enteroendocrine cell line) and in vivo in adult male rats. In vitro, MA blocked the increase in both cytosolic Ca(2+)and GLP-1 release stimulated by FAs and also reduced (but less effectively) the response of STC-1 cells to grifolic acid, a partial agonist of the GPR120 FA receptor. In vivo, MA reduced GLP-1 secretion following olive oil gavage while also increasing glucose and decreasing insulin levels. The carnitine palmatoyltransferase 1 antagonist etomoxir did not alter these responses. Results indicate that MA's actions, including its orexigenic effect, are mediated by GPR40 (and possibly GPR120) receptor antagonism and not by blockade of fat oxidation, as previously believed. Analysis of MA's interaction with GPR40 may facilitate understanding of the multiple functions of this receptor and the manner in which FAs participate in the control of hunger and satiety. PMID:26791830

  12. EGFR Inhibition Blocks Palmitic Acid-induced inflammation in cardiomyocytes and Prevents Hyperlipidemia-induced Cardiac Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weixin; Fang, Qilu; Zhong, Peng; Chen, Lingfeng; Wang, Lintao; Zhang, Yali; Wang, Jun; Li, Xiaokun; Wang, Yi; Wang, Jingying; Liang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is often associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies suggest that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antagonism may be effective for the treatment of angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy and diabetic cardiomyopathy. This study was performed to demonstrate if EGFR plays a role in the pathogenesis of hyperlipidemia/obesity-related cardiac injuries. The in vivo studies using both wild type (WT) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) showed the beneficial effects of small-molecule EGFR inhibitors, AG1478 and 542, against obesity-induced myocardial injury. Administration of AG1478 and 542 significantly reduced myocardial inflammation, fibrosis, apoptosis, and dysfunction in both two obese mouse models. In vitro, EGFR signaling was blocked by either siRNA silencing or small-molecule EGFR inhibitors in palmitic acid (PA)-stimulated cardiomyocytes. EGFR inhibition attenuated PA-induced inflammatory response and apoptosis in H9C2 cells. Furthermore, we found that PA-induced EGFR activation was mediated by the upstream TLR4 and c-Src. This study has confirmed the detrimental effect of EGFR activation in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced cardiac inflammatory injuries in experimental mice, and has demonstrated the TLR4/c-Src-mediated mechanisms for PA-induced EGFR activation. Our data suggest that EGFR may be a therapeutic target for obesity-related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27087279

  13. Metabolic dysfunction associated with adiponectin deficiency enhances kainic acid-induced seizure severity

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Edward B; Warmann, Genevieve; Dhir, Ravindra; Ahima, Rexford S.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has deleterious effects on the central nervous system, and recent evidence suggests that obesity rates are higher at presentation in children who develop epilepsy. Adiponectin is secreted by adipose tissue and acts in the brain and peripheral organs to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Adiponectin deficiency predisposes toward metabolic syndrome, characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular morbidity. To i...

  14. Administration of Simvastatin after Kainic Acid-Induced Status Epilepticus Restrains Chronic Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Chuncheng; Sun, Jiahang; Qiao, Weidong; Lu, Dunyue; Wei, Lanlan; NA, MENG; Song, Yuanyuan; Hou, Xiaohua; LIN, ZHIGUO

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of chronic administration of simvastatin immediately after status epilepticus (SE) on rat brain with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). First, we evaluated cytokines expression at 3 days post KA-lesion in hippocampus and found that simvastatin-treatment suppressed lesion-induced expression of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Further, we quantified reactive astrocytosis using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) staining and neuron los...

  15. 青霉素与海人酸癫痫模型的比较%Comparison of epilepsy models reproduced by penicillin and kainic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小岗; 刘卫平; 章翔; 王剑博; 姬西团

    2008-01-01

    目的 通过用青霉素、海人酸2种药物制作癫痫模型,探讨2种致痫剂的作用特点及应用条件.方法 取健康雄性昆明小鼠90只,分为3组,对照组(n=10)、青霉素致痫组(n=40)和海人酸致痫组(n=40),青霉素致痫组腹腔注射青霉素7×106 U/kg,海人酸致痫组腹腔注射海人酸10mg/kg,生理盐水组腹腔注射生理盐水35 μL/g.注射后连续5 h观察小鼠是否有痫性发作并分级,进行脑电图描记.结果 空白对照组无痫性发作,两模型组均出现痫性发作,海人酸致痫组与青霉素致痫组按Racine分级0~Ⅴ级各级之间无明显差异(P>0.05),小鼠出现癫痫的潜伏期海人酸致痫组比青霉素致痫组短(P<0.05),而且海人酸致痫组比青霉素致痫组死亡率低(P<0.05).结论 腹腔注射海人酸所致的动物模型具有与人类颞叶癫痫极为相似的癫痫发作行为学、脑电图特征,是理想的模拟人类颞叶癫痫的动物模型.%Objective To establish the mouse models of acute epilepsy induced by kainic acid or penicillin, and explore the characteristics and condition of application of the 2 agents. Methods Ninety healthy male Kunming mice were selected and divided randomly into the normal saline group (n=10) and penicillin-induced group (n=40) and kainic acid-induced group (n=40). The kainic acid-induced group were treated with 10 mg/kg kainic acid by intraperitoneal injection, the penicillin-induced group were treated with 7× 106 U/kg penicillin by intraperitoneal injection, and the ones in the normal saline group were treated with 35 μL/g normal saline by intraperitoneal injection. After injection, seizure was observed continuously and graded in the following 5 h and monitored by electroencephalogram (EEG). Results Totally 80 mice of the penicillin- and kainic acid-induced groups entered the final analysis. It was noted that the latency of the appearance of the status epilepticus by kainic acid was shorter than that by penicillin

  16. Sprouty2 and -4 hypomorphism promotes neuronal survival and astrocytosis in a mouse model of kainic acid induced neuronal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongrong, Sitthisak; Hausott, Barbara; Marvaldi, Letizia; Agostinho, Alexandra S; Zangrandi, Luca; Burtscher, Johannes; Fogli, Barbara; Schwarzer, Christoph; Klimaschewski, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Sprouty (Spry) proteins play a key role as negative feedback inhibitors of the Ras/Raf/MAPK/ERK pathway downstream of various receptor tyrosine kinases. Among the four Sprouty isoforms, Spry2 and Spry4 are expressed in the hippocampus. In this study, possible effects of Spry2 and Spry4 hypomorphism on neurodegeneration and seizure thresholds in a mouse model of epileptogenesis was analyzed. The Spry2/4 hypomorphs exhibited stronger ERK activation which was limited to the CA3 pyramidal cell layer and to the hilar region. The seizure threshold of Spry2/4(+/-) mice was significantly reduced at naive state but no difference to wildtype mice was observed 1 month following KA treatment. Histomorphological analysis revealed that dentate granule cell dispersion (GCD) was diminished in Spry2/4(+/-) mice in the subchronic phase after KA injection. Neuronal degeneration was reduced in CA1 and CA3 principal neuron layers as well as in scattered neurons of the contralateral CA1 and hilar regions. Moreover, Spry2/4 reduction resulted in enhanced survival of somatostatin and neuropeptide Y expressing interneurons. GFAP staining intensity and number of reactive astrocytes markedly increased in lesioned areas of Spry2/4(+/-) mice as compared with wildtype mice. Taken together, although the seizure threshold is reduced in naive Spry2/4(+/-) mice, neurodegeneration and GCD is mitigated following KA induced hippocampal lesions, identifying Spry proteins as possible pharmacological targets in brain injuries resulting in neurodegeneration. The present data are consistent with the established functions of the ERK pathway in astrocyte proliferation as well as protection from neuronal cell death and suggest a novel role of Spry proteins in the migration of differentiated neurons. © 2015 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26540287

  17. Ketogenic Diet, but Not Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Diet, Reduces Spontaneous Seizures in Juvenile Rats with Kainic Acid-induced Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Dustin, Simone M.; Stafstrom, Carl E

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) is effective in many cases of drug-resistant epilepsy, particularly in children. In the classic KD, fats consist primarily of long-chain saturated triglycerides. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the n-3 type, decrease neuronal excitability and provide neuroprotection; pilot human studies have raised the possibility of using PUFAs to control seizures in patients. Methods: To determine the relative roles o...

  18. Blueberry polyphenols attenuate kainic acid-induced decrements in cognition and alter inflammatory gene expression in rat hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognitive impairment in age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease may be partly due to long-term exposure and increased susceptibility to inflammatory insults. In the current study we investigated whether polyphenols in blueberries (BBs) can reduce the deleterious effects o...

  19. Tandem Wittig-ene reaction approach to kainic acid

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Majik, M.S.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Tilve, S.G.

    , India stilVe@unigoa.ac.in ReceiVed January 29, 2009 The first example of a tandem Wittig-intramolecular ene reaction approach and its application toward the synthesis of kainic acid is reported. The synthetic pathway involves conversion of prenyl bromide..., M. Tetrahedron Lett. 2008, 49, 6327. (b) Sakaguchi, H.; Tokuyama, H.; Fukuyama, T. Org. Lett. 2008, 10, 1711. (c) Jung, Y. C.; Yoon, C. H.; Turos, E.; Soo Yoo, K.; Jung, K. W. J. Org. Chem. 2007, 72, 10114. (d) Thuong, M.; Sottocornola, S.; Prestat...

  20. Valproic Acid Induced Hyperammonaemic Encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe clinical and laboratory features of valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic encephalopathy in patients taking valproic acid. Methods: Observational study was conducted at the Neurology Department, Dow University of Health Sciences, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from February 26, 2010 to March 20, 2011. Ten patients on valproic acid therapy of any age group with idiopathic or secondary epilepsy, who presented with encephalopathic symptoms, were registered and followed up during the study. Serum ammonia level, serum valproic acid level, liver function test, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalogram and brain imaging of all the patients were done. Other causes of encephalopathy were excluded after clinical and appropriate laboratory investigations. Microsoft Excel 2007 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Hyperammonaemia was found in all patients with encephalopathic symptoms. Rise in serum ammonia was independent of dose and serum level of valproic acid. Liver function was also found to be normal in 80% (n=8) of the patients. Valproic acid was withdrawn in all patients. Three (30%) patients improved only after the withdrawal of valproic acid. Six (60%) patients improved after L-Carnitine replacement, one (10%) after sodium benzoate. On followup, serum ammonia had reduced to normal in five (50%) patients and to more than half of the baseline level in two (20%) patients. Three (30%) patients were lost to followup after complete clinical improvement. Conclusion: Within therapeutic dose and serum levels, valproic acid can cause symptomatic hyperammonaemia resulting in encephalopathy. All patients taking valproic acid presenting with encephalopathic symptoms must be monitored for the condition. (author)

  1. Caspase 3 involves in neuroplasticity, microglial activation and neurogenesis in the mice hippocampus after intracerebral injection of kainic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Tzeng, Tsai-Teng; Tsay, Huey-Jen; Chang, Luping; Hsu, Chia-Lin; Lai, Tzu-Hsuan; Huang, Fong-Lee; Shiao, Young-Ji

    2013-01-01

    Background The roles of caspase 3 on the kainic acid-mediated neurodegeneration, dendritic plasticity alteration, neurogenesis, microglial activation and gliosis are not fully understood. Here, we investigate hippocampal changes using a mouse model that receive a single kainic acid-intracerebral ventricle injection. The effects of caspase 3 inhibition on these changes were detected during a period of 1 to 7 days post kainic acid injection. Result Neurodegeneration was assessed by Fluoro-Jade ...

  2. Kindling epilepsy models with kainic acid in different parts of rat brain%大鼠脑内不同部位海人酸点燃模型的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘诤; 王峰; 夏鹤春; 齐江华; 宋子木; 孙涛

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discussion the methods of simpler production and better effect in the kainic acid induced epilepsy model. Methods By stereotactic operation,injection the kainic acid 1.0 μl to the insular, the amygdala and the lateral ventricle of the rats, observing the changes of the behavior, the EEG and the pathology and comparing the ignition characteristic in epileptic rats. Results The change of the behavior, the EEG and the pathology in epileptic rats confirmed that the rats of injection the kainic acid to insular can be successfully established experimental animal models. Compared to the traditional position (injection the kainic acid to amygdala and lateral ventricle) ,the insular ignite group primary seizure time is (59. 96 ±4. 36) min,static duration is(11. 90 ±0. 54) d,significantly faster than the amygdala group and the lateral ventricle group ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The insular has the seizure potency, the kainic acid injection the rat' s insular has the advantages in shortened test cycle and reduced the cost of experiments.%目的 探讨制作简便、效果良好的海人酸(KA)点燃致痫模型方法。方法 立体定向操作下于岛叶、杏仁核和侧脑室局部注射海人酸1.0μl,观察致痫大鼠的行为学和脑电图改变,检测其病理学变化,比较其点燃特征。结果 行为学、脑电图和病理学证实岛叶点燃组与传统致痫(杏仁核、侧脑室)点燃组比较,具有相同的致痫特征;同时,岛叶点燃组初次发作时间为(59.96±4.36)min,静止持续时间为(11.90±0.54)d,明显快于杏仁核组和侧脑室组(P<0.05)。结论 岛叶本身具备致痫潜能,大鼠岛叶海人酸致痫模型具有缩短实验周期、降低实验成本的优势。

  3. Growth hormone reverses excitotoxic damage induced by kainic acid in the green iguana neuroretina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Mendoza, José; Mora, Janeth; Carranza, Martha; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    It is known that growth hormone (GH) is expressed in extrapituitary tissues, including the nervous system and ocular tissues, where it is involved in autocrine/paracrine actions related to cell survival and anti-apoptosis in several vertebrates. Little is known, however, in reptiles, so we analyzed the expression and distribution of GH in the eye of green iguana and its potential neuroprotective role in retinas that were damaged by the intraocular administration of kainic acid (KA). It was found, by Western blotting, that GH-immunoreactivity (GH-IR) was expressed as two isoforms (15 and 26kDa, under reducing conditions) in cornea, vitreous, retina, crystalline, iris and sclera, in varying proportions. Also, two bands for the growth hormone receptor (GHR)-IR were observed (70 and 44kDa, respectively) in the same tissues. By immunofluorescence, GH-IR was found in neurons present in several layers of the neuroretina (inner nuclear [INL], outer nuclear [ONL] and ganglion cell [GCL] layers) as determined by its co-existence with NeuN, but not in glial cells. In addition, GH and GHR co-expression was found in the same cells, suggesting paracrine/autocrine interactions. KA administration induced retinal excitotoxic damage, as determined by a significant reduction of the cell density and an increase in the appearance of apoptotic cells in the INL and GCL. In response to KA injury, both endogenous GH and Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) expression were increased by 70±1.8% and 33.3±16%, respectively. The addition of exogenous GH significantly prevented the retinal damage produced by the loss of cytoarchitecture and cell density in the GCL (from 4.9±0.79 in the control, to 1.45±0.2 with KA, to 6.35±0.49cell/mm(2) with KA+GH) and in the INL (19.12±1.6, 10.05±1.9, 21.0±0.8cell/mm(2), respectively) generated by the long-term effect of 1mM KA intraocular administration. The co-incubation with a specific anti-GH antibody, however, blocked the protective effect of GH

  4. [Effects of systemic administration of kainic acid on GABAergic and glutaminergic transmission in various areas of the brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, G; Marano, P; Patti, F; De Simone, D; Raffaele, R; Giammona, G; Nicoletti, F

    1984-09-30

    In the present study that Authors have investigated the effects of systemic injection of kainic acid on aminoacidergic transmission of different rat brain regions. Kainic acid has been used to produce an experimental model of limbic epilepsy characterized by two different phases (KA1 and KA2). Results obtained show a significant decrease of glutamic and aspartic acids (excitatory aminoacids) and glicine and taurine (inhibitory aminoacids) in both phases at hippocampal level. On the contrary GABA concentration seems to be increased. PMID:6098285

  5. Valproic acid induced pancreatitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupen Barman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid is a commonly used antiepileptic drug. Apart from its common side effect there is definite association between valproic acid therapy and acute pancreatitis. Since 1979, many cases of acute pancreatitis induced by valproic acid have been published in medical literature. Here we are reporting a case of valproic acid induced acute pancreatitis in a 27 years old boy. The treatment is supportive, re-challenge is hazardous and should be avoided. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1765-1767

  6. Mefenamic Acid Induced Nephrotoxicity: An Animal Model

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    Muhammad Nazrul Somchit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are used for the treatment of many joint disorders, inflammation and to control pain. Numerous reports have indicated that NSAIDs are capable of producing nephrotoxicity in human. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate mefenamic acid, a NSAID nephrotoxicity in an animal model. Methods: Mice were dosed intraperitoneally with mefenamic acid either as a single dose (100 or 200 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil or as single daily doses for 14 days (50 or 100 mg/kg in 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide/Palm oil per day. Venous blood samples from mice during the dosing period were taken prior to and 14 days post-dosing from cardiac puncture into heparinized vials. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine activities were measured. Results: Single dose of mefenamic acid induced mild alteration of kidney histology mainly mild glomerular necrosis and tubular atrophy. Interestingly, chronic doses induced a dose dependent glomerular necrosis, massive degeneration, inflammation and tubular atrophy. Plasma blood urea nitrogen was statistically elevated in mice treated with mefenamic acid for 14 days similar to plasma creatinine. Conclusion: Results from this study suggest that mefenamic acid as with other NSAIDs capable of producing nephrotoxicity. Therefore, the study of the exact mechanism of mefenamic acid induced severe nephrotoxicity can be done in this animal model.

  7. Naringin Attenuates Autophagic Stress and Neuroinflammation in Kainic Acid-Treated Hippocampus In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoung Hoon Jeong; Un Ju Jung; Sang Ryong Kim

    2015-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA) is well known as a chemical compound to study epileptic seizures and neuronal excitotoxicity. KA-induced excitotoxicity causes neuronal death by induction of autophagic stress and microglia-derived neuroinflammation, suggesting that the control of KA-induced effects may be important to inhibit epileptic seizures with neuroprotection. Naringin, a flavonoid in grapefruit and citrus fruits, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities, resulting in neuroprotection in anima...

  8. Effect of ketogenic diet on hippocampus mossy fiber sprouting and GluR5 expression in kainic acid induced rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiang-ping; SUN Ruo-peng; JIN Rui-feng

    2006-01-01

    @@ Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high fat, low protein, low carbohydrate diet. Its antiepileptic effect is certain but the underlying mechanism is unknown.1Mossy fiber sprouting in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus causes the synaptic reorganization in the hippocampus, which is an important cause of temporal lobe epilepsy in animals and humans.1,2 It is also essential to the genesis and development of epilepsy. As the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, glutamate plays a role in synaptic reorganization and development of epilepsy. In recent years, the role of glutamate receptor 5 (GluR5) in the genesis of seizures has attracted more and more attention of researchers and this receptor has become a candidate target of new antiepileptic drugs.3,4 In this study, we investigated the possible antiepileptic mechanism of KD in terms of synaptic reorganization and GluR5 expression, attempting to provide a theoretical basis for the development of new antiepileptic drugs.

  9. Rats bred for susceptibility to depression-like phenotypes have higher kainic acid-induced seizure mortality than their depression-resistant counterparts

    OpenAIRE

    Tabb, Kroshona D; Boss-Williams, Katherine A.; Weiss, Jay M.; Weinshenker, David

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that epilepsy and depression are comorbid diseases. In fact, depression is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder associated with epilepsy, particularly temporal lobe epilepsy, and individuals with a history of depression are at a higher risk for developing epilepsy than the general population. Despite the epidemiological evidence for this link, there has been little experimental evidence to support the connection or elucidate possible underlying mechanism...

  10. Effects of topiramate on hippocampal neuronal apoptosis in rats after kainic acid-evoked seizures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Wu; Jiarong Pang; Jinou Zheng; Xiaoqing Deng; Xiulin Liang; Jiaquan Li; Zhiying Chen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Apoptosis plays an important role in brain injury after seizures and the formation of chronic epilepsy.It is important to investigate whether topiramate exhibits either antiepileptic and/or anti-apoptotic effects on hippocampal neurons.OBJECTIVE:To observe euronal apoptosis in hippocampus of rat seizure models,and to investigate the antagonizing effect of topiramate on neuronal apoptosis after seizures.DESIGN:An animal experiment of comparative observation.SETTING:First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University.MATERIALS:Sixty healthy male Sprague Dawley(SD)rats,4-6 weeks old and weighing 160-220 g,were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Guangxi Medical University.Main apparatus and reagents were as follows:Rat brain solid positioner(SR-6N,made in Japan); kainic acid by Sigma(USA);pathological image analyzer(DMR+550)by Leica(Germany); in situ apoptosis detection kit by Wuhan Boster Biological Technology Co.,Ltd; topiramate by Xi'an-Janssen Pharmaceutical,Ltd.The treatment on animals in the experiment was in accordance with the standards of animal ethics.METHODS:The experiments were performed at the Scientific Experimental Center of Guangxi Medical University from June to December 2006.The rats were randomly divided into a topiramate-treated group(n=30)and a model group(n=30).① After anesthesia,all rats were administered a kainic acid injection(0.2 μ L,2 g/L)into the right lateral ventricle.Grade Ⅲ and greater Racine standards were considered to be a successful model establishment.Thirty minutes after seizure ,rats in the topiramate-treated group were treated with an intraperitoneal(i.p.)injection of topiramate every day(40 mg/kg/d)for 2 weeks.The rats in the model group were treated with an equal volume of saline for 2 weeks.③Six rats in the topiramate-treated group were sacrificed at 1 day,and 1,2,3,and 4 weeks after treatment,respectively.The model group animals were sacrificed at corresponding time points.The brain

  11. Quantitative Assessment of MRI T2 Response to Kainic Acid Neurotoxicity in Rats in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liachenko, Serguei; Ramu, Jaivijay; Konak, Tetyana; Paule, Merle G; Hanig, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess quantitative changes in T2 relaxation using magnetic resonance imaging approaches in rats exposed to kainic acid to assess the utility of such endpoints as biomarkers of neurotoxicity. Quantitative T2 mapping was performed in 21 rats before and 2, 24, and 48 h after a single ip injection of 10 mg/kg of kainic acid. Three methods of quantifying T2 changes were explored: (1) Thresholding: all voxels exhibiting T2 ≤ 72 ms were designated normal tissue, whereas voxels exhibiting T2 > 72 ms were designated as lesioned tissue; (2) Statistical mapping: T2 maps obtained after treatment were statistically compared with averaged "baseline" maps, voxel-by-voxel; (3) Within-subject difference from baseline: for each individual the baseline T2 map was subtracted from the T2 map obtained after treatment. Based on the follow-up histopathological response there were 9 responders, 7 nonresponders, and 5 animals were not classified due to early sacrifice at 2 h which was too soon after treatment to detect any morphological evidence. The "thresholding" method (1) detected differences between groups only at the later time point of 48 h, the "statistical mapping" approach (2) detected differences 24 and 48 h after treatment, and the "within-subject difference from baseline" method (3) detected statistically significant differences between groups at each time point (2, 24, and 48 h). T2 mapping provides an easily quantifiable biomarker and the quantification method employing the use of the same animal as its own control provides the most sensitive metrics. PMID:25904105

  12. Polyunsaturated Branched-Chain Fatty Acid Geranylgeranoic Acid Induces Unfolded Protein Response in Human Hepatoma Cells.

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    Chieko Iwao

    Full Text Available The acyclic diterpenoid acid geranylgeranoic acid (GGA has been reported to induce autophagic cell death in several human hepatoma-derived cell lines; however, the molecular mechanism for this remains unknown. In the present study, several diterpenoids were examined for ability to induce XBP1 splicing and/or lipotoxicity for human hepatoma cell lines. Here we show that three groups of diterpenoids emerged: 1 GGA, 2,3-dihydro GGA and 9-cis retinoic acid induce cell death and XBP1 splicing; 2 all-trans retinoic acid induces XBP1 splicing but little cell death; and 3 phytanic acid, phytenic acid and geranylgeraniol induce neither cell death nor XBP1 splicing. GGA-induced ER stress/ unfolded protein response (UPR and its lipotoxicity were both blocked by co-treatment with oleic acid. The blocking activity of oleic acid for GGA-induced XBP1 splicing was not attenuated by methylation of oleic acid. These findings strongly suggest that GGA at micromolar concentrations induces the so-called lipid-induced ER stress response/UPR, which is oleate-suppressive, and shows its lipotoxicity in human hepatoma cells.

  13. Rho Kinase ROCK2 Mediates Acid-Induced NADPH Oxidase NOX5-S Expression in Human Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells.

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    Jie Hong

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of the progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA are not fully understood. We have shown that NOX5-S may be involved in this progression. However, how acid upregulates NOX5-S is not well known. We found that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression was significantly decreased by the Rho kinase (ROCK inhibitor Y27632 in BE mucosal biopsies and FLO-1 EA cells. In addition, acid treatment significantly increased the Rho kinase activity in FLO-1 cells. The acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production was significantly decreased by knockdown of Rho kinase ROCK2, but not by knockdown of ROCK1. Conversely, the overexpression of the constitutively active ROCK2, but not the constitutively active ROCK1, significantly enhanced the NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production. Moreover, the acid-induced increase in Rho kinase activity and in NOX5-S mRNA expression was blocked by the removal of calcium in both FLO-1 and OE33 cells. The calcium ionophore A23187 significantly increased the Rho kinase activity and NOX5-S mRNA expression. We conclude that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production may depend on the activation of ROCK2, but not ROCK1, in EA cells. The acid-induced activation of Rho kinase may be mediated by the intracellular calcium increase. It is possible that persistent acid reflux present in BE patients may increase the intracellular calcium, activate ROCK2 and thereby upregulate NOX5-S. High levels of reactive oxygen species derived from NOX5-S may cause DNA damage and thereby contribute to the progression from BE to EA.

  14. Rho Kinase ROCK2 Mediates Acid-Induced NADPH Oxidase NOX5-S Expression in Human Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weibiao

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms of the progression from Barrett’s esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) are not fully understood. We have shown that NOX5-S may be involved in this progression. However, how acid upregulates NOX5-S is not well known. We found that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression was significantly decreased by the Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y27632 in BE mucosal biopsies and FLO-1 EA cells. In addition, acid treatment significantly increased the Rho kinase activity in FLO-1 cells. The acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production was significantly decreased by knockdown of Rho kinase ROCK2, but not by knockdown of ROCK1. Conversely, the overexpression of the constitutively active ROCK2, but not the constitutively active ROCK1, significantly enhanced the NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production. Moreover, the acid-induced increase in Rho kinase activity and in NOX5-S mRNA expression was blocked by the removal of calcium in both FLO-1 and OE33 cells. The calcium ionophore A23187 significantly increased the Rho kinase activity and NOX5-S mRNA expression. We conclude that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production may depend on the activation of ROCK2, but not ROCK1, in EA cells. The acid-induced activation of Rho kinase may be mediated by the intracellular calcium increase. It is possible that persistent acid reflux present in BE patients may increase the intracellular calcium, activate ROCK2 and thereby upregulate NOX5-S. High levels of reactive oxygen species derived from NOX5-S may cause DNA damage and thereby contribute to the progression from BE to EA. PMID:26901778

  15. Properties of acid-induced currents in mouse dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergonul, Zuhal; Yang, Lei; Palmer, Lawrence G

    2016-05-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are cation channels that are activated by protons (H(+)). They are expressed in neurons throughout the nervous system and may play important roles in several neurologic disorders including inflammation, cerebral ischemia, seizures, neurodegeneration, anxiety, depression, and migraine. ASICs generally produce transient currents that desensitize in response to a decrease in extracellular pH Under certain conditions, the inactivation of ASICs can be incomplete and allow them to produce sustained currents. Here, we characterize the properties of both transient and sustained acid-induced currents in cultured mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. At pH levels between 7.3 and 7.1 they include "window currents" through ASICs. With stronger acid signals sustained currents are maintained in the absence of extracellular Na(+) or the presence of the ASIC blockers amiloride and Psalmotoxin-1(PcTx1). These sustained responses may have several different origins in these cells, including acid-induced stimulation of inward Cl(-) currents, block of outward K(+) currents, and augmentation of inward H(+) currents, properties that distinguish these novel sustained currents from the well-characterized transient currents. PMID:27173673

  16. Naringin Attenuates Autophagic Stress and Neuroinflammation in Kainic Acid-Treated Hippocampus In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Hoon Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kainic acid (KA is well known as a chemical compound to study epileptic seizures and neuronal excitotoxicity. KA-induced excitotoxicity causes neuronal death by induction of autophagic stress and microglia-derived neuroinflammation, suggesting that the control of KA-induced effects may be important to inhibit epileptic seizures with neuroprotection. Naringin, a flavonoid in grapefruit and citrus fruits, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities, resulting in neuroprotection in animal models from neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. In the present study, we examined its beneficial effects involved in antiautophagic stress and antineuroinflammation in the KA-treated hippocampus. Our results showed that naringin treatment delayed the onset of KA-induced seizures and decreased the occurrence of chronic spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS in KA-treated mice. Moreover, naringin treatment protected hippocampal CA1 neurons in the KA-treated hippocampus, ameliorated KA-induced autophagic stress, confirmed by the expression of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3, and attenuated an increase in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα in activated microglia. These results suggest that naringin may have beneficial effects of preventing epileptic events and neuronal death through antiautophagic stress and antineuroinflammation in the hippocampus in vivo.

  17. Evidence for Status Epilepticus and Pro-Inflammatory Changes after Intranasal Kainic Acid Administration in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounira Sabilallah

    Full Text Available Kainic acid (KA is routinely used to elicit status epilepticus (SE and epileptogenesis. Among the available KA administration protocols, intranasal instillation (IN remains understudied. Dosages of KA were instilled IN in mice. Racine Scale and Video-EEG were used to assess and quantify SE onset. Time spent in SE and spike activity was quantified for each animal and confirmed by power spectrum analysis. Immunohistochemistry and qPCR were performed to define brain inflammation occurring after SE, including activated microglial phenotypes. Long term video-EEG recording was also performed. Titration of IN KA showed that a dose of 30 mg/kg was associated with low mortality while eliciting SE. IN KA provoked at least one behavioral and electrographic SE in the majority of the mice (>90%. Behavioral and EEG SE were accompanied by a rapid and persistent microglial-astrocytic cell activation and hippocampal neurodegeneration. Specifically, microglial modifications involved both pro- (M1 and anti-inflammatory (M2 genes. Our initial long-term video-EEG exploration conducted using a small cohort of mice indicated the appearance of spike activity or SE. Our study demonstrated that induction of SE is attainable using IN KA in mice. Typical pro-inflammatory brain changes were observed in this model after SE, supporting disease pathophysiology. Our results are in favor of the further development of IN KA as a means to study seizure disorders. A possibility for tailoring this model to drug testing or to study mechanisms of disease is offered.

  18. Direct Imaging of Hippocampal Epileptiform Calcium Motifs Following Kainic Acid Administration in Freely Behaving Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyyeva, Tamara K; Frady, E Paxon; Nassi, Jonathan J; Aluisio, Leah; Cherkas, Yauheniya; Otte, Stephani; Wyatt, Ryan M; Dugovic, Christine; Ghosh, Kunal K; Schnitzer, Mark J; Lovenberg, Timothy; Bonaventure, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to abnormally high calcium concentrations is thought to be a core mechanism underlying hippocampal damage in epileptic patients; however, no prior study has characterized calcium activity during seizures in the live, intact hippocampus. We have directly investigated this possibility by combining whole-brain electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements with microendoscopic calcium imaging of pyramidal cells in the CA1 hippocampal region of freely behaving mice treated with the pro-convulsant kainic acid (KA). We observed that KA administration led to systematic patterns of epileptiform calcium activity: a series of large-scale, intensifying flashes of increased calcium fluorescence concurrent with a cluster of low-amplitude EEG waveforms. This was accompanied by a steady increase in cellular calcium levels (>5 fold increase relative to the baseline), followed by an intense spreading calcium wave characterized by a 218% increase in global mean intensity of calcium fluorescence (n = 8, range [114-349%], p wave had no consistent EEG phenotype and occurred before the onset of motor convulsions. Similar changes in calcium activity were also observed in animals treated with 2 different proconvulsant agents, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), suggesting the measured changes in calcium dynamics are a signature of seizure activity rather than a KA-specific pathology. Additionally, despite reducing the behavioral severity of KA-induced seizures, the anticonvulsant drug valproate (VA, 300 mg/kg) did not modify the observed abnormalities in calcium dynamics. These results confirm the presence of pathological calcium activity preceding convulsive motor seizures and support calcium as a candidate signaling molecule in a pathway connecting seizures to subsequent cellular damage. Integrating in vivo calcium imaging with traditional assessment of seizures could potentially increase translatability of pharmacological intervention, leading to

  19. Neuroprotective effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis against kainic acid-neuronal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Juárez, Angélica; Chamorro, Germán; Alva-Sánchez, Claudia; Paniagua-Castro, Norma; Pacheco-Rosado, Jorge

    2016-08-01

    Context Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis (SP) is a cyanobacterium which has attracted attention because of its nutritional value and pharmacological properties. It was previously reported that SP reduces oxidative stress in the hippocampus and protects against damaging neurobehavioural effects of systemic kainic acid (KA). It is widely known that the systemic administration of KA induces neuronal damage, specifically in the CA3 hippocampal region. Objective The present study determines if the SP sub-chronic treatment has neuroprotective properties against KA. Materials and methods Male SW mice were treated with SP during 24 d, at doses of 0, 200, and 800 mg/kg, once daily, and with KA (35 mg/kg, ip) as a single dose on day 14. After the treatment, a histological analysis was performed and the number of atrophic neuronal cells in CA3 hippocampal region was quantified. Results Pretreatment with SP does not protect against seizures induced by KA. However, mortality in the SP 200 and the SP 800 groups was of 20%, while for the KA group, it was of 60%. A single KA ip administration produced a considerable neuronal damage, whereas both doses of SP sub-chronic treatment reduced the number of atrophic neurons in CA3 hippocampal region with respect to the KA group. Discussion The SP neurobehaviour improvement after KA systemic administration correlates with the capacity of SP to reduce KA-neuronal death in CA3 hippocampal cells. This neuroprotection may be related to the antioxidant properties of SP. Conclusion SP reduces KA-neuronal death in CA3 hippocampal cells. PMID:26799655

  20. Acid-induced changes of brain protein buffering

    OpenAIRE

    Kraig, Richard P.; Wagner, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Excessive cellular acidosis is thought to enhance destruction of brain from ischemia. Protein denaturation may contribute to such injury although the behavior of brain proteins to acidosis is poorly defined. As a first approach to detect acid-induced changes in brain proteins and to characterize buffer content, homogenates were acidified for 20 min (as low as pH 3.1), returned to baseline pH (6.9), and then titrated. Titration curves show a significant (P < 0.0001) and permanent increase in b...

  1. Rotavirus nonstructural protein 1 antagonizes innate immune response by interacting with retinoic acid inducible gene I

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    Qin Lan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nonstructural protein 1 (NSP1 of rotavirus has been reported to block interferon (IFN signaling by mediating proteasome-dependent degradation of IFN-regulatory factors (IRFs and (or the β-transducin repeat containing protein (β-TrCP. However, in addition to these targets, NSP1 may subvert innate immune responses via other mechanisms. Results The NSP1 of rotavirus OSU strain as well as the IRF3 binding domain truncated NSP1 of rotavirus SA11 strain are unable to degrade IRFs, but can still inhibit host IFN response, indicating that NSP1 may target alternative host factor(s other than IRFs. Overexpression of NSP1 can block IFN-β promoter activation induced by the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I, but does not inhibit IFN-β activation induced by the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, indicating that NSP1 may target RIG-I. Immunoprecipitation experiments show that NSP1 interacts with RIG-I independent of IRF3 binding domain. In addition, NSP1 induces down-regulation of RIG-I in a proteasome-independent way. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that inhibition of RIG-I mediated type I IFN responses by NSP1 may contribute to the immune evasion of rotavirus.

  2. Selective stimulation of excitatory amino acid receptor subtypes and the survival of cerebellar granule cells in culture: effect of kainic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balázs, R; Hack, N; Jørgensen, Ole Steen

    1990-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that the survival of cerebellar granule cells in culture is promoted by treatment with N-methyl-D-aspartate. Here we report on the influence of another glutamate analogue, kainic acid, which, in contrast to N-methyl-D-aspartate, is believed to stimulate transmitter rec...

  3. Increased isoprostane levels in oleic acid-induced lung injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Koichi [Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Koizumi, Tomonobu, E-mail: tomonobu@shinshu-u.ac.jp [First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Tsushima, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Sumiko; Yokoyama, Toshiki [First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Nakagawa, Rikimaru [Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Obata, Toru [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of DNA Medicine, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-10-16

    The present study was performed to examine a role of oxidative stress in oleic acid-induced lung injury model. Fifteen anesthetized sheep were ventilated and instrumented with a lung lymph fistula and vascular catheters for blood gas analysis and measurement of isoprostanes (8-epi prostaglandin F2{alpha}). Following stable baseline measurements, oleic acid (0.08 ml/kg) was administered and observed 4 h. Isoprostane was measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with the isotope dilution method. Isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph were significantly increased 2 h after oleic acid administration and then decreased at 4 h. The percent increases in isoprostane levels in plasma and lung lymph at 2 h were significantly correlated with deteriorated oxygenation at the same time point, respectively. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary fat embolism-induced acute lung injury model in sheep and that the increase relates with the deteriorated oxygenation.

  4. Clenbuterol protect rat hippocampal neuron against kainic acid induced neurotoxicity in organotypic hippocampal slice%Clenbuterol对海人藻酸所致大鼠海马组织培养损伤的保护作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭颂; 饶明俐

    2000-01-01

    目的探讨β-肾上腺素能受体协同剂Clenbuterol是否可保护海马神经组织对抗兴奋性氨基酸-海人藻酸(KA)所致的神经损伤.方法应用培养的海马组织切片模型,将14d的海马脑片在高钙离子浓度的培养液中加用50μmol/L的KA 3h,在应用KA前2h、应用的同时及之后的18h内,加用100μmol/L的Clenbuterol.KA所致的神经损伤由Propidium Iodide (PI)的吸收量、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)的释放量来评价.结果 Clenbuterol可以保护海马神经组织由KA所致的损伤,表现在Clenbuterol和KA同时用药组比KA单独用药组LDH释放量及PI吸收量均降低25%~30%左右.并证明Clenbuterol的神经保护作用,是通过β2-肾上腺素能受体的激活来完成.结论 Clenbuterol可保护海马神经组织对抗KA所致的兴奋性损伤,这种神经保护作用可以使它成为一种治疗缺血性卒中很有潜力的药物.

  5. Metformin protects rat hepatocytes against bile acid-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titia E Woudenberg-Vrenken

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metformin is used in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus type II and improves liver function in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Metformin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, the cellular energy sensor that is sensitive to changes in the AMP/ATP-ratio. AMPK is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Both AMPK and mTOR are able to modulate cell death. AIM: To evaluate the effects of metformin on hepatocyte cell death. METHODS: Apoptotic cell death was induced in primary rat hepatocytes using either the bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA or TNFα in combination with actinomycin D (actD. AMPK, mTOR and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K/Akt were inhibited using pharmacological inhibitors. Apoptosis and necrosis were quantified by caspase activation, acridine orange staining and Sytox green staining respectively. RESULTS: Metformin dose-dependently reduces GCDCA-induced apoptosis, even when added 2 hours after GCDCA, without increasing necrotic cell death. Metformin does not protect against TNFα/ActD-induced apoptosis. The protective effect of metformin is dependent on an intact PI3-kinase/Akt pathway, but does not require AMPK/mTOR-signaling. Metformin does not inhibit NF-κB activation. CONCLUSION: Metformin protects against bile acid-induced apoptosis and could be considered in the treatment of chronic liver diseases accompanied by inflammation.

  6. Sphingoid bases inhibit acid-induced demineralization of hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; van 't Hof, Wim; Bikker, Floris J; Nazmi, Kamran; Brand, Henk S; Sotres, Javier; Lindh, Liselott; Arnebrant, Thomas; Veerman, Enno C I

    2015-01-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp), the main constituent of dental enamel, is inherently susceptible to the etching and dissolving action of acids, resulting in tooth decay such as dental caries and dental erosion. Since the prevalence of erosive wear is gradually increasing, there is urgent need for agents that protect the enamel against erosive attacks. In the present study we studied in vitro the anti-erosive effects of a number of sphingolipids and sphingoid bases, which form the backbone of sphingolipids. Pretreatment of HAp discs with sphingosine, phytosphingosine (PHS), PHS phosphate and sphinganine significantly protected these against acid-induced demineralization by 80 ± 17%, 78 ± 17%, 78 ± 7% and 81 ± 8%, respectively (p < 0.001). On the other hand, sphingomyelin, acetyl PHS, octanoyl PHS and stearoyl PHS had no anti-erosive effects. Atomic force measurement revealed that HAp discs treated with PHS were almost completely and homogeneously covered by patches of PHS. This suggests that PHS and other sphingoid bases form layers on the surface of HAp, which act as diffusion barriers against H(+) ions. In principle, these anti-erosive properties make PHS and related sphingosines promising and attractive candidates as ingredients in oral care products. PMID:25300299

  7. Saturated Fatty Acid Induces Insulin Resistance Partially Through Nucleotide-binding Oligomerization Domain 1 Signaling Pathway in Adipocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-jun Zhou; Yin-si Tang; Yu-ling Song; Ai Li; Hui Zhou; Yan Li

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential role of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1), a component of the innate immune system, in mediating lipid-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes. Methods Adipocytes from Toll-like receptor 4 deficiency mice were used for stimulation experiments. The effect of oleate/palmitate mixture on nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation was analyzed by reporter plasmid assay. The release of proinflammatory chemokine/cytokines production was determined by using real-time PCR. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was measured by 2-deoxy-D-[3H] glucose uptake assay. Chemokine/cytokine expression and glucose uptake in adipocytes transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting NOD1 upon fatty acids treatment were analyzed. Results Oleate/palmitate mixture activated the NF-κB pathway and induced interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA expressions in adipocytes from mice deficient in Toll-like receptor 4, and these effects were blocked by siRNA targeting NOD1. Furthermore, saturated fatty acids decreased the ability of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Importantly, siRNA targeting NOD1 partially reversed saturated fatty acid-induced suppression of insulin-induced glucose uptake. Conclusion NOD1 might play an important role in saturated fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes, suggesting a mechanism by which reduced NOD1 activity confers beneficial effects on insulin action.

  8. Heart Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the signal causes the heart to contract and pump blood. Heart block occurs if the electrical signal is ... degree heart block limits the heart's ability to pump blood to the rest of the body. This type ...

  9. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  10. Altered expression of sphingosine kinase 1 and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 in mouse hippocampus after kainic acid treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainic acid (KA) induces hippocampal cell death and astrocyte proliferation. There are reports that sphingosine kinase (SPHK)1 and sphingosine-1- phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 (S1P1) signaling axis controls astrocyte proliferation. Here we examined the temporal changes of SPHK1/S1P1 in mouse hippocampus during KA-induced hippocampal cell death. Mice were killed at 2, 6, 24, or 48 h after KA (30 mg/kg) injection. There was an increase in Fluoro-Jade B-positive cells in the hippocampus of KA-treated mice with temporal changes of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. The lowest level of SPHK1 protein expression was found 2 h after KA treatment. Six hours after KA treatment, the expression of SPHK1 and S1P1 proteins steadily increased in the hippocampus. In immunohistochemical analysis, SPHK1 and S1P1 are more immunoreactive in astrocytes within the hippocampus of KA-treated mice than in hippocampus of control mice. These results indicate that SPHK1/S1P1 signaling axis may play an important role in astrocytes proliferation during KA-induced excitotoxicity.

  11. Altered expression of sphingosine kinase 1 and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 in mouse hippocampus after kainic acid treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Jeon, Byeong Tak; Jeong, Eun Ae [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Health Sciences, Medical Research Center for Neural Dysfunction, Biomedical Center (BK21), Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon Soo; Cho, Yong Woon [Department of Neurosurgery, Masan Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Masan, Gyeongnam 630-723 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Joon; Kang, Sang Soo; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Health Sciences, Medical Research Center for Neural Dysfunction, Biomedical Center (BK21), Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Gu Seob, E-mail: anaroh@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Health Sciences, Medical Research Center for Neural Dysfunction, Biomedical Center (BK21), Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-12

    Kainic acid (KA) induces hippocampal cell death and astrocyte proliferation. There are reports that sphingosine kinase (SPHK)1 and sphingosine-1- phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 (S1P{sub 1}) signaling axis controls astrocyte proliferation. Here we examined the temporal changes of SPHK1/S1P{sub 1} in mouse hippocampus during KA-induced hippocampal cell death. Mice were killed at 2, 6, 24, or 48 h after KA (30 mg/kg) injection. There was an increase in Fluoro-Jade B-positive cells in the hippocampus of KA-treated mice with temporal changes of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. The lowest level of SPHK1 protein expression was found 2 h after KA treatment. Six hours after KA treatment, the expression of SPHK1 and S1P{sub 1} proteins steadily increased in the hippocampus. In immunohistochemical analysis, SPHK1 and S1P{sub 1} are more immunoreactive in astrocytes within the hippocampus of KA-treated mice than in hippocampus of control mice. These results indicate that SPHK1/S1P{sub 1} signaling axis may play an important role in astrocytes proliferation during KA-induced excitotoxicity.

  12. Histamine H(1) and H(3) receptors in the rat thalamus and their modulation after systemic kainic acid administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Congyu; Lintunen, Minnamaija; Panula, Pertti

    2005-07-01

    In rat thalamus, histamine H(1) receptor and isoforms of H(3) receptor were expressed predominantly in the midline and intralaminar areas. Correspondingly, higher H(1) and H(3) receptor binding was also detected in these areas. All isoforms of H(3) receptor were expressed in several thalamic nuclei, but there were minor differences between their expression patterns. H(1) mRNA expression was high in the ventral thalamus, but the H(1) binding level was low in these areas. Since increased brain histamine appears to have an antiepileptic effect through the H(1) receptor activity, kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus in rat was used to study modulation of H(1) and H(3) receptors in the thalamus following seizures. After systemic KA administration, transient decreases in mRNA expression of H(1) receptor and H(3) receptor isoforms with full-length third intracellular loops were seen in the midline areas and the H(1) receptor mRNA expression also decreased in the ventral thalamus. After 1 week, a robust increase in mRNA expression of H(3) receptor isoforms with a full-length third intracellular loop was found in the ventral posterior, posterior, and geniculate nuclei. The changes indicate a modulatory role of H(3) receptor in the sensory and motor relays, and might be involved in possible neuroprotective and compensatory mechanisms after KA administration. However, short-term increases in the H(3) receptor binding appeared earlier (72 h) than the increases of H(3) mRNA expression (1-4 w). The elevations in H(3) binding were evident in the intralaminar area, laterodorsal, lateral posterior, posterior and geniculate nuclei, and were likely to be related to the cortical and subcortical inputs to thalamus. PMID:15899242

  13. Effects of genistein on cognitive dysfunction and hippocampal synaptic plasticity impairment in an ovariectomized rat kainic acid model of seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodamoradi, Mehdi; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Esmaeilpour, Khadije; Sheibani, Vahid

    2016-09-01

    The major objective of this study was to investigate the probable effects of genistein (one of the most important soy phytoestrogens-SPEs) on seizure-induced cognitive dysfunction, hippocampal early long-term potentiation (E-LTP) impairment and morphological damage to CA1 neurons in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Three weeks after ovariectomy, cannulae were implanted over the left lateral ventricle. After a 7-day recovery period, animals were injected by genistein (0.5 or 5mg/kg) or vehicle during four consecutive days, each 24h. One h after the last treatment, kainic acid (KA) or vehicle was perfused into the left lateral ventricle to induce generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Finally, 7 days later, spatial learning and memory of animals were examined using the Morris water maze (MWM) task, hippocampal E-LTP was assessed using in-vivo field potential recordings and the morphology of hippocampal CA1 area was examined using Fluoro-Jade C staining. KA-induced generalized seizures resulted in spatial learning and memory impairment, E-LTP deficit and CA1 cell injury. Seizure-induced abnormalities improved partially only by the lower dose of genistein (0.5mg/kg). However, genistein at the higher dose (5mg/kg) did not have any beneficial effects. Also, genistein did not affect seizure activity. It is concluded that genistein may have partially preventive effects against seizure-induced cognitive impairment in OVX rats. Also, it seems that such effects of genistein are correlated with its beneficial effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and morphology. PMID:27235295

  14. [Electrophysiological and behavioral features of septal seizures in cats--experimental sham-rage seizures induced by injection of kainic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, K; Tanaka, T; Yonemasu, Y

    1994-07-01

    The septal nucleus has close connections with the hippocampus and amygdala and is known to be involved in emotional behavior. We analyzed the electrophysiological and behavioral features of seizures induced by an injection of kainic acid into the lateral septal nucleus of the cat. Stereotactic surgery was performed to implant a cannula into the lateral septal nucleus to make the injection, and deep electrodes were implanted into the hippocampus and amygdala bilaterally. Seven days post operatively kainic acid, 0.5 microgram/0.5 microliter, was injected via the cannula, and three to five minutes later the cats began to exhibit head turning to the contralateral side. The seizures subsequently progressed limbic seizure status. The electroencephalogram revealed that the spike discharges started in the lateral septal nucleus, extended to the ipsilateral hippocampus and amygdala, then propagated to the contralateral side. Spontaneous sham-rage seizures occurred more than seven days after the injection. These seizure were characterized by sudden onset of aggressive and violent behavior which included hissing, biting and scratching. The electroencephalogram showed synchronization of rhythmic spikes in the ipsilateral septal nucleus, hippocampus and amygdala during such seizures. Further study of this model is important not only to understand the relationship between the septal nucleus and the hippocampus and amygdala but to understand the mechanism of sham-rage seizures. In addition, this model may be useful in understanding the emotional features of intractable complex partial seizures in man. PMID:7946621

  15. Altered mRNA editing and expression of ionotropic glutamate receptors after kainic acid exposure in cyclooxygenase-2 deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Caracciolo

    Full Text Available Kainic acid (KA binds to the AMPA/KA receptors and induces seizures that result in inflammation, oxidative damage and neuronal death. We previously showed that cyclooxygenase-2 deficient (COX-2(-/- mice are more vulnerable to KA-induced excitotoxicity. Here, we investigated whether the increased susceptibility of COX-2(-/- mice to KA is associated with altered mRNA expression and editing of glutamate receptors. The expression of AMPA GluR2, GluR3 and KA GluR6 was increased in vehicle-injected COX-2(-/- mice compared to wild type (WT mice in hippocampus and cortex, whereas gene expression of NMDA receptors was decreased. KA treatment decreased the expression of AMPA, KA and NMDA receptors in the hippocampus, with a significant effect in COX-2(-/- mice. Furthermore, we analyzed RNA editing levels and found that the level of GluR3 R/G editing site was selectively increased in the hippocampus and decreased in the cortex in COX-2(-/- compared with WT mice. After KA, GluR4 R/G editing site, flip form, was increased in the hippocampus of COX-2(-/- mice. Treatment of WT mice with the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib for two weeks decreased the expression of AMPA/KA and NMDAR subunits after KA, as observed in COX-2(-/- mice. After KA exposure, COX-2(-/- mice showed increased mRNA expression of markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, such as cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, microglia (CD11b and astrocyte (GFAP. Thus, COX-2 gene deletion can exacerbate the inflammatory response to KA. We suggest that COX-2 plays a role in attenuating glutamate excitotoxicity by modulating RNA editing of AMPA/KA and mRNA expression of all ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits and, in turn, neuronal excitability. These changes may contribute to the increased vulnerability of COX-2(-/- mice to KA. The overstimulation of glutamate receptors as a consequence of COX-2 gene deletion suggests a functional coupling between COX-2 and the

  16. Ghost Block

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Filmed on the English south coast 'Ghost Block' depicts the uncanny and eerie atmosphere at the site of a WW2 coastal defence line. The concrete cubes were used as an anti-invasion blockade against potential landing forces. This protection line now slowly decaying and becoming enmeshed into the environment still acts as a defence to repel unwanted visitors. The area is a natural reserve to nesting birds that often lay eggs directly onto the beach surface. The blocks act as a final barrier ...

