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Sample records for blocks eosinophil release

  1. A novel antagonist of CRTH2 blocks eosinophil release from bone marrow, chemotaxis and respiratory burst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Royer, J F; Schratl, P; Lorenz, S

    2007-01-01

    developed small molecule antagonist of CRTH2, Cay10471, on eosinophil function with respect to recruitment, respiratory burst and degranulation. METHODS: Chemotaxis of guinea pig bone marrow eosinophils and human peripheral blood eosinophils were determined using microBoyden chambers. Eosinophil release...... from bone marrow was investigated in the in situ perfused guinea pig hind limb preparation. Respiratory burst and degranulation were measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Cay10471 bound with high affinity to recombinant human and guinea pig CRTH2, but not DP, receptors. The antagonist prevented the PGD......(2)-induced release of eosinophils from guinea pig bone marrow, and inhibited the chemotaxis of guinea pig bone marrow eosinophils and human peripheral blood eosinophils. Pretreatment with PGD(2) primed eosinophils for chemotaxis towards eotaxin, and this effect was prevented by Cay10471. In contrast...

  2. Th17 cytokines induce pro-fibrotic cytokines release from human eosinophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Subepithelial fibrosis is one of the most critical structural changes affecting bronchial airway function during asthma. Eosinophils have been shown to contribute to the production of pro-fibrotic cytokines, TGF-β and IL-11, however, the mechanism regulating this process is not fully understood. Objective In this report, we investigated whether cytokines associated with inflammation during asthma may induce eosinophils to produce pro-fibrotic cytokines. Methods Eosinophils were isolated from peripheral blood of 10 asthmatics and 10 normal control subjects. Eosinophils were stimulated with Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokines and the production of TGF-β and IL-11 was determined using real time PCR and ELISA assays. Results The basal expression levels of eosinophil derived TGF-β and IL-11 cytokines were comparable between asthmatic and healthy individuals. Stimulating eosinophils with Th1 and Th2 cytokines did not induce expression of pro-fibrotic cytokines. However, stimulating eosinophils with Th17 cytokines resulted in the enhancement of TGF-β and IL-11 expression in asthmatic but not healthy individuals. This effect of IL-17 on eosinophils was dependent on p38 MAPK activation as inhibiting the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but not other kinases, inhibited IL-17 induced pro-fibrotic cytokine release. Conclusions Th17 cytokines might contribute to airway fibrosis during asthma by enhancing production of eosinophil derived pro-fibrotic cytokines. Preventing the release of pro-fibrotic cytokines by blocking the effect of Th17 cytokines on eosinophils may prove to be beneficial in controlling fibrosis for disorders with IL-17 driven inflammation such as allergic and autoimmune diseases. PMID:23496774

  3. Eosinophils express muscarinic receptors and corticotropin-releasing factor to disrupt the mucosal barrier in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, Conny; Persborn, Mats; Jönsson, Maria; Wang, Arthur; Phan, Van; Lampinen, Maria; Vicario, Maria; Santos, Javier; Sherman, Philip M; Carlson, Marie; Ericson, Ann-Charlott; McKay, Derek M; Söderholm, Johan D

    2011-05-01

    Altered intestinal barrier function has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ulcerative colitis (UC) in genetic, functional, and epidemiological studies. Mast cells and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) regulate the mucosal barrier in human colon. Because eosinophils are often increased in colon tissues of patients with UC, we assessed interactions among mast cells, CRF, and eosinophils in the mucosal barrier of these patients. Transmucosal fluxes of protein antigens (horseradish peroxidase) and paracellular markers ((51)Cr-EDTA, fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4000) were studied in noninflamed, colonic mucosal biopsy samples collected from 26 patients with UC and 53 healthy volunteers (controls); samples were mounted in Ussing chambers. We also performed fluorescence and electron microscopy of human tissue samples, assessed isolated eosinophils, and performed mechanistic studies using in vitro cocultured eosinophils (15HL-60), mast cells (HMC-1), and a colonic epithelial cell line (T84). Colon tissues from patients with UC had significant increases in permeability to protein antigens compared with controls. Permeability was blocked by atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist), α-helical CRF(9-41) (a CRF receptor antagonist), and lodoxamide (a mast-cell stabilizer). Eosinophils were increased in number in UC tissues (compared with controls), expressed the most M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors of any mucosal cell type, and had immunoreactivity to CRF. In coculture studies, carbachol activation of eosinophils caused production of CRF and activation of mast cells, which increased permeability of T84 epithelial cells to macromolecules. We identified a neuroimmune intercellular circuit (from cholinergic nerves, via eosinophils to mast cells) that mediates colonic mucosal barrier dysfunction in patients with UC. This circuit might exacerbate mucosal inflammation. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Saiboku-to, a Kampo herbal medicine, inhibits LTC4 release from eosinophils

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    Koichi Hirai

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Saiboku-to (TJ-96, a traditional Kampo herbal formation, has been used in the treatment of bronchial asthma in Japan as an anti-allergy herbal medicine. We investigated the effect of TJ-96 on leukotriene (LTC4 release from eosinophils and basophils isolated from healthy volunteers. Pre-incubation of eosinophils with TJ-96 inhibited ionophore- or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP-induced LTC4 generation by eosinophils in a dose-dependent fashion. The TJ-96 was more potent in the release by ionophore (IC50 = 60 mg/mL than the release induced by FMLP (IC50 = 300 mg/mL. Maximal inhibition was observed when eosinophils were pretreated with TJ-96 for 5 min. Although TJ-96 at high concentrations inhibited IgE-mediated histamine release from human basophils, inhibition of IgE-mediated LTC4 release was not statistically significant. The potent inhibitory activity was found in the extract of Glycyrrhiza root, one of the herbal components of TJ-96, but the inhibitory effects were not due to either glycyrrhizin or liquiritin, the main elements of the Glycyrrhiza root. These results raise the possibility that the clinical efficacy of TJ-96 is derived, at least in part, from its potent inhibitory effect on LTC4 release from eosinophils.

  5. Catapult-like release of mitochondrial DNA by eosinophils contributes to antibacterial defense.

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    Yousefi, Shida; Gold, Jeffrey A; Andina, Nicola; Lee, James J; Kelly, Ann M; Kozlowski, Evelyne; Schmid, Inès; Straumann, Alex; Reichenbach, Janine; Gleich, Gerald J; Simon, Hans-Uwe

    2008-09-01

    Although eosinophils are considered useful in defense mechanisms against parasites, their exact function in innate immunity remains unclear. The aim of this study is to better understand the role of eosinophils within the gastrointestinal immune system. We show here that lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria activates interleukin-5 (IL-5)- or interferon-gamma-primed eosinophils to release mitochondrial DNA in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner, but independent of eosinophil death. Notably, the process of DNA release occurs rapidly in a catapult-like manner--in less than one second. In the extracellular space, the mitochondrial DNA and the granule proteins form extracellular structures able to bind and kill bacteria both in vitro and under inflammatory conditions in vivo. Moreover, after cecal ligation and puncture, Il5-transgenic but not wild-type mice show intestinal eosinophil infiltration and extracellular DNA deposition in association with protection against microbial sepsis. These data suggest a previously undescribed mechanism of eosinophil-mediated innate immune responses that might be crucial for maintaining the intestinal barrier function after inflammation-associated epithelial cell damage, preventing the host from uncontrolled invasion of bacteria.

  6. Omeprazole blocks STAT6 binding to the eotaxin-3 promoter in eosinophilic esophagitis cells.

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    Xi Zhang

    Full Text Available Patients who have esophageal eosinophilia without gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD nevertheless can respond to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs, which can have anti-inflammatory actions independent of effects on gastric acid secretion. In esophageal cell cultures, omeprazole has been reported to inhibit Th2 cytokine-stimulated expression of eotaxin-3, an eosinophil chemoattractant contributing to esophageal eosinophilia in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE. The objective of this study was to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying PPI inhibition of IL-4-stimulated eotaxin-3 production by esophageal cells.Telomerase-immortalized and primary cultures of esophageal squamous cells from EoE patients were treated with IL-4 in the presence or absence of acid-activated omeprazole or lansoprazole. We measured eotaxin-3 protein secretion by ELISA, mRNA expression by PCR, STAT6 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation by Western blotting, eotaxin-3 promoter activation by an exogenous reporter construct, and STAT6, RNA polymerase II, and trimethylated H3K4 binding to the endogenous eotaxin-3 promoter by ChIP assay. Omeprazole in concentrations ≥5 µM significantly decreased IL-4-stimulated eotaxin-3 protein secretion and mRNA expression. Lansoprazole also blocked eotaxin-3 protein secretion. Omeprazole had no effect on eotaxin-3 mRNA stability or on STAT6 phosphorylation and STAT6 nuclear translocation. Rather, omeprazole blocked binding of IL-4-stimulated STAT6, RNA polymerase II, and trimethylated H3K4 to the eotaxin-3 promoter.PPIs, in concentrations achieved in blood with conventional dosing, significantly inhibit IL-4-stimulated eotaxin-3 expression in EoE esophageal cells and block STAT6 binding to the promoter. These findings elucidate molecular mechanisms whereby patients with Th2 cytokine-driven esophageal eosinophilia can respond to PPIs, independent of effects on gastric acid secretion.

  7. Eosinophils in Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diny, Nicola L; Rose, Noel R; Čiháková, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional granulocytes that contribute to initiation and modulation of inflammation. Their role in asthma and parasitic infections has long been recognized. Growing evidence now reveals a role for eosinophils in autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the function of eosinophils in inflammatory bowel diseases, neuromyelitis optica, bullous pemphigoid, autoimmune myocarditis, primary biliary cirrhosis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and other autoimmune diseases. Clinical studies, eosinophil-targeted therapies, and experimental models have contributed to our understanding of the regulation and function of eosinophils in these diseases. By examining the role of eosinophils in autoimmune diseases of different organs, we can identify common pathogenic mechanisms. These include degranulation of cytotoxic granule proteins, induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, release of proteases degrading extracellular matrix, immune modulation through cytokines, antigen presentation, and prothrombotic functions. The association of eosinophilic diseases with autoimmune diseases is also examined, showing a possible increase in autoimmune diseases in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and non-allergic asthma. Finally, we summarize key future research needs.

  8. Eosinophils in Autoimmune Diseases

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    Daniela Čiháková

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are multifunctional granulocytes that contribute to initiation and modulation of inflammation. Their role in asthma and parasitic infections has long been recognized. Growing evidence now reveals a role for eosinophils in autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the function of eosinophils in inflammatory bowel diseases, neuromyelitis optica, bullous pemphigoid, autoimmune myocarditis, primary biliary cirrhosis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and other autoimmune diseases. Clinical studies, eosinophil-targeted therapies, and experimental models have contributed to our understanding of the regulation and function of eosinophils in these diseases. By examining the role of eosinophils in autoimmune diseases of different organs, we can identify common pathogenic mechanisms. These include degranulation of cytotoxic granule proteins, induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, release of proteases degrading extracellular matrix, immune modulation through cytokines, antigen presentation, and prothrombotic functions. The association of eosinophilic diseases with autoimmune diseases is also examined, showing a possible increase in autoimmune diseases in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and non-allergic asthma. Finally, we summarize key future research needs.

  9. Blocking of α1β1 and α2β1 adhesion molecules inhibits eosinophil migration through human lung microvascular endothelial cell monolayer

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    Stanisława Bazan-Socha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In cell trafficking to the airways in asthma, among integrins the most important are those containing α4 and β2 subunits. We have previously shown that also blocking of collagen receptors, α1β1 and α2β1 integrins, inhibits transmigration of eosinophils of asthmatic subjects through a monolayer of skin microvascular endothelial cells seeded on collagen IV coated inserts. However, it was not clear whether this observation was limited to asthma or depended on the type of microvascular cell and collagen IV used as a base. In the current study we performed a transmigration assay using human lung microvascular endothelial cells seeded directly on a plastic surface as a base and blood cells isolated from 12 representatives of each of two groups, asthmatics and healthy donors, by gradient centrifugation, followed by immunomagnetic negative separation of eosinophils. Isolated eosinophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were inhibited by snake venom-derived integrin antagonists including viperistatin and VP12, as inhibitors of α1β1 and α2β1 integrin, respectively, and VLO5 and VLO4, as inhibitors of α4β1 and α5β1 integrin, respectively. All snake venom-derived anti-adhesive proteins were effective in inhibiting eosinophil transmigration, whilst only VLO5 and VLO4 reduced PBMC mobility in this assay. This observation was similar in both groups of subjects studied. α1β1 and α2β1 integrins could be involved in transmigration of eosinophil to the inflammatory site. Migratory inhibition was observed in asthma subjects as well as in healthy donors, and did not depend on origin of endothelial cells or the extracellular matrix component used as a base.

  10. Culicoides antigen extract stimulates equine blood mononuclear (BMN) cell proliferation and the release of eosinophil adherence-inducing factor(s).

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    Mckelvie, J; Foster, A P; Hamblin, A S; Cunningham, F M

    2001-04-01

    Intradermal injection of a Culicoides antigen extract (CAgX) induces T lymphocyte and eosinophil accumulation in the skin of horses with sweet itch. Blood mononuclear (BMN) cells from normal ponies proliferate when stimulated by mitogen (phytohaemagglutinin, PHA) or antigen (tetanus toxoid, TT) and, as shown here, release soluble factor(s) that induce eosinophil adherence. CAgX also caused concentration dependent proliferation of BMN cells from sweet itch and normal ponies [stimulation index: 29 (13) and 17 (7) for BMN cells from sweet itch and normal ponies, respectively during the active phase of disease; 4 microg protein ml(-1)CAgX; 168 h]. A heat labile factor(s) which caused eosinophil adherence was also released [sweet itch ponies: 6.0 (1.6) per cent adherence versus 1.3 (0.4) per cent; normal ponies: 6.6 (0.5) per cent adherence versus 0.9 (0.1) per cent for supernatants from CAgX (4 microg protein ml(-1); 48 hours) stimulated versus unstimulated BMN cells, respectively]. These results suggest that soluble proteins released from T lymphocytes could affect eosinophil function in the lesional skin of sweet itch horses. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  11. Anti-allergic properties of the bromeliaceae Nidularium procerum: inhibition of eosinophil activation and influx.

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    Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana; Amendoeira, Fábio C; Gomes, Gleice S; Zanon, Cristiane; Chedier, Luciana M; Figueiredo, Maria Raquel; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C; Frutuoso, Válber S; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C; Weller, Peter F; Bandeira-Melo, Christianne; Bozza, Patrícia T

    2005-12-01

    New therapeutic approaches for the treatment of allergic diseases can be aided by the development of agents capable of regulating eosinophilic leukocytes. Here, we evaluated the anti-allergic properties of a crude extract of the Brazilian bromeliaceae Nidularium procerum, focusing on its effects on allergic eosinophilia. By studying allergic pleurisy in actively sensitized C57Bl/6 mice, we observed that pretreatment with N. procerum (2 mg/kg; i.p.) reduced pleural eosinophil influx triggered by allergen challenge. N. procerum was also able to reduce lipid body numbers found within infiltrating eosinophils, indicating that N. procerum in vivo is able to affect both migration and activation of eosinophils. Consistently, pretreatment with N. procerum blocked pleural eosinophil influx triggered by PAF or eotaxin, key mediators of the development of allergic pleural eosinophilia. The effect of N. procerum was not restricted to eosinophils, since N. procerum also inhibited pleural neutrophil and mononuclear cell influx. Of note, N. procerum failed to alter the acute allergic reaction, characterized by mast cell degranulation, oedema, and cysteinyl leukotriene release. N. procerum also had direct effects on murine eosinophils, since it inhibited both PAF- and eotaxin-induced eosinophil chemotaxis on an in vitro chemotactic assay. Therefore, N. procerum may be a promising anti-allergic therapy, inasmuch as it presents potent anti-eosinophil activity.

  12. Eosinophilic oesophagitis

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    Hanna Sikorska-Szaflik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a chronic disease of the oesophagus. It is becoming more and more common and is observed to occur in both children and adults. This disease is characterized by eosinophilic infiltrations in the oesophageal mucus membrane and clinical signs of oesophageal dysfunction, such as swallowing disorders, food impaction and signs resembling refractory reflux disease. Pathogenetic mechanisms of eosinophilic oesophagitis are not known. Genetic and environmental factors are believed to be responsible. The clinical picture changes with age. In infants and young children, symptoms are non-specific, which creates a risk of overlooking the disease in differential diagnosis. School children present with abdominal pain, retrosternal pain and emesis, whereas adolescents usually report symptoms of reflux disease, dysphagia and episodes of food impaction. Dysphagia, which is rarely observed before puberty, occurs in most adults. The diagnosis of eosinophilic oesophagitis is based on clinical and histological findings. Elimination diets, local or systemic steroid therapy and endoscopic oesophageal dilation are used in treatment. Due to the chronic and recurrent nature of the disease, patients require permanent medical care, selection of appropriate and personalised steroid therapy and/or diet as well as periodical endoscopic checkups. The article presents updated information about eosinophilic oesophagitis. It discusses epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs and symptoms depending on patients’ age as well as principles of diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Eosinophilic fasciitis

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    Karolina Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is a rare connective tissue disease with unclear etiology and pathogenesis. It is classified as a scleroderma-like syndrome. The disease is characterized by fibrosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissues with significant thickening of fascia. Visceral involvement is rare. Characteristic feature in laboratory tests is peripheral blood eosinophilia. Differential diagnosis should be performed, including ruling out systemic sclerosis, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome, scleromyxedema, hypereosinophilic syndrome or Churg-Strauss syndrome. Final diagnosis is confirmed by histopathological examination. In treatment of the disease corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive drugs are used. Some other drugs showed activity in this disease e.g. dapsone, infiximab or rituximab. Prognosis is rather good but sometimes a long-term treatment is necessary. In this paper we summarized the current knowledge on eosinophilic fasciitis.

  14. Eosinophil secretion of granule-derived cytokines

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    Lisa A Spencer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are tissue-dwelling leukocytes, present in the thymus, and gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals at baseline, and recruited, often in large numbers, to allergic inflammatory foci and sites of active tissue repair. The biological significance of eosinophils is vast and varied. In health, eosinophils support uterine and mammary gland development, and maintain bone marrow plasma cells and adipose tissue alternatively activated macrophages, while in response to tissue insult eosinophils function as inflammatory effector cells, and, in the wake of an inflammatory response, promote tissue regeneration and wound healing. One common mechanism driving many of the diverse eosinophil functions is the regulated and differential secretion of a vast array of eosinophil-derived cytokines. Eosinophils are distinguished from most other leukocytes in that many, if not all, of the over three dozen eosinophil-derived cytokines are pre-synthesized and stored within intracellular granules, poised for very rapid, stimulus-induced secretion. Eosinophils engaged in cytokine secretion in situ utilize distinct pathways of cytokine release that include: classical exocytosis, whereby granules themselves fuse with the plasma membrane and release their entire contents extracellularly; piecemeal degranulation, whereby granule-derived cytokines are selectively mobilized into vesicles that emerge from granules, traverse the cytoplasm and fuse with the plasma membrane to release discrete packets of cytokines; and eosinophil cytolysis, whereby intact granules are extruded from eosinophils, and deposited within tissues. In this latter scenario, extracellular granules can themselves function as stimulus-responsive secretory-competent organelles within the tissue. Here we review the distinctive processes of differential secretion of eosinophil granule-derived cytokines.

  15. Homeostatic Eosinophils: Characteristics and Functions

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    Thomas Marichal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are typically considered to be specialized effector cells that are recruited to the tissues as a result of T helper type 2 (Th2 cell responses associated with helminth infections or allergic diseases such as asthma. Once at the site of injury, eosinophils release their cytotoxic granule proteins as well as preformed cytokines and lipid mediators, contributing to parasite destruction but also to exacerbation of inflammation and tissue damage. Accumulating evidence indicates that, besides their roles in Th2 responses, eosinophils also regulate homeostatic processes at steady state, thereby challenging the exclusive paradigm of the eosinophil as a destructive and inflammatory cell. Indeed, under baseline conditions, eosinophils rapidly leave the bloodstream to enter tissues, mainly the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, adipose tissue, thymus, uterus, and mammary glands, where they regulate a variety of important biological functions, such as immunoregulation, control of glucose homeostasis, protection against obesity, regulation of mammary gland development, and preparation of the uterus for pregnancy. This article provides an overview of the characteristics and functions of these homeostatic eosinophils.

  16. Eosinophil cytokines: Emerging roles in immunity

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    Paige eLacy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils derive from the bone marrow and circulate at low levels in the blood in healthy individuals. These granulated cells preferentially leave the circulation and marginate to tissues, where they are implicated in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. In diseases such as allergic inflammation, eosinophil numbers escalate markedly in the blood and tissues where inflammatory foci are located. Eosinophils possess a range of immunomodulatory factors that are released upon cell activation, including over 35 cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. Unlike T and B cells, eosinophils can rapidly release cytokines within minutes in response to stimulation. While some cytokines are stored as preformed mediators in crystalloid granules and secretory vesicles, eosinophils are also capable of undergoing de novo synthesis and secretion of these immunological factors. Some of the molecular mechanisms that coordinate the final steps of cytokine secretion are hypothesized to involve binding of membrane fusion complexes comprised of soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs. These intracellular receptors regulate the release of granules and vesicles containing a range of secreted proteins, among which are cytokines and chemokines. Emerging evidence from both human and animal model-based research has suggested an active participation of eosinophils in several physiological/pathological processes such as immunomodulation and tissue remodeling. The observed eosinophil effector functions in health and disease implicate eosinophil cytokine secretion as a fundamental immunoregulatory process. The focus of this review is to describe the cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines that are elaborated by eosinophils, and to illustrate some of the intracellular events leading to the release of eosinophil-derived cytokines.

  17. Eosinophilic Lung Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in eosinophil number in the lung tissue. Treatment Treatment of acute eosinophilic pneumonia may require hospitalization. It may be necessary to support the person with assistance from a breathing machine. Treatment with intravenous (IV) steroids or other medications which ...

  18. Field study of the long-term release of block copolymers from fouling-release coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, Albert Camós; Olsen, A.; Hvilsted, Søren

    2017-01-01

    and providing fouling-resistance properties. Upon release, dissolution or degradation of copolymer molecules at the surface, new molecules can diffuse from the bulk of the coating and cover the surface. Therefore, the long-term performance of these coatings is dependent on the stability and release rate...... of an organic biocide (copper pyrithione). Conversely, biocide-containing coatings displayed larger copolymer retention values in long-term experiments. Opposite results were obtained for biocide-free coatings, suggesting that the addition of the organic biocide alters the release profile of copolymers from...

  19. Release of U(VI) from spent biosorbent immobilized in cement concrete blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkobachar, C.; Iyengar, L.; Mishra, U.K.; Chauhan, M.S. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Kanpur (India)

    1995-12-01

    This paper deals with cementation as the method for the disposal of spent biosorbent, Ganoderma lucidum (a wood rotting macrofungi) after it is used for the removal of Uranium. Results on the uranium release during the curing of cement-concrete (CC) blocks indicated that placing the spent sorbent at the center of the blocks during their casting yields better immobilization of uranium as compared to the homogeneous mixing of the spent sorbent with the cement. Short term leach tests indicated that the uranium release was negligible in simulated seawater, 1.8% in 0.2 N sodium carbonate and 6.0% in 0.2 N HCl. The latter two leachates were used to represent the extreme environmental conditions. It was observed that the presence of the spent biosorbent up to 5% by weight did not affect the compressive strength of CC blocks. Thus cementation technique is suitable for the immobilization of uranium loaded biosorbent for its ultimate disposal.

  20. Release of U(VI) from spent biosorbent immobilized in cement concrete blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkobachar, C.; Iyengar, L.; Mishra, U.K.; Chauhan, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with cementation as the method for the disposal of spent biosorbent, Ganoderma lucidum (a wood rotting macrofungi) after it is used for the removal of Uranium. Results on the uranium release during the curing of cement-concrete (CC) blocks indicated that placing the spent sorbent at the center of the blocks during their casting yields better immobilization of uranium as compared to the homogeneous mixing of the spent sorbent with the cement. Short term leach tests indicated that the uranium release was negligible in simulated seawater, 1.8% in 0.2 N sodium carbonate and 6.0% in 0.2 N HCl. The latter two leachates were used to represent the extreme environmental conditions. It was observed that the presence of the spent biosorbent up to 5% by weight did not affect the compressive strength of CC blocks. Thus cementation technique is suitable for the immobilization of uranium loaded biosorbent for its ultimate disposal

  1. Deletions in the fifth alpha helix of HIV-1 matrix block virus release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, Bridget; Li, Yan; Maly, Connor J.; Madson, Christian J. [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); Chen, Han [Center for Biotechnology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Zhou, You [Center for Biotechnology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Nebraska Center for Virology, Lincoln, NE (United States); Belshan, Michael, E-mail: michaelbelshan@creighton.edu [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); Nebraska Center for Virology, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The matrix (MA) protein of HIV-1 is the N-terminal component of the Gag structural protein and is critical for the early and late stages of viral replication. MA contains five α-helices (α1–α5). Deletions in the N-terminus of α5 as small as three amino acids impaired virus release. Electron microscopy of one deletion mutant (MA∆96-120) showed that its particles were tethered to the surface of cells by membranous stalks. Immunoblots indicated all mutants were processed completely, but mutants with large deletions had alternative processing intermediates. Consistent with the EM data, MA∆96-120 retained membrane association and multimerization capability. Co-expression of this mutant inhibited wild type particle release. Alanine scanning mutation in this region did not affect virus release, although the progeny virions were poorly infectious. Combined, these data demonstrate that structural ablation of the α5 of MA inhibits virus release. - Highlights: • Deletions were identified in the C-terminus of matrix that block virus release. • These deletion mutants still multimerized and associated with membranes. • TEM showed the mutant particles were tethered to the cell surface. • Amino acid mutagenesis of the region did not affect release. • The data suggests that disruption of matrix structure blocks virus release.

  2. Deletions in the fifth alpha helix of HIV-1 matrix block virus release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, Bridget; Li, Yan; Maly, Connor J.; Madson, Christian J.; Chen, Han; Zhou, You; Belshan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The matrix (MA) protein of HIV-1 is the N-terminal component of the Gag structural protein and is critical for the early and late stages of viral replication. MA contains five α-helices (α1–α5). Deletions in the N-terminus of α5 as small as three amino acids impaired virus release. Electron microscopy of one deletion mutant (MA∆96-120) showed that its particles were tethered to the surface of cells by membranous stalks. Immunoblots indicated all mutants were processed completely, but mutants with large deletions had alternative processing intermediates. Consistent with the EM data, MA∆96-120 retained membrane association and multimerization capability. Co-expression of this mutant inhibited wild type particle release. Alanine scanning mutation in this region did not affect virus release, although the progeny virions were poorly infectious. Combined, these data demonstrate that structural ablation of the α5 of MA inhibits virus release. - Highlights: • Deletions were identified in the C-terminus of matrix that block virus release. • These deletion mutants still multimerized and associated with membranes. • TEM showed the mutant particles were tethered to the cell surface. • Amino acid mutagenesis of the region did not affect release. • The data suggests that disruption of matrix structure blocks virus release

  3. Proteomics of Eosinophil Activation

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    Deane F. Mosher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We recently identified and quantified >7,000 proteins in non-activated human peripheral blood eosinophils using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS and described phosphoproteomic changes that accompany acute activation of eosinophils by interleukin-5 (IL5 (1. These data comprise a treasure trove of information about eosinophils. We illustrate the power of label-free LC–MS/MS quantification by considering four examples: complexity of eosinophil STATs, contribution of immunoproteasome subunits to eosinophil proteasomes, complement of integrin subunits, and contribution of platelet proteins originating from platelet–eosinophil complexes to the overall proteome. We describe how isobaric labeling enables robust sample-to-sample comparisons and relate the 220 phosphosites that changed significantly upon treatment with IL5 to previous studies of eosinophil activation. Finally, we review previous attempts to leverage the power of mass spectrometry to discern differences between eosinophils of healthy subjects and those with eosinophil-associated conditions and point out features of label-free quantification and isobaric labeling that are important in planning future mass spectrometric studies.

  4. Amphiphilic block copolymer/poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) blends and nanocomposites for improved fouling-release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Elisa; Suffredini, Marianna; Galli, Giancarlo; Glisenti, Antonella; Pettitt, Michala E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Williams, David; Lyall, Graeme

    2011-05-01

    Amphiphilic diblock copolymers, Sz6 and Sz12, consisting of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) block (average degree of polymerisation = 132) and a PEGylated-fluoroalkyl modified polystyrene block (Sz, average degree of polymerisation = 6, 12) were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Coatings were obtained from blends of either block copolymer (1-10 wt%) with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) matrix. The coating surface presented a simultaneous hydrophobic and lipophobic character, owing to the strong surface segregation of the lowest surface energy fluoroalkyl chains of the block copolymer. Surface chemical composition and wettability of the films were affected by exposure to water. Block copolymer Sz6 was also blended with PDMS and a 0.1 wt% amount of multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNT). The excellent fouling-release (FR) properties of these new coatings against the macroalga Ulva linza essentially resulted from the inclusion of the amphiphilic block copolymer, while the addition of CNT did not appear to improve the FR properties.

  5. Near-infrared light-triggered dissociation of block copolymer micelles for controlled drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jie; Huang, Shanshan; Chen, Yuqi; Li, Siwen; Achilefu, Samuel; Qian, Zhiyu; Gu, Yueqing

    2013-02-01

    In this manuscript, a new near-infrared (NIR) light-breakable amphiphilic block copolymer containing light-sensitive triggering group on the hydrophobic block was developed. By encapsulating NIR dye cypate inside micelles of poly (N-succinyl-N'-4- (2-nitrobenzyloxy)-succinyl chitosan) and exposing the micellar solution to 765.9 nm light, the photo-cleavage reaction was activated and leading to the dissociation of micelles and release of co-loaded hydrophobic species. The UV-vis absorption spectra, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectra of micelles were characterized. Triggered burst release of the payload upon NIR irradiation and subsequent degradation of the micelles were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This system represents a general and efficient method to circumvent the need for UV or visible light excitation that is a common drawback for light-responsive polymeric systems developed for potential biomedical applications.

  6. Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret H. Collins

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID are characterized pathologically by excess eosinophils in mucosal biopsies of one or multiple sites in the gastrointestinal (GI tract, simultaneously or sequentially. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE is the best characterized EGID, and in most patients it is an abnormal immune-mediated response to food antigens. Current recommendations for diagnosis include signs and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction that do not respond to proton-pump inhibitor therapy, and esophageal biopsies that exhibit at least 15 intraepithelial eosinophils in at least one high power field (HPF. Therapy consists of swallowed glucocorticoids or dietary elimination. Eosinophilic gastritis (EG is the second most common form of EGID, but like all forms of EGID except EoE consensus recommendations for either clinical or pathological diagnosis do not exist. EG may be associated clinically with peripheral blood eosinophilia, hypoalbuminemia, and anemia, and pathologically with marked expansion of lamina propria by dense eosinophilic infiltrates. Eosinophilic enteritis (EE may be subdivided into eosinophilic duodenitis, eosinophilic jejunitis, and eosinophilic ileitis. Most investigators believe that EE rarely, if ever, exists as a solitary form of EGID and is encountered only in patients who have at least one other affected portion of the GI tract. Eosinophilic colitis (EC is perhaps the most enigmatic EGID. Distinction of EC from inflammatory bowel disease may be problematic especially in children. Multiple possible etiologies for EGID include hypereosinophilic syndrome, drug reactions, etc. Currently, the only etiology that can be identified histologically is parasitic infestation, if a portion of an invasive parasite is found in mucosal biopsies. This review will provide guidelines for the pathologic diagnosis of the various forms of EGID.

  7. pH-Sensitive Amphiphilic Block-Copolymers for Transport and Controlled Release of Oxygen

    KAUST Repository

    Patil, Yogesh Raghunath

    2017-05-31

    Saturated fluorocarbons, their derivatives and emulsions are capable of dissolving anomalously high amounts of oxygen and other gases. The mechanistic aspects of this remarkable effect remain to be explored experimentally. Here, the synthesis of a library of amphiphilic fluorous block-copolymers incorporating different fluorinated monomers is described, and the capacity of these copolymers for oxygen transport in water is systematically investigated. The structure of the fluorous monomer employed was found to have a profound effect on both the oxygen-carrying capacity and the gas release kinetics of the polymer emulsions. Furthermore, the release of O2 from the polymer dispersions could be triggered by changing the pH of the solution. This is the first example of a polymer-based system for controlled release of a non-polar, non-covalently entrapped respiratory gas.

  8. Eosinophilic colitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, Urszula; Horowska-Ziaja, Sabina; Kajor, Maciej; Więcek, Sabina; Chlebowczyk, Wojciech; Woś, Halina

    2017-02-01

    Eosinophilic colitis, which is a rare form of eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases, occurs as primary and secondary allergic eosinophilic colitis of the gastrointestinal tract infection, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and vasculitis. The diagnosis is based on a significant amount of eosinophils in the inflammatory infiltrate of the colon wall. To analyze the clinical picture taking into account comorbidities and endoscopic picture in children with eosinophilic colitis. The test group consisted of 43 children, the average age - 12.1 years diagnosed with eosinophilic colitis (according to the Whitington scale) hospitalized in the Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Pediatrics of the Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. Testing for food allergies, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, gastrointestinal diseases and parasitic diseases was performed in the group of children and the analysis concerned the intensity of eosinophilic infiltration of the colon mucosa with the severity of clinical symptoms, endoscopic picture, the presence of inflammatory bowel disease, and food allergy. Half of the tested children suffered from isolated eosinophilic colitis but the rest of them had eosinophilic infiltrate with inflammatory bowel disease more often, however, the Crohn's disease. The endoscopic image was uncharacteristic, and grade III in the Whitington scale was predominant in the histopathological examination, in most cases located in the entire large intestine. The higher level of total IgE was found in less than half of the patients and it did not correlate with the severity of eosinophilic infiltration. It was shown that the severity of eosinophilic infiltration correlated with exacerbation of clinical symptoms, endoscopic image, and the presence of inflammatory bowel disease. The higher level of antibodies of ASCA and ANCA was found in approximately 20% of the children with isolated eosinophilic colitis and 63% of children with Crohn's disease

  9. Fabrication of Hyperbranched Block-Statistical Copolymer-Based Prodrug with Dual Sensitivities for Controlled Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Luping; Wang, Yunfei; Zhang, Xianshuo; Ma, Liwei; Wang, Baoyan; Ji, Xiangling; Wei, Hua

    2018-01-17

    Dendrimer with hyperbranched structure and multivalent surface is regarded as one of the most promising candidates close to the ideal drug delivery systems, but the clinical translation and scale-up production of dendrimer has been hampered significantly by the synthetic difficulties. Therefore, there is considerable scope for the development of novel hyperbranched polymer that can not only address the drawbacks of dendrimer but maintain its advantages. The reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer self-condensing vinyl polymerization (RAFT-SCVP) technique has enabled facile preparation of segmented hyperbranched polymer (SHP) by using chain transfer monomer (CTM)-based double-head agent during the past decade. Meanwhile, the design and development of block-statistical copolymers has been proven in our recent studies to be a simple yet effective way to address the extracellular stability vs intracellular high delivery efficacy dilemma. To integrate the advantages of both hyperbranched and block-statistical structures, we herein reported the fabrication of hyperbranched block-statistical copolymer-based prodrug with pH and reduction dual sensitivities using RAFT-SCVP and post-polymerization click coupling. The external homo oligo(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (OEGMA) block provides sufficient extracellularly colloidal stability for the nanocarriers by steric hindrance, and the interior OEGMA units incorporated by the statistical copolymerization promote intracellular drug release by facilitating the permeation of GSH and H + for the cleavage of the reduction-responsive disulfide bond and pH-liable carbonate link as well as weakening the hydrophobic encapsulation of drug molecules. The delivery efficacy of the target hyperbranched block-statistical copolymer-based prodrug was evaluated in terms of in vitro drug release and cytotoxicity studies, which confirms both acidic pH and reduction-triggered drug release for inhibiting proliferation of He

  10. Controlled release of cortisone drugs from block copolymers synthetized by ATRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, G.; La Carta, S.; Rapisarda, M.; Carbone, D.; Recca, G.; Rizzarelli, P., E-mail: paola.rizzarelli@cnr.it [Istituto per i Polimeri, Compositi e Biomateriali, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via P. Gaifami 18, 95129 Catania (Italy); Mazzotti, G.; Giorgini, L. [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale «Toso Montanari», Università di Bologna Via Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Perna, S. [ST Microelectronics Srl, Stradale Primosole, 50–95121 Catania (Italy); Di Gesù, R. [Merck Serono S.p.A., Via L. Einaudi, 11–00012 Guidonia Montecelio, Rome (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    Diseases affecting posterior eye segment, like macular edema, infection and neovascularization, may cause visual impairment. Traditional treatments, such as steroidal-drugs intravitreal injections, involve chronic course of therapy usually over a period of years. Moreover, they can require frequent administrations of drug in order to have an adequately disease control. This dramatically reduce patient’s compliance. Efforts have been made to develop implantable devices that offer an alternative therapeutic approach to bypass many challenges of conventional type of therapy. Implantable drug delivery systems (DDS) have been developed to optimize therapeutic properties of drugs and ensure their slow release in the specific site. Polymeric materials can play an essential role in modulating drug delivery and their use in such field has become indispensable. During last decades, acrylic polymers have obtained growing interest. Biocompatibility and chemical properties make them extremely versatile, allowing their use in many field such as biomedical. In particular, block methacrylate copolymer with a balance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties can be suitable for prolonged DDS in biomedical devices. In this work, we focused on the realization of a system for controlled and long term release of betamethasone 17,21-dipropionate (BDP), a cortisone drug, from methacrylic block copolymers, to be tested in the treatment of the posterior eye’s diseases. Different series of methyl methacrylate/hydroxyethyl methacrylate (MMA/HEMA) block and random copolymers, with different monomer compositions (10–60% HEMA), were synthetized by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) to find the best hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio, able to ensure optimal kinetic release. Copolymer samples were characterized by NMR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-NMR, {sup 13}C-NMR, CosY), SEC, TGA and DSC. Monitoring of drug release from films loaded with BDP was carried out by HPLC analysis. Evaluation of

  11. 31 CFR 586.518 - Authorization of release of certain blocked transfers by U.S. financial institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 586.518 Authorization of release of certain blocked transfers by U.S. financial institutions. (a) Subject to the limitation set forth in this paragraph, U.S... blocked transfers by U.S. financial institutions. 586.518 Section 586.518 Money and Finance: Treasury...

  12. The Eosinophil in Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravin, Karen A; Loy, Michael

    2016-04-01

    First described by Paul Ehrlich in 1879, who noted its characteristic staining by acidophilic dyes, for many years, the eosinophil was considered to be an end-effector cell associated with helminth infections and a cause of tissue damage. Over the past 30 years, research has helped to elucidate the complexity of the eosinophil's function and establish its role in host defense and immunity. Eosinophils express an array of ligand receptors which play a role in cell growth, adhesion, chemotaxis, degranulation, and cell-to-cell interactions. They play a role in activation of complement via both classical and alternative pathways. Eosinophils synthesize, store and secrete cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. They can process antigen, stimulate T cells, and promote humoral responses by interacting with B cells. Eosinophils can function as antigen presenting cells and can regulate processes associated with both T1 and T2 immunity. Although long known to play a role in defense against helminth organisms, the interactions of eosinophils with these parasites are now recognized to be much more complex. In addition, their interaction with other pathogens continues to be investigated. In this paper, we review the eosinophil's unique biology and structure, including its characteristic granules and the effects of its proteins, our developing understanding of its role in innate and adaptive immunity and importance in immunomodulation, and the part it plays in defense against parasitic, viral, fungal and bacterial infections. Rather than our worst enemy, the eosinophil may, in fact, be one of the most essential components in host defense and immunity.

  13. Eosinophils in glioblastoma biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curran Colleen S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. The development of this malignant glial lesion involves a multi-faceted process that results in a loss of genetic or epigenetic gene control, un-regulated cell growth, and immune tolerance. Of interest, atopic diseases are characterized by a lack of immune tolerance and are inversely associated with glioma risk. One cell type that is an established effector cell in the pathobiology of atopic disease is the eosinophil. In response to various stimuli, the eosinophil is able to produce cytotoxic granules, neuromediators, and pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as pro-fibrotic and angiogenic factors involved in pathogen clearance and tissue remodeling and repair. These various biological properties reveal that the eosinophil is a key immunoregulatory cell capable of influencing the activity of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Of central importance to this report is the observation that eosinophil migration to the brain occurs in response to traumatic brain injury and following certain immunotherapeutic treatments for GBM. Although eosinophils have been identified in various central nervous system pathologies, and are known to operate in wound/repair and tumorstatic models, the potential roles of eosinophils in GBM development and the tumor immunological response are only beginning to be recognized and are therefore the subject of the present review.

  14. The Biology of Eosinophils and Their Role in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire N. McBrien

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This review will describe the structure and function of the eosinophil. The roles of several relevant cell surface molecules and receptors will be discussed. We will also explore the systemic and local processes triggering eosinophil differentiation, maturation, and migration to the lungs in asthma, as well as the cytokine-mediated pathways that result in eosinophil activation and degranulation, i.e., the release of multiple pro-inflammatory substances from eosinophil-specific granules, including cationic proteins, cytokines, chemokines growth factors, and enzymes. We will discuss the current understanding of the roles that eosinophils play in key asthma processes such as airway hyperresponsiveness, mucus hypersecretion, and airway remodeling, in addition to the evidence relating to eosinophil–pathogen interactions within the lungs.

  15. Experimental investigation of the behaviour and fate of block copolymers in fouling-release coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, Albert Camós

    exposed to seawater for up to 5 years were analysed and the results exhibited a large scatter in the data, mainly attributed to differences in the coatings compositions. However, some comparable formulations suggest that seawater temperature has an important effect on the loss of copolymer from PDMS...... the distribution and behaviour of PEG-b-PDMS-b-PEG copolymers in PDMS coatings by fluorescence means. Chapter 5 investigates the degradation of PDMS-PEG-based copolymers in FRC immersed in seawater. Chapter 6 consists of a long-term field study regarding the release/loss of these block copolymers from fouling...... to the interfaces of the PDMS film could be observed by following the fluorescence intensity at different depths over time. The chemical stability of PDMS-PEG-based copolymers in PDMS coatings immersed for up to 30 months in seawater in Singapore was also investigated. The copolymer remaining in the coatings after...

  16. The role of the prostaglandin D2 receptor, DP, in eosinophil trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schratl, Petra; Royer, Julia F; Kostenis, Evi

    2007-01-01

    of DP has remained unclear. We report in this study that, in addition to CRTH2, the DP receptor plays an important role in eosinophil trafficking. First, we investigated the release of eosinophils from bone marrow using the in situ perfused guinea pig hind limb preparation. PGD2 induced the rapid...... that eosinophils in human bone marrow specimens expressed DP and CRTH2 receptors at similar levels. Eosinophils isolated from human peripheral blood likewise expressed DP receptor protein but at lower levels than CRTH2. In agreement with this, the chemotaxis of human peripheral blood eosinophils was inhibited both...

  17. In vitro effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol to stimulate somatostatin release and block that of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone by suppression of the release of prostaglandin E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettori, V.; Aguila, M.C.; McCann, S.M.; Gimeno, M.F.; Franchi, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Previous in vivo studies have shown that Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal active ingredient in marijuana, can suppress both luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) secretion after its injection into the third ventricle of conscious male rats. The present studies were deigned to determine the mechanism of these effects. Various doses of THC were incubated with either stalk median eminence fragments (MEs) or mediobasal hypothalamic (MBH) fragments in vitro. Although THC (10 nM) did not alter basal release of LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) from MEs in vitro, it completely blocked the stimulatory action of dopamine or nonrepinephrine on LHRH release. The effective doses to block LHRH release were associated with a blockade of synthesis and release of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) from MBH in vitro. In contrast to the suppressive effect of THC on LHRH release, somatostatin release from MEs was enhanced in a dose-related manner with a minimal effective dose of 1 nM. Since PGE 2 suppresses somatostatin release, this enhancement may also be related to the suppressive effect of THC on PGE 2 synthesis and release. The authors speculate that these actions are mediated by the recently discovered THC receptors in the tissue. The results indicate that the suppressive effect of THC on LH release is mediated by a blockade of LHRH release, whereas the suppressive effect of the compound on growth hormone release is mediated, at least in part, by a stimulation of somatostatin release

  18. Eosinophilic fasciitis (Shulman syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Sueli; Brotas, Arles; Lamy, Fabrício; Lisboa, Flávia; Lago, Eduardo; Azulay, David; Cuzzi, Tulia; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia

    2005-04-01

    We present a case of eosinophilic fasciitis, or Shulman syndrome, in a 35-year-old man and discuss its clinical and histopathologic aspects, as well as its relationship to scleroderma. Although controversial, the tendency is to set Shulman syndrome apart from all other sclerodermiform states.

  19. The Effect of PPAR Agonists on the Migration of Mature and Immature Eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PPARγ agonists can either enhance or inhibit eosinophil migration, which is a sum of directional migration (chemotaxis and random cell movement (chemokinesis. To date, the effects of PPAR agonists on chemokinesis have not been examined. This study investigates the effects of PPARα, δ, and γ agonists on eosinophil migration and chemokinesis. Eosinophils purified from blood of atopic donors were preincubated with rosiglitazone (PPARγ agonist, GW9578 (PPARα agonist, GW501516 (PPARδ agonist, or diluent. The effects of PPAR agonists were examined on eosinophil chemokinesis, eotaxin-induced migration of eosinophils, and migration of IL-5Rα+ CD34+ cells. Expressions of CCR3, phospho-p38, phospho-ERK, and calcium release were also measured in eosinophils after rosiglitazone treatment. Low concentrations of rosiglitazone, but not GW9578 or GW501516, increased chemokinesis of eosinophils (P=0.0038, and SDF-1α-induced migration of immature eosinophils (P=0.0538. Rosiglitazone had an effect on eosinophil calcium flux but had no effect on expression of CCR3 or phosphorylation of p38 or ERK. In contrast, high concentrations of rosiglitazone inhibited eosinophil migration (P=0.0042. The effect of rosiglitazone on eosinophil migration and chemokinesis appears to be through modification of calcium signaling, which alludes to a novel PPAR-mediated mechanism to modulate eosinophil function.

  20. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  1. Therapeutic targeting of eosinophil adhesion and accumulation in allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eBaiula

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence indicates that eosinophils are important effectors of ocular allergy. Increased worldwide prevalence of allergic eye pathologies has stimulated the identification of novel drug targets, including eosinophils and adhesion molecules.Accumulation of eosinophils in the eye is a key event in the onset and maintenance of allergic inflammation and is mediated by different adhesion molecules. Antihistamines with multiple mechanisms of action can be effective during the early and late phases of allergic conjunctivitis by blocking the interaction between β1 integrins and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1. Small molecule antagonists that target key elements in the process of eosinophil recruitment have been identified and reinforce the validity of α4β1 integrin as a therapeutic target.Glucocorticoids are among the most effective drugs for ocular allergy, but their use is limited by adverse effects. Novel dissociated glucocorticoids can prevent eosinophil accumulation and induce apoptosis of eosinophils, making them promising candidates for ophthalmic drugs.This article reviews recent understanding of the role of adhesion molecules in eosinophil recruitment in the inflamed conjunctiva along with effective treatments for allergic conjunctivitis.

  2. Non-specific activation of human eosinophil functional responses by vasoactive intestinal peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr El-Shazly

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils and neuropeptides are thought to play effector roles in allergic diseases, such as rhinitis; however, little is known about the biological effects of neuromediators, especially vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, on eosinophil functional responses. In the present study, it is shown that VIP induces eosinophil chemotaxis and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN release in potency comparable with that induced by platelet activator factor, and in a novel synergistic manner with recombinant human interleukin-5. Contrary to chemotaxis, EDN release was sensitive to staurosporine, the protein kinase C inhibitor, as well as intracellular calcium chelation. However, eosinophil treatment with inhibitors of tyrosine kinases (herbimycin A and phosphatases (pervanadate resulted in a dose-dependent potentiation and blockage of VIP-induced eosinophil chemotaxis, respectively. Treatment of eosinophils with VIP receptor antagonist did not modify VIP-induced chemotaxis or EDN release. Furthermore, exploration of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor I expression was lacking in human eosinophils, but not lymphocytes. These results demonstrate two different mechanisms in triggering eosinophil activation of functional responses by VIP, a calcium-dependent degranulation and a calcium-independent chemotaxis, and elaborate on a novel cytokine–neuropeptide interaction in eosinophilic inflammation.

  3. A controlled release system for proteins based on poly(ether ester) block-copolymers: polymer network characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, J.M.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Feijen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The properties of a series of multiblock copolymers, based on hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and hydrophobic poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) blocks were investigated with respect to their application as a matrix for controlled release of proteins. The degree of swelling, Q, of the

  4. Hydroxylated xestospongins block inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced Ca2+ release and sensitize Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release mediated by ryanodine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Tram Anh; Feng, Wei; Molinski, Tadeusz F; Pessah, Isaac N

    2006-02-01

    Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) often coexist within the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) membrane and coordinate precise spatial and temporal coding of Ca(2+) signals in most animal cells. Xestospongin C (XeC) was shown to selectively block IP(3)-induced Ca(2+) release and IP(3)R-mediated signaling (Gafni et al., 1997). We have further studied the specificity of xestospongin structures possessing ring hydroxyl (-OH) substituents toward IP(3)R, RyR, and ER/SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) activities. XeC potently inhibits IP(3)R, weakly inhibits RyR1, and lacks activity toward SERCA1 and SERCA2. XeD (9-OH XeC), 7-OH-XeA, and araguspongin C isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia species also inhibit IP(3)-mediated Ca(2+) release and lack activity toward SERCA. However, these hydroxylated derivatives possess a unique activity in that they enhance Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release from SR vesicles by a mechanism involving the sensitization of RyR1 channels within the same concentration range needed to block IP(3)-induced Ca(2+) release. These results show that xestospongins and related structures lack direct SERCA inhibitory activity, as suggested by some previous studies. A new finding is that XeD and related structures possessing a hydroxylated oxaquinolizidine ring are IP(3)R blockers that also enhance Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release mediated by RyRs. In intact cells, the actions of XeD are blocked by ryanodine pretreatment and do not interfere with thapsigargin-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization stemming from SERCA block. Hydroxylated bis-oxaquinolizadine derivatives isolated from Xestospongia species are novel bifunctional reagents that may be useful in ascertaining how IP(3)Rs and RyRs contribute to cell signaling.

  5. Comparison of the Fouling Release Properties of Hydrophobic Fluorinated and Hydrophilic PEGylated Block Copolymer Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, S.; Wang, N.; Ober, C.; Finlay, J.; Callow, M.; Callow, J.; Hexemer, A.; Sohn, K.; Kramer, E.; Fischer, D.

    2006-01-01

    To understand the role of surface wettability in adhesion of cells, the attachment of two different marine algae was studied on hydrophobic and hydrophilic polymer surfaces. Adhesion of cells of the diatom Navicula and sporelings (young plants) of the green macroalga Ulva to an underwater surface is mainly by interactions between the surface and the adhesive exopolymers, which the cells secrete upon settlement and during subsequent colonization and growth. Two types of block copolymers, one with poly(ethylene glycol) side-chains and the other with liquid crystalline, fluorinated side-chains, were used to prepare the hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, respectively. The formation of a liquid crystalline smectic phase in the latter inhibited molecular reorganization at the surface, which is generally an issue when a highly hydrophobic surface is in contact with water. The adhesion strength was assessed by the fraction of settled cells (Navicula) or biomass (Ulva) that detached from the surface in a water flow channel with a wall shear stress of 53 Pa. The two species exhibited opposite adhesion behavior on the same sets of surfaces. While Navicula cells released more easily from hydrophilic surfaces, Ulva sporelings showed higher removal from hydrophobic surfaces. This highlights the importance of differences in cell-surface interactions in determining the strength of adhesion of cells to substrates

  6. Eosinophil peroxidase signals via epidermal growth factor-2 to induce cell proliferation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Marie-Therese

    2011-11-01

    Eosinophils exert many of their inflammatory effects in allergic disorders through the degranulation and release of intracellular mediators, including a set of cationic granule proteins that include eosinophil peroxidase. Studies suggest that eosinophils are involved in remodeling. In previous studies, we showed that eosinophil granule proteins activate mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. In this study, we investigated the receptor mediating eosinophil peroxidase-induced signaling and downstream effects. Human cholinergic neuroblastoma IMR32 and murine melanoma B16.F10 cultures, real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoprecipitations, and Western blotting were used in the study. We showed that eosinophil peroxidase caused a sustained increase in both the expression of epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2) and its phosphorylation at tyrosine 1248, with the consequent activation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1\\/2. This, in turn, promoted a focal adhesion kinase-dependent egress of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Eosinophil peroxidase induced a HER2-dependent up-regulation of cell proliferation, indicated by an up-regulation of the nuclear proliferation marker Ki67. This study identifies HER2 as a novel mediator of eosinophil peroxidase signaling. The results show that eosinophil peroxidase, at noncytotoxic levels, can drive cell-cycle progression and proliferation, and contribute to tissue remodeling and cell turnover in airway disease. Because eosinophils are a feature of many cancers, these findings also suggest a role for eosinophils in tumorigenesis.

  7. Bidirectional Mast Cell–Eosinophil Interactions in Inflammatory Disorders and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosaria Galdiero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Human mast cells (MCs and eosinophils were first described and named by Paul Ehrlich. These cells have distinct myeloid progenitors and differ morphologically, ultrastructurally, immunologically, biochemically, and pharmacologically. However, MCs and eosinophils play a pivotal role in several allergic disorders. In addition, these cells are involved in autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. MCs are distributed throughout all normal human tissues, whereas eosinophils are present only in gastrointestinal tract, secondary lymphoid tissues, and adipose tissue, thymus, mammary gland, and uterus. However, in allergic disorders, MCs and eosinophils can form the “allergic effector unit.” Moreover, in several tumors, MCs and eosinophils can be found in close proximity. Therefore, it is likely that MCs have the capacity to modulate eosinophil functions and vice versa. For example, interleukin 5, stem cell factor, histamine, platelet-activating factor (PAF, prostaglandin D2 (PGD2, cysteinyl leukotrienes, and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs, produced by activated MCs, can modulate eosinophil functions through the engagement of specific receptors. In contrast, eosinophil cationic proteins such as eosinophil cationic protein and major basic protein (MBP, nerve growth factor, and VEGFs released by activated eosinophils can modulate MC functions. These bidirectional interactions between MCs and eosinophils might be relevant not only in allergic diseases but also in several inflammatory and neoplastic disorders.