  17. Epidural block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home ... It numbs or causes a loss of feeling in the lower half your body. This lessens the pain of contractions during childbirth. An epidural block may also be used to ...

  18. Alpha-Linolenic Acid-Induced Increase in Neurogenesis is a Key Factor in the Improvement in the Passive Avoidance Task After Soman Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermartiri, Tetsade C B; Pan, Hongna; Chen, Jun; McDonough, John; Grunberg, Neil; Apland, James P; Marini, Ann M

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to organophosphorous (OP) nerve agents such as soman inhibits the critical enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) leading to excessive acetylcholine accumulation in synapses, resulting in cholinergic crisis, status epilepticus and brain damage in survivors. The hippocampus is profoundly damaged after soman exposure leading to long-term memory deficits. We have previously shown that treatment with three sequential doses of alpha-linolenic acid, an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, increases brain plasticity in naïve animals. However, the effects of this dosing schedule administered after a brain insult and the underlying molecular mechanisms in the hippocampus are unknown. We now show that injection of three sequential doses of alpha-linolenic acid after soman exposure increases the endogenous expression of mature BDNF, activates Akt and the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), increases neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, increases retention latency in the passive avoidance task and increases animal survival. In sharp contrast, while soman exposure also increases mature BDNF, this increase did not activate downstream signaling pathways or neurogenesis. Administration of the inhibitor of mTORC1, rapamycin, blocked the alpha-linolenic acid-induced neurogenesis and the enhanced retention latency but did not affect animal survival. Our results suggest that alpha-linolenic acid induces a long-lasting neurorestorative effect that involves activation of mTORC1 possibly via a BDNF-TrkB-mediated mechanism. PMID:25920465

  19. Hippocampal damage and kainic acid injection induce a rapid increase in mRNA for BDNF and NGF in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarín, M; Ernfors, P; Lindefors, N; Persson, H

    1991-10-01

    In situ hybridization and Northern blots were used to study expression of mRNAs for members of the nerve growth factor family in the rat brain following an excitatory stimulus. One hour after a unilateral needle insertion or saline injection into the dorsal hippocampus, the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA increased markedly in granular neurons of the dentate gyrus and in the piriform cortex ipsilateral to the injection. The same treatment also increased the level of NGF mRNA in granular neurons of the ipsilateral dentate gyrus. The rapid increase in BDNF and NGF mRNA after a needle insertion or injection of saline was transient and preceded by an increase in c-fos mRNA in the same brain regions. In contrast to a needle insertion per se or a saline injection, 7 h after a unilateral injection of kainic acid into the dorsal hippocampus, the level of BDNF mRNA was dramatically increased in the ipsilateral hippocampus, as well as in the ipsilateral frontoparietal, piriform and perihinal cortex, the amygdaloid complex, claustrum, and ventromedial hypothalamus. A less pronounced increase was also seen in these brain areas on the contralateral side. Northern blots revealed that the level of BDNF mRNA increased 5- and 40-fold in the contra- and ipsilateral hippocampus, respectively, compared to sham-operated control animals. In contrast to BDNF and NGF, the level of hippocampus-derived neurotrophic factor/neurotrohin-3 (HDNF/NT-3) mRNA was not altered by either needle insertion or injection of saline or kainic acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1915733

  20. The role of MAPK signalling pathways in acetic acid-induced cell death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Flávio Humberto Torres Dias Feio de

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Genética Molecular Mitogenic Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) cascades are important signalling pathways that allow yeast cells to swiftly adapt to changing environmental conditions. Previous studies suggested that the High Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) MAPK pathway and ceramide production are involved in acetic-acid induced apoptosis in yeast. Evidence that changes in the levels of endogenous ceramides can affect yeast cell fate has also been put forth...

  1. Acid mediates a prolonged antinociception via substance P signaling in acid-induced chronic widespread pain

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei-Nan; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Substance P is an important neuropeptide released from nociceptors to mediate pain signals. We recently revealed antinociceptive signaling by substance P in acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3)-expressing muscle nociceptors in a mouse model of acid-induced chronic widespread pain. However, methods to specifically trigger the substance P antinociception were still lacking. Results Here we show that acid could induce antinociceptive signaling via substance P release in muscle. We preve...

  2. Mefenamic acid-induced neutropenia and renal failure in elderly females with hypothyroidism.

    OpenAIRE

    Handa, S I; FREESTONE, S.

    1990-01-01

    We report mefenamic acid-induced non-oliguric renal failure and severe neutropenia occurring simultaneously in two elderly females. The neutropenia was due to maturation arrest of the myeloid series in one patient. Both patients were also hypothyroid, but it is not clear whether this was a predisposing factor to the development of these adverse reactions. However, it would seem prudent not to use mefenamic acid in hypothyroid patients until the hypothyroidism has been corrected.

  3. Minocycline ameliorates prenatal valproic acid induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairments in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hariom; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopment disorder. One percent worldwide population suffers with autism and males suffer more than females. Microglia plays an important role in neurodevelopment, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. The present study has been designed to investigate the role of minocycline in prenatal valproic acid induced autism in rats. Animals with prenatal valproic acid have reduced social interaction (three chamber social behaviour apparatus), spontaneous alteration (Y-Maze), exploratory activity (Hole board test), intestinal motility, serotonin levels (both in prefrontal cortex and ileum) and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity (complexes I, II, IV). Furthermore, prenatal valproic acid treated animals have shown an increase in locomotion (actophotometer), anxiety (elevated plus maze), brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive species, glutathione, catalase), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), inflammation (both in brain and ileum myeloperoxidase activity), calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Treatment with minocycline significantly attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced reduction in social interaction, spontaneous alteration, exploratory activity intestinal motility, serotonin levels and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity. Furthermore, minocycline has also attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced increase in locomotion, anxiety, brain oxidative and nitrosative stress, inflammation, calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Thus, it may be concluded that prenatal valproic acid has induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairment in animals, which were significantly attenuated by minocycline. Minocycline should be explored further for its therapeutic benefits in autism. PMID:26551768

  4. Blocked strainers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal insulation was the cause of the blockages that shut down five BWRs in Sweden. The main culprit was mineral wool installed when the plants started up. Physical degradation of the wool over the lifetime of the plant meant it could easily be washed out of place during a loss of coolant accident and could quickly block strainers in the emergency core cooling systems. The five BWRs are almost all back on line, equipped with larger strainers and faster backwashing capability. But the incident prompted more detailed investigation into how materials in the containment would behave during an accident. One material that caused particular concern is Caposil, a material often used to insulate the reactor vessel. Composed of natural calcium, aluminium silicates and cellulose fibres, in the event of a LOCA Caposil becomes particularly hazardous. Under high pressure, or when brought into contact with high pressure water and steam, Caposil fragments into 1 cm clumps, free fibres, and ''fines''. It is these fines which cause major problems and can block a strainer extremely quickly. The successful testing of a high performance water filter which can handle Caposil is described. (4 figures) (Author)

  5. Salivary a-amylase protects enamel surface against acid induced softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazovic, Maja Bruvo; Moe, Dennis; Kirkeby, Svend;

    -TOF mass fingerprinting following trypsin digestion. Each persistent peak in the HPLC chromatograms was related to the protective effect against acid-induced enamel softening obtained by the corresponding saliva sample by multiple regression analysis. Results: One peak identified as a-amylase had an...... explanatory power of 39% in the analysis with high concentrations being most protective (p<0.001). In addition, a smaller peak retrieved later in the chromatograms also had a strong protective effect. Inclusion of this peak in the analysis increased the explanatory power of amylase on protective effect to 65...

  6. Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Izumi; Majima, Masataka

    1999-01-01

    Subcutaneous injection of sodium deoxycholic acid into the anterior of the back of male ddY mice elicited dose-dependent scratching of the injected site with the forepaws and hindpaws.Up to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid induced no significant increase in vascular permeability at the injection site as assessed by a dye leakage method.Bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor antagonists, FR173657 and Hoe140, significantly decreased the frequency of scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid.Treatment...

  7. DECREASED APOPTOSIS DURING CAR-MEDIATED HEPATOPROTECTION AGAINST LITHOCHOLIC ACID-INDUCED LIVER INJURY IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Beilke, Lisa D.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Olson, Erik R.; Besselsen, David G; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Dvorak, Katerina; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) is an anti-apoptotic protein that is regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Activation of CAR can protect the liver against bile acid-induced toxicity and it may have a role in cell death via apoptosis by altering expression of Bcl-2 family proteins such as myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1). Our aim was to determine if activation of CAR reduces hepatocellular apoptosis during cholestasis as a mechanism of hepatoprotection. CAR+/+ (WT) and CAR−/−...

  8. Luteolin prevents uric acid-induced pancreatic β-cell dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Ying; Shi, Xuhui; Shuai, Xuanyu; Xu, Yuemei; Liu, Yun; Liang, Xiubin; Wei, Dong; Su, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Elevated uric acid causes direct injury to pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we examined the effects of luteolin, an important antioxidant, on uric acid-induced β-cell dysfunction. We first evaluated the effect of luteolin on nitric oxide (NO) formation in uric acid-stimulated Min6 cells using the Griess method. Next, we performed transient transfection and reporter assays to measure transcriptional activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Western blotting assays were also performed to a...

  9. Obestatin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Matuszyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide derived from the proghrelin, has been shown to exhibit some protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present study was to determine the effect of obestatin administration on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Obestatin was administered intraperitoneally twice a day at a dose of 8 nmol/kg, starting 24 h after the induction of colitis. Seven or 14 days after the induction of colitis, the healing rate of the colon was evaluated. Results. Treatment with obestatin after induction of colitis accelerated the healing of colonic wall damage and this effect was associated with a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase and content of interleukin-1β. Moreover, obestatin administration significantly reversed the colitis-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Conclusion. Administration of exogenous obestatin exhibits therapeutic effects in the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect is related, at least in part, to the obestatin-evoked anti-inflammatory effect, an improvement of local blood flow, and an increase in cell proliferation in colonic mucosa.

  10. STRUCTURAL REMODELING OF PROTEOGLYCANS UPON RETINOIC ACID-INDUCED DIFFERENTIATION OF NCCIT CELLS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasimli, Leyla; Stansfield, Hope E.; Nairn, Alison V.; Liu, Haiying; Paluh, Janet L.; Yang, Bo; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Moremen, Kelley W.; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent and multipotent cells become increasingly lineage restricted through differentiation. Alterations to the cellular proteoglycan composition and structure should accompany these changes to influence cell proliferation, delineation of tissues and acquisition of cell migration capabilities. Retinoic acid plays an important role in pre-patterning of the early embryo. Retinoic acid can be used in vitro to induce differentiation, causing pluripotent and multipotent cells to become increasingly lineage restricted. We examined retinoic acid-induced changes in the cellular proteoglycan composition of the well-characterized teratocarcinoma line NCCIT. Our analysis revealed changes in the abundance of transcripts for genes encoding core proteins, enzymes that are responsible for early and late linkage region biosynthesis, as well as enzymes for GAG chain extension and modification. Transcript levels for genes encoding core proteins used as backbones for polysaccharide synthesis revealed highly significant increases in expression of lumican and decorin, 1500-fold and 2800-fold, respectively. Similarly, glypican 3, glypican 5, versican and glypican 6 showed increases between 5 and 70-fold. Significant decreases in biglycan, serglycin, glypican 4, aggrecan, neurocan, CD74 and glypican 1 were observed. Disaccharide analysis of the glycans in heparin/heparan sulfate and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate revealed retinoic acid-induced changes restricted to chondroitin/dermatan sulfate glycans. Our study provides the first detailed analysis of changes in the glycosaminoglycan profile of human pluripotent cells upon treatment with the retinoic acid morphogen. PMID:23053635

  11. Structural remodeling of proteoglycans upon retinoic acid-induced differentiation of NCCIT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasimli, Leyla; Stansfield, Hope E; Nairn, Alison V; Liu, Haiying; Paluh, Janet L; Yang, Bo; Dordick, Jonathan S; Moremen, Kelley W; Linhardt, Robert J

    2013-07-01

    Pluripotent and multipotent cells become increasingly lineage restricted through differentiation. Alterations to the cellular proteoglycan composition and structure should accompany these changes to influence cell proliferation, delineation of tissues and acquisition of cell migration capabilities. Retinoic acid plays an important role in pre-patterning of the early embryo. Retinoic acid can be used in vitro to induce differentiation, causing pluripotent and multipotent cells to become increasingly lineage restricted. We examined retinoic acid-induced changes in the cellular proteoglycan composition of the well-characterized teratocarcinoma line NCCIT. Our analysis revealed changes in the abundance of transcripts for genes encoding core proteins, enzymes that are responsible for early and late linkage region biosynthesis, as well as enzymes for GAG chain extension and modification. Transcript levels for genes encoding core proteins used as backbones for polysaccharide synthesis revealed highly significant increases in expression of lumican and decorin, 1,500-fold and 2,800-fold, respectively. Similarly, glypican 3, glypican 5, versican and glypican 6 showed increases between 5 and 70-fold. Significant decreases in biglycan, serglycin, glypican 4, aggrecan, neurocan, CD74 and glypican 1 were observed. Disaccharide analysis of the glycans in heparin/heparan sulfate and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate revealed retinoic acid-induced changes restricted to chondroitin/dermatan sulfate glycans. Our study provides the first detailed analysis of changes in the glycosaminoglycan profile of human pluripotent cells upon treatment with the retinoic acid morphogen. PMID:23053635

  12. Curcumin-attenuated trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid induces chronic colitis by inhibiting expression of cyclooxygenase-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Jiang; Chang-Sheng Deng; Ming Zhang; Jian Xia

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possible mechanisms of curcumin in rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS) acid. METHODS: Rats with TNBS acid-induced colitis were treated with curcumin (30 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg per day ip). Changes of body weight and histological scores as well as survival rate were evaluated. Leukocyte infiltration was detected by myeloperoxidase (MPO)activity assay. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot.Inflammation cytokines were determined by RT-PCR.Local concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in colon mucosa was determined by ELISA.RESULTS: Curcumin improved survival rate and histological image, decreased the macroscopic scores and MPO activity. Also curcumin reduced the expression of COX-2 and inflammation cytokines. In addition,treatment with curcumin increased the PGE2 level.CONCLUSION: Curcumin has therapeutic effects on TNBS acid-induced colitis, the mechanisms seem to be related to COX-2 inhibition and PGE2 improvement.

  13. Icariin, a major constituent from Epimedium brevicornum, attenuates ibotenic acid-induced excitotoxicity in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Nan; Li, Fei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Shi, Jingshan; Jin, Feng; Gong, Qihai

    2016-10-15

    Excitotoxicity is one of the most extensively studied causes of neuronal death and plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Icariin is a flavonoid component of a traditional Chinese medicine reported to possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of icariin against learning and memory impairment induced by excitotoxicity. Here, we demonstrated that rats receiving intracerebroventricular injection of excitatory neurotoxin ibotenic acid exhibited impaired learning and memory. Oral administration of icariin at doses of 20 and 40mg/kg rescued behavioral performance and protected against neurotoxicity in rat hippocampus by suppressing ibotenic acid induced pro-apoptosis. Furthermore, Western blott of hippocampal specimens revealed that icariin up-regulated the expression of calbindin-D28k protein following ibotenic acid administration. Additionally, icariin inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family phosphorylation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling, implicating the MAPK signaling and NF-κB signaling pathways were involved in the mechanism underlying icariin-mediated neuroprotection against ibotenic acid-induced excitotoxicity. These data suggested that icariin could be a potential agent for treatment of excitotoxicity-related diseases, including AD. PMID:27368415

  14. Hepatoprotective effect of vitamin C on lithocholic acid-induced cholestatic liver injury in Gulo(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Su Jong; Bae, Seyeon; Kang, Jae Seung; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Yoon Jun; Lee, Wang Jae; Kim, Chung Yong; Lee, Hyo-Suk

    2015-09-01

    Prevention and restoration of hepatic fibrosis from chronic liver injury is essential for the treatment of patients with chronic liver diseases. Vitamin C is known to have hepatoprotective effects, but their underlying mechanisms are unclear, especially those associated with hepatic fibrosis. Here, we analyzed the impact of vitamin C on bile acid induced hepatocyte apoptosis in vitro and lithocholic acid (LCA)-induced liver injury in vitamin C-insufficient Gulo(-/-) mice, which cannot synthesize vitamin C similarly to humans. When Huh-BAT cells were treated with bile acid, apoptosis was induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress-related JNK activation but vitamin C attenuated bile acid-induced hepatocyte apoptosis in vitro. In our in vivo experiments, LCA feeding increased plasma marker of cholestasis and resulted in more extensive liver damage and hepatic fibrosis by more prominent apoptotic cell death and recruiting more intrahepatic inflammatory CD11b(+) cells in the liver of vitamin C-insufficient Gulo(-/-) mice compared to wild type mice which have minimal hepatic fibrosis. However, when vitamin C was supplemented to vitamin C-insufficient Gulo(-/-) mice, hepatic fibrosis was significantly attenuated in the liver of vitamin C-sufficient Gulo(-/-) mice like in wild type mice and this hepatoprotective effect of vitamin C was thought to be associated with both decreased hepatic apoptosis and necrosis. These results suggested that vitamin C had hepatoprotective effect against cholestatic liver injury. PMID:26057690

  15. Acid-induced hyperalgesia and anxio-depressive comorbidity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Shao, Yen-Wen; Yen, Chen-Tung; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2014-05-28

    Fibromyalgia is a prevalent disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain (CWP) and complex comorbid symptoms. A CWP model is developed through repeated unilateral intramuscular injections of acid saline resulting in bilateral mechanical hyperalgesia in rats. The present study aims to evaluate whether both anxious and depressive comorbidities exist in this acid-induced pain model, similarly to patients with CWP syndromes. The anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated using the open field and elevated plus maze tests, and depression-like behaviors were measured by the forced swimming, sucrose consumption, and sucrose preference tests. The pain group receiving acidic saline displayed significantly lower paw withdrawal thresholds for 4weeks than animals in the vehicle group after repetitive intramuscular injections. The pain group showed a significantly shorter duration of exploring the central zone of the open field and the open arms of the elevated plus maze compared to the vehicle group. The pain group had a significantly lower preference for and consumption of the hedonic sucrose. Moreover, rats with chronic pain showed significantly longer immobility than the vehicle group in the forced swimming test. The results indicate that psychiatric behaviors are exacerbated in the CWP model. This study provides evidence for the validity of the acid-induced pain model analogous to patients with CWP syndromes. PMID:24726391

  16. Exogenous Ghrelin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Gałązka, Krystyna; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Gil, Krzysztof; Olszanecki, Rafał; Dembiński, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that ghrelin reduces colonic inflammation induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and dextran sodium sulfate. In the present study we determined the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Rectal administration of 3% acetic acid solution led to induction of colitis in all animals. Damage of the colonic wall was accompanied by an increase in mucosal concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase. Moreover, induction of colitis led to a reduction in colonic blood flow and DNA synthesis. Administration of ghrelin after induction of colitis led to faster regeneration of the colonic wall and reduction in colonic levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, and myeloperoxidase. In addition, treatment with ghrelin improved mucosal DNA synthesis and blood flow. Our study disclosed that ghrelin exhibits a strong anti-inflammatory and healing effect in acetic acid-induced colitis. Our current observation in association with previous findings that ghrelin exhibits curative effect in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis suggest that therapeutic effect of ghrelin in the colon is universal and independent of the primary cause of colitis. PMID:27598133

  17. Acute reduction of neuronal RNA binding Elavl2 protein and Gap43 mRNA in mouse hippocampus after kainic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Takafumi; Yano, Masato; Okano, Hideyuki

    2015-10-01

    Activity-dependent gene regulation in neurons has been hypothesized to be under transcriptional control and to include dramatic increases in immediate early genes (IEGs) after neuronal activity. In addition, several reports have focused on post-transcriptional regulation, which could be mediated by neuronal post-transcriptional regulators, including RNA binding proteins (RNABPs). One such protein family is the neuronal Elavls (nElavls; Elavl2, Elavl3, and Elavl4), whose members are widely expressed in peripheral and central nervous system. Previous reports showed that Elavl3 and 4 are up-regulated following repeated stimulation such as during cocaine administration, a seizure, or a spatial discrimination task. In this study, we focused on Elavl2, a candidate gene for schizophrenia and studied its role in neuronal activity. First we found that Elavl2 has a cell-type specific expression pattern that is highly expressed in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons and hilar interneurons using Elavl2 specific antibody. Second, unexpectedly, we discovered that the Elavl2 protein level in the hippocampus was acutely down-regulated for 3 h after a kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure in the hippocampal CA3 region. In addition, level of Gap43 mRNA, a target mRNA of Elavl2 is decreased 12 h after KA treatment, thus suggesting the involvement of Elavl2 in activity-dependent RNA regulation. PMID:26325429

  18. Effects of a subconvulsive dose of kainic acid on the gene expressions of the arginine vasopressin, oxytocin and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Ohkubo, Jun-ichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Matsuura, Takanori; Maruyama, Takashi; Onaka, Tatsushi; Suzuki, Hideaki; Ueta, Yoichi

    2015-10-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) synthesis in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system (HNS) is up-regulated by kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure in rats. However, it remains unknown whether a subconvulsive dose of KA affects the HNS. Here we examined the effects of subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of a low dose of KA (4 mg/kg) on the gene expressions of the AVP, oxytocin (OXT) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) of the rat hypothalamus, using in situ hybridization histochemistry. The expression of the AVP gene in the SON and PVN was judged to be up-regulated in KA-treated rats in comparison with saline-treated rats as controls. Next, the expression of the OXT gene was significantly increased in the SON at 6-24h and in the PVN at 6 and 12h after s.c. administration of KA. Finally, the expression of the nNOS gene was significantly increased in the SON and PVN at 3 and 6h after s.c. administration of KA. These results suggest that up-regulation of the gene expressions of the AVP, OXT and nNOS in the rat hypothalamus may be differentially affected by peripheral administration of a subconvulsive dose of KA. PMID:26003742

  19. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  20. Heat shock protein 70-dependent protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ying; Naito, Yuji; Handa, Osamu; Hayashi, Natsuko; Kuki, Aiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Tanimura, Yuko; Morita, Mayuko; Adachi, Satoko; Fukui, Akifumi; Hirata, Ikuhiro; Kishimoto, Etsuko; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Yagi, Nobuaki; Kokura, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2011-11-01

    Protection of the small intestine from mucosal injury induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including acetylsalicylic acid is a critical issue in the field of gastroenterology. Polaprezinc an anti-ulcer drug, consisting of zinc and L-carnosine, provides gastric mucosal protection against various irritants. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of the RIE1 rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Confluent rat intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with 70 µM polaprezinc for 24 h, and then stimulated with or without 15 mM acetylsalicylic acid for a further 15 h. Subsequent cellular viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining. Acetylsalicylic acid-induced cell death was also qualified by fluorescent microscopy of Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide. Heat shock proteins 70 protein expression after adding polaprezinc or acetylsalicylic acid was assessed by western blotting. To investigate the role of Heat shock protein 70, Heat shock protein 70-specific small interfering RNA was applied. Cell viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining and apoptosis was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We found that acetylsalicylic acid significantly induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Polaprezinc significantly suppressed acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells at its late phase. At the same time, polaprezinc increased Heat shock protein 70 expressions of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a time-dependent manner. However, in Heat shock protein 70-silenced rat intestinal epithelial cells, polaprezinc could not suppress acetylsalicylic acid -induced apoptosis at its late phase. We conclude that polaprezinc-increased Heat shock protein 70 expression might be an important mechanism by which polaprezinc suppresses acetylsalicylic

  1. Effect of Tanshitone on prevention and treatment of retinoic acid-induced osteoporosis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yan-meng; LIU Yu-bo; GAO Yun-sheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective To observe the prevention and therapeutic effects of tanshitone (TAN) on retinoic acid induced osteoporosis in mice. Methods The mice osteoporosis was induced by given retinoic acid intragasttrically for two weeks. The histomorphological features of bone were observed and biochemical indexes in serum (Ca, P, ALP, TRAP, E2, BGP) were determined after mice were given TAN at the dose of 40, 80, 160 mg·kg-1 respectively. Results Tanshitone can induce high conversion of osteoporosis. The levels of P, ALP, TRAP and BGP in the TAN groups were lower than the model group, while the E2 level was higher than the model group. Conclusions Tanshitone can prevent the loss bone in the experimental mice. The mechanism may be that it improves the level of estrogenic hormone and inhibits the high bone turnover.

  2. Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced photosensitization: current clinical status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Stuart L.; Golub, Allyn L.; Shulman, D. Geoffrey

    1995-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced photosensitization (ALA PDT) via endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) synthesis has been reported as efficacious, using topical formulations, in the treatment of a variety of dermatologic diseases including superficial basal cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, and actinic (solar) keratoses. Application of ALA PDT to the detection and treatment of both malignant and non-malignant diseases of internal organs has recently been reported. Local internal application of ALA has been used for the detection, via PpIX fluorescence, of pathological conditions of the human urinary bladder and for selective endometrial ablation in animal model systems. Systemic, oral administration of ALA has been used for ALA PDT of superficial head and neck cancer and of colorectal cancer. This paper reviews the current clinical status of ALA PDT.

  3. Valproic Acid-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis with Pseudocyst Formation: Report of a Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sukanta; Khamrui, Sujan; Kataria, Mohnish; Biswas, Jayanta; Saha, Suman

    2015-08-01

    Valproic acid is the most widely used anti-epilep-tic drug in children, and it is probably the most frequent cause of drug-induced acute pancreatitis. Outcomes for patients with valproic acid-associated pancreatitis vary from full recovery after discontinuation of the drug to severe acute pancreatitis and death. Here, we present a case of valproic acid-induced severe acute pancreatitis with pseudocyst formation in a 10-year-old girl with cerebral palsy and generalized tonic-clonic seizure. There was no resolution of the pseudocyst after discontinuation of valproic acid. The patient became symptomatic with a progressive increase in the size of the pseudocyst. She was successfully treated with cystogastrostomy and was well at 12-month follow-up. PMID:26366333

  4. Cell wall dynamics modulate acetic acid-induced apoptotic cell death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Rego

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid triggers apoptotic cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, similar to mammalian apoptosis. To uncover novel regulators of this process, we analyzed whether impairing MAPK signaling affected acetic acid-induced apoptosis and found the mating-pheromone response and, especially, the cell wall integrity pathways were the major mediators, especially the latter, which we characterized further. Screening downstream effectors of this pathway, namely targets of the transcription factor Rlm1p, highlighted decreased cell wall remodeling as particularly important for acetic acid resistance. Modulation of cell surface dynamics therefore emerges as a powerful strategy to increase acetic acid resistance, with potential application in industrial fermentations using yeast, and in biomedicine to exploit the higher sensitivity of colorectal carcinoma cells to apoptosis induced by acetate produced by intestinal propionibacteria.

  5. CD36 Mediated Fatty Acid-Induced Podocyte Apoptosis via Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hua

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia-induced apoptosis mediated by fatty acid translocase CD36 is associated with increased uptake of ox-LDL or fatty acid in macrophages, hepatocytes and proximal tubular epithelial cells, leading to atherosclerosis, liver damage and fibrosis in obese patients, and diabetic nephropathy (DN, respectively. However, the specific role of CD36 in podocyte apoptosis in DN with hyperlipidemia remains poorly investigated.The expression of CD36 was measured in paraffin-embedded kidney tissue samples (Ctr = 18, DN = 20 by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. We cultured conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes (MPC5 and treated cells with palmitic acid, and measured CD36 expression by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence; lipid uptake by Oil red O staining and BODIPY staining; apoptosis by flow cytometry assay, TUNEL assay and Western blot analysis; and ROS production by DCFH-DA fluorescence staining. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 21.0 statistical software.CD36 expression was increased in kidney tissue from DN patients with hyperlipidemia. Palmitic acid upregulated CD36 expression and promoted its translocation from cytoplasm to plasma membrane in podocytes. Furthermore, palmitic acid increased lipid uptake, ROS production and apoptosis in podocytes, Sulfo-N-succinimidyloleate (SSO, the specific inhibitor of the fatty acid binding site on CD36, decreased palmitic acid-induced fatty acid accumulation, ROS production, and apoptosis in podocytes. Antioxidant 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidine -1-oxyl (tempol inhibited the overproduction of ROS and apoptosis in podocytes induced by palmitic acid.CD36 mediated fatty acid-induced podocyte apoptosis via oxidative stress might participate in the process of DN.

  6. Systemic injection of kainic acid: Gliosis in olfactory and limbic brain regions quantified with [3H]PK 11195 binding autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurodegenerative diseases may result from excessive stimulation of excitatory amino acid receptors by endogenous ligands. Because neuronal degeneration is associated with glial proliferation and hypertrophy, the degenerative changes throughout rat brain following the systemic administration of kainic acid (12 mg/kg) were mapped with quantitative autoradiography of [3H]PK 11195. This radioligand binds to a mitochondrial benzodiazepine binding site (MBBS) on microglia and astrocytes. Analysis of eight horizontal and four coronal brain levels revealed up to 16-fold increases in [3H]PK 11195 binding from 1 to 5 weeks but not 1 day after kainate injection. Increases in [3H]PK 11195 binding were predominantly in ventral limbic brain regions and olfactory projections to neocortical areas, with the olfactory cortex greater than subiculum/CA1 greater than anterior olfactory nucleus, medial thalamic nucleus, and piriform cortex greater than cingulate cortex and rostral hippocampus greater than dentate gyrus, septum, and amygdala greater than entorhinal cortex and temporal cortex. Little or no enhancement of [3H]PK 11195 binding was observed in numerous regions including the caudate-putamen, substantia nigra, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, cerebellum, thalamic nuclei, choroid plexus, medulla, parietal or occipital cortex, or pons. A 2-fold greater extent of neurodegeneration was obtained in ventral portions of the olfactory bulb, entorhinal cortex, temporal cortex, and dentate gyrus compared with the dorsal portions of these structures. The pattern of increase in [3H]PK 11195 binding closely matched the patterns of neuronal degeneration reported following parenteral kainate injection. These findings strengthen the notion that quantitative autoradiography of [3H]PK 11195 is a valuable tool to quantify the extent of neuronal degeneration

  7. Effect of tolbutamide, glyburide and glipizide administered supraspinally on CA3 hippocampal neuronal cell death and hyperglycemia induced by kainic acid in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chea-Ha; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Su-Jin; Lim, Su-Min; Jung, Jun-Sub; Suh, Hong-Won

    2014-05-20

    Sulfonylureas are widely used oral drugs for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. In the present study, the effects of sulfonylureas administered supraspinally on kainic acid (KA)-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death and hyperglycemia were studied in ICR mice. Mice were pretreated intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) with 30μg of tolbutamide, glyburide or glipizide for 10min and then, mice were administered i.c.v. with KA (0.1μg). The neuronal cell death in the CA3 region in the hippocampus was assessed 24h after KA administration and the blood glucose level was measured 30, 60, and 120min after KA administration. We found that i.c.v. pretreatment with tolbutamide, glyburide or glipizide attenuated the KA-induced neuronal cell death in CA3 region of the hippocampus and hyperglycemia. In addition, KA administered i.c.v. caused an elevation of plasma corticosterone level and a reduction of the plasma insulin level. The i.c.v. pretreatment with tolbutamide, glyburide or glipizide attenuated KA-induced increase of plasma corticosterone level. Furthermore, i.c.v. pretreatment with tolbutamide, glyburide or glipizide causes an elevation of plasma insulin level. Glipizide, but not tolbutamide or glyburide, pretreated i.c.v. caused a reversal of KA-induced hypoinsulinemic effect. Our results suggest that supraspinally administered tolbutamide, glyburide and glipizide exert a protective effect against KA-induced neuronal cells death in CA3 region of the hippocampus. The neuroprotective effect of tolbutamide, glyburide and glipizide appears to be mediated by lowering the blood glucose level induced by KA. PMID:24713348

  8. Block clustering with collapsed latent block models

    OpenAIRE

    Wyse, Jason; Friel, Nial

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a Bayesian extension of the latent block model for model-based block clustering of data matrices. Our approach considers a block model where block parameters may be integrated out. The result is a posterior defined over the number of clusters in rows and columns and cluster memberships. The number of row and column clusters need not be known in advance as these are sampled along with cluster memberhips using Markov chain Monte Carlo. This differs from existing work on latent bloc...

  9. Incomplete block designs

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Aloke

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a systematic, rigorous and comprehensive account of the theory and applications of incomplete block designs. All major aspects of incomplete block designs are considered by consolidating vast amounts of material from the literature - the classical incomplete block designs, like the balanced incomplete block (BIB) and partially balanced incomplete block (PBIB) designs. Other developments like efficiency-balanced designs, nested designs, robust designs, C-designs and alpha designs are also discussed, along with more recent developments in incomplete block designs for special t

  10. Anacardic acid induces apoptosis-like cell death in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Suhail; Bose, Chinchu; Banerji, Ashok; Nair, Bipin G; Chattoo, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid), extracted from cashew nut shell liquid, is a natural phenolic lipid well known for its strong antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Its effect has been well studied in bacterial and mammalian systems but remains largely unexplored in fungi. The present study identifies antifungal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of anacardic acid in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. It was found that anacardic acid causes inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth in this ascomycetous fungus. Phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggest that growth inhibition of fungus is mainly caused by apoptosis-like cell death. Broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK treatment indicated that anacardic acid induces caspase-independent apoptosis in M. oryzae. Expression of a predicted ortholog of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was upregulated during the process of apoptosis, suggesting the possibility of mitochondria dependent apoptosis via activation of apoptosis-inducing factor. Anacardic acid treatment leads to decrease in reactive oxygen species rather than increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation normally observed during apoptosis, confirming the antioxidant properties of anacardic acid as suggested by earlier reports. Our study also shows that anacardic acid renders the fungus highly sensitive to DNA damaging agents like ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Treatment of rice leaves with anacardic acid prevents M. oryzae from infecting the plant without affecting the leaf, suggesting that anacardic acid can be an effective antifungal agent. PMID:26381667

  11. Transcriptional Elongation Factor Elongin A Regulates Retinoic Acid-Induced Gene Expression during Neuronal Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yasukawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Elongin A increases the rate of RNA polymerase II (pol II transcript elongation by suppressing transient pausing by the enzyme. Elongin A also acts as a component of a cullin-RING ligase that can target stalled pol II for ubiquitylation and proteasome-dependent degradation. It is not known whether these activities of Elongin A are functionally interdependent in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that Elongin A-deficient (Elongin A−/− embryos exhibit abnormalities in the formation of both cranial and spinal nerves and that Elongin A−/− embryonic stem cells (ESCs show a markedly decreased capacity to differentiate into neurons. Moreover, we identify Elongin A mutations that selectively inactivate one or the other of the aforementioned activities and show that mutants that retain the elongation stimulatory, but not pol II ubiquitylation, activity of Elongin A rescue neuronal differentiation and support retinoic acid-induced upregulation of a subset of neurogenesis-related genes in Elongin A−/− ESCs.

  12. Phenylbutyric acid induces the cellular senescence through an Akt/p21WAF1 signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Phenylbutyric acid induces cellular senescence. ► Phenylbutyric acid activates Akt kinase. ► The knockdown of PERK also can induce cellular senescence. ► Akt/p21WAF1 pathway activates in PERK knockdown induced cellular senescence. -- Abstract: It has been well known that three sentinel proteins – PERK, ATF6 and IRE1 – initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the presence of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the ER. Recent studies have demonstrated that upregulation of UPR in cancer cells is required to survive and proliferate. Here, we showed that long exposure to 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), a chemical chaperone that can reduce retention of unfolded and misfolded proteins in ER, induced cellular senescence in cancer cells such as MCF7 and HT1080. In addition, we found that treatment with PBA activates Akt, which results in p21WAF1 induction. Interestingly, the depletion of PERK but not ATF6 and IRE1 also induces cellular senescence, which was rescued by additional depletion of Akt. This suggests that Akt pathway is downstream of PERK in PBA induced cellular senescence. Taken together, these results show that PBA induces cellular senescence via activation of the Akt/p21WAF1 pathway by PERK inhibition.

  13. Neu1 sialidase and matrix metalloproteinase-9 cross-talk regulates nucleic acid-induced endosomal TOLL-like receptor-7 and -9 activation, cellular signaling and pro-inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkhalek, Samar; Szewczuk, Myron R

    2013-11-01

    The precise mechanism(s) by which intracellular TOLL-like receptors (TLRs) become activated by their ligands remains unclear. Here, we report a molecular organizational G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling platform to potentiate a novel mammalian neuraminidase-1 (Neu1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) cross-talk in alliance with neuromedin B GPCR, all of which form a tripartite complex with TLR-7 and -9. siRNA silencing Neu1, MMP-9 and neuromedin-B GPCR in RAW-blue macrophage cells significantly reduced TLR7 imiquimod- and TLR9 ODN1826-induced NF-κB (NF-κB-pSer(536)) activity. Tamiflu, specific MMP-9 inhibitor, neuromedin B receptor specific antagonist BIM23127, and the selective inhibitor of whole heterotrimeric G-protein complex BIM-46174 significantly block nucleic acid-induced TLR-7 and -9 MyD88 recruitment, NF-κB activation and proinflammatory TNFα and MCP-1 cytokine responses. For the first time, Neu1 clearly plays a central role in mediating nucleic acid-induced intracellular TLR activation, and the interactions involving NMBR-MMP9-Neu1 cross-talk constitute a novel intracellular TLR signaling platform that is essential for NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:23827939

  14. Postural heart block.

    OpenAIRE

    Seda, P E; McAnulty, J H; Anderson, C J

    1980-01-01

    A patient presented with orthostatic dizziness and syncope caused by postural heart block. When the patient was supine, atrioventricular conduction was normal and he was asymptomatic; when he was standing he developed second degree type II block and symptoms. The left bundle-branch block on his electrocardiogram and intracardiac electrophysiological study findings suggest that this heart block occurred distal to the His bundle. Orthostatic symptoms are usually presumed to be secondary to an i...

  15. Synergistic action of famotidine and chlorpheniramine on acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcer in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Qin; Chao Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the synergistic action of famotidine (FMD)and chlorpheniramine (CPA) on acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcer in rats.METHODS: Chronic gastric lesions were induced in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by serosal application of the acetic acid. Forty SD rats were randomly divided into blank group (n = 8), control group (n = 8), FMD group (n= 8), CPA group (n = 8), and FMD+CPA group (n = 8).Each group was given intraperitoneally (i.p.) 0.5 mL/100g distilled water, 9 g/L NaCl saline, 4 mg/kg FMD, 10mg/kg CPA, 4 mg/kg FMD+10 mg/kg CPA, respectively,daily for 10 d. On d 10, ulcer area was determined by planimetry. The level of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the liver homogenation was determined by biochemical methods and the plasma levels of 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1a)and IL-8 were determined by radioimmunoassay.RESULTS: The synergistic effects of FMD+CPA group on the lesion, IL-8, 6-keto-PGF1a and MPO were confirmed.The effect of FMlD+CPA group was significantly different as compared to the control and FMD groups. The lesion (mm2) was reduced from 40.18±2.6 in control group to 6.83±2.97 in PMD+CPA group, P<0.01, and from 32.9±3.27 in FMD group to 6.83±2.97 in pMlD+CPA group,P<0.01. The plasma levels of IL-8 decreased from 0.69±0.11 ng/L in control group to 0.4±0.04 ng/L in PMD+CPA group, P<0.01, and from 0.51±0.08 ng/L in FMD group to 0.4±0.04 ng/L in PMD+CPA group, P<0.05. The level of 6-keto-PGF1a increased from 7.55±1.65 ng/L in control group to 16.62±0.97 ng/L in PMD+CPA group, P<0.01,and from 13.15±1.48 ng/L in FMD group to 16.62±0.97ng/L in PMD+CPA group, P<0.05. The levels of MPO in the liver homogenate decreased from 9.12±2.05 u/Lin control group to 4.33±0.95 u/L in PMD+CPA group,P<0.01, and from 8.3±1.29 u/L in FMD group to 4.33±0.95 u/L, P<0.01.CONCLUSION: The synergistic action of FMD and CPA on acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcer in rats decreases the incidence of ulcer and also enhances the

  16. Generalized Block Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    shows that no readily available tests with a well-defined substantial eccentricity have been performed. This paper presents theoretical and experimental work leading towards generalized block failure capacity methods. Simple combination of normal force, shear force and moment stress distributions along......Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... yield lines around the block leads to simple interaction formulas similar to other interaction formulas in the codes....

  17. Bile acid-induced necrosis in primary human hepatocytes and in patients with obstructive cholestasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolbright, Benjamin L.; Dorko, Kenneth [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Antoine, Daniel J.; Clarke, Joanna I. [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Gholami, Parviz [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Li, Feng [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Kumer, Sean C.; Schmitt, Timothy M.; Forster, Jameson [Department of Surgery, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Fan, Fang [Department of Pathology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Park, B. Kevin [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Hagenbuch, Bruno [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Olyaee, Mojtaba [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Accumulation of bile acids is a major mediator of cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies indicate bile acid composition between humans and rodents is dramatically different, as humans have a higher percent of glycine conjugated bile acids and increased chenodeoxycholate content, which increases the hydrophobicity index of bile acids. This increase may lead to direct toxicity that kills hepatocytes, and promotes inflammation. To address this issue, this study assessed how pathophysiological concentrations of bile acids measured in cholestatic patients affected primary human hepatocytes. Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with, or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. Bile acid levels increased in serum of patients with liver injury, while biliary levels decreased, implicating infarction of the biliary tracts. To assess bile acid-induced toxicity in man, primary human hepatocytes were treated with relevant concentrations, derived from patient data, of the model bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC). Treatment with GCDC resulted in necrosis with no increase in apoptotic parameters. This was recapitulated by treatment with biliary bile acid concentrations, but not serum concentrations. Marked elevations in serum full-length cytokeratin-18, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and acetylated HMGB1 confirmed inflammatory necrosis in injured patients; only modest elevations in caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 were observed. These data suggest human hepatocytes are more resistant to human-relevant bile acids than rodent hepatocytes, and die through necrosis when exposed to bile acids. These mechanisms of cholestasis in humans are fundamentally different to mechanisms observed in rodent models. - Highlights: • Cholestatic liver injury is due to cytoplasmic bile acid accumulation in hepatocytes. • Primary human hepatocytes are resistant to BA-induced injury

  18. Role of ion transporters in the bile acid-induced esophageal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczkó, Dorottya; Rosztóczy, András; Birkás, Klaudia; Katona, Máté; Rakonczay, Zoltán; Tiszlavicz, László; Róka, Richárd; Wittmann, Tibor; Hegyi, Péter; Venglovecz, Viktória

    2016-07-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is considered to be the most severe complication of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), in which the prolonged, repetitive episodes of combined acidic and biliary reflux result in the replacement of the squamous esophageal lining by columnar epithelium. Therefore, the acid-extruding mechanisms of esophageal epithelial cells (EECs) may play an important role in the defense. Our aim was to identify the presence of acid/base transporters on EECs and to investigate the effect of bile acids on their expressions and functions. Human EEC lines (CP-A and CP-D) were acutely exposed to bile acid cocktail (BAC) and the changes in intracellular pH (pHi) and Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) were measured by microfluorometry. mRNA and protein expression of ion transporters was investigated by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. We have identified the presence of a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE), Na(+)/HCO3 (-) cotransporter (NBC), and a Cl(-)-dependent HCO3 (-) secretory mechanism in CP-A and CP-D cells. Acute administration of BAC stimulated HCO3 (-) secretion in both cell lines and the NHE activity in CP-D cells by an inositol triphosphate-dependent calcium release. Chronic administration of BAC to EECs increased the expression of ion transporters compared with nontreated cells. A similar expression pattern was observed in biopsy samples from BE compared with normal epithelium. We have shown that acute administration of bile acids differently alters ion transport mechanisms of EECs, whereas chronic exposure to bile acids increases the expression of acid/base transporters. We speculate that these adaptive processes of EECs represent an important mucosal defense against the bile acid-induced epithelial injury. PMID:27198194

  19. Bile acid-induced arrhythmia is mediated by muscarinic M2 receptors in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti H Sheikh Abdul Kadir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is a common disease affecting up to 5% of pregnancies and which can cause fetal arrhythmia and sudden intrauterine death. We previously demonstrated that bile acid taurocholate (TC, which is raised in the bloodstream of ICP, can acutely alter the rate and rhythm of contraction and induce abnormal calcium destabilization in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM. Apart from their hepatic functions bile acids are ubiquitous signalling molecules with diverse systemic effects mediated by either the nuclear receptor FXR or by a recently discovered G-protein coupled receptor TGR5. We aim to investigate the mechanism of bile-acid induced arrhythmogenic effects in an in-vitro model of the fetal heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: Levels of bile acid transporters and nuclear receptor FXR were studied by quantitative real time PCR, western blot and immunostaining, which showed low levels of expression. We did not observe functional involvement of the canonical receptors FXR and TGR5. Instead, we found that TC binds to the muscarinic M(2 receptor in NRCM and serves as a partial agonist of this receptor in terms of inhibitory effect on intracellular cAMP and negative chronotropic response. Pharmacological inhibition and siRNA-knockdown of the M(2 receptor completely abolished the negative effect of TC on contraction, calcium transient amplitude and synchronisation in NRCM clusters. CONCLUSION: We conclude that in NRCM the TC-induced arrhythmia is mediated by the partial agonism at the M(2 receptor. This mechanism might serve as a promising new therapeutic target for fetal arrhythmia.

  20. Decreased apoptosis during CAR-mediated hepatoprotection against lithocholic acid-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilke, Lisa D; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Olson, Erik R; Besselsen, David G; Klaassen, Curtis D; Dvorak, Katerina; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2009-07-10

    Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) is an anti-apoptotic protein that is regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Activation of CAR can protect the liver against bile acid-induced toxicity and it may have a role in cell death via apoptosis by altering expression of Bcl-2 family proteins such as myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1). Our aim was to determine if activation of CAR reduces hepatocellular apoptosis during cholestasis as a mechanism of hepatoprotection. CAR(+/+) (WT) and CAR(-/-) (CAR-null) mice were pre-treated with compounds known to activate CAR prior to induction of intrahepatic cholestasis using the secondary bile acid lithocholic acid (LCA). Pre-treatment with the CAR activators phenobarbital (PB) and TCPOBOP (TC), as well as the non-CAR activator pregnenolone 16alpha-carbontrile (PCN), protected against LCA-induced liver injury in WT mice, whereas liver injury was more extensive without CAR (CAR-null). Unexpectedly, expression of anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 and Bcl-x(L) was not increased in hepatoprotected mice. Compared to unprotected groups, apoptosis was decreased in hepatoprotected mice as evidenced by the absence of cleaved caspase 3 (cCasp3). In contrast to the cytoplasmic localization in the injured livers (LCA and oltipraz), Mcl-1 protein was localized in the nucleus of hepatoprotected livers to potentially promote cell survival. This study demonstrates that although apoptosis is reduced in hepatoprotected mice pre-treated with CAR and non-CAR activators; hepatoprotection is not directly a result of CAR-induced Mcl-1 expression. PMID:19433268

  1. Bile acid-induced necrosis in primary human hepatocytes and in patients with obstructive cholestasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation of bile acids is a major mediator of cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies indicate bile acid composition between humans and rodents is dramatically different, as humans have a higher percent of glycine conjugated bile acids and increased chenodeoxycholate content, which increases the hydrophobicity index of bile acids. This increase may lead to direct toxicity that kills hepatocytes, and promotes inflammation. To address this issue, this study assessed how pathophysiological concentrations of bile acids measured in cholestatic patients affected primary human hepatocytes. Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with, or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. Bile acid levels increased in serum of patients with liver injury, while biliary levels decreased, implicating infarction of the biliary tracts. To assess bile acid-induced toxicity in man, primary human hepatocytes were treated with relevant concentrations, derived from patient data, of the model bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC). Treatment with GCDC resulted in necrosis with no increase in apoptotic parameters. This was recapitulated by treatment with biliary bile acid concentrations, but not serum concentrations. Marked elevations in serum full-length cytokeratin-18, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and acetylated HMGB1 confirmed inflammatory necrosis in injured patients; only modest elevations in caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 were observed. These data suggest human hepatocytes are more resistant to human-relevant bile acids than rodent hepatocytes, and die through necrosis when exposed to bile acids. These mechanisms of cholestasis in humans are fundamentally different to mechanisms observed in rodent models. - Highlights: • Cholestatic liver injury is due to cytoplasmic bile acid accumulation in hepatocytes. • Primary human hepatocytes are resistant to BA-induced injury

  2. Nephroprotective effect of Corn Silk extract on oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Hassan Al-Jawad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background : Nephrocalcinosis is a state of deposition of calcium phosphate or oxalate in the renal parenchyma. It may occur in patients with renal tubular acidosis, vitamin D intoxication, and hyperparathyroidism. Corn silk was used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve renal pains. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Corn silk aqueous extract in reducing calcium deposits from renal parenchyma in oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis model. Materials and methods: Fourteen healthy rabbits were allocated to two groups. Two hours before induction of nephrocalcinosis, one group received water and the other received aqueous extract of corn silk and continued feeding for ten days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis before induction and in the fifth and tenth post-induction day. Urine samples were taken to estimate urinary ca+2 levels and crystals. The histopathological examination was carried to check for crystal deposits in renal tissues. Results: Corn silk aqueous extract produced a significant reduction of blood urea nitrogen(5.2+/-0.08 vs 7.3+/-0.2 mmol/l, serum creatinine (85.9+/-0.2 vs 97.3+/-0.5 mmol/l and serum Na+ levels (137+/-0.2 vs 142.16+/-0.7 mmol/l with non-significant reduction in serum K+ (4.0+/-0.02 vs 4.2+/-0.05. There is a significant reduction in calcium deposition in renal parenchyma in comparison to the control group after ten days of treatment. Conclusion: Corn silk had a significant diuretic effect that accelerates the excretion of urinary calcium. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 75-78

  3. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Minaiyan; Gholamreza Asghari; Diana Taheri; Mozhgan Saeidi; Salar Nasr-Esfahani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE) and its chloroform fraction (MCF) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Both MSHE and MCF with three increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) were administered orally to separate groups...

  4. Heat shock protein 70-dependent protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Ying; NAITO, Yuji; Handa, Osamu; Hayashi, Natsuko; Kuki, Aiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Tanimura, Yuko; Morita, Mayuko; Adachi, Satoko; Fukui, Akifumi; Hirata, Ikuhiro; Kishimoto, Etsuko; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Protection of the small intestine from mucosal injury induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including acetylsalicylic acid is a critical issue in the field of gastroenterology. Polaprezinc an anti-ulcer drug, consisting of zinc and L-carnosine, provides gastric mucosal protection against various irritants. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of the RIE1 rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Confluent rat intest...

  5. Subchronic Treatment of Donepezil Rescues Impaired Social, Hyperactive, and Stereotypic Behavior in Valproic Acid-Induced Animal Model of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Ji-Woon Kim; Hana Seung; Kyung Ja Kwon; Mee Jung Ko; Eun Joo Lee; Hyun Ah Oh; Chang Soon Choi; Ki Chan Kim; Edson Luck Gonzales; Jueng Soo You; Dong-Hee Choi; Jongmin Lee; Seol-Heui Han; Sung Min Yang; Jae Hoon Cheong

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of pervasive developmental disorders with core symptoms such as sociability deficit, language impairment, and repetitive/restricted behaviors. Although worldwide prevalence of ASD has been increased continuously, therapeutic agents to ameliorate the core symptoms especially social deficits, are very limited. In this study, we investigated therapeutic potential of donepezil for ASD using valproic acid-induced autistic animal model (VPA animal model). W...

  6. Comparative Study of Berberis vulgaris Fruit Extract and Berberine Chloride Effects on Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Ghannadi, Alireza; Mahzouni, Parvin; Jaffari-Shirazi, Elham

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of anthocyanins are abundant in berberry fruits suggesting that they may have beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-colitic effect of Berberis vulgaris fruit extract (BFE) compared to berberine chloride (BEC) and corticosteroids using an animal model of acetic acid induced experimental colitis. BFE with three different doses (375, 750, and 1500 mg/Kg) was administered orally o...

  7. Ameliorative effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids against palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawada Keisuke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose uptake activity in muscle cells are fundamental events in the development of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. There is an increasing demand for compounds including drugs and functional foods that can prevent myocellular insulin resistance. Methods In this study, we established a high-throughput assay to screen for compounds that can improve myocellular insulin resistance, which was based on a previously reported non-radioisotope 2-deoxyglucose (2DG uptake assay. Insulin-resistant muscle cells were prepared by treating rat L6 skeletal muscle cells with 750 μM palmitic acid for 14 h. Using the established assay, the impacts of several fatty acids on myocellular insulin resistance were determined. Results In normal L6 cells, treatment with saturated palmitic or stearic acid alone decreased 2DG uptake, whereas unsaturated fatty acids did not. Moreover, co-treatment with oleic acid canceled the palmitic acid-induced decrease in 2DG uptake activity. Using the developed assay with palmitic acid-induced insulin-resistant L6 cells, we determined the effects of other unsaturated fatty acids. We found that arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids improved palmitic acid-decreased 2DG uptake at lower concentrations than the other unsaturated fatty acids, including oleic acid, as 10 μM arachidonic acid showed similar effects to 750 μM oleic acid. Conclusions We have found that polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids prevent palmitic acid-induced myocellular insulin resistance.

  8. Rabbit gastric ulcer models: comparison and evaluation of acetic acid-induced ulcer and mucosectomy-induced ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Maeng, Jin Hee; Lee, Eunhye; Lee, Don Haeng; YANG, SU-GEUN

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined rabbit gastric ulcer models that can serve as more clinically relevant models. Two types of ulcer model were studied: acetic acid-induced ulcers (AAU) and mucosal resection-induced ulcers (MRU). For AAU, rabbit gastric mucosa was exposed by median laparotomy and treated with bottled acetic acid. MRU was examined as a model for endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Normal saline was injected into the submucosal layer and the swollen mucosa was resected with scissors. E...

  9. The influence of pretreatment with ghrelin on the development of acetic-acid-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduzia, D; Matuszyk, A; Ceranowicz, D; Warzecha, Z; Ceranowicz, P; Fyderek, K; Galazka, K; Dembinski, A

    2015-12-01

    Ghrelin has been primarily shown to exhibit protective and therapeutic effect in the gut. Pretreatment with ghrelin inhibits the development of acute pancreatitis and accelerates pancreatic recovery in the course of this disease. In the stomach, ghrelin reduces gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol, stress or alendronate, as well as accelerates the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric and duodenal ulcer. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of pretreatment with ghrelin on the development of acetic acid-induced colitis. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Animals were treated intraperitoneally with saline (control) or ghrelin (4, 8 or 16 nmol/kg/dose). Saline or ghrelin was given twice: 8 and 1 h before induction of colitis. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 1 ml of 4% solution of acetic acid and the severity of colitis was assessed 1 or 24 hours after induction of inflammation. Rectal administration of acetic acid induced colitis in all animals. Damage of colonic wall was seen at the macroscopic and microscopic level. This effect was accompanied by a reduction in colonic blood flow and mucosal DNA synthesis. Moreover, induction of colitis significantly increased mucosal concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β), activity of myeloperoxidase and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). Mucosal activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was reduced. Pretreatment with ghrelin reduced the area and grade of mucosal damage. This effect was accompanied by an improvement of blood flow, DNA synthesis and SOD activity in colonic mucosa. Moreover, ghrelin administration reduced mucosal concentration of IL-1β and MDA, as well as decreased mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase. Administration of ghrelin protects the large bowel against the development of the acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect seems to be related to the ghrelin-evoked anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. PMID:26769837

  10. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes. PMID:21318011

  11. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  12. BLOCK H-MATRICES AND SPECTRUM OF BLOCK MATRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄廷祝; 黎稳

    2002-01-01

    The block H-matrices are studied by the concept of G-functions, several concepts of block matrices are introduced. Equivalent characters of block H-matrices are obtained. Spectrum localizations claracterized by Gfunctions for block matrices are got.

  13. Lesson Thirteen Trifascicular Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁端; 王劲

    2005-01-01

    @@ A complete trifascicular block would result in complete AV block. The idio ventricular rhythm has a slower rate and a wide QRS complex because the pacemaker is located at the peripheral part of the conduction system distal to the sites of the block1. Such a rhythm may be difficult to differentiate from bifascicular or bundle branch block combined with complete block at a higher level such as the AV node or His bundle2. Besides a slower ventricular rate, a change in the morphology of the QRS complex from a previous known bifascicular pattern would be strongly suggestive of a trifascicular origin of the complete AV block3. A His bundle recording is required for a definitive diagnosis, however.

  14. Effects of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng pedersen aqueous extract on healing acetic acid-induced ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Setim Freitas

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the acute toxicity and the effect of the aqueous extract of the roots from Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng Pedersen (Amaranthaceae (AEP on the prevention of acetic acid-induced ulcer and on the healing process of previously induced ulcers. The acute toxicity was evaluated in Swiss mice after oral administration of a single dose and the chronic gastric ulcer was induced with local application of acetic acid. The results showed that the LD50 of the extract was 684.6 mg.kg-1 for the intraperitoneal administration and higher than 10 mg.kg-1by the oral route. The administration of the AEP did not prevent ulcers formation. However, the AEP increased of the healing process of previously induced ulcers. The results suggest that AEP chronically administered promote an increase of tissue healing, after the damage induced by acetic acid and the extract seemed to be destituted of toxic effects in the mice by the oral route.Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng Pedersen (Amaranthaceae, uma planta conhecida popularmente como "Ginseng Brasileiro" e "paratudo", é utilizada para tratar distúrbios gástricos e como cicatrizante. Em estudos anteriores, foi demonstrado que o extrato aquoso bruto da P. glomerata (AEP protegeu a mucosa gástrica contra úlceras induzidas por etanol e estresse e reduziu a secreção ácida gástrica basal e estimulada em ratos com ligadura de piloro. Além disso, a secreção gástrica de animais tratados com AEP apresentou níveis de nitrato e nitrito aumentados. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se o AEP previne o desenvolvimento de úlceras induzidas por ácido acético e o efeito desse extrato no processo de cicatrização em úlceras previamente formadas. A administração do AEP em diferentes doses produziu efeitos tóxicos baixos e não preveniu a formação de úlceras, porém aumentou o processo de cicatrização em úlceras já existentes, como evidenciado no estudo histopatológico. Em

  15. Block Advertisement Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Nemirovsky, Danil

    2015-01-01

    Bitcoin, a decentralized cryptocurrency, has attracted a lot of attention from academia, financial service industry and enthusiasts. The trade-off between transaction confirmation throughput and centralization of hash power do not allow Bitcoin to perform at the same level as modern payment systems. Block Advertisement Protocol is proposed as a step to resolve this issue. The protocol allows block mining and block relaying to happen in parallel. The protocol dictates a miner to advertise the ...

  16. Blocking TGF-β signaling pathway preserves mitochondrial proteostasis and reduces early activation of PDGFRβ+ pericytes in aristolochic acid induced acute kidney injury in Wistar male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pozdzik, Agnieszka A.; Giordano, Laetitia; Li, Gang; Antoine, Marie-Hélène; Quellard, Nathalie; Godet, Julie; De Prez, Eric; Husson, Cécile; Declèves, Anne-Emilie; Arlt, Volker M.; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Brochériou-Spelle, Isabelle; Ledbetter, Steven R.; Caron, Nathalie; Nortier, Joëlle L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ)+ perivascular cell activation becomes increasingly recognized as a main source of scar-associated kidney myofibroblasts and recently emerged as a new cellular therapeutic target.AIMS: In this regard, we first confirmed the presence of PDGFRβ+ perivascular cells in a human case of end-stage aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) and thereafter we focused on the early fibrosis events of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) inhibitio...

  17. Blocking TGF-β Signaling Pathway Preserves Mitochondrial Proteostasis and Reduces Early Activation of PDGFRβ+ Pericytes in Aristolochic Acid Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Wistar Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdzik, Agnieszka A.; Giordano, Laetitia; Li, Gang; Antoine, Marie-Hélène; Quellard, Nathalie; Godet, Julie; De Prez, Eric; Husson, Cécile; Declèves, Anne-Emilie; Arlt, Volker M.; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Brochériou-Spelle, Isabelle; Ledbetter, Steven R.; Caron, Nathalie; Nortier, Joëlle L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ)+ perivascular cell activation becomes increasingly recognized as a main source of scar-associated kidney myofibroblasts and recently emerged as a new cellular therapeutic target. Aims In this regard, we first confirmed the presence of PDGFRβ+ perivascular cells in a human case of end-stage aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) and thereafter we focused on the early fibrosis events of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) inhibition in a rat model of AAN. Materials and Methods Neutralizing anti-TGFβ antibody (1D11) and its control isotype (13C4) were administered (5 mg/kg, i.p.) at Days -1, 0, 2 and 4; AA (15 mg/kg, sc) was injected daily. Results At Day 5, 1D11 significantly suppressed p-Smad2/3 signaling pathway improving renal function impairment, reduced the score of acute tubular necrosis, peritubular capillaritis, interstitial inflammation and neoangiogenesis. 1D11 markedly decreased interstitial edema, disruption of tubular basement membrane loss of brush border, cytoplasmic edema and organelle ultrastructure alterations (mitochondrial disruption and endoplasmic reticulum edema) in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Moreover, 1D11 significantly inhibited p-PERK activation and attenuated dysregulation of unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial proteostasis in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions The early inhibition of p-Smad2/3 signaling pathway improved acute renal function impairment, partially prevented epithelial-endothelial axis activation by maintaining PTEC proteostasis and reduced early PDGFRβ+ pericytes-derived myofibroblasts accumulation. PMID:27379382

  18. Block Scheduling Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, J. Allen

    2000-01-01

    Successful block scheduling depends on provision of initial and ongoing instructional training. Teaching strategies should vary and include cooperative learning, the case method, the socratic seminar, synectics, concept attainment, the inquiry method, and simulations. Recommendations for maximizing block scheduling are outlined. (Contains 52…

  19. Gene expression in retinoic acid-induced neural tube defects A cDNA mieroarray analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Long; Zhong Yang; Yi Zeng; Hongli Li; Yangyun Han; Chao You

    2009-01-01

    the cranium and abnormal changes of the metencephalon and face.cDNA microarray analysis suggested that the changes in expression of seven different genes were similar on both days E10.5 and E11.5. These were downregulation of NekT, Igfbp5, Zw10,Csf3r, Psmc6 and Rbl, and upregulation of Apoa-4. This study also indicated that Cdk5 expression was downregulated in the retinoic acid group on day E11.5. The results of the cDNA microarray analysis were partly confirmed by Northern blotting.CONCLUSION: Cdk5, NekT, Igfbp5, ZwlO, Csf3r, Psmc6, Rb 1 and Apoa-4 may be key factors in retinoic acid-induced neural tube defects.

  20. Effects of low potassium dextran glucose solution on oleic acid-induced acute lung injury in juvenile piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Feng; LIU Ying-long; LIU Ai-jun; WANG Dong; WANG Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Background Epithelial dysfunction in lungs plays a key role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. The beneficial effects of low potassium dextran glucose solution (LPD) have been reported in lung preservation, and LPD enables injured alveolar pneumocytes to recover. So we hypothesized that systemic administration of LPD may have benefits in treating acute lung injury. We investigated the effects of LPD on arterial blood gas and levels of some cytokines in oleic acid-induced acute lung injury in juvenile piglets.Methods Oleic acid (0.1 ml/kg) was intrapulmonarily administered to healthy anesthetized juvenile piglets. Ten animals were randomly assigned to two groups (n=5 each): oleic acid-induced group (control group) with intravenous infusion of 12.5 ml/kg of lactated Ringer's solution 30 minutes before administration of oleic acid and LPD group with systemic administration of LPD (12.5 ml/kg) 30 minutes before injecting oleic acid. Blood gas variables and concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha, endothelin 1 and interleukin 10 were measured before and every 1 hour for 6 hours after initial lung injury.Results Compared with control group, blood pH, partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio,partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, and mean pulmonary arterial pressure in LPD group were improved (P<0.05or 0.01). Six hours after lung injury, concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha in lung tissue was lower in LPD group than control group (P<0.05). Plasmic concentration of endothelin 1 showed lower in LPD group while plasmic concentration of interleukin 10 showed higher in LPD group (P<0.05).Conclusions Before lung injury, systemic administration of LPD can improve gas exchange, attenuate pulmonary hypertension, decrease plasmic levels of endothelin 1, increase interleukin 10 and decrease concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha in lung tissue in oleic acid-induced acute lung injury in juvenile piglets.

  1. Genetic parameters for rennet- and acid-induced coagulation properties in milk from Swedish Red dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, F; Glantz, M; Poulsen, N A; Wadsö, L; Stålhammar, H; Andrén, A; Lindmark Månsson, H; Larsen, L B; Paulsson, M; Fikse, W F

    2014-01-01

    Milk coagulation is an important processing trait, being the basis for production of both cheese and fermented products. There is interest in including technological properties of these products in the breeding goal for dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was therefore to estimate genetic parameters for milk coagulation properties, including both rennet- and acid-induced coagulation, in Swedish Red dairy cattle using genomic relationships. Morning milk samples and blood samples were collected from 395 Swedish Red cows that were selected to be as genetically unrelated as possible. Using a rheometer, milk samples were analyzed for rennet- and acid-induced coagulation properties, including gel strength (G'), coagulation time, and yield stress (YS). In addition to the technological traits, milk composition was analyzed. A binary trait was created to reflect that milk samples that had not coagulated 40min after rennet addition were considered noncoagulating milk. The cows were genotyped by using the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Almost 600,000 markers remained after quality control and were used to construct a matrix of genomic relationships among the cows. Multivariate models including fixed effects of herd, lactation stage, and parity were fitted using the ASReml software to obtain estimates of heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Heritability estimates (h(2)) for G' and YS in rennet and acid gels were found to be high (h(2)=0.38-0.62) and the genetic correlations between rennet-induced and acid-induced coagulation properties were weak but favorable, with the exception of YSrennet with G'acid and YSacid, both of which were strong. The high heritability (h(2)=0.45) for milk coagulating ability expressed as a binary trait suggests that noncoagulation could be eliminated through breeding. Additionally, the results indicated that the current breeding objective could increase the frequency of noncoagulating milk and

  2. Retinoic Acid Induces Apoptosis of Prostate Cancer DU145 Cells through Cdk5 Overactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Chih Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid (RA has been believed to be an anticancer drug for a long history. However, the molecular mechanisms of RA actions on cancer cells remain diverse. In this study, the dose-dependent inhibition of RA on DU145 cell proliferation was identified. Interestingly, RA treatment triggered p35 cleavage (p25 formation and Cdk5 overactivation, and all could be blocked by Calpain inhibitor, Calpeptin (CP. Subsequently, RA-triggered DU145 apoptosis detected by sub-G1 phase accumulation and Annexin V staining could also be blocked by CP treatment. Furthermore, RA-triggered caspase 3 activation and following Cdk5 over-activation were destroyed by treatments of both CP and Cdk5 knockdown. In conclusion, we report a new mechanism in which RA could cause apoptosis of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells through p35 cleavage and Cdk5 over-activation. This finding may contribute to constructing a clearer image of RA function and bring RA as a valuable chemoprevention agent for prostate cancer patients.

  3. Activation of the central histaminergic system mediates arachidonic-acid-induced cardiovascular effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinbas, Burcin; Topuz, Bora Burak; İlhan, Tuncay; Yilmaz, Mustafa Sertac; Erdost, Hatice; Yalcin, Murat

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explain the involvement of the central histaminergic system in arachidonic acid (AA)-induced cardiovascular effects in normotensive rats using hemodynamic, immunohistochemistry, and microdialysis studies. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered AA (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μmol) induced dose- and time-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure and decreased heart rate in conscious normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. Central injection of AA (0.5 μmol) also increased posterior hypothalamic extracellular histamine levels and produced strong COX-1 but not COX-2 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus of rats. Moreover, the cardiovascular effects and COX-1 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus induced by AA (0.5 μmol; i.c.v.) were almost completely blocked by the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.) and partially blocked by the H1 receptor blocker chlorpheniramine (100 nmol; i.c.v.) and the H3-H4 receptor antagonist thioperamide (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.). In conclusion, these results indicate that centrally administered AA induces pressor and bradycardic responses in conscious rats. Moreover, we suggest that AA may activate histaminergic neurons and increase extracellular histamine levels, particularly in the posterior hypothalamus. Acting as a neurotransmitter, histamine is potentially involved in AA-induced cardiovascular effects under normotensive conditions. PMID:25065747

  4. Predictability of blocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibaldi and Molteni (1990, hereafter referred to as TM) had previously investigated operational blocking predictability by the ECMWF model and the possible relationships between model systematic error and blocking in the winter season of the Northern Hemisphere, using seven years of ECMWF operational archives of analyses and day 1 to 10 forecasts. They showed that fewer blocking episodes than in the real atmosphere were generally simulated by the model, and that this deficiency increased with increasing forecast time. As a consequence of this, a major contribution to the systematic error in the winter season was shown to derive from the inability of the model to properly forecast blocking. In this study, the analysis performed in TM for the first seven winter seasons of the ECMWF operational model is extended to the subsequent five winters, during which model development, reflecting both resolution increases and parametrisation modifications, continued unabated. In addition the objective blocking index developed by TM has been applied to the observed data to study the natural low frequency variability of blocking. The ability to simulate blocking of some climate models has also been tested

  5. Block Cipher Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miolane, Charlotte Vikkelsø

    ensurethat no attack violatesthe securitybounds specifiedbygeneric attack namely exhaustivekey search and table lookup attacks. This thesis contains a general introduction to cryptography with focus on block ciphers and important block cipher designs, in particular the Advanced Encryption Standard......(AES).Wedescribe the mostgeneraltypes ofblock cipher cryptanalysis but concentrate on the algebraic attacks. While the algebraic techniques have been successful oncertainstreamcipherstheirapplicationtoblock ciphershasnot shown any significant results so far. This thesis contributes to the field of algebraic attacks on...... algebraic results on small scale variants of AES. In the final part of the thesis we present a new block cipher proposal Present and examine its security against algebraic and differential cryptanalysis in particular....

  6. Mitochondrial genome depletion in human liver cells abolishes bile acid-induced apoptosis: role of the Akt/mTOR survival pathway and Bcl-2 family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Jose J G; Hernandez, Alicia; Revuelta, Isabel E; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Ester; Gonzalez-Buitrago, Jose M; Perez, Maria J

    2013-08-01

    Acute accumulation of bile acids in hepatocytes may cause cell death. However, during long-term exposure due to prolonged cholestasis, hepatocytes may develop a certain degree of chemoresistance to these compounds. Because mitochondrial adaptation to persistent oxidative stress may be involved in this process, here we have investigated the effects of complete mitochondrial genome depletion on the response to bile acid-induced hepatocellular injury. A subline (Rho) of human hepatoma SK-Hep-1 cells totally depleted of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was obtained, and bile acid-induced concentration-dependent activation of apoptosis/necrosis and survival signaling pathways was studied. In the absence of changes in intracellular ATP content, Rho cells were highly resistant to bile acid-induced apoptosis and partially resistant to bile acid-induced necrosis. In Rho cells, both basal and bile acid-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion, was decreased. Bile acid-induced proapoptotic signals were also decreased, as evidenced by a reduction in the expression ratios Bax-α/Bcl-2, Bcl-xS/Bcl-2, and Bcl-xS/Bcl-xL. This was mainly due to a downregulation of Bax-α and Bcl-xS. Moreover, in these cells the Akt/mTOR pathway was constitutively activated in a ROS-independent manner and remained similarly activated in the presence of bile acid treatment. In contrast, ERK1/2 activation was constitutively reduced and was not activated by incubation with bile acids. In conclusion, these results suggest that impaired mitochondrial function associated with mtDNA alterations, which may occur in liver cells during prolonged cholestasis, may activate mechanisms of cell survival accounting for an enhanced resistance of hepatocytes to bile acid-induced apoptosis. PMID:23597504

  7. Involvement of Polyamine Oxidase in Abscisic Acid induced Cytosolic Antioxidant Defense in Leaves of Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beibei Xue; Aying Zhang; Mingyi Jiang

    2009-01-01

    Using pharmacological and biochemical approaches, the role of maize polyamine oxidase (MPAO) in abscisic acid (ABA)induced antioxidant defense in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) plants was investigated. Exogenous ABA treatment enhanced the expression of the MPAO gene and the activities of apoplastic MPAO. Pretreatment with two different inhibitors for apoplastic MPAO partly reduced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation induced by ABA and blocked the ABA-induced expression of the antioxidant genes superoxide dismutase 4 and cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase and the activities of the cytosolic antioxidant enzymes. Treatment with spermidine, the optimum substrate of MPAO, also induced the expression and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, and the upregulation of the antioxidant enzymes was prevented by two inhibitors of MPAO and two scavengers of H2O2. These results suggest that MPAO contributes to ABA-induced cytosolic antioxidant defense through H2O2, a Spd catabolic product.

  8. Modulation of the retinoic acid-induced cell apoptosis and differentiation by the human TR4 orphan nuclear receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our previous studies, the TR4 orphan nuclear receptor (TR4) has been demonstrated to suppress retinoic acid (RA)-induced transactivation via a negative feedback control mechanism and in situ analysis showed that TR4 is extensively expressed in mouse brain, especially in regions where the cells are proliferating. To further study the potential roles of TR4 during cell differentiation, a tetracycline-inducible system with anti-sense TR4 in teratocarcinoma P19 cell lines was generated to analyze the retinoic acid-induced differentiation of these cells. The results indicated that the expression of TR4 reduced by doxycycline anti-sense TR4 would alter the retinoic acid-induced differentiation pathway that results in the changes of cell morphology and cell cycle profile. Unexpectedly, our data further indicated that the RA-induced apoptosis, judging by DNA fragmentation, could also be altered by the induction of anti-sense TR4. Together, these findings provide the first in vivo evidence that an orphan nuclear receptor, such as TR4, may play major roles in the RA-mediated apoptosis or differentiation in P19 cells

  9. Block copolymer battery separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  10. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  11. Concord Housing Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaraswamy, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data on the construction of Concord type Housing Blocks. A high rise public housing project using prefabriction and advanced formwork systems. Both Harmony and Concord Blocks are designed on the basis of standard modular flats which permit the use of factory produced components and a construction sequence which makes extensive use of advanced formwork systems.

  12. Efficient Block Truncation Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Somasundaram,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Block Truncation Coding (BTC is one of the lossy image compression techniques. The computational complexity involved in this method is very simple. In the proposed method, the feature of inter-pixel correlation is exploited to further reduce the requirement of bits to store a block. The proposed method gives very good performance in terms of bit-rate and PSNR values when compared to the conventional BTC.

  13. Impression block with orientator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object

  14. Uniaxial backfill block compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main parts of the project were: to make a literature survey of the previous uniaxial compaction experiments; do uniaxial compaction tests in laboratory scale; and do industrial scale production tests. Object of the project was to sort out the different factors affecting the quality assurance chain of the backfill block uniaxial production and solve a material sticking to mould problem which appeared during manufacturing the blocks of bentonite and cruched rock mixture. The effect of mineralogical and chemical composition on the long term functionality of the backfill was excluded from the project. However, the used smectite-rich clays have been tested for mineralogical consistency. These tests were done in B and Tech OY according their SOPs. The objective of the Laboratory scale tests was to find right material- and compaction parameters for the industrial scale tests. Direct comparison between the laboratory scale tests and industrial scale tests is not possible because the mould geometry and compaction speed has a big influence for the compaction process. For this reason the selected material parameters were also affected by the previous compaction experiments. The industrial scale tests were done in summer of 2010 in southern Sweden. Blocks were done with uniaxial compaction. A 40 tons of the mixture of bentonite and crushed rock blocks and almost 50 tons of Friedland-clay blocks were compacted. (orig.)

  15. Block diagonal and schur complement preconditioners for block-toeplitz systems with small size blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, WK; Ng, MK; Wen, YW

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we consider the solution of Hermitian positive definite block-Toeplitz systems with small size blocks. We propose and study block diagonal and Schur complement preconditioners for such block-Toeplitz matrices. We show that for some block-Toeplitz matrices, the spectra of the preconditioned matrices are uniformly bounded except for a fixed number of outliers where this fixed number depends only on the size of the block. Hence, conjugate gradient type methods, when applied to solv...

  16. Nymble Blocking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Joshi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to allow users to access Internet services privately, anonymizing networks like Tor uses a series of routers to hide the client’s IP address from the server. These networks, however, have been marred by users employing this anonymity for abusive purposes such as defacing popular web sites. Usually, web site administrators rely on IP-address blocking in order to disable access to misbehaving users, but it is impractical if the abuser routes through an anonymizing network. In order to avoid this, administrators bar all known exit nodes of the anonymizing network, thereby denying anonymous access to all the users(whether misbehaving or not. To solve this issue, we introduce Nymble, a system where servers blacklist misbehaving users, thereby blocking users without affecting their anonymity. Nymble is thus agnostic to varied definitions of misbehavior. Servers can block users for any reason, and the privacy of blacklisted users is not affected in any case.

  17. Mast cells in citric acid-induced cough of guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was demonstrated previously that mast cells play an important role in citric acid (CA)-induced airway constriction. To investigate the role of mast cells in CA-induced cough, three experiments were carried out in this study. In the first experiment, 59 guinea pigs were employed and we used compound 48/80 to deplete mast cells, cromolyn sodium to stabilize mast cells, MK-886 to inhibit leukotriene synthesis, pyrilamine to antagonize histamine H1 receptor, methysergide to antagonize serotonin receptor, and indomethacin to inhibit cyclooxygenase. In the second experiment, 56 compound 48/80-pretreated animals were divided into two parts; the first one was used to test the role of exogenous leukotriene (LT) C4, while the second one to test the role of exogenous histamine in CA-induced cough. Each animal with one of the above pretreatments was exposed sequentially to saline (baseline) and CA (0.6 M) aerosol, each for 3 min. Then, cough was recorded for 12 min using a barometric body plethysmograph. In the third experiment, the activation of mast cells upon CA inhalation was investigated by determining arterial plasma histamine concentration in 17 animals. Exposure to CA induced a marked increase in cough number. Compound 48/80, cromolyn sodium, MK-886 and pyrilamine, but not indomethacin or methysergide, significantly attenuated CA-induced cough. Injection of LTC4 or histamine caused a significant increase in CA-induced cough in compound 48/80-pretreated animals. In addition, CA inhalation caused significant increase in plasma histamine concentration, which was blocked by compound 48/80 pretreatment. These results suggest that mast cells play an important role in CA aerosol inhalation-induced cough via perhaps mediators LTs and histamine

  18. PI3K/AKT and ERK regulate retinoic acid-induced neuroblastoma cellular differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Jingbo [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Paul, Pritha; Lee, Sora [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Qiao, Lan; Josifi, Erlena; Tiao, Joshua R. [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Chung, Dai H., E-mail: dai.chung@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Retinoic acid (RA) induces neuroblastoma cells differentiation, which is accompanied by G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA resulted in neuroblastoma cell survival and inhibition of DNA fragmentation; this is regulated by PI3K pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA activates PI3K and ERK1/2 pathway; PI3K pathway mediates RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of p21 is necessary for RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. -- Abstract: Neuroblastoma, the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in infants and children, is characterized by a high rate of spontaneous remissions in infancy. Retinoic acid (RA) has been known to induce neuroblastoma differentiation; however, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways that are responsible for RA-mediated neuroblastoma cell differentiation remain unclear. Here, we sought to determine the cell signaling processes involved in RA-induced cellular differentiation. Upon RA administration, human neuroblastoma cell lines, SK-N-SH and BE(2)-C, demonstrated neurite extensions, which is an indicator of neuronal cell differentiation. Moreover, cell cycle arrest occurred in G1/G0 phase. The protein levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27{sup Kip}, which inhibit cell proliferation by blocking cell cycle progression at G1/S phase, increased after RA treatment. Interestingly, RA promoted cell survival during the differentiation process, hence suggesting a potential mechanism for neuroblastoma resistance to RA therapy. Importantly, we found that the PI3K/AKT pathway is required for RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. Our results elucidated the molecular mechanism of RA-induced neuroblastoma cellular differentiation, which may be important for developing novel therapeutic strategy against poorly differentiated neuroblastoma.

  19. The role of mast cells in citric acid-induced airway constriction and cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yih-Loong; Wu, Li-Ling; Lin, Tai-Yin; Lin, Chien-He

    2009-11-30

    Inhalation of citric acid (CA) causes airway constriction and coughing. To investigate the role of mast cells in CA-induced airway constriction and cough, three experiments using guinea pigs were carried out. In the first experiment, we used compound 48/80 to deplete mast cells, cromolyn sodium to stabilize mast cells, MK-886 to inhibit synthesis of leukotrienes, pyrilamine to antagonize histamine H1 receptor, methysergide to antagonize serotonin receptor, and indomethacin to inhibit cyclooxygenase. In the second experiment, compound 48/80-pretreated animals were divided into 2 parts; the first one was used to test the role of exogenous leukotriene (LT) C4, while the second one to test the role of exogenous histamine. Decreases in respiratory compliance (Crs) and forced expiratory volume in 0.1 sec (FEV0.1) were used as indicators for airway constriction in anesthetized guinea pigs. CA-induced cough was recorded for 12 min using a barometric body plethysmograph in conscious animals. In the third experiment, the activation of mast cells upon CA inhalation was investigated by determining lung tissue or arterial plasma histamine concentration in animals. Exposure to CA induced marked airway constriction and increase in cough number. Compound 48/80, cromolyn sodium, MK-886 and pyrilamine, but not indomethacin or methysergide, significantly attenuated CA-induced airway constriction and cough. Injection of LTC4 or histamine caused a significant increase in CA-induced airway constriction and cough in compound 48/80-pretreated animals. In addition, CA inhalation caused significant increase in lung tissue and plasma histamine concentrations, which were blocked by compound 48/80 pretreatment. These results suggest that mast cells play an important role in CA aerosol inhalation-induced airway constriction and cough via perhaps mediators including LTs and histamine. PMID:20359123

  20. Bactericidal block copolymer micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnalkova, Renata; Eisenberg, Adi; van de Ven, Theo

    2011-05-12

    Block copolymer micelles with bactericidal properties were designed to deactivate pathogens such as E. coli bacteria. The micelles of PS-b-PAA and PS-b-P4VP block copolymers were loaded with biocides TCMTB or TCN up to 20 or 30 wt.-%, depending on the type of antibacterial agent. Bacteria were exposed to loaded micelles and bacterial deactivation was evaluated. The micelles loaded with TCN are bactericidal; bacteria are killed in less than two minutes of exposure. The most likely interpretation of the data is that the biocide is transferred to the bacteria by repeated micelle/bacteria contacts, and not via the solution. PMID:21275041

  1. Combinatorial localized dissolution analysis: Application to acid-induced dissolution of dental enamel and the effect of surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Alexander S; Al Botros, Rehab; Kinnear, Sophie L; Snowden, Michael E; McKelvey, Kim; Ashcroft, Alexander T; Carvell, Mel; Joiner, Andrew; Peruffo, Massimo; Philpotts, Carol; Unwin, Patrick R

    2016-08-15

    A combination of scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to quantitatively study the acid-induced dissolution of dental enamel. A micron-scale liquid meniscus formed at the end of a dual barrelled pipette, which constitutes the SECCM probe, is brought into contact with the enamel surface for a defined period. Dissolution occurs at the interface of the meniscus and the enamel surface, under conditions of well-defined mass transport, creating etch pits that are then analysed via AFM. This technique is applied to bovine dental enamel, and the effect of various treatments of the enamel surface on acid dissolution (1mM HNO3) is studied. The treatments investigated are zinc ions, fluoride ions and the two combined. A finite element method (FEM) simulation of SECCM mass transport and interfacial reactivity, allows the intrinsic rate constant for acid-induced dissolution to be quantitatively determined. The dissolution of enamel, in terms of Ca(2+) flux ( [Formula: see text] ), is first order with respect to the interfacial proton concentration and given by the following rate law: [Formula: see text] , with k0=0.099±0.008cms(-1). Treating the enamel with either fluoride or zinc ions slows the dissolution rate, although in this model system the partly protective barrier only extends around 10-20nm into the enamel surface, so that after a period of a few seconds dissolution of modified surfaces tends towards that of native enamel. A combination of both treatments exhibits the greatest protection to the enamel surface, but the effect is again transient. PMID:27209395

  2. Synergistic effect of natural compounds on the fatty acid-induced autophagy of activated hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan-Wei; Thiyagarajan, Varadharajan; Sie, Huei-Wun; Cheng, Ming-Fan; Tsai, May-Jywan; Chia, Yi-Chen; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2014-09-01

    Autophagy, a lysosomal pathway to maintain cellular homeostasis, is mediated via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent pathways. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), previously termed fat- or vitamin A-storing cells, can transdifferentiate into myofibroblast-like cells and are the most relevant cell type for overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM) and development of liver fibrosis during injury. However, the role of autophagy in fat metabolism of HSCs remains unclear. This study investigates the regulatory effect of natural compounds on fatty acid-induced autophagy pathways of nonchemical-induced HSC (NHSC) and thioacetamide-induced HSC. Oleic acid (OA) and palmitic acid (PA) have shown a significant effect on cell proliferation with oil red O staining and Western blot confirming that OA and PA induce fat storage ability and autophagy protein expression in NHSC. Natural compounds rutin, curcumin, antroquinonol and benzyl cinnamate treatment have shown no effect on the autophagy protein expression. Nevertheless, cells pretreated with OA and PA then treated with rutin, curcumin, antroquinonol and benzyl cinnamate could significantly induce the light chain I/II (LC3 I/II) protein expression. In mTOR-dependent pathway, the PI3K-Class I, Akt, and p-mTOR proteins were decreased with PA treatment. However, there were no significant changes in PI3K-Class III and Beclin-1 protein expressions found to imply that this autophagy is unrelated to the mTOR-independent pathway. Taken together, the present study unveils rutin and curcumin as a possible effective stimulation for fatty acid-induced autophagy via mTOR-dependent pathways in NHSC. We further suggest the benefits of these natural compounds for alleviating liver fibrosis. PMID:24857031

  3. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Danli Wang; Yang Zhang; Shengyong Chen

    2013-01-01

    This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transfer...

  4. Hydroxysafflor yellow A suppress oleic acid-induced acute lung injury via protein kinase A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chaoyun [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Huang, Qingxian [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, Shandong 264000 (China); Wang, Chunhua; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Duan, Yunfeng; Yuan, Shuai [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Bai, Xianyong, E-mail: xybai2012@163.com [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Inflammation response and oxidative stress play important roles in acute lung injury (ALI). Activation of the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway may attenuate ALI by suppressing immune responses and inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a natural flavonoid compound that reduces oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine-mediated damage. In this study, we examined whether HSYA could protect the lungs from oleic acid (OA)-induced injury, which was used to mimic ALI, and determined the role of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in this process. Arterial oxygen tension (PaO{sub 2}), carbon dioxide tension, pH, and the PaO{sub 2}/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio in the blood were detected using a blood gas analyzer. We measured wet/dry lung weight ratio and evaluated tissue morphology. The protein and inflammatory cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, PKA, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and the concentrations of cAMP and malondialdehyde in the lung tissue were detected using assay kits. Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3, and p22{sup phox} levels in the lung tissue were analyzed using Western blotting. OA increased the inflammatory cytokine and ROS levels and caused lung dysfunction by decreasing cAMP synthesis, inhibiting PKA activity, stimulating caspase 3, and reducing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. H-89 increased these effects. HSYA significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, inhibited the inflammatory response via cAMP/PKA pathway activation, and attenuated OA-induced lung injury. Our results show that the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway is required for the protective effect of HSYA against ALI. - Highlights: • Oleic acid (OA) cause acute lung injury (ALI) via inhibiting cAMP/PKA signal pathway. • Blocking protein kinase A (PKA) activation may

  5. Effects of Block Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Veal

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of a tri-schedule on the academic achievement of students in a high school. The tri-schedule consists of traditional, 4x4 block, and hybrid schedules running at the same time in the same high school. Effectiveness of the schedules was determined from the state mandated test of basic skills in reading, language, and mathematics. Students who were in a particular schedule their freshman year were tested at the beginning of their sophomore year. A statistical ANCOVA test was performed using the schedule types as independent variables and cognitive skill index and GPA as covariates. For reading and language, there was no statistically significant difference in test results. There was a statistical difference mathematics-computation. Block mathematics is an ideal format for obtaining more credits in mathematics, but the block format does little for mathematics achievement and conceptual understanding. The results have content specific implications for schools, administrations, and school boards who are considering block scheduling adoption.

  6. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  7. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, de A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In ord

  8. Edit Distance with Block Deletions

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Shapira; Storer, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Several variants of the edit distance problem with block deletions are considered. Polynomial time optimal algorithms are presented for the edit distance with block deletions allowing character insertions and character moves, but without block moves. We show that the edit distance with block moves and block deletions is NP-complete (Nondeterministic Polynomial time problems in which any given solution to such problem can be verified in polynomial time, and any NP problem can be converted into...

  9. Fermion-Scalar Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Iliesiu, Luca; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2015-01-01

    We compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermion-fermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called `seed blocks' in three dimensions. Conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  10. Auricular Electroacupuncture Reduced Inflammation-Related Epilepsy Accompanied by Altered TRPA1, pPKCα, pPKCε, and pERk1/2 Signaling Pathways in Kainic Acid-Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wen Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation is often considered to play a crucial role in epilepsy by affecting iron status and metabolism. In this study, we investigated the curative effect of auricular acupuncture and somatic acupuncture on kainic acid- (KA- induced epilepsy in rats. Methods. We established an epileptic seizure model in rats by KA (12 mg, ip. The 2 Hz electroacupuncture (EA was applied at auricular and applied at Zusanli and Shangjuxu (ST36-ST37 acupoints for 20 min for 3 days/week for 6 weeks beginning on the day following the KA injection. Results. The electrophysiological results indicated that neuron overexcitation occurred in the KA-treated rats. This phenomenon could be reversed among either the auricular EA or ST36-ST37 EA treatment, but not in the sham-control rats. The Western blot results revealed that TRPA1, but not TRPV4, was upregulated by injecting KA and could be attenuated by administering auricular or ST36-ST37 EA, but not in the sham group. In addition, potentiation of TRPA1 was accompanied by increased PKCα and reduced PKCε. Furthermore, pERK1/2, which is indicated in inflammation, was also increased by KA. Furthermore, the aforementioned mechanisms could be reversed by administering auricular EA and could be partially reversed by ST36-ST37 EA. Conclusions. These results indicate a novel mechanism for treating inflammation-associated epilepsy and can be translated into clinical therapy.

  11. Antiepileptic Effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla and Rhynchophylline Involved in the Initiation of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Phosphorylation of MAPK Signal Pathways in Acute Seizures of Kainic Acid-Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Cheng Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seizures cause inflammation of the central nervous system. The extent of the inflammation is related to the severity and recurrence of the seizures. Cell surface receptors are stimulated by stimulators such as kainic acid (KA, which causes intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signal pathway transmission to coordinate a response. It is known that Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR and rhynchophylline (RP have anticonvulsive effects, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a novel strategy for treating epilepsy by investigating how UR and RP initiate their anticonvulsive mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered KA (12 mg/kg, i.p. to induce seizure before being sacrificed. The brain was removed 3 h after KA administration. The results indicate that pretreatment with UR (1.0 g/kg, RP (0.25 mg/kg, and valproic acid (VA, 250 mg/kg for 3 d could reduce epileptic seizures and could also reduce the expression of c-Jun aminoterminal kinase phosphorylation (JNKp of MAPK signal pathways in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus brain tissues. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α remain unchanged, indicating that the anticonvulsive effect of UR and RP is initially involved in the JNKp MAPK signal pathway during the KA-induced acute seizure period.

  12. Herpes simplex virus infection is sensed by both Toll-like receptors and retinoic acid-inducible gene- like receptors, which synergize to induce type I interferon production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon Brandtoft; Jensen, Søren B; Nielsen, C;

    2009-01-01

    The innate antiviral response is initiated by pattern recognition receptors, which recognize viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Here we show that retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RLRs) in cooperation with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 is required for expression of type I...

  13. NCCN Evidence Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Robert W; Jonasch, Eric

    2016-05-01

    NCCN has developed a series of Evidence Blocks: graphics that provide ratings for each recommended treatment regimen in terms of efficacy, toxicity, quality and consistency of the supporting data, and affordability. The NCCN Evidence Blocks are currently available in 10 tumor types within the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines). At a glance, patients and providers can understand how a given treatment was assessed by the NCCN Guidelines Panel and get a sense of how a given treatment may match individual needs and preferences. Robert W. Carlson, MD, CEO of NCCN, described the reasoning behind this new feature and how the tool is used, and Eric Jonasch, MD, Professor of Genitourinary Medical Oncology at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and Vice Chair of the NCCN Kidney Cancer Panel, described its applicability in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27226499

  14. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse;

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included in...... men vs. 0.5%/2.3% in women, P <0.001). Significant predictors of newly acquired RBBB were male gender, increasing age, high systolic blood pressure, and presence of IRBBB, whereas predictors of newly acquired IRBBB were male gender, increasing age, and low BMI. Right bundle branch block was associated...... with significantly increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch...

  15. SNUPPS power block modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of models is being built and used as tools in the design of the SNUPPS Standard Power Block. The modelling programme includes both preliminary and final design models, a construction sequence mode, and additional models used to study various features of the design. The design of a standard power block unit has necessitated design definition which is more detailed than that customarily used in the design of nuclear power stations. One innovation is the use of engineering models as a primary design tool in the layout of process piping, preparation of isometric drawings, design of small components which are customarily designed in the field during construction. Development of a standard construction sequence and construction work plan is another innovation. (author)

  16. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  17. Growth, Endlessness, Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Nabata, Avery Misuzu

    2014-01-01

    Growth, Endlessness, Blocks is a sculptural installation comprised of a series of wood structures of various scales. Large sections of drywall function as extensions of the gallery walls. Each structure balances a number of different physical characteristics that are tied to the act of making. Balance and presence combine in a disconcerting way giving the viewer a sense of uneasiness and a moment finely tuned by the artist. The artist seeks to embody the role of the factory fabricator as a me...

  18. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danli Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transferred to computer by microcomputers and then translated into semantic information. The system applies wireless and infrared technologies and provides user with feedbacks on both screen and programming blocks. Preliminary user studies using observation and user interview methods are shown for E-Block's prototype. The test results prove that E-Block is attractive to children and easy to learn and use. The project also highlights potential advantages of using single chip microcomputer (SCM technology to develop tangible programming tools for children.

  19. Demographic Data - MDC_Block

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade Census 2000 Blocks. Census blocks are areas bounded on all sides by visible and/or invisible features shown on a map prepared...

  20. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    High altitudes and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... you are going up or coming down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are changing ...

  1. Porous block nanofiber composite filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginley, David S.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Weiss, Alan J.; Paddock, Arnold

    2016-08-09

    Porous block nano-fiber composite (110), a filtration system (10) and methods of using the same are disclosed. An exemplary porous block nano-fiber composite (110) includes a porous block (100) having one or more pores (200). The porous block nano-fiber composite (110) also includes a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers (211) formed within at least one of the pores (200).

  2. The BRPF2/BRD1-MOZ complex is involved in retinoic acid-induced differentiation of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hye In; Kim, Min Seong; Jang, Yeun Kyu

    2016-08-01

    The scaffold protein BRPF2 (also called BRD1), a key component of histone acetyltransferase complexes, plays an important role in embryonic development, but its function in the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether BRPF2 is involved in mouse ESC differentiation. BRPF2 depletion resulted in abnormal formation of embryoid bodies, downregulation of differentiation-associated genes, and persistent maintenance of alkaline phosphatase activity even after retinoic acid-induced differentiation, indicating impaired differentiation of BRPF2-depleted ESCs. We also found reduced global acetylation of histone H3 lysine 14 (H3K14) in BRPF2-depleted ESCs, irrespective of differentiation status. Further, co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed a physical association between BRPF2 and the histone acetyltransferase MOZ in differentiated ESCs, suggesting the role of BRPF2-MOZ complexes in ESC differentiation. Together, these results suggest that BRPF2-MOZ complexes play an important role in the differentiation of ESCs via H3K14 acetylation. PMID:27256846

  3. Antitussive Activity of the Water-Extracted Carbohydrate Polymer from Terminalia chebula on Citric Acid-Induced Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Udipta Ranjan; Majee, Sujay Kumar; Ray, Bimalendu

    2013-01-01

    Terminalia chebula, a medicinal plant, is widely used in the management of various diseases. As the water extract of its dried ripe fruit is a frequently used preparation, we decided to look for bioactive polysaccharide in this extract. We demonstrate that the obtained polysaccharide fraction, CP, contained a highly branched arabinogalactan protein having a (1 → 3)-, (1 → 6)- and (1 → 3, 6)-linked β-D-Galp together with (1 → 5)- and (1 → 3)-linked α-L-Araf and nonreducing end units of α-L-Araf. This polymer possesses strong antitussive property. Our results showed that the number of citric acid-induced cough efforts decreased significantly after the oral application of polysaccharide fraction in a dose of 50 mg kg−1 body weight. Its antitussive efficacy was higher than cough suppressive effect of standard drug codeine. Therefore, traditional aqueous extraction method provides a major polysaccharide, which induces a pharmacological effect: this could represent an attractive approach in phytotherapeutic managements. PMID:23878602

  4. Antitussive Activity of the Water-Extracted Carbohydrate Polymer from Terminalia chebula on Citric Acid-Induced Cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Nosalova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia chebula, a medicinal plant, is widely used in the management of various diseases. As the water extract of its dried ripe fruit is a frequently used preparation, we decided to look for bioactive polysaccharide in this extract. We demonstrate that the obtained polysaccharide fraction, CP, contained a highly branched arabinogalactan protein having a 1→3-, 1→6- and 1→3,6-linked β-D-Galp together with 1→5- and 1→3-linked α-L-Araf and nonreducing end units of α-L-Araf. This polymer possesses strong antitussive property. Our results showed that the number of citric acid-induced cough efforts decreased significantly after the oral application of polysaccharide fraction in a dose of 50 mg kg−1 body weight. Its antitussive efficacy was higher than cough suppressive effect of standard drug codeine. Therefore, traditional aqueous extraction method provides a major polysaccharide, which induces a pharmacological effect: this could represent an attractive approach in phytotherapeutic managements.