  8. Newly divided eosinophils limit ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in nonsensitized guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicher, Sarah A; Jacoby, David B; Fryer, Allison D

    2017-06-01

    Ozone causes vagally mediated airway hyperreactivity and recruits inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, to lungs, where they mediate ozone-induced hyperreactivity 1 day after exposure but are paradoxically protective 3 days later. We aimed to test the role of newly divided eosinophils in ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in sensitized and nonsensitized guinea pigs. Nonsensitized and sensitized guinea pigs were treated with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label newly divided cells and were exposed to air or ozone for 4 h. Later (1 or 3 days later), vagally induced bronchoconstriction was measured, and inflammatory cells were harvested from bone marrow, blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Ozone induced eosinophil hematopoiesis. One day after ozone, mature eosinophils dominate the inflammatory response and potentiate vagally induced bronchoconstriction. However, by 3 days, newly divided eosinophils have reached the lungs, where they inhibit ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity because depleting them with antibody to IL-5 or a TNF-α antagonist worsened vagally induced bronchoconstriction. In sensitized guinea pigs, both ozone-induced eosinophil hematopoiesis and subsequent recruitment of newly divided eosinophils to lungs 3 days later failed to occur. Thus mature eosinophils dominated the ozone-induced inflammatory response in sensitized guinea pigs. Depleting these mature eosinophils prevented ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in sensitized animals. Ozone induces eosinophil hematopoiesis and recruitment to lungs, where 3 days later, newly divided eosinophils attenuate vagally mediated hyperreactivity. Ozone-induced hematopoiesis of beneficial eosinophils is blocked by a TNF-α antagonist or by prior sensitization. In these animals, mature eosinophils are associated with hyperreactivity. Thus interventions targeting eosinophils, although beneficial in atopic individuals, may delay resolution of airway hyperreactivity in nonatopic individuals. Copyright

  9. In vitro effect of. Delta. sup 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol to stimulate somatostatin release and block that of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone by suppression of the release of prostaglandin E sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettori, V.; Aguila, M.C.; McCann, S.M. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (United States)); Gimeno, M.F.; Franchi, A.M. (Centro de Estudios Farmacologicos y de Principios Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1990-12-01

    Previous in vivo studies have shown that {Delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal active ingredient in marijuana, can suppress both luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) secretion after its injection into the third ventricle of conscious male rats. The present studies were deigned to determine the mechanism of these effects. Various doses of THC were incubated with either stalk median eminence fragments (MEs) or mediobasal hypothalamic (MBH) fragments in vitro. Although THC (10 nM) did not alter basal release of LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) from MEs in vitro, it completely blocked the stimulatory action of dopamine or nonrepinephrine on LHRH release. The effective doses to block LHRH release were associated with a blockade of synthesis and release of prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) from MBH in vitro. In contrast to the suppressive effect of THC on LHRH release, somatostatin release from MEs was enhanced in a dose-related manner with a minimal effective dose of 1 nM. Since PGE{sub 2} suppresses somatostatin release, this enhancement may also be related to the suppressive effect of THC on PGE{sub 2} synthesis and release. The authors speculate that these actions are mediated by the recently discovered THC receptors in the tissue. The results indicate that the suppressive effect of THC on LH release is mediated by a blockade of LHRH release, whereas the suppressive effect of the compound on growth hormone release is mediated, at least in part, by a stimulation of somatostatin release.

  10. Higher frequency of cholelithiasis in eosinophilic cholecystitis, an unusual finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfraz, T.; Tariq, H.; Bashir, S.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequency of cholelithiasis in eosinophilic cholecystitis in our population. Study Design: Prospective descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Histopathology department, Combined Military Hospital (CMH), Peshawar (Pakistan) from Dec 2011 to Nov 2014. Material and Methods: Eighteen hundred (1800) cholecystectomy specimens were included in the study. The specimens which were properly fixed in 10% formalin were included in the specimen, while poorly fixed and autolysed specimens were excluded. The specimens were examined grossly, measured and block selection was done. The slides made were examined under light microscope by one histopathologist and findings were analyzed. Results: Out of 1800 cholecystectomy specimens, 25 cases (1.38%) were diagnosed as eosinophilic cholecystitis. Out of these 25 cases, 20 (80%) were females having an age range of 30-50 years, while 5 (20%) were males with an age range of 35-55 years. Out of these 25 cases of eosinophilic cholecystitis, 22 (88%) were having cholelithiasis, while 3 (12%) were acalculous eosiniophilic cholecystitis. Conclusion: Eosinophilic cholecystitis in our population is mostly calculous which is very significant finding contrary to data given in western literature, where most of eosinophilic cholecystitis is aclculous. This needs further evaluation to determine any genetic, geographic, environmental, dietary, microbiological or any other factor responsible in etiopathogenesis of calculous eosinophilic cholecystitis in our population, which could be helpful in prevention and management of this disease. (author)

  11. Extracellular microvesicle production by human eosinophils activated by “inflammatory” stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Akuthota

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A key function of human eosinophils is to secrete cytokines, chemokines and cationic proteins, trafficking and releasing these mediators for roles in inflammation and other immune responses. Eosinophil activation leads to secretion of pre-synthesized granule-stored mediators through different mechanisms, but the ability of eosinophils to secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs, very small vesicles with preserved membrane topology, is still poorly understood. In the present work, we sought to identify and characterize EVs released from human eosinophils during different conditions: after a culturing period or after isolation and stimulation with inflammatory stimuli, which are known to induce eosinophil activation and secretion: CCL11 (eotaxin-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. EV production was investigated by nanoscale flow cytometry, conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM and pre-embedding immunonanogold EM. The tetraspanins CD63 and CD9 were used as EV biomarkers for both flow cytometry and ultrastructural immunolabeling. Nanoscale flow cytometry showed that human eosinophils produce EVs in culture and that a population of EVs expressed detectable CD9, while CD63 was not consistently detected. When eosinophils were stimulated immediately after isolation and analyzed by TEM, EVs were clearly identified as microvesicles (MVsoutwardly budding off the plasma membrane. Both CCL11 and TNF-α induced significant increases of MVs compared to unstimulated cells.TNF-α induced amplified release of MVs more than CCL11. Eosinophil MV diameters varied from 20-1000 nm. Immunonanogold EM revealed clear immunolabeling for CD63 and CD9 on eosinophil MVs, although not all MVs were labeled. Altogether, we identified, for the first time, that human eosinophils secrete MVs and that this production increases in response to inflammatory stimuli. This is important to understand the complex secretory activities of eosinophils underlying immune

  12. Immunopathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Hans-Uwe; Straumann, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the esophagus associated with dysphagia in adults and refractory reflux syndromes in children. Immunological and genetic approaches have been used to better understand the pathophysiology of the underlying inflammation. Evidence has accumulated that EoE represents a T-helper (Th) 2-type inflammatory disease, in which allergens play a role in triggering the disease. The majority of the patients suffer from concurrent allergic rhinitis, asthma, and eczema, and have a history of atopy. The chronic inflammatory response in EoE is associated with tissue damage and remodeling, both of which lead to esophageal dysfunction and bolus impaction. The new insights into the pathophysiology have resulted in the development of the first pharmacological therapies of EoE. 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Relationship of Subepithelial Eosinophilic Inflammation With Epithelial Histology, Endoscopy, Blood Eosinophils, and Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepfer, Alain M; Simko, Audrey; Bussmann, Christian; Safroneeva, Ekaterina; Zwahlen, Marcel; Greuter, Thomas; Biedermann, Luc; Vavricka, Stephan; Godat, Sébastien; Reinhard, Antoine; Saner, Catherine; Maye, Hugo; Sempoux, Christine; Brunel, Christophe; Blanchard, Carine; Simon, Dagmar; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Straumann, Alex

    2018-03-01

    For technical reasons, the histologic characterization of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE)-specific alterations is almost exclusively based on those found in the esophageal epithelium, whereas little is known about subepithelial abnormalities. In this study, we aimed to systematically assess the nature of subepithelial histologic alterations, and analyze their relationship with epithelial histologic findings, endoscopic features, and symptoms. Adult patients with established EoE diagnosis were prospectively included during a yearly follow-up visit. Patients underwent assessment of clinical, endoscopic, and histologic disease activity using EoE-specific scores. We included 200 EoE patients (mean age 43.5±15.7 years, 74% males) with a median peak count of 36 intraepithelial eosinophils/hpf (IQR 14-84). The following histologic features were identified in the subepithelial layer: eosinophilic infiltration (median peak count of 20 eosinophils/hpf (IQR 10-51)), eosinophil degranulation (43%), fibrosis (82%), and lymphoid follicles (56%). Peak intraepithelial eosinophil counts were higher, identical, and lower when compared to the subepithelial layer in 62.5%, 7%, and 30.5% of patients, respectively. Anti-eosinophilic treatment at inclusion did not influence the relation between subepithelial and epithelial peak eosinophil counts. Subepithelial histologic activity correlated with epithelial histologic activity (rho 0.331, P<0.001), endoscopic severity (rho 0.208, P=0.003), and symptom severity (rho 0.179, P=0.011). Forty percent (21/52) of patients with <15 intraepithelial eosinophils/hpf had subepithelial peak counts of ≥15/hpf. There is a significant but modest correlation between subepithelial histologic activity and epithelial histologic activity, endoscopic severity, and symptom severity. The long-term clinical impact of assessing subepithelial alterations in EoE needs to be further elucidated.

  14. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis | Chopdat | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The accumulation of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract is a common feature of numerous disorders, such as drug reactions, helminth infections, hypereosinophilic syndromes, allergic colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and gastrooesophageal reflux disease.

  15. Eosinophils: multifunctional and distinctive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Hirohito

    2013-01-01

    The eosinophil is a granulocyte prominent in allergic diseases and inflammatory responses against helminthic parasites. The eosinophil was named by Paul Ehrlich in 1879, and derives from the intense staining of its granules with the acidic dye eosin. It has been the subject of extensive investigation ever since. It is strongly associated with human diseases involving mucosal surfaces, such as allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis and gastrointestinal disorders. Eosinophils are likely involved in tissue homeostasis, modulation of adaptive immune responses, innate immunity to certain microbes and pathological changes in allergic disorders. Thus, the eosinophil is considered a multifunctional leukocyte that contributes to a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes, depending on its location and activation status. Further studies will be necessary to better understand the biology of this extraordinary leukocyte and to reveal the importance of the cell in human health and disease. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Eosinophil-induced liver injury: an experimental model using IL-5 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, K; Maeda, T; Tominaga, A; Watanabe, Y; Miyazaki, E; Enzan, H; Akisawa, N; Iwasaki, S; Saibara, T; Onishi, S

    2001-02-01

    In certain liver diseases, activated eosinophils are considered to be important effector cells in addition to T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity. No experimental model, however, has been developed for in vivo analysis of the cytotoxic mechanisms. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) transgenic mice (C3H/HeN-TgN(IL-5)Imeg), which exhibit marked eosinophilia without liver injury, were injected once with 25 microg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intraperitoneally. The mice were sacrificed weekly and eosinophilic injuries were assessed microscopically. To clarify the role of Kupffer cells and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the liver injury, gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) and anti-TNF-alpha neutralizing antibody were administrated before the LPS injection. Two weeks after injection, transgenic mice exhibited marked infiltration of eosinophils and extensive lobular necrosis. Transmigration of eosinophils through vascular endothelium and degranulation of eosinophil cytotoxic granules in inflamed areas were observed. These eosinophilic injuries were transient, but liver-specific. Pre-administration of GdCl3 and anti-TNF-alpha markedly reduced the hepatic inflammation, suggesting that LPS-activated Kupffer cells play a key role in producing the cytotoxicity of eosinophils by releasing TNF-alpha. We have established an experimental model of eosinophil-induced liver injury using IL-5 transgenic mice. Since this model is simple and highly reproducible, it will be useful for analysis of in vivo cytotoxic mechanisms of eosinophils.

  17. Signal transduction and activation of the NADPH oxidase in eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Lindsay

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the eosinophil NADPH oxidase and the subsequent release of toxic oxygen radicals has been implicated in the mechanism of parasite killing and inflammation. At present, little is known of the signal transduction pathway that govern agonist-induced activation of the respiratory burst and is the subject of this review. In particular, we focus on the ability of leukotrine B4 to activate the NADPH oxidase in guinea-pig peritoneal eosinophils which can be obtained in sufficient number and purity for detailed biochemical experiments to be performed.

  18. Equine tetherin blocks retrovirus release and its activity is antagonized by equine infectious anemia virus envelope protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin; Hu, Zhe; Gu, Qinyong; Wu, Xingliang; Zheng, Yong-Hui; Wei, Ping; Wang, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Human tetherin is a host restriction factor that inhibits replication of enveloped viruses by blocking viral release. Tetherin has an unusual topology that includes an N-terminal cytoplasmic tail, a single transmembrane domain, an extracellular domain, and a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. Tetherin is not well conserved across species, so it inhibits viral replication in a species-specific manner. Thus, studies of tetherin activities from different species provide an important tool for understanding its antiviral mechanism. Here, we report cloning of equine tetherin and characterization of its antiviral activity. Equine tetherin shares 53%, 40%, 36%, and 34% amino acid sequence identity with feline, human, simian, and murine tetherins, respectively. Like the feline tetherin, equine tetherin has a shorter N-terminal domain than human tetherin. Equine tetherin is localized on the cell surface and strongly blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) release from virus-producing cells. The antiviral activity of equine tetherin is neutralized by EIAV envelope protein, but not by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu, which is a human tetherin antagonist, and EIAV envelope protein does not counteract human tetherin. These results shed new light on our understanding of the species-specific tetherin antiviral mechanism.

  19. Third-degree AV block from extended-release diltiazem ingestion in a nine-month-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Brandon K; Liu, J Marc; Wahl, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Calcium channel blocker (CCB) overdose is associated with dysrhythmias and atrioventricular (AV) block, however, experience with infant CCB overdose is limited. A 9-month-old girl was found playing with tablets of extended-release diltiazem 120 mg. The patient had two episodes of emesis, which contained pill fragments, and was brought to the Emergency Department (ED) 4.5 h after being found. Vital signs were: rectal temperature 37.1 degrees C, pulse 87 beats/min, respiratory rate 30-40 breaths/min, blood pressure 72/48 mm Hg, and oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) 99% on room air. Otherwise, the patient was well-appearing, with normal skin color and examination. The electrocardiogram revealed third-degree atrioventricular block with a ventricular rate of 90 beats/min, QRS 68 ms, and QTc 411 ms. Atropine 0.1 mg i.v. was given, which increased the heart rate to 100-110 beats/min. Calcium gluconate 500 mg was also given intravenously. Laboratory evaluation revealed bicarbonate 17 mEq/L, anion gap 16, and glucose 129 mg/dL. On hospital day 1, the patient was noted to have a junctional rhythm with a rate of 90-100, and systolic blood pressure of 80-90 mm Hg. No additional medications were given. Early on day 2, the patient converted spontaneously to a normal sinus rhythm and was discharged approximately 42 h after presentation to the ED. In addition to bradycardia and hypotension, this 9-month-old patient manifested third-degree AV block after ingesting extended-release diltiazem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Killing of juvenile Fasciola hepatica by purified bovine eosinophil proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffus, W P; Thorne, K; Oliver, R

    1980-01-01

    Eosinophils were isolated from the mammary gland of Fasciola hepatica-infected cattle by intramammary infusion with a crude extract from adult F. hepatica. Up to 5 x 10(9) eosinophils with a purity of over 90% could be obtained from a single quarter of the gland. The major contaminating cells were monocytes which reached their peak several days following the eosinophil peak. Two major proteins were isolated from bovine eosinophil granules, a high molecular weight peroxidase-active protein and a smaller molecular weight predominantly basic protein. This smaller protein was thought to be the bovine equivalent of guinea-pig and human major basic protein (MBP), although it possessed an unusually high concentration of cysteine. The bovine MBP had a profound effect on juvenile F. hepatica in vitro causing damage and death at concentrations down to 1 x 10(-6) M. The damage was detected by a 51Cr release assay and/or a viability assay involving microscopical examination of the flukes. Other cations, especially protamine sulphate, were also shown to kill flukes, although both lysozyme, found in neutrophils, and the peroxidase-positive peak from bovine eosinophils were unable to mediate any detectable damage. Images Fig. 4 PMID:7438542

  1. Endophilin mutations block clathrin-mediated endocytosis but not neurotransmitter release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verstreken, Patrik; Kjaerulff, Ole; Lloyd, Thomas E

    2002-01-01

    We have identified mutations in Drosophila endophilin to study its function in vivo. Endophilin is required presynaptically at the neuromuscular junction, and absence of Endophilin dramatically impairs endocytosis in vivo. Mutant larvae that lack Endophilin fail to take up FM1-43 dye in synaptic...... boutons, indicating an inability to retrieve synaptic membrane. This defect is accompanied by an expansion of the presynaptic membrane, and a depletion of vesicles from the bouton lumen. Interestingly, mutant larvae are still able to sustain release at 15%-20% of the normal rate during high...

  2. Lysozyme release and polymer erosion behavior of injectable implants prepared from PLGA-PEG block copolymers and PLGA/PLGA-PEG blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milacic, Vesna; Schwendeman, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the controlled release lysozyme from various poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) 50/50-polyethylene glycol (PEG) block copolymers relative to PLGA 50/50. Methods Lysozyme was encapsulated in cylindrical implants (0.8 mm diameter) by a solvent extrusion method. Release studies were conducted in phosphate buffered saline + 0.02 % Tween 80 (PBST) at 37°C. Lysozyme activity was measured by a fluorescence-based assay. Implant erosion was evaluated by kinetics of polymer molecular weight decline, water uptake, and mass loss. Results Lysozyme release from an AB15 di-block copolymer (15% 5 kDa PEG, PLGA 28 kDa) was very fast, whereas an AB10 di-block copolymer (with 10% 5 kDa PEG, PLGA 45 kDa) and ABA10 tri-block copolymer (with 10% 6 kDa PEG, PLGA 27kDa) showed release profiles similar to PLGA. We achieved continuous lysozyme release for up to 4 weeks from AB10 and ABA10 by lysozyme co-encapsulation with the pore- forming and acid-neutralizing MgCO3, and from AB15 by co-encapsulation of MgCO3 and blending AB15 with PLGA. Lysozyme activity was mostly recovered during four weeks. Conclusions These block co-polymers may have utility either alone or as PLGA blends for the controlled release of proteins. PMID:23959854

  3. Lysozyme release and polymer erosion behavior of injectable implants prepared from PLGA-PEG block copolymers and PLGA/PLGA-PEG blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesna Milacic, Vesna Milacic; Schwendeman, Steven P

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the controlled release of lysozyme from various poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) 50/50-polyethylene glycol (PEG) block copolymers relative to PLGA 50/50. Lysozyme was encapsulated in cylindrical implants (0.8 mm diameter) by a solvent extrusion method. Release studies were conducted in phosphate buffered saline +0.02% Tween 80 (PBST) at 37°C. Lysozyme activity was measured by a fluorescence-based assay. Implant erosion was evaluated by kinetics of polymer molecular weight decline, water uptake, and mass loss. Lysozyme release from an AB15 di-block copolymer (15% 5 kDa PEG, PLGA 28 kDa) was very fast, whereas an AB10 di-block copolymer (with 10% 5 kDa PEG, PLGA 45 kDa) and ABA10 tri-block copolymer (with 10% 6 kDa PEG, PLGA 27 kDa) showed release profiles similar to PLGA. We achieved continuous lysozyme release for up to 4 weeks from AB10 and ABA10 by lysozyme co-encapsulation with the pore-forming and acid-neutralizing MgCO3, and from AB15 by co-encapsulation of MgCO3 and blending AB15 with PLGA. Lysozyme activity was mostly recovered during 4 weeks. These block co-polymers may have utility either alone or as PLGA blends for the controlled release of proteins.

  4. Eosinophilic Disorders Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the small intestine, bypassing the esophagus and stomach. Glucocorticoid See Steroid . Gluten A type of protein found ... the release of leukotrienes or prevents their proinflammatory action in the body. Several different subtypes of leukotrienes ...

  5. Poly(acrylic acid)-block-poly(vinyl alcohol) anchored maghemite nanoparticles designed for multi-stimuli triggered drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji; Detrembleur, Christophe; Debuigne, Antoine; de Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire; Mornet, Stéphane; Vander Elst, Luce; Laurent, Sophie; Labrugère, Christine; Duguet, Etienne; Jérôme, Christine

    2013-11-01

    Original core/corona nanoparticles composed of a maghemite core and a stimuli-responsive polymer coating made of poly(acrylic acid)-block-poly(vinyl alcohol) macromolecules were fabricated for drug delivery system (DDS) application. This kind of DDS aims to combine the advantage of stimuli-responsive polymer coating, in order to regulate the drug release behaviours under different conditions and furthermore, improve the biocompatibility and in vivo circulation half-time of the maghemite nanoparticles. Drug loading capacity was evaluated with methylene blue (MB), a cationic model drug. The triggered release of MB was studied under various stimuli such as pH, ionic strength and temperature. Local heating generated under alternating magnetic field (AMF) application was studied, and remotely AMF-triggered release was also confirmed, while a mild heating-up of the release medium was observed. Furthermore, their potential application as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents was explored via relaxivity measurements and acquisition of T2-weighted images. Preliminary studies on the cytotoxicity against mouse fibroblast-like L929 cell line and also their cellular uptake within human melanoma MEL-5 cell line were carried out. In conclusion, this kind of stimuli-responsive nanoparticles appears to be promising carriers for delivering drugs to some tumour sites or into cellular compartments with an acidic environment.Original core/corona nanoparticles composed of a maghemite core and a stimuli-responsive polymer coating made of poly(acrylic acid)-block-poly(vinyl alcohol) macromolecules were fabricated for drug delivery system (DDS) application. This kind of DDS aims to combine the advantage of stimuli-responsive polymer coating, in order to regulate the drug release behaviours under different conditions and furthermore, improve the biocompatibility and in vivo circulation half-time of the maghemite nanoparticles. Drug loading capacity was evaluated with methylene

  6. Effects of nickel on eosinophil survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kenji; Goi, Yoshiaki; Hong, Jang Ja; Seyama, Toshio; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Wada, Hiroshi; Ohuchi, Kazuo; Hirasawa, Noriyasu

    2009-01-01

    Accessories, watches, coins and other items containing metal sometimes cause contact dermatitis and metal allergy. Among metals, nickel in alloys is ionized by sweat on the surface of the skin and exhibits particularly marked irritancy and allergenicity. Although eosinophils play important roles in allergy, the effects of nickel on eosinophils have not been elucidated. Eosinophils were prepared from the peritoneal cavity in rats immunized with Ascaris suum extract. Purified rat eosinophils were incubated in the presence of various kinds of metals including nickel. The viability of eosinophils was analyzed using a flow cytometer. When rat eosinophils were incubated for 3 days in the presence of nickel chloride at 30-1,000 microM, the viability of eosinophils was decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. Nickel chloride at 300 muM significantly increased the percentage of annexin V+ PI- eosinophils. The population of annexin V+ PI- eosinophils was also increased by nickel sulfate, cobalt chloride and zinc sulfate. The binding of nickel ions to eosinophils was detected by flow cytometer. Nickel ions bind to eosinophils and decrease the viability of eosinophils through the induction of apoptosis. Nickel ions may exhibit activity which modifies the function of eosinophils in allergy. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Eosinophilic Dermatosis of Hematologic Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Truyols, S; Rodrigo-Nicolás, B; Lloret-Ruiz, C; Quecedo-Estébanez, E

    Dermatosis characterized by tissue eosinophilia arising in the context of hematologic disease is known as eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy. The most commonly associated malignancy is chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy is a rare condition with a wide variety of clinical presentations, ranging from papules, erythematous nodules, or blisters that simulate arthropod bites, to the formation of true plaques of differing sizes. Histology reveals the presence of abundant eosinophils. We present 4 new cases seen in Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Valencia, during the past 7 years. Three of these cases were associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 1 with mycosis fungoides. It is important to recognize this dermatosis as it can indicate progression of the underlying disease, as was the case in 3 of our patients. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Atypical presentations of eosinophilic fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulin Ergun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is an uncommon connective tissue disease that may mimic and overlap with other sclerosing disorders such as morphea and lichen sclerosus. Herein, we report four patients (two men and two women, aged 16-64 yeas with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was overlap with both morphea and lichen sclerosus in 2 patients and with morphoea alone in 1 patient. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was used for diagnosis in three patients and for assessing treatment response in one patient. Eosinophilic fasciitis may co-exist with morhoea and lichen sclerosus. In view of the overlapping clinical and histopathological features of these disorders, MRI may be helful in delineating the conditions by detecting involvement of fascia.

  9. Abrasive blasting, a technique for the industrial decontamination of metal components and concrete blocks from decommissioning to unconditional release levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gills, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Ooms, B.; Reusen, N.; Van Laer, W.; Walthery, R.

    2007-01-01

    When decommissioning nuclear installations, large quantities of metal components are produced as well as significant amounts of other radioactive materials, which mostly show low surface contamination. Having been used or having been brought for a while in a controlled area marks them as 'suspected material'. In view of the very high costs for radioactive waste processing and disposal, alternatives have been considered, and much effort has gone to recycling through decontamination, melting and unconditional release of metals. In a broader context, recycling of materials can considered to be a first order ecological priority in order to limit the quantities of radioactive wastes for final disposal and to reduce the technical and economic problems involved with the management of radioactive wastes. It will help as well to make economic use of primary material and to conserve natural resources of basic material for future generations. In a demonstration programme, Belgoprocess has shown that it is economically interesting to decontaminate metal components to unconditional release levels using dry abrasive blasting techniques, the unit cost for decontamination being only 30 % of the global cost for radioactive waste treatment, conditioning, storage and disposal. As a result, an industrial dry abrasive blasting unit was installed in the Belgoprocess central decontamination infrastructure. At the end of December 2006, more than 1,128 Mg of contaminated metal has been treated as well as 313 Mg of concrete blocks. The paper gives an overview of the experience relating to the decontamination of metal material and concrete blocks at the decommissioning of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant in Dessel, Belgium as well from the decontamination of concrete containers by abrasive blasting. (authors)

  10. Eosinophilic Fasciitis Induced by Fire Ant Bites

    OpenAIRE

    Mallepalli, Jyothi R.; Quinet, Robert J.; Sus, Rachana

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a case of eosinophilic fasciitis likely related to proximate fire ant bites and review the literature to summarize the etiology and clinical, laboratory, histopathological, and therapeutic aspects of eosinophilic fasciitis.

  11. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Adolescent Patients Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients Basics Overview Eosinophilic esophagitis also known as ( ... children may have vomiting and abdominal pain, and adolescents may complain of the feeling of food getting ...

  12. Eosinophilic cholecystitis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel-Jarquín, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholecystitis is caused by the accumulation of eosinophils in the gallbladder wall and diagnosis is usually made based on histopathologic studies. The purpose of this paper is to comment on a case report published in World J Gastroenterol 2007 July; 13 (27): 3760-3762, about eosinophilic cholecystitis along with pericarditis without histopathological studies, which are considered necessary for its diagnosis. PMID:18461667

  13. Eosinophilic Granuloma in Jaw Bone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    alveolar bone. Involvement of other bones is ruled out by nucleotide imaging study. CONCLUSION: EG should be considered as a differential diagnosis whenever there is ... KEYWORDS: Eosinophilic granuloma, langerhans cell histiocytosis, oral manifestations, alveolar bone .... enough to initiate healing and spontaneous.

  14. Carbamazepine-induced eosinophilic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeer, V K; Devi, Sobhana R; Chettupuzha, Antony Paul; Mustafa, C P; Sandesh, K; Kumar, Sunil K; Thomas, Varghese; Ashraf, A Syed

    2002-01-01

    We describe a 15-year-old boy who was on carbamazepine for the past 8 years for seizure disorder, who developed recurrent episodes of small bowel obstruction. Full-thickness small bowel biopsy obtained at laparotomy was consistent with eosinophilic enteritis. He improved clinically after tapering the drug.

  15. Toxocara-induced eosinophilic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, J.; Egbers, M.W.E.C.; Lokhorst, W.H.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Nijkamp, F.P.

    1995-01-01

    The immunoinflammatory response to parasitic nematode infections and allergic diseases have some similarities, the most profound being the increases in eosinophils and serum total IgE concentration. Whether parasitic infections stimulate or inhibit allergic asthma is a matter of debate. We

  16. Eosinophil Infiltration of the Stomach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was an uneventful recovery and the patient was discharged from hospital 9 days after the operation. Three weeks later he was well and the white cell count was 6200/mm', and no eosinophils were observed in the peripheral blood. Tests for bilharziasis amoebiasis and hydatid disease were negative. ' ,. PATHOLOGY.

  17. EoE (Eosinophilic Esophagitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How do we diagnose? APFED’s Educational Webinar Series © American Partnership for Eosinophilic Disorders (APFED) 2006-2015 All rights reserved. Content may not be reproduced in whole or in part without express written consent from APFED. About EAD What is ...

  18. [Functions of eosinophil granulocytes: from anti-parasite immunity to anti-tumoral potential].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capron, Monique; Legrand, Fanny

    2009-02-01

    Eosinophils have long been considered simply as effectors of adaptive immune responses during parasitic infections and inflammatory processes. Their role in allergic manifestations and mucosal responses is mediated by membrane receptors that allow them to interact with IgE and IgA antibodies. The recent demonstration that human eosinophils express innate immune receptors suggests that they may also play a role in antitumoral immune surveillance. Experimental evidence shows that human eosinophils have tumoricidal potential, in synergy with other effector cells, notably by releasing cytotoxic molecules.

  19. The role of the prostaglandin D2 receptor, DP, in eosinophil trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schratl, Petra; Royer, Julia F; Kostenis, Evi

    2007-01-01

    of DP has remained unclear. We report in this study that, in addition to CRTH2, the DP receptor plays an important role in eosinophil trafficking. First, we investigated the release of eosinophils from bone marrow using the in situ perfused guinea pig hind limb preparation. PGD2 induced the rapid......Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is a major mast cell product that acts via two receptors, the D-type prostanoid (DP) and the chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) receptors. Whereas CRTH2 mediates the chemotaxis of eosinophils, basophils, and Th2 lymphocytes, the role...

  20. Extracellular DNA traps in bronchoalveolar fluid from a murine eosinophilic pulmonary response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, A A; Porto, B N; Nuñez, N K; Souza, R G; Vargas, M H M; Silveira, J S; Souza, T T R; Jaeger, N; Pitrez, P M

    2014-12-01

    Asthma is associated with a loss of the structural integrity of airway epithelium and dysfunction of the physical barrier, which protects airways from external harmful factors. Granulocyte activation causes the formation of extracellular traps, releasing web-like structures of DNA and proteins, being important to kill pathogens extracellularly. We investigated whether eosinophils infiltrating airways in an experimental model of asthma would induce eosinophil extracellular traps (EETs) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. We showed that an ovalbumin (OVA) asthma protocol presented a significant increase in eosinophil counts with increased extracellular DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as in lung tissue, confirming the presence of DNA traps colocalized with eosinophil peroxidase. EETs formation was reversed by DNase treatment. With these approaches, we demonstrated for the first time that OVA-challenged mice release extracellular DNA traps, which could aggravate pulmonary dysfunction. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Secretion modification region-derived peptide blocks exosome release and mediates cell cycle arrest in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Bo; Gonzalez, Ruben R; Lillard, James; Bond, Vincent C

    2017-02-14

    Discovery and development of a novel anticancer PEG-SMR-Clu peptide to prevent breast cancer metastasis. How breast cancer cells and primary mammary epithelial cells interact and communicate with each other to promote tumorigenesis and how to prevent tumor metastasis has long been a concern of researchers. Cancer cells secrete exosomes containing proteins and RNA. These factors can influence tumor development by directly targeting cancer cells and tumor stroma. In this study, we determined the effects of a peptide as an inhibitor of exosome secretion on breast tumors. We developed a peptide derived from the Secretion Modification Region (SMR) of HIV-1 Nef protein that was modified with PEG on the N-terminus and with a Clusterin (Clu)-binding peptide on the C-terminus. Attachment of PEG to the SMR peptide, termed PEGylation, offers improved water solubility and stability as well as reduced clearance through the kidneys, leading to a longer circulation time. The 12-mer Clu-binding peptide plays multiple roles in tumor development and metastasis. The Clu peptide can be detected by antibody in vivo, thus it has the potential to be used to monitor tumor status and treatment efficacy in animal studies and eventually in cancer patients. PEG-SMRwt-Clu and PEG-SMRwt peptides inhibited the growth of both of MCF-7 (estrogen responsive, ER+) and MDA-MD-231 (estrogen non-responsive, ER-) human breast cancer cells in a dose and time-dependent manner, without inducing cytotoxic effects. The SMRwt peptide, combined with paclitaxel, induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells but did not promote apoptosis. PEG-SMRwt-Clu peptide treatment blocked exosome release from both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. This effect was blocked by knockdown of the chaperone protein mortalin by either antibody or siRNA. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cells were treated with PEG-SMR-Clu peptide alone and in combination with paclitaxel and cisplatin. Cell proliferation and viabilty

  2. Acute acalculous cholecystitis with eosinophilic infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muta, Yuki; Odaka, Akio; Inoue, Seiichiro; Komagome, Masahiko; Beck, Yoshifumi; Tamura, Masanori; Arai, Eiichi

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of acute acalculous cholecystitis with eosinophilic infiltration. A previously healthy 6-year-old boy was referred with right abdominal pain. Imaging demonstrated marked thickening of the gallbladder wall and peri-cholecystic effusion. Acute acalculous cholecystitis was diagnosed. Symptoms persisted despite conservative treatment, therefore cholecystectomy was performed. Pathology indicated infiltration of eosinophils into all layers of the gallbladder wall. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient has had no further symptoms. Eosinophilic cholecystitis is acute acalculous cholecystitis with infiltration of eosinophils. The causes include parasites, gallstones, allergies, and medications. In addition, it may be seen in conjunction with eosinophilic gastroenteritis, eosinophilic pancreatitis, or both. An allergic reaction to abnormal bile is thought to be the underlying cause. The present case did not fulfill the diagnostic criteria of eosinophilic cholecystitis, but this may have been in the process of developing. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Gyoo; Sik; Oh, Kyung Seung; Kim, Jong Min; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk; Jang, Tae Won; Jung, Man Hong

    1995-01-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is one of a recently described idiopathic eosinophilic lung disease, which differs from chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Patients with acute eosinophilic pneumonia develop acute onset of dyspnea, hypoxemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and pleural effusion on chest radiograph, and show an increase in number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or lung biopsy specimen. Prompt and complete response to corticosteroid therapy without any recurrence is characteristically seen in patient with this disease. Although the etiology of acute eosinophilic pneumonia is not known, it has been suggested to be related to a hypersensitivity phenomenon to an unidentified inhaled antigen. We report four cases of acute eosinophilic pneumonia presented with acute onset of dyspnea, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph, and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in previously healthy adults

  4. Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies Block Chikungunya Virus Entry and Release by Targeting an Epitope Critical to Viral Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the mechanism by which neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies inhibit chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection. Potently neutralizing antibodies (NAbs blocked infection at multiple steps of the virus life cycle, including entry and release. Cryo-electron microscopy structures of Fab fragments of two human NAbs and chikungunya virus-like particles showed a binding footprint that spanned independent domains on neighboring E2 subunits within one viral spike, suggesting a mechanism for inhibiting low-pH-dependent membrane fusion. Detailed epitope mapping identified amino acid E2-W64 as a critical interaction residue. An escape mutation (E2-W64G at this residue rendered CHIKV attenuated in mice. Consistent with these data, CHIKV-E2-W64G failed to emerge in vivo under the selection pressure of one of the NAbs, IM-CKV063. As our study suggests that antibodies engaging the residue E2-W64 can potently inhibit CHIKV at multiple stages of infection, antibody-based therapies or immunogens that target this region might have protective value.

  5. Scleroderma mimicker – Eosinophilic fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debanjali Sinha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is an uncommon connective tissue disorder characterized by thickening of the deep fascia and overlying skin and subcutaneous tissue. It may mimic scleroderma and other scleroderma-like conditions. It may be a manifestation of paraneoplastic disorders or may be associated with hematological disorders including lymphomas. Definitive diagnosis is made on histological examination of a deep skin biopsy revealing thickened deep fascia and infiltration by lymphocytes and eosinophils. Enhancement of deep fascia on Gadolinium contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging may be used as a substitute for skin biopsy. Ultrasound imaging is an evolving imaging tool for diagnosing it. Glucocorticoids with or without immunosuppressive agents remains the mainstay of therapy with good response, generally. A younger age of onset, morphea like lesions and dermal fibrosclerosis is more likely to be associated with the refractory disease. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment may result in better outcomes in terms of morbidity and quality of life of the patients.

  6. Corticosteroids for parasitic eosinophilic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanaviratananich, Sikawat; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak; Ngamjarus, Chetta

    2015-02-17

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) is the major cause of infectious eosinophilic meningitis. Dead larvae of this parasite cause inflammation and exacerbate symptoms of meningitis. Corticosteroids are drugs used to reduce the inflammation caused by this parasite. To assess the efficacy and safety of corticosteroids for the treatment of eosinophilic meningitis. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1950 to November Week 3, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to December 2014), Scopus (1960 to December 2014), Web of Science (1955 to December 2014), LILACS (1982 to December 2014) and CINAHL (1981 to December 2014). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of corticosteroids versus placebo for eosinophilic meningitis. Two review authors (SiT, SaT) independently collected and extracted study data. We graded the methodological quality of the RCTs. We identified and analysed outcomes and adverse effects. We did not identifiy any new trials for inclusion or exclusion in this 2014 update. One study involving 110 participants (55 participants in each group) met our inclusion criteria. The corticosteroid (prednisolone) showed a benefit in shortening the median time to resolution of headaches (five days in the treatment group versus 13 days in the control group, P value treatment (9.1% versus 45.5%, P value treatment group (12.7% versus 40%, P value = 0.002). There was a reduction in the median time of analgesic use in participants receiving corticosteroids (10.5 versus 25.0, P value = 0.038). There were no reported adverse effects from prednisolone in the treatment group. Corticosteroids significantly help relieve headache in patients with eosinophilic meningitis, who have a pain score of four or more on a visual analogue scale. However, there is only one RCT supporting this benefit and this trial did not clearly mention allocation concealment and stratification. Therefore, we agreed to grade our included study as a moderate quality trial. Future well-designed RCTs are necessary.

  7. Eosinophil resistance to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis is mediated by the transcription factor NFIL3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazdrak, Konrad; Moon, Young; Straub, Christof; Stafford, Susan; Kurosky, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The mainstay of asthma therapy, glucocorticoids (GCs) exert their therapeutic effects through the inhibition of inflammatory signaling and induction of eosinophil apoptosis. However, laboratory and clinical observations of GC-resistant asthma suggest that GCs' effects on eosinophil viability may depend on the state of eosinophil activation. In the present study we demonstrate that eosinophils stimulated with IL-5 show impaired pro-apoptotic response to GCs. We sought to determine the contribution of GC-mediated transactivating (TA) and transrepressing (TR) pathways in modulation of activated eosinophils' response to GC by comparing their response to the selective GC receptor (GR) agonist Compound A (CpdA) devoid of TA activity to that upon treatment with Dexamethasone (Dex). IL-5-activated eosinophils showed contrasting responses to CpdA and Dex, as IL-5-treated eosinophils showed no increase in apoptosis compared to cells treated with Dex alone, while CpdA elicited an apoptotic response regardless of IL-5 stimulation. Proteomic analysis revealed that both Nuclear Factor IL-3 (NFIL3) and Map Kinase Phosphatase 1 (MKP1) were inducible by IL-5 and enhanced by Dex; however, CpdA had no effect on NFIL3 and MKP1 expression. We found that inhibiting NFIL3 with specific siRNA or by blocking the IL-5-inducible Pim-1 kinase abrogated the protective effect of IL-5 on Dex-induced apoptosis, indicating crosstalk between IL-5 anti-apoptotic pathways and GR-mediated TA signaling occurring via the NFIL3 molecule. Collectively, these results indicate that (1) GCs' TA pathway may support eosinophil viability in IL-5-stimulated cells through synergistic upregulation of NFIL3; and (2) functional inhibition of IL-5 signaling (anti-Pim1) or the use of selective GR agonists that don't upregulate NFIL3 may be effective strategies for the restoring pro-apoptotic effect of GCs on IL-5-activated eosinophils.

  8. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer.

  9. Thermosensitive mPEG-b-PA-g-PNIPAM comb block copolymer micelles: effect of hydrophilic chain length and camptothecin release behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Li; Luo, Yan-Ling; Xu, Feng; Chen, Ya-Shao

    2014-02-01

    Block copolymer micelles are extensively used as drug controlled release carriers, showing promising application prospects. The comb or brush copolymers are especially of great interest, whose densely-grafted side chains may be important for tuning the physicochemical properties and conformation in selective solvents, even in vitro drug release. The purpose of this work was to synthesize novel block copolymer combs via atom transfer radical polymerization, to evaluate its physicochemical features in solution, to improve drug release behavior and to enhance the bioavailablity, and to decrease cytotoxicity. The physicochemical properties of the copolymer micelles were examined by modulating the composition and the molecular weights of the building blocks. A dialysis method was used to load hydrophobic camptothecin (CPT), and the CPT release and stability were detected by UV-vis spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography, and the cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assays. The copolymers could self-assemble into well-defined spherical core-shell micelle aggregates in aqueous solution, and showed thermo-induced micellization behavior, and the critical micelle concentration was 2.96-27.64 mg L(-1). The micelles were narrow-size-distribution, with hydrodynamic diameters about 128-193 nm, depending on the chain length of methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) blocks and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) graft chains or/and compositional ratios of mPEG to PNIPAM. The copolymer micelles could stably and effectively load CPT but avoid toxicity and side-effects, and exhibited thermo-dependent controlled and targeted drug release behavior. The copolymer micelles were safe, stable and effective, and could potentially be employed as CPT controlled release carriers.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description PDGFRB -associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a type of cancer of blood-forming ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description PDGFRA -associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a form of blood cell cancer characterized ...

  12. Eosinophilic esophagitis: indications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex

    2014-01-01

    At present, it is still debated whether the focus of treatment in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) should be directed toward a symptomatic or histological response, or even toward a combination of both. This question cannot be answered as long as we have no solid data evaluating the long-term consequences of untreated symptoms and untreated inflammation. Nevertheless, today there are at least three established reasons to treat patients with clinically and histologically active EoE. First, dysphagia has a substantial negative impact on the patient's daily life. Despite the fact that patients often cope with this symptom and accept even marked restrictions in their nutritional habits, they usually experience a marked enhancement in quality of life under treatment. Second, untreated EoE harbors the risk of long-lasting food impactions. There is evidence that this unpleasant, unforeseeable and even risky incident can be prevented by efficient treatment of the eosinophilic inflammation. Third, it has been demonstrated in several clinical studies as well as in animal models that unbridled eosinophilic inflammation leads to a so-called remodeling of the esophagus with wall thickening, stiffness of the organ and stricture. Prevention of esophageal damage caused by tissue remodeling is therefore another reason to strongly advocate a consequential treatment. Finally, there is increasing evidence that untreated EoE might be a risk factor for acute infection of the esophagus with herpes simplex virus (HSV), leading to a severe ulcerative and extremely painful esophagitis. Prevention of HSV esophagitis might therefore be a fourth indication for treating EoE. 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Eosinophilic Mucin Otomastoiditis and Otopolyposis: A Progressive Form of Eosinophilic Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadarmaki, Roya; Westra, William; Prasad, Sanjay

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce and define a disease entity on a continuum of eosinophilic otitis media: eosinophilic mucin otomastoiditis and otopolyposis. A case of a 66-year-old woman with complicated chronic otitis media is reported. A literature review of the National Library of Medicine's online database, with a focus on eosinophilic otitis media and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis, was performed. The authors report the case of a 66-year-old woman with a history of asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, and chronic otitis media who presented with allergic middle ear mucin and otic polyps. Treatment involved a tympanomastoidectomy with removal of otic polyps and steroid therapy. Eosinophilic mucin otomastoiditis with otopolyposis is a disease entity on a continuum of eosinophilic otitis media. This disease process shares similarities with eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis. Otic polypectomy and steroids are suggested therapeutic measures. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Coccidioidomycosis Masquerading as Eosinophilic Ascites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Alavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic to the southwestern parts of the United States, coccidioidomycosis, also known as “Valley Fever,” is a common fungal infection that primarily affects the lungs in both acute and chronic forms. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis is the most severe but very uncommon and usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. It can affect the central nervous system, bones, joints, skin, and, very rarely, the abdomen. This is the first case report of a patient with coccidioidal dissemination to the peritoneum presenting as eosinophilic ascites (EA. A 27-year-old male presented with acute abdominal pain and distention from ascites. He had eosinophilia of 11.1% with negative testing for stool studies, HIV, and tuberculosis infection. Ascitic fluid exam was remarkable for low serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG, PMN count >250/mm3, and eosinophils of 62%. Abdominal imaging showed thickened small bowel and endoscopic testing negative for gastric and small bowel biopsies. He was treated empirically for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, but no definitive diagnosis could be made until coccidioidal serology returned positive. We noted complete resolution of symptoms with oral fluconazole during outpatient follow-up. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis can present in an atypical fashion and may manifest as peritonitis with low SAAG EA. The finding of EA in an endemic area should raise the suspicion of coccidioidal dissemination.

  15. Feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, L E; Hardam, E E; Hertzke, D M; Flatland, B; Rohrbach, B W; Moore, R R

    2009-01-01

    A retrospective study of cases of a unique intramural inflammatory mass within the feline gastrointestinal tract was performed in order to describe and characterize the lesion. Twenty-five cases were identified from archival surgical and postmortem tissues. The lesion most often occurred as an ulcerated intramural mass at the pyloric sphincter (n = 12) or the ileocecocolic junction or colon (n = 9); the remaining cases were in the small intestine. Seven cases also had lymph node involvement. The lesions were characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, large reactive fibroblasts, and trabeculae of dense collagen. Intralesional bacteria were identified in 56% of the cases overall and all of the ileocecocolic junction and colon lesions. Fifty-eight percent of cats tested had peripheral eosinophilia. Cats treated with prednisone had a significantly longer survival time than those receiving other treatments. We propose that this is a unique fibroblastic response of the feline gastrointestinal tract to eosinophilic inflammation that in some cases is associated with bacteria. The lesion is often grossly and sometimes histologically mistaken for neoplasia.

  16. The Pathophysiology of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Avi Lemberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE is an emerging disease characterised by esophageal eosinophilia (>15eos/hpf, lack of responsiveness to acid-suppressive medication and is managed by allergen elimination and anti-allergy therapy. Although the pathophysiology of EoE is currently unsubstantiated, evidence implicates food and aeroallergen hypersensitivity in genetically predisposed individuals as contributory factors. Genome-wide expression analyses have isolated a remarkably conserved gene-expression profile irrespective of age and gender, suggesting a genetic contribution. EoE has characteristics of mainly TH2 type immune responses but also some TH1 cytokines, which appear to strongly contribute to tissue fibrosis, with esophageal epithelial cells providing a hospitable environment for this inflammatory process. Eosinophil-degranulation products appear to play a central role in tissue remodeling in EoE. This remodeling and dysregulation predisposes to fibrosis. Mast cell-derived molecules such as histamine may have an effect on enteric nerves and may also act in concert with TGF-β to interfere with esophageal musculature. Additionally, the esophageal epithelium may facilitate the inflammatory process under pathogenic contexts such as in EoE. This article aims to discuss the contributory factors in the pathophysiology of EoE.

  17. Eosinophilic esophagitis: rapidly emerging disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex

    2012-02-03

    Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE), first described in the early 1990's, has rapidly evolved as distinctive chronic inflammatory esophageal disease. The diagnosis is based clinically by the presence of symptoms related to an esophageal dysfunction and histologically by an eosinophil-predominant inflammation once other conditions leading to esophageal eosinophilia are excluded. This striking male-prevalent disease has an increasing incidence and prevalence in the westernised countries. Currently, EoE represents the main cause of dysphagia and bolus impaction in adult patients. Despite the fact that EoE often occurs in atopic patients, the value of allergic testing is still under discussion. Topical corticosteroids lead to a rapid improvement of active EoE clinically and histologically; they are therefore regarded as first-line drug therapy. Elimination diets have similar efficacy as topical corticosteroids, but their long-term use is limited by practical issues. Esophageal dilation of EoE-induced strictures can also be effective in improving symptoms, but this therapy has no effect on the underlying inflammation. Neither the diagnostic nor the long-term therapeutic strategies are yet fully defined.

  18. Role of Adhesion Molecules in Eosinophil Activation: A Comparative Study on the Effect of Adhesion Molecules on Eosinophil Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoshi Yamaguchi

    2004-01-01

    Conclusions: The regulation of adhesion molecules, by not only preventing eosinophil adhesion but also eosinophil activation, may be a potential target in the treatment of allergic inflammatory disorders.

  19. Asthma: Eosinophil Disease, Mast Cell Disease, or Both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradding Peter

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there is much circumstantial evidence implicating eosinophils as major orchestrators in the pathophysiology of asthma, recent studies have cast doubt on their importance. Not only does anti-interleukin-5 treatment not alter the course of the disease, but some patients with asthma do not have eosinophils in their airways, whereas patients with eosinophilic bronchitis exhibit a florid tissue eosinophilia but do not have asthma. In contrast, mast cells are found in all airways and localize specifically to key tissue structures such as the submucosal glands and airway smooth muscle within asthmatic bronchi, irrespective of disease severity or phenotype. Here they are activated and interact exclusively with these structural cells via adhesive pathways and through the release of soluble mediators acting across the distance of only a few microns. The location of mast cells within the airway smooth muscle bundles seems particularly important for the development and propagation of asthma, perhaps occurring in response to, and then serving to aggravate, an underlying abnormality in asthmatic airway smooth muscle function. Targeting this mast cell-airway smooth muscle interaction in asthma offers exciting prospects for the treatment of this common disease.

  20. Effect of polymer degradation on prolonged release of paclitaxel from filomicelles of polylactide/poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelonek, Katarzyna; Li, Suming; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Wu, Xiaohan; Orchel, Arkadiusz

    2017-06-01

    Paclitaxel is one of the most efficient anticancer agents, but the conventional dosage formulations cause many side effects. PLA-PEG filomicelles are promising carriers of paclitaxel because high loading capacity and long term release can be achieved. Slow release of cytostatic drugs is very advantageous due to prolonged exposure of tumor cells to cytostatic over multiple cell cycles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of bioresorbable PLA-PEG filomicelles for prolonged delivery of paclitaxel. Paclitaxel is encapsulated in PLLA-PEG filomicelles and PDLLA-PEG spherical micelles. Drug release was studied in PBS at 37°C at various pH values to elucidate the influence of polymer degradation on drug release. NMR, GPC and HPLC were used to follow polymer degradation and drug release. The release of paclitaxel is strongly dependent on the degradation of micelles. A biphasic drug release profile is observed for both PLLA-PEG and PDLLA-PEG micelles: slow release in the first phase and faster release in the second phase. Degradation is faster at acidic pH than at pH7.4, and PLLA-PEG filomicelles degrade less rapidly than PDLLA-PEG spherical micelles, leading to various rates of drug release. The correlation between degradation and drug release is very helpful for the development of novel drug carriers with tailored properties. Importantly, the cytotoxic activity of PLLA-PEG filomicelles was evidenced, thus showing their potential as carrier of antitumor drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Blood Eosinophil and Basophil Values Before and After Surgery for Eosinophilic-type Sinonasal Polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescia, Giuseppe; Parrino, Daniela; Zanotti, Claudia; Tealdo, Giulia; Barion, Umberto; Sfriso, Paolo; Marioni, Gino

    2018-01-01

    Background Blood eosinophil and basophil levels have recently been considered for the purpose of endotyping chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Histologically, eosinophilic-type CRSwNPs have been associated with high recurrence rates after treatment. Objective The present study was the first to compare blood eosinophil and basophil counts in eosinophilic-type CRSwNP patients before and after endoscopic sinus surgery. Methods The study concerned 79 consecutive patients with histologically confirmed eosinophilic-type CRSwNP treated with endoscopic sinus surgery. Results A significant drop in mean blood eosinophil counts and percentages occurred from before to after endoscopic sinus surgery in the cohort as a whole. Mean blood eosinophil counts and percentages were also reduced after surgery in the subcohorts of CRSwNP patients with (i) asthma, (ii) aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), and (iii) no allergy. Although blood eosinophil and basophil counts correlated directly before and after surgery, a statistical reduction in blood basophil counts and percentages after surgery emerged only in the subcohort of nonallergic CRSwNP patients. Conclusion Endoscopic sinus surgery can clear polyps, remove inflammatory tissue, and reduce inflammatory cytokine levels. Consistently with the biological mechanism described, endoscopic sinus surgery could coincide with a reduction in blood eosinophils in eosinophilic-type CRSwNP.

  2. Medical therapy in eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is a chronic-inflammatory disease of the oesophagus. If left untreated, eosinophilic inflammation induces fibrosis, angiogenesis and stricture formation, resulting finally in a so called remodelling with structural and functional damage of the organ. In addition, patients with untreated EoE are permanently at risk of experiencing food impactions. It is therefore widely accepted that active EoE should be treated. Any treatment applied in EoE should ideally achieve two therapeutic goals: first, resolution of symptoms, and, second, control of inflammation. Avoidance of food allergens by elimination diets as well as anti-inflammatory drugs have both the ability to achieve these goals. Among the pharmacological options, only corticosteroids have documented efficacy, whereas alternatives have shown rather disappointing results or are still under evaluation. Of note, swallowed topical corticosteroids are at least as efficient as systemically administered corticosteroids but have fewer side effects. As such topical corticosteroids are widely used as first-line drug in the treatment of EoE, even though this compound is currently not approved for this indication by regulatory authorities. Unfortunately, complete resolution of symptoms can be achieved with swallowed topical corticosteroids only in approximately 70% of patients despite appropriate dosing and despite correct administration of these compounds. Control of inflammation is even harder to achieve, as only in approximately 50% of patients tissue eosinophilia disappears completely under this anti-inflammatory medication. For this group of "difficult to treat" patients, therapeutic alternatives are urgently needed. Fortunately several anti-allergic drugs and several biologicals are currently under investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Curious Case of Proximal Muscle Weakness with Eosinophilic Polymyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciel Harris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic polymyositis (EPM is part of a rare disorder, eosinophilic myopathies (EM, which is a form of polymyositis characterized by the presence of eosinophils in muscle biopsy sections and occasionally blood eosinophilia. Herein, we are presenting an interesting case of eosinophilic polymyositis presenting with muscle pain with no other organ systems involved.

  4. Suppression of Eosinophil Integrins Prevents Remodeling of Airway Smooth Muscle in Asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Januskevicius, Andrius; Gosens, Reinoud; Sakalauskas, Raimundas; Vaitkiene, Simona; Janulaityte, Ieva; Halayko, Andrew J; Hoppenot, Deimante; Malakauskas, Kestutis

    2017-01-01

    Background: Airway smooth muscle (ASM) remodeling is an important component of the structural changes to airways seen in asthma. Eosinophils are the prominent inflammatory cells in asthma, and there is some evidence that they contribute to ASM remodeling via released mediators and direct contact

  5. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EE) or (EoE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delayed, caused primarily by immune mechanisms other than classical IgE-mediated food allergy. Once a causative food ... specific responses in allergy? » Dietary Therapy and Nutrition Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Work Group Report of ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: eosinophil peroxidase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigation Home Page Search Home Health Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Share: Email ... EPXD peroxidase and phospholipid deficiency in eosinophils Presentey anomaly Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  7. Idiopathic eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on the latest cognitions, diagnosis and treatment strategies of the three main representatives of the eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID): idiopathic eosinophilic oesophagitis (EE), idiopathic eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) and idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES) with gastrointestinal involvement. These disorders share important similarities: their origin is unknown and their pathogenesis is due to a histological inflammatory response characterised by eosinophilic tissue infiltration. In spite of these parallels, the courses and prognoses of the diseases differ radically: EE is restricted to the oesophagus, and though it may significantly decrease the patient's quality of life, it has a favourable long-term prognosis. In EGE, the inflammatory process involves several segments of the gastrointestinal tract but this chronic inflammation may also be considered a benign disorder. In contrast, HES is primarily a multisystem disorder that may involve several organs, including the digestive tract, and often has a fatal outcome.

  8. Preparation and surface labeling of murine eosinophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, A.W.; Cruise, K.M.; Mitchell, G.F.; Watt, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    Eosinophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes were isolated from the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice infected with the parasite Mesocestoides corti. Approximately 4 x 10 7 eosinophils (purity, 50%) could be harvested from each mouse. A high yield and purity of eosinophils was obtained from the peritoneal cells of infected male BALB/c mice using density centrifugation on a gradient of slightly hypotonic colloidal silica sol (Percoll). After initial irradiation of the mice to lower the lymphocyte contamination, subsequent density gradient (and where nescessary sedimentation velocity) centrifugation yielded 10 8 eosinophils (purity >95%) from six to eight mice. It was also possible to isolate small numbers of eosinophils (2 x 10 4 cells/minute, purity >99%) without irradiating the mice. This could be achieved by separating the density gradient purified peritoneal cells by light-scatter on a Becton-Dickinson cell sorter (FACS II). Analysis of proteins extracted from eosinophils using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed a group of high molecular weight proteins (between 250K and 160K) which were not as distinctive in the neutrophil profile. Surface labeling was performed, before the cell separation, by using 125 I and 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3α,6α-diphenylglycoluril. Only five 125 I-labeled proteins were detected initially (all with apparent molecular weights >50,000). No 125 I appeared to be associated with actin under the conditions used for surface labeling. Four of the eosinophil surface labeled proteins corresponded to surface labeled proteins on neutrophils, but the major surface component of the eosinophils (MW 79,000) appeared to be smaller than the major neutrophil protein (MW 90,000). (author)

  9. [Eosinophilic esophagitis: increasing incidence in paediatric population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga-Tavares, Hugo; Teles, Andreia; Nogueira, Rosete; Cardoso Rodrigues, Fernando; Costa, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic Esophagitis has been increasingly diagnosed and results from a chronic esophagic inflammation with eosinophilic infiltrate. Evaluation of the diagnosed paediatric cases in our centre between 2004 and 2008 and revision of current literature on this subject. Four caucasian boys, aged eight to fifteen years old, were diagnosed with Eosinophilic Esophagitis. They presented with disphagia and food impaction and endoscopic findings included multiple concentric rings (pseudo-trachea pattern) and friable mucosa. All of them had mucosal eosinophil counts higher than 20 eosinophils/high-powered field and were given corticosteroids, either topic or systemic (one case) with therapeutic success. The diagnosis of Eosinophilic Esophagitis must be considered in presence of disphagia, food impaction or gastroesophageal reflux symptoms refractory to treatment. Endoscopic evaluation may be normal and the diagnosis is based on histological findings, making biopsy mandatory whenever clinically suspected. The increasing incidence of the last years associated with the high recurrence rate will lead to future prevalence increased both in child and adulthood.

  10. Evidence for eosinophil degranulation in acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh G

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Finding of increased numbers of eosinophils in the muscle in cases of acute appendicitis has led to the hypothesis that it may have an allergic origin. This study aimed to measure the eosinophil degranulation resulting in a rise in the serum of eosinophil granule proteins that would be expected in such cases. The levels of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP measured by chemiluminescence assay in acute appendicitis were compared, with those of appropriate controls. Mean (95% CI serum ECP (µg/L levels were: acute appendicitis 45.3 (27.7-63.0; normal appendix 22.7 (16.0-29.3; asthma 24.2 (4.6-43.8; and healthy volunteers 13.2 (8.3-18.1. In cases of acute appendicitis, there is an inverse relationship between duration of symptoms and serum ECP. However, this was not statistically significant. Significant local eosinophil activation and degranulation occurs in acute appendicitis, enough to cause a rise in serum levels of eosinophil chemotactic protein

  11. Surfactant protein-A suppresses eosinophil-mediated killing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in allergic lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie G Ledford

    Full Text Available Surfactant protein-A (SP-A has well-established functions in reducing bacterial and viral infections but its role in chronic lung diseases such as asthma is unclear. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp frequently colonizes the airways of chronic asthmatics and is thought to contribute to exacerbations of asthma. Our lab has previously reported that during Mp infection of non-allergic airways, SP-A aides in maintaining airway homeostasis by inhibiting an overzealous TNF-alpha mediated response and, in allergic mice, SP-A regulates eosinophilic infiltration and inflammation of the airway. In the current study, we used an in vivo model with wild type (WT and SP-A(-/- allergic mice challenged with the model antigen ovalbumin (Ova that were concurrently infected with Mp (Ova+Mp to test the hypothesis that SP-A ameliorates Mp-induced stimulation of eosinophils. Thus, SP-A could protect allergic airways from injury due to release of eosinophil inflammatory products. SP-A deficient mice exhibit significant increases in inflammatory cells, mucus production and lung damage during concurrent allergic airway disease and infection (Ova+Mp as compared to the WT mice of the same treatment group. In contrast, SP-A deficient mice have significantly decreased Mp burden compared to WT mice. The eosinophil specific factor, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO, which has been implicated in pathogen killing and also in epithelial dysfunction due to oxidative damage of resident lung proteins, is enhanced in samples from allergic/infected SP-A(-/- mice as compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments using purified eosinophils and human SP-A suggest that SP-A limits the release of EPO from Mp-stimulated eosinophils thereby reducing their killing capacity. These findings are the first to demonstrate that although SP-A interferes with eosinophil-mediated biologic clearance of Mp by mediating the interaction of Mp with eosinophils, SP-A simultaneously benefits the airway by limiting inflammation

  12. BTK inhibition is a potent approach to block IgE-mediated histamine release in human basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiljkovic, D; Blatt, K; Stefanzl, G; Dorofeeva, Y; Skrabs, C; Focke-Tejkl, M; Sperr, W R; Jaeger, U; Valenta, R; Valent, P

    2017-11-01

    Recent data suggest that Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is an emerging therapeutic target in IgE receptor (IgER)-cross-linked basophils. We examined the effects of four BTK inhibitors (ibrutinib, dasatinib, AVL-292, and CNX-774) on IgE-dependent activation and histamine release in blood basophils obtained from allergic patients (n=11) and nonallergic donors (n=5). In addition, we examined the effects of these drugs on the growth of the human basophil cell line KU812 and the human mast cell line HMC-1. All four BTK blockers were found to inhibit anti-IgE-induced histamine release from basophils in nonallergic subjects and allergen-induced histamine liberation from basophils in allergic donors. Drug effects on allergen-induced histamine release were dose dependent, with IC 50 values ranging between 0.001 and 0.5 μmol/L, and the following rank order of potency: ibrutinib>AVL-292>dasatinib>CNX-774. The basophil-targeting effect of ibrutinib was confirmed by demonstrating that IgE-dependent histamine release in ex vivo blood basophils is largely suppressed in a leukemia patient treated with ibrutinib. Dasatinib and ibrutinib were also found to counteract anti-IgE-induced and allergen-induced upregulation of CD13, CD63, CD164, and CD203c on basophils, whereas AVL-292 and CNX-774 showed no significant effects. Whereas dasatinib and CNX-774 were found to inhibit the growth of HMC-1 cells and KU812 cells, no substantial effects were seen with ibrutinib or AVL-292. BTK-targeting drugs are potent inhibitors of IgE-dependent histamine release in human basophils. The clinical value of BTK inhibition in the context of allergic diseases remains to be determined. © 2017 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Eosinophils from Murine Lamina Propria Induce Differentiation of Naïve T Cells into Regulatory T Cells via TGF-β1 and Retinoic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Hu Chen

    Full Text Available Treg cells play a crucial role in immune tolerance, but mechanisms that induce Treg cells are poorly understood. We here have described eosinophils in lamina propria (LP that displayed high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity, a rate-limiting step during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA synthesis, and expressed TGF-β1 mRNA and high levels of ATRA. Co-incubation assay confirmed that LP eosinophils induced the differentiation of naïve T cells into Treg cells. Differentiation promoted by LP eosinophils were inhibited by blocked either TGF-β1 or ATRA. Peripheral blood (PB eosinophils did not produce ATRA and could not induce Treg differentiation. These data identifies LP eosinophils as effective inducers of Treg cell differentiation through a mechanism dependent on TGF-β1 and ATRA.

  14. Analysing the eosinophil cationic protein - a clue to the function of the eosinophil granulocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop-Bailey David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Eosinophil granulocytes reside in respiratory mucosa including lungs, in the gastro-intestinal tract, and in lymphocyte associated organs, the thymus, lymph nodes and the spleen. In parasitic infections, atopic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and asthma, the numbers of the circulating eosinophils are frequently elevated. In conditions such as Hypereosinophilic Syndrome (HES circulating eosinophil levels are even further raised. Although, eosinophils were identified more than hundred years ago, their roles in homeostasis and in disease still remain unclear. The most prominent feature of the eosinophils are their large secondary granules, each containing four basic proteins, the best known being the eosinophil cationic protein (ECP. This protein has been developed as a marker for eosinophilic disease and quantified in biological fluids including serum, bronchoalveolar lavage and nasal secretions. Elevated ECP levels are found in T helper lymphocyte type 2 (atopic diseases such as allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis but also occasionally in other diseases such as bacterial sinusitis. ECP is a ribonuclease which has been attributed with cytotoxic, neurotoxic, fibrosis promoting and immune-regulatory functions. ECP regulates mucosal and immune cells and may directly act against helminth, bacterial and viral infections. The levels of ECP measured in disease in combination with the catalogue of known functions of the protein and its polymorphisms presented here will build a foundation for further speculations of the role of ECP, and ultimately the role of the eosinophil.

  15. Eosinophils and eosinophil-derived proteins in children with moderate asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, MO; Hovenga, H; Gerritsen, J; Kauffman, HF

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory parameters can contribute to the diagnosis of asthma, which is often a difficult procedure in paediatric patients, The aim of this study was to investigate the value of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) in the diagnosis of paediatric asthma. The

  16. Vesicular trafficking of immune mediators in human eosinophils revealed by immunoelectron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Rossana C.N.; Weller, Peter F.

    2016-01-01

    Electron microscopy (EM)-based techniques are mostly responsible for our current view of cell morphology at the subcellular level and continue to play an essential role in biological research. In cells from the immune system, such as eosinophils, EM has helped to understand how cells package and release mediators involved in immune responses. Ultrastructural investigations of human eosinophils enabled visualization of secretory processes in detail and identification of a robust, vesicular trafficking essential for the secretion of immune mediators via a non-classical secretory pathway associated with secretory (specific) granules. This vesicular system is mainly organized as large tubular-vesicular carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles – EoSVs) actively formed in response to cell activation and provides a sophisticated structural mechanism for delivery of granule-stored mediators. In this review, we highlight the application of EM techniques to recognize pools of immune mediators at vesicular compartments and to understand the complex secretory pathway within human eosinophils involved in inflammatory and allergic responses. - Highlights: • Application of EM to understand the complex secretory pathway in human eosinophils. • EM techniques reveal an active vesicular system associated with secretory granules. • Tubular vesicles are involved in the transport of granule-derived immune mediators.

  17. Vesicular trafficking of immune mediators in human eosinophils revealed by immunoelectron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Rossana C.N., E-mail: rossana.melo@ufjf.edu.br [Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, ICB, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, UFJF, Rua José Lourenço Kelmer, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-900 (Brazil); Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, CLS 943, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Weller, Peter F. [Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, CLS 943, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Electron microscopy (EM)-based techniques are mostly responsible for our current view of cell morphology at the subcellular level and continue to play an essential role in biological research. In cells from the immune system, such as eosinophils, EM has helped to understand how cells package and release mediators involved in immune responses. Ultrastructural investigations of human eosinophils enabled visualization of secretory processes in detail and identification of a robust, vesicular trafficking essential for the secretion of immune mediators via a non-classical secretory pathway associated with secretory (specific) granules. This vesicular system is mainly organized as large tubular-vesicular carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles – EoSVs) actively formed in response to cell activation and provides a sophisticated structural mechanism for delivery of granule-stored mediators. In this review, we highlight the application of EM techniques to recognize pools of immune mediators at vesicular compartments and to understand the complex secretory pathway within human eosinophils involved in inflammatory and allergic responses. - Highlights: • Application of EM to understand the complex secretory pathway in human eosinophils. • EM techniques reveal an active vesicular system associated with secretory granules. • Tubular vesicles are involved in the transport of granule-derived immune mediators.

  18. Preparation of pH-sensitive amphiphilic block star polymers, their self-assembling characteristics and release behavior on encapsulated molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Xiaowan

    2016-05-28

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), a polymer with excellent biocompatibility, was widely used to form nanoparticles for drug delivery applications. In this paper, based on PEG, a series of pH-sensitive amphiphilic block star polymers of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ethoxy ethyl glycidyl ether) (PEG-b-PEEGE) with different hydrophobic length were synthesized by living anionic ring-opening polymerization method. The products were characterized using 1H NMR and gel permeation chromatography. These copolymers could self-assemble in aqueous solution to form micellar structure with controlled morphologies. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the nanoparticles are spherical or rodlike with different hydrophilic mass fractions. The pH response of polymeric aggregates from PEG-b-PEEGE was detected by fluorescence probe technique at different pH. A pH-dependent release behavior was observed and pH-responsiveness of PEG-b-PEEGE was affected by the hydrophobic block length. These results demonstrated that star-shaped polymers (PEG-b-PEEGE) are attractive candidates as anticancer drug delivery carriers. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  19. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Haydee; Beccar Varela, Lucia; De Felippi, Maria S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the usefulness of computerized tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Material and Methods: A double helical CT was performed in 6 patients referred to our center because of a chest X-ray with pulmonary infiltrates. Clinical presentation was cough, fever and eosinophilia in peripheral blood. Patients' age ranged from 25 to 55 years; 4 were women and 2 were men, one of the latter had a history of bronchial asthma. All patients received treatment with corticosteroids, with remission of the clinical and radiological parameters. Three patients underwent a control CT. Results: Findings consisted in focal parenchymal alterations, with areas of pulmonary consolidation and areas of 'ground glass' appearance; both patterns coexisted in certain areas. In 3 cases the lesions extended from the apices to the pulmonary bases, with predominance of the upper and middle fields. In 1 patient, there was frank predominance in the left hemi thorax. In another patient, who had a history of asthma, there were signs of pulmonary hyperinflation, with diffuse thickening of the bronchial walls, added to the previously mentioned findings, which involved the entire lung. In the mediastinum, 1 patient had lymph nodes larger than 1 cm, 3 had lymph nodes that were not enlarged but were more numerous than usual, and in the remaining patients no lymph nodes were found. The control CT's showed almost total resolution of the pulmonary infiltrates. Conclusion: The combination of eosinophilia and characteristic pulmonary infiltrates with a likely clinical presentation, associated with an optimal response to treatment with corticosteroids allows to make a reliable diagnosis and avoids the need for a pulmonary biopsy. (author)

  20. New Insights into Eosinophilic Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Hiromi; Yoshida, Naohiro; Iino, Yukiko

    2015-12-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a type of intractable otitis media that occurs mainly in patients with bronchial asthma (BA). In 2011, the diagnostic criteria for EOM were established. EOM is characterized by the presence of a highly viscous yellowish effusion containing eosinophils and immunoglobulin E (IgE), eosinophil chemoattractants, such as eosinophil cationic protein, interleukin-5, and eotaxin. Local sensitization against foreign agents such as fungi or bacteria (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus) may result in local IgE production in the middle ear and may be responsible for the severity of EOM. The clinical features of EOM closely resemble localized eosinophilic granulomatosis polyangiitis, therefore it is necessary to be vigilant to the symptoms of mononeuritis, polyneuritis, and skin purpura during diagnosis. Standard treatment for EOM is the instillation of triamcinolone acetonide into the mesotympanum. However, severe cases exhibiting strong inflammation and otorrhea are not easily controlled with antibiotics and/or corticosteroids. We proposed the introduction of a severity score to evaluate the severity of EOM. This score correlated with local IgE levels in middle ear effusion. Clinically, the risk factors associated with this severity score were body mass index, and the duration of bronchial asthma (from the onset of BA to the age of the first consultation of otitis media to our hospital). We emphasize that early diagnosis and adequate treatment are vital in preventing progressive and sudden hearing loss resulting from EOM.

  1. Cytoplasmic lipid bodies in eosinophils: Central roles in eicosanoid generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F Weller

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid bodies are non-membrane bound, lipid-rich cytoplasmic inclusions that form in diverse cell types. Characteristically, lipid body numbers increase when eosinophils and other leukocytes are participating in inflammatory processes. Moreover, lipid bodies are numerous in other sites active in eicosanoid formation, such as the amnion epithelium at parturition. Our interests in lipid bodies relate to the roles that these structures play in arachidonate metabolism by eosinophils and other leukocytes involved in inflammation. Findings indicate that lipid bodies in these leukocytes can function as intracellular domains that are both depots of esterified arachidonate and sites at which regulated enzymatic events relevant to arachidonate metabolism can occur. Lipid bodies are discrete intracellular structures whose formation is specifically inducible early, whose increased numbers correlate with the 'priming' responses of leukocytes to form enhanced amounts of both cyclooxygenase- and lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoids and whose inhibition of formation correlates with reduced synthesis of these eicosanoids. Inhibition of lipid body formation represents a novel pharmacologic target to block the formation of eicosanoid mediators of inflammation.

  2. Eosinophilic Enterocolitis: An Exceedingly Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard José Lopes Azevedo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic enterocolitis is an exceptionally rare condition with few described cases in the literature, representing the least frequent manifestation of the wide spectrum of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. We describe a case of a young male patient presenting with a panmural form of the disease, manifested by abdominal pain, distention, and watery diarrhea with 4 days of evolution, bowel wall thickening, and ascites. Eosinophilic ascites is probably the most unusual presentation form of this entity. It poses a diagnostic challenge because of its nonspecific symptoms, associated with the absence of standardized histological criteria, hence requiring a high level of suspicion. There is also no consensus regarding treatment: it should be individualized according to the patient's age and severity of symptoms.

  3. Esophageal trachealization: A feature of eosinophilic esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlHussaini, Abdulrahman A; Semaan, Toufic; ElHag, Imad A

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is an inflammatory condition characterized by intense eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus. EE is frequently misdiagnosed as gastroesophageal reflux disease. Here, we present a child with EE and a characteristic endoscopic finding, r inged esophagus . An 11-year-old Saudi boy presented with dysphagia for 1 year. He had experienced an intermittent sensation of solid food sticking in his chest, which was relieved by drinking liquids. A barium swallow excluded anatomical causes of dysphagia, but revealed multiple-ringed esophagus. Endoscopy showed a furrowing and trachealizing appearance of the entire esophagus. Hisologically, extensive eosinophilic infiltration was a feature in biopsies obtained from the esophagus. The child responded well to a 2-month course of inhaled fluticasone. Symptoms recurred 3 months after discontinuation of therapy, which necessitated resumption of inhaled fluticasone. The endoscopic appearance of multiple esophageal rings should raise suspicion of EE and be confirmed by esophageal biopsies. (author)

  4. Quercetin is more effective than cromolyn in blocking human mast cell cytokine release and inhibits contact dermatitis and photosensitivity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuyi Weng

    Full Text Available Mast cells are immune cells critical in the pathogenesis of allergic, but also inflammatory and autoimmune diseases through release of many pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-8 and TNF. Contact dermatitis and photosensitivity are skin conditions that involve non-immune triggers such as substance P (SP, and do not respond to conventional treatment. Inhibition of mast cell cytokine release could be effective therapy for such diseases. Unfortunately, disodium cromoglycate (cromolyn, the only compound marketed as a mast cell "stabilizer", is not particularly effective in blocking human mast cells. Instead, flavonoids are potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds with mast cell inhibitory actions. Here, we first compared the flavonoid quercetin (Que and cromolyn on cultured human mast cells. Que and cromolyn (100 µM can effectively inhibit secretion of histamine and PGD(2. Que and cromolyn also inhibit histamine, leukotrienes and PGD(2 from primary human cord blood-derived cultured mast cells (hCBMCs stimulated by IgE/Anti-IgE. However, Que is more effective than cromolyn in inhibiting IL-8 and TNF release from LAD2 mast cells stimulated by SP. Moreover, Que reduces IL-6 release from hCBMCs in a dose-dependent manner. Que inhibits cytosolic calcium level increase and NF-kappa B activation. Interestingly, Que is effective prophylactically, while cromolyn must be added together with the trigger or it rapidly loses its effect. In two pilot, open-label, clinical trials, Que significantly decreased contact dermatitis and photosensitivity, skin conditions that do not respond to conventional treatment. In summary, Que is a promising candidate as an effective mast cell inhibitor for allergic and inflammatory diseases, especially in formulations that permit more sufficient oral absorption.

  5. Human eosinophils constitutively express a unique serine protease, PRSS33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumika Toyama

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Activated eosinophils may induce fibroblast extracellular matrix protein synthesis via cell surface expression of PRSS33, which would at least partly explain eosinophils' role(s in airway remodeling.

  6. SOCS3 Silencing Attenuates Eosinophil Functions in Asthma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, Mª Paz; Cañas, Jose A.; Mazzeo, Carla; Gámez, Cristina; Sanz, Veronica; Fernández-Nieto, Mar; Quirce, Santiago; Barranco, Pilar; Ruiz-Hornillos, Javier; Sastre, Joaquín; del Pozo, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are one of the key inflammatory cells in asthma. Eosinophils can exert a wide variety of actions through expression and secretion of multiple molecules. Previously, we have demonstrated that eosinophils purified from peripheral blood from asthma patients express high levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). In this article, SOCS3 gene silencing in eosinophils from asthmatics has been carried out to achieve a better understanding of the suppressor function in eosinophils. SOCS3 siRNA treatment drastically reduced SOCS3 expression in eosinophils, leading to an inhibition of the regulatory transcription factors GATA-3 and FoxP3, also interleukin (IL)-10; in turn, an increased STAT3 phosphorilation was observed. Moreover, SOCS3 abrogation in eosinophils produced impaired migration, adhesion and degranulation. Therefore, SOCS3 might be regarded as an important regulator implicated in eosinophil mobilization from the bone marrow to the lungs during the asthmatic process. PMID:25764157

  7. Goodpasture's syndrome associated with pulmonary eosinophilic vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komadina, K H; Houk, R W; Vicks, S L; Desrosier, K F; Ridley, D J; Boswell, R N

    1988-08-01

    Lung hemorrhage and antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibody mediated nephritis define Goodpasture's syndrome. We present the case of a 19-year-old Caucasian woman with unique clinical findings of Goodpasture's syndrome. Our patient initially presented with leukocytoclastic vasculitis of the skin followed by the development of nephritis and lung hemorrhage. An open lung biopsy done prior to diagnosing anti-GBM antibody disease demonstrated an intense eosinophilic vasculitis. Skin vasculitis has only been rarely reported, and to our knowledge this is the first reported case of pulmonary eosinophilic vasculitis associated with Goodpasture's syndrome.

  8. Eosinophilic esophagitis: emerging therapies and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex

    2014-06-01

    Twenty years have passed since eosinophilic esophagitis was first recognized as a new and distinct entity. Current treatment modalities for eosinophilic esophagitis include the "3 Ds": drugs, allergen avoidance with diet, and esophageal dilation. Drugs entail the limitation that only corticosteroids have a proven efficacy; most other compounds evoke only a minimal effect. Diets must be maintained continuously and they interfere markedly with the quality of life, possibly even involving some risk of malnutrition. A greater understanding of the immunopathogenesis, natural history, and disease spectrum will inevitably lead to improved therapeutic outcomes for this emerging entity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of tissue eosinophils in oral Leukoplakia: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Madhura, MG; Gajalakshmi, S; Kumar, B Veerendra; Suma, S; Sarita, Y; Shweta, RD

    2015-01-01

    Context: Tissue eosinophilia in oral squamous cell carcinoma has been well - recognized. Studies have reported both favorable and unfavorable prognoses associated with tissue eosinophils in oral squamous cell carcinoma. However, the role of eosinophils in the development of tumor is still unclear. Aims: The present study was an attempt to elucidate the potential role of tissue eosinophils in oral leukoplakia, a potentially malignant lesion. Settings and Design: To count eosinophils in tissues...

  10. Chronic rhinitis: Effects of local corticosteroids on eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursulović Dejan D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical manifestation of chronic rhinitis is due to local release of mediators from inflammatory cells. Eosinophil leukocytes are important in pathogenesis of nasal hypersensitivity as well as nasal hyperreactivity [1,2]. The aim of the study was to follow-up the effect of local corticosteroid treatment on a number of eosinophils in nasal secretion of patients with chronic rhinitis. The study was prospective and controlled. A total number of 88 subjects was included in the study. Patients with chronic rhinitis who were treated with local corticosteroids (63 constituted the experimental group (37 with isolated allergic rhinitis, 10 with isolated nonallergic noninfective hyperreactive rhinitis, 10 with allergic rhinitis associated with nasal polyposis and 6 with nonallergic noninfective hyperreactive rhinitis associated with nasal polyposis. There were 25 patients with chronic rhinitis in the control group (18 with iso- lated allergic rhinitis, 2 with isolated nonallergic noninfective hyperreactive rhinitis, 3 with allergic rhinitis associated with nasal polyposis, and 2 with nonallergic noninfective, hyperreactive rhinitis associated with nasal polyposis. During the treatment with beclomethasone dipropionate aqueous nasal spray (daily dose was 400 micrograms during 6 weeks for isolated rhinitis and 6 months for associated forms of rhinitis, control examinations were regularly performed. The first control was after one week the second after six weeks, the third after three months and the fourth after six months. The same control was carried out in the control group of patients who were without therapy. Cytological examination of nasal secretions included brush method of collecting secretions, staining smears with Leishman's stain and light microscopic scrutinising of nasal smear magnified up to 1000 times. The results of the study demonstrated the highly significant decrease in the number of eosinophils after the therapy in patients with isolated

  11. changes in blood levels of eosinophil cationic protein and tryptase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-01-01

    Jan 1, 2004 ... evidence for mast cell activation during exercise induced bronchospasm. With the concept of airway inflammation, the involvement of eosinophils (EOS) in asthma has been a focus of attention in the last two to three decades. Increases in eosinophil numbers and eosinophil degranulation products, such as ...

  12. Eosinophils: multifaceted biological properties and roles in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Hirohito

    2011-07-01

    Eosinophils are leukocytes resident in mucosal tissues. During T-helper 2 (Th2)-type inflammation, eosinophils are recruited from bone marrow and blood to the sites of immune response. While eosinophils have been considered end-stage cells involved in host protection against parasite infection and immunopathology in hypersensitivity disease, recent studies changed this perspective. Eosinophils are now considered multifunctional leukocytes involved in tissue homeostasis, modulation of adaptive immune responses, and innate immunity to certain microbes. Eosinophils are capable of producing immunoregulatory cytokines and are actively involved in regulation of Th2-type immune responses. However, such new information does not preclude earlier observations showing that eosinophils, in particular human eosinophils, are also effector cells with proinflammatory and destructive capabilities. Eosinophils with activation phenotypes are observed in biological specimens from patients with disease, and deposition of eosinophil products is readily seen in the affected tissues from these patients. Therefore, it would be reasonable to consider the eosinophil a multifaceted leukocyte that contributes to various physiological and pathological processes depending on their location and activation status. This review summarizes the emerging concept of the multifaceted immunobiology of eosinophils and discusses the roles of eosinophils in health and disease and the challenges and perspectives in the field. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. The potential implication of eosinophil activation in the pathogenesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Asthma is now recognized as an eosinophil mediated inflammation of the airways. Pulmonary function tests are less easily performed in young children. So, measuring markers of eosinophil activation is of special importance in pediatric practice. Objective: This study aimed at evaluating the role of eosinophil ...

  14. Alteration effect of the PGFsub(2α) inhibition on the 3H-norepinephrine release caused by α2 receptor blocking, sodium loading and 4-aminopyridine addition in isolated pulmonary arteries of rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyevacs, Zs.; Toeroek, T.; Hadhazy, P.; Magyar, K.; Feher, L.; Vizi, E.Sz.

    1983-01-01

    The tritium labelled norepinephrine release was measured in isolated pulmonary artery of rabbit. If the 3 H-norepinephrine release was induced by nerves stimulated with electric current, the PGFsub(2α) inhibited the release by 62%. In the presence of Yohimbin the inhibitory effect of FGFsub(2α) was increased to 78.8%. If the Na + pump activity was reduced by potassium-free medium the PGFsub(2α) inhibition remained at 62%. In the presence of 4-aminopyridine the potassium channel was blocked and the PGFsub(2α) inhibition decreased to 32.1%. The endogen prostaglandin may serve as a modulator of the neurotransmitter release. (L.G.)

  15. Nanoporous capsules of block co-polymers of [(MeO-PEG-NH)-b-(L-GluA)]-PCL for the controlled release of anticancer drugs for therapeutic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amgoth, Chander; Paik, Pradip; Dharmapuri, Gangappa; Kalle, Arunasree M

    2016-01-01

    Herein, new nanoporous capsules of the block co-polymers of MeO-PEG-NH-(L-GluA) 10 and polycaprolactone (PCL) have been synthesized through a surfactant-free cost-effective self-assembled soft-templating approach for the controlled release of drugs and for therapeutic applications. The nanoporous polymer capsules are designed to be biocompatible and are capable of encapsulating anticancer drugs (e.g., doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and imatinib mesylate (ITM)) with a high extent (∼279 and ∼480 ng μg −1 , respectively). We have developed a nanoformulation of porous MeO-PEG-NH-(L-GluA) 10 -PCL capsules with DOX and ITM. The porous polymer nanoformulations have been programmed in terms of the release of anticancer drugs with a desired dose to treat the leukemia (K562) and human carcinoma cells (HepG2) in vitro and show promising IC 50 values with a very high mortality of cancer cells (up to ∼96.6%). Our nanoformulation arrests the cell divisions due to ‘cellular scenescence’ and kills the cancer cells specifically. The present findings could enrich the effectiveness of idiosyncratic nanoporous polymer capsules for use in various other nanomedicinal and biomedical applications, such as for killing cancer cells, immune therapy, and gene delivery. (paper)

  16. Spectrum of Eosinophilic End-Organ Manifestations

    OpenAIRE

    Akuthota, Praveen; Weller, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophil-associated disorders can affect practically all tissues and organs in the body, either individually or in combination. This article provides an overview of end-organ manifestations of eosinophilia, discussing selected organ systems including the upper and lower respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, nervous, dermatologic, and renal systems. Mechanisms by which eosinophilia leads to end-organ damage are also considered.

  17. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eGioffredi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA is a multisystemic disorder, belonging to the small vessel ANCA-associated vasculitis, defined as a eosinophil-rich and necrotizing granulomatous inflammation often involving the respiratory tract, and necrotizing vasculitis predominantly affecting small to medium-sized vessels, associated with asthma and eosinophilia. EGPA pathogenesis is not well known: HLA-DRB1*04 and *07, HLA-DRB4 and IL10.2 haplotype of the IL-10 promoter gene are the most studied genetic determinants. Among the acquired pathogenetic factors, the exposure to different allergens, infections, vaccinations, drugs and silica exposure have been involved.Eosinophils are the most characteristic cells in EGPA and different studies have demonstrated their role as effector and immunoregulatory cells.EGPA is considered a disease with a prevalent activation of the Th2 cellular-mediated inflammatory response but also humoral immunity plays an important role. A link between B and T inflammatory responses may explain different disease features. EGPA typically develops into three sequential phases: the allergic phase, distinguished by the occurrence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and sinusitis, the eosinophilic phase, in which the main pathological finding is the eosinophilic organ infiltrations (e.g. lungs, heart and gastrointestinal system and the vasculitic phase, characterized by purpura, peripheral neuropathy and constitutional symptoms.ANCA (especially pANCA anti-MPO are present in 40-60% of the patients. An elevation of IgG4 is frequently found. Corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide are classically used for remission induction, while azathioprine and methotrexate are the therapeutic options for remission maintenance. B-cell depletion with rituximab has shown promising results for remission induction.

  18. Eosinophils in vasculitis: characteristics and roles in pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Paneez; Grayson, Peter C.; Klion, Amy D.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional granular leukocytes that are implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of disorders, including asthma, helminth infection, and rare hypereosinophilic syndromes. Although peripheral and tissue eosinophilia can be a feature of many types of small-vessel and medium-vessel vasculitis, the role of eosinophils has been best studied in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), where eosinophils are a characteristic finding in all three clinical stages of the disorder. Whereas numerous studies have demonstrated an association between the presence of eosinophils and markers of eosinophil activation in the blood and tissues of patients with EGPA, the precise role of eosinophils in disease pathogenesis has been difficult to ascertain owing to the complexity of the disease process. In this regard, results of clinical trials using novel agents that specifically target eosinophils are providing the first direct evidence of a central role of eosinophils in EGPA. This Review focuses on the aspects of eosinophil biology most relevant to the pathogenesis of vasculitis and provides an update of current knowledge regarding the role of eosinophils in EGPA and other vasculitides. PMID:25003763

  19. Production of monoclonal antibodies reactive with ovine eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeusen Els NT

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is strong evidence implicating eosinophils in host defence against parasites as well as allergic disease pathologies. However, a lack of reagents such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs specific for eosinophils has made it difficult to confirm the functional role of eosinophils in such disease conditions. Using an established mammary model of allergic inflammation in sheep, large numbers of inflammatory cells enriched for eosinophils were collected from parasite-stimulated mammary glands and used for the generation of mAbs against ovine eosinophils. Results A panel of mAbs was raised against ovine eosinophils of which two were shown to be highly specific for eosinophils. The reactivity of mAbs 3.252 and 1.2 identified eosinophils from various cell and tissue preparations with no detectable reactivity on cells of myeloid or lymphoid lineage, tissue mast cells, dendritic cells, epithelial cells or other connective tissues. Two other mAbs generated in this study (mAbs 4.4 and 4.10 were found to have reactivity for both eosinophils and neutrophils. Conclusion This study describes the production of new reagents to identify eosinophils (as well as granulocytes in sheep that will be useful in studying the role of eosinophils in disease pathologies in parasite and allergy models.

  20. Mepolizumab and exacerbations of refractory eosinophilic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Pranabashis; Brightling, Christopher E; Hargadon, Beverley; Gupta, Sumit; Monteiro, William; Sousa, Ana; Marshall, Richard P; Bradding, Peter; Green, Ruth H; Wardlaw, Andrew J; Pavord, Ian D

    2009-03-05

    Exacerbations of asthma are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality and with considerable use of health care resources. Preventing exacerbations remains an important goal of therapy. There is evidence that eosinophilic inflammation of the airway is associated with the risk of exacerbations. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of 61 subjects who had refractory eosinophilic asthma and a history of recurrent severe exacerbations. Subjects received infusions of either mepolizumab, an anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibody (29 subjects), or placebo (32) at monthly intervals for 1 year. The primary outcome measure was the number of severe exacerbations per subject during the 50-week treatment phase. Secondary outcomes included a change in asthma symptoms, scores on the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ, in which scores range from 1 to 7, with lower values indicating more severe impairment and a change of 0.5 unit considered to be clinically important), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) after use of a bronchodilator, airway hyperresponsiveness, and eosinophil counts in the blood and sputum. Mepolizumab was associated with significantly fewer severe exacerbations than placebo over the course of 50 weeks (2.0 vs. 3.4 mean exacerbations per subject; relative risk, 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32 to 0.92; P=0.02) and with a significant improvement in the score on the AQLQ (mean increase from baseline, 0.55 vs. 0.19; mean difference between groups, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.62; P=0.02). Mepolizumab significantly lowered eosinophil counts in the blood (P<0.001) and sputum (P=0.002). There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to symptoms, FEV(1) after bronchodilator use, or airway hyperresponsiveness. The only serious adverse events reported were hospitalizations for acute severe asthma. Mepolizumab therapy reduces exacerbations and improves AQLQ scores in patients

  1. Risperidone-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, Emmanouil; Tsigkaropoulou, Evdoxia; Lambrou, Panagiota; Kanakaki, Maria; Chaniotou, Aikaterini; Alevyzakis, Evangelos; Liappas, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is a severe syndrome which can be induced for many reasons, including drugs. AEP has rarely been associated with first-generation antipsychotics and never been reported after use of second-generation antipsychotics, such as risperidone. We report a case of a 64-year-old man with a medical history of alchoholism and paranoid symptoms, treated with risperidone at low doses. Following risperidone medication, he presented with respiratory distress. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimen was indicated of AEP. All evidence indicated risperidone as the most probable causal factor. The syndrome rapidly resolved after discontinuation of the drug. Pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in the development of AEP in our patient seem to be associated with eotaxin and serotonin eosinophilic-specific chemoattracting action, through the serotoninergic action of risperidone. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a clinical adverse reaction of AEP from an atypical antipsychotic agent (risperidone).

  2. Successful treatment of eosinophilic cellulitis with dapsone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho de Sousa, Virgínia; Laureano Oliveira, André; Cardoso, Jorge

    2016-07-15

    A 55-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of recurrent episodes of pruritic cellulitis-like erythematous plaques, mostly located on the limbs. Simultaneously, fever, malaise and peripheral eosinophilia were noted. The clinical diagnosis of eosinophilic cellulitis (also known as Well's syndrome) was supported by the histopathological finding of typical "flame figures". Treatment with dapsone was initiated at a dose of 50 mg per day. After one year of follow-up the patient was relapse-free. Eosinophilic cellulitis is an uncommon, recurrent inflammatory skin disease. The management is often a challenge, due to the frequent need for long-term therapy. Dapsone is an effective and safe treatment option.

  3. [Eosinophilic esophagitis, a pathology on the rise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda García, M; Gutiérrez Teira, B

    2013-10-01

    The eosinophilic esofagitis is a pathology that consists of an inflammatory condition of the esophagus, which is characterized for having a high percentage of eosinophils. It is a problem of allergic origin and his diagnosis is increasing in the population, especially in children and adult young persons, throughout last decade. The fisiopathology is not completely established nowadays. The diagnosis is confirmed with endoscopia and capture of biopsies. The differential diagnosis is necessary to be done with the disease for reflux gastroesofágico, gastroenteritis eosinofílica, by Crohn's disease, pathology of connective fabric, syndrome hipereosinofílico, infections and response of hypersensitivity to medicaments. Nowadays there is no a treatment that is definitive. We present a clinical case, which was valued initially for the consultation of Primary care. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of phototherapy on eosinophil and eosinophilic cationic protein in newborns with hyperbilirubinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beken, Serdar; Aydin, Banu; Zenciroğğlu, Aysegül; Dilli, Dilek; Özkan, Elif; Dursun, Arzu; Okumus, Nurullah

    2014-06-01

    Newborns with jaundice requiring or not requiring phototherapy (PT) are at greater risk of developing asthma later in life. In this study, we investigated the effect of PT treatment on eosinophil and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) levels in newborns with severe hyperbilirubinemia. Thirty newborns diagnosed with severe hyperbilirubinemia and exposed to light-emitting diode (LED) PT were enrolled into the study. Total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels, complete blood count and serum ECP concentrations were measured before and after PT. TSB and hemoglobin (Hb) counts were lower after PT (p = 0.001). There was no difference between leukocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil and platelet count before and after PT. Eosinophil levels were increased after PT, although not significantly. ECP levels were higher after PT (p = 0.006). It may be speculated that newborns treated with LED PT, increased ECP might play a role in developing allergic diseases later in life.

  5. Dissociation by steroids of eosinophilic inflammation from airway hyperresponsiveness in murine airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCluskie Kerryn

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The link between eosinophils and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR in asthma is still controversial. This question was assessed in a murine model of asthma in which we performed a dose ranging study to establish whether the dose of steroid needed to inhibit the eosinophil infiltration correlated with that needed to block AHR. Methods The sensitised BALB/c mice were dosed with vehicle or dexamethasone (0.01–3 mg/kg 2 hours before and 6 hours after each challenge (once daily for 6 days and 2 hours before AHR determination by whole-body plethysmography. At 30 minutes after the AHR to aerosolised methacholine the mice were lavaged and differential white cell counts were determined. Challenging with antigen caused a significant increase in eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid and lung tissue, and increased AHR. Results Dexamethasone reduced BAL and lung tissue eosinophilia (ED50 values of 0.06 and 0.08 mg/kg, respectively, whereas a higher dose was needed to block AHR (ED50 of 0.32 mg/kg at 3 mg/ml methacholine. Dissociation was observed between the dose of steroid needed to affect AHR in comparison with eosinophilia and suggests that AHR is not a direct consequence of eosinophilia. Conclusion This novel pharmacological approach has revealed a clear dissociation between eosinophilia and AHR by using steroids that are the mainstay of asthma therapy. These data suggest that eosinophilia is not associated with AHR and questions the rationale that many pharmaceutical companies are adopting in developing low-molecular-mass compounds that target eosinophil activation/recruitment for the treatment of asthma.

  6. Asthma: Eosinophil Disease, Mast Cell Disease, or Both?

    OpenAIRE

    Bradding, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Although there is much circumstantial evidence implicating eosinophils as major orchestrators in the pathophysiology of asthma, recent studies have cast doubt on their importance. Not only does anti-interleukin-5 treatment not alter the course of the disease, but some patients with asthma do not have eosinophils in their airways, whereas patients with eosinophilic bronchitis exhibit a florid tissue eosinophilia but do not have asthma. In contrast, mast cells are found in all airways and loca...

  7. The role of chemokines and chemokine receptors in eosinophil activation during inflammatory allergic reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira S.H.P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are important chemotactic cytokines that play a fundamental role in the trafficking of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. They are also potent cell-activating factors, inducing cytokine and histamine release and free radical production, a fact that makes them particularly important in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation. The action of chemokines is regulated at the level of agonist production and processing as well as at the level of receptor expression and coupling. Therefore, an analysis of the ligands must necessarily consider receptors. Eosinophils are target cells involved in the allergic inflammatory response since they are able to release a wide variety of mediators including CC and CXC chemokines and express their receptors. These mediators could damage the airway epithelial cells and might be important to stimulate other cells inducing an amplification of the allergic response. This review focuses on recently emerging data pertaining to the importance of chemokines and chemokine receptors in promoting eosinophil activation and migration during the allergic inflammatory process. The analysis of the function of eosinophils and their chemokine receptors during allergic inflammation might be a good approach to understanding the determinants of asthma severity and to developing novel therapies.

  8. Wogonin Induces Eosinophil Apoptosis and Attenuates Allergic Airway Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorward, David A.; Sharma, Sidharth; Rennie, Jillian; Felton, Jennifer M.; Alessandri, Ana L.; Duffin, Rodger; Schwarze, Jurgen; Haslett, Christopher; Rossi, Adriano G.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Eosinophils are key effector cells in allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, eczema, and asthma. Their tissue presence is regulated by both recruitment and increased longevity at inflamed sites. Objectives: To investigate the ability of the flavone wogonin to induce eosinophil apoptosis in vitro and attenuate eosinophil-dominant allergic inflammation in vivo in mice. Methods: Human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis in response to wogonin was investigated by cellular morphology, flow cytometry, mitochondrial membrane permeability, and pharmacological caspase inhibition. Allergic lung inflammation was modeled in mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue were examined for inflammation, mucus production, and inflammatory mediator production. Airway hyperresponsiveness to aerosolized methacholine was measured. Measurements and Main Results: Wogonin induced time- and concentration-dependent human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis in vitro. Wogonin-induced eosinophil apoptosis occurred with activation of caspase-3 and was inhibited by pharmacological caspase inhibition. Wogonin administration attenuated allergic airway inflammation in vivo with reductions in BAL and interstitial eosinophil numbers, increased eosinophil apoptosis, reduced airway mucus production, and attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness. This wogonin-induced reduction in allergic airway inflammation was prevented by concurrent caspase inhibition in vivo. Conclusions: Wogonin induces eosinophil apoptosis and attenuates allergic airway inflammation, suggesting that it has therapeutic potential for the treatment of allergic inflammation in humans. PMID:25629436

  9. Similarities between human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and eosinophil cationic protein: homology with ribonuclease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleich, G.J.; Loegering, D.A.; Bell, M.P.; Checkel, J.L.; Ackerman, S.J.; McKean, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The eosinophil granule contains a series of basic proteins, including eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). EDN and ECP were isolated from eosinophil granules by heparin-Sepharose chromatography. Radioimmunoassay of fractions from heparin-Sepharose showed one peak of EDN activity and two peaks of ECP activity (termed ECP-1 and ECP-2). EDN, ECP-1, and ECP-2 each exhibited heterogeneity in charge and molecular weight when analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Digestion of EDN and both ECP's with endoglycosidase-F decreased their molecular weights indicating that their heterogeneity is due in part to n-linked oligosaccharides. Amino acid sequence analyses showed that ECP-1 and ECP-2 were identical from residues 1 through 59 and that EDN and ECP sequences were highly homologous (37 of 55 residues identical). Both EDN and ECP NH 2 -terminal sequences showed significant homology to RNase, especially in regions of the RNase molecule involved in ligand binding. EDN, ECP-1 and ECP-2 had neurotoxic activity, causing the Gordon phenomenon at doses down 0.15 microgram; the proteins were comparable in their activities. These results indicate that EDN and ECP are related proteins and suggest that they derived from genes associated with the RNase family

  10. Robust Phenotypic Activation of Eosinophils during Experimental Toxocara canis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodolpho, Joice Margareth de Almeida; Camillo, Luciana; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Speziali, Elaine; Coelho-Dos-Reis, Jordana Grazziela; Correia, Ricardo de Oliveira; Neris, Débora Meira; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2018-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional cells that have cytotoxic proinflammatory activities and stimulate CD4 + T-cells in experimental models of allergy and parasitic infections. Eosinophils, when exposed to antigens, are activated, expressing the CD38/CD69 molecules and exhibited increased expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II), CD80 and CD86, suggesting they play a role upon Toxocara canis antigen stimulation. In the present study, we evaluated the profile of eosinophils using conventional and image flow cytometry upon experimental T. canis infection. T. canis antigens induced a robust activation on this subset, contributing to the immune responses elicited in the experimental model for T. canis- associated visceral larva migrans syndrome. Data analysis demonstrated that, during murine T. canis infection, eosinophils from peripheral blood, spleen, and bone marrow presented upregulated expression of CD69/MHC-II/CD80/CD86. As opposed to splenic and bone marrow eosinophils, circulating eosinophils had increased expression of activation markers upon T. canis infection. The enhanced connectivity between eosinophils and T-cells in T. canis -infected mice in all three compartments (peripheral blood, spleen, and bone marrow) also supports the hypothesis that eosinophils may adopt a role during T. canis infection. Moreover, in vitro T. canis antigen stimulation resulted in activation and upregulation of co-stimulatory-related molecules by bone marrow-derived eosinophils. Our findings are evidence of activation and upregulation of important activation and co-stimulatory-related molecules in eosinophils and suggest a reshape of activation hierarchy toward eosinophils during experimental T. canis infection.

  11. Observational study of the natural history of eosinophilic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M A; Hargadon, B; McKenna, S; Shaw, D; Green, R H; Brightling, C E; Wardlaw, A J; Pavord, I D

    2005-05-01

    Eosinophilic bronchitis is an important cause of chronic cough. Treatment with inhaled corticosteroids is associated with a short-term improvement in cough and reduced sputum eosinophil count but the long-term outcome is uncertain. To determine the long-term outcome in patients diagnosed with and treated for eosinophilic bronchitis. We have performed a longitudinal study of symptoms, eosinophilic airway inflammation, spirometry and airway hyper-responsiveness in all patients diagnosed with eosinophilic bronchitis over 7 years. We identified 52 patients with eosinophilic bronchitis and longitudinal data of greater than 1 year (mean 3.1 years) was available in 32 patients, all of whom were treated with inhaled steroids. Three (9%) patients developed symptoms consistent with asthma and a methacholine PC20<8 mg/mL on one or more occasion. Five (16%) patients developed fixed airflow obstruction defined by a persistent post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity<70%. One (3%) patient had complete resolution of symptoms and eosinophilic airway inflammation off treatment. The remaining patients had ongoing eosinophilic airway inflammation and/or continuing symptoms. Multiple linear regression identified smoking, female gender and area under the curve of sputum eosinophil count over time as the most important predictors of decline in FEV1. The most common outcome in eosinophilic bronchitis is continuing disease and complete resolution is rare. Asthma and fixed airflow obstruction developed in relatively few patients. The most important factors associated with a more rapid decline in FEV1 were female gender, smoking and prolonged eosinophilic airway inflammation.

  12. Steroid responsive eosinophilic gastric outlet obstruction in a child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric outlet obstruction is a rare complication of eosinophilic gastroenteritis, most commonly treated surgically. We report a case of eosinophilic gastric outlet obstruction in a child that responded to conservative medical management. A brief review of this clinical entity is also provided....

  13. Steroid responsive eosinophilic gastric outlet obstruction in a child

    OpenAIRE

    Kellermayer, Richard; Tatevian, Nina; Klish, William; Shulman, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Gastric outlet obstruction is a rare complication of eosinophilic gastroenteritis, most commonly treated surgically. We report a case of eosinophilic gastric outlet obstruction in a child that responded to conservative medical management. A brief review of this clinical entity is also provided.

  14. Urinary eosinophil protein X in children with atopic asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijsink, M.; Hop, W. C. J.; Sterk, P. J.; Duiverman, E. J.; Hiemstra, P. S.; de Jongste, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between urinary eosinophil protein X (uEPX) and asthma symptoms, lung function, and other markers of eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatic school children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 180 steroid dependent atopic

  15. Mechanisms of eosinophil adhesion to endothelial cells under flow conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulfman, L.H.

    2002-01-01

    Eosinophils play an important role in allergic inflammatory diseases such as allergic asthma. Infiltrates of these cells are present in the interstitium and the lumen of the bronchi of asthmatic patients. Eosinophils must pass the endothelium to enter this site of inflammation. A widely accepted

  16. The potential implication of eosinophil activation in the pathogenesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    inflammation of the airways. Pulmonary function tests are less easily performed in young children. So, measuring markers of eosinophil activation is of special importance in pediatric practice. Objective: This study aimed at evaluating the role of eosinophil protein X. (EPX) as a marker for assessment of asthma attack severity ...

  17. Diffuse eosinophilic gastroenteritis with antral obstruction: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Hee; Kim, Young Bok; Lee, Koung Hee [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by tissue eosinophilia that can involve different layers of the gut wall and cause various gastrointestinal symptoms. We describe the UGI and CT findings of a case of diffuse eosinophilic gastroenteritis with tumor-like antral obstruction due to thickening of the submucosa and muscle layer in a 21-year-old male. (author)

  18. Blood Eosinophils and Exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune F; Lange, Peter

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Whether high blood eosinophils are associated with COPD exacerbations among individuals with COPD in the general population is largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that high blood eosinophils predict COPD exacerbations. METHODS: Among 81,668 individuals from the Copenhag...