  5. Inhibition of acid-induced apoptosis by targeting ASIC1a mRNA with short hairpin RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie-chuan WENG; Jian-quan ZHENG; Qing-e JIN; Xiao-yun MA

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the role of acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) la in the cell death and apoptosis induced by extracellular acid in C6 glioma cells. Methods: The stable ASICla-silenced C6 cell line, built with RNA interference technology, were con-firmed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The cell viability following acid exposure was analyzed with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The apoptotic cells dyed with Annexin-V and propidium iodide were measured with a flow cytometer, while the changes of cell cycle were also assayed. Results: The downregulation of ASIC 1 a proteins by stable transfection of short hairpin RNA decreased the cell death percentage and increased cell viability following acid exposure with LDH and the MTT assay. The rate of apoptosis was lower in the ASIC la-silenced cell line than that in the wild-type C6 cell line. The percentage of sub-G0 cells was lower in the ASICla-silenced C6 cells than that in the wild-type cells. Conclusion: Extracellular acid induced cell death and apoptosis viaASICla mechanisms in the C6 glioma cells.

  6. Possible protective role of pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile in lithocholic acid-induced hepatotoxicity through enhanced hepatic lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Masaaki; Nomoto, Masahiro; Sotodate, Fumiaki; Mizuki, Tomohiro; Hori, Wataru; Nagayasu, Miho; Yokokawa, Shinya; Ninomiya, Shin-ichi; Yamazoe, Yasushi

    2010-06-25

    Lithocholic acid (LCA) feeding causes both liver parenchymal and cholestatic damages in experimental animals. Although pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile (PCN)-mediated protection against LCA-induced hepatocyte injury may be explained by induction of drug metabolizing enzymes, the protection from the delayed cholestasis remains incompletely understood. Thus, the PCN-mediated protective mechanism has been studied from the point of modification of lipid metabolism. At an early stage of LCA feeding, an imbalance of biliary bile acid and phospholipid excretion was observed. Co-treatment with PCN reversed the increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as well as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and hepatic hydrophobic bile acid levels. LCA feeding decreased hepatic mRNA levels of several fatty acid- and phospholipid-related genes before elevation of serum ALT and ALP activities. On the other hand, PCN co-treatment reversed the decrease in the mRNA levels and hepatic levels of phospholipids, triglycerides and free fatty acids. PCN co-treatment also reversed the decrease in biliary phospholipid output in LCA-fed mice. Treatment with PCN alone increased hepatic phospholipid, triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations. Hepatic fatty acid and phosphatidylcholine synthetic activities increased in mice treated with PCN alone or PCN and LCA, compared to control mice, whereas these activities decreased in LCA-fed mice. These results suggest the possibility that PCN-mediated stimulation of lipogenesis contributes to the protection from lithocholic acid-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:20359477

  7. TGF-β-SMAD3 signaling mediates hepatic bile acid and phospholipid metabolism following lithocholic acid-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Naoki; Sato, Misako; Kang, Dong Wook; Krausz, Kristopher W; Flanders, Kathleen C; Ikeda, Kazuo; Luecke, Hans; Wakefield, Lalage M; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2012-12-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) is activated as a result of liver injury, such as cholestasis. However, its influence on endogenous metabolism is not known. This study demonstrated that TGFβ regulates hepatic phospholipid and bile acid homeostasis through MAD homolog 3 (SMAD3) activation as revealed by lithocholic acid-induced experimental intrahepatic cholestasis. Lithocholic acid (LCA) induced expression of TGFB1 and the receptors TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 in the liver. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed higher TGFβ expression around the portal vein after LCA exposure and diminished SMAD3 phosphorylation in hepatocytes from Smad3-null mice. Serum metabolomics indicated increased bile acids and decreased lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) after LCA exposure. Interestingly, in Smad3-null mice, the metabolic alteration was attenuated. LCA-induced lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 4 (LPCAT4) and organic solute transporter β (OSTβ) expression were markedly decreased in Smad3-null mice, whereas TGFβ induced LPCAT4 and OSTβ expression in primary mouse hepatocytes. In addition, introduction of SMAD3 enhanced the TGFβ-induced LPCAT4 and OSTβ expression in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. In conclusion, considering that Smad3-null mice showed attenuated serum ALP activity, a diagnostic indicator of cholangiocyte injury, these results strongly support the view that TGFβ-SMAD3 signaling mediates an alteration in phospholipid and bile acid metabolism following hepatic inflammation with the biliary injury. PMID:23034213

  8. Chromosomal localization of a novel retinoic acid induced gene RA28 and the protein distribution of its encoded protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Gene RA28 is a retinoic acid induced novel gene isolated in our laboratory previously. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was used to induce lung adenocarcinoma cell line GLC-82, and RA28 was obtained by subtractive hybridization. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) has emerged as a unique tool for examining introcellular phenomena in living cells. GFP possesses an intrinsic fluorescence at 488 nm that does not require other co-factors. In this report, an eukaryotic expression plasmid pEGFP-C1-RA28 was constructed and transfected with parental cell line GLC-82 to analyze protein expression and its distribution in living cells. Moreover, radiation hybrid (RH) technique was used to localize RA28 to the chromosome. The results show that gene RA28 is mapped to the chromosome 19q13.1 region, its encoded protein is distributed on cell membrane. All the results further demonstrate that GFP and RH techniques are accurate, fast, repetitive, and will be powerful methods for investigating the gene and protein localization.

  9. Phenylbutyric acid induces the cellular senescence through an Akt/p21{sup WAF1} signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hag Dong [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, and BioInstitute, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Chang-Young [Research Center for Cell Fate Control, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Jeong Min [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, and BioInstitute, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Korean Institute of Molecular Medicine and Nutrition, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Jeongwon, E-mail: biojs@korea.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Korean Institute of Molecular Medicine and Nutrition, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon, E-mail: joonkim@korea.ac.kr [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, and BioInstitute, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenylbutyric acid induces cellular senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phenylbutyric acid activates Akt kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The knockdown of PERK also can induce cellular senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt/p21{sup WAF1} pathway activates in PERK knockdown induced cellular senescence. -- Abstract: It has been well known that three sentinel proteins - PERK, ATF6 and IRE1 - initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the presence of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the ER. Recent studies have demonstrated that upregulation of UPR in cancer cells is required to survive and proliferate. Here, we showed that long exposure to 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), a chemical chaperone that can reduce retention of unfolded and misfolded proteins in ER, induced cellular senescence in cancer cells such as MCF7 and HT1080. In addition, we found that treatment with PBA activates Akt, which results in p21{sup WAF1} induction. Interestingly, the depletion of PERK but not ATF6 and IRE1 also induces cellular senescence, which was rescued by additional depletion of Akt. This suggests that Akt pathway is downstream of PERK in PBA induced cellular senescence. Taken together, these results show that PBA induces cellular senescence via activation of the Akt/p21{sup WAF1} pathway by PERK inhibition.

  10. Rabbit gastric ulcer models: comparison and evaluation of acetic acid-induced ulcer and mucosectomy-induced ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jin Hee; Lee, Eunhye; Lee, Don Haeng; Yang, Su-Geun

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we examined rabbit gastric ulcer models that can serve as more clinically relevant models. Two types of ulcer model were studied: acetic acid-induced ulcers (AAU) and mucosal resection-induced ulcers (MRU). For AAU, rabbit gastric mucosa was exposed by median laparotomy and treated with bottled acetic acid. MRU was examined as a model for endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Normal saline was injected into the submucosal layer and the swollen mucosa was resected with scissors. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is frequently performed for treatment of early gastric cancers. This procedure inevitably leads to ulcers and bleeding. Bleeding control is the major concern in endoscopic mucosectomy, and some endoscopic hemostatic agents are currently under clinical and preclinical studies. MRU was developed as a model for these induced ulcers and the evaluation of the healing process. The clinical relevancy of those models was compared with that of rat models. Progressive healing was observed for 7 days based on histology. Rabbit models demonstrate round, deep ulcers with clear margins and well-defined healing stages that were difficult to define in rat models. PMID:23825482

  11. Standardized Extract of Bacopa monniera Attenuates Okadaic Acid Induced Memory Dysfunction in Rats: Effect on Nrf2 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Dwivedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of standardized extract of Bacopa monnieri (memory enhancer and Melatonin (an antioxidant on nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2 pathway in Okadaic acid induced memory impaired rats. OKA (200 ng was administered intracerebroventricularly (ICV to induce memory impairment in rats. Bacopa monnieri (BM-40 and 80 mg/kg and Melatonin (20 mg/kg were administered 1 hr before OKA injection and continued daily up to day 13. Memory functions were assessed by Morris water maze test on days 13–15. Rats were sacrificed for biochemical estimations of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, and molecular studies of Nrf2, HO1, and GCLC expressions in cerebral cortex and hippocampus brain regions. OKA caused a significant memory deficit with oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and neuronal loss which was concomitant with attenuated expression of Nrf2, HO1, and GCLC. Treatment with BM and Melatonin significantly improved memory dysfunction in OKA rats as shown by decreased latency time and path length. The treatments also restored Nrf2, HO1, and GCLC expressions and decreased oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and neuronal loss. Thus strengthening the endogenous defense through Nrf2 modulation plays a key role in the protective effect of BM and Melatonin in OKA induced memory impairment in rats.

  12. A standard graphite block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 ±3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm3; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb

  13. One-Block CYRCA: an automated procedure for identifying multiple-block alignments from single block queries

    OpenAIRE

    Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Singer, Alice; Bronfeld, Hagit; Pietrokovski, Shmuel

    2005-01-01

    One-Block CYRCA is an automated procedure for identifying multiple-block alignments from single block queries (). It is based on the LAMA and CYRCA block-to-block alignment methods. The procedure identifies whether the query blocks can form new multiple-block alignments (block sets) with blocks from a database or join pre-existing database block sets. Using pre-computed LAMA block alignments and CYRCA sets from the Blocks database reduces the computation time. LAMA and CYRCA are highly sensit...

  14. Presynaptic kainate receptors increase GABAergic neurotransmission in rat periaqueductal gray neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Michiko; Choi, Kyu-Hyung; Choi, Sung-Keun; Do, Chung-Sik; Jun, Ju-Hye; Kwon, Hyung-Kook; Lee, So-Min; Moon, Ryu-Jin; Yi, Ki-Joung; Jang, Il-Sung

    2010-06-10

    Neurons within the periaqueductal gray (PAG) have been implicated in the central regulation of pain signals by affecting the descending inhibitory pathway. Here we report on the functional role of presynaptic kainate receptors within the PAG. Using a conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique, we recorded GABAergic spontaneous miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) from mechanically isolated rat PAG neurons in the presence of 300nM tetrodotoxin and 20microM DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid under voltage-clamp conditions. Kainic acid at a 10microM concentration significantly increased the frequency of GABAergic mIPSCs without affecting their amplitude, suggesting that kainic acid acts presynaptically to enhance spontaneous GABA release. The kainic acid-induced increase in mIPSC frequency was completely blocked by CNQX, a selective AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist. While neither AMPA nor NMDA affected GABAergic mIPSC frequency, ATPA, a selective agonist of GluR5-containing kainate receptors, increased GABAergic mIPSC frequency in a concentration-dependent manner. The kainic acid-induced increase in mIPSC frequency was completely suppressed either in the presence of 100microM Cd(2+), a general voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel (VDCC) blocker, or in the Na(+)-free external solution. These results suggest that presynaptic kainate receptors have a low permeability to Ca(2+), and that their activation elicits a presynaptic depolarization large enough to activate presynaptic VDCCs. Presynaptic kainate receptors on GABAergic nerve terminals appear to modulate GABAergic transmission, and in doing so may play an important role in the regulation of PAG neuron excitability. PMID:20303934

  15. Blocking the Hawking radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autzen, M.; Kouvaris, C.

    2014-01-01

    grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics, i.e., accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how......Some severe constraints on asymmetric dark matter are based on the scenario that certain types of weakly interacting massive particles can form mini-black holes inside neutron stars that can lead to their destruction. A crucial element for the realization of this scenario is that the black hole...... the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star....

  16. Photovoltaic building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanberg, Peter Jesper; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2014-01-01

    efficiency of about 15% for commercial Silicon solar cells there is still much to gain. DTU Danchip provides research facilities, equipment and expertise for the building blocks that comprises fabricating the efficient solar cell. In order to get more of the sun light into the device we provide thin film...... coating tools to depositand develop anti-reflection filters by means of sputtering or e-beam evaporation. To reduce the area taken up by metallic contacts transparent conducting oxides like Aluminium doped ZincOxide (AZO) and Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) can be deposited. We also support research...... and development of new 2D materials like graphene that is a promising candidate for cheap highly transparent contacts. Another way to increase efficiency is to structure the active layers indevice so that more light is absorbed. This can be done in one of our advanced dry etching machines either mask-less to form...

  17. Block Voter Model

    CERN Document Server

    Sampaio, C I N

    2011-01-01

    We introduce and study the block voter model with noise on two-dimensional square lattices using Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling techniques. The model is defined by an outflow dynamics where a central set of $N_{PCS}$ spins, here denoted by persuasive cluster spins (PCS), tries to influence the opinion of their neighbouring counterparts. We consider the collective behaviour of the entire system with varying PCS size. When $N_{PCS}>2$, the system exhibits an order-disorder phase transition at a critical noise parameter $q_{c}$ which is a monotonically increasing function of the size of the persuasive cluster. We conclude that how large the PCS is more power of persuasion it has. It also seems that the resulting critical behaviour is Ising-like independent of the range of the interactions.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Minaiyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE and its chloroform fraction (MCF on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Both MSHE and MCF with three increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg were administered orally to separate groups of male Wistar rats, 2 h before ulcer induction (using acetic acid 4% and continued for 5 days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg and normal saline (1 ml/kg were used in reference and control groups, respectively. All rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last dose (at day 6 and tissue injuries were assessed macroscopically and pathologically. Results: Extracts with three doses mentioned before were effective to reduce weight of distal colon (8 cm as a marker for inflammation and tissue edema. Three doses of MSHE and two greater doses of MCF (100 and 200 mg/kg were effective to reduce ulcer severity, area, and index as well as mucosal inflammation severity and extent, crypt damage, invasion involvement, total colitis index, and MPO activity compared with controls. MCF (50 mg/kg was not significantly effective in reducing evaluated parameters of colitis compared with controls. Conclusion: It is concluded that MSHE and MCF were both effective to treat experimental colitis and this might be attributed to their similar major components, biophenols and flavonoids. Since the efficacy was evident even in low doses of MSHE, presence of active constituents with high potency in seeds is persuasive.

  19. Priming by Hexanoic acid induce activation of mevalonic and linolenic pathways and promotes the emission of plant volatiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio eLlorens

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hexanoic acid is a short natural monocarboxylic acid present in some fruits and plants. Previous studies reported that soil drench application of this acid induces effective resistance in tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae and in citrus against Alternaria alternata and Xanthomonas citri. In this work, we performed an in deep study of the metabolic changes produced in citrus by the application of hexanoic acid in response to the challenge pathogen Alternaria alternata, focusing on the response of the plant. Moreover, we used 13C labeled hexanoic to analyze its behavior inside the plants. Finally, we studied the volatile emission of the treated plants after the challenge inoculation. Drench application of 13C labeled hexanoic demonstrated that this molecule stays in the roots and is not mobilized to the leaves, suggesting long distance induction of resistance. Moreover, the study of the metabolic profile showed an alteration of more than two hundred molecules differentially induced by the application of the compound and the inoculation with the fungus. Bioinformatics analysis of data showed that most of these altered molecules could be related with the mevalonic and linolenic pathways suggesting the implication of these pathways in the induced resistance mediated by hexanoic acid. Finally, the application of this compound showed an enhancement of the emission of 17 volatile metabolites. Taken together, this study indicates that after the application of hexanoic acid this compound remains in the roots, provoking molecular changes that may trigger the defensive response in the rest of the plant mediated by changes in the mevalonic and linolenic pathways and enhancing the emission of volatile compounds, suggesting for the first time the implication of mevalonic pathway in response to hexanoic application.

  20. Priming by Hexanoic Acid Induce Activation of Mevalonic and Linolenic Pathways and Promotes the Emission of Plant Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Eugenio; Camañes, Gemma; Lapeña, Leonor; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Hexanoic acid (Hx) is a short natural monocarboxylic acid present in some fruits and plants. Previous studies reported that soil drench application of this acid induces effective resistance in tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae and in citrus against Alternaria alternata and Xanthomonas citri. In this work, we performed an in deep study of the metabolic changes produced in citrus by the application of Hx in response to the challenge pathogen A. alternata, focusing on the response of the plant. Moreover, we used 13C labeled hexanoic to analyze its behavior inside the plants. Finally, we studied the volatile emission of the treated plants after the challenge inoculation. Drench application of 13C labeled hexanoic demonstrated that this molecule stays in the roots and is not mobilized to the leaves, suggesting long distance induction of resistance. Moreover, the study of the metabolic profile showed an alteration of more than 200 molecules differentially induced by the application of the compound and the inoculation with the fungus. Bioinformatics analysis of data showed that most of these altered molecules could be related with the mevalonic and linolenic pathways suggesting the implication of these pathways in the induced resistance mediated by Hx. Finally, the application of this compound showed an enhancement of the emission of 17 volatile metabolites. Taken together, this study indicates that after the application of Hx this compound remains in the roots, provoking molecular changes that may trigger the defensive response in the rest of the plant mediated by changes in the mevalonic and linolenic pathways and enhancing the emission of volatile compounds, suggesting for the first time the implication of mevalonic pathway in response to hexanoic application. PMID:27148319

  1. Subchronic treatment of donepezil rescues impaired social, hyperactive, and stereotypic behavior in valproic acid-induced animal model of autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Woon Kim

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a group of pervasive developmental disorders with core symptoms such as sociability deficit, language impairment, and repetitive/restricted behaviors. Although worldwide prevalence of ASD has been increased continuously, therapeutic agents to ameliorate the core symptoms especially social deficits, are very limited. In this study, we investigated therapeutic potential of donepezil for ASD using valproic acid-induced autistic animal model (VPA animal model. We found that prenatal exposure of valproic acid (VPA induced dysregulation of cholinergic neuronal development, most notably the up-regulation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE in the prefrontal cortex of affected rat and mouse offspring. Similarly, differentiating cortical neural progenitor cell in culture treated with VPA showed increased expression of AChE in vitro. Chromatin precipitation experiments revealed that acetylation of histone H3 bound to AChE promoter region was increased by VPA. In addition, other histone deacetyalse inhibitors (HDACIs such as trichostatin A and sodium butyrate also increased the expression of AChE in differentiating neural progenitor cells suggesting the essential role of HDACIs in the regulation of AChE expression. For behavioral analysis, we injected PBS or donepezil (0.3 mg/kg intraperitoneally to control and VPA mice once daily from postnatal day 14 all throughout the experiment. Subchronic treatment of donepezil improved sociability and prevented repetitive behavior and hyperactivity of VPA-treated mice offspring. Taken together, these results provide evidence that dysregulation of ACh system represented by the up-regulation of AChE may serve as an effective pharmacological therapeutic target against autistic behaviors in VPA animal model of ASD, which should be subjected for further investigation to verify the clinical relevance.

  2. Dietary interesterified fat enriched with palmitic acid induces atherosclerosis by impairing macrophage cholesterol efflux and eliciting inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Milessa Silva; Lavrador, Maria Silvia Ferrari; Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Cintra, Dennys Esper; Ferreira, Fabiana Dias; Nunes, Valeria Sutti; Castilho, Gabriela; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; Paula Bombo, Renata; Catanozi, Sergio; Caldini, Elia Garcia; Damaceno-Rodrigues, Nilsa Regina; Passarelli, Marisa; Nakandakare, Edna Regina; Lottenberg, Ana Maria

    2016-06-01

    Interesterified fats are currently being used to replace trans fatty acids. However, their impact on biological pathways involved in the atherosclerosis development was not investigated. Weaning male LDLr-KO mice were fed for 16weeks on a high-fat diet (40% energy as fat) containing polyunsaturated (PUFA), TRANS, palmitic (PALM), palmitic interesterified (PALM INTER), stearic (STEAR) or stearic interesterified (STEAR INTER). Plasma lipids, lipoprotein profile, arterial lesion area, macrophage infiltration, collagen content and inflammatory response modulation were determined. Macrophage cholesterol efflux and the arterial expression of cholesterol uptake and efflux receptors were also performed. The interesterification process did not alter plasma lipid concentrations. Although PALM INTER did not increase plasma cholesterol concentration as much as TRANS, the cholesterol enrichment in the LDL particle was similar in both groups. Moreover, PALM INTER induced the highest IL-1β, MCP-1 and IL-6 secretion from peritoneal macrophages as compared to others. This inflammatory response elicited by PALM INTER was confirmed in arterial wall, as compared to PALM. These deleterious effects of PALM INTER culminate in higher atherosclerotic lesion, macrophage infiltration and collagen content than PALM, STEAR, STEAR INTER and PUFA. These events can partially be attributed to a macrophage cholesterol accumulation, promoted by apoAI and HDL2-mediated cholesterol efflux impairment and increased Olr-1 and decreased Abca1 and Nr1h3 expressions in the arterial wall. Interesterified fats containing palmitic acid induce atherosclerosis development by promoting cholesterol accumulation in LDL particles and macrophagic cells, activating the inflammatory process in LDLr-KO mice. PMID:27142741

  3. Comparative gastroprotective effects of natural honey, nigella sativa and cimetidine against acetylsalicylic acid Induced gastric ulcer in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural honey (NH) and Nigella sativa (NS) seeds have been in use as a natural remedy for over thousands of years in various parts of the world. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effects of NS (Nigella sativa) and NH (natural honey) on acetylsalicylic acid induced gastric ulcer in an experimental model with comparison to Cimetidine (CD). The study was conducted on 100 male albino rats, divided into 5 groups, with 20 animals in each group. Group A was used as a control and treated with Gum Tragacanth (GT). Eighty animals of the other groups were given acetylsalicylic acid (0.2 gm/kg body weight for 3 days) to produce ulcers by gavage. Two animals from each group were sacrificed for the detection of gastric ulcers. The remaining 72 animals were equally divided in four groups (B, C, D and E). The rats in group B, C and D were given NS, NH, and CD respectively while those in E were kept as such. No gastric lesions were seen in control group A while all the animals in group E revealed gastric ulcers. The animals of group B, C and D showed healing effects in 15/18 (83%), 14/18 (78%) and 17/18 (94%) animals grossly; 13/18 (72%), 14/18 (78%) and 16/18 (89%) rats showed recovery on microscopic examination respectively. The healing effects were almost the same in all three groups therefore, the statistical difference was not significant among them (p =0.40 and 0.65) while significant from group E (p=0.0000075, 0.0000016 and 0.0000012 respectively). NS and NH are equally effective in healing of gastric ulcer similar to cimetidine. Further broad spectrum studies as well as clinical trials should be conducted before the use of these products as routine medicines. (author)

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of nesfatin-1 in rats with acetic acid - induced colitis and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, C C; Oktay, S; Yuksel, M; Akakin, D; Yarat, A; Kasimay Cakir, O

    2015-10-01

    Mucosal balance impairment, bacterial over-proliferation, cytokines, inflammatory mediators are known as responsible for inflammatory bowel disease. Besides known anorexigenic, neuroprotective, and anti-apoptotic effects, the major effect of nesfatin-1 on colitis is unknown. Our aim was to investigate the possible anti-inflammatory effects of nesfatin-1 in acetic acid induced colitis model and potential underlying mechanisms. Male Spraque-Dawley rats were anesthetized by intraperitoneal ketamine (100 mg/kg) and chlorpromazine (0.75 mg/kg). For nesfatin-1 and antagonist applications some of the rats were intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) cannulated. In colitis group, intrarectally (i.r.) 4% acetic acid solution (1 ml) and 10 minutes later i.c.v. nesfatin-1 (0.05 μg/5 μl) or vehicle (5 μl) were administered. Treatments continued for 3 days. In control group, physiological saline solution was used intrarectally. To identify the underlying effective mechanism of nesfatin-1, rats were divided into 3 subgroups, 5 minutes following colitis induction; i.c.v. atosiban (oxytocin receptor antagonist), SHU9119 (melanocortin receptor antagonist) or GHSR-1a antagonist (ghrelin receptor antagonist) were administered, 5 minutes later nesfatin-1 was administered for 3 days. On the fourth day, rats were decapitated, and colon tissues were sampled. Macroscopic and microscopic damage scores of distal colon, and colonic tissue malondialdehyde, glutathione, myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, luminol and lucigenin chemiluminescence measurements were analysed. The increased myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde levels, luminol and lucigenin chemiluminescence measurements, macroscopic and microscopic damage scores with colitis induction (P Atosiban and GHSR-1a administration alleviated the protective effect of nesfatin-1 from microscopic and oxidant damage parameters and lipid peroxidation (P < 0.05 - 0.001). The results of the study suggest that nesfatin-1 had a

  5. Stability of the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in alpha chloralose-anesthetized female cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Aura Kullmann

    Full Text Available Time- and vehicle-related variability of bladder and urethral rhabdosphincter (URS activity as well as cardiorespiratory and blood chemistry values were examined in the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in α-chloralose-anesthetized female cats. Additionally, bladder and urethra were evaluated histologically using Mason trichrome and toluidine blue staining. Urodynamic, cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were collected during intravesical saline infusion followed by acetic acid (0.5% to irritate the bladder. One hour after starting acetic acid infusion, a protocol consisting of a cystometrogram, continuous infusion-induced rhythmic voiding contractions, and a 5 min "quiet period" (bladder emptied without infusion was precisely repeated every 30 minutes. Administration of vehicle (saline i.v. occurred 15 minutes after starting each of the first 7 cystometrograms and duloxetine (1mg/kg i.v. after the 8(th. Acetic acid infusion into the bladder increased URS-EMG activity, bladder contraction frequency, and decreased contraction amplitude and capacity, compared to saline. Bladder activity and URS activity stabilized within 1 and 2 hours, respectively. Duloxetine administration significantly decreased bladder contraction frequency and increased URS-EMG activity to levels similar to previous reports. Cardiorespiratory parameters and blood gas levels remained consistent throughout the experiment. The epithelium of the bladder and urethra were greatly damaged and edema and infiltration of neutrophils in the lamina propria of urethra were observed. These data provide an ample evaluation of the health of the animals, stability of voiding function and appropriateness of the model for testing drugs designed to evaluate lower urinary tract as well as cardiovascular and respiratory systems function.

  6. Stability of the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in alpha chloralose-anesthetized female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, F Aura; Wells, Grace I; Langdale, Christopher L; Zheng, Jihong; Thor, Karl B

    2013-01-01

    Time- and vehicle-related variability of bladder and urethral rhabdosphincter (URS) activity as well as cardiorespiratory and blood chemistry values were examined in the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in α-chloralose-anesthetized female cats. Additionally, bladder and urethra were evaluated histologically using Mason trichrome and toluidine blue staining. Urodynamic, cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were collected during intravesical saline infusion followed by acetic acid (0.5%) to irritate the bladder. One hour after starting acetic acid infusion, a protocol consisting of a cystometrogram, continuous infusion-induced rhythmic voiding contractions, and a 5 min "quiet period" (bladder emptied without infusion) was precisely repeated every 30 minutes. Administration of vehicle (saline i.v.) occurred 15 minutes after starting each of the first 7 cystometrograms and duloxetine (1mg/kg i.v.) after the 8(th). Acetic acid infusion into the bladder increased URS-EMG activity, bladder contraction frequency, and decreased contraction amplitude and capacity, compared to saline. Bladder activity and URS activity stabilized within 1 and 2 hours, respectively. Duloxetine administration significantly decreased bladder contraction frequency and increased URS-EMG activity to levels similar to previous reports. Cardiorespiratory parameters and blood gas levels remained consistent throughout the experiment. The epithelium of the bladder and urethra were greatly damaged and edema and infiltration of neutrophils in the lamina propria of urethra were observed. These data provide an ample evaluation of the health of the animals, stability of voiding function and appropriateness of the model for testing drugs designed to evaluate lower urinary tract as well as cardiovascular and respiratory systems function. PMID:24040064

  7. The restrained expression of NF-kB in renal tissue ameliorates folic acid induced acute kidney injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dev; Singla, Surinder K; Puri, Veena; Puri, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) represent family of structurally-related eukaryotic transcription factors which regulate diverse array of cellular processes including immunological responses, inflammation, apoptosis, growth & development. Increased expression of NF-kB has often been seen in many diverse diseases, suggesting the importance of genomic deregulation to disease pathophysiology. In the present study we focused on acute kidney injury (AKI), which remains one of the major risk factor showing a high rate of mortality and morbidity. The pathology associated with it, however, remains incompletely known though inflammation has been reported to be one of the major risk factor in the disease pathophysiology. The role of NF-kB thus seemed pertinent. In the present study we show that high dose of folic acid (FA) induced acute kidney injury (AKI) characterized by elevation in levels of blood urea nitrogen & serum creatinine together with extensive tubular necrosis, loss of brush border and marked reduction in mitochondria. One of the salient observations of this study was a coupled increase in the expression of renal, relA, NF-kB2, and p53 genes and proteins during folic acid induced AKI (FA AKI). Treatment of mice with NF-kB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithio-carbamate ammonium (PDTC) lowered the expression of these transcription factors and ameliorated the aberrant renal function by decreasing serum creatinine levels. In conclusion, our results suggested that NF-kB plays a pivotal role in maintaining renal function that also involved regulating p53 levels during FA AKI. PMID:25559736

  8. Berberine reverses free-fatty-acid-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through targeting IKKβ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of berberine on improving insulin resistance induced by free fatty acids (FFAs) in 3T3-LI adipocytes.METHODS:The model of insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was established by adding palmic acid (0.5 mmol/L) to the culture medium.Berberine treatment was performed at the same time.Glucose uptake rate was determined by the 2-deoxy-[3H]-Dglucose method.The levels of IkB kinase beta (IKKβ)Ser181 phosphorylation,insulin receptor substrate1(IRS-1) Ser307 phosphorylation,expression of IKKβ,IRS-1,nuclear transcription factor kappaB p65 (NF-κB p65),phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase p85(PI-3K p85) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) proteins were detected by Western blotting.The distribution of NF-κB p65 proteins inside the adipocytes was observed through confocal laser scanning microscopy(CLSM).RESULTS:After the intervention of palmic acid for 24 h,the insulin-stimulated glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was inhibited by 67%.Meanwhile,the expression of IRS-1 and PI-3K p85 protein was reduced,while the levels of IKKβ Ser181 and IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation,and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 protein were increased.However,the above indexes,which indicated the existence of insulin resistance,were reversed by berberine although the expression of GLUT4,IKKβ and total NF-κB p65 protein were not changed during this study.CONCLUSION:Insulin resistance induced by FFAs in 3T3-L1 adipocytes can be improved by berberine.Berberine reversed free-fatty-acid-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through targeting IKKβ.

  9. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat p...

  10. Palmitic acid induces interleukin-1β secretion via NLRP3 inflammasomes and inflammatory responses through ROS production in human placental cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasuna, Koumei; Takano, Hiroki; Seno, Kotomi; Ohtsu, Ayaka; Karasawa, Tadayoshi; Takahashi, Masafumi; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Suzuki, Hirotada; Matsubara, Shigeki; Iwata, Hisataka; Kuwayama, Takehito

    2016-08-01

    Maternal obesity, a major risk factor for adverse pregnancy complications, results in inflammatory cytokine release in the placenta. Levels of free fatty acids are elevated in the plasma of obese human. These fatty acids include obesity-related palmitic acids, which is a major saturated fatty acid, that promotes inflammatory responses. Increasing evidence indicates that nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes mediate inflammatory responses induced by endogenous danger signals. We hypothesized that inflammatory responses associated with gestational obesity cause inflammation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of palmitic acid on the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and inflammatory responses in a human Sw.71 trophoblast cell line. Palmitic acid stimulated caspase-1 activation and markedly increased interleukin (IL)-1β secretion in Sw.71 cells. Treatment with a caspase-1 inhibitor diminished palmitic acid-induced IL-1β release. In addition, NLRP3 and caspase-1 genome editing using a CRISPR/Cas9 system in Sw.71 cells suppressed IL-1β secretion, which was stimulated by palmitic acid. Moreover, palmitic acid stimulated caspase-3 activation and inflammatory cytokine secretion (e.g., IL-6 and IL-8). Palmitic acid-induced cytokine secretion were dependent on caspase-3 activation. In addition, palmitic acid-induced IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was depended on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In conclusion, palmitic acid caused activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and inflammatory responses, inducing IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion, which is associated with ROS generation, in human Sw.71 placental cells. We suggest that obesity-related palmitic acid induces placental inflammation, resulting in association with pregnancy complications. PMID:27300134

  11. Constitutive Androstane Receptor-Mediated Changes in Bile Acid Composition Contributes to Hepatoprotection from Lithocholic Acid-Induced Liver Injury in MiceS⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Beilke, Lisa D.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Holland, Ricky D; Besselsen, David G; Beger, Rick D.; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacological activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) protects the liver during cholestasis. The current study evaluates how activation of CAR influences genes involved in bile acid biosynthesis as a mechanism of hepatoprotection during bile acid-induced liver injury. CAR activators phenobarbital (PB) and 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) or corn oil (CO) were administered to C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and CAR knockout (CAR-null) mice ...

  12. TGF-β-SMAD3 signaling mediates hepatic bile acid and phospholipid metabolism following lithocholic acid-induced liver injury[S

    OpenAIRE

    Matsubara, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Naoki; Sato, Misako; Kang, Dong Wook; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Flanders, Kathleen C.; Ikeda, Kazuo; Luecke, Hans; Wakefield, Lalage M.; Frank J. Gonzalez

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) is activated as a result of liver injury, such as cholestasis. However, its influence on endogenous metabolism is not known. This study demonstrated that TGFβ regulates hepatic phospholipid and bile acid homeostasis through MAD homolog 3 (SMAD3) activation as revealed by lithocholic acid-induced experimental intrahepatic cholestasis. Lithocholic acid (LCA) induced expression of TGFB1 and the receptors TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 in the liver. In addition, immunohisto...

  13. The Block-block Bootstrap: Improved Asymptotic Refinements

    OpenAIRE

    Donald W.K. Andrews

    2002-01-01

    The asymptotic refinements attributable to the block bootstrap for time series are not as large as those of the nonparametric iid bootstrap or the parametric bootstrap. One reason is that the independence between the blocks in the block bootstrap sample does not mimic the dependence structure of the original sample. This is the join-point problem. In this paper, we propose a method of solving this problem. The idea is not to alter the block bootstrap. Instead, we alter the original sample sta...

  14. Convergence rates of empirical block length selectors for block bootstrap

    OpenAIRE

    Nordman, Daniel J.; Lahiri, Soumendra N.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the accuracy of two general non-parametric methods for estimating optimal block lengths for block bootstraps with time series – the first proposed in the seminal paper of Hall, Horowitz and Jing (Biometrika 82 (1995) 561–574) and the second from Lahiri et al. (Stat. Methodol. 4 (2007) 292–321). The relative performances of these general methods have been unknown and, to provide a comparison, we focus on rates of convergence for these block length selectors for the moving block ...

  15. Large Block Test Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, W

    2001-12-01

    This report documents the Large-Block Test (LBT) conducted at Fran Ridge near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The LBT was a thermal test conducted on an exposed block of middle non-lithophysal Topopah Spring tuff (Tptpmn) and was designed to assist in understanding the thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes associated with heating and then cooling a partially saturated fractured rock mass. The LBT was unique in that it was a large (3 x 3 x 4.5 m) block with top and sides exposed. Because the block was exposed at the surface, boundary conditions on five of the six sides of the block were relatively well known and controlled, making this test both easier to model and easier to monitor. This report presents a detailed description of the test as well as analyses of the data and conclusions drawn from the test. The rock block that was tested during the LBT was exposed by excavation and removal of the surrounding rock. The block was characterized and instrumented, and the sides were sealed and insulated to inhibit moisture and heat loss. Temperature on the top of the block was also controlled. The block was heated for 13 months, during which time temperature, moisture distribution, and deformation were monitored. After the test was completed and the block cooled down, a series of boreholes were drilled, and one of the heater holes was over-cored to collect samples for post-test characterization of mineralogy and mechanical properties. Section 2 provides background on the test. Section 3 lists the test objectives and describes the block site, the site configuration, and measurements made during the test. Section 3 also presents a chronology of events associated with the LBT, characterization of the block, and the pre-heat analyses of the test. Section 4 describes the fracture network contained in the block. Section 5 describes the heating/cooling system used to control the temperature in the block and presents the thermal history of the block during the test

  16. Dimensional Reduction for Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Hogervorst, Matthijs

    2016-01-01

    We consider the dimensional reduction of a CFT, breaking multiplets of the d-dimensional conformal group SO(d+1,1) up into multiplets of SO(d,1). This leads to an expansion of d-dimensional conformal blocks in terms of blocks in d-1 dimensions. In particular, we obtain a formula for 3d conformal blocks as an infinite sum over 2F1 hypergeometric functions with closed-form coefficients.

  17. Covariant Approaches to Superconformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, A Liam; Khandker, Zuhair U; Li, Daliang; Poland, David; Simmons-Duffin, David

    2014-01-01

    We develop techniques for computing superconformal blocks in 4d superconformal field theories. First we study the super-Casimir differential equation, deriving simple new expressions for superconformal blocks for 4-point functions containing chiral operators in theories with N-extended supersymmetry. We also reproduce these results by extending the "shadow formalism" of Ferrara, Gatto, Grillo, and Parisi to supersymmetric theories, where superconformal blocks can be represented as superspace integrals of three-point functions multiplied by shadow three-point functions.

  18. Control rod blocking device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To increase the degree of freedom for the reactor operation by control rod blocking by monitoring the critical power ratio (CPR) with real time. Constitution: There has been a problem that the withdrawal of control rods may occasionally be inhibited with all the margin in view of CPR. The present invention dissolves this problem. That is, the control rod withdrawal device periodically calculates CPR, and calculated CPR upon generation of a control rod withdrawing signal by conpensating the result of calculation with a LPRM signal and a reactor core flow rate signal. The CPR at real time is compared with a predetermined setting value to output a control rod withdrawing inhibition signal depending on the result of the comparison. In the device as described above, since CPR is monitored at real time, the control rod can be withdrawn without causing fuel damages, as well as the inhibition of withdrawal irrespective of the presence of margin in view of CPR can be avoided. Accordingly, degree of freedom in the reactor operation can be increased. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Four-block beam collimator

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The photo shows a four-block collimator installed on a control table for positioning the alignment reference marks. Designed for use with the secondary beams, the collimators operated in vacuum conditions. The blocks were made of steel and had a standard length of 1 m. The maximum aperture had a square coss-section of 144 cm2. (See Annual Report 1976.)

  20. Classical Virasoro irregular conformal block

    CERN Document Server

    Rim, Chaiho

    2015-01-01

    Virasoro irregular conformal block with arbitrary rank is obtained for the classical limit or equivalently Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit using the beta-deformed irregular matrix model (Penner-type matrix model for the irregular conformal block). The same result is derived using the generalized Mathieu equation which is equivalent to the loop equation of the irregular matrix model.

  1. OPAL Various Lead Glass Blocks

    CERN Multimedia

    These lead glass blocks were part of a CERN detector called OPAL (one of the four experiments at the LEP particle detector). OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies in the electromagnetic calorimeter. This detector measured the energy deposited when electrons and photons were slowed down and stopped.

  2. The Shamrock lumbar plexus block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauter, Axel R; Ullensvang, Kyrre; Niemi, Geir;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Shamrock technique is a new method for ultrasound-guided lumbar plexus blockade. Data on the optimal local anaesthetic dose are not available. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to estimate the effective dose of ropivacaine 0.5% for a Shamrock lumbar plexus block. DESIGN: A...... prospective dose-finding study using Dixon's up-and-down sequential method. SETTING: University Hospital Orthopaedic Anaesthesia Unit. INTERVENTION: Shamrock lumbar plexus block performance and block assessment were scheduled preoperatively. Ropivacaine 0.5% was titrated with the Dixon and Massey up......-and-down method using a stepwise change of 5 ml in each consecutive patient. Combined blocks of the femoral, the lateral femoral cutaneous and the obturator nerve were prerequisite for a successful lumbar plexus block. PATIENTS: Thirty patients scheduled for lower limb orthopaedic surgery completed the study...

  3. On Approximability of Block Sorting

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanaswamy, N S

    2011-01-01

    Block Sorting is a well studied problem, motivated by its applications in Optical Character Recognition (OCR), and Computational Biology. Block Sorting has been shown to be NP-Hard, and two separate polynomial time 2-approximation algorithms have been designed for the problem. But questions like whether a better approximation algorithm can be designed, and whether the problem is APX-Hard have been open for quite a while now. In this work we answer the latter question by proving Block Sorting to be Max-SNP-Hard (APX-Hard). The APX-Hardness result is based on a linear reduction of Max-3SAT to Block Sorting. We also provide a new lower bound for the problem via a new parametrized problem k-Block Merging.

  4. Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Instructor Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This instructor guide together with a student guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The instructor guide is a resource for planning and managing individualized, competency-based instruction in six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units with some units having several…

  5. Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Student Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This student guide together with an instructor guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The student guide contains self-contained instructional material that students can study at their own pace most of the time. Six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units, with some units…

  6. Neuronal acid-induced [Zn²⁺]i elevations calibrated using the low-affinity ratiometric probe FuraZin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiedrowski, Lech

    2015-11-01

    The experiments were carried out on primary cultures of murine cortical neurons from cryopreserved preparations obtained from embryonic-day-16 fetuses. To calibrate acid-induced intracelluar [Zn(2+) ] ([Zn(2+) ]i ) elevations, a low affinity (Kd = 39 μM at pH 6.1) ratiometric Zn(2+) probe, FuraZin-1, was used. A pHi drop from 7.2 to 6.1 caused [Zn(2+) ]i elevations reaching 2 μM; when the thiol-reactive agent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) was subsequently applied, [Zn(2+) ]i increased further to 5.6 μM; analogous acid- and NEM-induced [Zn(2+) ]i elevations could also be detected but not calibrated, using the high affinity Zn(2+) probe FluoZin-3. The data indicate that NEM causes Zn(2+) release from ligands that chelate Zn(2+) at pH 6.1. ATP could also chelate Zn(2+) at pH 6.1 because its pKa is about 6.8. Therefore, it was tested whether an ATP depletion affects the acid-induced [Zn(2+) ]i elevations. The ATP depletion was induced by inhibiting mitochondrial and glycolytic ATP production. Interestingly, an almost complete ATP depletion (confirmed using a luciferin/luciferase assay) failed to affect the acid-induced [Zn(2+) ]i increases. These data suggest that the total amount of Zn(2+) accumulated in intracellular ATP-dependent stores (Zn(2+) -ATP complexes and organelles that accumulate Zn(2+) in an ATP-dependent manner) is negligible compared to the amount of Zn(2+) accumulated in the acid-sensitive intracellular ligands. In vitro, upon acidification, Zn(2+) -cysteine complexes release Zn(2+) and ATP chelates the released Zn(2+) . However, in vivo (cultured neurons), an ATP depletion failed to enhance acid-induced [Zn(2+) ]i elevations. These [Zn(2+) ]i elevations were calibrated using a low affinity ratiometric probe FuraZin-1; they reached 2 µM levels and increased to 5 µM when a thiol-reactive agent, N-ethylmaleimide, compromised Zn(2+) binding by cysteines. PMID:26263185

  7. Evidence for genetic regulation of mRNA expression of the dosage-sensitive gene retinoic acid induced-1 (RAI1) in human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Li Chen; Yu Tao; Fan Song; Xi Yuan; Jian Wang; David Saffen

    2016-01-01

    RAI1 (retinoic acid induced-1) is a dosage-sensitive gene that causes Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) when mutated or deleted and Potocki-Lupski Syndrome (PTLS) when duplicated, with psychiatric features commonly observed in both syndromes. How common genetic variants regulate this gene, however, is unknown. In this study, we found that RAI1 mRNA expression in Chinese prefrontal and temporal cortex correlate with genotypes of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the RAI1 5′-u...

  8. The role of amino acid-induced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1(mTORC1) signaling in insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Mee-Sup; Choi, Cheol Soo

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls cell growth and metabolism in response to nutrients, energy, and growth factors. Recent findings have placed the lysosome at the core of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) regulation by amino acids. Two parallel pathways, Rag GTPase-Ragulator and Vps34-phospholipase D1 (PLD1), regulate mTOR activation on the lysosome. This review describes the recent advances in understanding amino acid-induced mTOR signaling with a particular focus on the role of mTOR in insulin resistance. PMID:27534530

  9. "Protective Effects of Some Azo Derivatives of 5-aminosalicylic Acid and Their Pegylated Prodrugs on Acetic Acid-induced Rat Colitis "

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Garjani; Soodabeh Davaran; Mohamadreza Rashidi; Nasrin Malek

    2004-01-01

    The protective and anti-inflammatory effects of azo and azo-linked polymeric prodrugs of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) on acetic acid induced colitis in rats were investigated. Three azo prodrugs; 4,4 -dihydroxy-azobenzene-3-carboxilic acid (azo compound I), 4-hydroxy-azobenzene-3,4-dicarboxilic acid (azo compound II), 4,4-dihydroxy-3-formyl-azobenzene-3-carboxylic acid (azo compound III) and their polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) derivatives were synthesized. Rats were pretreated orally (1 hou...

  10. Down-Regulation of AKT Signalling by Ursolic Acid Induces Intrinsic Apoptosis and Sensitization to Doxorubicin in Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Victor Hugo; Vögler, Oliver; Barceló, Francisca; Martín-Broto, Javier; Martínez-Serra, Jordi; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Alemany, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Several important biological activities have been attributed to the pentacyclic triterpene ursolic acid (UA), being its antitumoral effect extensively studied in human adenocarcinomas. In this work, we focused on the efficacy and molecular mechanisms involved in the antitumoral effects of UA, as single agent or combined with doxorubicin (DXR), in human soft tissue sarcoma cells. UA (5–50 μM) strongly inhibited (up to 80%) the viability of STS cells at 24 h and its proliferation in soft agar, with higher concentrations increasing apoptotic death up to 30%. UA treatment (6–9 h) strongly blocked the survival AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin signalling pathway, which led to a concomitant reduction of the anti-apoptotic proteins c-Myc and p21, altogether resulting in the activation of intrinsic apoptosis. Interestingly, UA at low concentrations (10–15 μM) enhanced the antitumoral effects of DXR by up to 2-fold, while in parallel inhibiting DXR-induced AKT activation and p21 expression, two proteins implicated in antitumoral drug resistance and cell survival. In conclusion, UA is able to induce intrinsic apoptosis in human STS cells and also to sensitize these cells to DXR by blocking the AKT signalling pathway. Therefore, UA may have beneficial effects, if used as nutraceutical adjuvant during standard chemotherapy treatment of STS. PMID:27219337

  11. Down-Regulation of AKT Signalling by Ursolic Acid Induces Intrinsic Apoptosis and Sensitization to Doxorubicin in Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hugo Villar

    Full Text Available Several important biological activities have been attributed to the pentacyclic triterpene ursolic acid (UA, being its antitumoral effect extensively studied in human adenocarcinomas. In this work, we focused on the efficacy and molecular mechanisms involved in the antitumoral effects of UA, as single agent or combined with doxorubicin (DXR, in human soft tissue sarcoma cells. UA (5-50 μM strongly inhibited (up to 80% the viability of STS cells at 24 h and its proliferation in soft agar, with higher concentrations increasing apoptotic death up to 30%. UA treatment (6-9 h strongly blocked the survival AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin signalling pathway, which led to a concomitant reduction of the anti-apoptotic proteins c-Myc and p21, altogether resulting in the activation of intrinsic apoptosis. Interestingly, UA at low concentrations (10-15 μM enhanced the antitumoral effects of DXR by up to 2-fold, while in parallel inhibiting DXR-induced AKT activation and p21 expression, two proteins implicated in antitumoral drug resistance and cell survival. In conclusion, UA is able to induce intrinsic apoptosis in human STS cells and also to sensitize these cells to DXR by blocking the AKT signalling pathway. Therefore, UA may have beneficial effects, if used as nutraceutical adjuvant during standard chemotherapy treatment of STS.

  12. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  13. Learning Potentials in Number Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Gunver; Misfeldt, Morten; Nielsen, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an initial exploration of how an interactive cubic user-configurable modular robotic system can be used to support learning about numbers and how they are pronounced. The development is done in collaboration with a class of 7-8 year old children and their mathematics teacher....... The tool is called Number Blocks and it combines physical interaction, learning, and immediate feedback. Number Blocks supports the children's understanding of place value in the sense that it allows them to experiment with creating large numbers. We found the blocks contributed to the learning...... process in several ways. The blocks combined mathematics and play, and they included and supported children at different academic levels. The auditory representation, especially the enhanced rhythmic effects due to using speech synthesis, and the rhythm helped the children to pronounce large numbers. This...

  14. Linear characters and block algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Jiwen

    2011-01-01

    This paper will prove that: 1. $G$ has a block only having linear ordinary characters if and only if $G$ is a $p$-nilpotent group with an abelian Sylow $p$-subgroup; 2. $G$ has a block only having linear Brauer characters if and only if $O_{p'}(G)\\leq O_{p'p}(G)=HO_{p'}(G)= \\textrm{Ker}(B_{0}^{*}) \\leq O_{p'pp'}=G$, where $H=G^{'}O^{p'}(G), \\textrm{Ker}(B_{0}^{*})=\\bigcap_{\\lambda \\in \\textrm{IBr}(B_{0})} \\textrm{Ker}(V_{\\lambda}), B_{0}$ is the principal block of $G$ and $V_{\\lambda}$ is the $F[G]$-module affording the Brauer character $\\lambda$; 3. if $G$ satisfies the conditions above, then for any block algebra $B$ of $G$, we have

  15. Recursion Relations for Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Penedones, João; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    In the context of conformal field theories in general space-time dimension, we find all the possible singularities of the conformal blocks as functions of the scaling dimension $\\Delta$ of the exchanged operator. In particular, we argue, using representation theory of parabolic Verma modules, that in odd spacetime dimension the singularities are only simple poles. We discuss how to use this information to write recursion relations that determine the conformal blocks. We first recover the recursion relation introduced in 1307.6856 for conformal blocks of external scalar operators. We then generalize this recursion relation for the conformal blocks associated to the four point function of three scalar and one vector operator. Finally we specialize to the case in which the vector operator is a conserved current.