  19. Diagnosis and Treatment of Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex; Katzka, David A

    2018-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a new disease. It is caused by a T-helper type 2 cell response to food antigens in contact with the esophageal mucosa. Although no single feature defines EoE, a constellation of compatible demographic, clinical, endoscopic, and histologic findings establish the diagnosis. Children present with symptoms and endoscopic patterns characteristic of inflammation, whereas adolescents and adults have manifestations of fibrosis and gross esophageal strictures. Clinical and endoscopic scoring systems have helped to standardize diagnosis. There is controversy in EoE research over the optimal endpoint for treatment. Although the most common endpoint is a reduced number of eosinophils in biopsies, changes in symptoms and endoscopic features are becoming important targets of therapy. We should improve our understanding of EoE progression and the need for maintenance therapy, and continue development of diagnostic tools that avoid endoscopy and biopsy analyses to more easily monitor disease activity. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Eosinophilic esophagitis: a bulk of mysteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), which was first described in the early 1990s, has rapidly evolved as a distinctive chronic inflammatory esophageal disease. The diagnosis is based clinically on the presence of symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by an eosinophil-predominant inflammation once other conditions leading to esophageal eosinophilia are excluded. This striking male-prevalent disease has an increasing incidence and prevalence in the Westernized countries. Currently, EoE represents the main cause of dysphagia and bolus impaction in adult patients. Despite the fact that EoE often occurs in atopic patients, the value of allergic testing is still under discussion. Topical corticosteroids lead to a rapid improvement of active EoE clinically and histologically; they are therefore regarded as first-line drug therapy. Elimination diets have similar efficacy as topical corticosteroids, but their long-term use is limited by practical issues. Esophageal dilation of EoE-induced strictures can also be effective in improving symptoms, but this therapy has no effect on the underlying inflammation. Neither the diagnostic nor the long-term therapeutic strategies have been fully defined. Currently, the list of unsolved issues--or mysteries--is still long and a concerted effort on behalf of clinicians and scientists is required to improve the understanding and the therapeutic management of this mysterious disease. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Micelle-Forming PEG-Poly(Amino Acid) Copolymers with Iron-Hydroxamate Cross-Linkable Blocks for Encapsulation and Release of Hydrophobic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sill, Kevin N; Sullivan, Bradford; Carie, Adam; Semple, J Edward

    2017-06-12

    Described is the development of a polymeric micelle drug delivery platform that addresses the physical property limitations of many nanovectors. The system employs triblock copolymers comprised of a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) block, and two poly(amino acid) (PAA) blocks: a stabilizing cross-linking central block, and a hydrophobic drug encapsulation block. Detailed description of synthetic strategies and considerations found to be critical are discussed. Of note, it was determined that the purity of the α-amino acid-N-carboxyanhydrides (NCA) monomers and PEG macroinitiator are ultimately responsible for impurities that arise during the polymerization. Also, contrary to current beliefs in the field, the presence of water does not adversely affect the polymerization of NCAs. Furthermore, we describe the impact of poly(amino acid) conformational changes, through the incorporation of d-amino acids to form mixed stereochemistry PAA blocks, with regard to the physical and pharmacokinetic properties of the resulting micelles.

  2. An Atypical Case of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Hypovolemic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martillo, Miguel; Abed, Jean; Herman, Michael; Abed, Elie; Shi, Wenjing; Munot, Khushboo; Mankal, Pavan Kumar; Gurunathan, Rajan; Ionescu, Gabriel; Kotler, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon condition characterized by focal or diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of secondary causes. The pathogenesis of this condition is not well understood and its clinical presentation depends on the segment and layer of the gastrointestinal tract affected. The definition of eosinophilic gastroenteritis may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal mucosa are not standardized. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who came to the hospital with hypovolemic shock and lethargy secondary to severe diarrhea. Laboratory analysis was significant for peripheral eosinophilia, and pathology from both the duodenum and colon showed marked eosinophilic infiltration.

  3. An Atypical Case of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Hypovolemic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Martillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon condition characterized by focal or diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of secondary causes. The pathogenesis of this condition is not well understood and its clinical presentation depends on the segment and layer of the gastrointestinal tract affected. The definition of eosinophilic gastroenteritis may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal mucosa are not standardized. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who came to the hospital with hypovolemic shock and lethargy secondary to severe diarrhea. Laboratory analysis was significant for peripheral eosinophilia, and pathology from both the duodenum and colon showed marked eosinophilic infiltration.

  4. Single high-dose irradiation aggravates eosinophil-mediated fibrosis through IL-33 secreted from impaired vessels in the skin compared to fractionated irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun-Jung, E-mail: forejs2@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Won, E-mail: JUNWON@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Hyun, E-mail: gochunghee@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Woori, E-mail: asleo02@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioinformatics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Hoon, E-mail: wonhoon@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seoae, E-mail: seoae@cnkgenomics.com [C& K Genomics, Seoul National University Mt.4-2, Main Bldg. #514, SNU Research Park, NakSeoungDae, Gwanakgu, Seoul 151-919 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yu Jeong, E-mail: yunk9275@daum.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon-Jin, E-mail: yjlee8@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Effects, Research Center for Radiotherapy, Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-760 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jaeho, E-mail: jjhmd@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-14

    We have revealed in a porcine skin injury model that eosinophil recruitment was dose-dependently enhanced by a single high-dose irradiation. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of eosinophil-associated skin fibrosis and the effect of high-dose-per-fraction radiation. The dorsal skin of a mini-pig was divided into two sections containing 4-cm{sup 2} fields that were irradiated with 30 Gy in a single fraction or 5 fractions and biopsied regularly over 14 weeks. Eosinophil-related Th2 cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and C–C motif chemokine-11 (CCL11/eotaxin) were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. RNA-sequencing using 30 Gy-irradiated mouse skin and functional assays in a co-culture system of THP-1 and irradiated-human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were performed to investigate the mechanism of eosinophil-mediated radiation fibrosis. Single high-dose-per-fraction irradiation caused pronounced eosinophil accumulation, increased profibrotic factors collagen and transforming growth factor-β, enhanced production of eosinophil-related cytokines including IL-4, IL-5, CCL11, IL-13, and IL-33, and reduced vessels compared with 5-fraction irradiation. IL-33 notably increased in pig and mouse skin vessels after single high-dose irradiation of 30 Gy, as well as in irradiated HUVECs following 12 Gy. Blocking IL-33 suppressed the migration ability of THP-1 cells and cytokine secretion in a co-culture system of THP-1 cells and irradiated HUVECs. Hence, high-dose-per-fraction irradiation appears to enhance eosinophil-mediated fibrotic responses, and IL-33 may be a key molecule operating in eosinophil-mediated fibrosis in high-dose-per fraction irradiated skin. - Highlights: • Single high-dose irradiation aggravates eosinophil-mediated fibrosis through IL-33. • Vascular endothelial cells damaged by high-dose radiation secrete IL-33. • Blocking IL-33 suppressed migration of inflammatory cells and cytokine secretion. • IL

  5. Determination of esophageal eosinophil counts and other histologic features of eosinophilic esophagitis by pathology trainees is highly accurate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusin, Spencer; Covey, Shannon; Perjar, Irina; Hollyfield, Johnny; Speck, Olga; Woodward, Kimberly; Woosley, John T; Dellon, Evan S

    2017-04-01

    Many studies of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) use expert pathology review, but it is unknown whether less experienced pathologists can reliably assess EoE histology. We aimed to determine whether trainee pathologists can accurately quantify esophageal eosinophil counts and identify associated histologic features of EoE, as compared with expert pathologists. We used a set of 40 digitized slides from patients with varying degrees of esophageal eosinophilia. Each of 6 trainee pathologists underwent a teaching session and used our validated protocol to determine eosinophil counts and associated EoE findings. The same slides had previously been evaluated by expert pathologists, and these results comprised the criterion standard. Eosinophil counts were correlated, and agreement was calculated for the diagnostic threshold of 15 eosinophils per high-power field as well as for associated EoE findings. Peak eosinophil counts were highly correlated between the trainees and the criterion standard (ρ ranged from 0.87 to 0.92; Ppathology trainees and expert pathologists for determining eosinophil counts was excellent. Agreement was very good for eosinophil degranulation and spongiosis but less so for microabscesses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, elastase, and cytokine profile in effusion from eosinophilic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimizu, Hirotaka; Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Kato, Masahiko; Otori, Nobuyosi; Kojima, Hiromi

    2015-09-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is an intractable disease characterized by a remarkably viscous effusion and accumulation of numerous eosinophils in both the middle ear effusion and the mucosa. The key factors in EOM pathogenesis remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to identify the important factors involved in EOM pathogenesis. Middle ear effusion samples were collected from 12 patients with EOM and 9 patients with secretory otitis media (SOM), as controls. Multiple cytokines in the effusion were measured using a Bio-Plex™ Human Cytokine 27-Plex panel. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) and elastase were measured by ELISA. The concentrations of EDN, elastase, and each cytokine were compared between the EOM and SOM groups. Furthermore, in the EOM group, each cytokine was examined for correlation with EDN and elastase. EDN and elastase concentrations were significantly higher in the EOM group than in the SOM group (p < 0.05). IL-5, IL-1β, MIP-1α, G-CSF, IL-1ra, IL-4, IFN-γ, MIP-1β, IL-10, TNF-α, VEGF, and IL-2 concentration was significantly higher in the EOM group than in the SOM group (p < 0.05). Significant positive correlations were found between EDN and IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, eotaxin, MIP-1α, PDGF-BB, and RANTES in the EOM group (p < 0.05). Our study showed that IL-5, IL-2, MIP-1α, and IL-1ra are the important factors involved in EOM pathogenesis. Furthermore, not only eosinophil, but also neutrophil are involved in middle ear inflammation of EOM. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Presenting with Skin Rashes, Eosinophilic Cholecystitis, and Retinal Vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mingbing; Liu, Xialin; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-11-18

    BACKGROUND Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), also known as Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), is a rare vasculitis of unknown etiology. Most of the patients have a long history of asthma and then develop autoimmune inflammation of small and medium-sized blood vessels, with consequent reduction of blood flow to various organs and tissues. EGPA can cause disorders in multiple systems; the most seriously affected organs are the retina, kidney, brain, cardiovascular system, and skin. CASE REPORT The patient was hospitalized for high fever and skin rashes and then developed right upper abdominal pain, decreased visual acuity, coma, and convulsions. Laboratory investigations showed marked eosinophilia (9412/mm3). Following cholecystectomy, histopathological examination revealed a marked inflammatory cell infiltrate composed mainly of eosinophils. Retinal vasculitis and medium and peripheral vascular closure were confirmed by fundus fluorescence angiography (FFA). The coma and convulsions were controlled successfully by high-dose methylprednisolone. After gradual tapering of the methylprednisolone, the patient's blood count recovered to a normal level, and the other systematic disorders disappeared; however, she was left with irreversible blindness. CONCLUSIONS EGPA can cause eosinophilic cholecystitis, retinal vasculitis, and neuropathy in the short term and calls for effective treatments in order to avoid binocular blindness.

  8. Clinical characteristics of eosinophilic asthma exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Asger; Laing, Ingrid A; Backer, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Airway eosinophilia is associated with an increased risk of asthma exacerbations; however, the impact on the severity of exacerbations is largely unknown. We describe the sputum inflammatory phenotype during asthma exacerbation and correlate it with severity and treatment...... response. METHODS: Patients presenting to hospital with an asthma exacerbation were recruited during a 12-month period and followed up after 4 weeks. Induced sputum was collected at both visits. Patients underwent spirometry, arterial blood gas analysis, fractional exhaled nitric oxide analysis, white...... with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 70%. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that eosinophilic asthma exacerbations may be clinically more severe than NEEs, supporting the identification of these higher risk patients for specific interventions....

  9. Reactions of eosinophilic granulocytes in the sputum and peripheral blood of children suffering from bronchial asthma with signs of eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic inflammation of the bronchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. K. Koloskova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research was to improve the management of bronchial asthma in children by examining the peculiarities and diagnostic value of reaction markers of eosinophil granulocytes in the sputum and peripheral blood of patients with signs of eosinophil and non-eosinophil phenotypes of this disease. A cohort of 118 school-age children suffering from BA was examined during a period free from attacks. Group I (the main group included 61 schoolchildren with signs of eosinophil phenotype (EP of asthma detected by the character of bronchial inflammation with eosinophil granulocytes present in the sputum at a level of >3%, group II (the comparison group included 57 patients with a lower number of eosinophils in the sputum (non-eosinophil phenotype (NP of BA. The average index of the relative content of eosinophils in the peripheral blood among the representatives of group I was 5.82 ± 0.63%, and in children with the signs of NPBA – 6.02 ± 0.74% (P > 0.05, and average indices in the groups of absolute eosinophil number in the blood were 0.37 ± 0.04 and 0.41 ± 0.05 respectively (P > 0.05. The negative reserve of NBT eosinophils in the sputum as a test to verify EPBA showed the following diagnostic values: specificity – 83.3%, predicted value of a positive result – 95.6%. IL-5 content in the blood serum of children with EPBA was 5.99 ± 1.74 ng/ml, in patients of group ІІ – only 1.99 ± 0.49 ng/ml (P 1.0 ng/ml the risk of EPBA showed a statistically significant increase: OR = 4.13, RR = 2.02, and AR – 0.34. The efficacy of the standardized basic anti-inflammatory therapy in patients of clinical group I was higher as compared to the children with the signs of NPBA, which was illustrated by the reduced risk of inadequate control of the disease: the index of absolute risk decrease was 31.7%, relative risk – 57.1% with necessary minimal number of patients – 1.75.

  10. Role of eosinophilic airway inflammation in models of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapa e Silva José R

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils play a central role in the establishment and outcome of bronchial inflammation in asthma. Animal models of allergy are useful to answer questions related to mechanisms of allergic inflammation. We have used models of sensitized and boosted guinea pigs to investigate the nature of bronchial inflammation in allergic conditions. These animals develop marked bronchial infiltration composed mainly of CD4+ T-lymphocytes and eosinophils. Further provocation with antigen leads to degranulation of eosinophils and ulceration of the bronchial mucosa. Eosinophils are the first cells to increase in numbers in the mucosa after antigen challenge and depend on the expression of alpha 4 integrin to adhere to the vascular endothelium and transmigrate to the mucosa. Blockage of alpha4 integrin expression with specific antibody prevents not only the transmigration of eosinophils but also the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR to agonists in sensitized and challenged animals, clearly suggesting a role for this cell type in this altered functional state. Moreover, introduction of antibody against Major Basic Protein into the airways also prevents the development of BHR in similar model. BHR can also be suppressed by the use of FK506, an immunosuppressor that reduces in almost 100% the infiltration of eosinophils into the bronchi of allergic animals. These data support the concept that eosinophil is the most important pro-inflammatory factor in bronchial inflammation associated with allergy.

  11. Eosinophils are rare in biopsy specimens of psoriasis vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Gabriela; Fernandez, Anthony P; Schneider, Sarah; Billings, Steven D

    2017-12-01

    Histological features of lesional biopsies can be helpful in distinguishing psoriasis subtypes from disease mimickers. However, occasionally, classic histological features are not sufficient for distinction, and additional clues would be useful. There is a common belief that the presence of eosinophils in skin biopsies argues against psoriasis, but actual literature is scant. Skin biopsies with a diagnosis of psoriasis from 2013 to 2016 were reviewed. For inclusion, both histological and clinical features were required to be consistent with psoriasis. For biopsies meeting inclusion criteria, a detailed evaluation for typical histological parameters of psoriasis, as well as presence of dermal eosinophils, was performed. Of 85 cases meeting inclusion criteria, all had either individual or grouped intracorneal neutrophils and dilated papillary blood vessels. Diminished or complete loss of the granular cell layer was seen in 83 cases (98%), and parakeratosis was seen in 84 cases (99%). Alternatively, dermal eosinophils were seen in only 15 cases (18%). Of cases with eosinophils, none had more than 3 eosinophils upon examination of the entire dermis. Active treatment did not appear to impact presence/absence or numbers of eosinophils. Eosinophils are uncommon in psoriasis biopsies, and when present, they are found in small numbers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effective antigen presentation to helper T cells by human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhan, Ruhaifah K; Vickers, Mark A; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M; Hall, Andrew M; Barker, Robert N; Walsh, Garry M

    2016-12-01

    Although eosinophils are inflammatory cells, there is increasing attention on their immunomodulatory roles. For example, murine eosinophils can present antigen to CD4 + T helper (Th) cells, but it remains unclear whether human eosinophils also have this ability. This study determined whether human eosinophils present a range of antigens, including allergens, to activate Th cells, and characterized their expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules required for effective presentation. Human peripheral blood eosinophils purified from non-allergic donors were pulsed with the antigens house dust mite extract (HDM), Timothy Grass extract (TG) or Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (PPD), before co-culture with autologous CD4 + Th cells. Proliferative and cytokine responses were measured, with eosinophil expression of HLA-DR/DP/DQ and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 determined by flow cytometry. Eosinophils pulsed with HDM, TG or PPD drove Th cell proliferation, with the response strength dependent on antigen concentration. The cytokine responses varied with donor and antigen, and were not biased towards any particular Th subset, often including combinations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Eosinophils up-regulated surface expression of HLA-DR/DP/DQ, CD80, CD86 and CD40 in culture, increases that were sustained over 5 days when incubated with antigens, including HDM, or the major allergens it contains, Der p I or Der p II. Human eosinophils can, therefore, act as effective antigen-presenting cells to stimulate varied Th cell responses against a panel of antigens including HDM, TG or PPD, an ability that may help to determine the development of allergic disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Eosinophilic cholecystitis: an infrequent cause of acute cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Moral-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic cholecystitis (EC is a rare disease that is characterised by eosinophilic infiltration of the gallbladder. Its pathogenesis is unknown, although many hypotheses have been made. Clinical and laboratory manifestations do not differ from those of other causes of cholecystitis. Diagnosis is histological and usually performed after analysis of the surgical specimen. We report the case of a woman aged 24 years, with symptoms of fever, vomiting and pain in the right upper quadrant. When imaging tests revealed acalculous cholecystitis, an urgent cholecystectomy was performed. Histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed eosinophilic cholecystitis. No cause of the symptoms was found.

  14. Development of Eosinophilic Fasciitis during Infliximab Therapy for Psoriatic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hariman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF is a rare disorder involving chronic inflammation of the fascia and connective tissue surrounding muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. While its pathogenesis is not entirely understood, this disorder is thought to be autoimmune or allergic in nature. We present here a case of a 59-year-old male who developed peripheral eosinophilia and subsequent eosinophilic fasciitis during treatment with infliximab. To our knowledge, eosinophilic fasciitis has not been previously described in patients during treatment with an inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor α.

  15. Eosinophilic cholecystitis: an infrequent cause of acute cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del-Moral-Martínez, María; Barrientos-Delgado, Andrés; Crespo-Lora, Vicente; Cervilla-Sáez-de-Tejada, María Eloísa; Salmerón-Escobar, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholecystitis (EC) is a rare disease that is characterised by eosinophilic infiltration of the gallbladder. Its pathogenesis is unknown, although many hypotheses have been made. Clinical and laboratory manifestations do not differ from those of other causes of cholecystitis. Diagnosis is histological and usually performed after analysis of the surgical specimen. We report the case of a woman aged 24 years, with symptoms of fever, vomiting and pain in the right upper quadrant. When imaging tests revealed acalculous cholecystitis, an urgent cholecystectomy was performed. Histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed eosinophilic cholecystitis. No cause of the symptoms was found.

  16. Immunological system and Schistosoma mansoni: co-evolutionary immunobiology. What is the eosinophil role in parasite-host relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique L Lenzi

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomes, ancestors and recent species, have pervaded many hosts and several phylogenetic levels of immunity, causing an evolutionary pressure to eosinophil lineage expression and response. Schistosoma mansoni adult worms have capitalized on the apparent adversity of living within the mesenteric veins, using the dispersion of eggs and antigens to other tissues besides intestines to set a systemic activation of several haematopoietic lineages, specially eosinophils and monocytes/macrophages. This activation occurs in bone marrow, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, omental and mesenteric milky spots (activation of the old or primordial and recent or new lymphomyeloid tissue, increasing and making easy the migration of eosinophils, monocytes and other cells to the intestinal periovular granulomas. The exudative perigranulomatous stage of the periovular reaction, which present hystolitic characteristics, is then exploited by the parasites, to release the eggs into the intestinal lumen. The authors hypothesize here that eosinophils, which have a long phylogenic story, could participate in the parasite - host co-evolution, specially with S. mansoni, operating together with monocytes/ macrophages, upon parasite transmission.

  17. Eosinophilic meningitis: a case series and review of literature of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Gnathostoma spinigerum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, I; Barot, S; Madvariya, M

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis is defined as the presence of >10 eosinophils/μL in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or at least 10% eosinophils in the total CSF leukocyte count. Eosinophilic meningitis has been reported in two case series and two case reports in India till date and has not been reported in children below 15 years of age. We present two children with eosinophilic meningitis with peripheral eosinophilia and the proposed etiologic agents based on the clinical setting and their response to antihelminthic agents.

  18. Psychological distress in patients with morphea and eosinophilic fasciitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroft, Ilse; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Evers, A.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the level of psychological distress and factors contributing to distress in patients with morphea or eosinophilic fasciitis. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Dermatology outpatient clinic of a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Of 120 patients with morphea or

  19. Eosinophilic granuloma in the anterior mandible mimicking radicular cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Lee, Jun [College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun Jin [Dept. of Pathology, School of Medicine, Eulji University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Eosinophilic granuloma is a common expression of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and corresponds with typical bone lesions. The radiographic appearance of eosinophilic granuloma in the jaw is variable and not specific. It may resemble periodontitis, radicular cyst, or malignancies. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristic radiographic features of eosinophilic granuloma of a 39-year-old male. The lesion in the anterior mandible was first diagnosed as radicular cyst because the radiographic findings were ovoid radiolucent lesion with well-defined border. However, careful interpretation revealed a non-corticated border and floating tooth appearance that were the characteristic radiographic features for the differential diagnosis. Early clinical signs of eosinophilic granuloma can occur in the jaw and a bony destructive lesion might be mistaken for periodontitis or an odontogenic cystic lesion; therefore, careful interpretation of radiographs should be emphasized.

  20. Role of tissue eosinophils in oral Leukoplakia: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhura, M G; Gajalakshmi, S; Kumar, B Veerendra; Suma, S; Sarita, Y; Shweta, R D

    2015-01-01

    Tissue eosinophilia in oral squamous cell carcinoma has been well - recognized. Studies have reported both favorable and unfavorable prognoses associated with tissue eosinophils in oral squamous cell carcinoma. However, the role of eosinophils in the development of tumor is still unclear. The present study was an attempt to elucidate the potential role of tissue eosinophils in oral leukoplakia, a potentially malignant lesion. To count eosinophils in tissues of normal subjects and oral leukoplakia cases. To compare tissue eosinophil count (TEC) between normal and oral leukoplakia cases. To compare TEC between dysplastic and non-dysplastic cases of oral leukoplakia and to correlate with degree of epithelial dysplasia. A total of 85 cases (59 cases of oral leukoplakia and 26 normal oral tissues) constituted the study material. Tissue eosinophils were counted in 10 different high- power fields. Non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney post hoc analysis and Spearman's correlation statistics). Mean eosinophil count (MEC) in oral leukoplakia cases was significantly more when compared to normal subjects. MEC in dysplastic cases of oral leukoplakia was significantly more when compared to those without epithelial dysplasia (Mann-Whitney U-test). Furthermore, MEC was directly proportional to the degree of epithelial dysplasia (Spearman's correlation statistics). TEC may be used as an adjunct to predict the malignant transformation of dysplastic cases of oral leukoplakia. Eosinophilic infiltration in oral dysplastic cases should prompt a thorough evaluation for invasiveness, especially when features of invasion are absent or suspected in smaller biopsy specimens. Use of TEC as a prognostic indicator demands larger sample size and mandates long-term follow-up.

  1. Eosinophilic granuloma of the lung presenting as an endobronchial mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukides, S; Karameris, A; Lachanis, S; Panagou, P; Kalogeropoulos, N

    2000-06-01

    A 19-yr-old male presented with left lung parahilar consolidation and clinical signs of pneumonia. These symptoms were secondary to an endobronchial mass in the apical segment of the lower lobe. At thoracotomy an apical segment bronchial sleeve resection successfully extirpated what later proved to be an endobronchial eosinophilic granuloma. To the authors' knowledge this is the first case report of an endobronchial eosinophilic granuloma in an adult.

  2. Eosinophils increase in animals that received biotherapic

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    Pedro Gilberto Silva Morais

    2012-12-01

    morphological changes in juveniles and adults ticks parasitizing animals which consumed the biotherapic. This observation suggests a negative interference of the biotherapic in the biological cycle of the tick, decreasing its population and consequently his control’s necessity. Comparing the blood cells counts of the first and the twelfth month, a raise of 23% (P> 0.05 in the eosinophils and 8% (P< 0.05 in the platelets was observed in the T1 animals. No changes in liver enzymes were observed. The increase in eosinophils and platelets found in this experiment suggests that biotherapic ingested by the animals strengthens the defense system and the clotting cascade.Key words: bovinos

  3. Cytological diagnostic of lymphadenitis tuberculosis by eosinophilic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delyuzar; Amir, Z.; Kusumawati, L.

    2018-03-01

    AFB sputum and chest X-ray are used to identify patients with pulmonary TB. For extrapulmonary TB, fine needle aspiration cytology is needed, even though occasionally found not atypical feature in the form of eosinophilic material with dark brown particles, suspected as TB. This research was to show that eosinophilic material with dark brown particles is accurate as new criteria for the cytological diagnosis of TB. By performing fine needle aspiration biopsy stained with Giemsa, if an eosinophilic material with dark brown particles was encountered, we continued with Ziehl-Neelsen AFB stain and confirmed with PCR. To assess accuracy, we used a diagnostic test to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of eosinophilic material with dark brown particles by using AFB and PCR as the gold standard. The sensitivity and specificity of cytological diagnosis in tuberculosis of eosinophilic material with dark brown particles were 93.65% and 70.99%, respectively if confirmed with AFB. On the other hand, if confirmed with PCR using Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA, the sensitivity and specificity were 98.95% and 96.79%, respectively. In conclusion, eosinophilic masses with dark brown particles is accurate as new criteria of TB diagnostic cytology with high sensitivity and specificity confirmed with AFB and PCR test.

  4. Anti-eosinophilic effect of Lafoensia pacari in toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerio, A P; Sá-Nunes, A; Albuquerque, D A; Soares, E G; Faccioli, L H

    2008-05-01

    We previously reported the anti-inflammatory activity of Lafoensia pacari extract in Toxocara canis infection, a model of systemic IL-5-dependent eosinophil migration. In the present study, we describe the kinetics of the anti-inflammatory activity of L. pacari extract and compare it with dexamethasone. T. canis-infected mice were submitted to different treatment protocols and the cells present in bronchoalveolar space and peritoneal cavity were collected at the end of each treatment period. The results showed that L. pacari extract effectively inhibited eosinophil migration only when the treatment was initiated before the peak of eosinophil migration (1st to 18th; 12th to 18th and 12th to 24th day post-infection). When eosinophil migration was established, administration of L. pacari extract had no effect on it (treatment 18th to 24th day post-infection). Dexamethasone was effective in inhibiting eosinophil migration in all periods studied. We suggest that L. pacari extract can potentially be a natural alternative treatment of eosinophilic diseases.

  5. Eosinophilic ascites: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed M Alsulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare gastrointestinal (GI disorder characterized by nonspecific GI symptoms, peripheral eosinophilia, and eosinophilic infiltration of the intestinal wall. The disorder is classified into mucosal, muscular, and sub-serosal types, depending on the clinical picture and the depth of eosinophilic infiltration within the GI wall. Sub-serosal disease, which is complicated by ascites, usually results in the most severe clinical form of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and requires early corticosteroid therapy. In such cases, a favorable outcome can be achieved after a short course of corticosteroids. We present the case of a 28-year-old female with diffuse abdominal pain and distention for 2 weeks. Her physical examination was significant for moderate ascites. Initial work-up demonstrated severe peripheral blood eosinophilia, normal liver function tests, and elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE. Upper endoscopy, colonoscopy showed a thickening of the stomach and colon, and biopsies showed marked eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosa. Ascitic fluid analysis showed significant eosinophilia. Subsequent treatment with oral prednisone resulted in the normalization of laboratory and radiologic abnormalities 45 days after the start of the treatment. Despite its rarity, eosinophilic gastroenteritis needs to be recognized by the clinician because the disease is treatable, and timely diagnosis and initiation of treatment could be of major importance.

  6. Induction of eosinophil apoptosis by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor AT7519 promotes the resolution of eosinophil-dominant allergic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L Alessandri

    Full Text Available Eosinophils not only defend the body against parasitic infection but are also involved in pathological inflammatory allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and contact dermatitis. Clearance of apoptotic eosinophils by macrophages is a key process responsible for driving the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation and can be defective in allergic diseases. However, enhanced resolution of eosinophilic inflammation by deliberate induction of eosinophil apoptosis using pharmacological agents has not been previously demonstrated. Here we investigated the effect of a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor drug, AT7519, on human and mouse eosinophil apoptosis and examined whether it could enhance the resolution of a murine model of eosinophil-dominant inflammation in vivo.Eosinophils from blood of healthy donors were treated with AT7519 and apoptosis assessed morphologically and by flow-cytometric detection of annexin-V/propidium iodide staining. AT7519 induced eosinophil apoptosis in a concentration dependent manner. Therapeutic administration of AT7519 in eosinophil-dominant allergic inflammation was investigated using an established ovalbumin-sensitised mouse model of allergic pleurisy. Following ovalbumin challenge AT7519 was administered systemically at the peak of pleural inflammation and inflammatory cell infiltrate, apoptosis and evidence of macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic eosinophils assessed at appropriate time points. Administration of AT7519 dramatically enhanced the resolution of allergic pleurisy via direct induction of eosinophil apoptosis without detriment to macrophage clearance of these cells. This enhanced resolution of inflammation was shown to be caspase-dependent as the effects of AT7519 were reduced by treatment with a broad spectrum caspase inhibitor (z-vad-fmk.Our data show that AT7519 induces human eosinophil apoptosis and enhances the resolution of a murine model of allergic pleurisy by inducing caspase

  7. Yrb1p Interaction with the Gsp1p C Terminus Blocks Mog1p Stimulation of GTP Release from Gsp1p

    OpenAIRE

    OKI, Masaya; NISHIMOTO, Takeharu

    2000-01-01

    Mog1p, a multicopy suppressor of gsp1, the temperature-sensitive mutant of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ran homologue, binds to GTP-Gsp1p but not to GDP-Gsp1p. The function of Mog1p in the Ran cycle is as yet unknown. This study found that Mog1p releases a nucleotide from GTP-Gsp1p but not from GDP-Gsp1p. Yrb1p, the S. cerevisiae homologue of RanBP1, which is a strong inhibitor of RCC1-stimulated nucleotide release, also inhibited the Mog1p-stimulated nucleotide release from GTP-Gsp1p. At a c...

  8. Eosinophil protein X/eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EPX/EDN). Detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and purification from normal human urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimert, C M; Minuva, U; Kharazmi, A

    1991-01-01

    Eosinophil protein X/eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EPX/EDN) is one of the cationic proteins found in the granules of the human eosinophilic granulocytes. EPX was purified from extracts of granules isolated from blood buffy coat cells of healthy donors. Polyclonal anti-EPX antibodies were...

  9. Clavicular eosinophilic granuloma causing adult shoulder pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence R. Menendez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Though rarely reported, neoplasms of the clavicle occur, and their symptoms can be mistaken for more common shoulder conditions. We present the case of a benign clavicular neoplasm, rarely seen in adults, presenting with pain, and eventual pathologic fracture in a 49 year-old. A 49 year-old male firefighter underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for shoulder pain after magnetic resonance imaging revealed supraspinatus tendon tear. The patient’s pain persisted after surgery, and was described as routine until he developed severe pain after minor blunt trauma. A local Emergency Room performed the first x-rays, which revealed a pathologic fracture of the distal clavicle through a destructive lesion. The patient was referred to an orthopedic oncologist, who performed incisional biopsy, which initially diagnosed osteomyelitis. The patient was subsequently taken to surgery for debridement. Pathology then yielded the diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma. The patient was taken back to surgery for formal curettage with open reduction and internal fixation. The patient’s pain resolved, the pathologic fracture fully healed, and the patient returned to full time work as a firefighter. Though workup for common shoulder conditions often identifies incidental benign lesions of bone, the converse can be true. Persistent pain despite intervention should raise concern for further investigation. An x-ray alone can reveal a destructive bone lesion as the source of shoulder pain.

  10. Eosinophilic tubulointerstitial nephritis on treatment with isotretinoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya Aksoy, Gulsah; Koyun, Mustafa; Akkaya, Bahar; Comak, Elif; Gemici, Atilla; Akman, Sema

    2016-12-01

    Drug-related acute tubulointerstitial nephritis is one of the most common causes of childhood acute renal failures which originate from kidneys. Sixteen-year old male patient with the history of isotretinoin use for the last 3 months was admitted with acute renal failure. Renal function parameters were measured as follows: blood urea nitrogen 21 mg/dL, serum creatinine 1.68 mg/dL, cystatin C 1.15 mg/L, and estimated glomerular filtration rate based on cystatin C 56.5 mL/min/1.73 m2. The patient whom pathological signs of renal biopsy sections revealed interstitial mononuclear cell and eosinophilic infiltration was diagnosed with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. Isotretinoin is a vitamin A-derived agent which is commonly used in the treatment of acne and may cause drug-related acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. What is Known: •Drug-related acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN) is one of the most common causes of childhood acute renal failures. What is New: •Isotretinoin may cause drug-related acute tubulointerstitial nephritis.

  11. Evidence of eosinophil extracellular trap cell death in COPD: does it represent the trigger that switches on the disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe Echevarría, Loli; Leimgruber, Carolina; García González, Jorge; Nevado, Alberto; Álvarez, Ruth; García, Luciana N; Quintar, Amado A; Maldonado, Cristina A

    2017-01-01

    In spite of the numerous studies on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the cellular and molecular basis of the disease’s development remain unclear. Neutrophils and eosinophils are known to be key players in COPD. Recently, neutrophil extracellular trap cell death (NETosis), a mechanism due to decondensation and extrusion of chromatin to form extracellular traps, has been demonstrated in COPD. However, there is limited knowledge about eosinophil extracellular trap cell death (EETosis) and its role in the pathogenesis of COPD. The aim of this study was to evaluate EETosis in stable COPD. Induced sputum obtained from healthy smokers and low exacerbation risk COPD A or B group patients or high exacerbation risk COPD C or D group patients were included. Samples were examined using electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. Healthy smokers (n=10) and COPD A (n=19) group exhibited neutrophilic or paucigranulocytic phenotypes, with NETosis being absent in these patients. In contrast, COPD B (n=29), with eosinophilic or mixed phenotypes, showed EETosis and incipient NETosis. COPD C (n=18) and COPD D groups (n=13) were differentiated from low exacerbation rate-COPD group by the abundant cellular debris, with COPD C group having an eosinophilic pattern and numerous cells undergoing EETosis. A hallmark of this group was the abundant released membranes that often appeared phagocytosed by neutrophils, which coincidentally exhibited early NETosis changes. The COPD D group included patients with a neutrophilic or mixed pattern, with abundant neutrophil extracellular trap-derived material. This study is the first to demonstrate EETosis at different stages of stable COPD. The results suggest a role for eosinophils in COPD pathophysiology, especially at the beginning and during the persistence of the disease, regardless of whether the patient quit smoking, with EETosis debris probably triggering uncontrolled NETosis. The main target of these findings should be young

  12. Eotaxin induces degranulation and chemotaxis of eosinophils through the activation of ERK2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampen, G T; Stafford, S; Adachi, T

    2000-01-01

    not be detected. The kinase activity of ERK2 and p38 paralleled phosphorylation. PD980 59, an inhibitor of the ERK2-activating enzyme MEK (MAP ERK kinase), blocked phosphorylation of ERK2 in a concentration-dependent manner. The functional relevance of ERK2 and p38 was studied using PD98 059 and the p38 inhibitor...... was assessed using Boyden microchambers. Eotaxin (10(-11) to 10(-7) mol/L) induced concentration-dependent phosphorylation of ERK2 and p38. Phosphorylation was detectable after 30 seconds, peaked at about 1 minute, and returned to baseline after 2 to 5 minutes. Phosphorylation of JNK above baseline could...... SB202 190. PD98 059 and SB202 190 both caused inhibition of eotaxin-induced ECP release and chemotaxis. We conclude that eotaxin induces a rapid concentration-dependent activation of ERK2 and p38 in eosinophils and that the activation of these MAP kinases is required for eotaxin...

  13. Modes and nodes explain the mechanism of action of vortioxetine, a multimodal agent (MMA): blocking 5HT3 receptors enhances release of serotonin, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Stephen M

    2015-10-01

    Vortioxetine is an antidepressant with multiple pharmacologic modes of action at targets where serotonin neurons connect with other neurons. 5HT3 receptor antagonism is one of these actions, and this leads to increased release of norepinephrine (NE), acetylcholine (ACh), and serotonin (5HT) within various brain circuits.

  14. Histamine release from basophil leukocytes in asthma patients after in vitro provocation with various neuromuscular blocking drugs and intravenous anaesthetic agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, H; Søndergaard, I

    1987-01-01

    Basophil histamine release is a relatively new investigation technique, which can be used in the diagnosis of anaphylactoid reactions. Our aim in this investigation was to determine reference values for asthma patients and normal subjects. Blood from eight asthmatic patients and eight normal subj...... on the calculated reference value (mean +/- 2 s.d.), which was found to be 0-30%....

  15. Clinicopathological Study of Eosinophilic Cholecystitis: Five Year Single Institution Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sabina; Jairajpuri, Zeeba Shamim; Jetley, Sujata; Husain, Musharraf

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Gallbladder diseases are very common in Northern India, most common of which is Chronic Cholecystitis. Rarely, histopathological diagnosis of Eosinophilic Cholecystitis (EC) is given when transmural cellular infiltrate consists of more than 90% eosinophils. Aim To determine the prevalence and clinicopathological profile of eosinophilic cholecystitis at a tertiary care hospital of New Delhi. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective clinicopathological study done on twenty two cases of eosinophilic cholecystitis over a period of five years from January 2011- December 2015. In cases diagnosed histopathologically as eosinophilic cholecystitis, clinical details were obtained from hospital records and slides were retrieved. Various histologic features, pattern of the inflammatory infiltrate and association of EC with other medical diseases, drugs and allergic states were evaluated. Results Out of a total of 1370 cholecystectomy specimens received during five year period, Eosinophilic cholecystitis was diagnosed in 22 (1.6%) of the specimens. Clinically, seven of these patients had a clinical diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Patient’s age ranged from 25-64 years and male to female ratio was 1:2.7. Most common symptom reported was abdominal pain. Most of the cases showed gallstones radiologically (90%) while only two cases showed peripheral eosinophilia (9%). Histologically, mucosal and muscular eosinophilic infiltrate was seen in 72.6% of the cases. No association with drug therapy, allergies or other pre-existing medical conditions was noted. Conclusion EC is a relatively uncommon entity in which histopathology remains the main stay of diagnosis. Although the presentation may be similar to general cholecystitis, if a postoperative histopathological diagnosis of EC is made, then the patient must be investigated thoroughly to rule out other associated disease conditions, which may have a worse prognosis than cholecystitis itself. PMID:28969136

  16. Mepolizumab for the treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulakos, Mara N; Cargill, Shawna M; Waineo, Melissa F; Wolford, Allen L

    2017-07-01

    Published data on the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and clinical efficacy and safety of the interleukin-5 antagonist mepolizumab are reviewed. Asthma of the eosinophilic phenotype is characterized by persistent eosinophilic airway inflammation promoted primarily by T-helper type 2 cytokines, the key regulator of eosinophils. Patients with severe eosinophilic asthma are burdened by the need to administer high doses of corticosteroids to help manage their symptoms. In November 2015, mepolizumab (Nucala, GlaxoSmithKline) gained U.S. marketing approval for use as an add-on maintenance treatment for severe eosinophilic asthma in patients 12 years of age or older, making it the first personalized targeted therapy for this population. Efficacy results from clinical trials provided evidence of the corticosteroid-sparing effects of mepolizumab and its ability to reduce both blood and sputum eosinophil counts. Safety data from several Phase II or III studies involving a total of more than 1,300 patients indicated that mepolizumab was generally well tolerated, and types and rates of adverse events in mepolizumab recipients were comparable to those reported with placebo use; the only mepolizumab-associated serious adverse drug events were asthma exacerbations in 2 patients. The recommended dosage of mepolizumab is 100 mg administrated via subcutaneous injection every 4 weeks. Mepolizumab is a safe and efficacious novel add-on therapy for a small subgroup of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma whose asthma is not adequately controlled by standard regimens for asthma treatment. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Eosinophil count, allergies, and rejection in pediatric heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbon, Kate S; Albers, Erin; Kemna, Mariska; Law, Sabrina; Law, Yuk

    2015-08-01

    Allograft rejection and long-term immunosuppression remain significant challenges in pediatric heart transplantation. Pediatric recipients are known to have fewer rejection episodes and to develop more allergic conditions than adults. A T-helper 2 cell dominant phenotype, manifested clinically by allergies and an elevated eosinophil count, may be associated with immunologic quiescence in transplant recipients. This study assessed whether the longitudinal eosinophil count and an allergic phenotype were associated with freedom from rejection. This single-center, longitudinal, observational study included 86 heart transplant patients monitored from 1994 to 2011. Post-transplant biannual complete blood counts, allergic conditions, and clinical characteristics related to rejection risk were examined. At least 1 episode of acute cellular rejection (ACR) occurred in 38 patients (44%), antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) occurred in 11 (13%), and 49 patients (57%) were diagnosed with an allergic condition. Patients with ACR or AMR had a lower eosinophil count compared with non-rejectors (p = 0.011 and p = 0.022, respectively). In the multivariable regression analysis, the presence of panel reactive antibodies to human leukocyte antigen I (p = 0.014) and the median eosinophil count (p = 0.011) were the only independent covariates associated with AMR. Eosinophil count (p = 0.010) and female sex (p = 0.009) were independent risk factors for ACR. Allergic conditions or young age at transplant were not protective from rejection. This study demonstrates a novel association between a high eosinophil count and freedom from rejection. Identifying a biomarker for low rejection risk may allow a reduction in immunosuppression. Further investigation into the role of the T-helper 2 cell phenotype and eosinophils in rejection quiescence is warranted. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Asthma exacerbations and sputum eosinophil counts: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ruth H; Brightling, Christopher E; McKenna, Susan; Hargadon, Beverley; Parker, Debbie; Bradding, Peter; Wardlaw, Andrew J; Pavord, Ian D

    2002-11-30

    Treatment decisions in asthma are based on assessments of symptoms and simple measures of lung function, which do not relate closely to underlying eosinophilic airway inflammation. We aimed to assess whether a management strategy that minimises eosinophilic inflammation reduces asthma exacerbations compared with a standard management strategy. We recruited 74 patients with moderate to severe asthma from hospital clinics and randomly allocated them to management either by standard British Thoracic Society asthma guidelines (BTS management group) or by normalisation of the induced sputum eosinophil count and reduction of symptoms (sputum management group). We assessed patients nine times over 12 months. The results were used to manage those in the sputum management group, but were not disclosed in the BTS group. The primary outcomes were the number of severe exacerbations and control of eosinophilic inflammation, measured by induced sputum eosinophil count. Analyses were by intention to treat. The sputum eosinophil count was 63% (95% CI 24-100) lower over 12 months in the sputum management group than in the BTS management group (p=0.002). Patients in the sputum management group had significantly fewer severe asthma exacerbations than did patients in the BTS management group (35 vs 109; p=0.01) and significantly fewer patients were admitted to hospital with asthma (one vs six, p=0.047). The average daily dose of inhaled or oral corticosteroids did not differ between the two groups. A treatment strategy directed at normalisation of the induced sputum eosinophil count reduces asthma exacerbations and admissions without the need for additional anti-inflammatory treatment.

  19. Mouse and human eosinophils degranulate in response to platelet-activating factor (PAF) and lysoPAF via a PAF-receptor-independent mechanism: evidence for a novel receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Kimberly D; Percopo, Caroline M; Xie, Zhihui; Yang, Zhao; Kim, John Dongil; Davoine, Francis; Lacy, Paige; Druey, Kirk M; Moqbel, Redwan; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2010-06-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF [1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine]) is a phospholipid mediator released from activated macrophages, mast cells, and basophils that promotes pathophysiologic inflammation. Eosinophil responses to PAF are complex and incompletely elucidated. We show in this article that PAF and its 2-deacetylated metabolite (lysoPAF) promote degranulation (release of eosinophil peroxidase) via a mechanism that is independent of the characterized PAFR. Specifically, we demonstrate that receptor antagonists CV-3988 and WEB-2086 and pertussis toxin have no impact on PAF- or lysoPAF-mediated degranulation. Furthermore, cultured mouse eosinophils from PAFR(-/-) bone marrow progenitors degranulate in response to PAF and lysoPAF in a manner indistinguishable from their wild-type counterparts. In addition to PAF and lysoPAF, human eosinophils degranulate in response to lysophosphatidylcholine, but not phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, or phosphatidylethanolamine, demonstrating selective responses to phospholipids with a choline head-group and minimal substitution at the sn-2 hydroxyl. Human eosinophils release preformed cytokines in response to PAF, but not lysoPAF, also via a PAFR-independent mechanism. Mouse eosinophils do not release cytokines in response to PAF or lysoPAF, but they are capable of doing so in response to IL-6. Overall, our work provides the first direct evidence for a role for PAF in activating and inducing degranulation of mouse eosinophils, a crucial feature for the interpretation of mouse models of PAF-mediated asthma and anaphylaxis. Likewise, we document and define PAF and lysoPAF-mediated activities that are not dependent on signaling via PAFR, suggesting the existence of other unexplored molecular signaling pathways mediating responses from PAF, lysoPAF, and closely related phospholipid mediators.

  20. Feline familial pedal eosinophilic dermatosis in two littermates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charline Pressanti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In cats, the most common eosinophilic dermatoses are feline miliary dermatitis and eosinophilic granuloma complex. The most commonly identified underlying cause is a hypersensitivity reaction. Few cases of familial forms of eosinophilic dermatoses are reported in the literature. Two young adult cats from the same litter presented 2 years apart with a severe and chronic fluid or tissue infiltration of the distal part of several limbs. Lesions started on the forelegs and developed on the other limbs. Cytological and histopathological examinations showed lesions consistent with an atypical form of feline eosinophilic dermatosis associated with secondary bacterial infection. In both cats, antibiotics combined with immunosuppressive treatment partially improved the lesions, which continued to progress on a waxing and waning course, even in the absence of treatment. Allergy work-up did not permit the identification of an underlying allergic triggering factor. The severity of the lesions, the unusual presentation and the unsatisfactory response to immunosuppressive therapy in two feline littermates suggested a genetic form of eosinophilic dermatosis.

  1. Eosinophilic Colitis: University of Minnesota Experience and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang B. Gaertner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic colitis is a rare form of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease that is poorly understood. Neonates and young adults are more frequently affected. Clinical presentation is highly variable depending on the depth of inflammatory response (mucosal, transmural, or serosal. The pathophysiology of eosinophilic colitis is unclear but is suspected to be related to a hypersensitivity reaction given its correlation with other atopic disorders and clinical response to corticosteroid therapy. Diagnosis is that of exclusion and differential diagnoses are many because colonic tissue eosinophilia may occur with other colitides (parasitic, drug-induced, inflammatory bowel disease, and various connective tissue disorders. Similar to other eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders, steroid-based therapy and diet modification achieve very good and durable responses. In this paper, we present our experience with this rare pathology. Five patients (3 pediatric and 2 adults presented with diarrhea and hematochezia. Mean age at presentation was 26 years. Mean duration of symptoms before pathologic diagnosis was 8 months. Mean eosinophil count per patient was 31 per high-power field. The pediatric patients responded very well to dietary modifications, with no recurrences. The adult patients were treated with steroids and did not respond. Overall mean followup was 22 (range, 2–48 months.

  2. Eosinophilic Myocarditis due to Toxocariasis: Not a Rare Cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi Shibazaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocarditis is a clinically important disease because of the high mortality. From the perspective of treatment strategy, eosinophilic myocarditis should be distinguished from other types of myocarditis. Toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, is known as a cause of eosinophilic myocarditis but is considered rare. As it is an unpopular disease, eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis may be underdiagnosed. We experienced two cases of eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis from different geographical areas in quick succession between 2013 and 2014. Case 1 is 32-year-old man. Case 2 is 66-year-old woman. In both cases, diagnosis was done by endomyocardial biopsy and IgG-ELISA against Toxocara excretory-secretory antigen. Only a corticosteroid was used in Case  1, whereas a corticosteroid and albendazole were used in Case  2 as induction therapy. Both patients recovered. Albendazole was also used in Case  1 to prevent recurrence after induction therapy. Eosinophilic myocarditis by toxocariasis may in actuality not be a rare disease, and corticosteroid is an effective drug as induction therapy even before use of albendazole.

  3. Blocking heme oxygenase-1 by zinc protoporphyrin reduces tumor hypoxia-mediated VEGF release and inhibits tumor angiogenesis as a potential therapeutic agent against colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chun-Chia; Guan, Siao-Syun; Yang, Hao-Jhih; Chang, Chun-Chao; Luo, Tsai-Yueh; Chang, Jungshan; Ho, Ai-Sheng

    2016-01-28

    Hypoxia in tumor niche is one of important factors to start regeneration of blood vessels, leading to increase survival, proliferation, and invasion in cancer cells. Under hypoxia microenvironment, furthermore, steadily increased hypoxia-inducible factor -1α (HIF-1α) is observed, and can increase vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and promote angiogenesis. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), a heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor, is potential to inhibit tumor proliferation and progression. However, the mechanism of ZnPP in inhibition of tumor is not completely clear. We hypothesize that ZnPP may modulate HIF-1α through inhibiting HO-1, and then inhibit angiogenesis and tumor progression. This study aimed to dissect the mechanism of ZnPP in tumor suppression. We observed the amount of VEGF was increased in the sera of the colorectal cancer (CRC) patients (n = 34, p ZnPP inhibited the expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF coupled with cell proliferations of HCT-15 cells, suggesting that ZnPP blocked HIF-1α expression, and then inhibited the consequent VEGF production. In the xenograft model, we also observed that the animals exposed to ZnPP displayed much smaller tumor nodules and less degree of angiogenesis with decreased expression of the angiogenesis marker, αvβ3 integrin, compared to that in normal control. This study demonstrated that VEGF level in serum was elevated in the patients with CRC. The HO-1 inhibitor, ZnPP, possessed the properties of anti-tumor agent by decreasing HIF-1α levels, blocking VEGF production, impairing tumor angiogenesis, and inhibiting tumor growth.

  4. The imaging diagnosis of costal solitary eosinophilic granuloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Fa; Feng Shiting

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the imaging features of costal eosinophilic granuloma so as to improve diagnosis accuracy of the disease. Methods: The clinical and imaging materials of 6 patients with costal solitary eosinophilic granuloma which were proved by surgery or histopathology were analyzed retrospectively. X-ray plain films were performed in all the cases, CT in 3 cases, 2 cases were received CT plain scan and I case received both CT plain scan and enhanced CT scan. Results: 4 cases of them located in the anterior ribs. All the lesions were round-like and 5 were single cavity and 1 was multiple cavities. 3 of them were expansile destruction and 3 were cystic destruction. Soft tissue mass around the lesion was identified. Conclusion: X-ray plain films integrating CT play an important role in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the costal eosinophilic granuloma. (authors)

  5. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Intestinal Obstruction - A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Krishnappa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract by an increased number of eosinophils as compared to the normal. The anatomic location and intensity of the infiltrate decides the varied clinical symptomatology with which these patients present. The present report deals with four cases, all presenting with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction A laparotomy performed revealed a stricture in the first case, superficial ulcers and adhesions in the second case, an ileocaecal mass in the third case and volvulus formation in the fourth case. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis was confirmed on histopathology in all the four cases. All the four patients experienced relief of symptoms after resection. It is essential to diagnose the disease to differentiate it from other conditions presenting as intestinal obstruction. The cases are presented because of the rarity of occurrence and presentation. Relevant literature has been reviewed.

  6. HIV-1 Vpu Blocks Recycling and Biosynthetic Transport of the Intrinsic Immunity Factor CD317/Tetherin To Overcome the Virion Release Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sarah; Fritz, Joëlle V.; Bitzegeio, Julia; Fackler, Oliver T.; Keppler, Oliver T.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The intrinsic immunity factor CD317 (BST-2/HM1.24/tetherin) imposes a barrier to HIV-1 release at the cell surface that can be overcome by the viral protein Vpu. Expression of Vpu results in a reduction of CD317 surface levels; however, the mechanism of this Vpu activity and its contribution to the virological antagonism are incompletely understood. Here, we characterized the influence of Vpu on major CD317 trafficking pathways using quantitative antibody-based endocytosis and recycling assays as well as a microinjection/microscopy-based kinetic de novo expression approach. We report that HIV-1 Vpu inhibited both the anterograde transport of newly synthesized CD317 and the recycling of CD317 to the cell surface, while the kinetics of CD317 endocytosis remained unaffected. Vpu trapped trafficking CD317 molecules at the trans-Golgi network, where the two molecules colocalized. The subversion of both CD317 transport pathways was dependent on the highly conserved diserine S52/S56 motif of Vpu; however, it did not require recruitment of the diserine motif interactor and substrate adaptor of the SCF-E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, β-TrCP. Treatment of cells with the malaria drug primaquine resulted in a CD317 trafficking defect that mirrored that induced by Vpu. Importantly, primaquine could functionally replace Vpu as a CD317 antagonist and rescue HIV-1 particle release. PMID:21610122

  7. Lack of Knowledge and Low Readiness for Health Care Transition in Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluri, Swathi; Book, Wendy M; Kodroff, Ellyn; Strobel, Mary Jo; Gebhart, Jessica H; Jones, Patricia D; Menard-Katcher, Paul; Ferris, Maria E; Dellon, Evan S

    2017-07-01

    A growing population of adolescents/young adults with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) will need to transition from pediatric to adult health providers. Measuring health care transition (HCT) readiness is critical, but no studies have evaluated this process in EoE/EGE. We determined the scope and predictors of HCT knowledge in patients and parents with EoE/EGE and measured HCT readiness in adolescents/young adults. We conducted an online survey of patients 13 years or older and parents of patients with EoE/EGE who were diagnosed when 25 years or younger. Parents answered questions regarding their children and their own knowledge of HCT. HCT readiness was assessed in adolescents/young adults aged 13 to 25 years with the Self-Management and Transition to Adulthood with Rx Questionnaire (a 6-domain self-report tool) with a score range of 0 to 90. Four hundred fifty participants completed the survey: 205 patients and 245 parents. Included in the analysis (those diagnosed with EoE/EGE at age 25 years or younger) were 75 of 205 patients and children of 245 parent respondents. Overall, 78% (n = 52) of the patients and 76% (n = 187) of parents had no HCT knowledge. Mean HCT readiness score in adolescents/young adults (n = 50) was 30.4 ± 11.3 with higher scores in domains of provider communication and engagement during appointments. Mean parent-reported (n = 123) score was 35.6 ± 9.7 with higher scores in medication management and disease knowledge. There was a significant deficit in HCT knowledge, and HCT readiness scores were lower than other chronic health conditions. HCT preparation and readiness assessments should become a priority for adolescents/young adults with EoE/EGE and their parents.

  8. Morphea and Eosinophilic Fasciitis: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Jorre S; Seyger, Marieke M B; Thurlings, Rogier M; Radstake, Timothy R D J; de Jong, Elke M G J

    2017-08-01

    Morphea, also known as localized scleroderma, encompasses a group of idiopathic sclerotic skin diseases. The spectrum ranges from relatively mild phenotypes, which generally cause few problems besides local discomfort and visible disfigurement, to subtypes with severe complications such as joint contractures and limb length discrepancies. Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF, Shulman syndrome) is often regarded as belonging to the severe end of the morphea spectrum. The exact driving mechanisms behind morphea and EF pathogenesis remain to be elucidated. However, extensive extracellular matrix formation and autoimmune dysfunction are thought to be key pathogenic processes. Likewise, these processes are considered essential in systemic sclerosis (SSc) pathogenesis. In addition, similarities in clinical presentation between morphea and SSc have led to many theories about their relatedness. Importantly, morphea may be differentiated from SSc based on absence of sclerodactyly, Raynaud's phenomenon, and nailfold capillary changes. The diagnosis of morphea is often based on characteristic clinical findings. Histopathological evaluation of skin biopsies and laboratory tests are not necessary in the majority of morphea cases. However, full-thickness skin biopsies, containing fascia and muscle tissue, are required for the diagnosis of EF. Monitoring of disease activity and damage, especially of subcutaneous involvement, is one of the most challenging aspects of morphea care. Therefore, data harmonization is crucial for optimizing standard care and for comparability of study results. Recently, the localized scleroderma cutaneous assessment tool (LoSCAT) has been developed and validated for morphea. The LoSCAT is currently the most widely reported outcome measure for morphea. Care providers should take disease subtype, degree of activity, depth of involvement, and quality-of-life impairments into account when initiating treatment. In most patients with circumscribed superficial subtypes

  9. Prostaglandin D2 and Interleukin-5 Reduce Crth2 Surface Expression on Human Eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyuki Hamada

    2004-01-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that PGD2 and IL-5 regulate CRTH2 expression on eosinophils through CRTH2 internalization. The decreased expression of CRTH2 on tissue eosinophils may make these cells remain at the site of allergic inflammation.

  10. Sequence variants affecting eosinophil numbers associate with asthma and myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Bjornsdottir, Unnur S; Halapi, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophils are pleiotropic multifunctional leukocytes involved in initiation and propagation of inflammatory responses and thus have important roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Here we describe a genome-wide association scan for sequence variants affecting eosinophil counts in ...

  11. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  12. Toxocara canis-Associated Myelitis with Eosinophilic Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kee Hong; Kim, Young-Soo; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Nack-Cheon; Kwon, Oh-Young; Lim, ByeongHoon; Park, Ki-Jong

    2016-06-01

    The existence of Toxocara canis-specific antibodies has recently been reported in patients with atopic myelitis. Here, we report the case of a 35-year-old male patient admitted with a chief complaint of right lower limb hypoesthesia lasting for a month. The patient was diagnosed with eosinophilic pneumonia 3 months ago, and a spine MRI revealed the presence of myelitis in the cervicothoracic cord. After confirming the presence of hyper-IgE-emia and Toxocara canis antibodies, the patient was treated with steroids and albendazole treatment, which improved his symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first case of Toxocara canis-associated myelitis with eosinophilic pneumonia.

  13. Enterobiliary Fistula as a Complication of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Myun; Woo, Ji Young [Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease with variable clinical features characterized by eosinophilic infiltration. Clinical manifestations range from non-specific gastrointestinal complaints such as nausea, vomiting, crampy abdominal pain, and diarrhea to specific findings such as malabsorption, protein loosing enteropathy, luminal obstruction, eosinophilic ascites and effusion. We report here on a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis causing enterobiliary fistula which is an extremely unusual complication

  14. Evidence of eosinophil extracellular trap cell death in COPD: does it represent the trigger that switches on the disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Echevarría L

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Loli Uribe Echevarría,1 Carolina Leimgruber,2 Jorge García González,1 Alberto Nevado,1 Ruth Álvarez,3 Luciana N García,2 Amado A Quintar,2 Cristina A Maldonado2 1Pneumonology Service, Sanatorio Allende (Nueva Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina; 2Electronic Microscopy Center, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina; 3Smoking Cessation Cente, Nuevo Hospital San Roque of Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina Abstract: In spite of the numerous studies on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, the cellular and molecular basis of the disease’s development remain unclear. Neutrophils and eosinophils are known to be key players in COPD. Recently, neutrophil extracellular trap cell death (NETosis, a mechanism due to decondensation and extrusion of chromatin to form extracellular traps, has been demonstrated in COPD. However, there is limited knowledge about eosinophil extracellular trap cell death (EETosis and its role in the pathogenesis of COPD. The aim of this study was to evaluate EETosis in stable COPD. Induced sputum obtained from healthy smokers and low exacerbation risk COPD A or B group patients or high exacerbation risk COPD C or D group patients were included. Samples were examined using electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. Healthy smokers (n=10 and COPD A (n=19 group exhibited neutrophilic or paucigranulocytic phenotypes, with NETosis being absent in these patients. In contrast, COPD B (n=29, with eosinophilic or mixed phenotypes, showed EETosis and incipient NETosis. COPD C (n=18 and COPD D groups (n=13 were differentiated from low exacerbation rate-COPD group by the abundant cellular debris, with COPD C group having an eosinophilic pattern and numerous cells undergoing EETosis. A hallmark of this group was the abundant released membranes that often appeared phagocytosed by neutrophils, which coincidentally exhibited

  15. Eosinophilic Panniculitis with Full Response to Dapsone Therapy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Aktaş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic panniculitis is characterized by a mixed type inflammatory cell infiltration, predominantly with eosinophils, in subcutaneous tissue. Gnathostomiasis (Larva migrans profondus, leucocytoclastic vasculitis and erythema nodosum are implicated as the most common etiologic causes. In this case report, we present an idiopathic eosinophilic panniculitis with full response to Dapsone therapy, which had not responded to corticosteroids, and literature data were reviewed.

  16. BLOOD EOSINOPHIL NUMBERS AND ACTIVITY DURING 24 HOURS - EFFECTS OF TREATMENT WITH BUDESONIDE AND BAMBUTEROL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEMPE, JB; TAMMELING, EP; KOETER, GH; HAKANSSON, L; VENGE, P; POSTMA, DS

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the inhaled corticosteroid budesonide and the oral long-acting beta-agonist bambuterol on circadian variation of blood eosinophil numbers, serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), serum eosinophil chemotactic activity (ECA), and serum neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA)

  17. Impact of vitamin D deficiency on increased blood eosinophil counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto Filho, João Tadeu Damian; de Andrade, Alícia Souza; Ribeiro, Felipe Mesquita; Alves, Paola de Araujo Sardenberg; Simonini, Virgínia Ribeiro Fernandes

    2018-03-01

    Vitamin D has been increasingly recognized as an immunomodulatory agent. Its deficiency has been associated with immune-mediated diseases such as asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. These allergic conditions are dependent on T-helper type 2 (Th2) cells secreting interleukins, overproduction of immunoglobulin E (IgE), and eosinophil activation. We investigated the association between serum vitamin D levels and blood absolute eosinophil count. We carried out a cross-sectional study of 669 men and women referred to a clinical pathology laboratory who underwent 25-hydroxyvitamin D testing and complete blood count analysis on the same day. Vitamin D levels were stratified into four ranges: severely deficient (p=.001). The difference was significant between the severe deficiency group and each of the other three groups (p=.012, p=.002, and p=.001, respectively). There was no statistical difference among the four groups in terms of total leukocyte counts (p=.151), neutrophils (p=.177), or lymphocytes (p=.582). Vitamin D deficiency was associated with higher blood eosinophil count. These results support the possible role of vitamin D in the eosinophil immune response. Copyright © 2017 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Case of Eosinophilic Pneumonia in a Tobacco Harvester

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    Daisuke Yoshioka

    2011-01-01

    Discussion: Green tobacco sickness, a type of nicotine poisoning caused by the dermal absorption of nicotine, is a well known occupational illness of tobacco harvesters. Although it is unclear whether the present case could be identified as a subtype of green tobacco sickness, this is the first report of eosinophilic pneumonia occurred in a tobacco harvester which was possibly induced by tobacco leaf exposure.

  19. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: Adjunctive therapy with inhaled steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Chan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP is a rare form of diffuse parenchymal lung disease first identified by Carrington et al. in 1969. It is characterized by the presence of constitutional and respiratory symptoms with associated peripheral opacities on imaging and elevated serum and/or bronchoalveolar eosinophilia. Although data is limited regarding etiology or prevalence, it is known that ICEP has a 2:1 female: male predominance and typically affects non-smokers. Diagnosis rests on the clinical constellation of respiratory symptoms of at least 2–4 weeks duration, the presence of diffuse pulmonary alveolar consolidation, classically described as the “photographic negative of pulmonary edema”, the presence of eosinophils ≥40% on bronchoalveolar lavage or ≥1000/mm3 eosinophils on peripheral blood and the exclusion of other known causes of eosinophilic lung diseases such as drugs, toxins, fungi, parasites, and collagen-vascular disorders. A dramatic response is achieved with systemic corticosteroids, which is typically dosed over 6 months to 1 year. Despite this response, approximately 30–50% of patients will relapse upon cessation of steroids or during the taper. Although these patients respond well to another trial of steroids, the side effects of long term steroids are well known, including osteoporosis, diabetes, hypertension and cataracts. Inhaled corticosteroids as monotherapy has been trialed in the past without success. However, we report a case of a patient who underwent treatment with systemic corticosteroids followed by inhaled steroids who has remained in remission for 2 years.

  20. Racial differences in eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders among Caucasian and Asian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ito

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: We found that EoE occurs more frequently in Caucasian EGID patients than Asian EGID patients, while the reverse is true for EGE. Also, racial disparities in symptoms and eosinophil-infiltrated tissues were observed. Our findings suggest further genetic and environmental studies to elucidate the etiology of EGID.

  1. Non-allergic activation of eosinophils after strenuous endurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. Non-allergic activation of eosinophils after strenuous endurance exercise. A J McKune (MMedSci)1. L L Smith (PhD)1 ..... sites).20. It was speculated that during strenuous exercise non-phagocytosable muscle/tissue fragments are liberated accounting, in analogy to the defence against ...

  2. [Acute abdomen caused by eosinophilic enteritis: six observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ubieto, Fernando; Bueno-Delgado, Alvaro; Jiménez-Bernadó, Teresa; Santero Ramírez, María Pilar; Arribas-Del Amo, Dolores; Martínez-Ubieto, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis is a rather rare condition characterized by infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract by eosinophils; as a casue of acute abdomen it is really exceptional. The etiology is unclear and its description in the literature is sparse, but associations have been made with collagen vascular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, food allergy and parasitic infections as it was confirmed in one of our pathologic studies. From 1997 to 2011 six cases of eosinophilic enteritis that involved a small bowel segment were diagnosed. A partial resection by an irreversible necrosis was necessary in three of them; in the other three only a biopsy was necessary due to the inflammatory aspect of the affected loop causing the acute abdomen. Eosinophilic enteritis can originate acute abdomen processes where an urgent surgical treatment is necessary. The intraoperative aspect can be from a segment of small bowel with inflammatory signs up to a completely irrecoverable loop, where removing of the affected segment is the correct treatment, which can be done laparoscopically.

  3. Eosinophilic granuloma in jaw bone: a pare pediatric case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Details: Herein, we report a case of eosinophilic granuloma in a ten years old boy involving posterior quadrants upper and lower jaws as a destructive lesion involving gingiva, periodontium and alveolar bone. Involvement of other bones is ruled out by nucleotide imaging study. Conclusion: EG should be considered ...

  4. Eosinophilic cellulitis - A case study and management with griseofulvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma P

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47 year old hypertensive and diabetic male patient suffering from eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells syndrome is being reported. The patient responded very well to oral griseofulvin at the time of first presentation and subsequent three recurrences in a period of three years.

  5. Non-allergic activation of eosinophils after strenuous endurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the effect of prolonged endurance exercise on the serum concentrations of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), immunoglobulin E (IgE) and upper respiratory tract symptoms (URTS). Design. In 11 healthy, experienced volunteers (6 males, 5 females, age 43 ± 9.8 years) the serum concentrations of ...

  6. Therapeutic concepts in adult and paediatric eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex; Schoepfer, Alain M

    2012-12-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) was first described in the early 1990s. Although initially reported to be a rare entity, EoE has rapidly become a regularly diagnosed disease with a prevalence of approximately 1 in 2,000 individuals in the USA and Europe. The disease is characterized by a combination of oesophageal dysfunction and predominant eosinophilic infiltration of the oesophageal tissue. At diagnosis, other diseases that can be associated with oesophageal eosinophilic infiltration must be ruled out. Children with EoE present with a wide variety of symptoms, whereas adults mostly present with dysphagia for solid food and chest pain. Histologic features of EoE resemble those of T-helper type 2 inflammation. Endoscopy should be carried out to establish the diagnosis, but endoscopic abnormalities are not pathognomonic for EoE and the examination might not show histologic abnormality. Treatment modalities for EoE include drugs (corticosteroids, PPIs, antiallergic and biologic agents), hypoallergenic diets and oesophageal dilatation for strictures that are unresponsive to medical therapy. Unresolved eosinophilic inflammation leads to the formation of oesophageal strictures, which probably increase the risk of food bolus impactions. To date, long-term strategies for the therapeutic management of this chronic inflammatory disease remain poorly defined.

  7. Eosinophilic enteritis – A diagnostic dilemma | Clegg-Lamptey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It may mimic peptic ulcer, subacute (or chronic) intestinal obstruction, gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. The diagnosis is often ... Finalement laparotomy a revele des segments enflames de petit intestin, une biopsie de qui a montré Eosinophilic enteritis. Le malade a été traite par la ...

  8. Pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis: radiologic findings with pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkovitz, Larry A.; Lorenz, Emily A.; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Kahwash, Samir

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized as a cause of dysphagia or food impaction in pediatric patients. It has a high male predominance and is often associated with a history of allergy or asthma. To correlate fluoroscopic findings in eosinophilic esophagitis with the endoscopic and histologic findings. We retrospectively reviewed the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) findings of eosinophilic esophagitis and correlated them with the clinical, endoscopic and histologic findings in a series of 17 children (12 boys, 5 girls). UGI findings were normal in 12 children, including 4 who had a normal UGI exam after endoscopic disimpaction for an obstructing food bolus. Five children had strictures identified on UGI: one was demonstrated with endoscopy. This suggests that the impactions and strictures were due to an esophageal dysmotility rather than a fixed anatomic abnormality. Because the UGI findings are frequently normal in eosinophilic esophagitis, radiologists need to have a high index of suspicion for this disease. In children with a strong clinical history, especially impaction in the absence of an esophageal stricture, endoscopy and biopsy are indicated for further evaluation. (orig.)

  9. Neutrophil Inhibitory Factor Selectively Inhibits the Endothelium-Driven Transmigration of Eosinophils In Vitro and Airway Eosinophilia in OVA-Induced Allergic Lung Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Schnyder-Candrian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte adhesion molecules are involved in cell recruitment in an allergic airway response and therefore provide a target for pharmaceutical intervention. Neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF, derived from canine hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum, binds selectively and competes with the A-domain of CD11b for binding to ICAM-1. The effect of recombinant NIF was investigated. Intranasal administration of rNIF reduced pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia, and Th2 cytokine production in OVA-sensitized mice. In vitro, transendothelial migration of human blood eosinophils across IL-4-activated umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC monolayers was inhibited by rNIF (IC50: 4.6±2.6 nM; mean ± SEM, but not across TNF or IL-1-activated HUVEC monolayers. Treatment of eosinophils with rNIF together with mAb 60.1 directed against CD11b or mAb 107 directed against the metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS of the CD11b A-domain resulted in no further inhibition of transendothelial migration suggesting shared functional epitopes. In contrast, rNIF increased the inhibitory effect of blocking mAbs against CD18, CD11a, and VLA-4. Together, we show that rNIF, a selective antagonist of the A-domain of CD11b, has a prominent inhibitory effect on eosinophil transendothelial migration in vitro, which is congruent to the in vivo inhibition of OVA-induced allergic lung inflammation.

  10. Eosinophils are important for protection, immunoregulation and pathology during infection with nematode microfilariae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma T Cadman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophil responses typify both allergic and parasitic helminth disease. In helminthic disease, the role of eosinophils can be both protective in immune responses and destructive in pathological responses. To investigate whether eosinophils are involved in both protection and pathology during filarial nematode infection, we explored the role of eosinophils and their granule proteins, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO and major basic protein-1 (MBP-1, during infection with Brugia malayi microfilariae. Using eosinophil-deficient mice (PHIL, we further clarify the role of eosinophils in clearance of microfilariae during primary, but not challenge infection in vivo. Deletion of EPO or MBP-1 alone was insufficient to abrogate parasite clearance suggesting that either these molecules are redundant or eosinophils act indirectly in parasite clearance via augmentation of other protective responses. Absence of eosinophils increased mast cell recruitment, but not other cell types, into the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid during challenge infection. In addition absence of eosinophils or EPO alone, augmented parasite-induced IgE responses, as measured by ELISA, demonstrating that eosinophils are involved in regulation of IgE. Whole body plethysmography indicated that nematode-induced changes in airway physiology were reduced in challenge infection in the absence of eosinophils and also during primary infection in the absence of EPO alone. However lack of eosinophils or MBP-1 actually increased goblet cell mucus production. We did not find any major differences in cytokine responses in the absence of eosinophils, EPO or MBP-1. These results reveal that eosinophils actively participate in regulation of IgE and goblet cell mucus production via granule secretion during nematode-induced pathology and highlight their importance both as effector cells, as damage-inducing cells and as supervisory cells that shape both innate and adaptive immunity.

  11. Atorvastatin prevents age-related and amyloid-β-induced microglial activation by blocking interferon-γ release from natural killer cells in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Rachael

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglial function is modulated by several factors reflecting the numerous receptors expressed on the cell surface, however endogenous factors which contribute to the age-related increase in microglial activation remain largely unknown. One possible factor which may contribute is interferon-γ (IFNγ. IFNγ has been shown to increase in the aged brain and potently activates microglia, although its endogenous cell source in the brain remains unidentified. Methods Male Wistar rats were used to assess the effect of age and amyloid-β (Aβ on NK cell infiltration into the brain. The effect of the anti-inflammatory compound, atorvastatin was also assessed under these conditions. We measured cytokine and chemokine (IFNγ, IL-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and IFNγ-induced protein 10 kDa (IP-10, expression in the brain by appropriate methods. We also looked at NK cell markers, CD161, NKp30 and NKp46 using flow cytometry and western blot. Results Natural killer (NK cells are a major source of IFNγ in the periphery and here we report the presence of CD161+ NKp30+ cells and expression of CD161 and NKp46 in the brain of aged and Aβ-treated rats. Furthermore, we demonstrate that isolated CD161+ cells respond to interleukin-2 (IL-2 by releasing IFNγ. Atorvastatin, the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, attenuates the increase in CD161 and NKp46 observed in hippocampus of aged and Aβ-treated rats. This was paralleled by a decrease in IFNγ, markers of microglial activation and the chemokines, MCP-1 and IP-10 which are chemotactic for NK cells. Conclusions We propose that NK cells contribute to the age-related and Aβ-induced neuroinflammatory changes and demonstrate that these changes can be modulated by atorvastatin treatment.

  12. Atorvastatin prevents age-related and amyloid-beta-induced microglial activation by blocking interferon-gamma release from natural killer cells in the brain

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyons, Anthony

    2011-03-31

    Abstract Background Microglial function is modulated by several factors reflecting the numerous receptors expressed on the cell surface, however endogenous factors which contribute to the age-related increase in microglial activation remain largely unknown. One possible factor which may contribute is interferon-γ (IFNγ). IFNγ has been shown to increase in the aged brain and potently activates microglia, although its endogenous cell source in the brain remains unidentified. Methods Male Wistar rats were used to assess the effect of age and amyloid-β (Aβ) on NK cell infiltration into the brain. The effect of the anti-inflammatory compound, atorvastatin was also assessed under these conditions. We measured cytokine and chemokine (IFNγ, IL-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IFNγ-induced protein 10 kDa (IP-10)), expression in the brain by appropriate methods. We also looked at NK cell markers, CD161, NKp30 and NKp46 using flow cytometry and western blot. Results Natural killer (NK) cells are a major source of IFNγ in the periphery and here we report the presence of CD161+ NKp30+ cells and expression of CD161 and NKp46 in the brain of aged and Aβ-treated rats. Furthermore, we demonstrate that isolated CD161+ cells respond to interleukin-2 (IL-2) by releasing IFNγ. Atorvastatin, the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, attenuates the increase in CD161 and NKp46 observed in hippocampus of aged and Aβ-treated rats. This was paralleled by a decrease in IFNγ, markers of microglial activation and the chemokines, MCP-1 and IP-10 which are chemotactic for NK cells. Conclusions We propose that NK cells contribute to the age-related and Aβ-induced neuroinflammatory changes and demonstrate that these changes can be modulated by atorvastatin treatment.

  13. Current and emerging treatment options for pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elitsur Y

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Yoram ElitsurDepartment of Pediatrics, Gastroenterology Division, Marshall University, John C Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington, WV, USAAbstract: Eosinophilic esophagitis is a new clinicopathologic disorder and has been recognized as a chronic disease in children and adults. The disease is associated with environmental and food allergies, but the exact pathophysiology has not yet been discovered. Epidemiological studies showed a global distribution of the disease and an uneven geographic distribution within the United States where the northeastern states had a higher rate of prevalence compared to the western states. Studies have shown that there are multiple confounding factors that affect the phenotypic characteristics of the disease which may include place of residence (rural versus urban, ethnicity, race, and genetics, among others. Clinical presentation may be different between adult and pediatric patients, but the endoscopic and histological characteristics of the disease are very similar between those groups. The pathophysiology of the disease has not yet been established, but the mucosal immune system, especially the pathway involving the eosinophil lineage, has been suggested as taking a major role in the pathophysiology. Accordingly, the suggested therapeutic options for this disease include elimination diets, steroids, and anti-eosinophil medications. Unfortunately, those treatment options are limited by their efficacy and the side effects associated with their chronic use. In the current review, we describe the characteristics of eosinophilic esophagitis and present the available treatments and their pitfalls. We also speculate on the future development of new treatment for this chronic disease.Keywords: eosinophilic esophagitis, treatment, children, review

  14. A Pilot Study of Omalizumab in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizou, Denise; Enav, Benjamin; Komlodi-Pasztor, Edina; Hider, Pamela; Kim-Chang, Julie; Noonan, Laura; Taber, Tabitha; Kaushal, Suhasini; Limgala, Renuka; Brown, Margaret; Gupta, Raavi; Balba, Nader; Goker-Alpan, Ozlem; Khojah, Amer; Alpan, Oral

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are an emerging subset of immune pathologies within the spectrum of allergic inflammation. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE), once considered a rare disease, is increasing in incidence, with a rate of over 1 in 10,000 in the US, for unknown reasons. The clinical management of EoE is challenging, thus there is an urgent need for understanding the etiology and pathophysiology of this eosinophilic disease to develop better therapeutic approaches. In this open label, single arm, unblinded study, we evaluated the effects of an anti-IgE treatment, omalizumab, on local inflammation in the esophagus and clinical correlates in patients with EoE. Omalizumab was administered for 12 weeks to 15 subjects with long standing EoE. There were no serious side effects from the treatment. Esophageal tissue inflammation was assessed both before and after therapy. After 3 months on omalizumab, although tissue Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were significantly reduced in all but two of the subjects, we found that full remission of EoE, which is defined as histologic and clinical improvement only in 33% of the patients. The decrease in tryptase-positive cells and eosinophils correlated significantly with the clinical outcome as measured by improvement in endoscopy and symptom scores, respectively. Omalizumab-induced remission of EoE was limited to subjects with low peripheral blood absolute eosinophil counts. These findings demonstrate that in a subset of EoE patients, IgE plays a role in the pathophysiology of the disease and that anti-IgE therapy with omalizumab may result in disease remission. Since this study is open label there is the potential for bias, hence the need for a larger double blind placebo controlled study. The data presented in this pilot study provides a foundation for proper patient selection to maximize clinical efficacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01040598 PMID:25789989

  15. A pilot study of omalizumab in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Loizou

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are an emerging subset of immune pathologies within the spectrum of allergic inflammation. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE, once considered a rare disease, is increasing in incidence, with a rate of over 1 in 10,000 in the US, for unknown reasons. The clinical management of EoE is challenging, thus there is an urgent need for understanding the etiology and pathophysiology of this eosinophilic disease to develop better therapeutic approaches. In this open label, single arm, unblinded study, we evaluated the effects of an anti-IgE treatment, omalizumab, on local inflammation in the esophagus and clinical correlates in patients with EoE. Omalizumab was administered for 12 weeks to 15 subjects with long standing EoE. There were no serious side effects from the treatment. Esophageal tissue inflammation was assessed both before and after therapy. After 3 months on omalizumab, although tissue Immunoglobulin E (IgE levels were significantly reduced in all but two of the subjects, we found that full remission of EoE, which is defined as histologic and clinical improvement only in 33% of the patients. The decrease in tryptase-positive cells and eosinophils correlated significantly with the clinical outcome as measured by improvement in endoscopy and symptom scores, respectively. Omalizumab-induced remission of EoE was limited to subjects with low peripheral blood absolute eosinophil counts. These findings demonstrate that in a subset of EoE patients, IgE plays a role in the pathophysiology of the disease and that anti-IgE therapy with omalizumab may result in disease remission. Since this study is open label there is the potential for bias, hence the need for a larger double blind placebo controlled study. The data presented in this pilot study provides a foundation for proper patient selection to maximize clinical efficacy.

  16. Case series of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameswaran K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (EM is a rare type of meningoencephalitis. The objective of this report is to describe a series of EM identified in a specific geographic area over a short period of time. Materials and Methods: This series of cases are described from a neurological center in Central Kerala occuring in the period between February 2004 and June 2006. Results: During this period we had identified ten patients (eight males and two females with EM. Their mean age was 37.1 years (range 15-60 years. Main symptomatologies were fever, severe headache, body pain, abdominal pain and arthralgia. One patient was in akinetic rigid state with coma. All patients had peripheral eosinophilia. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of all patients showed eosinophilic pleocytosis. The mean CSF white cell count was 588 cells. CSF differential count showed 50-70% eosinophils. CSF glucose levels were normal but proteins were markedly raised (mean CSF protein was 180 mg/dl. MRI brain showed T2 hyperintensities diffusely in periventricular white matter in the comatose patient. Contrast enhanced CT scan of the brain was normal in others. All eight male patients gave history of eating "raw flesh of Monitor Lizard" (Iguana some three to fourteen days prior to the onset of symptoms. There was no such history for the female patients. Considering the history of exposure and eosinophilic meningitis we suspected a meningoencephalitis with Angiostrongylus cantonensis and treated them with albendazole, steroid and other supportive measures. All of them recovered. Conclusion: Eosinophilic meningitis (EM is a rare condition and in this locality, a CNS infection with Agiostrongylus cantonensis is highly likely. AC is a parasite in monitor lizard. Human infection occurs from consumption of uncooked flesh or blood of infected lizards. Physicians need to maintain a high index of suspicion and enquire for any exposure to uncooked meat or blood of monitor lizard when faced with EM

  17. Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorder in Coeliac Disease: A Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis N. F. Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder is a rare disorder characterised by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. There are various gastrointestinal manifestations with eosinophilic ascites being the most unusual and rare presentation. Diagnosis requires high index of suspicion and exclusion of various disorders associated with peripheral eosinophilia. There are no previous case reports to suggest an association between eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder and coeliac disease in adults. We report a case of eosinophilic ascites and gastroenteritis in a 30-year-old woman with a known history of coeliac disease who responded dramatically to a course of steroids.

  18. Eosinophilic esophagitis: an Italian experience Esofagitis eosinofílica: una experiencia italiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vindigni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: eosinophilic esophagitis is an esophageal disorder characterized by esophageal and/or upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms, and by dense esophageal eosinophilia associated with a normal gastric and duodenal mucosa. Prevalently reported in children, eosinophilic esophagitis has recently been reported with increased frequency also in adults. Aims: the purpose of this study was to report our experience with eosinophilic esophagitis in Italy, since there are only very few series of such patients in our country. Patients and methods: we retrospectively reviewed the histological data of consecutive patients with a diagnosis of esophagitis or reflux disease in the period September 2004-September 2008. Eosinophils were counted where they appeared most numerous in the biopsy, with a cutoff > 15 eosinophils in more than one high-power field as diagnostic of eosinophilic esophagitis. Patients were excluded if gastric or duodenal biopsies showed a prominent eosinophilic infiltrate. Results: twenty two patients (14 adults, 8 children, age range 2-59 years were identified according to the above criteria. The average eosinophil count was 86/ high-power field (range 31-150, associated with other pathologic features (eosinophilic microabscesses eosinophil degranulation, basal zone hyperplasia, papillary elongation. The main clinical complaints were dysphagia, food impaction, and heartburn, and endoscopic findings consisted of mucosal thickening and inelasticity, longitudinal shearing, rings, and white specks, without difference between adults and children for both clinical and endoscopic variables. Conclusions: eosinophilic esophagitis is not rare in Italy, and displays clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic features similar to those described in other countries.

  19. Triple role of platelet-activating factor in eosinophil migration across monolayers of lung epithelial cells: eosinophil chemoattractant and priming agent and epithelial cell activator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Zuurbier, A. E.; Mul, F. P.; Verhoeven, A. J.; Lutter, R.; Knol, E. F.; Roos, D.

    1998-01-01

    Infiltration of eosinophils into the lung lumen is a hallmark of allergic asthmatic inflammation. To reach the lung lumen, eosinophils must migrate across the vascular endothelium, through the interstitial matrix, and across the lung epithelium. The regulation of this process is obscure. In this

  20. Eosinophilic cholecystitis with common bile duct stricture: a rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanna, Daniel; Naseem, Zainab; Mustaev, Muslim

    2016-05-24

    Although the most common cause of cholecystitis is gallstones, other conditions may present as acute cholecystitis. We describe a case of eosinophilic cholecystitis with common bile duct stricture. A 36-year-old woman initially had generalised abdominal pain and peripheral eosinophilia. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed eosinophilic ascites and necrotic nodules on the posterior abdominal wall. She was treated with anthelminthics on presumption of toxacara infection based on borderline positivity of serological tests. She later presented with acute cholecystitis and had a cholecystectomy and choledocotomy. Day 9 T-tube cholangiogram showed irregular narrowing of the distal common bile duct. The patient's symptoms were improved with steroids and the T-tube was subsequently removed. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Eosinophilic Otitis Media: CT and MRI Findings and Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Won Jung; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Yoon, Tae Hyun; Cho, Kyung Ja; Baek, Jung Hwan [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a relatively rare, intractable, middle ear disease with extremely viscous mucoid effusion containing eosinophils. EOM is associated with adult bronchial asthma and nasal allergies. Conventional treatments for otitis media with effusion (OME) or for chronic otitis media (COM), like tympanoplasty or mastoidectomy, when performed for the treatment of EOM, can induce severe complications such as deafness. Therefore, it should be differentiated from the usual type of OME or COM. To our knowledge, the clinical and imaging findings of EOM of temporal bone are not well-known to radiologists. We report here the CT and MRI findings of two EOM cases and review the clinical and histopathologic findings of this recently described disease entity.

  2. Eosinophilic Enteritis with Ascites in a Patient with Overlap Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Aslanidis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal involvement is frequent in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis, however, has only rarely been described in rheumatological conditions, despite its reported connection to autoimmune diseases, such as hypereosinophilic syndrome, vasculitides, and systemic mastoidosis. It presents typically with abdominal pain and diarrhea and is only exceptionally associated with ascites. Diagnosis can be problematic, as several other clinical conditions (malignancies, infection/tuberculosis, and inflammatory bowel diseases have to be ruled out. It is basically a nonsurgical disease, with excellent recovery on conservative treatment. We report the rare case of a young woman with overlap syndrome who presented with abdominal pain and ascites. The diagnosis of eosinophilic enteritis was made based on clinical, radiological, and laboratory criteria. The patient was treated with corticosteroids with excellent response.

  3. Induction of Eosinophilic Esophagitis by Sublingual Pollen Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Miehlke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT is increasingly investigated and utilized for the treatment of food and pollen allergies. Previous case reports suggested that eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE might develop as a long-term complication in children after completion of oral immunotherapy. Here, we describe a 44-year-old female with a medical history of pollinosis who for the first time in her life developed complete manifestation of EoE (peak eosinophils 164/high power field 4 weeks after initiation of SLIT using specific soluble allergens (hazelnut, birch, alder according to previous specific serum IgE testing. After discontinuation of SLIT, EoE resolved completely within 4 weeks without any other medical intervention. During a follow-up of 12 months the patient remained free of any esophageal symptoms. This is the first case report demonstrating a close and therefore likely causative association between pollen SLIT and EoE in an adult patient.

  4. Induction of eosinophilic esophagitis by sublingual pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miehlke, Stephan; Alpan, Oral; Schröder, Sören; Straumann, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is increasingly investigated and utilized for the treatment of food and pollen allergies. Previous case reports suggested that eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) might develop as a long-term complication in children after completion of oral immunotherapy. Here, we describe a 44-year-old female with a medical history of pollinosis who for the first time in her life developed complete manifestation of EoE (peak eosinophils 164/high power field) 4 weeks after initiation of SLIT using specific soluble allergens (hazelnut, birch, alder) according to previous specific serum IgE testing. After discontinuation of SLIT, EoE resolved completely within 4 weeks without any other medical intervention. During a follow-up of 12 months the patient remained free of any esophageal symptoms. This is the first case report demonstrating a close and therefore likely causative association between pollen SLIT and EoE in an adult patient.

  5. Clinical evaluation of the adult who has eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex

    2009-02-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a rapidly increasing, chronic, T helper 2-type inflammatory disease of the esophagus characterized by esophagus related symptoms and a dense esophageal eosinophilia, both of which are refractory to proton pump inhibitors. The adult patient presents with a typical history of dysphagia for solids and has often experienced food impactions. However the general appearance shows an apparently healthy individual; the physical examination is usually unremarkable. The endoscopic findings are often subtle and misleading. The diagnosis is therefore based on the histologic finding of a dense eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal mucosa. In adult patients, topical and systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, immunomodulators, and dilation have proven efficacy, whereas therapy with diet is still under evaluation.

  6. Connexin 43 Expression on Peripheral Blood Eosinophils: Role of Gap Junctions in Transendothelial Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harissios Vliagoftis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils circulate in the blood and are recruited in tissues during allergic inflammation. Gap junctions mediate direct communication between adjacent cells and may represent a new way of communication between immune cells distinct from communication through cytokines and chemokines. We characterized the expression of connexin (Cx43 by eosinophils isolated from atopic individuals using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and confocal microscopy and studied the biological functions of gap junctions on eosinophils. The formation of functional gap junctions was evaluated measuring dye transfer using flow cytometry. The role of gap junctions on eosinophil transendothelial migration was studied using the inhibitor 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid. Peripheral blood eosinophils express Cx43 mRNA and protein. Cx43 is localized not only in the cytoplasm but also on the plasma membrane. The membrane impermeable dye BCECF transferred from eosinophils to epithelial or endothelial cells following coculture in a dose and time dependent fashion. The gap junction inhibitors 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid and octanol did not have a significant effect on dye transfer but reduced dye exit from eosinophils. The gap junction inhibitor 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid inhibited eosinophil transendothelial migration in a dose dependent manner. Thus, eosinophils from atopic individuals express Cx43 constitutively and Cx43 may play an important role in eosinophil transendothelial migration and function in sites of inflammation.

  7. Genes Associated with Food Allergy and Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    eosinophilic inflammation, but also mast cells, and remodeling. In this regard current therapeutic options include elemental diet which eliminates...symptoms and underscores the food dependence of EoE [15]. However, difficultieswith diet adherence result in this not readily being acceptable as a long...provides insight into disease pathogenesis and treatment strategies. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2011;128:23–32. [15] Liacouras CA, Furuta GT, Hirano I, Atkins

  8. Eosinophilic Meningitis Due to Infection With Paragonimus kellicotti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Nathan C; Trotman, Robin L; Samman, Hala; Jung, Richard S; Rosterman, Lee R; Weil, Gary J; Hinthorn, Daniel R

    2017-05-01

    Paragonimus kellicotti is an emerging pathogen in the United States with 19 previously reported cases, most in Missouri. Pulmonary symptoms with eosinophilia are most common, though 1 case did involve the central nervous system with few symptoms. We describe the first 2 cases of eosinophilic meningitis due to Paragonimus kellicotti. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Reliability of histologic assessment in patients with eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warners, M J; Ambarus, C A; Bredenoord, A J; Verheij, J; Lauwers, G Y; Walsh, J C; Katzka, D A; Nelson, S; van Viegen, T; Furuta, G T; Gupta, S K; Stitt, L; Zou, G; Parker, C E; Shackelton, L M; D Haens, G R; Sandborn, W J; Dellon, E S; Feagan, B G; Collins, M H; Jairath, V; Pai, R K

    2018-04-01

    The validity of the eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) histologic scoring system (EoEHSS) has been demonstrated, but only preliminary reliability data exist. Formally assess the reliability of the EoEHSS and additional histologic features. Four expert gastrointestinal pathologists independently reviewed slides from adult patients with EoE (N = 45) twice, in random order, using standardised training materials and scoring conventions for the EoEHSS and additional histologic features agreed upon during a modified Delphi process. Intra- and inter-rater reliability for scoring the EoEHSS, a visual analogue scale (VAS) of overall histopathologic disease severity, and additional histologic features were assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Almost perfect intra-rater reliability was observed for the composite EoEHSS scores and the VAS. Inter-rater reliability was also almost perfect for the composite EoEHSS scores and substantial for the VAS. Of the EoEHSS items, eosinophilic inflammation was associated with the highest ICC estimates and consistent with almost perfect intra- and inter-rater reliability. With the exception of dyskeratotic epithelial cells and surface epithelial alteration, ICC estimates for the remaining EoEHSS items were above the benchmarks for substantial intra-rater, and moderate inter-rater reliability. Estimation of peak eosinophil count and number of lamina propria eosinophils were associated with the highest ICC estimates among the exploratory items. The composite EoEHSS and most component items are associated with substantial reliability when assessed by central pathologists. Future studies should assess responsiveness of the score to change after a therapeutic intervention to facilitate its use in clinical trials. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Chronic Cough and Eosinophilic Esophagitis: An Uncommon Association

    OpenAIRE

    Orizio, Paolo; Cinquini, Massimo; Minetti, Stefano; Alberti, Daniele; Paolo, Camilla Di; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Torri, Fabio; Crispino, Paola; Facchetti, Susanna; Rizzini, Fabio Lodi; Bassotti, Gabrio; Tosoni, Cinzia

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of children, usually with gastrointestinal symptoms, is diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis (EE), and a particular subset of these patients complains of airway manifestations. We present the case of a 2-year-old child with chronic dry cough in whom EE was found after a first diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) due to pathological 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Traditional allergologic tests were negative, while patch tests were diagnostic for cow’s ...

  11. Eosinophilic endomyocardial disease due to high grade chest wall sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, A.; Brown, P. J.; Thwaites, B. C.; Hastings, A. G.

    1994-01-01

    Eosinophilic endomyocardial disease is characterised by persisting blood eosinophilia and acute endocardial lesions which progress to endomyocardial fibrosis. In most cases the cause is unknown but it has been described in association with malignant tumours. A fatal case is presented of a 64 year old woman with this disease due to a high grade sarcoma of the chest wall, an association not previously reported. Images PMID:7974303

  12. Dietary Therapy for Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Elimination and Reintroduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Kara L; Cassin, Alison M; Venter, Carina

    2017-12-14

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a food antigen-mediated disorder of the esophagus characterized by eosinophil predominant inflammation and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Dietary antigen elimination induces clinical and histological remission in patients with EoE. The most restrictive of elimination diets (the elemental diet) removes all possible food antigens while empiric elimination diets remove all (or a subset) of food antigens most commonly reported to cause esophageal eosinophilia and food allergies (milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, or legumes). Elimination diets are effective treatments for EoE but pose psychosocial and financial challenges to patients and consequently may impair quality of life. Foods that are commonly eliminated, especially milk, are also nutrient-dense and therefore their elimination may result in inadequate nutrient intake or deficiencies without careful diet planning to include nutritionally comparable and safe food substitutes. After remission is achieved with elimination diets, foods can be reintroduced sequentially to identify specific food triggers, but this reintroduction is not standardized. Food elimination and food reintroductions should consider the patient's lifestyle, nutrition needs, and skills and ideally be managed by a team with knowledge of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders and nutrition.

  13. Titanium Dioxide Exposure Induces Acute Eosinophilic Lung Inflammation in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOI, Gil Soon; OAK, Chulho; CHUN, Bong-Kwon; WILSON, Donald; JANG, Tae Won; KIM, Hee-Kyoo; JUNG, Mannhong; TUTKUN, Engin; PARK, Eun-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is increasingly widely used in industrial, commercial and home products. TiO2 aggravates respiratory symptoms by induction of pulmonary inflammation although the mechanisms have not been well investigated. We aimed to investigate lung inflammation in rabbits after intratracheal instillation of P25 TiO2. One ml of 10, 50 and 250 µg of P25 TiO2 was instilled into one of the lungs of rabbits, chest computed-tomography was performed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected before, at 1 and 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Changes in inflammatory cells in the BAL fluids were measured. Lung pathological assay was also carried out at 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Ground glass opacities were noted in both lungs 1 h after P25 TiO2 and saline (control) instillation. Although the control lung showed complete resolution at 24 h, the lung exposed to P25 TiO2 showed persistent ground glass opacities at 24 h. The eosinophil counts in BAL fluid were significantly increased after P25 TiO2 exposure. P25 TiO2 induced a dose dependent increase of eosinophils in BAL fluid but no significant differences in neutrophil and lymphocyte cell counts were detected. The present findings suggest that P25 TiO2 induces lung inflammation in rabbits which is associated with eosinophilic inflammation. PMID:24705802

  14. Oral and Sublingual Immunotherapy: Potential Causes for Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Delara; Mesdaghi, Mehrnaz; Nishino, Makoto; Mansouri, Mahboubeh; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2017-01-01

    Food allergy is a common health problem worldwide, with increasing prevalence during recent decades. The only approved treatments for food allergy are food avoidance and administration of emergency medications in case of accidental exposure, which negatively affects patients' quality of life, so new treatments are highly desirable. Different food immunotherapy modalities have recently been used, with variable success rates in the induction of desensitization and tolerance, and different numbers and types of adverse reactions. Adverse reactions, especially intolerable gastrointestinal symptoms, are the most important causes of immunotherapy withdrawal. Eosinophilic esophagitis has been reported as a complication of milk, egg, and peanut oral immunotherapies and sublingual immunotherapy for respiratory allergies, but not for food allergies. Eosinophilic gastritis and eosinophilic colitis also rarely happened following egg and milk oral immunotherapies. The patients undergoing oral and sublingual immunotherapies should be closely followed up for a long time, and those with gastrointestinal symptoms should be evaluated by endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract. These complications are usually reversible after early diagnosis and stopping the immunotherapy protocol. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Elimination diets in the management of eosinophilic esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wechsler JB

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Joshua B Wechsler, Sally Schwartz, Katie Amsden, Amir F Kagalwalla Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Eosinophilic esophagitis, an increasingly recognized chronic inflammatory disorder isolated to the esophagus, is triggered by an abnormal allergic response to dietary antigens. Current treatment includes swallowed topical steroids and dietary modification, which aim to resolve symptoms and prevent long-term complications such as formation of strictures. The dietary approach has become more widely accepted because long-term steroid therapy is associated with potential risks. Dietary treatment includes elemental and elimination diets. An exclusive elemental diet, which requires replacement of all intact protein with amino acid-based formula, offers the best response of all available therapies, with remission in up to 96% of subjects proving it to be superior to all other available therapies including topical steroids. However, compliance with this approach is challenging because of poor taste and monotony. The high cost of formula and the associated psychosocial problems are additional drawbacks of this approach. Empiric and allergy test-directed elimination diets have gained popularity given that elimination of a limited number of foods is much easier and as such is more readily acceptable. There is a growing body of literature supporting this type of therapy in both children and adults. This paper reviews the evidence for all types of dietary therapy in eosinophilic esophagitis. Keywords: eosinophilic esophagitis, dietary therapy, empiric elimination, elemental, allergy test-directed

  16. Association of the blood eosinophil count with hematological malignancies and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christen Bertel L; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Hasselbalch, Hans K

    2015-01-01

    Blood eosinophilia (≥0.5 × 109/l) may be an early sign of hematological malignancy. We investigated associations between levels of blood eosinophils and risks of hematological malignancies and mortality in order to provide clinically derived cut-offs for referral to specialist hematology care. From...... to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for the 4-year incidences of hematological malignancies and mortality between the eosinophil counts and a reference count of 0.16 × 109/l which was the median eosinophil count in our data. Risks of hematological malignancies and mortality increased above the median eosinophil...... count. At the 99th percentile, corresponding to an eosinophil count of 0.75 × 109/l, risks of hematological malignancies were increased more than twofold with OR (95% C.I.) of 2.39 (1.91–2.99). Interestingly, risks reached a plateau around an eosinophil count of 1.0 × 109/l. Risks also increased when...

  17. Variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins in atopic dermatitis patients from Germany

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    Epplen Jörg T

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atopic dermatitis (AD is believed to result from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. A main feature of AD as well as other allergic disorders is serum and tissue eosinophilia. Human eosinophils contain high amounts of cationic granule proteins, including eosinophil cationic protein (ECP, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO and major basic protein (MBP. Recently, variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders. We therefore genotyped selected single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ECP, EDN, EPO and MBP genes in a cohort of 361 German AD patients and 325 healthy controls. Results Genotype and allele frequencies did not differ between patients and controls for all polymorphisms investigated in this study. Haplotype analysis did not reveal any additional information. Conclusion We did not find evidence to support an influence of variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins for AD pathogenesis in this German cohort.

  18. Point-of-care blood eosinophil count in a severe asthma clinic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffler, Enrico; Terranova, Giovanni; Chessari, Carlo; Frazzetto, Valentina; Crimi, Claudia; Fichera, Silvia; Picardi, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Giuliana; Porto, Morena; Intravaia, Rossella; Crimi, Nunzio

    2017-07-01

    One of the main severe asthma phenotypes is severe eosinophilic or eosinophilic refractory asthma for which novel biologic agents are emerging as therapeutic options. In this context, blood eosinophil counts are one of the most reliable biomarkers. To evaluate the performance of a point-of-care peripheral blood counter in a patients with severe asthma. The blood eosinophil counts of 76 patients with severe asthma were evaluated by point-of-care and standard analyzers. A significant correlation between blood eosinophils assessed by the 2 devices was found (R 2  = 0.854, P asthma and the ELEN index, a composite score useful to predict sputum eosinophilia. The results of our study contribute to the validation of a point-of-care device to assess blood eosinophils and open the possibility of using this device for the management of severe asthma management. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Eritema anular eosinofílico en un adulto Eosinophilic anular erythema in an adult

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo, Marta Aguado; Gonzalo, Elena Sierra; Jiménez-Reyes, José

    2017-01-01

    Eosinophilic annular erythema (EAE) is an uncommon eosinophilic dermatosis. Clinically it is characterized by recurrent episodes of annular or figurative plaques. The histopathological study shows a perivascular inflammatory infiltrate in the superficial and deep dermis, composed of lymphocytes and eosinophils. It was originally described in children. We report an adult woman who presented with recurrent erythematous annular plaques on the trunk and extremities. A biopsy showed a mainly periv...

  20. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin: a novel biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chang-Keun

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is associated with increased levels of eosinophils in tissues, body fluids, and bone marrow. Elevated levels of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) have been noted in asthma patients. Higher levels of EDN and ECP are also associated with exacerbated asthmatic conditions. Thus, EDN, along with ECP, may aid the diagnosis and monitoring of asthma. Several groups have suggested that EDN is more useful than ECP in evaluating disease severity. This may p...

  1. Differential effects of corticosteroids and theophylline on the adhesive interaction between eosinophils and endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Nagata

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids and theophylline have been used widely for the treatment of asthma. These two classes of drugs appear to reduce the tissue infiltration of eosinophils, predominant inflammatory cells in the airways of asthmatic patients. Corticosteroids inhibit the generation of both endothelial-activating Th2 cytokines (e.g. interleukin (IL-4/IL-13 and eosinophil growth factors (e.g. IL-5/granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and also attenuate the effects of eosinophil growth factors on the differentiation and prolonged survival of eosinophils. However, corticosteroids modulate directly neither eosinophil adhesiveness nor the expression of adhesion proteins on endothelial cells in vitro. Therefore, it is likely that the inhibitory effect of corticosteroids on the tissue infiltration of eosinophils is the consequence of indirect mechanisms, mainly via the inhibition of cytokines. Interestingly, theophylline, which is generally accepted as a bronchodilator, attenuates eosinophil adhesion to endothelial cells in vitro at a clinically therapeutic concentration. Furthermore, theophylline inhibits the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 on endothelial cells that had been stimulated with IL-4 plus tumor necrosis factor-a. Thus, theophylline possibly exerts an inhibitory effect on both the adhesive property of eosinophils and the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells. These findings possibly indicate that theophylline would be adequate to supplement the actions of corticosteroids in asthmatic airway inflammation, partly via its inhibitory effect on the interaction between blood eosinophils and endothelial cells.

  2. Excretory-secretory product of newly excysted metacercariae of Paragonimus westermani directly induces eosinophil apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Eosinophils are important effector cells in host defense against parasites. Excretory-secretory product (ESP) produced by helminthic worms plays important roles in the uptake of nutrients, migration in the host tissue, and in immune modulation. However, little is known about the ability of the ESP to directly trigger eosinophil apoptosis. This study investigated whether the ESP of newly excysted metacercariae of Paragonimus westermani could induce apoptosis in human eosinophils. Apoptosis was assayed by staining the cells with FITC-annexin V, and the cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. It was found that the ESP of newly excysted metacercariae of P. westermani induced a direct time- and concentration-dependent increase in the rate of constitutive apoptosis in mature human eosinophils. Eosinophil apoptosis was first apparent 3 hr after treatment with the ESP and continued to increase after 6 hr of incubation with respect to the cells cultured in the absence of the ESP. While only 2.8% of the eosinophils incubated in the medium for 3 hr were apoptotic, 7.6%, 10.9% and 22.6% of the eosinophils treated with 10, 30 and 100 µg/ml ESP were apoptotic, respectively. This result suggests that the ESP of newly excysted metacercariae of P. westermani directly induce eosinophil apoptosis, which may be important for the survival of the parasites and the reduction of eosinophilic inflammation in vivo. PMID:10743354

  3. Functional and phenotypic evaluation of eosinophils from patients with the acute form of paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Fernanda Gambogi; Ruas, Luciana Pereira; Pereira, Ricardo Mendes; Lima, Xinaida Taligare; Antunes, Edson; Mamoni, Ronei Luciano; Blotta, Maria Heloisa Souza Lima

    2017-05-01

    Eosinophilia is a typical finding of the acute/juvenile form of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. This clinical form is characterized by depressed cellular immune response and production of Th2 cytokines. Moreover, it has been shown that the increased number of eosinophils in peripheral blood of patients returns to normal values after antifungal treatment. However, the role of eosinophils in PCM has never been evaluated. This study aimed to assess the phenotypic and functional characteristics of eosinophils in PCM. In 15 patients with the acute form of the disease, we detected expression of MBP, CCL5 (RANTES) and CCL11 (eotaxin) in biopsies of lymph nodes and liver. In addition, there were higher levels of chemokines and granule proteins in the peripheral blood of patients compared to controls. Isolation of eosinophils from blood revealed a higher frequency of CD69+ and TLR2+ eosinophils in patients compared to controls, and a lower population of CD80+ cells. We also evaluated the fungicidal capacity of eosinophils in vitro. Our results revealed that eosinophils from PCM patients and controls exhibit similar ability to kill P. brasiliensis yeast cells, although eosinophils of patients were less responsive to IL-5 stimulation than controls. In conclusion, we suggest that eosinophils might play a role in the host response to fungi and in the pathophysiology of PCM by inducing an intense and systemic inflammatory response in the initial phase of the infection.