  16. The wild tapered block bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    In this paper, a new resampling procedure, called the wild tapered block bootstrap, is introduced as a means of calculating standard errors of estimators and constructing confidence regions for parameters based on dependent heterogeneous data. The method consists in tapering each overlapping block......-of-the-art block-based method in terms of asymptotic accuracy of variance estimation and distribution approximation. For stationary time series, the asymptotic validity, and the favorable bias properties of the new bootstrap method are shown in two important cases: smooth functions of means, and M-estimators. The...... estimator for the sample mean is shown to be robust against heteroskedasticity of the wild tapered block bootstrap. This easy to implement alternative bootstrap method works very well even for moderate sample sizes....

  17. MarineMineralsProgramBlocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains OCS block outlines and delineated polygons in ESRI ArcGIS shape file format for the BOEM Gulf of Mexico Region that contain sediment...

  18. Statistical cryptanalysis of block ciphers

    OpenAIRE

    Junod, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    Since the development of cryptology in the industrial and academic worlds in the seventies, public knowledge and expertise have grown in a tremendous way, notably because of the increasing, nowadays almost ubiquitous, presence of electronic communication means in our lives. Block ciphers are inevitable building blocks of the security of various electronic systems. Recently, many advances have been published in the field of public-key cryptography, being in the understanding of involved securi...

  19. A Novel Tetrathiafulvalene Building Block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jan Oskar; Takimiya, Kazuo; Thorup, Niels;

    1999-01-01

    Efficient synthesis of a novel tetrathiafulvalene building block. 2,3-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-6,7-bis(thiocyanato-methyl)tetrathiafulv alene (7) useful for stepwise and asymmetrical bis-function-alization is reported.......Efficient synthesis of a novel tetrathiafulvalene building block. 2,3-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-6,7-bis(thiocyanato-methyl)tetrathiafulv alene (7) useful for stepwise and asymmetrical bis-function-alization is reported....

  20. Risking Aggression: Reply to Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Borer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his paper, “Is There an ‘Anomalous’ Section of the Laffer Curve?”, Walter Block describes some situations in which it appears that a libertarian should violate the non-aggression principle. To rectify this, Block proposes a different perspective on libertarianism which he calls punishment theory. This paper argues that no new theory is needed, as the non-aggression principle can be used to resolve theapparent conundrums.

  1. Risking Aggression: Reply to Block

    OpenAIRE

    Kris Borer

    2010-01-01

    In his paper, “Is There an ‘Anomalous’ Section of the Laffer Curve?”, Walter Block describes some situations in which it appears that a libertarian should violate the non-aggression principle. To rectify this, Block proposes a different perspective on libertarianism which he calls punishment theory. This paper argues that no new theory is needed, as the non-aggression principle can be used to resolve theapparent conundrums.

  2. Statistical cryptanalysis of block ciphers

    OpenAIRE

    Junod, Pascal; Vaudenay, Serge

    2007-01-01

    Since the development of cryptology in the industrial and academic worlds in the seventies, public knowledge and expertise have grown in a tremendous way, notably because of the increasing, nowadays almost ubiquitous, presence of electronic communication means in our lives. Block ciphers are inevitable building blocks of the security of various electronic systems. Recently, many advances have been published in the field of public-key cryptography, being in the understanding of involved securi...

  3. Techniques of facial nerve block.

    OpenAIRE

    Schimek, F; Fahle, M

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of different techniques of facial nerve block for cataract surgery was investigated. Forty four patients underwent either modified O'Brien, Atkinson, van Lint, or lid blocks. Intentional muscle activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle was recorded and the area under the EMG curve calculated for quantitative comparison of muscle activity between the groups before and after injection of lignocaine with the vasoconstrictor naphazoline nitrate. In addition, the force of lid closure w...

  4. NANOSTRUCTURES OF FUNCTIONAL BLOCK COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guojun Liu

    2000-01-01

    Nanostructure fabrication from block copolymers in my group normally involves polymer design, synthesis, selfassembly, selective domain crosslinking, and sometimes selective domain removal. Preparation of thin films with nanochannels was used to illustrate the strategy we took. In this particular case, a linear triblock copolymer polyisopreneblock-poly(2-cinnamoylethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(t-butyl acrylate), PI-b-PCEMA-b-PtBA, was used. Films, 25 to50μm thick, were prepared from casting on glass slides a toluene solution of PI-b-PCEMA-b-PtBA and PtBA homopolymer,hPtBA, where hPtBA is shorter than the PtBA block. At the hPtBA mass fraction of 20% relative to the triblock or the total PtBA (hPtBA and PtBA block) volume fraction of 0.44, hPtBA and PtBA formed a seemingly continuous phase in the matrix of PCEMA and PI. Such a block segregation pattern was locked in by photocrosslinking the PCEMA domain. Nanochannels were formed by extracting out hPtBA with solvent. Alternatively, larger channels were obtained from extracting out hPtBA and hydrolyzing the t-butyl groups of the PtBA block. Such membranes were not liquid permeable but had gas permeability constants ~6 orders of magnitude higher than that of low-density polyethylene films.

  5. Use of Activated Carbon in Packaging to Attenuate Formaldehyde-Induced and Formic Acid-Induced Degradation and Reduce Gelatin Cross-Linking in Solid Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Stephen T; Zelesky, Todd C; Chen, Raymond; Likar, Michael D; MacDonald, Bruce C; Hawkins, Joel M; Carroll, Sophia C; Johnson, Gail M; Space, J Sean; Jensen, James F; DeMatteo, Vincent A

    2016-07-01

    Formaldehyde and formic acid are reactive impurities found in commonly used excipients and can be responsible for limiting drug product shelf-life. Described here is the use of activated carbon in drug product packaging to attenuate formaldehyde-induced and formic acid-induced drug degradation in tablets and cross-linking in hard gelatin capsules. Several pharmaceutical products with known or potential vulnerabilities to formaldehyde-induced or formic acid-induced degradation or gelatin cross-linking were subjected to accelerated stability challenges in the presence and absence of activated carbon. The effects of time and storage conditions were determined. For all of the products studied, activated carbon attenuated drug degradation or gelatin cross-linking. This novel use of activated carbon in pharmaceutical packaging may be useful for enhancing the chemical stability of drug products or the dissolution stability of gelatin-containing dosage forms and may allow for the 1) extension of a drug product's shelf-life when the limiting attribute is a degradation product induced by a reactive impurity, 2) marketing of a drug product in hotter and more humid climatic zones than currently supported without the use of activated carbon, and 3) enhanced dissolution stability of products that are vulnerable to gelatin cross-linking. PMID:27262203

  6. Protective effect of cavidine on acetic acid-induced murine colitis via regulating antioxidant, cytokine profile and NF-κB signal transduction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Hailin; Li, Weifeng; Wang, Yu; Mu, Qingli; Wang, Xiumei; He, Zehong; Yao, Huan

    2015-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disorder characterized by neutrophils infiltration, oxidative stress, upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Cavidine possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used to treat various inflammatory diseases but its effect on ulcerative colitis has not been previously explored. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of cavidine on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in mice. Colitis mice induced by intra-rectal acetic acid (5%, v/v) administration received cavidine (1, 5 and 10mg/kg, i.g) or sulfasalazine (500mg/kg, i.g) for seven consecutive days. After euthanized by cervical dislocation, colonic segments of mice were excised for clinical, macroscopic, biochemical and histopathological examinations. Results suggested treatment with cavidine significantly decreased mortality rate, body weight loss, disease activity index (DAI), wet colon weight, macroscopic and histological score when compared with that of acetic acid-induced controls. In addition, administration of cavidine effectively modulated expressions of MPO, GSH, SOD and MDA. Furthermore cavidine inhibited the level of TNF-α and IL-6 in the serum and colon tissue in response to the regulation of p65 NF-κB protein expression. All these results indicated cavidine exerts marked protective effect in experimental colitis, possibly by regulating the expression of oxygen metabolites, NF-κB and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokines production. PMID:26102009

  7. 3-Nitropropionic acid-induced depression of spinal reflexes involves mechanisms different from ischemia-induced depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajesh; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2008-12-16

    Effect of 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) and ischemia (glucose- and O(2)-free solution) on synaptic transmission in hemisected spinal cord from 4 to 8 day old rats was examined in vitro. Stimulation of a dorsal root (L3-5 segments) evoked monosynaptic (MSR) and polysynaptic reflex (PSR) potentials in the segmental ventral root. Superfusion of 3-NPA (0.17-3.4 mM) depressed the reflexes in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. At 3.4 mM of 3-NPA, the reflexes were abolished by 35 min. Time required to produce 50% depression (T-50) was around 170, 80, 40 and 17 min for MSR and 110, 70, 25 and 16 min for PSR at 0.17, 0.51, 1.7 and 3.4mM of 3-NPA, respectively. Ischemia also produced a time-dependent depression of reflexes and abolished them by 35 min and the T-50 values were around 18 min. Presence of creatine phosphate (10mM) in the superfusing medium did not alter the time course of 3-NPA-induced depression of reflexes but prolonged the ischemia-induced depression. dl-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (NMDA receptor antagonist; 10 microM) failed to block the 3-NPA (3.4 mM)-induced depression of reflexes, but blocked the ischemia-induced depression. The results indicate that 3-NPA-induced depression of spinal reflexes does not involve NMDA receptors and is different from ischemia-induced depression. PMID:18930119

  8. Subtype selective kainic acid receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Lennart; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Povl

    2009-01-01

    (S)-Glutamic acid (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, activating the plethora of glutamate receptors (GluRs). In broad lines, the GluRs are divided into two major classes: the ionotropic Glu receptors (iGluRs) and the metabotropic Glu receptors ....... In total, over 100 compounds are described by means of chemical structure and available pharmacological data. With this perspective review, it is our intention to ignite and stimulate inspiration for future design and synthesis of novel subtype selective KA receptor agonists....

  9. Projectors, Shadows, and Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons-Duffin, David

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a method for computing conformal blocks of operators in arbitrary Lorentz representations in any spacetime dimension, making it possible to apply bootstrap techniques to operators with spin. The key idea is to implement the "shadow formalism" of Ferrara, Gatto, Grillo, and Parisi in a setting where conformal invariance is manifest. Conformal blocks in d-dimensions can be expressed as integrals over the projective null-cone in the "embedding space" R^{d+1,1}. Taking care with their analytic structure, these integrals can be evaluated in great generality, reducing the computation of conformal blocks to a bookkeeping exercise. To facilitate calculations in four-dimensional CFTs, we introduce techniques for writing down conformally-invariant correlators using auxiliary twistor variables, and demonstrate their use in some simple examples.

  10. Climatological features of blocking anticyclones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several climatological studies have been previously performed using large observational data sets (i.e., 10 years or longer) in order to determine the predominant characteristics of blocking anticyclones, including favored development regions, duration, preferred seasonal occurrence, and frequency of occurrence. These studies have shown that blocking anticyclones occur most frequently from October to April over the eastern Atlantic and Pacific oceans downstream from both the North American and Asian continental regions and the storm track regions to the east of these continents. Some studies have also revealed the presence of a third region block formation in western Russia near 40 degrees E which is associated with another storm track region over the Mediterranean and western Asia

  11. Tharsis block tectonics on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitala, Jouko T.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of block tectonics provides a framework for understanding many aspects of Tharsis and adjoining structures. This Tharsis block tectonics on Mars is manifested partly by mantle-related doming and partly by response to loading by subsequent volcanic construction. Although the origin of the volcanism from beneath Tharsis is a subject of controversy explanations have to include inhomogeneities in Martian internal structure, energy distribution, magma accumulation and motion below the lithosphere. Thermal convection can be seen as a necessary consequence for transient initial phase of Martian cooling. This produced part of the elevated topography with tensional stresses and graben systems radial to the main bulge. The linear grabens, radial to the Tharsis center, can be interpreted to indicate rift zones that define the crustal block boundaries. The load-induced stresses may then have contributed on further graben and ridge formation over an extended period of time.

  12. Block ground interaction of rockfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkwein, Axel; Gerber, Werner; Kummer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During a rockfall the interaction of the falling block with the ground is one of the most important factors that define the evolution of a rockfall trajectory. It steers the rebound, the rotational movement, possibly brake effects, friction losses and damping effects. Therefore, if most reliable rockfall /trajectory simulation software is sought a good understanding of the block ground interaction is necessary. Today's rockfall codes enable the simulation of a fully 3D modelled block within a full 3D surface . However, the details during the contact, i.e. the contact duration, the penetration depth or the dimension of the marks in the ground are usually not part of the simulation. Recent field tests with rocks between 20 and 80 kg have been conducted on a grassy slope in 2014 [1]. A special rockfall sensor [2] within the blocks measured the rotational velocity and the acting accelerations during the tests. External video records and a so-called LocalPositioningSystem deliver information on the travel velocity. With these data not only the flight phases of the trajectories but also the contacts with the ground can be analysed. During the single jumps of a block the flight time, jump length, the velocity, and the rotation are known. During the single impacts their duration and the acting accelerations are visible. Further, the changes of rotational and translational velocity influence the next jump of the block. The change of the rotational velocity over the whole trajectory nicely visualizes the different phases of a rockfall regarding general acceleration and deceleration in respect to the inclination and the topography of the field. References: [1] Volkwein A, Krummenacher B, Gerber W, Lardon J, Gees F, Brügger L, Ott T (2015) Repeated controlled rockfall trajectory testing. [Abstract] Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17: EGU2015-9779. [2] Volkwein A, Klette J (2014) Semi-Automatic Determination of Rockfall Trajectories. Sensors 14: 18187-18210.

  13. OPAL 96 Blocks Lead Glass

    CERN Multimedia

    This array of 96 lead glass bricks formed part of the OPAL electromagnetic calorimeter. One half of the complete calorimeter is shown in the picture above. There were 9440 lead glass counters in the OPAL electromagnetic calorimeter. These are made of Schott type SF57 glass and each block weighs about 25 kg and consists of 76% PbO by weight. Each block has a Hamamatsu R2238 photomultiplier glued on to it. The complete detector was in the form of a cylinder 7m long and 6m in diameter. It was used to measure the energy of electrons and photons produced in LEP interactions.

  14. Cryptanalysis of Selected Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkhzaimi, Hoda A.

    architectures and frameworks. For a long time they were known as the main building block that will provide confidentiality in an information system. They would also be able to represent a full spectrum of cryptographic services as many block ciphers can be used to construct stream ciphers, hash functions...... PRINTcipher for a significant fraction of its keys. This new attack also gives us new insights into other, more well-established attacks. In addition, we also show that for weak keys, strongly biased linear approximations exists for any number of rounds. Furthermore, we provide variety of attacks...

  15. Indole-3-acetic acid-induced oxidative burst and an increase in cytosolic calcium ion concentration in rice suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hieu T H; Umemura, Kenji; Kawano, Tomonori

    2016-08-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the major natural auxin involved in the regulation of a variety of growth and developmental processes such as division, elongation, and polarity determination in growing plant cells. It has been shown that dividing and/or elongating plant cells accompanies the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a number of reports have suggested that hormonal actions can be mediated by ROS through ROS-mediated opening of ion channels. Here, we surveyed the link between the action of IAA, oxidative burst, and calcium channel activation in a transgenic cells of rice expressing aequorin in the cytosol. Application of IAA to the cells induced a rapid and transient generation of superoxide which was followed by a transient increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c). The IAA-induced [Ca(2+)]c elevation was inhibited by Ca(2+) channel blockers and a Ca(2+) chelator. Furthermore, ROS scavengers effectively blocked the action of IAA on [Ca(2+)]c elevation. PMID:27149194

  16. Lysophosphatidic acid induces reactive oxygen species generation by activating protein kinase C in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chu-Cheng; Lin, Chuan-En; Lin, Yueh-Chien [Institute of Zoology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ju, Tsai-Kai [Instrumentation Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Technology Commons, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Yuan-Li [Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Ming-Shyue [Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Jiun-Hong [Institute of Zoology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Life Science, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Hsinyu, E-mail: hsinyu@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Zoology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Life Science, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Center for Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Research Center for Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •LPA induces ROS generation through LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 3}. •LPA induces ROS generation by activating PLC. •PKCζ mediates LPA-induced ROS generation. -- Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in males, and PC-3 is a cell model popularly used for investigating the behavior of late stage prostate cancer. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lysophospholipid that mediates multiple behaviors in cancer cells, such as proliferation, migration and adhesion. We have previously demonstrated that LPA enhances vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C expression in PC-3 cells by activating the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is known to be an important mediator in cancer progression. Using flow cytometry, we showed that LPA triggers ROS generation within 10 min and that the generated ROS can be suppressed by pretreatment with the NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor diphenylene iodonium. In addition, transfection with LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 3} siRNA efficiently blocked LPA-induced ROS production, suggesting that both receptors are involved in this pathway. Using specific inhibitors and siRNA, phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) were also suggested to participate in LPA-induced ROS generation. Overall, we demonstrated that LPA induces ROS generation in PC-3 prostate cancer cells and this is mediated through the PLC/PKC/Nox pathway.

  17. Lysophosphatidic acid induces reactive oxygen species generation by activating protein kinase C in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •LPA induces ROS generation through LPA1 and LPA3. •LPA induces ROS generation by activating PLC. •PKCζ mediates LPA-induced ROS generation. -- Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in males, and PC-3 is a cell model popularly used for investigating the behavior of late stage prostate cancer. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lysophospholipid that mediates multiple behaviors in cancer cells, such as proliferation, migration and adhesion. We have previously demonstrated that LPA enhances vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C expression in PC-3 cells by activating the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is known to be an important mediator in cancer progression. Using flow cytometry, we showed that LPA triggers ROS generation within 10 min and that the generated ROS can be suppressed by pretreatment with the NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor diphenylene iodonium. In addition, transfection with LPA1 and LPA3 siRNA efficiently blocked LPA-induced ROS production, suggesting that both receptors are involved in this pathway. Using specific inhibitors and siRNA, phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) were also suggested to participate in LPA-induced ROS generation. Overall, we demonstrated that LPA induces ROS generation in PC-3 prostate cancer cells and this is mediated through the PLC/PKC/Nox pathway

  18. Building Blocks for Personal Brands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the four essential building blocks for personal brands: (1) name; (2) message; (3) channels; and (4) bridges. However, outstanding building materials can only take a person so far. The author emphasizes that vision, determination, faith, a sense of humor, and humility are also required.

  19. Scintigraphic visualization of 'Blocking' thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An important problem in nuclear endocrinology is 'blocking' of thyroid gland, which necessitates postpone of the investigation, adverse clinical effect of stopping medications and a delay of making diagnosis. The aim of the study was to introduce and to determine the clinical value of the scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI in patients (Pts) with 'blocked thyroid'. In 365 Pts (aged 38-75 years), indicated for a thyroid scintigraphy after proper preparation, an investigation was performed with 74 MBq 99mTc-pertechnetate, 20 min. p.i. In 14 of them (3.8%), the thyroid was 'blocked' and additional scintigraphy was done with 370-555 MBq 99mTc-MIBI, 15 and 120 min.p.i. It was estimated that in all Pts there was a visualization of thyroid. In 1 of them, a large 'hot' nodule was visualized in the early and late image. Later on a differentiated thyroid carcinoma was proved histologically. In the rest of the patients 'cold' nodules with different size were visualized, eventually as a result of cysts. As a conclusion we consider, that a scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI is a useful tool in Pts with 'blocked' thyroid. In addition an evaluation of the thyroid nodule could be done and therefore- a recommendation for therapy

  20. Building block filtering and mixing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemenade, C.H.M. van

    1998-01-01

    A three-stage evolutionary method, the BBF-GA is introduced. BBF-GA is an acronym for building block filtering genetic algorithm. During the first stage, an ensemble of fast evolutionary algorithms is used to explore the search space. The best individual found by each of these evolutionary algorithm

  1. Oxidative stress-driven mechanisms of nordihydroguaiaretic acid-induced apoptosis in FL5.12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), a general lipoxygenase (LOX) enzyme inhibitor, induces apoptosis independently of its activity as a LOX inhibitor in murine pro-B lymphocytes (FL.12 cells) by a mechanism that is still not fully understood. Glutathione depletion, oxidative processes and mitochondrial depolarization appear to contribute to the apoptosis induced by NDGA. The current data demonstrate that NDGA (20 μM)-induced apoptosis in FL5.12 cells is partially protected by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (10 mM) and dithiothreitol (DTT) (500 μM) pretreatment, confirming a role for oxidative processes. In addition, the treatment of FL5.12 cells with NDGA led to an increase in phosphorylation and activation of the MAP kinases ERK, JNK and p38. Although pretreatment with ERK inhibitors (PD98059 or U0126) abolished ERK phosphorylation in response to NDGA, neither inhibitor had any effect on NDGA-induced apoptosis. SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, did not have any effect on NDGA-induced phosphorylation of JNK nor apoptosis. Pretreatment with the p38 inhibitor SB202190 attenuated NDGA-induced apoptosis by 30% and also abolished p38 phosphorylation, compared to NDGA treatment alone. NAC, but not DTT, also decreased the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK supporting a role for oxidative processes in activating these kinases. Neither NAC nor DTT blocked the phosphorylation of ERK suggesting that this activation is not related to oxidative stress. The release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3 induced by NDGA were inhibited by NAC. SB202190 slightly attenuated caspase-3 activation and had no effect on the release of cytochrome c. These data suggest that several independent mechanisms, including oxidative reactions, activation of p38 kinase and cytochrome c release contribute to NDGA-induced apoptosis

  2. Nitric Oxide Mediates 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Induced Antioxidant Defense in Leaves of Elymus nutans Griseb. Exposed to Chilling Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Fu

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA are both extremely important signalling molecules employed by plants to control many aspects of physiology. In the present study, the role of NO in ALA-induced antioxidant defense in leaves of two sources of Elymus nutans Griseb. (Damxung, DX and Zhengdao, ZD was investigated. Chilling stress enhanced electrolyte leakage, accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and superoxide radical in two E. nutans, which were substantially alleviated by exogenous ALA and NO application. Pretreatment with NO scavenger PTIO or NOS inhibitor L-NNA alone and in combination with ALA induced enhancements in electrolyte leakage and the accumulation of MDA, H2O2 and superoxide radical in leaves of DX and ZD exposed to chilling stress, indicating that the inhibition of NO biosynthesis reduced the chilling resistance of E. nutans and the ALA-enhanced chilling resistance. Further analyses showed that ALA and NO enhanced antioxidant defense and activated plasma membrane (PM H+-ATPase and decreased the accumulation of ROS induced by chilling stress. A pronounced increase in nitric oxide synthase (NOS activity and NO release by exogenous ALA treatment was found in chilling-resistant DX plants exposed to chilling stress, while only a little increase was observed in chilling-sensitive ZD. Furthermore, inhibition of NO accumulation by PTIO or L-NNA blocked the protective effect of exogenous ALA, while both exogenous NO treatment and inhibition of endogenous NO accumulation did not induce ALA production. These results suggested that NO might be a downstream signal mediating ALA-induced chilling resistance in E. nutans.

  3. Free fatty acid-induced PP2A hyperactivity selectively impairs hepatic insulin action on glucose metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Galbo

    Full Text Available In type 2 Diabetes (T2D free fatty acids (FFAs in plasma are increased and hepatic insulin resistance is "selective", in the sense that the insulin-mediated decrease of glucose production is blunted while insulin's effect on stimulating lipogenesis is maintained. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathogenic paradox. Primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to palmitate for twenty hours. To establish the physiological relevance of the in vitro findings, we also studied insulin-resistant Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF rats. While insulin-receptor phosphorylation was unaffected, activation of Akt and inactivation of the downstream targets Glycogen synthase kinase 3α (Gsk3α and Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1 was inhibited in palmitate-exposed cells. Accordingly, dose-response curves for insulin-mediated suppression of the FoxO1-induced gluconeogenic genes and for de novo glucose production were right shifted, and insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis were impaired. In contrast, similar to findings in human T2D, the ability of insulin to induce triglyceride (TG accumulation and transcription of the enzymes that catalyze de novo lipogenesis and TG assembly was unaffected. Insulin-induction of these genes could, however, be blocked by inhibition of the atypical PKCs (aPKCs. The activity of the Akt-inactivating Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A was increased in the insulin-resistant cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PP2A by specific inhibitors increased insulin-stimulated activation of Akt and phosphorylation of FoxO1 and Gsk3α. Finally, PP2A mRNA levels were increased in liver, muscle and adipose tissue, while PP2A activity was increased in liver and muscle tissue in insulin-resistant ZDF rats. In conclusion, our findings indicate that FFAs may cause a selective impairment of insulin action upon hepatic glucose metabolism by increasing PP2A activity.

  4. Lysophosphatidic acid induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB in Panc-1 cells by mobilizing cytosolic free calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiyuki Arita; Tetsuhide Ito; Takamasa Pond; Ken Kawabe; Terumasa Hisano; Ryoichi Takayanagi

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To clarify whether Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) activates the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in pancreatic cancer.METHODS: Panc-1, a human pancreatic cancer cell line, was used throughout the study. The expression of LPA receptors was confirmed by reverse-transcript polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cytosolic free calcium was measured by fluorescent calcium indicator fura-2, and the localization of NF-κB was visualized by immunofluorescent method with or without various agents, which effect cell signaling.RESULTS: Panc-1 expressed LPA receptors, LPAA1,LPA2 and LPA3. LPA caused the elevation of cytosolic free calcium dose-dependently. LPA also caused the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Cytosolic free calcium was attenuated by pertussis toxin (PTX) and U73122,an inhibitor of phospholipase C. The translocation of NF-κB was similarly attenuated by PTX and U73122,but phorbol ester, an activator of protein kinase C,alone did not translocate NF-κB. Furthermore, the transtocation of NF-κB was completely blocked by Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM. Thapsigargin, an endoplasmic-reticulum Ca2+-ATPase pump inhibitor, also promoted the translocation of NF-κB. Staurosporine, a protein kinase C inhibitor, attenuated translocation of NF-κB induced by LPA.CONCLUSlON: These findings suggest that protein kinase C is activated endogenously in Panc-1, and protein kinase C is essential for activating NF-κB with cytosolic calcium and that LPA induces the nuclear translocation of NF-κB in Panc-1 by mobilizing cytosolic free calcium.

  5. Comparative Study of Domoic Acid and Okadaic Acid Induced - Chromosomal Abnormalities in the CACO-2 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond E. Creppy

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Okadaic Acid (OA the major diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP toxin is known as a tumor promoter and seems likely implicated in the genesis of digestive cancer. Little is known regarding genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of Domoic Acid (DA, the major Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP toxin. Both OA and DA occur in seafood and are of human health concerns. Micronuclei (MN arise from abnormalities in nuclear division during mitosis due to a failure of the mitotic spindle or by complex chromosomal configurations that pose problems during anaphase. In order to evaluate the ability of okadaic acid (OA and domoic acid (DA to induce DNA damage we performed the micronucleus assay using the Caco-2 cell line. To discriminate between a clastogenic or aneugenic effect of OA and DA, the micronucleus assay was conducted by cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay using cytochalasin B with Giemsa staining and/or acridine orange staining, in parallel to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using a concentrated human pan-centromeric chromosome paint probe. Our results showed that OA and DA significantly increased the frequency of MN in Caco-2 cells. The MN caused by OA are found in mononucleated cells and binucleated cells, whereas those caused by DA are mainly in binucleated cells. The results of FISH analysis showed that OA induced centromere-positive micronuclei and DA increased the percentage of MN without a centromeric signal. In conclusion, both OA and DA bear mutagenic potential as revealed in Caco-2 cells by induction of MN formation. Moreover, OA induced whole chromosome loss suggesting a specific aneugenic potential, whereas DA seems simply clastogenic. At present, one cannot rule out possible DNA damage of intestinal cells if concentrations studied are reached in vivo, since this may happen with concentrations of toxins just below regulatory limits in case of frequent consumption of contaminated shell fishes.

  6. The mechanism of gentisic acid-induced relaxation of the guinea pig isolated trachea: the role of potassium channels and vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Cunha

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined some of the mechanisms by which the aspirin metabolite and the naturally occurring metabolite gentisic acid induced relaxation of the guinea pig trachea in vitro. In preparations with or without epithelium and contracted by histamine, gentisic acid caused concentration-dependent and reproducible relaxation, with mean EC50 values of 18 µM and Emax of 100% (N = 10 or 20 µM and Emax of 92% (N = 10, respectively. The relaxation caused by gentisic acid was of slow onset in comparison to that caused by norepinephrine, theophylline or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP. The relative rank order of potency was: salbutamol 7.9 > VIP 7.0 > gentisic acid 4.7 > theophylline 3.7. Gentisic acid-induced relaxation was markedly reduced (24 ± 7.0, 43 ± 3.9 and 78 ± 5.6% in preparations with elevated potassium concentration in the medium (20, 40 or 80 mM, respectively. Tetraethylammonium (100 µM, a nonselective blocker of the potassium channels, partially inhibited the relaxation response to gentisic acid, while 4-AP (10 µM, a blocker of the voltage potassium channel, inhibited gentisic acid-induced relaxation by 41 ± 12%. Glibenclamide (1 or 3 µM, at a concentration which markedly inhibited the relaxation induced by the opener of ATP-sensitive K+ channels, levcromakalim, had no effect on the relaxation induced by gentisic acid. Charybdotoxin (0.1 or 0.3 µM, a selective blocker of the large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, caused rightward shifts (6- and 7-fold of the gentisic acid concentration-relaxation curve. L-N G-nitroarginine (100 µM, a NO synthase inhibitor, had no effect on the relaxant effect of gentisic acid, and caused a slight displacement to the right in the relaxant effect of the gentisic acid curve at 300 µM, while methylene blue (10 or 30 µM or ODQ (1 µM, the inhibitors of soluble guanylate cyclase, all failed to affect gentisic acid-induced relaxation. D-P-Cl-Phe6,Leu17[VIP] (0.1 µM, a VIP receptor antagonist

  7. Innovative masonry blocks for partition walls

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Graça; Poletti, Elisa; Medeiros, Pedro; Mendonça, Paulo; Carvalho, Pedro; Cunha, Sandra Raquel Leite; Camões, Aires; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper intends to propose a non structural system of partition walls with monolithic blocks based on a composite material resulting from an admixture of cork and textile fibers combined with a non cement binder, gypsum. These blocks consist of two half blocks which have to be connected during laying process. The developed blocks were first tested under compressive and flexural loading in order to derive their mechanical behaviour. Different curing conditions were applied to the blocks dur...

  8. Endoscopic sphenopalatine ganglion block for pain relief

    OpenAIRE

    Murty, P. S. N.; Prasanna, Atma

    1998-01-01

    The anaesthetic effect of the sphenopalatine (SPG) block has been well utilized for intranasal topical anaesthesia but the analgesic efficacy of (SPG) block, though well documented in literature, has not been put into practice. The methods available for SPG block till date were blind as they do not visualize the foramen. Nasal endoscopies have been used to visualize the foramen for an effective block. The authors present their experience with the endoscopic sphenopalatine ganglion block for p...

  9. Block Algorithms for Quark Propagator Calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Pickles, Stephen M.; Collaboration, UKQCD

    1997-01-01

    Computing quark propagators in lattice QCD is equivalent to solving large, sparse linear systems with multiple right-hand sides. Block algorithms attempt to accelerate the convergence of iterative Krylov-subspace methods by solving the multiple systems simultaneously. This paper compares a block generalisation of the quasi-minimal residual method (QMR), Block Conjugate Gradient on the normal equation, Block Lanczos and ($\\gamma_5$-symmetric) Block BiConjugate Gradient.

  10. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Gelsolin in Acetic Acid Induced Writhing, Tail Immersion and Carrageenan Induced Paw Edema in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Gupta

    Full Text Available Plasma gelsolin levels significantly decline in several disease conditions, since gelsolin gets scavenged when it depolymerizes and caps filamentous actin released in the circulation following tissue injury. It is well established that our body require/implement inflammatory and analgesic responses to protect against cell damage and injury to the tissue. This study was envisaged to examine analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of exogenous gelsolin (8 mg/mouse in mice models of pain and acute inflammation. Administration of gelsolin in acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests not only demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhing effects, but also exhibited an analgesic activity in tail immersion test in mice as compared to placebo treated mice. Additionally, anti-inflammatory function of gelsolin (8 mg/mouse compared with anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg] was confirmed in the carrageenan injection induced paw edema where latter was measured by vernier caliper and fluorescent tomography imaging. Interestingly, results showed that plasma gelsolin was capable of reducing severity of inflammation in mice comparable to diclofenac sodium. Analysis of cytokines and histopathological examinations of tissue revealed administration of gelsolin and diclofenac sodium significantly reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6. Additionally, carrageenan groups pretreated with diclofenac sodium or gelsolin showed a marked decrease in edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in paw tissue. Our study provides evidence that administration of gelsolin can effectively reduce the pain and inflammation in mice model.

  11. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Gelsolin in Acetic Acid Induced Writhing, Tail Immersion and Carrageenan Induced Paw Edema in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Parasar, Devraj; Sagar, Amin; Choudhary, Vikas; Chopra, Bhupinder Singh; Garg, Renu; Ashish; Khatri, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Plasma gelsolin levels significantly decline in several disease conditions, since gelsolin gets scavenged when it depolymerizes and caps filamentous actin released in the circulation following tissue injury. It is well established that our body require/implement inflammatory and analgesic responses to protect against cell damage and injury to the tissue. This study was envisaged to examine analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of exogenous gelsolin (8 mg/mouse) in mice models of pain and acute inflammation. Administration of gelsolin in acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests not only demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhing effects, but also exhibited an analgesic activity in tail immersion test in mice as compared to placebo treated mice. Additionally, anti-inflammatory function of gelsolin (8 mg/mouse) compared with anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg)] was confirmed in the carrageenan injection induced paw edema where latter was measured by vernier caliper and fluorescent tomography imaging. Interestingly, results showed that plasma gelsolin was capable of reducing severity of inflammation in mice comparable to diclofenac sodium. Analysis of cytokines and histo-pathological examinations of tissue revealed administration of gelsolin and diclofenac sodium significantly reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6. Additionally, carrageenan groups pretreated with diclofenac sodium or gelsolin showed a marked decrease in edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in paw tissue. Our study provides evidence that administration of gelsolin can effectively reduce the pain and inflammation in mice model. PMID:26426535

  12. Deoxycholic acid induces the overexpression of intestinal mucin, MUC2, via NF-kB signaling pathway in human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucin alterations are a common feature of esophageal neoplasia, and alterations in MUC2 mucin have been associated with tumor progression in the esophagus. Bile acids have been linked to esophageal adenocarcinoma and mucin secretion, but their effects on mucin gene expression in human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells is unknown. Human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells were treated 18 hours with 50–300 μM deoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, or taurocholic acid. MUC2 transcription was assayed using a MUC2 promoter reporter luciferase construct and MUC2 protein was assayed by Western blot analysis. Transcription Nuclear factor-κB activity was measured using a Nuclear factor-κB reporter construct and confirmed by Western blot analysis for Nuclear factor-κB p65. MUC2 transcription and MUC2 protein expression were increased four to five fold by bile acids in a time and dose-dependent manner with no effect on cell viability. Nuclear factor-κB activity was also increased. Treatment with the putative chemopreventive agent aspirin, which decreased Nuclear factor-κB activity, also decreased MUC2 transcription. Nuclear factor-κB p65 siRNA decreased MUC2 transcription, confirming the significance of Nuclear factor-κB in MUC2 induction by deoxycholic acid. Calphostin C, a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), greatly decreased bile acid induced MUC2 transcription and Nuclear factor-κB activity, whereas inhibitors of MAP kinase had no effect. Deoxycholic acid induced MUC2 overexpression in human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells by activation of Nuclear factor-κB transcription through a process involving PKC-dependent but not PKA, independent of activation of MAP kinase

  13. Chemometrics-assisted Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Two Co-administered Drugs of Major Interaction, Methotrexate and Aspirin, in Human Urine Following Acid-induced Hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Hadir M; Ragab, Marwa A A; El-Kimary, Eman I

    2015-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA), mostly along with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the most common of which is aspirin or acetyl salicylic acid (ASA). Since NSAIDs impair MTX clearance and increase its toxicity, it was necessary to develop a simple and reliable method for the monitoring of MTX levels in urine samples, when coadministered with ASA. The method was based on the spectrofluorimetric measurement of the acid-induced hydrolysis product of MTX, 4-amino-4-deoxy-10-methylpteroic acid (AMP), along with the strongly fluorescent salicylic acid (SA), a product of acid-induced hydrolysis of aspirin and its metabolites in urine. The overlapping emission spectra were resolved using the derivative method (D method). In addition, the corresponding derivative emission spectra were convoluted using discrete Fourier functions, 8-points sin xi polynomials, (D/FF method) for better elimination of interferences. Validation of the developed methods was carried out according to the ICH guidelines. Moreover, the data obtained using derivative and convoluted derivative spectra were treated using the non-parametric Theil's method (NP), compared with the least-squares parametric regression method (LSP). The results treated with Theil's method were more accurate and precise compared with LSP since the former is less affected by the outliers. This work offers the potential of both derivative and convolution using discrete Fourier functions in addition to the effectiveness of using the NP regression analysis of data. The high sensitivity obtained by the proposed methods was promising for measuring low concentration levels of the two drugs in urine samples. These methods were efficiently used to measure the drugs in human urine samples following their co-administration. PMID:26234512

  14. Cutaneous Sensory Block Area, Muscle-Relaxing Effect, and Block Duration of the Transversus Abdominis Plane Block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, Kion; Rothe, Christian; Rosenstock, Charlotte V;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a widely used nerve block. However, basic block characteristics are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to assess the cutaneous sensory block area, muscle-relaxing effect, and block duration. METHODS: Sixteen...... healthy volunteers were randomized to receive an ultrasound-guided unilateral TAP block with 20 mL 7.5 mg/mL ropivacaine and placebo on the contralateral side. Measurements were performed at baseline and 90 minutes after performing the block. Cutaneous sensory block area was mapped and separated into a...... medial and lateral part by a vertical line through the anterior superior iliac spine. We measured muscle thickness of the 3 lateral abdominal muscle layers with ultrasound in the relaxed state and during maximal voluntary muscle contraction. The volunteers reported the duration of the sensory block and...

  15. Limiting Spectral Distribution of Block Matrices with Toeplitz Block Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Riddhipratim; Ganguly, Shirshendu; Hazra, Rajat Subhra

    2011-01-01

    We study two specific symmetric random block Toeplitz (of dimension $k \\times k$) matrices: where the blocks (of size $n \\times n$) are (i) matrices with i.i.d. entries, and (ii) asymmetric Toeplitz matrices. Under suitable assumptions on the entries, their limiting spectral distributions (LSDs) exist (after scaling by $\\sqrt{nk}$) when (a) $k$ is fixed and $n \\to\\infty$ (b) $n$ is fixed and $k\\rightarrow \\infty$ (c) $n$ and $k$ go to $\\infty$ simultaneously. Further the LSD's obtained in (a) and (b) coincide with those in (c) when $n$ or respectively $k$ tends to infinity. This limit in (c) is the semicircle law in case (i). In Case (ii) the limit is related to the limit of the random symmetric Toepiltz matrix as obtained by Bryc et al.(2006) and Hammond and Miller(2005).

  16. On the Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Block Triangular Preconditioned Block Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Block lower triangular matrices and block upper triangular matrices are popular preconditioners for 2×2 block matrices. In this note we show that a block lower triangular preconditioner gives the same spectrum as a block upper triangular preconditioner and that the eigenvectors of the two preconditioned matrices are related. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  17. Emplacement of small and large buffer blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes emplacement of a buffer structure encircling a spent fuel canister to be deposited in a vertical hole. The report deals with installability of various size blocks and with an emplacement gear, as well as evaluates the achieved quality of emplacement and the time needed for installing the buffer. Two block assembly of unequal size were chosen for examination. A first option involved small blocks, the use of which resulted in a buffer structure consisting of small sector blocks 200 mm in height. A second option involved large blocks, resulting in a buffer structure which consists of eight blocks. In these tests, the material chosen for both block options was concrete instead of bentonite. The emplacement test was a three-phase process. A first phase included stacking a two meter high buffer structure with small blocks for ensuring the operation of test equipment and blocks. A second phase included installing buffer structures with both block options to a height matching that of a canister-encircling cylindrical component. A third phase included testing also the installability of blocks to be placed above the canister by using small blocks. In emplacement tests, special attention was paid to the installability of blocks as well as to the time required for emplacement. Lifters for both blocks worked well. Due to the mass to be lifted, the lifter for large blocks had a more heavy-duty frame structure (and other lifting gear). The employed lifters were suspended in the tests on a single steel wire rope. Stacking was managed with both block sizes at adequate precision and stacked-up towers were steady. The stacking of large blocks was considerably faster. Therefore it is probably that the overall handling of the large blocks will be more convenient at a final disposal site. From the standpoint of reliability in lifting, the small blocks were safer to install above the canister. In large blocks, there are strict shape-related requirements which are

  18. Compact planar microwave blocking filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A compact planar microwave blocking filter includes a dielectric substrate and a plurality of filter unit elements disposed on the substrate. The filter unit elements are interconnected in a symmetrical series cascade with filter unit elements being organized in the series based on physical size. In the filter, a first filter unit element of the plurality of filter unit elements includes a low impedance open-ended line configured to reduce the shunt capacitance of the filter.

  19. Multi-level block permutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Anderson M; Webster, Matthew A; Vidaurre, Diego; Nichols, Thomas E; Smith, Stephen M

    2015-12-01

    Under weak and reasonable assumptions, mainly that data are exchangeable under the null hypothesis, permutation tests can provide exact control of false positives and allow the use of various non-standard statistics. There are, however, various common examples in which global exchangeability can be violated, including paired tests, tests that involve repeated measurements, tests in which subjects are relatives (members of pedigrees) - any dataset with known dependence among observations. In these cases, some permutations, if performed, would create data that would not possess the original dependence structure, and thus, should not be used to construct the reference (null) distribution. To allow permutation inference in such cases, we test the null hypothesis using only a subset of all otherwise possible permutations, i.e., using only the rearrangements of the data that respect exchangeability, thus retaining the original joint distribution unaltered. In a previous study, we defined exchangeability for blocks of data, as opposed to each datum individually, then allowing permutations to happen within block, or the blocks as a whole to be permuted. Here we extend that notion to allow blocks to be nested, in a hierarchical, multi-level definition. We do not explicitly model the degree of dependence between observations, only the lack of independence; the dependence is implicitly accounted for by the hierarchy and by the permutation scheme. The strategy is compatible with heteroscedasticity and variance groups, and can be used with permutations, sign flippings, or both combined. We evaluate the method for various dependence structures, apply it to real data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) as an example application, show that false positives can be avoided in such cases, and provide a software implementation of the proposed approach. PMID:26074200

  20. A conformal block Farey tail

    CERN Document Server

    Maloney, Alexander; Ng, Gim Seng

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the constraints of crossing symmetry on CFT correlation functions. Four point conformal blocks are naturally viewed as functions on the upper-half plane, on which crossing symmetry acts by PSL(2,Z) modular transformations. This allows us to construct a unique, crossing symmetric function out of a given conformal block by averaging over PSL(2,Z). In some two dimensional CFTs the correlation functions are precisely equal to the modular average of the contributions of a finite number of light states. For example, in the two dimensional Ising and tri-critical Ising model CFTs, the correlation functions of identical operators are equal to the PSL(2,Z) average of the Virasoro vacuum block; this determines the 3 point function coefficients uniquely in terms of the central charge. The sum over PSL(2,Z) in CFT2 has a natural AdS3 interpretation as a sum over semi-classical saddle points, which describe particles propagating along rational tangles in the bulk. We demonstrate this explicitly for the corre...

  1. Interfaces between Block Copolymer Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeup; Jeong, Seong-Jun; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2011-03-01

    Block copolymers naturally form nanometer scale structures which repeat their geometry on a larger scale. Such a small scale periodic pattern can be used for various applications such as storage media, nano-circuits and optical filters. However, perfect alignment of block copolymer domains in the macroscopic scale is still a distant dream. The nanostructure formation usually occurs with spontaneously broken symmetry; hence it is easily infected by topological defects which sneak in due to entropic fluctuation and incomplete annealing. Careful annealing can gradually reduce the number of defects, but once kinetically trapped, it is extremely difficult to remove all the defects. One of the main reasons is that the defect finds a locally metastable morphology whose potential depth is large enough to prohibit further morphology evolution. In this work, the domain boundaries between differently oriented lamellar structures in thin film are studied. For the first time, it became possible to quantitatively study the block copolymer morphology in the transitional region, and it was shown that the twisted grain boundary is energetically favorable compared to the T-junction grain boundary. [Nano Letters, 9, 2300 (2010)]. This theoretical method successfully explained the experimental results.

  2. [THE TECHNOLOGY "CELL BLOCK" IN CYTOLOGICAL PRACTICE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchenko, N N; Borisova, O V; Baranova, I B

    2015-08-01

    The article presents summary information concerning application of "cell block" technology in cytological practice. The possibilities of implementation of various modern techniques (immune cytochemnical analysis. FISH, CISH, polymerase chain reaction) with application of "cell block" method are demonstrated. The original results of study of "cell block" technology made with gelatin, AgarCyto and Shadon Cyoblock set are presented. The diagnostic effectiveness of "cell block" technology and common cytological smear and also immune cytochemical analysis on samples of "cell block" technology and fluid cytology were compared. Actually application of "cell block" technology is necessary for ensuring preservation of cell elements for subsequent immune cytochemical and molecular genetic analysis. PMID:26596046

  3. Some new construction methods of variance balanced block designs with repeated blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Ceranka, Bronisław; Graczyk, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Some new construction methods of the variance balanced block designs with repeated blocks are given. They are based on the specialized product of incidence matrices of the balanced incomplete block designs.

  4. Using Quilt Blocks to Construct Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westegaard, Susanne K.

    2008-01-01

    The article documents student experiences with quilt blocks in a mathematics classroom. Using blocks as tools, students construct their understanding of perimeter, area, probability, and transformations. (Contains 9 figures.)

  5. Multigrid Methods for General Block Toeplitz Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Huckle; Jochen Staudacher

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss multigrid methods for symmetric positive definite Block Toeplitz matrices. Our Block Toeplitz systems are general in the sense that the individual blocks are not necessarily Toeplitz. We investigate how transfer operators for prolongation and restriction have to be chosen such that our multigrid algorithms converge quickly. We will point out why these transfer operators can be understood as block matrices as well. We explain how our new algorithms can also be combined...

  6. Increased expression of retinoic acid-induced gene 1 in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haybaeck J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Johannes Haybaeck,1 Magdalena Postruznik,1 Christine L Miller,2 Jeannette R Dulay,3 Ida C Llenos,3,4 Serge Weis3,4 1Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Pathology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria; 2Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 3Laboratory of Brain Research and Neuropathology, Departments of Psychiatry and Pathology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, and Stanley Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA; 4Laboratory of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Neuropathology, State Neuropsychiatric Hospital Wagner-Jauregg, Medical School, Johannes Kepler University, Linz, Austria Background: Retinoids regulate gene expression in different cells and tissues at the transcriptional level. Retinoic acid transcriptionally regulates downstream regulatory molecules, including enzymes, transcription factors, cytokines, and cytokine receptors. Animal models indicate an involvement of retinoid signaling pathways in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and learning, especially in the hippocampus. Retinoic acid-inducible or induced gene 1 (RAI-1 is induced during neuronal differentiation, and was associated with the severity of the phenotype and response to medication in schizophrenic patients. Methods: In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the expression of RAI-1 in 60 brains from the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium (15 cases each from controls and from patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression. Rating scores for density and intensity were determined in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Results: All four groups showed high interindividual variation. RAI-1-positive cells were identified as neurons and astrocytes. Significantly increased intensities in cortical neurons were noted in all three major psychiatric groups compared with controls. The density of RAI-1-positive neurons was increased (P=0.06 in schizophrenia and bipolar

  7. Bullet-Block Science Video Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakur, Asif

    2015-01-01

    A science video blog, which has gone viral, shows a wooden block shot by a vertically aimed rifle. The video shows that the block hit dead center goes exactly as high as the one shot off-center. (Fig. 1). The puzzle is that the block shot off-center carries rotational kinetic energy in addition to the gravitational potential energy. This leads a…

  8. New Considerations of Turbo Block Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUEDianwu; EdSHWEDYK

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that (1) a general linear systematic block code can be expressed as a turbo block code and therefore can be decoded using any turbo decoding algorithm; (2) a turbo block code can be also encoded and decoded without any interleaver with the same performance as when an interleaver is present.

  9. 31 CFR 500.319 - Blocked account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account. 500.319 Section 500... § 500.319 Blocked account. The term blocked account shall mean an account in which any designated national has an interest, with respect to which account payments, transfers or withdrawals of...

  10. 31 CFR 515.319 - Blocked account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocked account. 515.319 Section 515... § 515.319 Blocked account. The term blocked account shall mean an account in which any designated national has an interest, with respect to which account payments, transfers or withdrawals or...

  11. Practical Binary Adaptive Block Coder

    CERN Document Server

    Reznik, Yuriy A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes design of a low-complexity algorithm for adaptive encoding/ decoding of binary sequences produced by memoryless sources. The algorithm implements universal block codes constructed for a set of contexts identified by the numbers of non-zero bits in previous bits in a sequence. We derive a precise formula for asymptotic redundancy of such codes, which refines previous well-known estimate by Krichevsky and Trofimov, and provide experimental verification of this result. In our experimental study we also compare our implementation with existing binary adaptive encoders, such as JBIG's Q-coder, and MPEG AVC (ITU-T H.264)'s CABAC algorithms.

  12. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  13. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  14. Thyroid blocking after nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl accident a marked increase in thyroid cancer incidence among the children in Belarus, the Ukraine and Russia has been detected, strongly suggesting a causal relationship to the large amounts of radioactive iodine isotopes in the resulting fallout. Taking into account the Chernobyl experience the German Committee on Radiation Protection decided to reduce the intervention levels on the basis of the 1989 WHO recommendations and adopted a new concept concerning thyroid blocking in response to nuclear power plant accidents. Experimental animal studies and theoretical considerations show that thyroid blocking with potassium iodide (KI) in a dose of about 1.4 mg per kg body weight is most effective in reducing irradiation to the thyroid from the intake of radioiodine nuclides, provided KI is given within 2 hours after exposure. According to the new concept, persons over 45 years of age should not take iodine tablets because the drug could cause a greater health risk due to prevalent functional thyroid autonomy in this age group than the radioactive iodine averted by KI. On the basis of accident analysis and the new philosophy suitable distribution strategies and logistics are proposed and discussed. (orig.)

  15. Seismicity of the Jalisco Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Rutz, M.; Camarena-Garcia, M.; Trejo-Gomez, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.

    2002-12-01

    In April 2002 began to transmit the stations of the first phase of Jalisco Telemetric Network located at the northwest of Jalisco Block and at the area of Volcan de Fuego (Colima Volcano), in June were deployed four additional MarsLite portable stations in the Bahia de Banderas area, and by the end of August one more portable station at Ceboruco Volcano. The data of these stations jointly with the data from RESCO (Colima Telemetric Network) give us the minimum seismic stations coverage to initiate in a systematic and permanent way the study of the seismicity in this very complex tectonic region. A preliminary analysis of seismicity based on the events registered by the networks using a shutter algorithm, confirms several important features proposed by microseismicity studies carried out between 1996 and 1998. A high level of seismicity inside and below of Rivera plate is observed, this fact suggest a very complex stress pattern acting on this plate. Shallow seismicity at south and east of Bahia de Banderas also suggest a complex stress pattern in this region of the Jalisco Block, events at more than 30 km depth are located under the mouth of the bay and in face of it, a feature denominated Banderas Boundary mark the change of the seismic regime at north of this latitude (20.75°N), however some shallow events were located at the region of Nayarit.

  16. Ganglion block. When and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing understanding of the anatomy and physiology of neural structures has led to the development of surgical and percutaneous neurodestructive methods in order to target and destroy various components of afferent nociceptive pathways. The dorsal root ganglia and in particular the ganglia of the autonomous nervous system are targets for radiological interventions. The autonomous nervous system is responsible for the regulation of organ functions, sweating, visceral and blood vessel-associated pain. Ganglia of the sympathetic chain and non-myelinized autonomous nerves can be irreversibly destroyed by chemical and thermal ablation. Computed tomography (CT)-guided sympathetic nerve blocks are well established interventional radiological procedures which lead to vasodilatation, reduction of sweating and reduction of pain associated with the autonomous nervous system. Sympathetic blocks are applied for the treatment of various vascular diseases including critical limb ischemia. Other indications for thoracic and lumbar sympathectomy include complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), chronic tumor associated pain and hyperhidrosis. Neurolysis of the celiac plexus is an effective palliative pain treatment particularly in patients suffering from pancreatic cancer. Percutaneous dorsal root ganglion rhizotomy can be performed in selected patients with radicular pain that is resistant to conventional pharmacological and interventional treatment. (orig.)

  17. Evidence for genetic regulation of mRNA expression of the dosage-sensitive gene retinoic acid induced-1 (RAI1) in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Tao, Yu; Song, Fan; Yuan, Xi; Wang, Jian; Saffen, David

    2016-01-01

    RAI1 (retinoic acid induced-1) is a dosage-sensitive gene that causes Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) when mutated or deleted and Potocki-Lupski Syndrome (PTLS) when duplicated, with psychiatric features commonly observed in both syndromes. How common genetic variants regulate this gene, however, is unknown. In this study, we found that RAI1 mRNA expression in Chinese prefrontal and temporal cortex correlate with genotypes of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the RAI1 5'-upstream region. Using genotype imputation, "R(2)-Δ(2)" analysis, and data from the RegulomeDB database, we identified SNPs rs4925102 and rs9907986 as possible regulatory variants, accounting for approximately 30-40% of the variance in RAI1 mRNA expression in both brain regions. Specifically, rs4925102 and rs9907986 are predicted to disrupt the binding of retinoic acid RXR-RAR receptors and the transcription factor DEAF1 (Deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1), respectively. Consistent with these predictions, we observed binding of RXRα and RARα to the predicted RAI1 target in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Retinoic acid is crucial for early development of the central neural system, and DEAF1 is associated with intellectual disability. The observation that a significant portion of RAI1 mRNA expression is genetically controlled raises the possibility that common RAI1 5'-region regulatory variants contribute more generally to psychiatric disorders. PMID:26743651

  18. Effect of dietary fibers on cholic acid induced cell proliferation in the colonic epithelium of C57BL/6J mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been postulated that high fat diets promote tumorigenesis by increasing the level of secondary bile acids in the colonic lumen. Dietary fibers are thought to be protective perhaps through their interaction with bile acids. In the present study, animals were fed diets containing either 0%, 5%, or 10% cellulose (C), pectin (P), or wheat bran (WB). The diets were formulated to contain either 0% (control) or 0.2% cholic acid (test). After two weeks of dietary treatment the animals were injected with [3H]-thymidine and their colons were processed for autoradiography. The number of labeled cells (LC) in the colonic crypts was determined. Among the control diets, 10%P induced a two-fold increase in the LC. All the test groups had significantly higher LC than in their controls. However, the C group excited a higher LC than the P or WB groups (5.2 +/- 0.8 vs 3.9 +/- 0.8 or 3.9 +/- 0.6). These results were substantiated by metaphase arrest technique. The authors results show that nonfermentable fiber does not alleviate bile acid induced cell proliferative activity in the colon whereas fermentable fibers will counteract the promotional effect of a high fat diet

  19. Alkali- or acid-induced changes in structure, moisture absorption ability and deacetylating reaction of β-chitin extracted from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jooyeoun; Zhao, Yanyun

    2014-01-01

    Alkali- or acid-induced structural modifications in β-chitin from squid (Dosidicus gigas, d'Orbigny, 1835) pens and their moisture absorption ability (MAA) and deacetylating reaction were investigated and compared with α-chitin from shrimp shells. β-Chitin was converted into the α-form after 3h in 40% NaOH or 1-3 h in 40% HCl solution, and α-chitin obtained from NaOH treatment had higher MAA than had native α-chitin, due to polymorphic destructions. In contrast, induced α-chitin from acid treatment of β-chitin had few polymorphic modifications, showing no significant change (P>0.05) in MAA. β-Chitin was more susceptible to alkali deacetylation than was α-chitin, and required a lower concentration of NaOH and shorter reaction time. These results demonstrate that alkali- or acid-treated β-chitin retained high susceptibility toward solvents, which in turn resulted in good biological activity of β-chitosan for use as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial substance or application as edible coatings and films for various food applications. PMID:24444948

  20. MicroRNA-31 negatively regulates peripherally derived regulatory T-cell generation by repressing retinoic acid-inducible protein 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingyun; Ke, Fang; Liu, Zhaoyuan; Bai, Jing; Liu, Jinlin; Yan, Sha; Xu, Zhenyao; Lou, Fangzhou; Wang, Hong; Zhu, Huiyuan; Sun, Yang; Cai, Wei; Gao, Yuanyuan; Li, Qun; Yu, Xue-Zhong; Qian, Youcun; Hua, Zichun; Deng, Jiong; Li, Qi-Jing; Wang, Honglin

    2015-01-01

    Peripherally derived regulatory T (pT(reg)) cell generation requires T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling and the cytokines TGF-β1 and IL-2. Here we show that TCR signalling induces the microRNA miR-31, which negatively regulates pT(reg)-cell generation. miR-31 conditional deletion results in enhanced induction of pT(reg) cells, and decreased severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Unexpectedly, we identify Gprc5a as a direct target of miR-31. Gprc5a is known as retinoic acid-inducible protein 3, and its deficiency leads to impaired pT(reg-)cell induction and increased EAE severity. By generating miR-31 and Gprc5a double knockout mice, we show that miR-31 promotes the development of EAE through inhibiting Gprc5a. Thus, our data identify miR-31 and its target Gprc5a as critical regulators for pT(reg)-cell generation, suggesting a previously unrecognized epigenetic mechanism for dysfunctional T(reg) cells in autoimmune diseases. PMID:26165721

  1. microRNA-34a-Upregulated Retinoic Acid-Inducible Gene-I Promotes Apoptosis and Delays Cell Cycle Transition in Cervical Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Hua; Zhang, Le; Ma, Yu-Wei; Xiao, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Min; Tang, Hua

    2016-06-01

    The function of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) in viral replication is well documented, but its function in carcinogenesis and malignancies as well as relationship with microRNAs (miRNAs) remain poorly understood. miR-34a is an antioncogene in multiple tumors. In our study, RIG-I and miR-34a suppressed cell growth, proliferation, migration, and invasion in cervical cancer cells in vitro. miR-34a was validated as a new regulator of RIG-I by binding to its 3' untranslated region and upregulating its expression level. Furthermore, we revealed that RIG-I and miR-34a enhanced apoptosis, delayed the G1/S/G2 transition of the cell cycle, and inhibited the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process to modulate malignancies in cervical cancer cells. Phenotypic rescue experiments indicated that RIG-I mediates the effects of miR-34a in HeLa and C33A cells. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms that underlie carcinogenesis and may provide new biomarkers for the diagnosis and therapy of cervical cancer. PMID:26910120

  2. Prednisolone-appended alpha-cyclodextrin: alleviation of systemic adverse effect of prednisolone after intracolonic administration in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, H; Hirayama, F; Arima, H; Uekama, K

    2001-12-01

    The titled compound is a cyclodextrin derivative in which prednisolone 21-succinate (PDsuc) is covalently bound to one of the secondary hydroxyl groups of alpha-cyclodextrin (alpha-CyD) via an ester linkage. In this study, the PDsuc-appended alpha-CyD ester conjugate (PDsuc/alpha-CyD conjugate) was intracolonically administered to rats with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzensulfonic acid-induced colitis, and its antiinflammatory and systemic adverse effects were compared with those of prednisolone (PD) alone and the PD/2-hydroxypropyl-beta-CyD complex (PD/HP-beta-CyD complex), which is a noncovalent inclusion complex. Colonic damage score, ratio of distal colon wet weight to body weight, and myeloperoxidase activity were evaluated as measures of the therapeutic effect of PD, whereas the ratio of thymus wet weight to body weight was evaluated as a measure of the side effect of PD. The local antiinflammatory activity increased in the order of PD alone approximately PDsuc/alpha-CyD conjugate keeps the local concentration in the colon at a low but constant level. The results suggest that the PDsuc/alpha-CyD conjugate can alleviate the systemic adverse effect of PD while maintaining the therapeutic activity of PD. This kind of knowledge will be useful in the rational design of steroid prodrugs for the colon-specific drug delivery system. PMID:11745769

  3. Self-assembly of block copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenori Otsuka

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Block copolymers in a selective solvent have a tendency to self-assemble at surfaces and into micelles1–4. At an aqueous interface, the amphiphilic property of block copolymers composed of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments can cause the distal end of the hydrophilic chain to extend into the bulk aqueous solution, anchoring the hydrophilic block to the substrate surface through hydrophobic segments1, 2. In an aqueous solution, micelles with core-shell structure are formed by the segregation of insoluble blocks into the core, which is surrounded by a hydrophilic shell composed of hydrophilic blocks3, 4. This interfacial activity of amphiphilic block copolymers provides their utility in the biomedical field as colloidal dispersants, surface modifiers and drug carriers, prompting many studies of block copolymer adsorption on solid surfaces5, 6, 7, 8, force measurements between tethered layers9, 10, 11 and the characterization of micelle properties12, 13, 14.

  4. General Floorplans with L/T-Shaped Blocks Using Corner Block List

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Chun Ma; Xian-Long Hong; She-Qin Dong; C.K.Cheng; Jun Gu

    2006-01-01

    With the recent advent of deep submicron technology and new packing schemes, the components in the integrated circuit are often not rectangular. On the basis of the representation of Corner Block List (CBL), we propose a new method of handling rectilinear blocks. In this paper, the handling of the rectilinear blocks is simplified by transforming the L/T-shaped block problem into the align-abutment constraint problem. We devise the block rejoining process and block alignment operation for forming the L/T-shaped blocks into their original configurations. The shape flexibility of the soft blocks, and the rotation and reflection of L/T-shaped blocks are exploited to obtain a tight packing. The empty rooms are introduced to the process of block rejoining. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by the experimental results on a set of some benchmark examples.

  5. Continuous-time block-monotone Markov chains and their block-augmented truncations

    OpenAIRE

    Masuyama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers continuous-time block-monotone Markov chains (BMMCs) and their block-augmented truncations. We first introduce the block-monotonicity and block-wise dominance relation for continuous-time Markov chains and then provide some fundamental results on the two notions. Using these results, we show that the stationary probability vectors obtained by the block-augmented truncation converge to the stationary probability vector of the original BMMC. We also show that the last-colum...

  6. Computing eigenvectors of block tridiagonal matrices based on twisted block factorizations

    OpenAIRE

    König, Gerhard; Moldaschl, Michael; Gansterer, Wilfried N.

    2012-01-01

    New methods for computing eigenvectors of symmetric block tridiagonal matrices based on twisted block factorizations are explored. The relation of the block where two twisted factorizations meet to an eigenvector of the block tridiagonal matrix is reviewed. Based on this, several new algorithmic strategies for computing the eigenvector efficiently are motivated and designed. The underlying idea is to determine a good starting vector for an inverse iteration process from the twisted block fact...

  7. A comparison between caudal block versus splash block for postoperative analgesia following inguinal herniorrhaphy in children

    OpenAIRE

    Cheon, Jun Kong; Park, Cheon Hee; Hwang, Kan Taeck; Choi, Bo Yoon

    2011-01-01

    Background We wanted to determine the postoperative analgesic efficacy of preincisional caudal epidural block versus instillation (splash block) following inguinal herniorrhaphy in children. Methods Thirty children (age range: 1-7 years) who were scheduled to undergo inguinal herniorrhaphy were divided into 2 groups: the caudal block group and the splash block group with 15 children in each group. Tracheal intubation was performed. Fifteen children received caudal block with 1.0 ml/kg of 0.25...

  8. LARGE BLOCK TEST STATUS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is intended to serve as a status report, which essentially transmits the data that have been collected to date on the Large Block Test (LBT). The analyses of data will be performed during FY98, and then a complete report will be prepared. This status report includes introductory material that is not needed merely to transmit data but is available at this time and therefore included. As such, this status report will serve as the template for the future report, and the information is thus preserved. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is investigatinq the suitability of Yucca Mountain (YM) as a potential site for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository. As shown in Fig. 1-1, the site is located about 120 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in an area of uninhabited desert

  9. System for Gauge Blocks Diagnostics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchta, Zdeněk; Mikel, Břetislav; Čížek, Martin; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    Düsseldorf: VDI Verlag GmbH, 2011, s. 91-96. ISBN 978-3-18-092156-3. ISSN 0083-5560. [IMEKO Symposium - Laser Metrology for Precision Measurement and Inspection in Industry 2011 /10./. Braunschweig (DE), 12.09.2011-14.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP102/09/P293; GA ČR GPP102/11/P819; GA ČR GAP102/10/1813; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/127; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : gauge blocks calibration * low-coherence interferometry * laser interferometry Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  10. Landscape block of geoinformation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expirience of constructing landscape block of geoinformation system, designated for regional geoecological forecasting on the basis of mega-line-Delta computer is presented. Works were conducted in summer of 1986 for the purpose of forecasting radionuclide migration in 30-km zone of the Chernobyl accident, as well as evaluation of radioecological situation in Kiev, Zhitomir and Chernigov regions. System design work lies in choice and construction of information model of the natural medium, reflected and processed in data bank by methods of information science. Three groups were distinguished in examined region according to intensity of substance migration: 1) zones of preferred evacuation with surface run-off, 2) transit zones, 3) zones of evacuation and accumulation of flood plain substance

  11. Updating the QR decomposition of block tridiagonal and block Hessenberg matrices generated by block Krylov space methods

    OpenAIRE

    Gutknecht, Martin; Schmelzer, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    For MINRES and SYMMLQ it is essential to compute the QR decompositions of tridiagonal coefficient matrices gained in the Lanczos process. Likewise, for GMRES one has to find those of Hessenberg matrices. These QR decompositions are computed by an update scheme where in every step a single Givens rotation is constructed. Generalizing this approach we introduce a block-wise update scheme for the QR decomposition of the block tridiagonal and block Hessenberg matrices that come up in generalizati...

  12. Readiness for surgery after axillary block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koscielniak-Nielsen, Z J; Stens-Pedersen, H L; Lippert, F K

    1997-01-01

    We have assessed prospectively the time to readiness for surgery following axillary block (sum of block performance and latency times) in 80 patients. The brachial plexus was identified using a nerve stimulator, and anaesthetized with 45 mL of mepivacaine 1% with adrenaline 5 micrograms mL-1. In...... group 1 (single injection) the whole volume of mepivacaine was injected after locating only one of the plexus nerves. In group 2 (multiple injections) at least three plexus nerves were located, and the volume of mepivacaine was divided between them. Sensory block was assessed by a blinded observer every...... required less time for block performance (mean 5.5 min) than multiple injections (mean 9.5 min), P <0.0001. However, latency of the block was longer and the requirement for supplemental nerve blocks was greater, after single injections (33 min and 57%) than after multiple injections (15.5 min and 7...

  13. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-06-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits. PMID:27419108

  14. Hepatitis C Virus Frameshift/Alternate Reading Frame Protein Suppresses Interferon Responses Mediated by Pattern Recognition Receptor Retinoic-Acid-Inducible Gene-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Bum; Seronello, Scott; Mayer, Wasima; Ojcius, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) actively evades host interferon (IFN) responses but the mechanisms of how it does so are not completely understood. In this study, we present evidence for an HCV factor that contributes to the suppression of retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-mediated IFN induction. Expression of frameshift/alternate reading frame protein (F/ARFP) from HCV -2/+1 frame in Huh7 hepatoma cells suppressed type I IFN responses stimulated by HCV RNA pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) and poly(IC). The suppression occurred independently of other HCV factors; and activation of interferon stimulated genes, TNFα, IFN-λ1, and IFN-λ2/3 was likewise suppressed by HCV F/ARFP. Point mutations in the full-length HCV sequence (JFH1 genotype 2a strain) were made to introduce premature termination codons in the -2/+1 reading frame coding for F/ARFP while preserving the original reading frame, which enhanced IFNα and IFNβ induction by HCV. The potentiation of IFN response by the F/ARFP mutations was diminished in Huh7.5 cells, which already have a defective RIG-I, and by decreasing RIG-I expression in Huh7 cells. Furthermore, adding F/ARFP back via trans-complementation suppressed IFN induction in the F/ARFP mutant. The F/ARFP mutants, on the other hand, were not resistant to exogenous IFNα. Finally, HCV-infected human liver samples showed significant F/ARFP antibody reactivity, compared to HCV-uninfected control livers. Therefore, HCV F/ARFP likely cooperates with other viral factors to suppress type I and III IFN induction occurring through the RIG-I signaling pathway. This study identifies a novel mechanism of pattern recognition receptor modulation by HCV and suggests a biological function of the HCV alternate reading frame in the modulation of host innate immunity. PMID:27404108

  15. Identification of a retinoic acid-inducible gene I from Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) and expression analysis in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianjun; Guo, Songlin; Lin, Peng; Wang, Yilei; Zhang, Ziping; Zhang, Zaipeng; Yu, Lili

    2016-08-01

    RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene-I) is one of the key cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) for the recognition of cytosolic viral nucleic acids and the production of type I interferons (IFNs). The full-length cDNA sequence of RIG-I (AjRIG-I) in Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) was identified and characterized in this article. The full-length cDNA of AjRIG-I was 3468 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 52 bp, a 3'-UTR of 617 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 2799 bp encoding a polypeptide of 933 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 106.2 kDa. NCBI CDD analysis showed that the AjRIG-I protein had the typical conserved domains, including two adjacent caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs), a DEXDc domain, a HELICc domain and a C-terminal regulatory domain (RD). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed a broad expression for AjRIG-I in a wide range of tissues, with the predominant expression in liver, followed by the gills, spleen, kidney, intestine, skin, and the very low expression in muscle and heart. The AjRIG-I expressions in liver, spleen and kidney were significantly induced following injection with LPS, the viral mimic poly I:C, and Aeromonas hydrophila infection. In vitro, the AjRIG-I transcripts of Japanese eel liver cells were significantly enhanced by poly I:C and PGN stimulation, down-regulated with CpG-DNA treatment whereas no change of the expression level was found post LPS challenge. These results collectively suggested AjRIG-I transcripts expression possibly play an important role in fish defense against viral and bacterial infection. PMID:27238428

  16. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1 augments saturated fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation and inhibits apoptosis in cardiac myocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Matsui

    Full Text Available Mismatch between the uptake and utilization of long-chain fatty acids in the myocardium leads to abnormally high intracellular fatty acid concentration, which ultimately induces myocardial dysfunction. Stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD1 is a rate-limiting enzyme that converts saturated fatty acids (SFAs to monounsaturated fatty acids. Previous studies have shown that SCD1-deficinent mice are protected from insulin resistance and diet-induced obesity; however, the role of SCD1 in the heart remains to be determined. We examined the expression of SCD1 in obese rat hearts induced by a sucrose-rich diet for 3 months. We also examined the effect of SCD1 on myocardial energy metabolism and apoptotic cell death in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes in the presence of SFAs. Here we showed that the expression of SCD1 increases 3.6-fold without measurable change in the expression of lipogenic genes in the heart of rats fed a high-sucrose diet. Forced SCD1 expression augmented palmitic acid-induced lipid accumulation, but attenuated excess fatty acid oxidation and restored reduced glucose oxidation. Of importance, SCD1 substantially inhibited SFA-induced caspase 3 activation, ceramide synthesis, diacylglycerol synthesis, apoptotic cell death, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. Experiments using SCD1 siRNA confirmed these observations. Furthermore, we showed that exposure of cardiac myocytes to glucose and insulin induced SCD1 expression. Our results indicate that SCD1 is highly regulated by a metabolic syndrome component in the heart, and such induction of SCD1 serves to alleviate SFA-induced adverse fatty acid catabolism, and eventually to prevent SFAs-induced apoptosis.

  17. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A prevents fatty acid-induced adipocyte dysfunction through suppression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuefei; Li, Kuai; Hui, Xiaoyan; Kong, Xiangping; Sweeney, Gary; Wang, Yu; Xu, Aimin; Teng, Maikun; Liu, Pentao; Wu, Donghai

    2011-05-01

    The adipocyte is the principal cell type for fat storage. CPT1 (carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1) is the rate-limiting enzyme for fatty acid β-oxidation, but the physiological role of CPT1 in adipocytes remains unclear. In the present study, we focused on the specific role of CPT1A in the normal functioning of adipocytes. Three 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell lines stably expressing hCPT1A (human CPT1A) cDNA, mouse CPT1A shRNA (short-hairpin RNA) or GFP (green fluorescent protein) were generated and the biological functions of these cell lines were characterized. Alteration in CPT1 activity, either by ectopic overexpression or pharmacological inhibition using etomoxir, did not affect adipocyte differentiation. However, overexpression of hCPT1A significantly reduced the content of intracellular NEFAs (non-esterified fatty acids) compared with the control cells when adipocytes were challenged with fatty acids. The changes were accompanied by an increase in fatty acid uptake and a decrease in fatty acid release. Interestingly, CPT1A protected against fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines such as TNF-α (tumour necrosis factor-α) and IL-6 (interleukin-6) in adipocytes. Further studies demonstrated that JNK (c-Jun N terminal kinase) activity was substantially suppressed upon CPT1A overexpression, whereas knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of CPT1 caused a significant enhancement of JNK activity. The specific inhibitor of JNK SP600125 largely abolished the changes caused by the shRNA- and etomoxir-mediated decrease in CPT1 activity. Moreover, C2C12 myocytes co-cultured with adipocytes pre-treated with fatty acids displayed altered insulin sensitivity. Taken together, our findings have identified a favourable role for CPT1A in adipocytes to attenuate fatty acid-evoked insulin resistance and inflammation via suppression of JNK. PMID:21348853

  18. Constitutive androstane receptor-mediated changes in bile acid composition contributes to hepatoprotection from lithocholic acid-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilke, Lisa D; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Holland, Ricky D; Besselsen, David G; Beger, Rick D; Klaassen, Curtis D; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2009-05-01

    Pharmacological activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) protects the liver during cholestasis. The current study evaluates how activation of CAR influences genes involved in bile acid biosynthesis as a mechanism of hepatoprotection during bile acid-induced liver injury. CAR activators phenobarbital (PB) and 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) or corn oil (CO) were administered to C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and CAR knockout (CAR-null) mice before and during induction of intrahepatic cholestasis using the secondary bile acid, lithocholic acid (LCA). In LCA-treated WT and all the CAR-null groups (excluding controls), histology revealed severe multifocal necrosis. This pathology was absent in WT mice pretreated with PB and TCPOBOP, indicating CAR-dependent hepatoprotection. Decreases in total hepatic bile acids and hepatic monohydroxy, dihydroxy, and trihydroxy bile acids in PB- and TCPOBOP-pretreated WT mice correlated with hepatoprotection. In comparison, concentrations of monohydroxylated and dihydroxylated bile acids were increased in all the treated CAR-null mice compared with CO controls. Along with several other enzymes (Cyp7b1, Cyp27a1, Cyp39a1), Cyp8b1 expression was increased in hepatoprotected mice, which could be suggestive of a shift in the bile acid biosynthesis pathway toward the formation of less toxic bile acids. In CAR-null mice, these changes in gene expression were not different among treatment groups. These results suggest CAR mediates a shift in bile acid biosynthesis toward the formation of less toxic bile acids, as well as a decrease in hepatic bile acid concentrations. We propose that these combined CAR-mediated effects may contribute to the hepatoprotection observed during LCA-induced liver injury. PMID:19196849

  19. Calcium-dependent nitric oxide production is involved in the cytoprotective properties of n-acetylcysteine in glycochenodeoxycholic acid-induced cell death in hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intracellular oxidative stress has been involved in bile acid-induced cell death in hepatocytes. Nitric oxide (NO) exerts cytoprotective properties in glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA)-treated hepatocytes. The study evaluated the involvement of Ca2+ on the regulation of NO synthase (NOS)-3 expression during N-acetylcysteine (NAC) cytoprotection against GCDCA-induced cell death in hepatocytes. The regulation of Ca2+ pools (EGTA or BAPTA-AM) and NO (L-NAME or NO donor) production was assessed during NAC cytoprotection in GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The stimulation of Ca2+ entrance was induced by A23187 in HepG2. Cell death, Ca2+ mobilization, NOS-1, -2 and -3 expression, AP-1 activation, and NO production were evaluated. GCDCA reduced intracellular Ca2+ concentration and NOS-3 expression, and enhanced cell death in HepG2. NO donor prevented, and L-NAME enhanced, GCDCA-induced cell death. The reduction of Ca2+ entry by EGTA, but not its release from intracellular stores by BAPTA-AM, enhanced cell death in GCDCA-treated cells. The stimulation of Ca2+ entrance by A23187 reduced cell death and enhanced NOS-3 expression in GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The cytoprotective properties of NAC were related to the recovery of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, NOS-3 expression and NO production induced by GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The increase of NO production by Ca2+-dependent NOS-3 expression during NAC administration reduces cell death in GCDCA-treated hepatocytes.

  20. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits. PMID:27419108

  1. Tauroursodeoxycholate Protects Rat Hepatocytes from Bile Acid-Induced Apoptosis via β1-Integrin- and Protein Kinase A-Dependent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Sommerfeld

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ursodeoxycholic acid, which in vivo is rapidly converted into its taurine conjugate, is frequently used for the treatment of cholestatic liver disease. Apart from its choleretic effects, tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC can protect hepatocytes from bile acid-induced apoptosis, but the mechanisms underlying its anti-apoptotic effects are poorly understood. Methods: These mechanisms were investigated in perfused rat liver and isolated rat hepatocytes. Results: It was found that TUDC inhibited the glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC-induced activation of the CD95 death receptor at the level of association between CD95 and the epidermal growth factor receptor. This was due to a rapid TUDC-induced β1-integrin-dependent cyclic AMP (cAMP signal with induction of the dual specificity mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1, which prevented GCDC-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4 and c-jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK activation. Furthermore, TUDC induced a protein kinase A (PKA-mediated serine/threonine phosphorylation of the CD95, which was recently identified as an internalization signal for CD95. Furthermore, TUDC inhibited GCDC-induced CD95 targeting to the plasma membrane in a β1-integrin-and PKA-dependent manner. In line with this, the β1-integrin siRNA knockdown in sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp-transfected HepG2 cells abolished the protective effect of TUDC against GCDC-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: TUDC exerts its anti-apoptotic effect via a β1-integrin-mediated formation of cAMP, which prevents CD95 activation by hydrophobic bile acids at the levels of JNK activation and CD95 serine/threonine phosphorylation.

  2. A comparative study of the antitussive activity of levodropropizine and dropropizine in the citric acid-induced cough model in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, G; Cordaro, C I; Vanasia, M; Balzarotti, C; Camusso, L; Caiazzo, G; Maghini, L; Mazzocchi, M; Zennaro, M

    1992-01-01

    Levodropropizine is the levo-rotatory (S)-enantiomer of dropropizine, a racemic non-opiate antitussive agent which has been used clinically for many years. Compared with the racemic drug, levodropropizine exhibits in animal models similar antitussive activity but considerably lower central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects. It is also less likely to cause sedation in treated patients. Since the comparative antitussive potency of the two drugs in clinical experimental models has not been evaluated, the authors performed a randomized, double blind, cross over investigation in which the effects of single oral doses (60 and 90 mg) of levodropropizine and dropropizine were assessed by using the citric acid-induced cough model in eight normal volunteers. Stimulation tests involved inhalation of individual cumulative doses of citric acid (6.3 to 53.3 mg) which at pre-study assessment had been found to induce reproducibly at least ten coughs over a 30 sec period. Each subject was studied by repeating the citric acid stimulation test four times (0 h, 1 h, 2 h and 6 h) on each of five different days separated by intervals of at least three days. In the absence of drug administration (control session), cough response to citric inhalation was remarkably reproducible throughout the 6 h period of observation. A marked and statistically significant reduction in cough response (to about one third--one sixth of the pre-drug values) was observed 1 h after intake for both compounds. At subsequent testing 2 h and 6 h after dosing, cough response was still depressed and did not differ significantly from that observed at 1 h.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1295724

  3. Advanced heart block in acute rheumatic fever

    OpenAIRE

    Hubail, Zakariya; Ebrahim, Ishaq M.

    2015-01-01

    First degree heart block is considered a minor criterion for the diagnosis of this condition. The cases presented here demonstrate that higher degrees of heart block do occur in rheumatic fever. Children presenting with acquired heart block should be worked-up for rheumatic fever. Likewise, it is imperative to serially follow the electrocardiogram in patients already diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever, as the conduction abnormalities can change during the course of the disease.

  4. Functional Nanoporous Polymers from Block Copolymer Precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Fengxiao

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Self-assembly of block copolymers provides well-defined morphologies with characteristic length scales in the nanometer range. Nanoporous polymers prepared by selective removal of one block from self-assembled block copolymers offer great technological promise due to their many potential applications as, e.g., membranes for separation and purification, templates for nanostructured materials, sensors, substrates for catalysis, low dielectric constant materials, photonic materials, and...

  5. Block methods for linear Hamiltonian systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Hongjiong; Chen, Bailin

    2014-01-01

    For the numerical treatment of Hamiltonian differential equations,symplectic integrators are regarded as the most suitable choice.In this paper we are concerned with the applicability of block methods for the discrete approximate solution of linear Hamiltonian systems.The k-dimensional block methods are convergent of order at least k+1 for ordinary differential equations.We provide conditions on the coefficients of the equivalent block methods in order to maintain two important properties of...

  6. Recent developments in paediatric neuraxial blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrushali Chandrashekhar Ponde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric anaesthesia and paediatric regional anaesthesia are intertwined. Almost all surgeries unless contradicted could be and should be supplemented with a regional block. The main objective of this review is to elaborate on the recent advances of the central neuraxial blocks, such as application of ultrasound guidance and electrical stimulation in the pursuit of safety and an objective end point. This review also takes account of the traditional technique and understand the benefits as well the risk of each as compared with the recent technique. The recent trends in choosing the most appropriate peripheral block for a given surgery thereby sparing the central neuroaxis is considered. A penile block for circumcision or a sciatic block for unilateral foot surgery, rather than caudal epidural would have a better risk benefit equation. Readers will find a special mention on the recent thoughts on continuous epidural analgesia in paediatrics, especially its rise and fall, yet its unique importance. Lastly, the issue of block placements under sedation or general anaesthesia with its implication in this special population is dealt with. We conducted searches in MEDLINE (PubMed and assessed the relevance of the abstracts of citations identified from literature searches. The search was carried out in English, for last 10 years, with the following key words: Recent advances in paediatric regional anaesthesia; ultrasound guidance for central neuraxial blocks in children; role of electrical stimulation in neuraxial blocks in children; complications in neuraxial block. Full-text articles of potentially relevant abstracts were retrieved for further review.

  7. PACS photometer calibration block analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Moór, A; Kiss, Cs; Balog, Z; Billot, N; Marton, G

    2013-01-01

    The absolute stability of the PACS bolometer response over the entire mission lifetime without applying any corrections is about 0.5% (standard deviation) or about 8% peak-to-peak. This fantastic stability allows us to calibrate all scientific measurements by a fixed and time-independent response file, without using any information from the PACS internal calibration sources. However, the analysis of calibration block observations revealed clear correlations of the internal source signals with the evaporator temperature and a signal drift during the first half hour after the cooler recycling. These effects are small, but can be seen in repeated measurements of standard stars. From our analysis we established corrections for both effects which push the stability of the PACS bolometer response to about 0.2% (stdev) or 2% in the blue, 3% in the green and 5% in the red channel (peak-to-peak). After both corrections we still see a correlation of the signals with PACS FPU temperatures, possibly caused by parasitic h...

  8. Building blocks of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COSI [Ohio's Center for Science and Industry], a well established science center, and SciTech, an emerging one, have formed a collaboration to develop a group of original interactive exhibits conveying to a wide audience the nature of the most fundamental features of the Universe, as revealed in the fascinating world of nuclear and particle science. These new exhibits will add to, and be supported by, the basic science exhibits which have already attracted large numbers of visitors to both centers. The new project, called Building Blocks of the Universe, aims to foster an appreciation of the way all features of the Universe arise from simple, basic rules and to lead the visitor from the perceived complexities of our surroundings, to the unperceived, but simpler features of the sub-nuclear world. It has already become apparent from individual prototypes that these simple but immensely far-reaching ideas can indeed be conveyed by hands-on exhibits. These exhibits will be linked and enhanced by an effective museum environment, using pictorial diagrams, accurate non-technical text, and artistic displays to create an atmosphere in which visitors can learn about phenomena beyond the range of direct perception. This paper describes the goals, content and organization of the exhibition. The authors also outline their experience with prototype exhibits, and thereby invite additional input into the development process

  9. Additive Driven Self Assembly and Photo-induced Ordering in Poly(ethylene glycol)monomethyl ether monomethacrylate-block-Poly(ethyl methacrylate) Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Watkins, James

    2013-03-01

    Recent work in our labs has shown that blending of hydrogen-bond donating polymers, small molecules or nanoparticles with a block copolymer that contains poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) can enhance microphase segregation strength and yield well ordered morphologies. While PEO crystallization in these polymers is suppressed by strong interactions between the additive and the PEO segments at high additive loadings, crystallization of the PEO block in the absence of these interactions or at low additive loadings is highly undesirable for many applications. To remedy this issue, poly[poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether monomethacrylate]-block-poly(ethyl methacrylate) was prepared using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization(RAFT). This block copolymer is a phase mixed, non-crystallizable system at room temperature. We find that incorporation of organic additives with multiple carboxylic acid groups such as mellitic acid induces phase segregation in this system. Furthermore, the use of additives in which the hydrogen bond donating group is protected with an acid labile group in combination with a photo acid generator enables photo-induced microphase segregation of the composite to yield well ordered films.

  10. New routes to the synthesis of amylose-block-polystyrene rod-coil block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, Katja; Müller, Axel H.E.

    2002-01-01

    Hybrid block copolymers amylose-block-polystyrene were synthesized by covalent attachment of maltoheptaose derivatives to end-functionalized polystyrene and subsequent enzymatic grafting from polymerization. The maltoheptaose derivatives were attached by reductive amination or hydrosilation to amino

  11. Erosion patterns on dissolving blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courrech du Pont, Sylvain; Cohen, Caroline; Derr, Julien; Berhanu, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Patterns in nature are shaped under water flows and wind action, and the understanding of their morphodynamics goes through the identification of the physical mechanisms at play. When a dissoluble body is exposed to a water flow, typical patterns with scallop-like shapes may appear [1,2]. These shapes are observed on the walls of underground rivers or icebergs. We experimentally study the erosion of dissolving bodies made of salt, caramel or ice into water solutions without external flow. The dissolving mixture, which is created at the solid/liquid interface, undergoes a buoyancy-driven instability comparable to a Rayleigh-Bénard instability so that the dissolving front destabilizes into filaments. This mechanism yields to spatial variations of solute concentration and to differential dissolution of the dissolving block. We first observe longitudinal stripes with a well defined wavelength, which evolve towards chevrons and scallops that interact and move again the dissolving current. Thanks to a careful analysis of the competing physical mechanisms, we propose scaling laws, which account for the characteristic lengths and times of the early regime in experiments. The long-term evolution of patterns is understood qualitatively. A close related mechanism has been proposed to explain structures observed on the basal boundary of ice cover on brakish lakes [3] and we suggest that our experiments are analogous and explain the scallop-like patterns on iceberg walls. [1] P. Meakin and B. Jamtveit, Geological pattern formation by growth and dissolution in aqueous systems, Proc. R. Soc. A 466, 659-694 (2010). [2] P.N. Blumberg and R.L. Curl, Experimental and theoretical studies of dissolution roughness, J. Fluid Mech. 65, 735-751 (1974). [3] L. Solari and G. Parker, Morphodynamic modelling of the basal boundary of ice cover on brakish lakes, J.G.R. 118, 1432-1442 (2013).

  12. PEO-related block copolymer surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Non-ionic block copolymer systems based on hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) and more hydrophobic co-polymer blocks are used intensively in a variety of industrial and personal applications. A brief description on the applications is presented. The physical properties of more simple model systems ...

  13. Improving massive experiments with threshold blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Michael J; Sävje, Fredrik; Sekhon, Jasjeet S

    2016-07-01

    Inferences from randomized experiments can be improved by blocking: assigning treatment in fixed proportions within groups of similar units. However, the use of the method is limited by the difficulty in deriving these groups. Current blocking methods are restricted to special cases or run in exponential time; are not sensitive to clustering of data points; and are often heuristic, providing an unsatisfactory solution in many common instances. We present an algorithm that implements a widely applicable class of blocking-threshold blocking-that solves these problems. Given a minimum required group size and a distance metric, we study the blocking problem of minimizing the maximum distance between any two units within the same group. We prove this is a nondeterministic polynomial-time hard problem and derive an approximation algorithm that yields a blocking where the maximum distance is guaranteed to be, at most, four times the optimal value. This algorithm runs in O(n log n) time with O(n) space complexity. This makes it, to our knowledge, the first blocking method with an ensured level of performance that works in massive experiments. Whereas many commonly used algorithms form pairs of units, our algorithm constructs the groups flexibly for any chosen minimum size. This facilitates complex experiments with several treatment arms and clustered data. A simulation study demonstrates the efficiency and efficacy of the algorithm; tens of millions of units can be blocked using a desktop computer in a few minutes. PMID:27382151

  14. Building blocks for embedded control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broenink, Jan F.; Hilderink, Gerald H.; Bakkers, André W.P.; Veen, Jean Pierre

    2000-01-01

    Developing embedded control systems using a building-block approach at all the parts enables an efficient and fast design process. Main reasons are the real plug-and-play capabilities of the blocks. Furthermore, due the simulatability of the designs, parts of the system can already be tested before

  15. C++ application development with Code::Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Modak, Biplab Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This is a comprehensive tutorial with step-by-step instructions on how to develop applications with Code::Blocks.This book is for C++ developers who wish to use Code::Blocks to create applications with a consistent look and feel across multiple platforms. This book assumes that you are familiar with the basics of the C++ programming language.

  16. Block Grants: Federal Data Collection Provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This fact sheet compares statutory data collection and reporting provisions of the federal education block grant (chapter 2 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act of 1981) with the nine other block grant programs funded in fiscal year 1986; data on statutory administrative cost limits are also provided. Each grant's legislation was…

  17. Round Gating for Low Energy Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco;

    2016-01-01

    design techniques for implementing block ciphers in a low energy fashion. We concentrate on round based implementation and we discuss how gating, applied at round level can affect and improve the energy consumption of the most common lightweight block cipher currently used in the internet of things...

  18. Ground reaction curve based upon block theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discontinuities in a rock mass can intersect an excavation surface to form discrete blocks (keyblocks) which can be unstable. Once a potentially unstable block is identified, the forces affecting it can be calculated to assess its stability. The normal and shear stresses on each block face before displacement are calculated using elastic theory and are modified in a nonlinear way by discontinuity deformations as the keyblock displaces. The stresses are summed into resultant forces to evaluate block stability. Since the resultant forces change with displacement, successive increments of block movement are examined to see whether the block ultimately becomes stable or fails. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) analytic models for the stability of simple pyramidal keyblocks were evaluated. Calculated stability is greater for 3D analyses than for 2D analyses. Calculated keyblock stability increases with larger in situ stress magnitudes, larger lateral stress ratios, and larger shear strengths. Discontinuity stiffness controls blocks displacement more strongly than it does stability itself. Large keyblocks are less stable than small ones, and stability increases as blocks become more slender

  19. Transient non-autoimmune fetal heart block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breur, JMPJ; Oudijk, MA; Stoutenbeek, P; Visser, GHA; Meijboom, EJ

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Fetal heart block is a rare and irreversible condition associated with structural heart defects or maternal autoantibodies (SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La) resulting in permanent damage of the atrioventricular (AV) node. This is the first report of 4 cases with a transient fetal heart block in stru

  20. Using Interference to Block RFID Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar; Pedersen, Gert Frølund;

    We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag....

  1. Programs for the calculi of blocks permeabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report studies the stochastic analysis of radionuclide transport. The permeability values of blocks are necessary to do a numeric model for the flux and transport problems in ground soils. The determination of block value by function on grill value is the objective of this program

  2. Light extraction block with curved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  3. Block Gas Sol Unit in Haderslev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    2000-01-01

    Investigation of a SDHW system based on a Block Gas Sol Unit from Baxi A/S installed by a consumer i Haderslev, Denmark.......Investigation of a SDHW system based on a Block Gas Sol Unit from Baxi A/S installed by a consumer i Haderslev, Denmark....

  4. A revisit of transthecal digital block and traditional digital block for anesthesia of the finger

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Dehghani; Arsalan Mahmoodian

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Finger injuries are very common and the majority can be treated under digital block anesthesia. Traditional digital block is one of the most commonly performed blocks by care providers in several medical fields. There is another less known method, transthecal (Pulley) block, in which local anesthesia is injected into the flexor tendon sheath.
    METHODS: A randomized clinical trial was performed to compare the tran...

  5. Virasoro conformal blocks in closed form

    CERN Document Server

    Perlmutter, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Virasoro conformal blocks are fixed in principle by symmetry, but a closed-form expression is unknown in the general case. In this work, we provide three closed-form expansions for the four-point Virasoro blocks on the sphere, for arbitrary operator dimensions and central charge $c$. We do so by solving known recursion relations. One representation is a sum over hypergeometric global blocks, whose coefficients we provide at arbitrary level. Another is a sum over semiclassical Virasoro blocks obtained in the limit in which two external operator dimensions scale linearly with large $c$. In both cases, the $1/c$ expansion of the Virasoro blocks is easily extracted. We discuss applications of these expansions to entanglement and thermality in conformal field theories and particle scattering in three-dimensional quantum gravity.

  6. Fermion RG blocking transformations and IR structure

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, X

    2011-01-01

    We explore fermion RG block-spinning transformations on the lattice with the aim of studying the IR structure of gauge theories and, in particular, the existence of IR fixed points for varying fermion content. In the case of light fermions the main concern and difficulty is ensuring locality of any adopted blocking scheme. We discuss the problem of constructing a local blocked fermion action in the background of arbitrary gauge fields. We then discuss the carrying out of accompanying gauge field blocking. In the presence of the blocked fermions implementation of MCRG is not straightforward. By adopting judicious approximations we arrive at an easily implementable approximate RG recursion scheme that allows quick, inexpensive estimates of the location of conformal windows for various groups and fermion representations. We apply this scheme to locate the conformal windows in the case of SU(2) and SU(3) gauge groups. Some of the reasons for the apparent efficacy of this and similar decimation schemes are discuss...

  7. Functional Nanoporous Polymers from Block Copolymer Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao

    functionalities remains a great challenge due to the limitation of available polymer synthesis and the nanoscale confinement of the porous cavities. The main topic of this thesis is to develop methods for fabrication of functional nanoporous polymers from block copolymer precursors. A method has been developed......Abstract Self-assembly of block copolymers provides well-defined morphologies with characteristic length scales in the nanometer range. Nanoporous polymers prepared by selective removal of one block from self-assembled block copolymers offer great technological promise due to their many potential......, where living anionic polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) are combined to synthesize a polydimethylsiloxane-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polystyrene (PDMS-b-PtBA-b-PS) triblock copolymer precursor. By using either anhydrous hydrogen fluoride or trifluoroacetic acid, PtBA block...

  8. STUDY ON POLYSULFONE-POLYESTER BLOCK COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Youjun; QI Daquan

    1988-01-01

    Synthesis and characterization of a series of Polysulfone (PSF)-Polyester (PEs) block copolymers were studied.The degree of randomness (B) of these block copolymers was calculated from the intensities of their proton signals in 1H NMR spectra and lies in the region of 0 < B < 1. It was shown that the degree of randomness (B) and the average sequence length (L) in block copolymers were relatively dependent on the reaction conditions, various feed ratios and structure of diols.The phenomenon was observed, when the PSF-PEs block copolymers dissolved in different solvents they had different viscosities and molecular conformations.The PSF-PEs block copolymers had better solvent resistance than homo-polysulfone.

  9. Sympathetic blocks for visceral cancer pain management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Klepstad, Pal; Kurita, Geana Paula; Sjogren, Per; Giarratano, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    The neurolytic blocks of sympathetic pathways, including celiac plexus block (CPB) and superior hypogastric plexus block (SHPB) , have been used for years. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence to support the performance of sympathetic blocks in cancer patients with abdominal visceral...... effects in comparison with a conventional analgesic treatment. In one study patients treated with superior hypogastric plexus block (SHPB) had a decrease in pain intensity and a less morphine consumption, while no statistical differences in adverse effects were found. The quality of these studies was...... generally poor due to several limitations, including sample size calculation, allocation concealment, no intention to treat analysis. However, at least two CPB studies were of good quality. Data regarding the comparison of techniques or other issues were sparse and of poor quality, and evidence could not be...

  10. The undesirable effects of neuromuscular blocking drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Garvey, L H; Viby-Mogensen, J

    question. Moreover, all neuromuscular blocking drugs may cause hypersensitivity reactions. Often the symptoms are mild and self-limiting but massive histamine release can cause systematic reactions with circulatory and respiratory symptoms and signs. At the end of anaesthesia, no residual effect of a......Neuromuscular blocking drugs are designed to bind to the nicotinic receptor at the neuromuscular junction. However, they also interact with other acetylcholine receptors in the body. Binding to these receptors causes adverse effects that vary with the specificity for the cholinergic receptor in...... neuromuscular blocking drug should be present. However, the huge variability in response to neuromuscular blocking drugs makes it impossible to predict which patient will suffer postoperative residual curarization. This article discusses the undesirable effects of the currently available neuromuscular blocking...

  11. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadure, C; Capdevila, X

    2005-06-01

    In recent years, regional anaesthesia in children has generated increasing interest. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks have an important role in the anaesthetic arsenal, allowing effective, safe and prolonged postoperative pain management. Indications for continuous peripheral nerve blocks depend on benefits/risks analysis of each technique for each patient. The indications include surgery associated with intense postoperative pain, surgery requiring painful physical therapy, and complex regional pain syndrome. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks are usually performed under general anaesthesia or sedation, and require appropriate equipment in order to decrease the risk of nerve injury. New techniques, such as transcutaneous stimulation or ultrasound guidance, appear to facilitate nerve and plexus identification in paediatric patients. Nevertheless, continuous peripheral nerve block may mask compartment syndrome in certain surgical procedure or trauma. Finally, ropivacaine appears to be the best local anaesthetic for continuous peripheral nerve blocks in children, requiring low flow rate with low concentration of the local anaesthetic. PMID:15966500

  12. A note on "Block H-matrices and spectrum of block matrices"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-zhou; HUANG Ze-jun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we make further discussions and improvements on the results presented in the previously published work "Block H-matrices and spectrum of block matrices". Furthermore, a new bound for eigenvalues of block matrices is given with examples to show advantages of the new result.