  4. EOSINOPHILIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND FOOD ALLERGY AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Shumilov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the structure of the inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract among children, one may single out a specific group of the chronic pathology of the digestive apparatus — eosinophilic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and gastroenterological manifestations of the food allergy. The food allergy is characterized by the pathologic immune reactivity among commonly genetically predisposed people. Depending on the peculiarities of the immune reactivity of a sick person and the nature of the allergen, the allergic reaction may evolve with primary involvement of the different mechanisms or th2 IgE-mediated, or Th1 non-igecmediated. Clinical picture of the food allergy is the manifestation of the immunoinflammatory process caused by the interaction of the food antigens with the structures of the lymphoid tissues associated with the mucous membranes of this or that target organ. The morphological basis of the clinical picture is mostly immune inflammation with primarily eosinophilic tissue infiltration. The eosinophilic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract include eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, eosinophilic enteritis, eosinophilic colitis, eosinophilic proctitis and other states. During the food allergy each of the clinical forms of the gastrointestinal tract lesion has its own peculiarities with regards to the primary development mechanism, age of manifestation, character of the run and behaviour tactics.Key words: eosinophilic inflammation, esophagitis, gastroenteritis, colitis, food allergy.

  5. Work in progress: radionuclide imaging of indium-111-labeled eosinophils in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, V.M.; Rand, T.H.; Clanton, J.A.; Jones, J.P.; Colley, D.G.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Eosinophils isolated from peritoneal exudates were labeled with indium-111-oxine and injected intravenously into sensitized mice. They became localized at sites of inflammation produced by intradermal injections of schistosomal antigen or Toxocara canis larvae, whereas labeled neutrophils did not. Intense uptake of eosinophils by normal spleen, liver, and bone marrow was noted, with tracer distribution effectively complete by 5 hours after injection. Indium-111-eosinophil studies appear to be quite sensitive to parasitic inflammatory reactions; in contrast, nonspecific inflammation such as that induced by turpentine causes localization of eosinophils, but to a lesser extent. This technique may be useful in the study of parasitic and allergic disease

  6. Work in progress: radionuclide imaging of indium-111-labeled eosinophils in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runge, V.M.; Rand, T.H.; Clanton, J.A.; Jones, J.P.; Colley, D.G.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Eosinophils isolated from peritoneal exudates were labeled with indium-111-oxine and injected intravenously into sensitized mice. They became localized at sites of inflammation produced by intradermal injections of schistosomal antigen or Toxocara canis larvae, whereas labeled neutrophils did not. Intense uptake of eosinophils by normal spleen, liver, and bone marrow was noted, with tracer distribution effectively complete by 5 hours after injection. Indium-111-eosinophil studies appear to be quite sensitive to parasitic inflammatory reactions; in contrast, nonspecific inflammation such as that induced by turpentine causes localization of eosinophils, but to a lesser extent. This technique may be useful in the study of parasitic and allergic disease.

  7. Pathogen induced chemo-attractant hepoxilin A3 drives neutrophils, but not eosinophils across epithelial barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala, S A; Patil, S U; Shreffler, W G; Hurley, B P

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen induced migration of neutrophils across mucosal epithelial barriers requires epithelial production of the chemotactic lipid mediator, hepoxilin A3 (HXA3). HXA3 is an eicosanoid derived from arachidonic acid. Although eosinophils are also capable of penetrating mucosal surfaces, eosinophilic infiltration occurs mainly during allergic processes whereas neutrophils dominate mucosal infection. Both neutrophils and eosinophils can respond to chemotactic gradients of certain eicosanoids, however, it is not known whether eosinophils respond to pathogen induced lipid mediators such as HXA3. In this study, neutrophils and eosinophils were isolated from human blood and placed on the basolateral side of polarized epithelial monolayers grown on permeable Transwell filters and challenged by various chemotactic gradients of distinct lipid mediators. We observed that both cell populations migrated across epithelial monolayers in response to a leukotriene B4 (LTB4) gradient, whereas only eosinophils migrated toward a prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) gradient. Interestingly, while pathogen induced neutrophil trans-epithelial migration was substantial, pathogen induced eosinophil trans-epithelial migration was not observed. Further, gradients of chemotactic lipids derived from pathogen infected epithelial cells known to be enriched for HXA3 as well as purified HXA3 drove significant numbers of neutrophils across epithelial barriers, whereas eosinophils failed to respond to these gradients. These data suggest that although the eicosanoid HXA3 serves as an important neutrophil chemo-attractant at mucosal surfaces during pathogenic infection, HXA3 does not appear to exhibit chemotactic activity toward eosinophils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of eosinophils activated with Alternaria on the production of extracellular matrix from nasal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung-Heon; Ye, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Sung-Yong; Kim, Yee-Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Eosinophils and fibroblasts are known to play major roles in the pathogenesis of nasal polyps. Fungi are commonly found in nasal secretion and are associated with airway inflammation. To investigate whether activated eosinophils by airborne fungi can influence the production of extracellular matrix (ECM) from nasal fibroblasts. Inferior turbinate and nasal polyp fibroblasts were stimulated with Alternaria or Aspergillus, respectively, for 24 hours and ECM messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions were measured. Eosinophils isolated from healthy volunteers were stimulated with Alternaria or Aspergillus for 4 hours then superoxide, eosinophil peroxidase, and transforming growth factor β1 were measured. Then activated eosinophils were cocultured with nasal fibroblasts for 24 hours, and ECM mRNA expressions were measured. Alternaria strongly enhanced ECM mRNA expression and protein production from nasal fibroblasts. Alternaria also induced the production of superoxide, eosinophil peroxidase, and transforming growth factor β1 from eosinophils, and activated eosinophils enhanced ECM mRNA expression when they were cocultured without the Transwell insert system. Eosinophils activated with Alternaria enhanced ECM mRNA expression from nasal polyp fibroblasts. Alternaria plays an important role in tissue fibrosis in the pathogenesis of nasal polyps by directly or indirectly influencing the production of ECM from nasal fibroblasts. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bronchoalveolar lavage and technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieske, T.R.; Sunderrajan, E.V.; Passamonte, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    A patient with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage, technetium-99m glucoheptonate, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 43 percent eosinophils and correlated well with results of transbronchial lung biopsy. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate lung imaging demonstrated intense parenchymal uptake. After eight weeks of corticosteroid therapy, the bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil population and the technetium-99m glucoheptonate uptake had returned to normal. We suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage, with transbronchial lung biopsy, is a less invasive way than open lung biopsy to diagnose chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in this disorder remains to be defined

  10. CD25+ T-lymphocytes induce CD11b on eosinophils in allergic nasal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Horiguchi

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In the allergic mucosa, there is a significant increase in numbers of CD25+ cells and activated eosinophils. To determine whether a link exists between the activated T-lymphocytes and tissue eosinophils in nasal allergy, we studied CD25+ cells in the nasal mucosa and compared the levels of soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R both in the serum and the nasal secretions, and further investigated expression of CD11b on eosinophils in the nasal lavage fluids and peripheral blood of patients with nasal allergy. We also examined the effects of the culture supernatant of Con A- and IL-2-activated T-lymphocytes on CD11b expression on eosinophils in the present study. The concentration of sIL-2R in the nasal secretions from patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP was significantly higher than that from normal subjects (p < 0.01. The sIL-2R level was significantly higher in the nasal secretions than in the sera in patients (p < 0.01, and CD11b expression on eosinophils from nasal hvage fluid was significandy higher than that of eosinophils from peripheral blood of the same individuals (p < 0.01. The activated T-lymphocytes promoted eosinophil activation with upregulation of CD11b in vitro, and eosinophils in the nasal secretions from patients significantly expressed more CD11b in vivo. These results indicate that activation of T-lymphocytes is linked to eosinophil activation in nasal allergy.

  11. 5-Lipoxygenase-Dependent Recruitment of Neutrophils and Macrophages by Eotaxin-Stimulated Murine Eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alves Luz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The roles of eosinophils in antimicrobial defense remain incompletely understood. In ovalbumin-sensitized mice, eosinophils are selectively recruited to the peritoneal cavity by antigen, eotaxin, or leukotriene(LTB4, a 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO metabolite. 5-LO blockade prevents responses to both antigen and eotaxin. We examined responses to eotaxin in the absence of sensitization and their dependence on 5-LO. BALB/c or PAS mice and their mutants (5-LO-deficient ALOX; eosinophil-deficient GATA-1 were injected i.p. with eotaxin, eosinophils, or both, and leukocyte accumulation was quantified up to 24 h. Significant recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin in BALB/c, up to 24 h, was accompanied by much larger numbers of recruited neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. These effects were abolished by eotaxin neutralization and 5-LO-activating protein inhibitor MK886. In ALOX (but not PAS mice, eotaxin recruitment was abolished for eosinophils and halved for neutrophils. In GATA-1 mutants, eotaxin recruited neither neutrophils nor macrophages. Transfer of eosinophils cultured from bone-marrow of BALB/c donors, or from ALOX donors, into GATA-1 mutant recipients, i.p., restored eotaxin recruitment of neutrophils and showed that the critical step dependent on 5-LO is the initial recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin, not the secondary neutrophil accumulation. Eosinophil-dependent recruitment of neutrophils in naive BALB/c mice was associated with increased binding of bacteria.

  12. COPD exacerbation severity and frequency is associated with impaired macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltboli, Osama; Bafadhel, Mona; Hollins, Fay; Wright, Adam; Hargadon, Beverley; Kulkarni, Neeta; Brightling, Christopher

    2014-07-09

    Eosinophilic airway inflammation is observed in 10-30% of COPD subjects. Whether increased eosinophils or impairment in their clearance by macrophages is associated with the severity and frequency of exacerbations is unknown. We categorised 103 COPD subjects into 4 groups determined by the upper limit of normal for their cytoplasmic macrophage red hue (<6%), an indirect measure of macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils, and area under the curve sputum eosinophil count (≥ 3%/year). Eosinophil efferocytosis by monocyte-derived macrophages was studied in 17 COPD subjects and 8 normal controls. There were no differences in baseline lung function, health status or exacerbation frequency between the groups: A-low red hue, high sputum eosinophils (n=10), B-high red hue, high sputum eosinophils (n=16), C-low red hue, low sputum eosinophils (n=19) and D- high red hue, low sputum eosinophils (n=58). Positive bacterial culture was lower in groups A (10%) and B (6%) compared to C (44%) and D (21%) (p=0.01). The fall in FEV1 from stable to exacerbation was greatest in group A (ΔFEV1 [95 % CI] -0.41 L [-0.65 to -0.17]) versus group B (-0.16 L [-0.32 to -0.011]), C (-0.11 L [-0.23 to -0.002]) and D (-0.16 L [-0.22 to -0.10]; p=0.02). Macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils was impaired in COPD versus controls (86 [75 to 92]% versus 93 [88 to 96]%; p=0.028); was most marked in group A (71 [70 to 84]%; p=0.0295) and was inversely correlated with exacerbation frequency (r=-0.63; p=0.006). Macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils is impaired in COPD and is related to the severity and frequency of COPD exacerbations.

  13. The natural history and complications of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex

    2011-11-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic disease limited to the esophagus and has a persistent or spontaneously fluctuating course. So far it does not seem to limit life expectancy, but it often substantially impairs the quality of life. To date, there has been no association with malignant conditions, but there is concern that the chronic, uncontrolled inflammation will evoke irreversible structural alterations of the esophagus, leading to tissue fibrosis, stricture formation, and impaired function. This esophageal remodeling may result in several disease-inherent and procedure-related complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Generalized morphea/eosinophilic fasciitis overlap after epoxy exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren H. Chan, MS

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Generalized morphea is associated with epoxy resin vapors and is characterized by the development of lesions shortly after exposure. Morphea presenting along with eosinophilic fasciitis (EF, or morphea/EF overlap, is rare and an indicator of poor prognosis and resistance to treatment. Here we present a case of generalized morphea/EF overlap linked to epoxy exposure. Our patient received multiple therapies—ultraviolet A1 phototherapy, prednisone, methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, and rituximab—none of which led to a significant response. The refractory nature of this disease warrants vigilance in its association with epoxy exposure.

  15. Peripheral blood eosinophil counts and risk of colorectal cancer mortality in a large general population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, N.; Vonk, J.M.; Boezen, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    1583 Background: Few epidemiological studies have investigated the association between blood eosinophil counts and colorectal cancer incidence. The current prospective cohort study aims to investigate the association between peripheral blood eosinophils and colorectal cancer mortality risk. METHODS:

  16. Increased eosinophil activity in acute Plasmodium falciparum infection - association with cerebral malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Reimert, C M; Tette, E

    1998-01-01

    To assess the eosinophil response to Plasmodium falciparum infection a cohort of initially parasite-free Ghanaian children was followed for 3 months. Seven of nine children who acquired an asymptomatic P. falciparum infection showed increase in eosinophil counts, while a decrease was found in sev...

  17. Eosinophilic airway inflammation: role in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Leena; Brightling, Christopher E.

    2016-01-01

    The chronic lung diseases, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are common affecting over 500 million people worldwide and causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Asthma is typically associated with Th2-mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation, in contrast to neutrophilic inflammation observed commonly in COPD. However, there is increasing evidence that the eosinophil might play an important role in 10–40% of patients with COPD. Consistently in both asthma and COPD a sputum eosinophilia is associated with a good response to corticosteroid therapy and tailored strategies aimed to normalize sputum eosinophils reduce exacerbation frequency and severity. Advances in our understanding of the multistep paradigm of eosinophil recruitment to the airway, and the consequence of eosinophilic inflammation, has led to the development of new therapies to target these molecular pathways. In this article we discuss the mechanisms of eosinophilic trafficking, the tools to assess eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma and COPD during stable disease and exacerbations and review current and novel anti-eosinophilic treatments. PMID:26770668

  18. IL-1β in eosinophil-mediated small intestinal homeostasis and IgA production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Y; Wen, T; Mingler, MK; Caldwell, JM; Wang, YH; Chaplin, DD; Lee, EH; Jang, MH; Woo, SY; Seoh, JY; Miyasaka, M; Rothenberg, ME

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes that reside in the gastrointestinal (GI) lamina propria, where their basal function remains largely unexplored. In this study, by examining mice with a selective deficiency of systemic eosinophils (by lineage ablation) or GI eosinophils (eotaxin-1/2 double–deficient or CC chemokine receptor 3–deficient), we show that eosinophils support immunoglobulin A (IgA) class switching, maintain intestinal mucus secretions, affect intestinal microbial composition, and promote the development of Peyer’s patches. Eosinophil-deficient mice showed reduced expression of mediators of secretory IgA production, including intestinal interleukin 1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase, lymphotoxin (LT) α, and LT-β, and reduced levels of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t–positive (ROR-γt+) innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) while maintaining normal levels of APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand), BAFF (B cell–activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family), and TGF-β (transforming growth factor β). GI eosinophils expressed a relatively high level of IL-1β, and IL-1β–deficient mice manifested the altered gene expression profiles observed in eosinophil-deficient mice and decreased levels of IgA+ cells and ROR-γt+ ILCs. On the basis of these collective data, we propose that eosinophils are required for homeostatic intestinal immune responses including IgA production and that their affect is mediated via IL-1β in the small intestine. PMID:25563499

  19. Staphylococcus aureus induces eosinophil cell death mediated by α-hemolysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Lynne R; Graham, Kirstie J; Connolly, John; Anwar, Sadia; Ridley, Robert; Sabroe, Ian; Foster, Simon J; Whyte, Moira K B

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, a major human pathogen, exacerbates allergic disorders, including atopic dermatitis, nasal polyps and asthma, which are characterized by tissue eosinophilia. Eosinophils, via their destructive granule contents, can cause significant tissue damage, resulting in inflammation and further recruitment of inflammatory cells. We hypothesised that the relationship between S. aureus and eosinophils may contribute to disease pathology. We found that supernatants from S. aureus (SH1000 strain) cultures cause rapid and profound eosinophil necrosis, resulting in dramatic cell loss within 2 hours. This is in marked contrast to neutrophil granulocytes where no significant cell death was observed (at equivalent dilutions). Supernatants prepared from a strain deficient in the accessory gene regulator (agr) that produces reduced levels of many important virulence factors, including the abundantly produced α-hemolysin (Hla), failed to induce eosinophil death. The role of Hla in mediating eosinophil death was investigated using both an Hla deficient SH1000-modified strain, which did not induce eosinophil death, and purified Hla, which induced concentration-dependent eosinophil death via both apoptosis and necrosis. We conclude that S. aureus Hla induces aberrant eosinophil cell death in vitro and that this may increase tissue injury in allergic disease.

  20. Eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN) levels in commercial human urinary preparations of glycoprotein hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauffman, HF; Hovenga, H; de Bruijn, HWA; Beintema, JJ

    Eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN) is a ubiquitous human ribonuclease, occurring not only in eosinophils, but also in many tissues and body fluids. It may be a contaminant of commercial human urinary preparations of chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and other glycoprotein hormones. Here we describe the

  1. Pyloric obstruction due to massive eosinophilic infiltration in a young adult dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Alexandros O; Mylonakis, Mathios E; Psalla, Dimitra; Soubasis, Nectarios; Papadimitriou, Dimitrios; Rallis, Timoleon S

    2017-11-01

    A 16-month-old dog was presented with chronic vomiting, anorexia, progressive weight loss, and melena. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a massive pyloric eosinophilic infiltration leading to pyloric obstruction that was treated successfully with pylorectomy. This is a novel clinical presentation of eosinophilic gastritis and highlights the need to consider it as a differential diagnosis for pyloric obstruction.

  2. Regulation of Spontaneous Eosinophil Apoptosis—A Neglected Area of Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinja Ilmarinen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is characterized by the accumulation of eosinophils in the airways in most phenotypes. Eosinophils are inflammatory cells that require an external survival-prolonging stimulus such as granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, interleukin (IL-5, or IL-3 for survival. In their absence, eosinophils are programmed to die by spontaneous apoptosis in a few days. Eosinophil apoptosis can be accelerated by Fas ligation or by pharmacological agents such as glucocorticoids. Evidence exists for the relevance of these survival-prolonging and pro-apoptotic agents in the regulation of eosinophilic inflammation in inflamed airways. Much less is known about the physiological significance and mechanisms of spontaneous eosinophil apoptosis even though it forms the basis of regulation of eosinophil longevity by pathophysiological factors and pharmacological agents. This review concentrates on discussing the mechanisms of spontaneous eosinophil apoptosis compared to those of glucocorticoid- and Fas-induced apoptosis. We aim to answer the question whether the external apoptotic stimuli only augment the ongoing pathway of spontaneous apoptosis or truly activate a specific pathway.

  3. Eosinophils count and periprocedural myocardial infarction in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdoia, M.; Schaffer, A.; Barbieri, L.; Sinigaglia, F.; Marino, P.; Suryapranata, H.; Luca, G. De

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eosinophils have been involved in a wide spectrum of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic conditions, with the development of cardiovascular complications in a significant proportion of hypereosinophilic patients. However, no study has so far evaluated the impact of eosinophils levels on

  4. Staphylococcus aureus induces eosinophil cell death mediated by α-hemolysin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne R Prince

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus, a major human pathogen, exacerbates allergic disorders, including atopic dermatitis, nasal polyps and asthma, which are characterized by tissue eosinophilia. Eosinophils, via their destructive granule contents, can cause significant tissue damage, resulting in inflammation and further recruitment of inflammatory cells. We hypothesised that the relationship between S. aureus and eosinophils may contribute to disease pathology. We found that supernatants from S. aureus (SH1000 strain cultures cause rapid and profound eosinophil necrosis, resulting in dramatic cell loss within 2 hours. This is in marked contrast to neutrophil granulocytes where no significant cell death was observed (at equivalent dilutions. Supernatants prepared from a strain deficient in the accessory gene regulator (agr that produces reduced levels of many important virulence factors, including the abundantly produced α-hemolysin (Hla, failed to induce eosinophil death. The role of Hla in mediating eosinophil death was investigated using both an Hla deficient SH1000-modified strain, which did not induce eosinophil death, and purified Hla, which induced concentration-dependent eosinophil death via both apoptosis and necrosis. We conclude that S. aureus Hla induces aberrant eosinophil cell death in vitro and that this may increase tissue injury in allergic disease.

  5. Role of Environmental Factors in the Development of Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slae, Mordechai; Persad, Rabin; Leung, Aldrich Jing-Tao; Gabr, Raniah; Brocks, Dion; Huynh, Hien Quoc

    2015-11-01

    Despite accumulating data on the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis, not much is known about risk factors for the development of the disease. The role of factors such as smoking, breastfeeding, early antibiotic exposure and other factors that have been associated with other allergic diseases has not been well studied in children with eosinophilic esophagitis. To explore the role of environmental and medication exposures in the development of pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. We conducted a cross-sectional case-control study, utilizing a parent and child questionnaire and medical chart review. Urine cotinine levels, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, were obtained as objective evidence for smoking exposure. One hundred and two children with eosinophilic esophagitis and 167 controls were recruited. The controls were mainly diagnosed with functional gastrointestinal disorders (33%) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (29%). Food allergy, specifically for peanuts and tree nuts, and allergy to pollen, tree, and grass were significantly higher among eosinophilic esophagitis children. Smoking exposure, both primary and secondary, was not associated with pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis when compared to controls (odds ratio 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.58-1.59). Furthermore, early smoking exposure in the first year of life was higher among controls. Common accepted risk factors for allergy and atopy, such as breastfeeding practices, antibiotics exposure, animals' exposure, and others, were not found to be associated with eosinophilic esophagitis in our study. Common risk factors in other allergic and atopic conditions were not found to be associated with eosinophilic esophagitis.

  6. Eosinophilic esophagitis is characterized by a non-IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, D.; Cianferoni, A.; Spergel, J. M.; Aceves, S.; Holbreich, M.; Venter, C.; Rothenberg, M. E.; Terreehorst, I.; Muraro, A.; Lucendo, A. J.; Schoepfer, A.; Straumann, A.; Simon, H.-U.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic disease characterized clinically by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominant inflammation. EoE is frequently associated with concomitant atopic diseases and immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization to food allergens in

  7. Intestinal perforation in a two-year-old child with eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agertoft, A; Husby, S; Høst, A

    1991-01-01

    A two-year-old boy underwent a laparatomy for an intestinal perforation due to eosinophilic gastroenteritis. He had marked peripheral blood eosinophilia and a small duodenal biopsy showed heavy eosinophilic infiltration in the mucosa. After 1 1/2 year on a restricted diet, a control duodenal biopsy...

  8. Measurement of guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wassom, D.L.; Loegering, D.A.; Gleich, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    Guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using 131 I-MBP. Two critical features of the assay were: (1) alkylation of the MBP with iodoacetamide prior to radioiodination and (2) inclusion of another basic protein, either protamine or histone, in the phosphate buffer. Freshly isolated non-alkylated MBP was immunologically deficient when compared to alkylated or reduced MBP, but its reactivity could be redtores by reduction with dithiothreitol and alkylation. Reduction and alkylation also restored the immunoreactivity of polymerized MBP. MBP levels were not elevated in sera from guinea pigs parasitized with Trichinella spiralis and having peripheral blood eosinophilia. Muscle extracts from Trichinella infected animals showed significantly higher levels of MBP activity than normal controls. MBP was measurable in extracts of untreated eosinophils, but reduction and alkylation of these extracts increased MBP activity several fold. The RIA permits detection of MBP in body fluids and tissues at levels as low as 2 ng./ml. The RIA is useful in assessing increased or decreased levels of MBP activity in samples from experimental animals when compared to samples from controls. (author)

  9. The role of periostin in eosinophilic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Hisanori; Matsubara, Atsushi; Nakagawa, Takashi; Ohta, Nobuo; Izuhara, Kenji; Shirasaki, Takashi; Abe, Takahisa; Takeda, Ikuko; Shinkawa, Hideichi

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the localization of periostin in middle ear specimens from patients with eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) and from a newly constructed animal model for EOM. Periostin-positive immunostaining was observed in the middle ear sections obtained from the EOM patients. Immunoreactivity for periostin was also seen in the animal model. These results suggest that periostin plays an important role in subepithelial fibrosis in the middle ear in EOM. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of periostin in the middle ear of EOM patients and an animal model. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses for periostin were carried out in the middle ear specimens of six EOM patients with/without asthma. An animal model of EOM was constructed by intraperitoneal and topical sensitization with ovalbumin (OVA). Histological and immunocytochemical analyses for periostin were also performed in this model. Immunoreactivities for periostin were observed in the basement membrane and extracellular matrix of the middle ear sections obtained from all EOM patients with/without asthma. In the animal model, eosinophil infiltration and middle ear mucosa thickness were observed. Moreover, periostin-positive immunostaining was shown in the extracellular matrix of the middle ear mucosa on the side topically boosted by OVA.

  10. Clinical Applications of the Eosinophilic Esophagitis Diagnostic Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE is a recently recognized upper gastrointestinal allergic disorder characterized by esophageal dysfunction (e.g., dysphagia and esophageal eosinophilia of ≥15 eosinophils/high-power field in patients who have persistent esophagitis even on proton pump inhibitor (PPI therapy. The histologic method is the gold standard of EoE diagnosis. However, EoE clinical symptoms do not always correlate with histology, and the histologic method has sensitivity and specificity issues due to the patchiness of EoE and the subjective nature of the method. The “EoE transcriptome” was initially discovered in 2006, which led to the invention of the EoE diagnostic panel (EDP. In addition to providing a definitive EoE diagnosis with high accuracy, the EDP has been useful in elucidating several key elements about the disease including the efficacy of specific drugs such as swallowed glucocorticoids and anti-IL-13 humanized antibody therapy, the relationship between EoE and PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia, and predicting the disease course and responsiveness to therapy. The EDP’s long-term potential arises from its plasticity to incorporate new genes and uncover novel disease pathogenesis. We expect that the EDP will be increasingly helpful for personalized medicine approaches and improved diagnostics and disease monitoring.

  11. Update on basic and clinical aspects of eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex; Schoepfer, Alain

    2014-08-01

    The identification of a distinct syndrome, designated eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE), with its own clinical and histopathological characteristics, was first described in the early 1990s. Meanwhile intense research has uncovered many molecular, immunological and clinical aspects of this chronic-inflammatory disorder. This article focuses exclusively on basic and clinical insights of EoE gathered during the last few years. Regarding aetiopathogenesis it has become clear that EoE is a food-triggered disease with milk and wheat as the dominant culprit food categories. However, it is still debated whether a disturbed mucosal integrity allowing allergens to cross the mucosal barrier, or changes in wheat and milk manufacturing might induce these inflammatory responses. Furthermore, basic science and clinical studies have accordingly confirmed that a chronic eosinophilic inflammation leads to a remodelling of the oesophagus with micro- and macro-morphological alterations, ending in a strictured oesophagus with impaired function. Fortunately, long-term therapeutic trials, using either topical corticosteroids or dietary allergen avoidance, have demonstrated that this sequela can be prevented or even reversed. This finding is of clinical relevance as it supports the initiation of a consistent anti-inflammatory therapy. Nevertheless, EoE is still an enigmatic disease and the long list of unanswered questions will certainly stimulate further research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. The Role and Immunobiology of Eosinophils in the Respiratory System: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Stephanie S; DeFelice, Magee L

    2016-04-01

    The eosinophil is a fully delineated granulocyte that disseminates throughout the bloodstream to end-organs after complete maturation in the bone marrow. While the presence of eosinophils is not uncommon even in healthy individuals, these granulocytes play a central role in inflammation and allergic processes. Normally appearing in smaller numbers, higher levels of eosinophils in the peripheral blood or certain tissues typically signal a pathologic process. Eosinophils confer a beneficial effect on the host by enhancing immunity against molds and viruses. However, tissue-specific elevation of eosinophils, particularly in the respiratory system, can cause a variety of short-term symptoms and may lead to long-term sequelae. Eosinophils often play a role in more commonly encountered disease processes, such as asthma and allergic responses in the upper respiratory tract. They are also integral in the pathology of less common diseases including eosinophilic pneumonia, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. They can be seen in neoplastic disorders or occupational exposures as well. The involvement of eosinophils in pulmonary disease processes can affect the method of diagnosis and the selection of treatment modalities. By analyzing the complex interaction between the eosinophil and its environment, which includes signaling molecules and tissues, different therapies have been discovered and created in order to target disease processes at a cellular level. Innovative treatments such as mepolizumab and benralizumab will be discussed. The purpose of this article is to further explore the topic of eosinophilic presence, activity, and pathology in the respiratory tract, as well as discuss current and future treatment options through a detailed literature review.

  13. The glucocorticoid RU24858 does not distinguish between transrepression and transactivation in primary human eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xianzhi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucocorticoids are used to treat chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Induction of eosinophil apoptosis is considered to be one of the main mechanisms behind the anti-asthmatic effect of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoid binding to its receptor (GR can have a dual effect on gene transcription. Activated GR can activate transcription (transactivation, or by interacting with other transcription factors such as NF-κB suppress transcription (transrepression. RU24858 has been reported to transrepress but to have little or no transactivation capability in other cell types. The dissociated properties of RU24858 have not been previously studied in non-malignant human cells. As the eosinophils have a very short lifetime and many of the modern molecular biological methods cannot be used, a "dissociated steroid" would be a valuable tool to evaluate the mechanism of action of glucocorticoids in human eosinophils. The aim of this study was to elucidate the ability of RU24858 to activate and repress gene expression in human eosinophils in order to see whether it is a dissociated steroid in human eosinophils. Methods Human peripheral blood eosinophils were isolated under sterile conditions and cultured in the presence and/or absence RU24858. For comparison, dexamethasone and mometasone were used. We measured chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4 and Annexin 1 expression by flow cytometry and cytokine production by ELISA. Apoptosis was measured by DNA fragmentation and confirmed by morphological analysis. Results RU24858 (1 μM increased CXCR4 and Annexin 1 expression on eosinophils to a similar extent as mometasone (1 μM and dexamethasone (1 μM. Like dexamethasone and mometasone, RU24858 did suppress IL-8 and MCP-1 production in eosinophils. RU24858 also increased spontaneous eosinophil apoptosis to a similar degree as dexamethasone and mometasone, but unlike dexamethasone and mometasone it did not reverse IL-5- or GM

  14. Successful Treatment For Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia (CEL With Imatinib Mesylate

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    Rayane da Silva Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a patient with Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia (CEL with mutation in alfa PDGFR gene exhibiting a satisfactory response to treatment with imatinib mesylate. A 25-year-old man presented in a hematology service with a persistent cough and hemogram alterations. His blood count showed a hemoglobin level of 12.5 g/dL and a white blood cell count of 94,030/mm3, eosinophils were 68% of all cells. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy showed hypercellularity with marked eosinophilia (77% and erythroid differentiation series was hypocellular with normoblast maturation. The immunohistochemically of the bone biopsy was positive for myeloperoxidase and negative for CD34/CD99, consistent with CEL. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH for the beta-fraction of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFRβ and Philadelphia chromosome (Ph 1 were negative and the alfa PDGFR (Platelet-Derived Growth Factor was positive and showed heterozygosis in c.2531T>C on 18 Exon and homozygous in C.2562+1G>A at the region of the splicing site at the 18 intron. Treatment was initiated and maintained by administering 400mg/day imatinib mesylate. Laboratory findings returned to normal ranges, with clinical improvement and a hematological response observed after the second month of therapy. Currently, the patient’s blood count shows the white blood cell count (5,400 total leukocytes, eosinophils (8.6/mm3, hemoglobin (15.5 g/dl, hematocrit (45.4% and platelets (298,000/mm3 within normal ranges. The mutation search was negative in in peripheral blood one year after the initial treatment. Our work corroborates other studies on the efficacy of imatinib mesylate in the treatment of patients with CSF PDGFR alpha positive. We emphasize the importance of molecular studies, considering its relevance for the correct staging of the disease. Since CEL is a rare disease, it is important to define its etiology and anticipate its treatment, thus minimizing the damage induced by

  15. Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis as a Stenosing Lesion in the Subglottis

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    Ivan Keogh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subglottic Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis (EAF is an extremely rare disease of an elusive aetiology. It is chronically progressive benign condition that causes narrowing of the subglottic region leading to dysphonia and airway compromise. The diagnosis is historical and imaging is nonspecific. We report a case xc of 56-year-old lady referred to our institution with globus sensation, hoarseness, and mild stridor. Incidental subglottic mass was found at time of diagnostic microlaryngoscopy and biopsy confirmed subglottic EAF. All laboratory investigations were unremarkable. Lesion was removed with laryngeal microdebrider and three courses of intravenous dexamethasone were administered. Patient’s postoperative period was uneventful and had remained disease free for 1 year. To date, no consensus has been reached on the optimal treatment of subglottic EAF. We recommend regular follow-up to detect early recurrence.

  16. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: an Emerging Clinicopathologic Disease of Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophililc esophagitis is a clinicopathologic disease characterized clinically by dysphagia and food impaction in adults and nonspecific symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children, and histologically by large numbers of eosinophils in the proximal and distal esophageal epithelium. Importantly, these symptoms and histologic abnormalities appear to be unresponsive to proton pump inhibition. Recent clinical and basic studies suggest an allergic etiology but the precise allergen remains unknown and is likely unique for each patient. Endoscopic features suggest ongoing inflammation and range from linear furrowing with whitish exudation to long-segment stricture formation, to a fragile, crepe paper–like mucosa that is easily split open. Treatments include nutritional restrictions, medical management with topical steroids, and, in stenotic circumstances, esophageal dilation. The long-term outcome is still not certain. PMID:28289340

  17. Case report 424: Eosinophilic granuloma of the acromion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, R.A.; Betz, R.R.; Bonakdarpour, A.

    1987-01-01

    The case has been presented of a unifocal lesion of eosinophilic granuloma in the acromion of a 16-year-old young man. The use of a special technique radiologically in outlining lesions of the acromion was described. Of interest was the fact that the patient appeared at the Temple University Section for Sports Medicine and Science upon experiencing pain following a fishing expedition. In this connection, the frequency of injuries of the shoulder on various Temple University athletic teams was discussed. The value of an isotope scan in establishing a diagnosis was considered and the relationship of the lesion to Hand-Schueller-Christian disease and Letterer-Siwe disease was noted. Treatment also was considered. (orig./MG)

  18. Different Sarcocystis spp. are present in bovine eosinophilic myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeel, Lieve; Houf, Kurt; Geldhof, Peter; De Preter, Katleen; Vercruysse, Jozef; Ducatelle, Richard; Chiers, Koen

    2013-11-08

    It has been suggested that Sarcocystis species are associated with bovine eosinophilic myositis (BEM). To date, parasite identification in this myopathy has been based on morphological techniques. The aim of the present study was to use molecular techniques to identify Sarcocystis species inside lesions of BEM. Histologically, BEM lesions of 97 condemned carcasses were examined for the presence of Sarcocystis species. Intralesional and extralesional cysts were collected using laser capture microdissection and the species was determined with a PCR-based technique based on 18S rDNA. Intralesional sarcocysts or remnants were found in BEM lesions in 28% of the carcasses. The majority (82%) of intralesional Sarcocystis species were found to be S. hominis. However S. cruzi and S. hirsuta were also found, as well as an unidentified species. It can be concluded that Sarcocystis species present in lesions of BEM are not restricted to one species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cysteine Protease Secreted by Paragonimus westermani Attenuates Effector Functions of Human Eosinophils Stimulated with Immunoglobulin G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Myeong Heon; Kita, Hirohito; Park, Hae Young; Seoh, Ju Young

    2001-01-01

    An immunoglobulin G (IgG)-coated surface, such as that found on helminth parasites, is one of the most effective physiologic stimuli for eosinophil activation. The cysteine proteases secreted by tissue-invasive helminth larvae play an important role in evasion of the immune response by degrading the host immunoglobulins. In this study, we investigated whether cysteine proteases in the excretory-secretory product (ESP) produced by Paragonimus westermani newly excysted metacercariae (PwNEM), which cause pulmonary or extrapulmonary paragonimiasis in human beings, could modify effector functions of human eosinophils stimulated with IgG. We coated 96-well plates with human IgG in the absence or presence of the ESP produced by PwNEM. When eosinophils were incubated in the wells coated with IgG in the presence of the ESP, eosinophil degranulation and superoxide production were significantly reduced compared with results for cells incubated in wells coated with IgG alone. This inhibitory effect of the ESP on IgG-induced superoxide production was dose dependent and was significantly abolished by pretreatment of the ESP with heat. These findings suggest that the cysteine proteases secreted by PwNEM attenuate both activation and degranulation of eosinophils stimulated with IgG. Thus, the cysteine proteases produced by tissue-invasive helminth larvae play crucial roles in evasion of IgG-dependent eosinophil helminthotoxicity and in reduction of eosinophil-associated tissue inflammation during the migratory period. PMID:11179333

  20. The activity of medicinal plants and secondary metabolites on eosinophilic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerio, Alexandre P; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Faccioli, Lúcia H

    2010-10-01

    Eosinophils are leukocytes that are present in several body compartments and in the blood at relatively low numbers under normal conditions. However, an increase in the number of eosinophils, in the blood or in the tissues, is observed in allergic or parasitic disorders. Although some progress has been made in understanding the development of eosinophil-mediated inflammation in allergic and parasitic diseases, the discovery of new compounds to control eosinophilia has lagged behind other advances. Plant-derived secondary metabolites are the basis for many drugs currently used to treat pathologic conditions, including eosinophilic diseases. Several studies, including our own, have demonstrated that plant extracts and secondary metabolites can reduce eosinophilia and eosinophil recruitment in different experimental animal models. In this review, we summarize these studies and describe the anti-eosinophilic activity of various plant extracts, such as Ginkgo biloba, Allium cepa, and Lafoensia pacari, as well as those of secondary metabolites (compounds isolated from plant extracts), such as quercetin and ellagic acid. In addition, we highlight the medical potential of these plant-derived compounds for treating eosinophil-mediated inflammation, such as asthma and allergy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Blood eosinophil levels in newborns with severe indirect hyperbilirubinemia treated with phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Banu; Beken, Serdar; Zenciroğlu, Ayşegül; Dilli, Dilek; Okumuş, Nurullah

    2014-06-01

    Newborns who suffer from jaundice and/or receive phototherapy (PT) are at a higher risk of developing asthma. In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between bilirubin and peripheral eosinophil counts in newborns with severe hyperbilirubinemia needing PT. In this study, a retrospective analysis was performed on 306 newborns with severe hyperbilirubinemia with gestational age ≥35 weeks (Group 1) and the control group consisted of 295 age and gender-matched newborns (Group 2). Total serum bilirubin, hemoglobin, albumin, leucocyte and eosinophil counts before and after PT were recorded from medical charts. Findings : All the patients in Group 1 received phototherapy and 77 (25.2%) of them needed exchange transfusion (ET). Before receiving PT, the patients in Group 1 had lower levels of Hb and higher levels of total serum bilirubin and lymphocytes than those in Group 2 although there was no statistically significant difference with regard to peripheral eosinophil counts. Eosinophils were detected to be numerically lower in Group 1. Higher bilirubin subgroups had also lower eosinophil counts. The patients in Group 1 had lower levels of Hb, leucocyte, albumin and higher levels of eosinophil following PT. Peripheral eosinophil count may be affected by bilirubin levels and/or phototherapy. There is a need for further clinical research based on different models.

  2. Periostin - A Novel Systemic Biomarker for Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emprm, Viswanathan; Rajanandh, M G; Nageswari, A D

    2016-02-01

    Chronic airway inflammation and remodelling are fundamental features of asthma. The molecular phenotypes in asthma are Th2 high and Th2 low. Serum periostin is a biomarker which aid in understanding Th2 high eosinophilic asthma. The present study aimed to identify whether or not serum periostin is a systemic biomarker for eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatics. The study was designed as a prospective, case control study. Patients who presented with consistent symptoms of asthma and confirmed by spirometry with reversibility were the cases. The controls were healthy subjects who had no history of lung disease with normal lung function. The sputum and blood samples were collected from both the groups. Sputum eosinophils, Absolute Eosinophil Counts (AEC) and serum periostin levels were compared between the groups. The study comprised of 101 participants in which 30 were controls and 71 were cases. In the study group, mean post FEV1 was 64.45. There was a positive correlation of sputum eosinophils with severity of obstruction. The ROC curve analysis showed the cut-off value of 24.556 for serum periostin with the p-value of limitation in asthmatic patients with a Th2 high eosinophilic phenotype when compared to AEC and sputum eosinophils.

  3. Eosinophilic airway inflammation and exacerbations of COPD: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva, R; Green, R H; Brightling, C E; Shelley, M; Hargadon, B; McKenna, S; Monteiro, W; Berry, M; Parker, D; Wardlaw, A J; Pavord, I D

    2007-05-01

    Evidence suggests that eosinophilic airway inflammation is important in the pathogenesis of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. The present authors tested the hypothesis that a management strategy that aims to reduce sputum eosinophil counts is associated with a reduction in exacerbations of COPD. A total of 82 patients with COPD were randomised into two groups. One group was treated according to traditional guidelines (British Thoracic Society (BTS) group) and the other (sputum group) was treated with the additional aim of minimising eosinophilic airway inflammation, assessed using the induced sputum eosinophil count. The primary outcome was exacerbations, which were categorised as mild, moderate or severe. The frequency of severe exacerbations per patient per year was 0.5 and 0.2 in the BTS and sputum groups, respectively (mean reduction 62%). The majority of this benefit was confined to patients with eosinophilic airway inflammation. There was no difference in the frequency of mild and moderate exacerbations. The average daily dose of inhaled or oral corticosteroids during the trial did not differ between the groups. Out of 42 patients in the sputum group, 17 required regular oral corticosteroids to minimise eosinophilic airway inflammation. A management strategy that aims to minimise eosinophilic airway inflammation, as well as symptoms, is associated with a reduction in severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  4. Usefulness of Eosinophil-Lymphocyte Ratio to Predict Stent Restenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zihni Bilik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stent restenosis (SR is an important compli­cation of percutaneous coronary intervention. There are many studies explored the relation of eosinophils with SR, however, there is no data about relationship between eo­sinophil-lymphocyte ratio (ELR and SR. In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between the value of ELR on admission and SR. Methods: The study was included 314 patients who had been applied a coronary stent implantation and they were admitted to cardiology clinic with stabile angina and un­derwent repeat coronary angiography. The data obtained from patients were analyzed retrospectively. The patient group was consisted of 197 patients who were diagnosed as SR, and the control group was consisted of 117 pa­tients whose stents were patent angiographically. Results: The groups were similar in terms of age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, LDL-C, HDL-C, platelet count, platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR, hemoglobin and left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF. White blood cell (WBC, neutrophil, eosinophil, C-reactive protein (CRP, ELR and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR on admission were higher in the SR group compared to the controls. All patients were categorized into two groups according to ELR values and SR was more frequent in the high ELR group compared to low ELR group. An ELR value of ≥0.745 predicted SR with 64% sensitivity and 61% specif­ity. Conclusion: In this study ELR was found statistically higher in SR patients compared to the controls. Accord­ing to our data ELR as an inexpensive and easy method, may contribute to determination of high risk patients and increased ELR can be used as a predictor of SR.

  5. Focus on audiologic impairment in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seccia, Veronica; Fortunato, Susanna; Cristofani-Mencacci, Lodovica; Dallan, Iacopo; Casani, Augusto P; Latorre, Manuela; Paggiaro, Pierluigi; Bartoli, Maria Laura; Sellari-Franceschini, Stefano; Baldini, Chiara

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical features of audiologic impairment and its relationship with the nasal, vestibular, and rheumatologic profile in a cohort of patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), formerly named Churg-Strauss syndrome. Prospective cross-sectional study. Thirty-nine patients with EGPA, considered controlled according to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score and the Vasculitis Damage Index, underwent a complete audiologic evalutaion with otomicroscopy, impedance audiometry, speech audiometry, and auditory brainstem responses; rhinologic evaluation was made by means of fiberoptic endoscopy and nasal cytology; the clinical evaluation was completed with analysis of the facial function and, in patients with referred vertigo, with videonystagmography (VNG). Data were compared to the rheumatologic profile (eosinophil count, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies status). Thirty-four of 39 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of those, 18 (52, 8%) were affected by variable degrees of hearing loss (sensorineural hearing loss [SNHL]) in four cases (11, 8%), mixed sensorineural and conductive hearing loss in two (5, 9%), presbycusis in six (17, 6%), and otitis media with effusion (OME) in six (17, 6%). Vestibular impairment was represented by benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and unspecific dizziness in three (8, 8%) and four cases (11, 8%), respectively, all with normal VNG. Ear involvement was statistically related to the EGPA vasculitic pattern and independent from the nasal impairment, cytology, and duration of nasal symptoms. No facial palsy was registered. In our experience, the largest in the existing literature, the otological involvement in EGPA is common and may occur variably as SNHL or OME. Otological involvement occurs early in the course of the disease process, but is nonspecific in making the diagnosis of EGPA. Its recognition is therefore fundamental. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:2792-2797, 2016. © 2016 The American

  6. Eosinophil Cationic Protein, Carotid Plaque, and Incidence of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Johannes; Söderholm, Martin; Borné, Yan; Nilsson, Jan; Persson, Margaretha; Östling, Gerd; Melander, Olle; Orho-Melander, Marju; Engström, Gunnar

    2017-10-01

    ECP (eosinophil cationic protein) is a marker of eosinophil activity and degranulation, which has been linked to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. We examined the relationship between ECP, carotid plaque, and incidence of stroke in a prospective population-based cohort. The subjects participated in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study between 1991 and 1994. A total of 4706 subjects with no history of stroke were included (40% men; mean age, 57.5 years). Carotid plaque was determined by B-mode ultrasound of the right carotid artery. Incidence of stroke was followed up during a mean period of 16.5 years in relation to plasma ECP levels. Subjects in the third tertile (versus first tertile) of ECP tended to have higher prevalence of carotid plaque (odds ratio: 1.18; 95% confidence interval: 1.003-1.39; P =0.044 after multivariate adjustments). A total of 258 subjects were diagnosed with ischemic stroke (IS) during follow-up. ECP was associated with increased incidence of IS after risk factor adjustment (hazard ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval: 1.13-2.18; for third versus first tertile; P =0.007). High ECP was associated with increased risk of IS in subjects with carotid plaque. The risk factor-adjusted hazard ratio for IS was 1.86 (95% confidence interval: 1.32-2.63) in subjects with carotid plaque and ECP in the top tertile, compared with those without plaque and ECP in the first or second tertiles. High ECP is associated with increased incidence of IS. The association between ECP and IS was also present in the subgroup with carotid plaque. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Fasciola hepatica induces eosinophil apoptosis in the migratory and biliary stages of infection in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, A; Bautista, M J; Zafra, R; Pacheco, I L; Ruiz, M T; Martínez-Cruz, S; Méndez, A; Martínez-Moreno, A; Molina-Hernández, V; Pérez, J

    2016-01-30

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the number of apoptotic eosinophils in the livers of sheep experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica during the migratory and biliary stages of infection. Four groups (n=5) of sheep were used; groups 1-3 were orally infected with 200 metacercariae (mc) and sacrificed at 8 and 28 days post-infection (dpi), and 17 weeks post-infection (wpi), respectively. Group 4 was used as an uninfected control. Apoptosis was detected using immunohistochemistry with a polyclonal antibody against anti-active caspase-3, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Eosinophils were identified using the Hansel stain in serial sections for caspase-3, and by ultrastructural features using TEM. At 8 and 28 dpi, numerous caspase-3(+) eosinophils were mainly found at the periphery of acute hepatic necrotic foci. The percentage of caspase -3(+) apoptotic eosinophils in the periphery of necrotic foci was high (46.1-53.9) at 8 and 28 dpi, respectively, and decreased in granulomas found at 28 dpi (6%). Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of apoptotic eosinophils in hepatic lesions at 8 and 28 dpi. At 17 wpi, apoptotic eosinophils were detected in the infiltrate surrounding some enlarged bile ducts containing adult flukes. This is the first report of apoptosis induced by F. hepatica in sheep and the first study reporting apoptosis in eosinophils in hepatic inflammatory infiltrates in vivo. The high number of apoptotic eosinophils in acute necrotic tracts during the migratory and biliary stages of infection suggests that eosinophil apoptosis may play a role in F. hepatica survival during different stages of infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Responsiveness to oral prednisolone in severe asthma is related to the degree of eosinophilic airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, A R; Marshall, R P; Warnock, L C; Bolton, S; Hastie, A; Symon, F; Hargadon, B; Marshall, H; Richardson, M; Brightling, C E; Haldar, P; Milone, R; Chalk, P; Williamson, R; Panettieri, R; Knowles, R; Bleecker, E R; Wardlaw, A J

    2017-07-01

    Patients with severe asthma appear relatively corticosteroid resistant. Corticosteroid responsiveness is closely related to the degree of eosinophilic airway inflammation. The extent to which eosinophilic airway inflammation in severe asthma responds to treatment with systemic corticosteroids is not clear. To relate the physiological and inflammatory response to systemic corticosteroids in asthma to disease severity and the baseline extent of eosinophilic inflammation. Patients with mild/moderate and severe asthma were investigated before and after 2 weeks of oral prednisolone (Clintrials.gov NCT00331058 and NCT00327197). We pooled the results from two studies with common protocols. The US study contained two independent centres and the UK one independent centre. The effect of oral corticosteroids on FEV 1 , Pc20, airway inflammation and serum cytokines was investigated. Baseline measurements were compared with healthy subjects. Thirty-two mild/moderate asthmatics, 50 severe asthmatics and 35 healthy subjects took part. At baseline, both groups of asthmatics had a lower FEV 1 and Pc20 and increased eosinophilic inflammation compared to healthy subjects. The severe group had a lower FEV 1 and more eosinophilic inflammation compared to mild/moderate asthmatics. Oral prednisolone caused a similar degree of suppression of eosinophilic inflammation in all compartments in both groups of asthmatics. There were small improvements in FEV 1 and Pc20 for both mild/ moderate and severe asthmatics with a correlation between the baseline eosinophilic inflammation and the change in FEV 1 . There was a ~50% reduction in the serum concentration of CXCL10 (IP-10), CCL22 (MDC), CCL17 (TARC), CCL-2 (MCP-1) and CCL-13 (MCP-4) in both asthma groups after oral corticosteroids. Disease severity does not influence the response to systemic corticosteroids. The study does not therefore support the concept that severe asthma is associated with corticosteroid resistance. Only baseline

  9. Micellization and Characterization of Block Copolymer Detergents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    Triblock copolymers of the type EPE, where E and P denote ethylene oxide and propylene oxide blocks, respectively, are used widely in industry as emulsifiers, anti-foaming agents, and in delayed drug release. EPE copolymers form micelles with a core of P blocks and different micellar shapes depen...

  10. [Fibro-inflammatory polyp with eosinophilic infiltration. Apropos of 3 cases of gastric polyps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battin-Bertho, R; Dauge, M C; Toublanc, M; Grossin, M; Marche, C; Bocquet, L

    1987-01-01

    We report three cases of inflammatory fibroid polyp of the stomach (Helwig's pseudo-tumour) and record 127 patients in the literature. The anatomo-clinical features of such a disease are analysed and the larger outline of eosinophilic infiltrations of the gastro intestinal tract are described. Most of the authors class the gastric nodular eosinophilic granuloma as the Helwig's pseudo-tumour, but they are not so unanimous for the exact relationship between inflammatory fibroid polyp and the eosinophilic gastroenteritis. For Helwig, they are two distinct conditions, but for others, they belong to the same anatomo-clinical entity, with a broad diversity of morphological features.

  11. Polyostotic eosinophilic granuloma of the jaws treated by chemotherapy. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, A C; Cabral, M G; Noce Dos Santos, C W; Janini, M E R; Pulcheri, W A

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma is classified as a Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Although considered a rare pathology, up to 20% of all cases occur in the jaw bones, and radiographically may mimic odontogenic cysts or benign and malignant tumours. Different protocols have been suggested in the literature for treating eosinophilic granuloma. We report a case of polyostotic eosinophilic granuloma in a 34-year-old man showing ill defined mandibular and palatal radiolucencies. Due to the presence of multiple jaw lesions the treatment choice was chemotherapy. The clinical and radiographic feature are described, as well as treatment, complications and patient's follow-up.

  12. Blood eosinophil count and exacerbations in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watz, Henrik; Tetzlaff, Kay; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood eosinophil counts might predict response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a history of exacerbations. We used data from the WISDOM trial to assess whether patients with COPD with higher blood eosinophil counts wou...... of exacerbations. Our data suggest that counts of 4% or greater or 300 cells per μL or more might identify a deleterious effect of ICS withdrawal, an effect not seen in most patients with eosinophil counts below these thresholds. FUNDING: Boehringer Ingelheim....

  13. Hematemesis as Initial Presentation in a 10-Week-Old Infant with Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Shetty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract resulting in a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms. There is currently a dearth of information on this topic in the pediatric literature, as very few cases have been reported. In this report, we present a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a 10-week-old patient with initial presenting symptom of hematemesis. To our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature and is unique in its initial presentation.

  14. [Determining asthma treatment in children by monitoring fractional exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils and leukotriene B₄].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizmanos-Lamotte, G; Cruz, M J; Gómez-Ollés, S; Muñoz, X; de Mir Messa, I; Moreno-Galdó, A

    2015-01-01

    Sputum eosinophils and exhaled fractional nitric oxide (FENO) are markers of airway inflammation in asthma. Cytokines, cysteinyl-leukotrienes and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are responsible for this inflammation. The aim of this study is to determine the usefulness of these markers in monitoring asthma treatment in children. FENO, sputum eosinophils, and LTB4 in induced sputum were performed in 10 children (9-15 years old). These determinations were repeated four months later, after the beginning or an increase in the treatment. FENO values tended to decrease (P=.15), pulmonary function tended to improve (P=.10), and sputum eosinophils decreased (P=.003) compared to the first determination. There were no differences in LTB4 concentrations (P=.88). Sputum eosinophils seem to be more precise than FENO in the monitoring of inflammation in asthmatic children. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Eosinophilic Meningitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in an Adolescent With Mental Retardation and Pica Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Wei Hsueh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic meningitis or encephalitis is a rare disorder and is most commonly caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Humans are accidentally infected when they ingest raw snails or vegetables contaminated with the parasite larvae. Because of the improvement in sanitary food handling practices, the occurrence of A. cantonensis eosinophilic meningitis has been decreasing in Taiwan in recent decades. The common symptoms and signs of eosinophilic meningitis are severe headache, neck stiffness, paresthesia, vomiting, nausea, and fever. Acute urinary retention is a rare presentation. We report a case of A. cantonensis eosinophilic meningitis in an intellectually disabled patient who presented with acute urinary retention without any other meningeal signs. The patient received supportive treatment with corticosteroid therapy and was discharged and received urinary rehabilitation at home.