  13. The natural triterpene maslinic acid induces apoptosis in HT29 colon cancer cells by a JNK-p53-dependent mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene found in the protective wax-like coating of the leaves and fruit of Olea europaea L., is a promising agent for the prevention of colon cancer. We have shown elsewhere that maslinic acid inhibits cell proliferation to a significant extent and activates mitochondrial apoptosis in colon cancer cells. In our latest work we have investigated further this compound's apoptotic molecular mechanism. We used HT29 adenocarcinoma cells. Changes genotoxicity were analyzed by single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry. Finally, changes in protein expression were examined by western blotting. Student's t-test was used for statistical comparison. HT29 cells treated with maslinic acid showed significant increases in genotoxicity and cell-cycle arrest during the G0/G1 phase after 72 hours' treatment and an apoptotic sub-G0/G1 peak after 96 hours. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism for this cytotoxic effect of maslinic acid has never been properly explored. We show here that the anti-tumoral activity of maslinic acid might proceed via p53-mediated apoptosis by acting upon the main signaling components that lead to an increase in p53 activity and the induction of the rest of the factors that participate in the apoptotic pathway. We found that in HT29 cells maslinic acid activated the expression of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), thus inducing p53. Treatment of tumor cells with maslinic acid also resulted in an increase in the expression of Bid and Bax, repression of Bcl-2, release of cytochrome-c and an increase in the expression of caspases -9, -3, and -7. Moreover, maslinic acid produced belated caspase-8 activity, thus amplifying the initial mitochondrial apoptotic signaling. All these results suggest that maslinic acid induces apoptosis in human HT29 colon-cancer cells through the JNK-Bid-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via the activation of p53. Thus we propose

  14. Natural resistance to ascorbic acid induced oxidative stress is mainly mediated by catalase activity in human cancer cells and catalase-silencing sensitizes to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klingelhoeffer Christoph

    2012-05-01

    against oxidative stress mediated by ascorbic acid induced hydrogen peroxide production. The antioxidative enzyme catalase is important to protect cancer cells against cytotoxic hydrogen peroxide. Silenced catalase expression increased the susceptibility of the formerly resistant cancer cell line BT-20 to oxidative stress.

  15. Preventive effect of a pectic polysaccharide of the common cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccos L. on acetic acid-induced colitis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergey V Popov; Pavel A Markov; Ida R Nikitina; Sergey Petrishev; Vasily Smirnov; Yury S Ovodov

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study isolation and chemical characterization of pectin derived from the common cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccos L. (oxycoccusan OP) and the testing of its preventive effect on experimental colitis.METHODS: Mice were administrated orally with OP two days prior to a rectal injection of 5% acetic acid and examined for colonic damage 24 h later. Colonic inflammation was characterized by macroscopical injury and enhanced levels of myeloperoxidase activity measured spectrophotometrically with o-phenylene diamine as the substrate. The mucus contents of the colon were determined by the Alcian blue dye binding method. Vascular permeability was estimated using 4%Evans blue passage after i.p. injection of 0.05 mol/L acetic acid.RESULTS: In the mice treated with OP, colonic macroscopic scores (1.1 ± 0.4 vs 2.7, P < 0.01) and the total square area of damage (10 ± 2 vs 21 ± 7, P < 0.01)were significantly reduced when compared with the vehicle-treated colitis group. OP was shown to decrease the tissue myeloperoxidase activity in colons (42 ± 11 vs 112 ± 40, P < 0.01) and enhance the amount of mucus of colitis mice (0.9 ± 0.1 vs 0.4 ± 0.1, P < 0.01). The level of colonic malondialdehyde was noted to decrease in OP-pretreated mice (3.6 ± 0.7 vs 5.1 ± 0.8, P < 0.01).OP was found to decrease the inflammatory status of mice as was determined by reduction of vascular permeability (161 ± 34 vs 241 ± 21, P < 0.01). Adhesion of peritoneal neutrophils and macrophages was also shown to decrease after administration of OP (141 ± 50vs 235 ± 37, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Thus, a preventive effect of pectin from the common cranberry, namely oxycoccusan OP,on acetic acid-induced colitis in mice was detected.A reduction of neutrophil infiltration and antioxidant action may be implicated in the protective effect of oxycoccusan.

  16. Rotate Intra Block Copy for Still Image Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhengdong; Sze, Vivienne

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method called rotate intra block copy, which extends the intra block copy technique by making the block matching process invariant to rotation. HEVC intra prediction plus rotate intra block copy gives an average of 20% reduction in residual energy (i.e. prediction error) compared to HEVC intra prediction plus intra block copy. As the motion vector correlation in rotate intra block copy is different from the intra block copy, a new method of motion vector coding is pre...

  17. Multivariate Regression with Block-structured Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Saier

    We study the problem of predicting multiple responses with a common set of predicting variables. Applying generalized Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) criterion on the responses altogether is practically equivalent to OLS estimation on the responses separately. Possible correlations between the response variables are overlooked. In order to take advantage of these interrelationships, Reduced-Rank Regression (RRR) imposes rank constraint on the coefficient matrix. RRR constructs latent factors from the original predicting variables, and the latent factors are the effective predictors. RRR reduces number of parameters to be estimated, and improves estimation efficiency. In the present work, we explore a novel regression model to incorporate "block-structured" predicting variables, where the predictors can be naturally partitioned into several groups or blocks. Variables in the same block share similar characteristics. It is reasonable to assume that in addition to an overall impact, predictors also have block-specific effects on the responses. Furthermore, we impose rank constraints on the coefficient matrices. In our framework, we construct two types of latent factors that drive the variation in the responses. We have joint factors, which are formed by all predictors across all blocks; and individual factors, which are formed by variables within individual blocks. The proposed method exceeds RRR in terms of prediction accuracy and ease of interpretation in the presence of block structure in the predicting variables.

  18. DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF TYRE TREAD BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sridharan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tyre tread pattern is the arrangement of blocks, grooves and voids, sipes and channels designed into the tread to enhance its grip on the road. Tread is the uppermost part of any tyre which contact into the road and it has its own performance towards mileage, traction, low noise and heat built up properties. It would be meaningful to conduct an extended analysis on the tyre tread blocks for its performance in static and dynamic condition to predict its behavior and wear of tread block in on-road condition. The Finite Element software Abaqus is used for the present analysis of the tread block and its behavior was studied on two different contact surfaces. The tread block is modeled in six different shapes and analyzed for is performance. The deformation stress strain characteristic of different blocks is studied which will be useful in deciding the contact behavior, friction and road grip. The regular shape/geometry has common behavior and the mixed type geometry shows a distinguished variation in the analysis. The dynamic stiffness and deformed shape was analyzed in this study and it has its own effect in tyre design. The tread block dynamics study by geometric shape would be vital in tread pattern optimization to enhance the traction, better hydroplaning and rolling resistance under all operating conditions.

  19. Gaussian curvature analysis allows for automatic block placement in multi-block hexahedral meshing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramme, Austin J; Shivanna, Kiran H; Magnotta, Vincent A; Grosland, Nicole M

    2011-10-01

    Musculoskeletal finite element analysis (FEA) has been essential to research in orthopaedic biomechanics. The generation of a volumetric mesh is often the most challenging step in a FEA. Hexahedral meshing tools that are based on a multi-block approach rely on the manual placement of building blocks for their mesh generation scheme. We hypothesise that Gaussian curvature analysis could be used to automatically develop a building block structure for multi-block hexahedral mesh generation. The Automated Building Block Algorithm incorporates principles from differential geometry, combinatorics, statistical analysis and computer science to automatically generate a building block structure to represent a given surface without prior information. We have applied this algorithm to 29 bones of varying geometries and successfully generated a usable mesh in all cases. This work represents a significant advancement in automating the definition of building blocks. PMID:20924860

  20. Superintegrability of $d$-dimensional Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Isachenkov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    We observe that conformal blocks of scalar 4-point functions in a $d$-dimensional conformal field theory can mapped to eigenfunctions of a 2-particle hyperbolic Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian. The latter describes two coupled P\\"oschl-Teller particles. Their interaction, whose strength depends smoothly on the dimension $d$, is known to be superintegrable. Our observation enables us to exploit the rich mathematical literature on Calogero-Sutherland models in deriving various results for conformal field theory. These include an explicit construction of conformal blocks in terms of Heckman-Opdam hypergeometric functions and a remarkable duality that relates the blocks of theories in different dimensions.

  1. Multi-block and path modelling procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2008-01-01

    of sub-processes, overall model can be specified. There can be several useful path models during the process, where the data blocks in a path are the ones that are actual or important at given stages of the process. Data collection equipments are getting more and more advanced and cheap. Data analysis...... that lead to it. Methods of standard regression analysis are extended to this type of modelling. Three types of 'strengths' of relationship are computed for each set of two connected data blocks. First is the strength in the path, second the strength where only the data blocks leading to the last one...

  2. Block Copolymer Membranes for Biofuel Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren Ozcam, Ali; Balsara, Nitash

    2012-02-01

    Purification of biofuels such as ethanol is a matter of considerable concern as they are produced in complex multicomponent fermentation broths. Our objective is to design pervaporation membranes for concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous mixtures. Polystyrene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polystyrene block copolymers were synthesized by anionic polymerization. The polydimethylsiloxane domains provide ethanol-transporting pathways, while the polystyrene domains provide structural integrity for the membrane. The morphology of the membranes is governed by the composition of the block copolymer while the size of the domains is governed by the molecular weight of the block copolymer. Pervaporation data as a function of these two parameters will be presented.

  3. Productivity assessment of Angola's oil blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the change in productivity as a result of Angola oil policy from 2001 to 2007. Angola oil blocks are the main source of tax receipts and, therefore, strategically important for public finances. A Malmquist index with the input technological bias is applied to measure productivity change. Oil blocks on average became both more efficient and experienced technological progress. Our results indicate that the traditional growth accounting method, which assumes Hicks neutral technological change, is not appropriate for analyzing changes in productivity for Angola oil blocks. Policy implications are derived. (author)

  4. Measurement of soil moisture using gypsum blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Dela, B.

    For the past 50 years, gypsum blocks have been used to determine soil moisture content. This report describes a method for calibrating gypsum blocks for soil moisture measurements. Moisture conditions inside a building are strongly influenced by the moisture conditions in the soil surrounding the...... building. Consequently, measuring the moisture of the surrounding soil is of great importance for detecting the source of moisture in a building. Up till now, information has been needed to carry out individual calibrations for the different types of gypsum blocks available on the market and to account for...

  5. Micellization and Dynamics of a Block Copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Triblock copolymers of the type EPE, where E and P denote ethylene oxide and propylene oxide blocks, respectively, are industrially important copolymers often called Pluronics or Poloxamers. EPE copolymers form micelles with a core of P blocks and different micellar shapes depending on block length...... copolymer mixtures, and evidence in favor of a multi-equilibria unimer-micelle model will be presented. Results obtained by liquid chromatographic methods will be shown and it will be demonstrated that commercial EPE copolymers are inhomogeneous at several levels and many of their unusual properties reflect...

  6. Evaluative Conditioning is Insensitive to Blocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Beckers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative conditioning has been claimed to have a number of functional characteristics that set it apart from other forms of associative learning in humans, such as insensitivity to extinction and contingency, independence of contingency awareness, and insensitivity to modulation. Despite its potential theoretical importance, until now few data are available concerning the susceptibility of evaluative conditioning to cue competition effects such as blocking. In the present study, we assessed the susceptibility of acquired preferences and evaluations to blocking in a candy game. Results suggest that evaluative conditioning is not susceptible to blocking. We discuss this observation in the light of theoretical accounts of evaluative conditioning and associative learning in humans.

  7. PEO-related block copolymer surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K.

    Non-ionic block copolymer systems based on hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) and more hydrophobic co-polymer blocks are used intensively in a variety of industrial and personal applications. A brief description on the applications is presented. The physical properties of more simple model systems of...... such PEG-based block copolymers in aqueous suspensions are reviewed. Based on scattering experiments using either X-ray or neutrons, the phase behavior is characterized, showing that the thermo-reversible gelation is a result of micellar ordering into mesoscopic crystalline phases of cubic, hexagonal...

  8. Blocks and families for cyclotomic Hecke algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Chlouveraki, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The definition of Rouquier for the families of characters introduced by Lusztig for Weyl groups in terms of blocks of the Hecke algebras has made possible the generalization of this notion to the case of complex reflection groups. The aim of this book is to study the blocks and to determine the families of characters for all cyclotomic Hecke algebras associated to complex reflection groups. This volume offers a thorough study of symmetric algebras, covering topics such as block theory, representation theory and Clifford theory, and can also serve as an introduction to the Hecke algebras of complex reflection groups.

  9. Exploring Energy Efficiency of Lightweight Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, the field of lightweight cryptography has seen an influx in the number of block ciphers and hash functions being proposed. One of the metrics that define a good lightweight design is the energy consumed per unit operation of the algorithm. For block ciphers, this operation is...... well known lightweight block ciphers, and thereby try to predict the optimal value of r at which an r-round unrolled architecture for a cipher is likely to be most energy efficient. We also try to relate our results to some physical design parameters like the signal delay across a round and algorithmic...

  10. Theory of circuit block switch-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henzler

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Switching-off unused circuit blocks is a promising approach to supress static leakage currents in ultra deep sub-micron CMOS digital systems. Basic performance parameters of Circuit Block Switch-Off (CBSO schemes are defined and their dependence on basic circuit parameters is estimated. Therefore the design trade-off between strong leakage suppression in idle mode and adequate dynamic performance in active mode can be supported by simple analytic investigations. Additionally, a guideline for the estimation of the minimum time for which a block deactivation is useful is derived.

  11. Algorithms for Finding the Inverses of Factor Block Circulant Matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, algorithms for finding the inverse of a factor block circulant matrix,a factor block retrocirculant matrix and partitioned matrix with factor block circulant blocks over the complex field are presented respectively. In addition, two algorithms for the inverse of a factor block circulant matrix over the quaternion division algebra are proposed.

  12. Quantum Integrable Systems from Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Heng-Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this note, we extend the striking connections between quantum integrable systems and conformal blocks recently found in http://arxiv.org/abs/1602.01858 in several directions. First, we explicitly demonstrate that the action of quartic conformal Casimir operator on general d-dimensional scalar conformal blocks, can be expressed in terms of certain combinations of commuting integrals of motions of the two particle hyperbolic BC2 Calogero-Sutherland system. The permutation and reflection properties of the underlying Dunkl operators play crucial roles in establishing such a connection. Next, we show that the scalar superconformal blocks in SCFTs with four and eight supercharges and suitable chirality constraints can also be identified with the eigenfunctions of the same Calogero-Sutherland system, this demonstrates the universality of such a connection. Finally, we observe that the so-called "seed" conformal blocks for constructing four point functions for operators with arbitrary space-time spins in four dime...

  13. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Portland, OR EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  14. Custom shielding blocks - a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In delivering radiation to the cancer patients, we need to shield the critical organs which come in the way of the radiation treatment portal. To avoid critical organs getting more than the tolerable dose, we use shielding blocks, which restrict the radiation to the tumour volume. Various metals are being used as shielding materials. The transmission through the shielding block should be less than 5% and the thickness of the material needed to achieve this transmission is 5 HVL. Lead is commonly used for shielding. Another material called Cerrobend (Low Melting Alloy) is used to prepare custom shielding blocks. The standard lead blocks supplied is of 5 cm thickness and for Cerrobend (LMA), the equivalent thickness required is 7.5 cm. In this paper, a comparison between the standard lead and LMA is described

  15. Extensions to the two atom blocking model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains viewgraphs on the use of the blocking model to describe atom-atom collisions in solids. Experimental results on two particle emissions for attractive and repulsive coulomb potentials are given

  16. EnviroAtlas - Austin, TX - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Austin, TX EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: progressive familial heart block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions progressive familial heart block progressive ...

  18. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Memphis, TN EnviroAtlas community. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based...

  19. Functionalization of Block Copolymer Vesicle Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Meier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In dilute aqueous solutions certain amphiphilic block copolymers self-assemble into vesicles that enclose a small pool of water with a membrane. Such polymersomes have promising applications ranging from targeted drug-delivery devices, to biosensors, and nanoreactors. Interactions between block copolymer membranes and their surroundings are important factors that determine their potential biomedical applications. Such interactions are influenced predominantly by the membrane surface. We review methods to functionalize block copolymer vesicle surfaces by chemical means with ligands such as antibodies, adhesion moieties, enzymes, carbohydrates and fluorophores. Furthermore, surface-functionalization can be achieved by self-assembly of polymers that carry ligands at their chain ends or in their hydrophilic blocks. While this review focuses on the strategies to functionalize vesicle surfaces, the applications realized by, and envisioned for, such functional polymersomes are also highlighted.

  20. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Paterson, NJ EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  1. EnviroAtlas - Pittsburgh, PA - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Pittsburgh, PA EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based...

  2. Blocking Detection Based on Synoptic Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Schalge

    2011-01-01

    minimum zonal width, and (iii a persistence filter to extract events with a minimum duration. Practical filter application is analysed in two case studies and the blocking climatologies for the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere.

  3. Deformations of one-dimensional block media

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksandrova, Nadezhda

    2014-01-01

    The paper gives a description of wave propagation in discrete-periodic one-dimensional media with block structure. For one-dimensional problems mathematical models are proposed that describe block structures in the form of a mass chain or bars connected by elastic springs and viscous dampers. For these models, the numerical calculations of the parameters of perturbations are obtained as well as asymptotic solutions at large time since the beginning of pulse action. The numerical calculations and analytical solutions are compared.

  4. Ophthalmic regional blocks: management, challenges, and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palte, Howard D

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade ophthalmic anesthesia has witnessed a major transformation. The sun has set on the landscape of ophthalmic procedures performed under general anesthesia at in-hospital settings. In its place a new dawn has ushered in the panorama of eye surgeries conducted under regional and topical anesthesia at specialty eye care centers. The impact of the burgeoning geriatric population is that an increasing number of elderly patients will present for eye surgery. In order to accommodate increased patient volumes and simultaneously satisfy administrative initiatives directed at economic frugality, administrators will seek assistance from anesthesia providers in adopting measures that enhance operating room efficiency. The performance of eye blocks in a holding suite meets many of these objectives. Unfortunately, most practicing anesthesiologists resist performing ophthalmic regional blocks because they lack formal training. In future, anesthesiologists will need to block eyes and manage common medical conditions because economic pressures will eliminate routine preoperative testing. This review addresses a variety of topical issues in ophthalmic anesthesia with special emphasis on cannula and needle-based blocks and the new-generation antithrombotic agents. In a constantly evolving arena, the sub-Tenon's block has gained popularity while the deep angulated intraconal (retrobulbar) block has been largely superseded by the shallower extraconal (peribulbar) approach. Improvements in surgical technique have also impacted anesthetic practice. For example, phacoemulsification techniques facilitate the conduct of cataract surgery under topical anesthesia, and suture-free vitrectomy ports may cause venous air embolism during air/fluid exchange. Hyaluronidase is a useful adjuvant because it promotes local anesthetic diffusion and hastens block onset time but it is allergenic. Ultrasound-guided eye blocks afford real-time visualization of needle position and local

  5. Deformations of one-dimensional block media

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandrova, Nadezhda

    2014-01-01

    The paper gives a description of wave propagation in discrete-periodic one-dimensional media with block structure. For one-dimensional problems mathematical models are proposed that describe block structures in the form of a mass chain or bars connected by elastic springs and viscous dampers. For these models, the numerical calculations of the parameters of perturbations are obtained as well as asymptotic solutions at large time since the beginning of pulse action. The numerical calculations ...

  6. Investigating Mortality Uncertainty Using the Block Bootstrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a block bootstrap method for measuring mortality risk under the Lee-Carter model framework. In order to take account of all sources of risk (the process risk, the parameter risk, and the model risk properly, a block bootstrap is needed to cope with the spatial dependence found in the residuals. As a result, the prediction intervals we obtain for life expectancy are more accurate than the ones obtained from other similar methods.

  7. Building blocks for embedded control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Broenink, Jan F.; Hilderink, Gerald H.; Bakkers, André W.P.; Veen, Jean Pierre

    2000-01-01

    Developing embedded control systems using a building-block approach at all the parts enables an efficient and fast design process. Main reasons are the real plug-and-play capabilities of the blocks. Furthermore, due the simulatability of the designs, parts of the system can already be tested before the other parts are available. We have applied an object-oriented approach for modeling all three parts of embedded control systems: compositional programming for the embedded software parts; VHDL ...

  8. Investigating Mortality Uncertainty Using the Block Bootstrap

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoming Liu; W. John Braun

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a block bootstrap method for measuring mortality risk under the Lee-Carter model framework. In order to take account of all sources of risk (the process risk, the parameter risk, and the model risk) properly, a block bootstrap is needed to cope with the spatial dependence found in the residuals. As a result, the prediction intervals we obtain for life expectancy are more accurate than the ones obtained from other similar methods.

  9. Theoretical comparisons of block bootstrap methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lahiri, S. N.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the asymptotic behavior of some common block bootstrap methods based on nonrandom as well as random block lengths. It is shown that, asymptotically, bootstrap estimators derived using any of the methods considered in the paper have the same amount of bias to the first order. However, the variances of these bootstrap estimators may be different even in the first order. Expansions for the bias, the variance and the mean-squared error of different bloc...

  10. Paravertebral block: review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Karaman Ilić, Maja; NESEK ADAM, VIŠNJA; MATOLIĆ, MARTINA; Kogler, Jana; Butković, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Paravertebral Block (PVB) is an established regional anesthetic technique. It is technically easy to perform and is being used increasingly for intra-operative and post-operative analgesia. This popularity is mainly due to the ease of the technique and fewer complications. Materials and Methods: This is quantitative systematic review of literature database with the aim to assess the efficacy and safety of Paravertebral block in thoracic, abdominal and breast surgery. Resul...

  11. Determining Block Detector Positions for PET Scanners

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, Larry; Miyaoka, Robert; Lewellen, Tom; Alessio, Adam; Kinahan, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We present an algorithm for accurate localization of block detectors in a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner. Accurate reconstruction of PET images requires precise knowledge of the physical position and orientation of the detectors. However, in some systems, block detector positioning and orientation can have relatively large tolerances, leading to implicit errors in the coincidence line-of-response (LOR) positioning. To compensate we utilize a rotating point source phantom where the...

  12. A Twisted Block Tangential Filtering Decomposition Preconditioner

    OpenAIRE

    Linzhang Lu; Qiang Niu; Ruirui Wang

    2009-01-01

    For block-tridiagonal linear system of equations, a variant of tangential filtering preconditioners is proposed in this paper. The new variant is based on a twisted block factorization along with certain filtering property. For practical usage, a class of composite preconditioners tested, which are constructed by combining the twisted tangential filtering decomposition preconditioner with the classical ILU(0) preconditioner in a multiplicative way. The performance of the new preconditioners i...

  13. Latent Block Model for Contingency Table

    OpenAIRE

    Govaert, Gérard; Nadif, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Although many clustering procedures aim to construct an optimal partition of objects or, sometimes, variables, there are other methods, called block clustering methods, which simultaneously consider the two sets and organize the data into homogeneous blocks. This kind of method has practical importance in a wide variety of applications such as text and market basket data analysis. Typically, the data that arise in these applications are arranged as a two-way contingency table. Using Poisson d...

  14. Theory of circuit block switch-off

    OpenAIRE

    S. Henzler; J. Berthold; G. Georgakos; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2005-01-01

    Switching-off unused circuit blocks is a promising approach to supress static leakage currents in ultra deep sub-micron CMOS digital systems. Basic performance parameters of Circuit Block Switch-Off (CBSO) schemes are defined and their dependence on basic circuit parameters is estimated. Therefore the design trade-off between strong leakage suppression in idle mode and adequate dynamic performance in active mode can be supported by simple analytic investigations. Additionally, a guideline for...

  15. MIBSA: Multi Interacting Blocks for Slope Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattola, Giuseppe; Crosta, Giovanni; Castellanza, Riccardo; di Prisco, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    As it is well known, the slope instabilities have very important consequences in terms of human lives and activities. So predicting the evolution in time and space of slope mass movements becomes fundamental. This is even more relevant when we consider that the triggering mechanisms are a rising ground water level and the occurrence of earthquakes. Therefore, seasonal rainfall has a direct influence on the triggering of large rock and earthslide with a composite failure surface and causing differential behaviors within the sliding mass. In this contribution, a model describing the slope mass by means of an array of blocks that move on a prefixed failure surface, is defined. A shear band located at the base of each block, whose behavior is modelled via a viscous plastic model based on the Perzyna's approach, controls the slip velocity of the block. The motion of the blocks is obtained by solving the second balance equation in which the normal and tangential interaction forces are obtained by a specific interaction model. The model has been implemented in an original code and it is used to perform a parametric analysis that describes the effects of block interactions under a transient ground water oscillation. The numerical results confirm that the normal and tangential interactions between blocks can inhibit or induce the slope movements. The model is tested against some real case studies. This model is under development to add the dynamic effects generated by earthquake shaking.

  16. Block copolymer membranes for aqueous solution applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-03-22

    Block copolymers are known for their intricate morphology. We review the state of the art of block copolymer membranes and discuss perspectives in this field. The main focus is on pore morphology tuning with a short introduction on non-porous membranes. The two main strategies for pore formation in block copolymer membranes are (i) film casting and selective block sacrifice and (ii) self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation (SNIPS). Different fundamental aspects involved in the manufacture of block copolymer membranes are considered, including factors affecting the equilibrium morphology in solid films, self-assembly of copolymer in solutions and macrophase separation by solvent-non-solvent exchange. Different mechanisms are proposed for different depths of the SNIPS membrane. Block copolymer membranes can be prepared with much narrower pore size distribution than homopolymer membranes. Open questions and indications of what we consider the next development steps are finally discussed. They include the synthesis and application of new copolymers and specific functionalization, adding characteristics to respond to stimuli and chemical environment, polymerization-induced phase separation, and the manufacture of organic-inorganic hybrids.

  17. Dietary cholesterol modulates pathogen blocking by Wolbachia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P Caragata

    Full Text Available The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis protects its hosts from a range of pathogens by limiting their ability to form infections inside the insect. This "pathogen blocking" could be explained by innate immune priming by the symbiont, competition for host-derived resources between pathogens and Wolbachia, or the direct modification of the cell or cellular environment by Wolbachia. Recent comparative work in Drosophila and the mosquito Aedes aegypti has shown that an immune response is not required for pathogen blocking, implying that there must be an additional component to the mechanism. Here we have examined the involvement of cholesterol in pathogen blocking using a system of dietary manipulation in Drosophila melanogaster in combination with challenge by Drosophila C virus (DCV, a common fly pathogen. We observed that flies reared on cholesterol-enriched diets infected with the Wolbachia strains wMelPop and wMelCS exhibited reduced pathogen blocking, with viral-induced mortality occurring 2-5 days earlier than flies reared on Standard diet. This shift toward greater virulence in the presence of cholesterol also corresponded to higher viral copy numbers in the host. Interestingly, an increase in dietary cholesterol did not have an effect on Wolbachia density except in one case, but this did not directly affect the strength of pathogen blocking. Our results indicate that host cholesterol levels are involved with the ability of Wolbachia-infected flies to resist DCV infections, suggesting that cholesterol contributes to the underlying mechanism of pathogen blocking.

  18. Rheological and Mechanical behaviour of Block copolymers, Multigraft copolymers and Block copolymer Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Thunga, Mahendra

    2009-01-01

    Block copolymers are commercially significant and fundamentally interesting class of polymeric materials. The ability to undergo interfacial thermodynamics-controlled microphase separation from a completely disordered state in the melt to a specifically defined ordered structure through self-organization makes the block copolymers based materials unique. Block copolymer are strongly replacing many of the commercially available polymers due to their unique microstructure and properties. The mo...

  19. Adductor canal block versus femoral nerve block for analgesia after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Pia; Zaric, Dusanka; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Hilsted, Karen Lisa; Bjerregaard, Jens; Gyrn, Jens; Mathiesen, Ole; Larsen, Tommy; Dahl, J�rgen Berg

    2013-01-01

    Femoral nerve block (FNB), a commonly used postoperative pain treatment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), reduces quadriceps muscle strength essential for mobilization. In contrast, adductor canal block (ACB) is predominately a sensory nerve block. We hypothesized that ACB preserves quadriceps...... muscle strength as compared with FNB (primary end point) in patients after TKA. Secondary end points were effects on morphine consumption, pain, adductor muscle strength, morphine-related complications, and mobilization ability....

  20. Real-time ultrasound-guided comparison of adductor canal block and psoas compartment block combined with sciatic nerve block in laparoscopic knee surgeries

    OpenAIRE

    Messeha, Medhat M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lumbar plexus block, combined with a sciatic nerve block, is an effective locoregional anesthetic technique for analgesia and anesthesia of the lower extremity. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical results outcome of the adductor canal block versus the psoas compartment block combined with sciatic nerve block using real time ultrasound guidance in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic knee surgeries. Patients and Methods: Ninety patients who were undergoing electi...

  1. A comparison of four different block bootstrap methods

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Radovanov; Aleksandra Marcikić

    2014-01-01

    The paper contains a description of four different block bootstrap methods, i.e., non-overlapping block bootstrap, overlapping block bootstrap (moving block bootstrap), stationary block bootstrap and subsampling. Furthermore, the basic goal of this paper is to quantify relative efficiency of each mentioned block bootstrap procedure and then to compare those methods. To achieve the goal, we measure mean square errors of estimation variance returns. The returns are calculated from 1250 daily ob...

  2. Randomized Block Subgradient Methods for Convex Nonsmooth and Stochastic Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Qi; Lan, Guanghui; Rangarajan, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Block coordinate descent methods and stochastic subgradient methods have been extensively studied in optimization and machine learning. By combining randomized block sampling with stochastic subgradient methods based on dual averaging, we present stochastic block dual averaging (SBDA)---a novel class of block subgradient methods for convex nonsmooth and stochastic optimization. SBDA requires only a block of subgradients and updates blocks of variables and hence has significantly lower iterati...

  3. Regulating block copolymer phases via selective homopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase behavior of strongly segregated AB diblock copolymer and selective C homopolymer blends is examined theoretically using a combination of strong stretching theory (SST) and self-consistent field theory (SCFT). The C-homopolymer is immiscible with the B-blocks but strongly attractive with the A-blocks. The effect of homopolymer content on the order-order phase transitions is analyzed. It is observed that, for AB diblock copolymers with majority A-blocks, the addition of the C-homopolymers results in lamellar to cylindrical to spherical phase transitions because of the A/C complexation. For diblock copolymers with minor A-blocks, adding C-homopolymers leads to transitions from spherical or cylindrical morphology with A-rich core to lamellae to inverted cylindrical and spherical morphologies with B-rich core. The results from analytical SST and numerical SCFT are in good agreement within most regions of the phase diagram. But the deviation becomes more obvious when the composition of A-blocks is too small and the content of added C-homopolymers is large enough, where the SCFT predicts a narrow co-existence region between different ordered phases. Furthermore, it is found that the phase behavior of the system is insensitive to the molecular weight of C-homopolymer

  4. Mineral resources estimation based on block modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargawa, Waterman Sulistyana; Amri, Nur Ali

    2016-02-01

    The estimation in this paper uses three kinds of block models of nearest neighbor polygon, inverse distance squared and ordinary kriging. The techniques are weighting scheme which is based on the principle that block content is a linear combination of the grade data or the sample around the block being estimated. The case study in Pongkor area, here is gold-silver resource modeling that allegedly shaped of quartz vein as a hydrothermal process of epithermal type. Resources modeling includes of data entry, statistical and variography analysis of topography and geological model, the block model construction, estimation parameter, presentation model and tabulation of mineral resources. Skewed distribution, here isolated by robust semivariogram. The mineral resources classification generated in this model based on an analysis of the kriging standard deviation and number of samples which are used in the estimation of each block. Research results are used to evaluate the performance of OK and IDS estimator. Based on the visual and statistical analysis, concluded that the model of OK gives the estimation closer to the data used for modeling.

  5. Partial transmission block production for real efficient method of block and MLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Min; Park, Ju Young; Ju, Sang Kyu; Park, Jong Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sunkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-09-15

    The Vaginal, the urethra, the vulva and anal cancer avoid the many dose to femur head and the additional treatment is necessary in inguinal LN. The partial transmission block to use inguinal LN addition there is to a method which it treats and produce partial transmission block a method and the MLC which to it analyzes. The Inguinal the LN treatment patient partial transmission it used block and the MLC in the object and with solid water phantom with the patient it reappeared the same depth. In order to analyze the error of the junction the EDR2 (Extended dose range, the Kodak and the U.S) it used the Film and it got film scanner it got the beam profile. The partial transmission block and the MLC bias characteristic, accuracy and stability of production for, it shared at hour and comparison it analyzed. The partial the transmission block compares in the MLC and the block production is difficult and production hour also above 1 hours. The custom the block the place where it revises the error of the junction is a difficult problem. If use of the MLC the fabrication will be break and only the periodical calibration of the MLC it will do and it will be able to use easily. The Inguinal there is to LN treatment and partial transmission block and the MLC there is efficiency of each one but there is a place where the junction of block for partial transmission block the production hour is caught long and it fixes and a point where the control of the block is difficult. Like this problem it transfers with the MLC and if it treats, it means the effective treatment will be possible.

  6. Partial transmission block production for real efficient method of block and MLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vaginal, the urethra, the vulva and anal cancer avoid the many dose to femur head and the additional treatment is necessary in inguinal LN. The partial transmission block to use inguinal LN addition there is to a method which it treats and produce partial transmission block a method and the MLC which to it analyzes. The Inguinal the LN treatment patient partial transmission it used block and the MLC in the object and with solid water phantom with the patient it reappeared the same depth. In order to analyze the error of the junction the EDR2 (Extended dose range, the Kodak and the U.S) it used the Film and it got film scanner it got the beam profile. The partial transmission block and the MLC bias characteristic, accuracy and stability of production for, it shared at hour and comparison it analyzed. The partial the transmission block compares in the MLC and the block production is difficult and production hour also above 1 hours. The custom the block the place where it revises the error of the junction is a difficult problem. If use of the MLC the fabrication will be break and only the periodical calibration of the MLC it will do and it will be able to use easily. The Inguinal there is to LN treatment and partial transmission block and the MLC there is efficiency of each one but there is a place where the junction of block for partial transmission block the production hour is caught long and it fixes and a point where the control of the block is difficult. Like this problem it transfers with the MLC and if it treats, it means the effective treatment will be possible.

  7. Application of multi-block methods in cement production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svinning, K.; Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2008-01-01

    Compressive strength at 1 day of Portland cement as a function of the microstructure of cement was statistically modelled by application of multi-block regression method. The observation X-matrix was partitioned into four blocks, the first block representing the mineralogy, the second particle size...... distribution and the two last blocks the superficial microstructure analysed by differential thermo gravimetric analysis. The multi-block method is used to identify the role of each part. The score vectors of each block can be analysed separately or together with score vectors of other blocks. Stepwise...... regression is used to find minimum number of variables of each block. The multi-block method proved useful in determining the modelling strength of each data block and finding minimum number of variables within each data block....

  8. Can neural blocks prevent phantom limb pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Battista; D'Addabbo, Marco; Borghi, Raffaele

    2014-07-01

    Phantom limb syndrome (PLS) is a syndrome including stump pain, phantom limb pain and not-painful phantom sensations, which involves a large part of amputee patients and often has devastating effects on their quality of life. The efficacy of standard therapies is very poor. Nerve blocks have been investigated for the treatment and prevention of PLS. Epidural and peripheral blocks limited to the first three postamputation days can only reduce acute pain but cannot prevent the later development of PLS. Recent studies have shown that ambulatory prolonged peripheral nerve block (up to 30 days postamputation) may represent a new possible option to treat phantom pain and prevent the development of PLS and chronic pain. PMID:25300383

  9. Parametric dependence of irregular conformal block

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Sang-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Irregular conformal block is an important tool to study a new type of conformal theories, which can be constructed as the colliding limit of the regular conformal block. The irregular conformal block is realized as the $\\beta$-deformed Penner matrix model whose partition function is regarded as the inner product of the irregular modules. The parameter dependence of the inner product is obtained explicitly using the loop equation with close attention to singularities in the parameter space. It is noted that the exact singular structure of the parameter space in general can be found using a very simple and powerful method which uses the flow equations of the partition function together with the hierarchical structure of the singularity. This method gives the exact expression to all orders of large $N$ expansion without using the explicit contour integral of the filling fraction.

  10. GEOMECHANICAL OBSERVATIONS DURING THE LARGE BLOCK TEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of the geomechanical studies conducted at the Large Block Test at Fran Ridge, near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The 3-dimensional geomechanical response of the rock to heating is being monitored using instrumentation mounted in boreholes and on the surface of the block. Results show that thermal expansion of the block began a few hours after the start of heating, and is closely correlated with the thermal history. Horizontal expansion increases as a linear function of height. Comparison of observed deformations with continuum simulations shows that below the heater plane deformation is smaller than predicted, while above the heater plane, observed deformation is larger than predicted, and is consistent with opening of vertical fractures. Fracture monitors indicate that movement on a large horizontal fracture is associated with hydrothermal behavior

  11. GEOMECHANICAL OBSERVATIONS DURING THE LARGE BLOCK TEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEPHEN C. BLAIR AND STEPHANIE A. WOOD

    1998-04-10

    This paper presents an overview of the geomechanical studies conducted at the Large Block Test at Fran Ridge, near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The 3-dimensional geomechanical response of the rock to heating is being monitored using instrumentation mounted in boreholes and on the surface of the block. Results show that thermal expansion of the block began a few hours after the start of heating, and is closely correlated with the thermal history. Horizontal expansion increases as a linear function of height. Comparison of observed deformations with continuum simulations shows that below the heater plane deformation is smaller than predicted, while above the heater plane, observed deformation is larger than predicted, and is consistent with opening of vertical fractures. Fracture monitors indicate that movement on a large horizontal fracture is associated with hydrothermal behavior.

  12. Radial expansion for spinning conformal blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel$uPorto U.; Penedones, João; Trevisani, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a method to compute any bosonic conformal block as a series expansion in the optimal radial coordinate introduced by Hogervorst and Rychkov. The method reduces to the known result when the external operators are all the same scalar operator, but it allows to compute conformal blocks for external operators with spin. Moreover, we explain how to write closed form recursion relations for the coefficients of the expansions. We study three examples of four point functions in detail: one vector and three scalars; two vectors and two scalars; two spin 2 tensors and two scalars. Finally, for the case of two external vectors, we also provide a more efficient way to generate the series expansion using the analytic structure of the blocks as a function of the scaling dimension of the exchanged operator.

  13. Micellization and Characterization of Block Copolymer Detergents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    Triblock copolymers of the type EPE, where E and P denote ethylene oxide and propylene oxide blocks, respectively, are used widely in industry as emulsifiers, anti-foaming agents, and in delayed drug release. EPE copolymers form micelles with a core of P blocks and different micellar shapes...... depending on block length ratios and temperature. The micellization process with increasing temperature or concentration has been followed by a number of techniques including differential scanning calorimetry and surface tension measurements. The detailed micellar mechanism is not well understood and...... different models have been proposed. Results obtained by a range of liquid chromatographic methods will be shown and it will be demonstrated that commercial EPE copolymers are inhomogeneous at several levels and many of their unusual properties reflect the presence of impurities....

  14. Performance of Laterite-Cement Blocks as Walling Units in Relation to Sandcrete Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Isiwu AGUWA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the performance of laterite-cement blocks as walling materials in relation to those of sandcrete was conducted, for the purpose of establishing a cheaper building material in Minna, Niger state, Nigeria and surrounding towns, in the present ever increasing cost of building material. An A-2-6 laterite according to the AASHTO classification system was stabilized with 0-10% cement content by weight of the soil at a constant interval of 2% to produce 20 blocks of size 100mm × 100mm × 100mm for each mix. One hundred laterite-cement blocks were produced, cured under laboratory conditions and subjected to compressive strength test at 7, 14, 21, and 28-days of age, in five applications for each cement mix ratio. The average compressive strength was determined from five blocks crushed in each mix at every age of curing and the same procedure was repeated using sandcrete blocks. At a common cement content of 6%, the compressive strengths, densities, water absorption and the cost per square metre of wall for both types of blocks were determined. The study recommends the use of laterite-cement blocks as walling materials in Minna and environs because it has better engineering properties and more economical with a saving of 30% per square metre of wall when compared with the use of sandcrete blocks.

  15. Therapeutic Effect of Oridonin Tablet on Acetic Acid-induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice%冬凌草甲素片对醋酸诱导的小鼠溃疡性结肠炎的治疗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧凯宏; 杜丽东; 刘晓梅; 马骏; 任远

    2012-01-01

    目的 考察冬凌草甲素片口服给药对醋酸诱导的小鼠溃疡性结肠炎的治疗作用.方法 醋酸诱导的溃疡性结肠炎小鼠分别给予不同剂量的冬凌草甲素片灌胃给药,给药7d后,考察冬凌草甲素片对溃疡性结肠炎小鼠病变活动(体质量、便潜血及粪便性状)的影响,以及对结肠病理组织学变化,结肠髓过氧化物酶活性及胸腺和脾脏指数的影响.结果 冬凌草甲素片口服给药可剂量依赖性的降低结肠炎小鼠的病变活动、减轻结肠炎症、降低髓过氧化物酶活性,改善免疫器官脏器指数,以冬凌草甲素片高剂量给药组的作用更为显著.结论 高剂量冬凌草甲素片口服给药对醋酸诱导的小鼠溃疡性结肠炎具有治疗作用,其机制可能与冬凌草甲素的抗炎和免疫调节作用有关.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the therapeutic effect of Oridonin tablet on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in mice.METHODS Oridonin tablets at different dosages were administered orally to acetic acid-induced colitis mice.After 7 days of treatment,the effects of Oridonin tablet on disease activity (i.e.body weight,stool blood,and stool consistency),colonic macroscopic and histological score,myleoperoxidase activity,and thymic and splenic indexes were evaluated in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in mice.RESULTS Oridonin tablet treatment dose-dependently reduced the disease activity,attenuated colonic inflammation and myleoperoxidase activity,and improved the thymic and splenic indexes in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in mice,especially in high dose of Oridonin tablet treated group.CONCLUSION High dose of Oridonin tablet treatment shows therapeutic effect on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in mice,the underlying mechanism may have close correlation with its anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory effects.

  16. Materials Design for Block Copolymer Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat, Daniel Patrick

    Block copolymers (BCPs) have attracted a great deal of scientific and technological interest due to their ability to spontaneously self-assemble into dense periodic nanostructures with a typical length scale of 5 to 50 nm. The use of self-assembled BCP thin-films as templates to form nanopatterns over large-area is referred to as BCP lithography. Directed self-assembly of BCPs is now viewed as a viable candidate for sub-20 nm lithography by the semiconductor industry. However, there are multiple aspects of assembly and materials design that need to be addressed in order for BCP lithography to be successful. These include substrate modification with polymer brushes or mats, tailoring of the block copolymer chemistry, understanding thin-film assembly and developing epitaxial like methods to control long range alignment. The rational design, synthesis and self-assembly of block copolymers with large interaction parameters (chi) is described in the first part of this dissertation. Two main blocks were chosen for introducing polarity into the BCP system, namely poly(4-hydroxystyrene) and poly(2-vinylpyridine). Each of these blocks are capable of ligating Lewis acids which can increase the etch contrast between the blocks allowing for facile pattern transfer to the underlying substrate. These BCPs were synthesized by living anionic polymerization and showed excellent control over molecular weight and dispersity, providing access to sub 5-nm domain sizes. Polymer brushes consist of a polymer chain with one end tethered to the surface and have wide applicability in tuning surface energy, forming responsive surfaces and increasing biocompatibility. In the second part of the dissertation, we present a universal method to grow dense polymer brushes on a wide range of substrates and combine this chemistry with BCP assembly to fabricate nanopatterned polymer brushes. This is the first demonstration of introducing additional functionality into a BCP directing layer and opens up

  17. Wilson loop invariants from WN conformal blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Oleg; Novaes, Fábio

    2015-12-01

    Knot and link polynomials are topological invariants calculated from the expectation value of loop operators in topological field theories. In 3D Chern-Simons theory, these invariants can be found from crossing and braiding matrices of four-point conformal blocks of the boundary 2D CFT. We calculate crossing and braiding matrices for WN conformal blocks with one component in the fundamental representation and another component in a rectangular representation of SU (N), which can be used to obtain HOMFLY knot and link invariants for these cases. We also discuss how our approach can be generalized to invariants in higher-representations of WN algebra.

  18. WZW superconformal blocks from three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-dimensional theory whose canonical quantization yields wavefunctions which can be identified with the superconformal blocks of two-dimensional super-Wess-Zumino-Witten theory is presented. In particular, the anomalous Ward identities satisfied by the superconformal blocks in the presence of a supergauge background are reproduced in terms of constraints obeyed by the wavefunctions of the three-dimensional theory. The action contains the bosonic Chern-Simons action but does not possess a three-dimensional supersymmetry. The 'time' coordinate plays the role of an interpolating parameter between two-dimensional superconnections. The structure of the Hilbert space of the theory is examined. (orig.)

  19. Ophthalmic regional blocks: management, challenges, and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palte HD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Howard D Palte Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and Pain Management, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: In the past decade ophthalmic anesthesia has witnessed a major transformation. The sun has set on the landscape of ophthalmic procedures performed under general anesthesia at in-hospital settings. In its place a new dawn has ushered in the panorama of eye surgeries conducted under regional and topical anesthesia at specialty eye care centers. The impact of the burgeoning geriatric population is that an increasing number of elderly patients will present for eye surgery. In order to accommodate increased patient volumes and simultaneously satisfy administrative initiatives directed at economic frugality, administrators will seek assistance from anesthesia providers in adopting measures that enhance operating room efficiency. The performance of eye blocks in a holding suite meets many of these objectives. Unfortunately, most practicing anesthesiologists resist performing ophthalmic regional blocks because they lack formal training. In future, anesthesiologists will need to block eyes and manage common medical conditions because economic pressures will eliminate routine preoperative testing. This review addresses a variety of topical issues in ophthalmic anesthesia with special emphasis on cannula and needle-based blocks and the new-generation antithrombotic agents. In a constantly evolving arena, the sub-Tenon’s block has gained popularity while the deep angulated intraconal (retrobulbar block has been largely superseded by the shallower extraconal (peribulbar approach. Improvements in surgical technique have also impacted anesthetic practice. For example, phacoemulsification techniques facilitate the conduct of cataract surgery under topical anesthesia, and suture-free vitrectomy ports may cause venous air embolism during air/fluid exchange. Hyaluronidase is a useful adjuvant because it

  20. Nerve injury caused by mandibular block analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, S; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2006-01-01

    : feather light touch, pinprick, sharp/dull discrimination, warm, cold, point location, brush stroke direction, 2-point discrimination and pain perception. Gustation was tested for recognition of sweet, salt, sour and bitter. Mandibular block analgesia causes lingual nerve injury more frequently than......Fifty-four injection injuries in 52 patients were caused by mandibular block analgesia affecting the lingual nerve (n=42) and/or the inferior alveolar nerve (n=12). All patients were examined with a standardized test of neurosensory functions. The perception of the following stimuli was assessed...

  1. Superconvergence of tricubic block finite elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we first introduce interpolation operator of projection type in three dimen- sions, from which we derive weak estimates for tricubic block finite elements. Then using the estimate for the W 2, 1-seminorm of the discrete derivative Green’s function and the weak estimates, we show that the tricubic block finite element solution uh and the tricubic interpolant of projection type Πh3u have superclose gradient in the pointwise sense of the L∞-norm. Finally, this supercloseness is applied to superconvergence analysis, and the global superconvergence of the finite element approximation is derived.

  2. Building blocks for subleading helicity operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodrubetz, Daniel W.; Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.

    2016-05-01

    On-shell helicity methods provide powerful tools for determining scattering amplitudes, which have a one-to-one correspondence with leading power helicity operators in the Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) away from singular regions of phase space. We show that helicity based operators are also useful for enumerating power suppressed SCET operators, which encode subleading amplitude information about singular limits. In particular, we present a complete set of scalar helicity building blocks that are valid for constructing operators at any order in the SCET power expansion. We also describe an interesting angular momentum selection rule that restricts how these building blocks can be assembled.

  3. Wilson loop invariants from WN conformal blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Alekseev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knot and link polynomials are topological invariants calculated from the expectation value of loop operators in topological field theories. In 3D Chern–Simons theory, these invariants can be found from crossing and braiding matrices of four-point conformal blocks of the boundary 2D CFT. We calculate crossing and braiding matrices for WN conformal blocks with one component in the fundamental representation and another component in a rectangular representation of SU(N, which can be used to obtain HOMFLY knot and link invariants for these cases. We also discuss how our approach can be generalized to invariants in higher-representations of WN algebra.

  4. Substrate tolerant direct block copolymer nanolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Zhongli; Schulte, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    simplifies the main stream BC lithography process, showing a broad substrate tolerance and allowing for efficient pattern transfer over wafer scale. PDMS-rich poly(styrene-b-dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) copolymers are directly applied on substrates including polymers, silicon and graphene. A single oxygen......Block copolymer (BC) self-assembly constitutes a powerful platform for nanolithography. However, there is a need for a general approach to BC lithography that critically considers all the steps from substrate preparation to the final pattern transfer. We present a procedure that significantly...... plasma treatment enables formation of the oxidized PDMS hard mask, PS block removal and polymer or graphene substrate patterning....

  5. 30 CFR 250.611 - Traveling-block safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traveling-block safety device. 250.611 Section... Traveling-block safety device. After May 31, 1989, all units being used for well-workover operations which have both a traveling block and a crown block shall be equipped with a safety device which is...

  6. 30 CFR 250.511 - Traveling-block safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traveling-block safety device. 250.511 Section... Traveling-block safety device. All units being used for well-completion operations that have both a traveling block and a crown block must be equipped with a safety device that is designed to prevent...

  7. Block Scheduling: Center for School Success Promising Practices Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbimbo, Josephine; Gilkes, Alwyn

    2009-01-01

    This publication focuses on block scheduling. Alternative scheduling models--usually called "block scheduling" because they involve blocks of time for student learning--restructure the school day. Schools may adopt block scheduling to create more productive and personal relationships among teachers and students, to design challenging curricula…

  8. Block floating point for radar data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Lintz

    1999-01-01

    Integer, floating point, and block floating point (BFP) data formats are analyzed and compared in order to establish the mathematical tools for selection of an optimal format which fulfils the demands of high resolution radar (SAR) data to large dynamic range and adequate S/N. The analysis takes...