  16. EOSINOPHIL INFLUX TO THE NASAL AIRWAY FOLLOWING LOCAL, LOW-LEVEL LPS CHALLENGE IN HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Recent obervations show that atopic asthmatic subjects have increased sensitivity to respirable endotoxin (or LPS) compared with normal persons. In vitro studies demonstrate that LPS enchances eosinophil survival. These obervations suggest that the effects of inhal...

  17. ROLE OF MONOCYTES AND EOSINOPHILS IN RESPIRATORY SYNCTIAL VIRUS (RSV) INFECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Role of Monocytes and Eosinophils in Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) InfectionJoleen M. Soukup and Susanne Becker US Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711;...

  18. Enzymatic lipid oxidation by eosinophils propagates coagulation, hemostasis, and thrombotic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uderhardt, Stefan; Ackermann, Jochen A.; Fillep, Tobias; Hammond, Victoria J.; Willeit, Johann; Stark, Konstantin; Rossaint, Jan; Schubert, Irene; Mielenz, Dirk; Dietel, Barbara; Raaz-Schrauder, Dorette; Ay, Cihan; Thaler, Johannes; Heim, Christian; Collins, Peter W.; Schabbauer, Gernot; Mackman, Nigel; Voehringer, David; Nadler, Jerry L.; Lee, James J.; Massberg, Steffen; Rauh, Manfred; O’Donnell, Valerie B.

    2017-01-01

    Blood coagulation is essential for physiological hemostasis but simultaneously contributes to thrombotic disease. However, molecular and cellular events controlling initiation and propagation of coagulation are still incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate an unexpected role of eosinophils during plasmatic coagulation, hemostasis, and thrombosis. Using a large-scale epidemiological approach, we identified eosinophil cationic protein as an independent and predictive risk factor for thrombotic events in humans. Concurrent experiments showed that eosinophils contributed to intravascular thrombosis by exhibiting a strong endogenous thrombin-generation capacity that relied on the enzymatic generation and active provision of a procoagulant phospholipid surface enriched in 12/15-lipoxygenase–derived hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid–phosphatidylethanolamines. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized role of eosinophils and enzymatic lipid oxidation as regulatory elements that facilitate both hemostasis and thrombosis in response to vascular injury, thus identifying promising new targets for the treatment of thrombotic disease. PMID:28566277

  19. Reduction of Eosinophils in Small Airways by Inhaled Steroids is Insufficient in Patients with Adult Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tanaka

    2006-01-01

    Conclusions: It was speculated that inhaled CFC-BDP and DP-FP might deposit mainly in large airways and fail to fully reach small airways, consequently allowing eosinophilic inflammation to continue in small airways.

  20. Eosinophilic funiculitis initially diagnosed as irreducible inguinal hernia: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Yamada

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Eosinophilic funiculitis is very rare; only three cases have been reported to date. We should always consider unusual causes of groin masses during a surgical approach to hernia-like lesions.

  1. Churg-Strauss syndrome presenting with acute renal insufficiency accompanied by eosinophilic tubulointerstitial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirohama, Daigoro; Hoshino, Junichi; Sumida, Keiichi; Hasegawa, Eiko; Hiramatsu, Rikako; Yamanouchi, Masayuki; Hayami, Noriko; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Sawa, Naoki; Takemoto, Fumi; Ubara, Yoshifumi; Hara, Shigeko; Ohashi, Kenichi; Takaichi, Kenmei

    2012-01-01

    We encountered an unusual and rare case of 59-year-old woman with Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) showing myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA)-related acute renal insufficiency accompanied by eosinophilic tubulointerstitial nephritis. To date, reports in English of CSS presenting with rapidly progressive/acute renal insufficiency and biopsy-proven renal lesions have been uncommon. Here, we discuss this unusual case and review the previously reported CSS cases. The complication of eosinophilic tubulointerstitial nephritis in CSS cases with acute renal insufficiency might be higher than generally thought. Furthermore, the presence of eosinophilic infiltration and eosinophilic tubulointerstitial nephritis might be associated with the good renal outcome in CSS patients.

  2. The Significance of Mast Cells and Eosinophils Counts in Surgically Resected Appendix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Kolur

    2014-06-01

    Materials and Methods: The material for study consisted of appendix specimens received for histopathological examination in the Department of pathology. A 5 year study was conducted, 3 years retrospective and 2 years prospective. Results: Out of 777 cases studied the incidence of appendicitis is high, in the first and second decades of life and slightly higher in females. Recurrent appendicitis was more common when compared to other inflamed appendices. Conclusions: Eosinophil counts in all the layers were very high in acute eosinophilic appendicitis compared to normal appendices. A higher mast cell count was seen in acute eosinophilic appendicitis and recurrent appendicitis. No correlation was found between mast cell and eosinophilic density. Our observations support the allergic theory of appendicitis rather than the obstructive theory. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(3.000: 150-153

  3. Thermal unfolding of eosinophil cationic protein/ribonuclease 3: A nonreversible process

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolovski, Zoran; Buzón, Víctor; Ribó, Marc; Moussaoui, Mohammed; Vilanova, Maria; Cuchillo, Claudi M.; Cladera, Josep; Nogués, M. Victòria

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP)/ribonuclease 3 is a member of the RNase A superfamily involved in inflammatory processes mediated by eosinophils. ECP is bactericidal, helminthotoxic, and cytotoxic to tracheal epithelium cells and to several mammalian cell lines although its RNase activity is low. We studied the thermal stability of ECP by fourth-derivative UV absorbance spectra, circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The T 1/2 val...

  4. T-Helper Type 2 Cells Direct Antigen-Induced Eosinophilic Skin Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminuma, Osamu; Nishimura, Tomoe; Kitamura, Noriko; Saeki, Mayumi; Hiroi, Takachika; Mori, Akio

    2018-01-01

    Eosinophilic inflammation in combination with immunoglobulin E (IgE) production is a characteristic feature of atopic dermatitis. Although activated T-helper type (Th) 2 cells play critical roles in the local accumulation and activation of eosinophils, whether they induce eosinophilic skin inflammation, independent of the IgE-mediated pathway has been unclear. To address the functional role of T cells in allergic skin diseases, we herein transferred Th1/Th2-differentiated or naive DO11.10 T cells into unprimed BALB/c mice. Ovalbumin-specific Th2 cells, as well as eosinophils, accumulated in the skin upon antigen challenge, despite the absence of antigen-specific IgE. Neither antigen-specific Th1 nor naive T cells induced eosinophil accumulation, although Th1 cells by themselves migrated into the skin. Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and eotaxin were specifically produced in the skin of antigen-challenged, Th2 cell-transferred mice, whereas interferon (IFN)-γ and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) were preferentially produced in Th1 cells-transferred mice. Production of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and MCP-3 was enhanced by both Th1 and Th2 cells. The accumulation of eosinophils and Th2 cells in the skin was suppressed by both dexamethasone and FK506, indicating an essential role of Th2 cells in eosinophil recruitment. We conclude that Th2 cells can induce eosinophilic infiltration into the skin in the absence of antigen-specific IgE. Copyright © 2018 The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology · The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease.

  5. Prevalence of eosinophilic gastritis, gastroenteritis, and colitis: Estimates from a national administrative database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Elizabeth T.; Martin, Christopher F.; Kappelman, Michael D.; Dellon, Evan S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is becoming increasingly more common, but the prevalence of other eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) is unknown. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of eosinophilic gastritis, gastroenteritis, and colitis in the U.S.. Methods We used the IMS Health LifeLink™, PharMetrics Plus™Claims Database, data representative of a U.S. national commercially-insured population containing medical and pharmaceutical claims for >75million individuals. We restricted our sample to patients age 0–64 with continuous enrollment between 7/1/2009–6/30/2011. We identified cases of eosinophilic gastritis, gastroenteritis, and colitis as defined by ≥1 instance of the ICD-9 codes 535.70, 558.41, and 558.42, respectively. We calculated the prevalence of the codes in the database and then standardized the estimates to the U.S. population by age and sex. Results The standardized estimated prevalences of eosinophilic gastritis, gastroenteritis, and colitis were 6.3/100,000, 8.4/100,000, and 3.3/100,000, respectively. The prevalence of eosinophilic gastroenteritis was highest among children age gastritis was more prevalent among older age groups. We observed no age differences for eosinophilic colitis. Among affected patients there was a high proportion of co-existing allergic conditions, 38.5% for eosinophilic gastritis, 45.6% for gastroenteritis, and 41.8% for colitis. Concomitant allergic disease was most commonly identified in pediatric patients. Conclusions The prevalence of non-EoE EGIDs remains rare in the U.S., with less than 50,000 total patients affected. There appears to be a female predominance, as well as a high co-occurrence of atopic comorbidities. PMID:25988554

  6. Th9 cells elicit eosinophil-independent bronchial hyperresponsiveness in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Mayumi; Kaminuma, Osamu; Nishimura, Tomoe; Kitamura, Noriko; Mori, Akio; Hiroi, Takachika

    2016-09-01

    Airway accumulation of eosinophils and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) are prominent features of bronchial asthma, though the contribution of eosinophils to the development of BHR is controversial. Similar to Th2 cell-mediated pathology, Th9 cells, characterized by IL-9-producing activity, have been demonstrated to induce airway eosinophilia and BHR. In this study, we investigated the role of eosinophils in Th9-mediated BHR by employing Th9 cell-transferred murine airway inflammation model. Ovalbumin (OVA)-specific Th2 and Th9 cells were differentiated from CD4(+) T cells of DO11.10/RAG-2(-/-) mice in vitro and cytokine-producing activity of those cells was examined. BALB/c mice were adoptively transferred with Th2 or Th9 cells and challenged with OVA. Then, the number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and bronchial responsiveness to inhaled methacholine were determined. Both in Th2 and Th9 cell-transferred mice, substantial accumulation of eosinophils in the lungs and BHR were induced by challenge with specific antigen. Nevertheless, an essential and dispensable role of eosinophils in Th2- and Th9-mediated BHR, respectively, was demonstrated by employing eosinophil-deficient mice. The neutralization of IL-9 as well as deficiency of IL-10 in the donor cells did not affect Th9-mediated BHR. In contrast to Th2-mediated and eosinophil-dependent BHR, Th9 could induce BHR independently from eosinophils and its characteristic cytokines, IL-9 and IL-10. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a young girl – long term remission under Montelukast

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    Rump Lars C

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders are an emerging disease entity characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the intestinal wall. Oral steroids can be still considered as first line treatment. Unfortunately relapses are quite common. Usually long term low-dose prednisone or immunosuppressive therapy is required, which is especially problematic in young patients. Thus a reliable steroid sparing agent with low side effects suitable for long term use is needed. There are strong hints to a similar pathophysiology of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders to that of asthma. Indeed leukotriene D4 plays an important role in the recruitment of eosinophils into the intestinal tissue causing damage. This patho-mechanism provides the rationale for the treatment with a leukotriene D4 receptor antagonist. Recently there have been first reports about successful short term use of Montelukast in eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. Case presentation We report the case of a 17 year old girl with a long history of severe abdominal complaints leading to several hospitalizations in the past. Mimicking the picture of an intestinal tuberculosis she received an anti mycobacterial treatment without any success. Marked eosinophilia in blood, ascites and tissue samples of the intestinal tract finally lead to the diagnosis eosinophilic gastroenteritis. Tapering off prednisone caused another severe episode of abdominal pain. At that point leukotriene antagonist Montelukast was started at a dose of 10 mg once daily. Steroids could be tapered off completely within six weeks. The patient has been free of symptoms for over two years by now. Routine examinations, blood tests and endoscopy have rendered regular results. So far no side effects were noted. Conclusion Here report about successful long term remission of eosinophilic gastroenteritis under Montelukast. Further randomized control trials are required to asses the full benefits of

  8. Reduced Leukocyte Infiltration in Absence of Eosinophils Correlates with Decreased Tissue Damage and Disease Susceptibility in ΔdblGATA Mice during Murine Neurocysticercosis.

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    Pramod K Mishra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC is one of the most common helminth parasitic diseases of the central nervous system (CNS and the leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. NCC is caused by the presence of the metacestode larvae of the tapeworm Taenia solium within brain tissues. NCC patients exhibit a long asymptomatic phase followed by a phase of symptoms including increased intra-cranial pressure and seizures. While the asymptomatic phase is attributed to the immunosuppressive capabilities of viable T. solium parasites, release of antigens by dying organisms induce strong immune responses and associated symptoms. Previous studies in T. solium-infected pigs have shown that the inflammatory response consists of various leukocyte populations including eosinophils, macrophages, and T cells among others. Because the role of eosinophils within the brain has not been investigated during NCC, we examined parasite burden, disease susceptibility and the composition of the inflammatory reaction in the brains of infected wild type (WT and eosinophil-deficient mice (ΔdblGATA using a murine model of NCC in which mice were infected intracranially with Mesocestoides corti, a cestode parasite related to T. solium. In WT mice, we observed a time-dependent induction of eosinophil recruitment in infected mice, contrasting with an overall reduced leukocyte infiltration in ΔdblGATA brains. Although, ΔdblGATA mice exhibited an increased parasite burden, reduced tissue damage and less disease susceptibility was observed when compared to infected WT mice. Cellular infiltrates in infected ΔdblGATA mice were comprised of more mast cells, and αβ T cells, which correlated with an abundant CD8+ T cell response and reduced CD4+ Th1 and Th2 responses. Thus, our data suggest that enhanced inflammatory response in WT mice appears detrimental and associates with increased disease susceptibility, despite the reduced parasite burden in the CNS. Overall reduced leukocyte

  9. Correlation between eosinophil count and soil-transmitted helminth infection in children

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    Syilvia Jiero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infection and its correlation with eosinophil counts among elementary school children within the Medan Belawan District, North Sumatera Province, Indonesia. Methods: Ninety-nine subjects participated in this study (ascariasis, n = 40; trichuriasis, n = 9; mixed infection, n = 50. Stool samples were examined by using the Kato-Katz method, and blood samples were examined by using peripheral blood smears. Results: The prevalence of STH infection in children from two elementary schools was 65.4%; the baseline prevalences of ascariasis, trichuriasis, and mixed infection were 37.1%, 21.9%, and 40.8%, respectively. The respective mean eosinophil counts among children with ascariasis, trichuriasis, and mixed infection were 7.18%, 8.11%, and 8.64% (P = 0.32, and the respective prevalences of eosinophilia were 47.5%, 77.8%, and 70% (P = 0.05. The eosinophil counts correlated significantly with the number of eggs per gram of feces; ascariasis correlated strongly (P < 0.001; r = 0.62, and trichuriasis showed correlated weakly (P = 0.04; r = 0.21 with this parameter. The mean eosinophil count correlated significantly with STH infection intensity (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Eosinophil counts correlated strongly with ascariasis while weakly with trichuriasis. We determined that eosinophil count may be used as a marker of STH infection.

  10. Life-threatening eosinophilic pleuropericardial effusion related to vitamins B5 and H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debourdeau, P M; Djezzar, S; Estival, J L; Zammit, C M; Richard, R C; Castot, A C

    2001-04-01

    To report a case of eosinophilic pleuropericarditis resulting from concomitant use of vitamins B5 and H. A 76-year-old white woman was admitted to the hospital because of chest pain and dyspnea related to pleurisy and a pericardial tamponade. This patient had no history of allergy and had been taking vitamins B5 and H for two months. Blood tests performed showed an inflammatory syndrome and a high eosinophil concentration (1200-1500 cells/mm3). Pleurocentesis and pericardiotomy yielded a sterile exudative fluid with an eosinophilic infiltrate. There were no nuclear antibodies and no rheumatic factor; screenings for viruses, parasites, bacteria, and malignant tumor were negative. A myelogram, biopsy of the iliac crest bone, and concentration of immunoglobulin E were also normal. After withdrawal of the vitamins, the patient recovered and the eosinophilia disappeared. Prolonged hypereosinophilia has marked predilection to damage specific organs, including the heart, but pleuropericardial effusion is uncommon. Drug-related pleuropericarditis usually occurs without an increased eosinophil count. Other drugs responsible for eosinophilic pleuropericarditis are cephalosporins, dantrolene, propylthiouracil, and nitrofurantoin. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of pleuropericarditis related to vitamins B5 and H. This case suggests that vitamins B5 and H may cause symptomatic, life-threatening, eosinophilic pleuropericarditis. Physicians prescribing these commonly used vitamins should be aware of this potential adverse reaction.

  11. An experimental study of inner ear injury in an animal model of eosinophilic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Atsushi; Nishizawa, Hisanori; Kurose, Akira; Nakagawa, Takashi; Takahata, Junko; Sasaki, Akira

    2014-03-01

    As the periods of intratympanic injection of ovalbumin (OVA) to the middle ear became longer, marked eosinophil infiltration in the perilymphatic space was observed. Moreover severe morphological damage of the organ of Corti was observed in the 28-day antigen-stimulation side. These results indicate that eosinophilic inflammation occurred in the inner ear and caused profound hearing loss. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the inner ear damage in a new animal model of eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) which we recently constructed. We constructed the animal model of EOM by intraperitoneal and intratympanic injection of OVA. Infiltrating cells and the inner ear damage were examined by histological study. In the inner ear, a few eosinophils were seen in the scala tympani of the organ of Corti and the dilation of capillaries of the stria vascularis was observed in the 7-day stimulation side. In the 14-day antigen stimulation side, some eosinophils and macrophages were seen in not only the scala tympani but also the scala vestibule. In the 28-day antigen-stimulation side, severe morphological damage of the organ of Corti and many eosinophils, red blood cells, and plasma cells infiltrating the perilymph were observed.

  12. Immunohistological analysis of eotaxin and RANTES in the model animal of eosinophilic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Naomi; Matsubara, Atsushi; Nishizawa, Hisanori; Miura, Tomoya

    2017-05-01

    The most crucial clinical problem of Eosinophilic Otitis Media (EOM) is sensorineural hearing loss. A previous report revealed that repeated antigen stimulation of middle ear causes eosinophilic inflammation not only in the middle ear but also in the inner ear. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism of eosinophil infiltration to the inner ear in the animal model of EOM. Continuous OVA stimulation to the middle ear of guinea pigs was performed for 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days. Histological observation was made for eosinophil infiltration and morphological change of the inner ear. Immunostaining for eotaxin and RANTES was performed to study immunoreactivity of those chemokines. In the 7-day stimulation side, a few eosinophils were found in the scala tympani, without obvious morphological damage of the inner ear. Moreover, immunoreactivity of both eotaxin and RANTES was significantly higher in the OVA stimulation sides than control sides. For both eotaxin and RANTES, the number of immunopositive cells was significantly increased in the 14-day stimulation side over the 7-day stimulation side. Eotaxin and RANTES seem to play some important roles for the eosinophil infiltration in the middle and inner ear of model animal of EOM.

  13. Evaluation of the eosinophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenigun, Alper; Sezen, Seda; Calim, Omer Faruk; Ozturan, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction of the nasal mucosa, the primary mediator of which is immunoglobulin E. Allergic rhinitis occurs in children and adolescents. This study examined the relationship between allergies and the eosinophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in children with allergic rhinitis with a positive skin-prick test. This study was planned and performed as a case-control study. There were 695 patients who presented to our clinic who were enrolled in the study. Only group 4 fit the criteria for allergic rhinitis. Group 1 (nonsensitized asymptomatic [control group]), group 2 (nonsensitized symptomatic), group 3 (sensitized asymptomatic), and group 4 (sensitized symptomatic). The patients' allergy symptoms and skin test results were assessed and compared. The eosinophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for each patient was calculated. The eosinophil and lymphocyte counts and the eosinophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were calculated for each group. The eosinophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and eosinophil counts in groups 3 and 4 were significantly higher (p pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis. This parameter is inexpensive to measure and easy to use and calculate.

  14. Eosinophil as a Protective Cell in S. aureus Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

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    Ana Rodriguez-Fernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell counts of leukocytes subpopulations are demonstrating to have an important value in predicting outcome in severe infections. We evaluated here the render of leukogram counts to predict outcome in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Data from patients admitted to the ICU of Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid from 2006 to 2011 with diagnosis of VAP caused by S. aureus were retrospectively collected for the study (n=44. Leukocyte counts were collected at ICU admission and also at VAP diagnosis. Our results showed that nonsurvivors had significant lower eosinophil counts at VAP diagnosis. Multivariate Cox regression analysis performed by the Wald test for forward selection showed that eosinophil increments from ICU admission to VAP diagnosis and total eosinophil counts at VAP diagnosis were protective factors against mortality in the first 28 days following diagnosis: (HR [CI 95%], P: (0.996 [0.993–0.999], 0.010; (0.370 [0.180–0.750], 0.006. Patients with eosinophil counts <30 cells/mm3 at diagnosis died earlier. Eosinophil counts identified survivors: (AUROC [CI 95%], P: (0.701 [0.519–0.882], 0.042. Eosinophil behaves as a protective cell in patients with VAP caused by S. aureus.

  15. Heightened systemic levels of neutrophil and eosinophil granular proteins in pulmonary tuberculosis and reversal following treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moideen, Kadar; Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Nair, Dina; Banurekha, Vaithilingam V; Bethunaickan, Ramalingam; Babu, Subash

    2018-04-09

    Granulocytes are activated during tuberculosis (TB) infection and act as immune effector cells and granulocyte responses are implicated in TB pathogenesis. Plasma levels of neutrophil and eosinophil granular proteins provide an indirect measure of degranulation. In this study, we wanted to examine the levels of neutrophil and eosinophil granular proteins in individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and to compare them with the levels in latent TB (LTB) individuals. Hence, we measured the plasma levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), neutrophil elastase, and proteinase-3; major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) in these individuals. Finally, we also measured the levels of all of these parameters in PTB individuals following anti-tuberculosis (ATT) treatment. Our data reveal that PTB individuals are characterized by significantly higher plasma levels of MPO, elastase, human proteinase 3 as well as MBP and EDN in comparison to LTB individuals. Our data also reveal that ATT resulted in reversal of all of these changes, indicating an association with TB disease. Finally, our data show that the systemic levels of MPO and proteinase-3 can significantly discriminate PTB from LTB individuals. Thus, our data suggest that neutrophil and eosinophil granular proteins could play a potential role in the innate immune response and therefore, the pathogenesis of pulmonary TB. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Gastro-oesophageal reflux, eosinophilic airway inflammation and chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Adalberto; Faro, Vicenta; Cobeta, Ignacio; Royuela, Ana; Molyneux, Ian; Morice, Alyn H

    2011-08-01

    Patients with eosinophilic airway inflammation (EAI) often show a therapeutic response to corticosteroids. Non-invasive methods of diagnosing EAI are potentially useful in guiding therapy, particularly in conditions such as chronic cough, for which corticosteroids may not be the first-line treatment. The value of exhaled nitric oxide (ENO) in the diagnosis of EAI was prospectively investigated in a cohort of 116 patients with chronic cough of varying aetiology. An optimum cut-off value was derived for differentiating between EAI and non-EAI causes of chronic cough. As the diagnosis was gastro-oesophageal reflux in 70 patients (60.3% of the total), the possible relationship between ENO and EAI in the presence or absence of reflux was subsequently investigated. The optimum value of ENO for differentiating EAI (32% of patients) from non-EAI causes of cough was 33 parts per billion (sensitivity 60.5%, specificity 84.6%). In the subgroup of patients with reflux, ENO was highly specific for the diagnosis of EAI (sensitivity 66%, specificity 100%). Conversely, in the patients without reflux, ENO did not discriminate between cough due to EAI or other causes (sensitivity 100%, specificity 28.9%). These results suggest that the presence or absence of reflux should be taken into consideration when interpreting ENO measurements in the diagnosis of chronic cough associated with EAI. © 2011 The Authors. Respirology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  17. Eosinophilic esophagitis: A relevant entity for the otolaryngologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górriz-Gil, Carmen; Villarreal, Ithzel M; Álvarez-Montero, Óscar; Rodríguez-Valiente, Antonio; Magaz, Marta; García-Berrocal, José R

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a recently recognised pathologic entity whose prevalence has risen significantly since it was first described. Its diagnosis represents a challenge for different medical specialties, among which ENT specialists play an important role. Clinical suspicion in a patient with recurrent food impaction or a child with eating disorders and history of hypersensitivity constitutes the first warning sign of a possible EE. The purpose of this review is to highlight EE as a possible differential diagnosis in patients with deglutition disorders and describe the possible clinical symptoms that should alert the ENT specialist to perform appropriate diagnostic tests and procedures. The transnasal esophagoscopy, performed in-office by the ENT, is ideal for reducing possible underdiagnosed cases. Given the fact that an ENT specialist will evaluate a great many patients with deglutition disorders, it is paramount for possible EE cases to be suspected and recognised so that a correct multidisciplinary approach involving not only ENT specialists but also paediatricians, gastroenterologists, allergologists and pathologists can be established. Identifying the dietary component responsible for the esophageal inflammation and removing that food from the patient's diet is the key in the treatment of this immune-mediated disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  18. Zinc oxide nanoparticles induce eosinophilic airway inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Liang; Lee, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Hau-Inh; Liao, Huang-Shen; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2015-10-30

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been widely used in industry. The metal composition of PM2.5 might contribute to the higher prevalence of asthma. To investigate the effects of ZnO NPs on allergic airway inflammation, mice were first exposed to different concentrations of ZnO NPs (0.1 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg) or to a combination of ZnO NPs and chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA) by oropharyngeal aspiration on day 0 and day 7 and then were sacrificed 5 days later. The subsequent time course of airway inflammation in the mice after ZnO NPs exposure was evaluated on days 1, 7, and 14. To further determine the role of zinc ions, ZnCl2 was also administered. The inflammatory cell count, cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung histopathology were examined. We found significant neutrophilia after exposure to high-dose ZnO NPs on day 1 and significant eosinophilia in the BALF at 7 days. However, the expression levels of the T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 increased significantly after 24h of exposure to only ZnO NPs and then decreased gradually. These results suggested that ZnO NPs could cause eosinophilic airway inflammation in the absence of allergens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Induction of malignant plasma cell proliferation by eosinophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina W Wong

    Full Text Available The biology of the malignant plasma cells (PCs in multiple myeloma (MM is highly influenced by the bone marrow (BM microenvironment in which they reside. More specifically, BM stromal cells (SCs are known to interact with MM cells to promote MM cell survival and proliferation. By contrast, it is unclear if innate immune cells within this same space also actively participate in the pathology of MM. Our study shows for the first time that eosinophils (Eos can contribute to the biology of MM by enhancing the proliferation of some malignant PCs. We first demonstrate that PCs and Eos can be found in close proximity in the BM. In culture, Eos were found to augment MM cell proliferation that is predominantly mediated through a soluble factor(s. Fractionation of cell-free supernatants and neutralization studies demonstrated that this activity is independent of Eos-derived microparticles and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL, respectively. Using a multicellular in vitro system designed to resemble the native MM niche, SCs and Eos were shown to have non-redundant roles in their support of MM cell growth. Whereas SCs induce MM cell proliferation predominantly through the secretion of IL-6, Eos stimulate growth of these malignant cells via an IL-6-independent mechanism. Taken together, our study demonstrates for the first time a role for Eos in the pathology of MM and suggests that therapeutic strategies targeting these cells may be beneficial.

  20. Rapid Growing Eosinophilic Granuloma in Skull after Minor Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ji; Jo, Kwang Wook

    2015-04-01

    The authors present a case of rapidly progressing eosinophilic granuloma (EG) of the skull without hemorrhage after minor trauma. A 6-year-old boy presented with a soft mass on the midline of his forehead. He had a surgery for EG 19 months ago. One month earlier, computed tomography (CT) and bone scans were performed to evaluate the possible recurrence of EG, and there was no evidence of recurrence in CT. However, a slightly increased uptake in the bone scan was noted on the midline of the forehead. A rapid growing mass developed in a new spot after a minor trauma 7 days before the patient arrived at the clinic. His physical examination was unremarkable, except for a non-tender, soft, and immobile mass. A plain skull X-ray and CT showed a lytic bony defect on the midline of the frontal bone. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 1.4 cm sized enhancing mass. Surgical resection and cranioplasty were done. The role of trauma in the development of EG is unclear. However, our case suggests that minor trauma is an aggravating factor for EG formation. Careful observation with regular follow-up is necessary in patients with EG after minor trauma.

  1. What's new in the diagnosis and therapy of eosinophilic esophagitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex; Hruz, Petr

    2009-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a relatively new chronic inflammatory disease of the esophagus. Novel aspects in the diagnosis and treatment of EoE are discussed in this review. Development of diagnostic guidelines consisting of symptoms as well as endoscopic and histopathologic criteria has improved the awareness of clinicians and the diagnosing of EoE. The clinically challenging discrimination of EoE from gastroesophageal reflux disease has become more obvious and has evoked the need for more individualized therapy options. Today, most patients with EoE can be treated successfully with topical corticosteroids. However, no convincing alternative treatment strategies exist for corticosteroid-refractory or corticosteroid-dependent patients. Interestingly, a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the eotaxin-3 gene has been linked to increased disease susceptibility for EoE. EoE is an emerging esophageal disease. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of this disorder would improve the clinical recognition and diagnostic ability and ultimately provide patients with more optimal treatment options.

  2. Expression and subcellular localization of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 in human eosinophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Lívia A.S.; Dias, Felipe F.; Malta, Kássia K.; Amaral, Kátia B. [Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Shamri, Revital; Weller, Peter F. [Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Melo, Rossana C.N., E-mail: rossana.melo@ufjf.edu.br [Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Background: SNARE members mediate membrane fusion during intracellular trafficking underlying innate and adaptive immune responses by different cells. However, little is known about the expression and function of these proteins in human eosinophils, cells involved in allergic, inflammatory and immunoregulatory responses. Here, we investigate the expression and distribution of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 (STX17) within human eosinophils isolated from the peripheral blood. Methods: Flow cytometry and a pre-embedding immunonanogold electron microscopy (EM) technique that combines optimal epitope preservation and secondary Fab-fragments of antibodies linked to 1.4 nm gold particles for optimal access to microdomains, were used to investigate STX17. Results: STX17 was detected within unstimulated eosinophils. Immunogold EM revealed STX17 on secretory granules and on granule-derived vesiculotubular transport carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles-EoSVs). Quantitative EM analyses showed that 77.7% of the granules were positive for STX17 with a mean±SEM of 3.9±0.2 gold particles/granule. Labeling was present on both granule outer membranes and matrices while EoSVs showed clear membrane-associated labeling. STX17 was also present in secretory granules in eosinophils stimulated with the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or the CC-chemokine ligand 11 CCL11 (eotaxin-1), stimuli that induce eosinophil degranulation. The number of secretory granules labeled for STX17 was significantly higher in CCL11 compared with the unstimulated group. The level of cell labeling did not change when unstimulated cells were compared with TNF-α-stimulated eosinophils. Conclusions: The present study clearly shows by immunanonogold EM that STX17 is localized in eosinophil secretory granules and transport vesicles and might be involved in the transport of granule-derived cargos. - Highlights: • First demonstration of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin-17 (STX17) in human eosinophils. • High

  3. Association of Blood Eosinophil and Blood Neutrophil Counts with Asthma Exacerbations in the Copenhagen General Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Lange, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood eosinophil count is a marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation and disease severity in asthma. However, blood neutrophil count might also be associated with disease severity. We tested the hypothesis that high blood eosinophil and neutrophil counts are both associated...... with the risk of asthma exacerbations among individuals with asthma from the general population. METHODS: From the Copenhagen General Population Study with 81351 participants, we included 4838 with self-reported asthma. We recorded baseline blood eosinophil and neutrophil counts, and asthma exacerbations during...... with blood eosinophil counts >0.29 × 10(9)/L (highest tertile) vs individuals with blood eosinophil counts neutrophils, the multivariable-adjusted IRRs were 2.14 (1.74-2.63) for moderate exacerbations and 1.18 (0.89-1.55) for severe exacerbations for individuals...

  4. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  5. Salbutamol delays human eosinophil apoptosis via a cAMP-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaanranta, Hannu; Parkkonen, Jouni; Ilmarinen-Salo, Pinja; Giembycz, Mark A; Moilanen, Eeva

    2011-08-01

    Eosinophils play a major role in asthma. One described mechanism leading to the impaired clearance of these cells from the lung is the delay in their programmed cell death (apoptosis). β(2)-Adrenoceptor agonists have been shown to prolong survival and delay apoptosis of eosinophils. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mechanisms, especially the role of cAMP pathway, in the prolongation of human eosinophil survival by a selective β(2)-agonist salbutamol. Isolated human peripheral blood eosinophils were cultured in the absence or presence of a β(2)-agonist salbutamol and the indicated antagonists/inhibitors under sterile conditions. Apoptosis was measured by using the relative DNA fragmentation assay and Annexin-V binding. Salbutamol prolonged survival of human eosinophils and it was inhibited by a β-receptor antagonist propranolol and mimicked by cell-permeant cAMP analogues dibutyryl- and 8-bromo-cAMP. Pharmacological inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase (SQ-22,536) and protein kinase A (Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS) antagonized the effects of salbutamol. The survival-prolonging action of salbutamol was potentiated by a phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram (EC(50) for the salbutamol effect was 13.6 ± 4.0 and 8.1 ± 3.1 nM in the absence and presence of rolipram, respectively; p=0.0142, n=10). In contrast, inhibition of Ca(2+)-activated K(+)-channels by apamin, charybdotoxin, iberiotoxin or paxilline did not affect the ability of salbutamol to prolong eosinophil survival. Taken together, the present results suggest that salbutamol at clinically relevant concentrations decreases apoptosis in human eosinophils by activating the cannonical β(2)-receptor-adenylyl cyclase-cAMP-protein kinase A pathway. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of sputum and blood eosinophil concentrations with clinical measures of COPD severity: an analysis of the SPIROMICS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Annette T; Martinez, Fernando J; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Doerschuk, Claire M; Hansel, Nadia N; Christenson, Stephanie; Putcha, Nirupama; Ortega, Victor E; Li, Xingnan; Barr, R Graham; Carretta, Elizabeth E; Couper, David J; Cooper, Christopher B; Hoffman, Eric A; Kanner, Richard E; Kleerup, Eric; O'Neal, Wanda K; Paine, Richard; Peters, Stephen P; Alexis, Neil E; Woodruff, Prescott G; Han, MeiLan K; Meyers, Deborah A; Bleecker, Eugene R

    2017-12-01

    Increased concentrations of eosinophils in blood and sputum in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been associated with increased frequency of exacerbations, reduced lung function, and corticosteroid responsiveness. We aimed to assess whether high eosinophil concentrations in either sputum or blood are associated with a severe COPD phenotype, including greater exacerbation frequency, and whether blood eosinophils are predictive of sputum eosinophils. We did a multicentre observational study analysing comprehensive baseline data from SPIROMICS in patients with COPD aged 40-80 years who had a smoking history of at least 20 pack-years, recruited from six clinical sites and additional subsites in the USA between Nov 12, 2010, and April 21, 2015. Inclusion criteria for this analysis were SPIROMICS baseline visit data with complete blood cell counts and, in a subset, acceptable sputum counts. We stratified patients on the basis of blood and sputum eosinophil concentrations and compared their demographic characteristics, as well as results from questionnaires, clinical assessments, and quantitative CT (QCT). We also analysed whether blood eosinophil concentrations reliably predicted sputum eosinophil concentrations. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01969344). Of the 2737 patients recruited to SPIROMICS, 2499 patients were smokers and had available blood counts, and so were stratified by mean blood eosinophil count: 1262 patients with low (test scores, Body-mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise index, or Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage. Blood eosinophil counts showed a weak but significant association with sputum eosinophil counts (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0·64, p<0·0001), but with a high false-discovery rate of 72%. In a large, well characterised cohort of former and current smoking patients with a broad range of COPD severity, high concentrations of sputum

  7. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Clinical Features, Endoscopic Findings and Response to Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Enns

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE is a motility disorder of the esophagus that typically presents with dysphagia. The objective of the present study was to explore patient characteristics, clinical and endoscopic features, and response to treatment of patients with EE. Patients were selected retrospectively based on a review of biopsy results from previous endoscopies performed between 2004 and 2008. A total of 54 patients (41 men and 13 women with biopsy-proven EE were included in the study. Further information regarding the patients’ clinical and endoscopic features, and response to treatment were obtained through chart reviews and patient telephone interviews. The mean age of the patients at symptom onset was 30 years. All patients complained of dysphagia, 81% had a history of bolus obstruction, 43% had a history of asthma and 70% had a history of environmental allergies. Thirty-three per cent had a family history of asthma, while 52% had a family history of food or seasonal allergies. The most common endoscopic findings were rings and/or corrugations, which were found in 63% of patients. Swallowed fluticasone therapy resulted in symptom resolution in 74% of patients; however, 79% of these patients relapsed after discontinuing fluticasone therapy and required repeat treatments. Esophageal dilation was complication free and resulted in improvement in 80% of patients. However, 83% of those reporting improvement relapsed within one year. The clinical and endoscopic findings were similar to those found in the literature, with most patients requiring ongoing, repeated therapies. Further studies are needed to assess the safety and efficacy of treatment modalities ideally suited to patients with EE.

  8. Products of neutrophils and eosinophils increase the responsiveness of human isolated bronchial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallahan, A R; Armour, C L; Black, J L

    1990-05-01

    This study examines the possibility that products of neutrophils and eosinophils could increase the responsiveness of human isolated bronchial tissue. Neutrophils and eosinophils were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. The cells were incubated with 1 microM calcium ionophore A23187 for 10-15 min then centrifuged, the supernatant collected and stored at -70 degrees C. Human bronchial rings (2-3 mm diameter, 3-4 mm long) were prepared from specimens resected at thoracotomy. The tissues were suspended in organ baths under a 1 g load and changes in tension measured isometrically. Stable contractions to bolus doses of histamine (0.1-10 microM) or to electrical field stimulation (40-100 V, 4-16 Hz, 1 ms for 20 s) were established. Supernatant from 106 neutrophils or 105 eosinophils was then added and tissue responsiveness reassessed. Neutrophil supernatant increased tissue responsiveness to histamine and electrical field stimulation by 54 +/- 17% (n = 5, p less than 0.05) and 18 +/- 7% (n = 6, p less than 0.05), respectively. Eosinophil supernatant increased the histamine response by 60 +/- 23% (n = 8, p less than 0.05) while tissue responsiveness to electrical field stimulation was unchanged (n = 3). Thus, as neutrophils and eosinophils can change the responsiveness of human bronchus in vitro it is possible that they do this in vivo and may not simply be temporally related to the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

  9. [Non allergic simple eosinophilic pneumonia--Löffler syndrome--a case report study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meta-Jevtović, Ivana; Tomović, Miroslav S; Mojsilović, Slavica; Petrović, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Löffler syndrome is an acute, pneumonia of unknown ethiology. This disease is not often associated with bronchial asthma. In its asymptomatic form, this disease is reversible, transient, self-limited with no requests for specific therapy regimen. In the symptomatic form, as well as during its progression, treatment with steroids is very effective. Furthermore, in both acute eosinophilic and idiopathic chronic eosinophilic form, this kind of therapy ensures survival. The case of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman was presented with 2-month history of low grade fever, shortness of breath, cough and reduced exercise tolerance. Although she had an allergic accident on insects in history, non allergy reactions as well as an obstructive disease with that kind of origin were not detected on admission. The diagnosis of simple eosinophilic pneumonia (SEP) (Löffler's syndrome) was confirmed by transbronchial biopsy and by sternal testing. The peripheral blood eosinophilia with pulmonary eosinophilic infiltrates on X ray chest radiography were observed during clinical examination. Biopsy specimen of the lung parenchym showed changes associated with Löffler's syndrome. The diagnosis was, also, confirmed according to the radiographic findings of unilateral migratory infiltrates consistent pneumonia. Churg Strauss syndrome (CSS) has to be considered in this differential diagnosis. Frequently, this disease has extrinsic bronchial asthma with eosinophilic pneumonia in history: asthma is often associated with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. In the reported case, treatment with steroids resulted in a marked clinical improvement compared to nonsteroid therapy.

  10. The effect of omalizumab on eosinophilic inflammation of the respiratory tract in patients with allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupryś-Lipińska, Izabela; Molińska, Katarzyna; Kuna, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is characterised by high levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukins IL-4, IL-13 and IL-5 needed for, amongst other things, the production of IgE and the differentiation, maturation, migration and survival of eosinophils. Eosinophils are one of the most important cells in allergic inflammation. Their presence in tissue is linked to the persistence of inflammatory infiltrate, tissue damage and remodelling. Although these cells are very sensitive to corticosteroids, some asthmatic patients do not respond to high doses of these drugs, even when administered systemically. Transbronchial biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage performed in patients with steroid-resistant asthma have demonstrated higher levels of eosinophils and Th2-type cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) compared to steroid-sensitive patients. Clinical studies have confirmed that the very effective treatment in these cases is therapy with omalizumab - an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody. The paper discusses the efficacy of omalizumab in reducing eosinophil number in peripheral blood and in the airways of asthmatic patients based on basic, clinical, observational studies and case reports. The significance of omalizumab therapy in asthma control and mechanisms that regulate the effects of omalizumab on eosinophils are evaluated.

  11. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children from Western Saudi Arabia: Relative Frequency, Clinical, Pathological, Endoscopic, and Immunological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar I. Saadah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE is an evolving allergic disease with an accelerated incidence. The purpose of this study was to delineate the relative frequency and clinicopathological characteristics of EE in children from western Saudi Arabia. Methods. Children with EE were studied retrospectively between October 2002 and December 2011 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital and International Medical Center. Results. The relative frequency of EE was 0.85% of 2127 upper gastrointestinal endoscopies performed during the study period. Eighteen patients were identified with EE. The median age was 8.6 years (range, 1.5–18 years. Thirteen (72.2% were males. Dysphagia and vomiting were the most common symptoms. Ten (55.6% children had history of atopy. Testing for food allergy by skin prick test was positive in 11 (61.1%. The most common endoscopic abnormalities were mucosal longitudinal furrow and loss of vascular pattern followed by patchy specks and strictures. The histopathological findings included increased intraepithelial eosinophils, eosinophilic degranulation, lamina propria fibrosis, and eosinophilic microabscesses. Treatment was initiated by swallowed topical corticosteroids in 12 (66.7% and oral prednisolone in 6 (33% patients, followed by low dose of topical corticosteroids and dietary elimination. Conclusions. Eosinophilic esophagitis is an uncommon but evolving problem. A high index of suspicion is required for early identifications and intervention to avoid possible complications.

  12. Evaluation of plasma eosinophil count and mean platelet volume in patients with coronary slow flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Demir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of coronary slow flow has not been clearly defined, although multiple abnormalities including arteritis, endothelial dysfunction, and atherothrombosis, have been reported. It is known that eosinophils play an important role in inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and thrombosis. We aimed to compare the eosinophil counts of coronary slow flow patients versus healthy controls. METHODS: This study included 50 coronary slow flow patients (19 males, mean age 65.6±13.7 years and 30 healthy controls (10 males, mean age 57.86±11.6 years. These participants were evaluated using concurrent routine biochemical tests as well as neutrophil, lymphocyte, and eosinophil counts and mean platelet volume (MPV, which were obtained from the whole blood count. These parameters were compared between groups. RESULTS: The baseline characteristics of the study groups were comparable. The coronary slow flow patients had a higher mean platelet volume and eosinophil count than the control group (8.38±0.86 vs 6.28±1.6 fL and 0.31±0.42 vs 0.09±0.05; p<0.001 and 0.008, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated a relationship between eosinophil count and MPV in patients with coronary slow flow.

  13. Molecular cloning of the human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin: A member of the ribonuclease gene family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, H.F.; Tenen, D.G.; Ackerman, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have isolated a 725-base-pair cDNA clone for human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN). EDN is a distinct cationic protein of the eosinophil's large specific granule known primarily for its ability to induce ataxia, paralysis, and central nervous system cellular degeneration in experimental animals (Gordon phenomenon). The open reading frame encodes a 134-amino acid mature polypeptide with a molecular mass of 15.5 kDa and a 27-residue amino-terminal hydrophobic leader sequence. The sequence of the mature polypeptide is identical to that reported for human urinary ribonuclease, and to the amino-terminal sequence of human liver ribonuclease; the cDNA encodes a tryptophan in position 7. Both EDN and the related granule protein, eosinophil cationic protein, have ribonucleolytic activity; sequence similarities among EDN, eosinophil cationic protein, ribonucleases from liver, urine, and pancreas, and angiogenin define a ribonuclease multigene family. mRNA encoding EDN was detected in uninduced HL-60 cells and was up-regulated in cells induced toward eosinophilic differentiation with B-cell growth factor 2/interleukin 5 and toward neutrophilic differentiation with dimethyl sulfoxide. EDN mRNA was detected in mature neutrophils even though EDN-like neurotoxic activity is not found neutrophil extracts. These results suggest that neutrophils contain a protein that is closely related or identical to EDN

  14. Effect of the KTP laser in inferior turbinate surgery on eosinophil influx in allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusakul, Supinda; Choktaweekarn, Thitima; Snidvongs, Kornkiat; Phannaso, Chuntima; Aeumjaturapat, Songklot

    2011-02-01

    Intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) are first-line medications for moderate to severe allergic rhinitis (AR). Patients who have had nasal congestion for many years often develop inferior turbinate (IT) hypertrophy. Some patients are refractory to INCS yet decline to receive allergen-specific immunotherapy. IT reduction is then indicated. There have been very few studies evaluating the allergic biomarker changes after IT reduction in AR. This study aimed to determine the effect of potassium titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser IT surgery on eosinophil influx after challenge with dust mites. A randomized prospective controlled study. Tertiary academic rhinology clinic. Thirty-five house dust mite AR patients were randomly assigned to receive either INCS or KTP laser IT surgery. On the first visit, 2 nasal lavages prior to and 6 hours after challenge with Dermatophagiodes pteronyssinus were performed before receiving treatment. On the second visit, 3 months after treatment, the same procedures were repeated. No antiallergic medications were allowed for 2 weeks before each visit. Net changes in eosinophil numbers in the lavages were compared at baseline and 3 months after treatment and between the 2 treatments. Treatment with KTP laser IT surgery resulted in a significant reduction in eosinophil influx after nasal challenge (P = .013), whereas such a reduction was not shown in the control. However, the net changes in the percentage of eosinophils were not different between the 2 groups at either visit. KTP laser IT surgery reduces eosinophil influx after nasal challenge in perennial AR.

  15. Cutoff point for exhaled nitric oxide corresponding to 3% sputum eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Puebla, M J; Olaguibel Rivera, J M; Almudevar, E; Echegoyen, A A; de Esteban Chocarro, B; Cambra, K

    2015-01-01

    The eosinophilic asthma phenotype (sputum eosinophils 3%) indicates a good response to corticosteroids and T(H)2 immunomodulators. Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is rapidly measured by portable devices, and although it is not a selective marker of eosinophilic inflammation, several studies have demonstrated a strong correlation with it. We investigated which FeNO value was the best fit with 3% sputum eosinophils in asthma patients. We included 129 consecutive, nonsmoking asthmatics who underwent skin tests, FeNO quantification (NIOX MINO), spirometry, and induced sputum analysis and completed the Asthma Control Test questionnaire. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed, and logistic regression analysis was performed. Symptoms were detected more frequently in the eosinophilic asthma group, as were higher airway obstruction and sensitivity to hypertonic saline. The FeNO cutoff point of 21 ppb was the best fit with 3% sputum eosinophilia. This value behaved better among corticosteroid-naïve patients (sensitivity, 97%; specificity, 58%; positive predictive value, 86%; negative predictive value, 88%) than among those receiving corticosteroids (sensitivity, 81%; specificity, 25%; positive predictive value, 74%; negative predictive value, 33%). FeNO ≥ 21 ppb is associated with airway eosinophilia. In corticosteroid-naïve patients, FeNO < 21 ppb enables us to rule out airway eosinophilia.

  16. A role for eosinophils in the intestinal immunity against infective Ascaris suum larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dries Masure

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of resistance against invading Ascaris suum larvae in pigs. Pigs received a low dose of 100 A. suum eggs daily for 14 weeks. This resulted in a >99% reduction in the number of larvae that could migrate through the host after a challenge infection of 5000 A. suum eggs, compared to naïve pigs. Histological analysis at the site of parasite entry, i.e. the caecum, identified eosinophilia, mastocytosis and goblet cell hyperplasia. Increased local transcription levels of genes for IL5, IL13, eosinophil peroxidase and eotaxin further supported the observed eosinophil influx. Further analysis showed that eosinophils degranulated in vitro in response to contact with infective Ascaris larvae in the presence of serum from both immune and naïve animals. This effect was diminished with heat-inactivated serum, indicating a complement dependent mechanism. Furthermore, eosinophils were efficient in killing the larvae in vitro when incubated together with serum from immune animals, suggesting that A. suum specific antibodies are required for efficient elimination of the larvae. Together, these results indicate an important role for eosinophils in the intestinal defense against invading A. suum larvae.

  17. A role for eosinophils in the intestinal immunity against infective Ascaris suum larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masure, Dries; Vlaminck, Johnny; Wang, Tao; Chiers, Koen; Van den Broeck, Wim; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of resistance against invading Ascaris suum larvae in pigs. Pigs received a low dose of 100 A. suum eggs daily for 14 weeks. This resulted in a >99% reduction in the number of larvae that could migrate through the host after a challenge infection of 5000 A. suum eggs, compared to naïve pigs. Histological analysis at the site of parasite entry, i.e. the caecum, identified eosinophilia, mastocytosis and goblet cell hyperplasia. Increased local transcription levels of genes for IL5, IL13, eosinophil peroxidase and eotaxin further supported the observed eosinophil influx. Further analysis showed that eosinophils degranulated in vitro in response to contact with infective Ascaris larvae in the presence of serum from both immune and naïve animals. This effect was diminished with heat-inactivated serum, indicating a complement dependent mechanism. Furthermore, eosinophils were efficient in killing the larvae in vitro when incubated together with serum from immune animals, suggesting that A. suum specific antibodies are required for efficient elimination of the larvae. Together, these results indicate an important role for eosinophils in the intestinal defense against invading A. suum larvae.

  18. Unfavorably Altered Fibrin Clot Properties in Patients with Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome): Association with Thrombin Generation and Eosinophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Lucyna; Celińska-Lӧwenhoff, Magdalena; Krawiec, Piotr; Batko, Bogdan; Tłustochowicz, Witold; Undas, Anetta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Given reports on the increased prevalence of thromboembolic incidents in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; Churg-Strauss syndrome), we investigated whether fibrin clot properties are unfavorably altered in EGPA. Methods Ex vivo plasma fibrin clot characteristics, including clot permeability, turbidimetry and efficiency of fibrinolysis using two assays, were investigated in 34 consecutive patients with remission in EGPA according to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score version 3 (23 female, 11 male), aged 48 (range, 21–80) years. The control group comprised 34 age- and sex- matched volunteers. Results Compared with controls, patients with EGPA were characterized by denser fiber clots (estimated pore size, Ks, 7.30±0.93 vs 10.14±1.07 10−9 cm2), faster fibrin polymerization (lag phase in a turbidimetric curve, 41.8±3.6 vs 47.4±2.9 s), thicker fibrin fibers (maximum absorbance, ΔAbs, 0.87±0.09 vs 0.72±0.07), higher maximum levels of D-dimer released from clots (DDmax 4.10±0.46 vs 3.54±0.35 mg/L), and prolonged clot lysis time (t50%; 9.50±1.45 vs 7.56±0.87 min); all p<0.0001. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed denser plasma fibrin networks composed of thinner fibers formed in EGPA. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody status and C-reactive protein did not affect clot variables. Multivariate analysis adjusted for fibrinogen showed that Ks was predicted by eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation, factor VIII, and soluble CD40 ligand, whereas eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation and antiplasmin predicted t50%. Conclusion This study is the first to show that EGPA is associated with prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype, which may contribute to thromboembolic manifestations reported in this disease. PMID:26540111

  19. Unfavorably Altered Fibrin Clot Properties in Patients with Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome: Association with Thrombin Generation and Eosinophilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Mastalerz

    Full Text Available Given reports on the increased prevalence of thromboembolic incidents in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; Churg-Strauss syndrome, we investigated whether fibrin clot properties are unfavorably altered in EGPA.Ex vivo plasma fibrin clot characteristics, including clot permeability, turbidimetry and efficiency of fibrinolysis using two assays, were investigated in 34 consecutive patients with remission in EGPA according to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score version 3 (23 female, 11 male, aged 48 (range, 21-80 years. The control group comprised 34 age- and sex- matched volunteers.Compared with controls, patients with EGPA were characterized by denser fiber clots (estimated pore size, Ks, 7.30±0.93 vs 10.14±1.07 10-9 cm2, faster fibrin polymerization (lag phase in a turbidimetric curve, 41.8±3.6 vs 47.4±2.9 s, thicker fibrin fibers (maximum absorbance, ΔAbs, 0.87±0.09 vs 0.72±0.07, higher maximum levels of D-dimer released from clots (DDmax 4.10±0.46 vs 3.54±0.35 mg/L, and prolonged clot lysis time (t50%; 9.50±1.45 vs 7.56±0.87 min; all p<0.0001. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed denser plasma fibrin networks composed of thinner fibers formed in EGPA. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody status and C-reactive protein did not affect clot variables. Multivariate analysis adjusted for fibrinogen showed that Ks was predicted by eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation, factor VIII, and soluble CD40 ligand, whereas eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation and antiplasmin predicted t50%.This study is the first to show that EGPA is associated with prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype, which may contribute to thromboembolic manifestations reported in this disease.