  9. Seed conformal blocks in 4D CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverri, Alejandro Castedo; Elkhidir, Emtinan; Karateev, Denis; Serone, Marco

    2016-02-01

    We compute in closed analytical form the minimal set of "seed" conformal blocks associated to the exchange of generic mixed symmetry spinor/tensor operators in an arbitrary representation ( ℓ, overline{ℓ} ) of the Lorentz group in four dimensional conformal field theories. These blocks arise from 4-point functions involving two scalars, one (0, | ℓ - overline{7ell;} |) and one (| ℓ - overline{ℓ} |, 0) spinors or tensors. We directly solve the set of Casimir equations, that can elegantly be written in a compact form for any ( ℓ, overline{ℓ} ), by using an educated ansatz and reducing the problem to an algebraic linear system. Various details on the form of the ansatz have been deduced by using the so called shadow formalism. The complexity of the conformal blocks depends on the value of p = | ℓ - overline{ℓ} | and grows with p, in analogy to what happens to scalar conformal blocks in d even space-time dimensions as d increases. These results open the way to bootstrap 4-point functions involving arbitrary spinor/tensor operators in four dimensional conformal field theories.

  10. Comparing MTI randomization procedures to blocked randomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Vance W; Bejleri, Klejda; Agnor, Rebecca

    2016-02-28

    Randomization is one of the cornerstones of the randomized clinical trial, and there is no shortage of methods one can use to randomize patients to treatment groups. When deciding which one to use, researchers must bear in mind that not all randomization procedures are equally adept at achieving the objective of randomization, namely, balanced treatment groups. One threat is chronological bias, and permuted blocks randomization does such a good job at controlling chronological bias that it has become the standard randomization procedure in clinical trials. But permuted blocks randomization is especially vulnerable to selection bias, so as a result, the maximum tolerated imbalance (MTI) procedures were proposed as better alternatives. In comparing the procedures, we have somewhat of a false controversy, in that actual practice goes uniformly one way (permuted blocks), whereas scientific arguments go uniformly the other way (MTI procedures). There is no argument in the literature to suggest that the permuted block design is better than or even as good as the MTI procedures, but this dearth is matched by an equivalent one regarding actual trials using the MTI procedures. So the 'controversy', if we are to call it that, pits misguided precedent against sound advice that tends to be ignored in practice. We shall review the issues to determine scientifically which of the procedures is better and, therefore, should be used. PMID:26337607

  11. Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

  12. Defying Gravity Using Jenga[TM] Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yin-Soo; Yap, Kueh-Chin

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes how Jenga[TM] blocks can be used to demonstrate the physics of an overhanging tower that appears to defy gravity. We also propose ideas for how this demonstration can be adapted for the A-level physics curriculum. (Contains 8 figures and 1 table.)

  13. Fusion energy from plasma block ignition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hora, H.; Badziak, J.; Glowacz, S.; Jablonski, S.; Skladanowski, Z.; Osman, F.; Cang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Miley, G. H.; Peng, H.; He, X.; Zhang, W.; Rohlena, Karel; Ullschmied, Jiří; Jungwirth, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 23, - (2005), s. 423-432. ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : fusion energy * laser fusion * nonlinear force * plasma block ignition * ponderomotion * skin layer Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s Impact factor: 2.590, year: 2005

  14. Iron Blocks of CMS Magnet Barrel Yoke.

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On the occasion of presenting the CMS Award 2000 to Deggendorfer Werft und Eisenbau GmbH the delivered blocks were inspected at CERN Point 5. From left to right: H. Gerwig (CERN, CMS Magnet Barrel Yoke Coordinator), G. Waurick (CERN), F. Leher (DWE, Project Engineer) and W. Schuster (DWE, Project Manager).

  15. Seed Conformal Blocks in 4D CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Echeverri, Alejandro Castedo; Karateev, Denis; Serone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We compute in closed analytical form the minimal set of "seed" conformal blocks associated to the exchange of generic mixed symmetry spinor/tensor operators in an arbitrary representation (l,\\bar l) of the Lorentz group in four dimensional conformal field theories. These blocks arise from 4-point functions involving two scalars, one (0,|l-\\bar l|) and one (|l-\\bar l|,0) spinors or tensors. We directly solve the set of Casimir equations, that can elegantly be written in a compact form for any (l,\\bar l), by using an educated ansatz and reducing the problem to an algebraic linear system. Various details on the form of the ansatz have been deduced by using the so called shadow formalism. The complexity of the conformal blocks depends on the value of p=|l-\\bar l | and grows with p, in analogy to what happens to scalar conformal blocks in d even space-time dimensions as d increases. These results open the way to bootstrap 4-point functions involving arbitrary spinor/tensor operators in four dimensional conformal f...

  16. Building Blocks for Control System Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broenink, J.F.; Hilderink, G.H.; Amerongen van, J.; Jonker, B.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    2001-01-01

    Software implementation of control laws for industrial systems seem straightforward, but is not. The computer code stemming from the control laws is mostly not more than 10 to 30% of the total. A building-block approach for embedded control system development is advocated to enable a fast and effici

  17. Quilt Blocks: Writing in the Geometry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Michelle; Thomas, Timothy G.

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of quilt pattern consisting of many quilt blocks formed by congruent triangles, for writing by the students in the geometry classrooms, is studied. It is found that the students enjoyed this method and writing also helped in understanding the geometric concepts expanding their vocabulary in geometry.

  18. Block additive functions on the Gaussian integers

    OpenAIRE

    Drmota, Michael; Peter, Grabner,; Liardet, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    International audience We present three conceptually different methods to prove distribution results for block additive functions with respect to radix expansions of the Gaussian integers. Based on generating function approaches we obtain a central limit theorem and asymptotic expansions for the moments. Furthermore, these generating functions as well as ergodic skew products are used to prove uniform distribution in residue classes and modulo 1.

  19. Role of dexamethasone in brachial plexus block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of dexamethasone added to (lignocaine) on the onset and duration of axillary brachial plexus block. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from September 2009 to March 2010. Patients and Methods: A total of 100 patients, who were scheduled for elective hand and forearm surgery under axillary brachial plexus block, were randomly allocated to group A in which patients received 40 ml 1.5% lidocaine with 2 ml of isotonic saline (0.9%) and group B in which patients received 40 ml 1.5% lidocaine with 2 ml of dexamethasone (8 mg). Nerve stimulator with insulated needle for multiple stimulations technique was used to locate the brachial plexus nerves. After the injection onset of action and duration of sensory blockade of brachial plexus were recorded at 5 minutes and 15 minutes interval. Results: Group A showed the onset of action of 21.64 ± 2.30 min and in group B it was 15.42 ± 1.44 min (p< 0.001). Duration of nerve block was 115.08 ± 10.92 min in group A and 265.42 ± 16.56 min in group B (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The addition of dexamethasone to 1.5% lignocaine solution in axillary brachial plexus block prolongs the duration of sensory blockade significantly. (author)

  20. Conditional independence of blocked ordered data

    OpenAIRE

    Iliopoulos, G.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we prove that blocks of ordered data formed by some conditioning events are mutually independent. We establish this result by considering the usual order statistics, progressively censored order statistics, and concomitants of order statistics. correspondance: Corresponding author. Tel.: +30 210 4142406. (Iliopoulos, G.) (Iliopoulos, G.) (Balakrishnan, N.) Department of Statis...

  1. Pauli blocking and dynamical multifragmentation calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear emulsion measurements of nuclear multifragmentation showed that the results of the experiments strongly depend on the nucleon-nucleon interaction cross-section. A new Pauli-blocking treatment is proposed, and the changes which occur are considered. The influence of the cross section on the results is studied. (K.A.) 9 refs.; 1 fig

  2. Observations on the SIMON Block Cipher Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kölbl, Stefan; Leander, Gregor; Tiessen, Tyge

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the general class of functions underlying the Simon block cipher. In particular, we derive efficiently computable and easily implementable expressions for the exact differential and linear behaviour of Simon-like round functions. Following up on this, we use those express...

  3. Blocked atrial bigeminy presenting with bradycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdeniz, Celal; Tanidir, Ibrahim Cansaran; Tuzcu, Volkan

    2012-01-01

    Blocked premature atrial contractions can cause bradycardia by resetting sinoatrial node and prolonging the RR intervals. Herein, we report the management of a patient with frequent premature atrial contractions in bigeminal pattern. The patient presented with symptomatic bradycardia and was successfully treated with propafenone. PMID:22469245

  4. Blocking Losses With a Photon Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moision, Burce E.; Piazzolla, Sabino

    2012-01-01

    It was not known how to assess accurately losses in a communications link due to photodetector blocking, a phenomenon wherein a detector is rendered inactive for a short time after the detection of a photon. When used to detect a communications signal, blocking leads to losses relative to an ideal detector, which may be measured as a reduction in the communications rate for a given received signal power, or an increase in the signal power required to support the same communications rate. This work involved characterizing blocking losses for single detectors and arrays of detectors. Blocking may be mitigated by spreading the signal intensity over an array of detectors, reducing the count rate on any one detector. A simple approximation was made to the blocking loss as a function of the probability that a detector is unblocked at a given time, essentially treating the blocking probability as a scaling of the detection efficiency. An exact statistical characterization was derived for a single detector, and an approximation for multiple detectors. This allowed derivation of several accurate approximations to the loss. Methods were also derived to account for a rise time in recovery, and non-uniform illumination due to diffraction and atmospheric distortion of the phase front. It was assumed that the communications signal is intensity modulated and received by an array of photon-counting photodetectors. For the purpose of this analysis, it was assumed that the detectors are ideal, in that they produce a signal that allows one to reproduce the arrival times of electrons, produced either as photoelectrons or from dark noise, exactly. For single detectors, the performance of the maximum-likelihood (ML) receiver in blocking is illustrated, as well as a maximum-count (MC) receiver, that, when receiving a pulse-position-modulated (PPM) signal, selects the symbol corresponding to the slot with the largest electron count. Whereas the MC receiver saturates at high count rates

  5. All-Trans Retinoic Acid Induces Proliferation, Survival, and Migration in A549 Lung Cancer Cells by Activating the ERK Signaling Pathway through a Transcription-Independent Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero Barceinas, Reyna Sara; García-Regalado, Alejandro; Aréchaga-Ocampo, Elena; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás; González-De la Rosa, Claudia Haydée

    2015-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been used as an antineoplastic because of its ability to promote proliferation, inhibition, and differentiation, primarily in leukemia; however, in other types of cancer, such as lung cancer, treatment with ATRA is restricted because not all the patients experience the same results. The ERK signaling pathway is dysregulated in cancer cells, including lung cancer, and this dysregulation promotes proliferation and cell invasion. In this study, we demonstrate that treatment with ATRA can activate the ERK signaling pathway by a transcription-independent mechanism through a signaling cascade that involves RARα and PI3K, promoting growth, survival, and migration in lung cancer cells. Until now, this mechanism was unknown in lung cancer cells. The inhibition of the ERK signaling pathway restores the beneficial effects of ATRA, reduces proliferation, increases apoptosis, and blocks the cell migration process in lung cancer cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that the combination of ATRA with ERK inhibitor in clinical trials for lung cancer is warranted. PMID:26557664

  6. Synthesis and Morphological Characterization of Block Copolymers for Improved Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Schricker, Scott; Palacio, Manuel; Thirumamagal, B.T.S.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-01-01

    Biocompatible polymers are known to act as scaffolds for the regeneration and growth of bone. Block copolymers are of interest as scaffold materials because a number of the blocks are biocompatible, and their nanostructure is easily tunable with synthetic techniques. In this paper, we report the synthesis of a novel class of biomaterials from block copolymers containing a hydrophobic block of methyl methacrylate and a hydrophilic block of either acrylic acid, dimethyl acrylamide, or 2-hydroxy...

  7. Iteration Complexity Analysis of Block Coordinate Descent Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Mingyi; Wang, Xiangfeng; Razaviyayn, Meisam; Luo, Zhi-Quan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a unified iteration complexity analysis for a family of general block coordinate descent (BCD) methods, covering popular methods such as the block coordinate gradient descent (BCGD) and the block coordinate proximal gradient (BCPG), under various different coordinate update rules. We unify these algorithms under the so-called Block Successive Upper-bound Minimization (BSUM) framework, and show that for a broad class of multi-block nonsmooth convex problems, all algor...

  8. Solving block linear systems with low-rank off-diagonal blocks is easily parallelizable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menkov, V. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An easily and efficiently parallelizable direct method is given for solving a block linear system Bx = y, where B = D + Q is the sum of a non-singular block diagonal matrix D and a matrix Q with low-rank blocks. This implicitly defines a new preconditioning method with an operation count close to the cost of calculating a matrix-vector product Qw for some w, plus at most twice the cost of calculating Qw for some w. When implemented on a parallel machine the processor utilization can be as good as that of those operations. Order estimates are given for the general case, and an implementation is compared to block SSOR preconditioning.

  9. Computing the Exponential of Large Block-Triangular Block-Toeplitz Matrices Encountered in Fluid Queues

    OpenAIRE

    Bini, D. A.; Dendievel, S.; Latouche, G.; Meini, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Erlangian approximation of Markovian fluid queues leads to the problem of computing the matrix exponential of a subgenerator having a block-triangular, block-Toeplitz structure. To this end, we propose some algorithms which exploit the Toeplitz structure and the properties of generators. Such algorithms allow to compute the exponential of very large matrices, which would otherwise be untreatable with standard methods. We also prove interesting decay properties of the exponential of a gene...

  10. Simple Examples for Dynamics of a Single Flexible Block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphite fuel blocks and reflector blocks are major components of a prismatic type HTGR. An earthquake loading on the stacked blocks causes rocking responses and solid impacts between them, and may lead to structural integrity problems. The dynamic analysis of block structures has a long history. A basic understanding of the rocking response of a rigid block resting on a rigid floor had not been well established until when G.W. Housner first presented it in 1963. In 1975, T.H. Lee presented a methodology for analyzing the nonlinear response of a column of stacked prismatic fuel blocks. In 1979 T. Ikushima and T. Nakazawa presented their work results on a seismic analysis of a column of stacked prismatic fuel blocks. A stochastic analysis methodology for a rocking block was introduced by Pol D. Spanos and Aik-Sion Koh. S. J. Hogan considered the dynamics of a slender rigid block mounted on a vibrating rigid table with side walls. Although, several novel methodologies and studies for a single rigid block and stacked rigid blocks have been presented, less attention has been paid to the dynamics of flexible blocks. This paper presents the dynamics and responses of a single flexible block on a vibrating floor, and compares them to the classical ones with a rigid assumption. The numerical model for the single flexible block is from Ref

  11. Palmitic Acid Induces Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines Interleukin-6, Interleukin-1β, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α via a NF-κB-Dependent Mechanism in HaCaT Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-rong Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate whether palmitic acid can be responsible for the induction of inflammatory processes, HaCaT keratinocytes were treated with palmitic acid at pathophysiologically relevant concentrations. Secretion levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, NF-κB nuclear translocation, NF-κB activation, Stat3 phosphorylation, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα mRNA and protein levels, as well as the cell proliferation ability were measured at the end of the treatment and after 24 hours of recovery. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, a selective chemical inhibitor of NF-κB and goat anti-human IL-6 polyclonal neutralizing antibody were used to inhibit NF-κB activation and IL-6 production, respectively. Our results showed that palmitic acid induced an upregulation of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β secretions, accompanied by NF-κB nuclear translocation and activation. Moreover, the effect of palmitic acid was accompanied by PPARα activation and Stat3 phosphorylation. Palmitic acid-induced IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β productions were attenuated by NF-κB inhibitor PDTC. Palmitic acid was administered in amounts able to elicit significant hyperproliferation and can be attenuated by IL-6 blockage. These data demonstrate for the first time that palmitic acid can stimulate IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β productions in HaCaT keratinocytes and cell proliferation, thereby potentially contributing to acne inflammation and pilosebaceous duct hyperkeratinization.

  12. Osmosis and thermodynamics explained by solute blocking

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Peter Hugo

    2016-01-01

    A solute-blocking model is presented that provides a kinetic explanation of osmosis and ideal solution thermodynamics. It validates a diffusive model of osmosis that is distinct from the traditional convective flow model of osmosis. Osmotic equilibrium occurs when the fraction of water molecules in solution matches the fraction of pure water molecules that have enough energy to overcome the pressure difference. Solute-blocking also provides a kinetic explanation for why Raoult's law and the other colligative properties depend on the mole fraction (but not the size) of the solute particles, resulting in a novel kinetic explanation for the entropy of mixing and chemical potential of ideal solutions. Some of its novel predictions have been confirmed, others can be tested experimentally or by simulation.

  13. Blocking Misbehaving Users in Anonymizing Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banoth, Rajkumar

    2012-01-01

    Internet services can be accessed privately through anonymizing networks like Tor. A set of routers are used to achieve this in order to hide the identity of client from server. The users of such networks often indulge into malicious activities and cause damage to popular web applications. The...... administrators of those web sites do block the IP address from which the request comes. This is not the practical solution as the hackers operate through anonymous networks. Blocking a node based on IP address will cau se misbehaving and genuine users to lost access to the web sites. This is the problem in the...... existing systems and motivation to take up this research work. The proposed system develops a security mechanism that ensures that only the misbehaving users are blackl isted while genuine users and their anonymity are preserved. Even though the misbehaving users are blacklisted, their privacy is still...

  14. N=1 SUSY Conformal Block Recursive Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Belavin, V A

    2006-01-01

    We present explicit recursive relations for the four-point superconformal block functions that are essentially particular contributions of the given conformal class to the four-point correlation function. The approach is based on the analytic properties of the superconformal blocks as functions of the conformal dimensions and the central charge of the superconformal algebra. The results are compared with the explicit analytic expressions obtained for special parameter values corresponding to the truncated operator product expansion. These recursive relations are an efficient tool for numerically studying the four--point correlation function in Super Conformal Field Theory in the framework of the bootstrap approach, similar to that in the case of the purely conformal symmetry.

  15. Essential Building Blocks of Human Nature

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Ulrich J; Willführ, Kai P

    2011-01-01

    To understand why we humans are as we are, it is necessary to look at the essential building blocks that comprise our nature. The foundations of this structure are our evolutionary origins as primates and our social roots. Upon these rest features such as our emotions, language and aesthetic preferences, with our self-perceptions, self-deceptions and thirst for knowledge right at the top. The unifying force holding these blocks together is evolutionary theory. Evolution provides a deeper understanding of human nature and, in particular, of the common roots of these different perspectives. To build a reliable and coherent model of man, leading authors from fields as diverse as primatology, anthropology, neurobiology and philosophy have joined forces to present essays  each describing their own expert perspective. Together they provide a convincing and complete picture of our own human nature.

  16. Enantiopure cyclopentane building blocks from iridoid glucosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Holbech

    The main objective of this work has been to investigate the use of the plant metabolites iridoid glucosides as starting materials in the synthesis of versatile cyclopentanoid building blocks. With the aim of isolating the iridoid glucoside catalpol (5) several species of the genus Scutellaria, i.......e. S. albida, S. woronowic, S. subvelutina, S. lateriflora, S. altissima, were investigated. It was found that in the water-soluble part of an ethanolic extract, a cinnamic ester of catalpol, scutellarioside I (348), was extractable into EtOAc. A method was developed in which the preparation of a water...... achieved by chromatography. It was found that S. woronowic and S. subvelutina were the best sources of 348, while S. albida was a good source of 5. Catalpol (5) and scutellarioside I (348) were used as starting materials in the syntheses of cyclopentanoid building blocks. Through a short sequence...

  17. Hybrid, Nanoscale Phospholipid/Block Copolymer Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liedberg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles, in which the polymeric membrane is blended with phospholipids, display interesting self-assembly behavior, incorporating the robustness and chemical versatility of polymersomes with the softness and biocompatibility of liposomes. Such structures can be conveniently characterized by preparing giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs via electroformation. Here, we are interested in exploring the self-assembly and properties of the analogous nanoscale hybrid vesicles (ca. 100 nm in diameter of the same composition prepared by film-hydration and extrusion. We show that the self-assembly and content-release behavior of nanoscale polybutadiene-b-poly(ethylene oxide (PB-PEO/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles can be tuned by the mixing ratio of the amphiphiles. In brief, these hybrids may provide alternative tools for drug delivery purposes and molecular imaging/sensing applications and clearly open up new avenues for further investigation.

  18. Remediation of spent block in Uvanas deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2007 by 'Kazatomprom' and 'Mining company' board decision, the branch of 'Mining company', 'Steppe ore management body' is reorganized in structure subdivision, the basic activity of which is organization and carrying out remediation works on spent blocks of PSV uranium deposit. In 2002 works are completed on OVOS for operating deposits Uvanas, Kanjugan, Northern Karamurun and Eastern Minkuduk. The results of present work were reported in IAEA conference. The working project 'Remediation of spent blocks of PSV uranium deposit PV-17 polygon of Steppe ore management body' approved in 2005 was developed for carrying out the remediation works. Works funding were carried out from liquidation fund of the current deposit established in accordance with the Republic of Kazakhstan law 'About interior and interior use'. Deposits remediation is the part of deposit operation life cycle which obliges to operate deposits with minimum expenditures for remediation.

  19. Thermodynamic Interactions in Organometallic Block Copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermodynamic interactions in anionically synthesized poly(styrene-block-ferrocenyldimethylsilane) (SF) copolymers were examined using birefringence, small angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS). We show that birefringence detection of the order-disorder transition is possible in colored samples provided the wavelength of the incident beam is in the tail of the absorption spectrum. The location of the order-disorder transition was confirmed by SAXS. The temperature-dependence of the Flory-Huggins parameter, χ, of SF copolymers, determined by SAXS, is similar in magnitude to that between polystyrene and polyisoprene chains. We find that χ is independent of block copolymer composition (within experimental error). We also demonstrate that the neutron scattering length densities of styrene and ferrocenyldimethylsilane moieties are identical due to a surprising cancellation of factors related to density and atomic composition

  20. Earthquakes and large block monumental structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sinopoli

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of a research program developed in the last fen years into the dynamics of large block structure is presented. The many aspects which characterize the structural behaviour and determine the complexity of the consequent dynamics are briefly discussed. The preliminary mechanical models and first results obtained are also analyzed; they allow to define the direction of the main object of the research in progress.

  1. Blocking a selective association in pigeons.

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, S J; Panlilio, L V

    1999-01-01

    Experiment 1 demonstrated for the first time a stimulus-reinforcer interaction in pigeons trained with free-operant multiple schedules of reinforcement. Pigeons that treadle pressed in the presence of a tone-light (TL) compound for food exhibited primarily visual stimulus control on a stimulus-element test, whereas pigeons that avoided shock in TL exhibited auditory control. In Experiment 2, this selective association was blocked in pigeons pretrained with the biologically contingency-disadva...

  2. The Role of Continuous Peripheral Nerve Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    José Aguirre; Alicia Del Moral; Irina Cobo; Alain Borgeat; Stephan Blumenthal

    2012-01-01

    A continuous peripheral nerve block (cPNB) is provided in the hospital and ambulatory setting. The most common use of CPNBs is in the peri- and postoperative period but different indications have been described like the treatment of chronic pain such as cancer-induced pain, complex regional pain syndrome or phantom limb pain. The documented benefits strongly depend on the analgesia quality and include decreasing baseline/dynamic pain, reducing additional analgesic requirements, decrease of po...

  3. The toroidal block and the genus expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Kashani-Poor, Amir-Kian; Troost, Jan

    2012-01-01

    We study the correspondence between four-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories and two-dimensional conformal field theories in the case of N=2* gauge theory. We emphasize the genus expansion on the gauge theory side, as obtained via geometric engineering from the topological string. This point of view uncovers modular properties of the one-point conformal block on a torus with complexified intermediate momenta: in the large intermediate weight limit, it is a power series whose coefficient...

  4. Carbonated concrete blocks for CO2 captation

    OpenAIRE

    Courard, Luc; Parmentier, Véronique; Michel, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The CO2 captation process called carbonation, improves specific properties of the concrete during the conversion of carbon dioxide CO2 into calcium carbonate CaCO3. Current environmental concerns motivate the study of carbonation in order to maximize the absorption of carbon dioxide. Moreover, lightweight concrete with bio-based products knows an interesting development in the construction field, especially as thermal insulation panels for walls in buildings. Concrete blocks produced with mis...

  5. Beta-Blocking Agents and Electroconvulsive Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Broek, Walter; Groenland, Theo; Kusuma, Ari; Birkenhäger, Tom; Pluijms, Esther; Bruijn, Jan; Mulder, Paul

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this review we want to summarize the results of the placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials with betablocking adrenergic agents during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and review the effect on seizure duration and cardiovascular variables. We searched for studies in the electronic databases Medline. Keywords combined in the search were: “beta-adrenergic blocking agents” and “electroconvulsive therapy”. The only limitation specified in the search was that the publications ...

  6. Building blocks for protein interaction devices

    OpenAIRE

    Grünberg, Raik; Ferrar, Tony S.; van der Sloot, Almer M.; Constante, Marco; Serrano, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Here, we propose a framework for the design of synthetic protein networks from modular protein–protein or protein–peptide interactions and provide a starter toolkit of protein building blocks. Our proof of concept experiments outline a general work flow for part–based protein systems engineering. We streamlined the iterative BioBrick cloning protocol and assembled 25 synthetic multidomain proteins each from seven standardized DNA fragments. A systematic screen revealed two main factors contro...

  7. Photo-Induced Micellization of Block Copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Satoshi Kuwayama; Eri Yoshida

    2010-01-01

    We found novel photo-induced micellizations through photolysis, photoelectron transfer, and photo-Claisen rearrangement. The photolysis-induced micellization was attained using poly(4-tert-butoxystyrene)-block-polystyrene diblock copolymer (PBSt-b-PSt). BSt-b-PSt showed no self-assembly in dichloromethane and existed as isolated copolymers. Dynamic light scattering demonstrated that the copolymer produced spherical micelles in this solvent due to irradiation with a high-pressure mercury lamp ...

  8. Impedance Matched Absorptive Thermal Blocking Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Wollack, E J; Rostem, K; U-Yen, K

    2014-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated and characterized absorptive thermal blocking filters for cryogenic microwave applications. The transmission line filter's input characteristic impedance is designed to match $50\\,\\Omega$ and its response has been validated from 0-to-50\\,GHz. The observed return loss in the 0-to-20\\,GHz design band is greater than $20\\,$dB and shows graceful degradation with frequency. Design considerations and equations are provided that enable this approach to be scaled and modified for use in other applications.

  9. Block-Spin Approach to Electron Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Monthoux, P.

    1997-01-01

    We consider an expansion of the ground state wavefunction of quantum lattice many-body systems in a basis whose states are tensor products of block-spin wavefunctions. We demonstrate by applying the method to the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain that by selecting the most important many-body states the technique affords a severe truncation of the Hilbert space while maintaining high accuracy.

  10. Response to Block on Abortion, Round Three

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Bożydar Wiśniewski

    2011-01-01

    Block (2011) has offered a second round of counterarguments to my criticisms (Wisniewski 2010a, 2010b) of the claim that his theory of evictionism is compatible with libertarianism. In this paper I attempt to demonstrate that my critique still stands. In particular, I focus on analyzing the argumentative weight of such issues mentioned in Block’s latest response as, among others, the distinction between proper ex post punishment and proper ex ante defense, the question of whether my causal an...

  11. Hyperkalemia-induced complete heart block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baratloo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potassium, as an extracellular ion, plays an important role in the electrophysiologic function of the myocardium and any change in extracellular concentration of this ion might have a marked impression upon myocyte electrophysiologic gain. High serum potassium levels are thought to impair pulse conduction in Purkinje fibers and ventricles more than that in the Atrioventricular (AV node. Therefore, although complete AV block can occur, it is a rare initial presentation. Case Report: We describe a 62-year-old man with a history of diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease and previous Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG, who came to our emergency department due to generalized weakness starting 2 days before admission. The patient also had decreased force in lower limbs, exacerbating from the morning, and was finally diagnosed as a hyperkalemia-induced Complete Heart Block (CHB. It should also be noted that the patient responded dramatically to the administration of 10 mL of 10% calcium gluconate along with external pacing until potassium level correction became effective. Conclusion: In spite of the fact that Hyperkalemia can be associated with frequent Electrocardiogram (ECG abnormality, advanced heart blocks (second- and third-degree AV blocks are usually found only in patients with pre-existing heart failure, conduction abnormalities, or other cardiac diseases. Institution of effective treatment rapidly and forgiveness of traditional non-effective, time consumptive and sometimes risking full-adjustment modalities, such as sodium bicarbonate infusion or exchange resins that prevent their use in the emergent phase, can help minimize patient morbidity and mortality.

  12. Sensitivity versus block sensitivity of Boolean functions

    CERN Document Server

    Virza, Madars

    2010-01-01

    Determining relationship between sensitivity and block sensitivity of Boolean functions is of interest for computational complexity theory. We construct a sequence of Boolean functions with bs(f) = 1/2 (s(f))^2+ 1/2 s(f). The best known separation previously was bs(f) = 1/2 (s(f))^2 due to Rubinstein (1995). We also report results of computer search for functions with at most 12 variables.

  13. A low cost automatic shielding block cutter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many radiotherapy treatments it is necessary to shield certain internal organs from the radiation beam covering an area of cancer. Shields may be required to match the anatomy and shape or the region to be protected from radiation, and consequently need to be customised for individual patients. A common method of producing customised shields is to pour low melting-point alloy into polystyrene foam moulds. The moulds are produced by cutting the polystyrene shapes with a heated wire. Traditionally, foam moulds have been cut by tracing a pointer, attached to a suspended heated wire, around the required shield area on a radiograph. This suspended unit was bulky and cumbersome to use. One of the major benefits of the low cost computer-controlled shielding block cutter is the improvement in the block cutting accuracy. Using the PC to digitise the shape and regulate the temperature and speed of the wire produces accurate results independent of operator skills. Computer contol permits the use of a finer wire which further increases the precision. The speed and efficiency of block production is also better due to the rejection of fewer moulds and the ability to cut multiple moulds from a single blank. The ergonomics of the computer-controlled system greatly benefits the operator. Whilst seated, the operator is able to trace shapes on radiographs and accommodate different shielding tray heights. This contrasts with the manual system which requires physical adjustment of the block to film distance. We have built three of these units for use at each of our metropolitan centres. (author)

  14. Self Assembly of Complex Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucke, David; Crespi, Vincent

    2004-03-01

    A genetic search algorithm for optimizing the packing density of self-assembled multicomponent crystals of nanoparticles applied to complex colloidal building blocks will be presented. The algorithm searches the complex multi-dimensional space to find preferred crystal structures where standard methods fail. Mixtures of colloidal molecules and the structures found to be preferred to phase separation for different species of coloidal molecule mixtures will be shown.

  15. Block Triangular Preconditioning for Stochastic Galerkin Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Bin; Lin, Guang; Xu, Jinchao

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study fast iterative solvers for the large sparse linear systems resulting from the stochastic Galerkin discretization of stochastic partial differential equations. A block triangular preconditioner is introduced and applied to the Krylov subspace methods, including the generalized minimum residual method and the generalized preconditioned conjugate gradient method. This preconditioner utilizes the special structures of the stochastic Galerkin matrices to achieve high efficie...

  16. On Ideal GMRES for a Jordan Block

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichý, Petr; Liesen, J.

    Ostrava : Institute of Geonics AS CR, 2005. s. 80-82. ISBN 80-86407-04-7. [SNA '05. Seminar on Numerical Analysis. 07.02.2005-11.02.2005, Ostrava] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB1030306; GA AV ČR 1ET400300415 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : GMRES convergence * polynomial numerical hull * Jordan block Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  17. Active Block Layout: A High Performance Block Layout Mechanism%Active Block Layout:一种高性能磁盘布局机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢军; 卢显良; 罗光春; 韩宏; 魏青松

    2003-01-01

    The access frequency of different files in file system is dissimilar. If file system can optimize the block lay-out of these hot files which are frequently accessed,the performance of file system will be improved. This paper pre-sents a high performance block layout mechanism: Active Block Layout (ABL). ABL can record the access frequencyof every file in file system and actively optimize the block layout of these hot files by block duplicating. The duplicatedblocks can be placed in the special zone of track,which is called "Cooling Zone". ABL can automatically determine theplacing position and the copy count of the blocks which need to be duplicated. In order to reduce the overhead of blockduplication,this paper also presents a mechanism which uses the potential disk bandwidth to realize the block duplica-tion,and does not obviously degrade the performance of file system.

  18. Stabilizing parquet blocks with epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Glazkov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While parquet blocks and panels from stabilized wood show much promise as finishing materials, their widespread use is limited by their low dimensional stability in variable-humidity environments. Existing solutions to stabilize the blocks have several disadvantages, including hard-to-find or toxic stabilizers. This is why this study discusses modifications of epoxy resin which has sufficient functionality for effective structuring. We analyzed the capillary-porous structure of different types of wood, and established the patterns associated with a reduction in the porosity or the specific volume of voids in pine, birch and oak. The basic characteristics of impregnating compositions indicating the high penetrative and structuring capabilities of epoxy resin have been discovered. It is shown that in addition to increasing the strength characteristics, there is a steady decline in water absorption and swelling with an increase in resin content in the wood. It has been found by the method of test fluids that curing the epoxy resin in the presence of hexamethylenediamine is accompanied by a decrease in the proportion of polar components in the total value of the surface tension. Oligomer molecules were shown to penentrate pine wood cells, providing a high moisture protection effect. The results suggest it is possible to use epoxy resin to modify parquet blocks and panels that would be used under variable humidity and high impact loads.

  19. Modelling of multi-block data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar; Svinning, K.

    2006-01-01

    Here is presented a unified approach to modelling multi-block regression data. The starting point is a partition of the data X into L data blocks, X = (X-1, X-2,...X-L), and the data Y into M data-blocks, Y = (Y-1, Y-2,...,Y-M). The methods of linear regression, X -> Y, are extended to the case...... of a linear relationship between each X-i and Y-j. X-i -> Y-j. A modelling strategy is used to decide if the residual X-i should take part in the modelling of one or more Y(j)s. At each step the procedure of finding score vectors is based on well-defined optimisation procedures. The principle of optimisation...... is based on that the score vectors should give the sizes of the resulting Y(j)s loading vectors as large as possible. The partition of X and Y are independent of each other. The choice of Y-j can be X-j, Y-i = X-i, thus including the possibility of modelling X -> X-i,i=1,...,L. It is shown how...

  20. Channel blocking of MspA revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Ayomi S; Wang, Hongwang; Basel, Matthew T; Pokhrel, Megh Raj; Gamage, Pubudu Siyambalagoda; Kalita, Mausam; Wendel, Sebastian; Sears, Bryan; Welideniya, Dhanushi; Liu, Yao; Turro, Claudia; Troyer, Deryl L; Bossmann, Stefan H

    2013-01-01

    Porin A from Mycobacterium smegmatis (MspA) is a highly stable, octameric channel protein, which acts as the main transporter of electrolytes across the cell membrane. MspA features a narrow, negatively charged constriction zone, allowing stable binding of various analytes thereby blocking the channel. Investigation of channel blocking of mycobacterial porins is of significance in developing alternate treatment methods for tuberculosis. The concept that ruthenium(II)quaterpyridinium complexes have the capability to act as efficient channel blockers for MspA and related porins, emerged after very high binding constants were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and steady-state luminescence studies. Consequently, the interactions between the ruthenium(II) complex RuC2 molecules and MspA, leading to RuC2@MspA assemblies, have been studied utilizing time-resolved absorption/emission, atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, ζ potential measurements, and isothermal titration calorimetry. The results obtained provide evidence for the formation of clusters/large aggregates of RuC2 and MspA. The results are of interest with respect to utilizing prospective channel blockers in porins. The combination of results from conceptually different techniques shed some light onto the chemical nature of MspA-channel blocker interactions thus contributing to the development of a paradigm for channel blocking. PMID:23214433

  1. Rapid self-assembly of block copolymers to photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Yan; Sveinbjornsson, Benjamin R; Grubbs, Robert H; Weitekamp, Raymond; Miyake, Garret M; Atwater, Harry A; Piunova, Victoria; Daeffler, Christopher Scot; Hong, Sung Woo; Gu, Weiyin; Russell, Thomas P.

    2016-07-05

    The invention provides a class of copolymers having useful properties, including brush block copolymers, wedge-type block copolymers and hybrid wedge and polymer block copolymers. In an embodiment, for example, block copolymers of the invention incorporate chemically different blocks comprising polymer size chain groups and/or wedge groups that significantly inhibit chain entanglement, thereby enhancing molecular self-assembly processes for generating a range of supramolecular structures, such as periodic nanostructures and microstructures. The present invention also provides useful methods of making and using copolymers, including block copolymers.

  2. β-Arrestin2 regulates lysophosphatidic acid-induced human breast tumor cell migration and invasion via Rap1 and IQGAP1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mistre Alemayehu

    Full Text Available β-Arrestins play critical roles in chemotaxis and cytoskeletal reorganization downstream of several receptor types, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, which are targets for greater than 50% of all pharmaceuticals. Among them, receptors for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, namely LPA(1 are overexpressed in breast cancer and promote metastatic spread. We have recently reported that β-arrestin2 regulates LPA(1-mediated breast cancer cell migration and invasion, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clearly understood. We show here that LPA induces activity of the small G protein, Rap1 in breast cancer cells in a β-arrestin2-dependent manner, but fails to activate Rap1 in non-malignant mammary epithelial cells. We found that Rap1A mRNA levels are higher in human breast tumors compared to healthy patient samples and Rap1A is robustly expressed in human ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive tumors, in contrast to the normal mammary ducts. Rap1A protein expression is also higher in aggressive breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and Hs578t relative to the weakly invasive MCF-7 cells or non-malignant MCF10A mammary cells. Depletion of Rap1A expression significantly impaired LPA-stimulated migration of breast cancer cells and invasiveness in three-dimensional Matrigel cultures. Furthermore, we found that β-arrestin2 associates with the actin binding protein IQGAP1 in breast cancer cells, and is necessary for the recruitment of IQGAP1 to the leading edge of migratory cells. Depletion of IQGAP1 blocked LPA-stimulated breast cancer cell invasion. Finally, we have identified that LPA enhances the binding of endogenous Rap1A to β-arrestin2, and also stimulates Rap1A and IQGAP1 to associate with LPA(1. Thus our data establish novel roles for Rap1A and IQGAP1 as critical regulators of LPA-induced breast cancer cell migration and invasion.

  3. Overexpression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in rat aortic endothelial cells attenuates palmitic acid-induced inflammation and reduction in nitric oxide bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Dai

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial dysfunction is a well documented evidence for the onset of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. Lipids disorder is among the main risk factors for endothelial dysfunction in these diseases. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR, one of the cholesterol transporters, plays an important role in the maintenance of intracellular lipid homeostasis. However, the effect of StAR on endothelial dysfunction is not well understood. Palmitic acid (PA has been shown to decrease eNOS activity and induce inflammation, both are the causes of endothelial dysfunction, in an endothelial cell culture model. Methods StAR gene was introduced into primary rat aortic endothelial cells by adenovirus infection. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine the relative genes and proteins expression level to elucidate the underlying mechanism. The free fatty acid and cholesterol quantification kits were used to detect total cellular free fatty acid and cholesterol. The levels of inflammatory factors and nitric oxide were determined by ELISA and classic Griess reagent methods respectively. Results We successfully overexpressed StAR in primary rat aortic endothelial cells. Following StAR overexpression, mRNA levels of IL-1β, TNFα, IL6 and VCAM-1 and protein levels of IL-1β, , TNFα and IL-6 in culture supernatant were significantly decreased, which duing to blocke NFκB nuclear translocation and activation. Moreover, StAR overexpression attenuated the PA-induced reduction of nitric oxide bioavailability by protecting the bioactivity of pAkt/peNOS/NO pathway. Furthermore, the key genes involved in lipid metabolism were greatly reduced following StAR overexpression. In order to investigate the underlying mechanism, cerulenin and lovastatin, the inhibitor of fatty acid and cholesterol synthase, were added prior to PA treatment. The results showed that both cerulenin and lovastatin had a similar effect as

  4. Spring-block Model for Barkhausen Noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple mechanical spring-block model is used for studying Barkhausen noise (BN). The model incorporates the generally accepted physics of domain wall movement and pinning. Computer simulations on this model reproduces the main features of the hysteresis loop and Barkhausen jumps. The statistics of the obtained Barkhausen jumps follows several scaling laws, in qualitative agreement with experimental results. The model consists of a one-dimensional frictional spring-block system. The blocks model the Bloch-walls that separate inversely oriented magnetic domains, and springs correspond to the magnetized regions. Three types of realistic forces are modelled with this system: 1. the force resulting from the magnetic energy of the neighboring domains in external magnetic field (modelled by forces having alternating orientations and acting directly on the blocks); 2. the force resulting from the magnetic self-energy of each domain (modelled by the elastic forces of the springs); 3. the pinning forces acting on the domain walls (modelled by position dependent static friction acting on blocks). The dynamics of the system is governed by searching for equilibrium: one particular domain wall can jump to the next pinning center if the resultant of forces 1. and 2. is greater then the pinning force. The external magnetic field is successively increased (or decreased) and the system is relaxed to mechanical equilibrium. During the simulations we are monitoring the variation of the magnetization focusing on the shape of the hysteresis loop, power spectrum, jump size (avalanche size) distribution, signal duration distribution, signal area distribution. The simulated shape of the hysteresis loops fulfills all the requirements for real magnetization phenomena. The power spectrum indicates different behavior in the low (1/f noise) and high (white noise) frequency region. All the relevant distribution functions show scaling behavior over several decades of magnitude with a naturally

  5. Chirped-Superlattice, Blocked-Intersubband QWIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunapala, Sarath; Ting, David; Bandara, Sumith

    2004-01-01

    An Al(x)Ga(1-x)As/GaAs quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP) of the blocked-intersubband-detector (BID) type, now undergoing development, features a chirped (that is, aperiodic) superlattice. The purpose of the chirped superlattice is to increase the quantum efficiency of the device. A somewhat lengthy background discussion is necessary to give meaning to a brief description of the present developmental QWIP. A BID QWIP was described in "MQW Based Block Intersubband Detector for Low-Background Operation" (NPO-21073), NASA Tech Briefs Vol. 25, No. 7 (July 2001), page 46. To recapitulate: The BID design was conceived in response to the deleterious effects of operation of a QWIP at low temperature under low background radiation. These effects can be summarized as a buildup of space charge and an associated high impedance and diminution of responsivity with increasing modulation frequency. The BID design, which reduces these deleterious effects, calls for a heavily doped multiple-quantum-well (MQW) emitter section with barriers that are thinner than in prior MQW devices. The thinning of the barriers results in a large overlap of sublevel wave functions, thereby creating a miniband. Because of sequential resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling of electrons from the negative ohmic contact to and between wells, any space charge is quickly neutralized. At the same time, what would otherwise be a large component of dark current attributable to tunneling current through the whole device is suppressed by placing a relatively thick, undoped, impurity-free AlxGa1 x As blocking barrier layer between the MQW emitter section and the positive ohmic contact. [This layer is similar to the thick, undoped Al(x)Ga(1-x)As layers used in photodetectors of the blocked-impurity-band (BIB) type.] Notwithstanding the aforementioned advantage afforded by the BID design, the responsivity of a BID QWIP is very low because of low collection efficiency, which, in turn, is a result of low

  6. Association of poly(4-hydroxystyrene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) in aqueous solutions: block copolymer nanoparticles with intermixed blocks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánek, M.; Hajduová, J.; Procházka, K.; Šlouf, Miroslav; Nebesářová, Jana; Mountrichas, G.; Mantzaridis, Ch.; Pispas, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2012), s. 307-313. ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/0353; GA ČR GCP205/11/J043; GA AV ČR KAN200520704 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : nanoparticles * poly(4-hydroxystyrene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) * PHOS-PEO Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.187, year: 2012

  7. Remarks on the convergence properties of the conformal block expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slava Rychkov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We show how to refine the conformal block expansion convergence estimates from arXiv:1208.6449. In doing so we find a novel explicit formula for the 3d conformal blocks on the real axis.

  8. The Blocks database--a system for protein classification.

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrokovski, S; Henikoff, J G; Henikoff, S.

    1996-01-01

    The Blocks Database contains multiple alignments of conserved regions in protein families. The database can be searched by e-mail and World Wide Web(WWW) servers (http://blocks.fhcrc.org/help) to classify protein and nucleotide sequences.

  9. A comparison of four different block bootstrap methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Radovanov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a description of four different block bootstrap methods, i.e., non-overlapping block bootstrap, overlapping block bootstrap (moving block bootstrap, stationary block bootstrap and subsampling. Furthermore, the basic goal of this paper is to quantify relative efficiency of each mentioned block bootstrap procedure and then to compare those methods. To achieve the goal, we measure mean square errors of estimation variance returns. The returns are calculated from 1250 daily observations of Serbian stock market index values BELEX15 from April 2009 to April 2014. Thereby, considering the effects of potential changes in decisions according to variations in the sample length and purposes of the use, this paper introduces stability analysis which contains robustness testing of the different sample size and the different block length. Testing results indicate some changes in bootstrap method efficiencies when altering the sample size or the block length.

  10. Outer Continental Shelf Lease Blocks - Alaska Region NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Outer Continental Shelf block outlines in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Alaska Region. OCS blocks are used to define small geographic...

  11. Measurement of the Magnet Blocks for SSRF Insertion Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two in-vacuum undulators IVU25s and one elliptically polarized undulator EPU100 have been developed for SSRF. Two IVU25s with the same hybrid design contain about 640 Sm2Co17 magnet blocks and the dimension of blocks is 65 Wx25 Hx9 D. The EPU100 of the APPLE-II type contains about 690 NdFeB magnet blocks with the dimension of 35 Wx35 Hx25 D. This paper describes the magnetic measurements of these magnet blocks with the Helmholtz coil measurement system for IVU25 magnet blocks and the Hall probe measurement system for EPU100 magnet blocks. The measured maximum magnetic moment deviation and the maximum angle deviation are less than ±1.0% and 1.1 deg. respectively both for Sm2Co17 blocks and NdFeB blocks and satisfy the specifications of undulators.

  12. Outer Continental Shelf Lease Blocks - Atlantic Region NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains OCS block outlines in ArcGIS shape file format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. OCS blocks are used to define small geographic areas within an...

  13. Lifting of a sector block for YE-2 at Kawasaki.

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Loveless/U. of Wisconsin

    2000-01-01

    YE-2 is build from machined sector blocks. Trial assembly is carried out horizontally. This picture represents the lifting of a machined sector block destined to the trial assembly of a half disk YE-2 at Kawasaki (KHI) Kobe, Japan.

  14. Metallo-supramolecular block copolymers : from synthesis to smart nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Guillet, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Supramolecular copolymers have become of increasing interest in recent years for the search of new materials with tunable properties. In particular, metallo-supramolecular block copolymers have seen important progresses since the last five years. In this thesis, a library of metallo-supramolecular amphiphilic block copolymers containing a hydrophilic block, linked to a hydrophobic block, through a metal-ligand complex has been investigated. The micelles formed in water from these copolymers...

  15. Hardware realization of chaos based block cipher for image encryption

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.

    2011-12-01

    Unlike stream ciphers, block ciphers are very essential for parallel processing applications. In this paper, the first hardware realization of chaotic-based block cipher is proposed for image encryption applications. The proposed system is tested for known cryptanalysis attacks and for different block sizes. When implemented on Virtex-IV, system performance showed high throughput and utilized small area. Passing successfully in all tests, our system proved to be secure with all block sizes. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. Effect of left bundle branch block on TIMI frame count

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice Tolunay; Ahmet Kasapkara; İsa Öner Yüksel; Nurcan Başar; Ayşe Saatcı Yaşar; Mehmet Bilge

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Left bundle branch block is an independent risk factorfor cardiac mortality. In this study we aimed to evaluatecoronary blood flow with TIMI frame count in patients with left bundle branch block and angiographically proven normal coronary arteries.Materials and methods: We retrospectively studied 17 patients with left bundle branch block and as a control group 16 patients without left bundle branch block. All patientshad angiographically proven normal coronary arteries.Left bundle branch...

  17. Intra-His bundle block: clinical, electrocardiographic, and electrophysiologic characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Eduardo M.; Atié Jacob; Maciel Washington A.; Oliveira Jr Nilson A. de; Camanho Luiz Eduardo; Belo Luís Gustavo; Carvalho Hecio Affonso de; Siqueira Leonardo; Saad Eduardo; Venancio Ana Claudia

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical, electrocardiographic, and electrophysiologic characteristics of patients (pt) with intra-His bundle block undergoing an electrophysiologic study (EPS). METHODS: We analyzed the characteristics of 16 pt with second-degree atrioventricular block and symptoms of syncope or dyspnea, or both, undergoing conventional EPS. RESULTS: Intra-His bundle block was documented in 16 pt during an EPS. In 15 (94%) pt, the atrioventricular block was recorded in sinus rhythm; ...

  18. MR Image Reconstruction Using Block Matching and Adaptive Kernel Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Johannes F. M.; Claudio Santelli; Sebastian Kozerke

    2016-01-01

    An approach to Magnetic Resonance (MR) image reconstruction from undersampled data is proposed. Undersampling artifacts are removed using an iterative thresholding algorithm applied to nonlinearly transformed image block arrays. Each block array is transformed using kernel principal component analysis where the contribution of each image block to the transform depends in a nonlinear fashion on the distance to other image blocks. Elimination of undersampling artifacts is achieved by convention...

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Magnetite Nanoparticle Block Copolymer Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qian

    2007-01-01

    Superparamagnetic Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were synthesized and complexed with carboxylate-functionalized block copolymers, and aqueous dispersions of the complexes were investigated as functions of their chemical and morphological structures. The block copolymer dispersants possessed either poly(ethylene oxide), poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide), or poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide) outer blocks, and all contained a polyurethane center block with pendant carboxylate functi...

  20. The Relationship between Block Holders and Firm Dividend Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Zandi; Alireza Shahabi; Babak Naysary

    2014-01-01

    Block holders have significant impacts on the firm's policies, especially strategies regarding the payout policy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between ownership structure and firm dividend policy considering the role of block investors in the companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE). We selected 37 public listed companies with state block holders and match them with almost similar companies with non-state block holders in 2012. Running a multiple reg...