  20. Identification of JAK2 as a mediator of FIP1L1-PDGFRA-induced eosinophil growth and function in CEL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    Full Text Available The Fip1-like1 (FIP1L1-platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha fusion gene (F/P arising in the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell (HSC,causes 14% to 60% of patients with hypereosinophilia syndrome (HES. These patients, classified as having F/P (+ chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL, present with clonal eosinophilia and display a more aggressive disease phenotype than patients with F/P (- HES patients. The mechanisms underlying predominant eosinophil lineage targeting and the cytotoxicity of eosinophils in this leukemia remain unclear. Given that the Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK/signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat signaling pathway is key to cytokine receptor-mediated eosinophil development and activated Stat3 and Stat5 regulate the expression of genes involved in F/P malignant transformation, we investigated whether and how JAK proteins were involved in the pathogenesis of F/P-induced CEL. F/P activation of JAK2, Stat3 and Stat5, were confirmed in all the 11 F/P (+ CEL patients examined. In vitro inhibition of JAK2 in EOL-1, primary F/P(+ CEL cells (PC and T674I F/P Imatinib resistant cells(IR by either JAK2-specific short interfering RNA (siRNA or the tryphostin derivative AG490(AG490, significantly reduced cellular proliferation and induced cellular apoptosis. The F/P can enhance the IL-5-induced JAK2 activation, and further results indicated that JAK2 inhibition blocked IL-5-induced cellular migration and activation of the EOL-1 and PC cells in vitro. F/P-stimulation of the JAK2 suppressed cells led to a significantly reduction in Stat3 activation, but relatively normal induction of Stat5 activation. Interestingly, JAK2 inhibition also reduced PI3K, Akt and NF-κB activity in a dose-dependent manner, and suppressed expression levels of c-Myc and Survivin. These results strongly suggest that JAK2 is activated by F/P and is required for F/P stimulation of cellular proliferation and infiltration, possibly through

  1. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.

  2. Eosinophilic esophagitis after esophageal atresia: is there an association? Case presentation and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Ramon R; Heij, Hugo A; van der Voorn, J Patrick; Kneepkens, C M Frank

    2012-06-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a relatively new condition resulting in dysphagia or symptoms resembling gastroesophageal reflux disease, symptoms that also are common in patients with a history of esophageal atresia. We present 2 patients with persistent dysphagia after repair of esophageal atresia that was caused by EoE. Although the exact etiology and pathogenesis of EoE remain unclear, it is now generally accepted that it is the result of a T-helper cell 2-type immune response with a crucial role for the eosinophil-specific chemotaxis factor eotaxin 3 and eosinophils. Because there are genetic similarities between esophageal atresia and EoE, we speculate that patients with esophageal atresia are at increased risk for developing EoE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fibronectin changes in eosinophilic meningitis with blood-CSF barrier disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Ling-Yuh; Hu, Ming-E; Chou, Chun-Hui; Chen, Ke-Min; Chiu, Ping-Sung; Lai, Shih-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Fibronectin, which is present at relatively low levels in healthy central nervous systems (CNS), shows increased levels in meningitis. In this study, fibronectin processing was correlated with the increased permeability of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier as well as with the formation of eosinophil infiltrates in angiostrongyliasis meningitis. The immunohistochemistry results show matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is localized in the choroid plexus epithelium. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated fibronectin strongly binds MMP-9. Furthermore, treatment with the MMP-9 inhibitor GM6001 significantly inhibited fibronectin processing, reduced the blood-CSF barrier permeability, and decreased the eosinophil counts. The decreased fibronectin processing in CSF implies decreased cellular invasion of the subarachnoid space across the blood-CSF barrier. Therefore, increased fibronectin processing may be associated with barrier disruption and participate in the extravasation and migration of eosinophils into the CNS during experimental parasitic infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical manifestations of Eosinophilic meningitis due to infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Chindaprasirt, Jarin; Senthong, Vichai; Limpawattana, Panita; Auvichayapat, Narong; Tassniyom, Sompon; Chotmongkol, Verajit; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M

    2013-12-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis, caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is prevalent in northeastern Thailand, most commonly in adults. Data regarding clinical manifestations of this condition in children is limited and may be different those in adults. A chart review was done on 19 eosinophilic meningitis patients aged less than 15 years in Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. Clinical manifestations and outcomes were reported using descriptive statistics. All patients had presented with severe headache. Most patients were males, had fever, nausea or vomiting, stiffness of the neck, and a history of snail ingestion. Six patients had papilledema or cranial nerve palsies. It was shown that the clinical manifestations of eosinophilic meningitis due to A. cantonensis in children are different from those in adult patients. Fever, nausea, vomiting, hepatomegaly, neck stiffness, and cranial nerve palsies were all more common in children than in adults.

  5. Regulation of serotonin-induced trafficking and migration of eosinophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bit Na Kang

    Full Text Available Association of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT with the pathogenesis of allergic asthma is well recognized and its role as a chemoattractant for eosinophils (Eos in vitro and in vivo has been previously demonstrated. Here we have examined the regulation of 5-HT-induced human and murine Eos trafficking and migration at a cellular and molecular level. Eos from allergic donors and bone marrow-derived murine Eos (BM-Eos were found to predominantly express the 5-HT2A receptor. Exposure to 5-HT or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI, a 5-HT2A/C selective agonist, induced rolling of human Eos and AML14.3D10 human Eos-like cells on vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1 under conditions of flow in vitro coupled with distinct cytoskeletal and cell shape changes as well as phosphorylation of MAPK. Blockade of 5-HT2A or of ROCK MAPK, PI3K, PKC and calmodulin, but not G(αi-proteins, with specific inhibitors inhibited DOI-induced rolling, actin polymerization and changes in morphology of VCAM-1-adherent AML14.3D10 cells. More extensive studies with murine BM-Eos demonstrated the role of 5-HT in promoting rolling in vivo within inflamed post-capillary venules of the mouse cremaster microcirculation and confirmed that down-stream signaling of 5-HT2A activation involves ROCK, MAPK, PI3K, PKC and calmodulin similar to AML14.3D10 cells. DOI-induced migration of BM-Eos is also dependent on these signaling molecules and requires Ca(2+. Further, activation of 5-HT2A with DOI led to an increase in intracellular Ca(2+ levels in murine BM-Eos. Overall, these data demonstrate that 5-HT (or DOI/5-HT2A interaction regulates Eos trafficking and migration by promoting actin polymerization associated with changes in cell shape/morphology that favor cellular trafficking and recruitment via activation of specific intracellular signaling molecules (ROCK, MAPK, PI3K and the PKC-calmodulin pathway.

  6. Primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders in children who have received food oral immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría-Zudaire, L Á; Fernández-Fernández, S; Rayo-Fernández, A; Muñóz-Archidona, C; Checa-Rodriguez, R

    Food oral immunotherapy (OIT) involves the administration of the food allergen causing the symptoms, in order to induce tolerance. Primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (PEGDs) are characterised by an eosinophil-rich inflammation affecting different locations of the digestive tract. We present a series of patients with PEGDs in a group of children following OIT with milk and/or egg. A prospective study during the period 2006-2014 was performed in paediatric patients subjected to OIT with milk and/or egg. When these children present persistent gastrointestinal symptoms, they are referred to the Paediatric Gastroenterology Unit for evaluation. Primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders were diagnosed in eight of the 128 cases of OIT (6.25%). The time to PEGDs development was variable: two cases showed symptoms during OIT, and the rest with a median time of 29 months (15-48 months). Food treatment discontinuation was not required in four of the five cases of eosinophilic oesophagitis, although food removal was necessary in patients with eosinophilic gastroenteritis. We report the highest prevalence of PEGDs in children subjected to OIT, and the first cases of eosinophilic gastroenteritis following food OIT. The monitoring of new digestive signs and symptoms after OIT is crucial for the diagnosis of these disorders, and prolonged follow-up is required. The management of such patients and the need or not to eliminate the food should be assessed on an individualised basis, according to the severity of the condition, its evolution and response to different treatment alternatives. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Post-bronchodilator Reversibility of FEV1and Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kun-Ta; Su, Kang-Cheng; Hsiao, Yi-Han; Huang, Shiang-Fen; Ko, Hsin-Kuo; Tseng, Ching-Min; Su, Vincent Yi-Fong; Perng, Diahn-Warng

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between bronchodilator responsiveness and eosinophilic airway inflammation has not been well documented in COPD. It has been investigated in this retrospective study. This issue has grown in importance due to increasing interest in the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome. 264 stable COPD patients with no past history of asthma were retrospectively analyzed. Correlation analyses between FEV 1 reversibility and sputum eosinophil levels were conducted. Sputum eosinophil levels were dichotomized using FEV 1 reversibility cut-off points (>0.4L and >15% vs. >0.2L and >12%) and compared. The effectiveness of FEV 1 reversibility to predict sputum eosinophilia (>3%) was analyzed with a logistic regression and a ROC analysis. 82 (31.1%) patients with higher FEV 1 reversibility values (0.14 vs. 0.11L, P=.01) presented sputum eosinophilia. FEV 1 reversibility was weakly correlated with the sputum eosinophil level (r=0.162, P=.008). Patients with FEV 1 >0.4L and >15% increment had higher sputum eosinophil levels (6.11 vs. 1.02%, P=.049) whereas the level did not differ when dichotomized by FEV 1 increment >0.2L and >12%. Very positive FEV 1 reversibility (>0.4L and >15%) predicted sputum eosinophilia after adjustment forage, baseline FEV 1 and FVC (OR: 4.262, P=.029). In the ROC analysis, the AUC was 0.58 (P=.034), and FEV 1 increment>0.4L and >15% had a positive predictive value of 63.6% and an overall accuracy of 70.1%. FEV 1 reversibility was weakly correlated with sputum eosinophil levels in COPD. Positive FEV 1 reversibility (>0.4L and >15%) is moderately successful in predicting sputum eosinophilia (>3%). Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Activated eosinophils in association with enteric nerves in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Smyth

    Full Text Available Enteric neural dysfunction leads to increased mucous production and dysmotility in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Prior studies have shown that tissue eosinophilia is related to disease activity. We hypothesized that interactions between eosinophils and nerves contribute to neural dysfunction in IBD. Tissue from patients with intractable IBD, endoscopic biopsies from patients with steroid responsive IBD, both when active and quiescent, and control tissue were studied. Immunohistochemical studies showed that eosinophils localize to nerves in the mucosal layer of patients with Crohn's disease (CD (p<0.001 and ulcerative colitis (UC, (p<0.01. Eosinophils localized to substance P and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT immunostained nerves. Real time PCR of laser capture micro-dissected enteric ganglia demonstrated Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1 mRNA was increased 7-fold in UC (n = 4, (p = 0.03, and 10-fold in CD (n = 3, (p = 0.05. Compared with controls, eotaxin-3 (CCL-26 mRNA was increased 9-fold in UC (p = 0.04 and 15-fold in CD (p = 0.06. Eosinophil numbers correlated with disease activity, while deposition of major basic protein (MBP and eosinophil Transforming Growth Factor β-1 (TGFβ-1 expression were seen in therapeutically responsive disease. These data indicate a significant localization of eosinophils to nerves in IBD, mediated through neurally expressed ICAM-1 and eotaxin-3. This cell/neural interaction may influence the function of nerves and contribute to symptoms in IBD.

  9. Budesonide is effective in adolescent and adult patients with active eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex; Conus, Sebastien; Degen, Lukas; Felder, Stephanie; Kummer, Mirjam; Engel, Hansjürg; Bussmann, Christian; Beglinger, Christoph; Schoepfer, Alain; Simon, Hans-Uwe

    2010-11-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the esophagus characterized by dense tissue eosinophilia; it is refractory to proton pump inhibitor therapy. EoE affects all age groups but most frequently individuals between 20 and 50 years of age. Topical corticosteroids are effective in pediatric patients with EoE, but no controlled studies of corticosteroids have been reported in adult patients. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of oral budesonide (1 mg twice daily for 15 days) in adolescent and adult patients with active EoE. Pretreatment and posttreatment disease activity was assessed clinically, endoscopically, and histologically. The primary end point was reduced mean numbers of eosinophils in the esophageal epithelium (number per high-power field [hpf] = esophageal eosinophil load). Esophageal biopsy and blood samples were analyzed using immunofluorescence and immunoassays, respectively, for biomarkers of inflammation and treatment response. A 15-day course of therapy significantly decreased the number of eosinophils in the esophageal epithelium in patients given budesonide (from 68.2 to 5.5 eosinophils/hpf; P < .0001) but not in the placebo group (from 62.3 to 56.5 eosinophils/hpf; P = .48). Dysphagia scores significantly improved among patients given budesonide compared with those given placebo (5.61 vs 2.22; P < .0001). White exudates and red furrows were reversed in patients given budesonide, based on endoscopy examination. Budesonide, but not placebo, also reduced apoptosis of epithelial cells and molecular remodeling events in the esophagus; no serious adverse events were observed. A 15-day course of treatment with budesonide is well tolerated and highly effective in inducing a histologic and clinical remission in adolescent and adult patients with active EoE. Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. In vitro study of histamine and histamine receptor ligands influence on the adhesion of purified human eosinophils to endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosicki, Marek; Wójcik, Tomasz; Chlopicki, Stefan; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-04-15

    It is a well-known fact that histamine is involved in eosinophil-dependent inflammatory responses including cellular chemotaxis and migration. Nevertheless, the relative role of histamine receptors in the mechanisms of eosinophils adhesion to endothelial cells is not known. Therefore the aim of presented study was to examine the effect of selective histamine receptors ligands on eosinophils adhesion to endothelium. For that purpose the highly purified human eosinophils have been isolated from the peripheral blood. The viability and functional integrity of isolated eosinophils have been validated in several tests. Histamine as well as 4-methylhistamine (selective H4 agonist) in concentration-dependent manner significantly increased number of eosinophils that adhere to endothelium. Among the selective histamine receptors antagonist or H1 inverse agonist only JNJ7777120 (histamine H4 antagonist) and thioperamide (dual histamine H3/H4 antagonist) had direct effect on eosinophils adhesion to endothelial cells. Antagonists of H1 (diphenhydramine, mepyramine) H2 (ranitidine and famotidine) and H3 (pitolisant) histamine receptors were ineffective. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that histamine receptor H4 plays a dominant role in histamine-induced eosinophils adhesion to endothelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Eosinophils promote generation and maintenance of immunoglobulin-A-expressing plasma cells and contribute to gut immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Van Trung; Beller, Alexander; Rausch, Sebastian; Strandmark, Julia; Zänker, Michael; Arbach, Olga; Kruglov, Andrey; Berek, Claudia

    2014-04-17

    Although in normal lamina propria (LP) large numbers of eosinophils are present, little is known about their role in mucosal immunity at steady state. Here we show that eosinophils are needed to maintain immune homeostasis in gut-associated tissues. By using eosinophil-deficient ΔdblGATA-1 and PHIL mice or an eosinophil-specific depletion model, we found a reduction in immunoglobulin A(+) (IgA(+)) plasma cell numbers and in secreted IgA. Eosinophil-deficient mice also showed defects in the intestinal mucous shield and alterations in microbiota composition in the gut lumen. In addition, TGF-β-dependent events including class switching to IgA in Peyer's patches (PP), the formation of CD103(+) T cells including Foxp3(+) regulatory (Treg), and also CD103(+) dendritic cells were disturbed. In vitro cultures showed that eosinophils produce factors that promote T-independent IgA class switching. Our findings show that eosinophils are important players for immune homeostasis in gut-associated tissues and add to data suggesting that eosinophils can promote tissue integrity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A rare IL33 loss-of-function mutation reduces blood eosinophil counts and protects from asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Dirk; Helgason, Hannes; Sulem, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    IL-33 is a tissue-derived cytokine that induces and amplifies eosinophilic inflammation and has emerged as a promising new drug target for asthma and allergic disease. Common variants at IL33 and IL1RL1, encoding the IL-33 receptor ST2, associate with eosinophil counts and asthma. Through whole-g...

  13. A rare IL33 loss-of-function mutation reduces blood eosinophil counts and protects from asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Dirk; Helgason, Hannes; Sulem, Patrick; Bjornsdottir, Unnur Steina; Lim, Ai Ching; Sveinbjornsson, Gardar; Hasegawa, Haruki; Brown, Michael; Ketchem, Randal R.; Gavala, Monica; Garrett, Logan; Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg; Jonasdottir, Aslaug; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I.; Olafsson, Isleifur; Onundarson, Pall Torfi; Sigurdardottir, Olof; Gislason, David; Gislason, Thorarinn; Ludviksson, Bjorn Runar; Ludviksdottir, Dora; Boezen, H. Marike; Heinzmann, Andrea; Krueger, Marcus; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Waage, Johannes; Backer, Vibeke; Deichmann, Klaus A.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Bonnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans; Masson, Gisli; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Johnston, James A.; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Stefansson, Kari

    2017-01-01

    IL-33 is a tissue-derived cytokine that induces and amplifies eosinophilic inflammation and has emerged as a promising new drug target for asthma and allergic disease. Common variants at IL33 and IL1RL1, encoding the IL-33 receptor ST2, associate with eosinophil counts and asthma. Through

  14. Presence of Eosinophils in Nasal Secretion during Acute Respiratory Tract Infection in Young Children Predicts Subsequent Wheezing within Two Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa Shinohara

    2008-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings not only suggest that nasal eosinophil testing may serve as a convenient clinical marker for identifying young children at risk for subsequent wheezing, but also shed new light on the role of eosinophils in the onset of wheezing in young children.

  15. Gluten-Free Diet Does Not Appear to Induce Endoscopic Remission of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children with Coexistent Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celiac disease and eosinophilic esophagitis are usually considered to be separate gastrointestinal diseases; however, it appears that they may coexist more often than would be expected. It is unknown whether eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with celiac disease responds to a gluten-free diet.

  16. Delayed Diagnosis of Eosinophilic Fasciitis: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Aydin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is an uncommon entity characterized by edema, skin thickening and hyperpigmentation of extremities. Laboratory findings are variable and may include hypergammaglobulemia, peripheral eosinophilia and elevated acute phase reactants. A full-thickness skin/fascia/muscle biopsy is the gold standart for diagnosis. Since EF is an uncommon disorder and the clinic presentation mimics scleroderma, it takes a long time to make definitive diagnosis. We present a case diagnosed two years after its onset and responded well to the treatment. We also include herein the results of our literature survey regarding delayed diagnosis of Eosinophilic Fasciitis.

  17. Spontaneous circumferential esophageal dissection in a young man with eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Jorge; Prim, José María G; Moldes, Milagros; Ledo, Ramiro

    2009-12-01

    Spontaneous esophageal dissection is a rare condition that may happen in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. Conservative management is an important therapeutic option to be considered. We describe an unusual case of a young man with eosinophilic esophagitis who presented complaining of acute retrosternal pain, fever and vomiting. After a thorough evaluation including CT-scan and esophagogram, circumferential esophageal dissection and mediastinal abscess without visible perforation was observed. Abscess resolution and oral nutrition reintroduction was achieved with non-surgical management. Corticoid therapy was initiated for esophagitis treatment.

  18. Lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme and eosinophil cationic protein in exudate in delayed type hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Christensen, J D

    1988-01-01

    in contact allergic patients exposed to nickel showed a dominance of polymorphonuclear granulocytes throughout the study period, while mononuclear cells, eosinophils and basophils were detected at a much lower quantity and with a considerable delay. Further, we studied the kinetics of the leucocyte granule...... proteins: lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme and eosinophil cationic protein in exudate fluid in a parallel test. A significant higher flux was found for all during the second day of allergen exposure compared to contact allergic patients without allergen challenge as well as normal volunteers....... The increased protein fluxes were not accompanied by an increased flux of polymorphonuclear granulocytes in the exudate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  19. The undesirable effects of neuromuscular blocking drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Garvey, L H; Viby-Mogensen, J

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular blocking drugs are designed to bind to the nicotinic receptor at the neuromuscular junction. However, they also interact with other acetylcholine receptors in the body. Binding to these receptors causes adverse effects that vary with the specificity for the cholinergic receptor...... in question. Moreover, all neuromuscular blocking drugs may cause hypersensitivity reactions. Often the symptoms are mild and self-limiting but massive histamine release can cause systematic reactions with circulatory and respiratory symptoms and signs. At the end of anaesthesia, no residual effect...... of a neuromuscular blocking drug should be present. However, the huge variability in response to neuromuscular blocking drugs makes it impossible to predict which patient will suffer postoperative residual curarization. This article discusses the undesirable effects of the currently available neuromuscular blocking...

  20. A possible mechanism in the recruitment of eosinophils and Th2 cells through CD163(+) M2 macrophages in the lesional skin of eosinophilic cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Taku; Kambayashi, Yumi; Furudate, Sadanori; Kakizaki, Aya; Aiba, Setsuya

    2014-01-01

    M2 macrophages play a critical role in the recruitment of T helper 2 (Th2) regulatory T cells (Treg). To study the role of M2 macrophages and Treg cells in eosinophilic celulitis. We employed immunohistochemical staining for CD163( )and CD206 (macrophages) as well as FoxP3 (Treg), in lesional skin of four cases of eosinophilic cellulitis. CD163(+) CD206(+) M2 macrophages, which were previously reported to produce CCL17 to induce Th2 cells and Treg cells, were predominantly infiltrating the subcutaneous tissues and interstitial area of the dermis. M2 macrophages derived from PBMC showed significantly increased expression of CCL11, CCL17, CCL24 and CCL26 mRNA and production of CCL17 and CCL24, when stimulated by IL-4 or IL- 13. In addition, CCL17-producing cells and CCL24-producing cells were prominent in the lesional skin of EC. Our study sheds light on one of the possible immunological mechanisms of eosinophilic cellulitis.

  1. Changes in blood levels of eosinophil cationic protein and tryptase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is increasingly encountered among school children in Kuwait. Available evidence has shown that inflammatory mediators may be involved in the pathogenesis of EIA. Studies on release of inflammatory mediators have been carried out in adult patients with asthma in Kuwait, but ...

  2. Inhibition of nasal mucosal eosinophils after immunotherapy is associated with a decrease in interleukin-13 mRNA and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Watanabe

    2004-01-01

    Conclusion: Successful grass pollen immunotherapy was associated with inhibition of seasonal increases in nasal eosinophils, IL-13 mRNA-expressing cells and VCAM-1 expression, but no change in CCR3 expression or in the number of apoptotic cells. The reduction in eosinophils after immunotherapy may be due to suppression of eosinophil recruitment to the nasal mucosa rather than enhanced apoptosis.

  3. The Role of Transcription Factor PU.I in the Activity of the Intronic Enhancer of the Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin (RNS2) Gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Thamar B. van; Caldenhoven, Eric; Raaijmakers, J.A.M.; Lammers, J.W.J.; Koenderman, L.; Groot, Rolf P. de

    1997-01-01

    Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) found in the granules of human eosinophils is a cationic ribonuclease toxin. Expression of the EDN gene (RNS2) in eosinophils is dependent on proximal promoter sequences in combination with an enhancer located in the first intron. We further define here

  4. Gastric pneumatosis with associated eosinophilic gastritis in four black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwerder, Megan C; Stalis, Ilse H; Campbell, Gregory A; Backues, Kay A

    2013-03-01

    Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI) with associated eosinophilic inflammation was documented in the gastric tissues of four black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis is an uncommon disease described in humans and characterized by multilocular gas-filled cystic spaces located within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. These cystic spaces can occur in any location along the gastrointestinal tract as well as within the associated connective and lymphatic tissues. The exact cause of this disease is unknown. The four black and white ruffed lemurs described in this case series were captive born and had been housed in zoological institutions at two separate locations. Three of the four cases were female lemurs, and two of the affected lemurs were directly related. The individual disease presentations spanned a 5-yr time period. Two lemurs presented dead with no premonitory signs, whereas the other two lemurs presented with clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and nonspecific signs of weakness. Gastric pneumatosis, diagnosed either grossly or histopathologically in each of these four lemurs, is described as a subset of PCI in which cystic spaces are localized to the stomach wall. Significant eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate was identified on histopathology of gastric tissues and found to be associated with the cystic lesions in each lemur. No classic etiology, such as a fungal infection or a parasitic infection, was identified as the cause of the eosinophilic gastritis. This case series demonstrates that gastric pneumatosis with associated eosinophilic gastritis may be a significant gastrointestinal disease in black and white ruffed lemurs.

  5. Eosinophilic Meningitis in a 10-Year Old Nigerian Boy: A Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eosinophilic meningitis is rare, commonly caused by invasion of the central nervous system by helminthes. The present case is that of a 10–year–old boy who presented with history of generalized pruritus not associated with skin eruptions, followed by pain and weakness of the extremities and loss of consciousness. Patient ...

  6. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia involving with mediastinal lymph nodes: radiologic study of three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo Garcia, A.; Gordillo Gutierrez, I.; Guembe Urtiaga, P.

    1994-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is an uncommon disorder in our setting. Chest x-ray is essential to diagnosis. To date, we have found only three reported cases in which mediastinal lymph nodes were involved. We present three additional cases with standard thoracic study. (Author)

  7. Use of an ophthalmic formulation of megestrol acetate for the treatment of eosinophilic keratitis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Jean; Coster, Martin

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate a compounded ophthalmic formulation of 0.5% megestrol acetate to treat eosinophilic keratitis in cats. Prospective study. Seventeen client owned cats with eosinophilic keratitis in one or both eyes. Eosinophilic keratitis was confirmed by cytology. At each visit, fluorescein staining and photography were performed. Cats were initially treated q 8-12 h with 0.5% megestrol acetate in an aqueous base. Serum glucose was measured at the first or second reexamination. Fifteen of 17 (88%) cats had a positive response to treatment, with 6 of 17 (35%) having complete resolution at the first reexamination (2-4 weeks). Two of 17 (12%) cats did not respond to treatment. Most cats required a treatment frequency of once daily to once weekly to maintain remission of disease. No ocular irritation or systemic side effects were noted in any cat. The use of an ophthalmic formulation of 0.5% megestrol acetate is a viable option for treating feline eosinophilic keratitis. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  8. Dexamethasone inhibits brain apoptosis in mice with eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Chin; Lee, Bi-Yao; Yen, Chuan-Min; Wann, Shue-Ren; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Chen, Yao-Shen

    2015-04-02

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, is the major cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide. Rats serve as the definitive host of the nematode, but humans can be infected incidentally, leading to eosinophilic meningitis. A previous BALB/c animal study has demonstrated increased apoptotic proteins and decreased anti-apoptotic proteins in mice infected with A. cantonensis. Steroids may be an effective treatment option for eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis, but the involved mechanism is unclear. This study hypothesized that the beneficial effects of steroids on eosinophilic meningitis are mediated by decreased apoptosis. In a BALB/c animal model, mice were orally infected with 50 A. cantonensis L3 via an oro-gastric tube and were sacrificed every week for 3 consecutive weeks after infection or until the end of the study. Dexamethasone was injected intra-peritoneally from the 7(th) day post-infection until the end of the 21-day study. Evans blue method was used to measure changes in the blood brain barrier, while western blotting, immuno-histochemistry, and TUNEL assay were used to analyze brain homogenates expression of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins. There were increased amounts of Evans blue, apoptotic proteins (caspase-3, -8, and -9 and cytochrome C), and decreased anti-apoptotic proteins (bcl-2) after 2-3 weeks of infection. Dexamethasone administration significantly decreased Evans blue extravasations and apoptotic protein expressions. Apoptosis of mice brain homogenates can be repressed by dexamethasone treatment.

  9. Expression of a functional Fc epsilon RI on rat eosinophils and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowicz, D; Quatannens, B; Papin, J P; Capron, A; Capron, M

    2000-08-01

    Besides its crucial role in type I hypersensitivity reactions, IgE is involved in anti-parasite immunity. This role has been clearly demonstrated in both human and rat schistosomiasis, but remains controversial in the mouse. Since the cellular distribution of the high affinity IgE receptor, Fc epsilon RI, differs in humans and mice, it might explain the differences in effector function of IgE between the two species. In humans, eosinophils and macrophages induce IgE-dependent cytotoxicity toward Schistosoma mansoni larvae, which involves Fc epsilon RI in the case of eosinophils. In the present study, we have investigated the expression and function of Fc epsilon RI in rat eosinophils and macrophages. We demonstrate, by flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and western blot analysis, that in rats, as in humans, a functional alpha gamma 2 trimeric Fc epsilon RI is expressed on eosinophils and macrophages. We also show that these two cell types can induce IgE-mediated, Fc epsilon RI-dependent cellular cytotoxicity toward schistosomula. These results thus provide a molecular basis for the differences observed between rat and mouse regarding IgE-mediated anti-parasite immunity.

  10. Clinical manifestations, treatment, and outcomes of children and adolescents with eosinophilic esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maraci Rodrigues

    2013-03-01

    Conclusions: The classic form of EoE typically shows different symptoms according age range. A significant number of patients required more than one treatment cycle to show clinical remission. Endoscopic and histologic improvement was observed; however, eosinophilic infiltration persisted in some patients.

  11. Normal serum IgE levels and eosinophil counts exhibited during Strongyloides stercoralis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiarakawa, Miwa; Hirata, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Teruhisa; Parrott, Gretchen; Kinjo, Tetsu; Naka, Hidekatsu; Hokama, Akira; Fujita, Jiro

    2017-02-01

    Infections with parasites, such as Strongyloides stercoralis, typically cause elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and eosinophils; however, co-infection with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) can cause lower levels of serum IgE during S. stercoralis infection. We conducted this study to determine whether serum IgE levels and eosinophil counts could also be related to other patient characteristics or symptoms. Between 1991 and 2014, we measured and compared the symptoms of 237 patients and evaluated serum IgE levels and eosinophil counts of 199 patients who were infected with S. stercoralis at the Ryukyu University Hospital and the Nishizaki Hospital. Medical records were reviewed and blood samples were taken before treatment with the anthelminthic, ivermectin, 2weeks following the first dosage, and 2weeks following the second dosage. Commonly reported symptoms included abdominal pain, diarrhea, and general fatigue. Serum IgE levels were found to be normal in patients co-infected with HTLV-1. Additionally, females and patients younger than 70years old exhibited normal serum IgE levels when infected with S. stercoralis. No factor included in our analysis was found to affect eosinophil counts. Serum IgE levels can remain within the normal range for some patients infected with S. stercoralis. Therefore, physicians should not eliminate S. stercoralis infection from the differential diagnosis solely according to findings of normal or low IgE levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Idiopathic eosinophilic parotitis in an eight-year-old boy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelardi Matteo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A number of medical conditions, some of them recently reported, are associated with an increased production of eosinophils. We report the first case of eosinophilic parotitis in the literature. Case presentation The patient was an eight-year-old Caucasian boy who presented with a two-year history of recurring acute parotitis with no fever. He had had a total of five episodes with no response to antibiotics, but remission had been achieved with oral corticosteroid therapy. We performed allergy tests for inhalant and food allergens and for haptens, but the results were all negative. The results of echography ruled out sialodochitis. Instead, a swab from the parotid duct led to the detection of a high number of eosinophils. Conclusions This report is first in the literature to describe a case of eosinophilic parotitis, and we suggest that a cytological assessment, which is quite simple yet rarely used by physicians, be performed when patients with parotitis of uncertain origin are under evaluation.

  13. Milk-specific immunoglobulin free light chain secretion is increased in children with eosinophilic esophagitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chehade, Mirna; Vos, Arjan P.; Kleinjan, Marije; Garssen, Johan; Redegeld, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an esophageal inflammatory disease caused by multiple food triggers. The mechanism by which foods trigger EoE is unknown. Milk is by far the most common trigger. Standard allergy tests to milk (skin prick tests, atopy patch tests, and serum milk-specific

  14. Sputum eosinophils and the response of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction to corticosteroid in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duong, MyLinh; Subbarao, Padmaja; Adelroth, Ellinor

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between eosinophilic airway inflammation and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), and the response to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy was examined. METHODS: Twenty-six steroid-naïve asthmatic patients with EIB were randomized to two parallel, double-blind,...

  15. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin: a novel biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Keun Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is associated with increased levels of eosinophils in tissues, body fluids, and bone marrow. Elevated levels of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP have been noted in asthma patients. Higher levels of EDN and ECP are also associated with exacerbated asthmatic conditions. Thus, EDN, along with ECP, may aid the diagnosis and monitoring of asthma. Several groups have suggested that EDN is more useful than ECP in evaluating disease severity. This may partially be because of the recoverability of EDN (not sticky, 100% recovery rate, as ECP is a sticky and more highly charged protein. In terms of clinical utility, EDN level is a more accurate biomarker than ECP when analyzing the underlying pathophysiology of asthma. As a monitoring tool, EDN has shown good results in children with asthma as well as other allergic diseases. In children too young to fully participate in lung function tests, EDN levels may be useful as an alter native measurement of eosinophilic inflammation. EDN can also be used in adult patients and in multiple specimen types (e.g., serum, sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and nasal lavage fluid. These results are repeatable and reproducible. In conclusion, EDN may be a novel biomarker for the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of asthma/allergic disease.

  16. Eosinophil and mast cell parameters in children with stable moderate asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, MO; Grol, MH; Hovenga, H; Bouman, K; Stijnen, T; Koeter, GH; Gerritsen, J; Kauffman, HF

    Mast cells and eosinophils are important cells that contribute to the process of inflammation in asthma either by activating other cells or by secreting products which are potentially toxic to the respiratory epithelium. The influx of these cells in the airways and the secretion of toxic products by

  17. Economic analysis of the phase III MENSA study evaluating mepolizumab for severe asthma with eosinophilic phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anirban; Dalal, Anand; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Forshag, Mark; Yancey, Steven W; Nagar, Saurabh; Bell, Christopher F

    2017-04-01

    Severe eosinophilic asthma patients are at risk of exacerbations, which are associated with substantial costs. Mepolizumab lowers eosinophil levels and reduces exacerbation risk in severe eosinophilic asthma. We evaluated asthma-related exacerbation costs in mepolizumab-treated patients (versus placebo). A within-trial economic analysis of the Mepolizumab as Adjunctive Therapy in Patients with Severe Asthma (MENSA) trial. Objectives were to quantify the incremental: (1) medical costs of asthma-related exacerbation; (2) asthma-related exacerbation emergency department visit/hospitalization costs; and (3) asthma-related total healthcare resource utilization. Mean medical costs of asthma-related exacerbations at 8 months were $969, $852, and $1692 in the mepolizumab 75 mg intravenous (IV), mepolizumab 100 mg subcutaneous (SC), and placebo groups, respectively (p = 0.16). Mean medical costs from emergency department visits or hospitalizations due to asthma-related exacerbations were $901, $795, and $1557 in the mepolizumab 75 mg IV, mepolizumab 100 mg SC, and placebo groups (p = 0.020). Asthma-related healthcare resource utilization (all services) was lower for the mepolizumab groups versus placebo. Adding mepolizumab to standard-of-care treatment for severe eosinophilic asthma lowered asthma exacerbation-related medical costs/healthcare resource utilization; although the cost savings ranged from $723-$840 per patient, differences were not statistically significant.

  18. The role of the thymus in the eosinophil response of rats infected with Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doy, T G; Hughes, D L

    1982-01-01

    The blood eosinophil response of normal and congenitally athymic nude rats was studied following infection with the parasitic trematode Fasciola hepatica. A marked eosinophilia was evident irrespective of the presence or absence of a thymus in the infected rats, suggesting that thymus-dependent mechanisms are not essential for the induction of eosinophilia in the rat. PMID:7094426

  19. Decrease of Airway Allergies After Lung Transplantation Is Associated With Reduced Basophils and Eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiecki, M; Yamada, Y; Inci, I; Weder, W; Jungraithmayr, W

    2016-01-01

    Allergies are hypersensitive reactions of the immune system on antigen exposure similar to immune reactions after transplantation (Tx). Their activity can change after Tx. The lung as a transplantable organ is challenged two-fold, by antigens from the blood and the air environment. Herein we analyzed if airway allergies change after lung Tx. We systematically reviewed patients' airway allergies before and after lung Tx between 1992 and 2014. The course of lymphocytes, thrombocytes, and leukocytes, among them neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils, was analyzed in patients in whom airway allergies have changed and in whom they did not change. From 362 lung transplanted patients, 44 patients had suffered from allergies before Tx (12.2%). In 20 of these patients (45.5%), airway allergies disappeared completely within 1 year after lung Tx and were persistently absent thereafter. In these patients, basophils and eosinophils decreased significantly (P allergies did not disappear. Leukocytes overall, and in particular, neutrophils, decreased significantly in patients whose allergy disappeared (P allergies disappeared in almost half of cases after lung Tx. Along with this reduction, basophils and eosinophils decreased as potentially responsible cells for this phenomenon. These findings may stimulate intensified research on basophils and eosinophils as major drivers of airway allergies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The successful medical management of severe duodenal strictures secondary to eosinophilic gastroenteritis in an infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H. L.; Sithasanan, N.; Foley, P.; Davidson, G. P.

    2003-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon condition of unknown etiology that has only been relatively recently reported. Its clinical manifestations range from a mild disease to more severe forms resembling Crohn's disease. Enteric strictures are a rare but recognized complication of this

  1. Eosinophilic esophagitis: analysis of food impaction and perforation in 251 adolescent and adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex; Bussmann, Christian; Zuber, Markus; Vannini, Simone; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Schoepfer, Alain

    2008-05-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a rapidly emerging, chronic inflammatory disorder. Prolonged inflammation evokes structural alterations and a fragile esophageal wall prone to perforation/rupture and food impaction. This report assesses the risk of spontaneously arising and procedure-induced complications and proposes practical recommendations. The Swiss Esophageal Esophagitis Database documented 251 confirmed cases. A chart review identified which patients had required endoscopic bolus removal and/or experienced transmural esophageal perforation/rupture. In addition, a MEDLINE search for "eosinophilic esophagitis" with "esophageal perforation" or "esophageal rupture" was undertaken. During an 18-year period, 87 patients (34.7%) experienced 134 food impactions requiring flexible (124, 92.5%) or rigid (10, 7.5%) endoscopic bolus removal. Transmural perforation occurred in 20% (2/10) of rigid procedures, and 1 esophageal rupture (Boerhaave's syndrome) was observed. Bolus removal by rigid endoscopy is a high-risk procedure and should be avoided in eosinophilic esophagitis patients who require a gentler approach. Whether food impaction and esophageal wall remodeling can be prevented with anti-inflammatory medication is still undetermined. All Boerhaave's syndrome cases should be evaluated for underlying eosinophilic esophagitis.

  2. Best On-Farm Food Safety Practices: Risks Associated with Rat Lungworm and Human Eosinophilic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent cases of eosinophilic meningitis in Hawai’i have drawn attention to a food-borne parasitic infection that occurs in Hawai‘i, the Pacific Islands, southern and eastern Asia, and elsewhere. In late 2008, the Hawai‘i Department of Health reported that four people on the island of Hawai‘i had bee...

  3. Autochthonous Case of Eosinophilic Meningitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, France, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Yann; Rossi, Benjamin; Argy, Nicolas; Baker, Catherine; Nickel, Beatrice; Marti, Hanspeter; Zarrouk, Virginie; Houzé, Sandrine; Fantin, Bruno; Lefort, Agnès

    2017-06-01

    We report a case of a 54-year-old Moroccan woman living in France diagnosed with eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms and confirmed by testing of serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples. Physicians should consider the risk for A. cantonensis infection outside of endemic areas.

  4. Eritema anular eosinofílico en un adulto Eosinophilic anular erythema in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Marta Aguado; Gonzalo, Elena Sierra; Jiménez-Reyes, José

    2017-10-15

    Eosinophilic annular erythema (EAE) is an uncommon eosinophilic dermatosis. Clinically it is characterized by recurrent episodes of annular or figurative plaques. The histopathological study shows a perivascular inflammatory infiltrate in the superficial and deep dermis, composed of lymphocytes and eosinophils. It was originally described in children. We report an adult woman who presented with recurrent erythematous annular plaques on the trunk and extremities. A biopsy showed a mainly perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate with numerous eosinophils in the dermis. Laboratory examinations revealed subclinical hypothyroidism. The lesions resolved with topical corticosteroid spontaneously after 3 months.El eritema anular eosinofílico (EAE) es una dermatosis eosinofílica poco frecuente. Clínicamente se caracteriza por episodios recurrentes de placas anulares o figuradas.El estudio histopatológico muestra un infiltrado inflamatorio en dermis superficial y profunda, de localización perivascular y compuesto por linfocitos y eosinófilos. Se describió originariamente en niños. Presentamos una mujer adulta con episodios recurrentes de placas anulares o figuradas en el tronco y extremidades. La biopsia mostró un infiltrado linfocítico perivascular con numerosos eosinófilos en la dermis. La analítica reveló la presencia de hipotiroidismo subclínico. Las lesiones se resolvieron después de tres meses de tratamiento con una crema de corticoesteriodes.

  5. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin: a novel biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Keun

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is associated with increased levels of eosinophils in tissues, body fluids, and bone marrow. Elevated levels of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) have been noted in asthma patients. Higher levels of EDN and ECP are also associated with exacerbated asthmatic conditions. Thus, EDN, along with ECP, may aid the diagnosis and monitoring of asthma. Several groups have suggested that EDN is more useful than ECP in evaluating disease severity. This may partially be because of the recoverability of EDN (not sticky, 100% recovery rate), as ECP is a sticky and more highly charged protein. In terms of clinical utility, EDN level is a more accurate biomarker than ECP when analyzing the underlying pathophysiology of asthma. As a monitoring tool, EDN has shown good results in children with asthma as well as other allergic diseases. In children too young to fully participate in lung function tests, EDN levels may be useful as an alter native measurement of eosinophilic inflammation. EDN can also be used in adult patients and in multiple specimen types (e.g., serum, sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and nasal lavage fluid). These results are repeatable and reproducible. In conclusion, EDN may be a novel biomarker for the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of asthma/allergic disease.

  6. Evaluation of Felis domesticus allergen I as a possible autoallergen in cats with eosinophilic granuloma complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, Marinus A.; van Ree, Ronald; Willemse, Ton

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of Felis domesticus allergen I (Feld I) in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic granuloma complex (EGC) in cats. ANIMALS: 7 healthy cats and 6 cats with EGC. PROCEDURE: Epidermis was removed from 4 areas. Rubber stoppers filled with Feld I, saline (0.9% NaCl) solution,

  7. Long-term outcome of eosinophilic fasciitis : A cross-sectional evaluation of 35 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, JS; Thurlings, Rogier M; Kievit, Wietske; Seyger, Marieke M B; Radstake, Timothy R D; de Jong, Elke M G J

    BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a connective tissue disease with an unknown long-term course. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate presence and determinants of residual disease damage in patients with EF after long-term follow-up. METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven EF were included for this

  8. Long-term outcome of eosinophilic fasciitis: A cross-sectional evaluation of 35 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, J.S.; Thurlings, R.M.; Kievit, W.; Seyger, M.M.B.; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Jong, E.M.G.J. de

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a connective tissue disease with an unknown long-term course. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate presence and determinants of residual disease damage in patients with EF after long-term follow-up. METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven EF were included for this

  9. Association between atopic manifestations and eosinophilic esophagitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Cervera, Jesús; Arias, Ángel; Redondo-González, Olga; Cano-Mollinedo, María M.; Terreehorst, Ingrid; Lucendo, Alfredo J.

    2017-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has repeatedly been associated with atopic manifestations, which are reported more frequently in these patients than in the general population. To systematically assess the evidence and strength of the associations between EoE and atopy. We performed a systematic

  10. Eosinophilic airway inflammation is increased in children with asthma and food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Neeta; Ragazzo, Vincenzo; Costella, Silvia; Piacentini, Giorgio; Boner, Attilio; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Kantar, Ahmad

    2012-02-01

    Asthma is associated with food allergies in a significant number of children, with evidence linking allergies to asthma severity and morbidity. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that the eosinophilic lower airway inflammation is higher in asthmatic children with food allergies. The aims of the study were to compare the eosinophilic inflammatory markers in asthmatic children with and without food allergies. Children with asthma, with (n = 22) and (n = 53) without food allergies were included. All subjects were classified according to the GINA guidelines (2009) and had received at least 3 months of anti-inflammatory therapy prior to testing. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide and sputum differential counts were performed using standard techniques.   Children with asthma and food allergies had significantly higher fractional exhaled nitric oxide median (range) [(22.4 (6.1-86.9) vs. 10.3 (2.7-38.7) (p = 0.01)] and sputum eosinophil percentage [15.5 (5.0-53.0) vs. 2.0 (0-20) (p allergies. These results suggest that the children with asthma and food allergies have increased eosinophilic inflammation of the airways. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. ROLE OF SERUM EOSINOPHILIC CATIONIC PROTEIN AND TRYPTASE IN MYELOPROLIFERATIVE AND LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Komarova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A role of intracellular proteins of eosinophils and mast cells remains unclear in the patients with hematological neoplasia. There is a substantial evidence that eosinophils possess some common mechanisms of cooperation with mast cells. Therapeutic interventions into key events controlling eosinophil migration may be a leading factor in treatment of hypereosinophylic states in onco-hematological disorders. Due to unknown functions of eosinophils in majority of eosinophilia-associated diseases, it would be useful to establish an algorithm of accurate diagnostics in the patients with eosinophilia, in order to choose more effective treatment in future.We studied serum levels of secretable eosinophil and mast cells proteins in oncohematological patients with increased eosinophil counts. The aim of our study was to test a significance of quantitative assay for tryptase and ECP in the patients with myelo- and lymphoproliferative diseases. The study group included thirty-eight patients with oncohematological diseases, accompanied by a marked eosinophilia (> 0.4 x 109/L. Eighteen patients with bronchial asthma (BA, and eight cases of solid tumors comprised a reference group for polyclonal eosinophilia. The levels of ECP and tryptase were measured in blood serum using a commercial fluoroimmunoenzyme assay («Pharmacia», Uppsala, Sweden. Total ECP levels were markedly increased in general group with hematological malignancies (p < 0.03, , and in cases of chronic GvHD (p < 0.03, and in a sub-group with lymphoproliferative disorders (р = 0.007 as compared to the group of non-hematological diseases.Serum levels of tryptase were significantly increased in the patients with chronic GvHD after allo-HSCT and lymphoproliferative diseases, as compared to the group of patients with solid tumors (р = 0.03, as well in GvHD compared with lymphoproliferative disorders (р < 0.05.A direct correlation was found between serum ECP levels and absolute

  12. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new 3-parameter family of homogeneous 2-by-2 block shifts is described. These are the first examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1. Author Affiliations. Adam Korányi1. Department of Mathematics, The Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York, NY 10016, USA ...

  13. Building blocks of Collagen based biomaterial devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Building blocks of Collagen based biomaterial devices. Collagen as a protein. Collagen in tissues and organs. Stabilizing and cross linking agents. Immunogenicity. Hosts (drugs). Controlled release mechanisms of hosts. Biodegradability, workability into devices ...

  14. Active eosinophilic esophagitis is associated with impaired elimination of budesonide by cytochrome P450 3A enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilger, Karin; Lopez-Lazaro, Luis; Marx, Claudia; Bussmann, Christian; Straumann, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Topically administered glucocorticoids such as budesonide have the potential of being established as first-line medical treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Safety of budesonide is based on high elimination by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) enzymes. We aimed to investigate systemic absorption and elimination of a new budesonide formulation in patients with active EoE in comparison with healthy controls. After single and multiple doses of orodispersible budesonide (4 mg/day) the parent drug, its CYP3A-dependent metabolites, and endogenous cortisol were determined in 12 adult patients with active EoE and 12 healthy controls. An approved ileal-release formulation of budesonide was taken for reference. Molar ratios of metabolite formation in plasma were used as indices of CYP3A metabolic function. CYP3A-dependent metabolite formation was significantly reduced in patients with active EoE as compared to healthy controls. Impaired biotransformation was reflected by a significantly higher extent of budesonide absorption and elongated elimination half-life in EoE patients. Comparison of morning serum cortisol levels at baseline with those after 1 week of treatment with budesonide revealed a significant decrease in EoE patients but not in healthy subjects. Active EoE is associated with reduced elimination of budesonide via CYP3A, the major subfamily of drug-metabolizing enzymes in humans. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Angiostrongylus cantonensis eosinophilic meningitis: a clinical study of 42 consecutive cases in French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Erwan; Ghawche, Frédéric; Delattre, Alex; Berberian, Anthony; Levy, Marc; Valour, Florent

    2014-06-01

    In endemic areas, eosinophilic meningitis is mainly caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. We describe a series of this poorly-known condition. Retrospective cohort study (2000-2012) including all patients diagnosed with eosinophilic meningitis in French Polynesia. Forty-two patients (males: 61.9%, age: 22 (IQR 17-32)) were diagnosed with a serologically proven (n=13) or probable A. cantonensis meningitis, mostly during the dry season (66.6%) and following the consumption of or prolonged contact with an intermediate/paratenic host (64.3%). No differential diagnosis was found in probable cases, in whom serological tests were performed earlier (7.5 days (6.5-10)) compared to positive patients (7.5 (6.5-10) versus 11 (7-30) days, p=0.02). The most commonly reported symptom was headache (92.8%). Fever (7.1%) and biological inflammatory syndrome (14.3%) were rare. Blood eosinophil count was 1200/mm(3) (900-2548). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis disclosed a protein level of 0.9 g/L (0.7-1.1), a CSF/plasma glucose ratio of 0.50 (0.40-0.55), and 500 leucocytes/mm(3) (292-725; eosinophils: 42.0% (29.5-60); lymphocytes: 46.5% (32.5-59.0)). Thirteen cases (31.0%) were severe, with 11 focal neurological deficits. A delayed hospital referral (OR 1.13, p=0.05) was associated with severity. A. cantonensis meningitis must be evocated in young patients with meningitic syndrome, severe headache, and CSF inflammation with predominance of eosinophils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Induction of eosinophil apoptosis by hydrogen peroxide promotes the resolution of allergic inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, A C; Alessandri, A L; Athayde, R M; Perez, D A; Vago, J P; Ávila, T V; Ferreira, T P T; de Arantes, A CS; de Sá Coutinho, D; Rachid, M A; Sousa, L P; Martins, M A; Menezes, G B; Rossi, A G; Teixeira, M M; Pinho, V

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are effector cells that have an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. Defective removal of these cells likely leads to chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Thus, there is great interest in understanding the mechanisms responsible for the elimination of eosinophils from inflammatory sites. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for certain mediators and molecular pathways responsible for the survival and death of leukocytes at sites of inflammation. Reactive oxygen species have been described as proinflammatory mediators but their role in the resolution phase of inflammation is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of reactive oxygen species in the resolution of allergic inflammatory responses. An eosinophilic cell line (Eol-1) was treated with hydrogen peroxide and apoptosis was measured. Allergic inflammation was induced in ovalbumin sensitized and challenged mouse models and reactive oxygen species were administered at the peak of inflammatory cell infiltrate. Inflammatory cell numbers, cytokine and chemokine levels, mucus production, inflammatory cell apoptosis and peribronchiolar matrix deposition was quantified in the lungs. Resistance and elastance were measured at baseline and after aerosolized methacholine. Hydrogen peroxide accelerates resolution of airway inflammation by induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis of eosinophils and decrease remodeling, mucus deposition, inflammatory cytokine production and airway hyperreactivity. Moreover, the inhibition of reactive oxygen species production by apocynin or in gp91phox−/− mice prolonged the inflammatory response. Hydrogen peroxide induces Eol-1 apoptosis in vitro and enhances the resolution of inflammation and improves lung function in vivo by inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis of eosinophils. PMID:25675292

  17. An aqueous Chlorella extract inhibits IL-5 production by mast cells in vitro and reduces ovalbumin-induced eosinophil infiltration in the airway in mice in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralovec, J A; Power, M R; Liu, F; Maydanski, E; Ewart, H S; Watson, L V; Barrow, C J; Lin, T J

    2005-04-01

    An aqueous extract of the edible microalga (CP) (1), has recently been tested for its immunomodulatory effects in a human clinical trial. Here, the CP extract was dialyzed and fractionated using Sephadex G 100 chromatography. The effects of a dialyzed aqueous CP extract, fraction 2 , on mast cell mediator release in vitro and ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation in vivo were examined. In vitro, treatment of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells with 2 for 18 h significantly inhibited antigen (trinitrophenyl-BSA)-induced IL-5 production. In vivo, treatment of mice with 2 during ovalbumin sensitization and stimulation process significantly reduced eosinophil and neutrophil infiltration in the airways. Moreover, fractions obtained by size exclusion chromatography of 2 inhibited IgE-dependent cytokine GM-CSF production from human cord blood-derived mast cells. Taken together, these results suggest that 2 is composed of biopolymers with anti-allergic potential.

  18. Gluten-free diet does not appear to induce endoscopic remission of eosinophilic esophagitis in children with coexistent celiac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Joseph R; Persad, Rabin; Turner, Justine M; Huynh, Hien Q

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Celiac disease and eosinophilic esophagitis are usually considered to be separate gastrointestinal diseases; however, it appears that they may coexist more often than would be expected. It is unknown whether eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with celiac disease responds to a gluten-free diet. OBJEVTIVES: To examine the clinical, endoscopic and histological features of children with both conditions to evaluate whether eosinophilic esophagitis responds to a gluten-free diet. METHODS: From January 1, 2009, to June 30, 2011, the medical records of children <18 years of age diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis and/or celiac disease were reviewed. Patients with clinical, endoscopic and histological diagnoses of both diseases were identified and included. These findings were analyzed, as were laboratory results, treatment and follow-up. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 206 celiac disease patients, 86 eosinophilic esophagitis patients and nine (4.4% of total celiac) patients with both diagnoses. Gluten-free diet was the primary treatment for both conditions in seven of nine (78%) cases. In six of these seven (86%) patients, no endoscopic or histological improvement of eosinophilic esophagitis was observed, while in one patient, histological remission of esophageal eosinophilia occurred while on a gluten-free diet. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with celiac disease was 4.4%, confirming a higher than expected prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis compared with the general population. In patients with celiac disease, a gluten-free diet did not appear to induce remission of coexistent endoscopic and histological features of eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:22891176

  19. Lack of proton pump inhibitor trial prior to commencing therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis is common in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, M J; Lynch, K L; Yang, Y-X; Metz, D C; Falk, G W

    2017-12-22

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is characterized by eosinophil inflammation restricted to the esophagus and the resulting symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Critical to the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis is a trial of proton pump inhibitor therapy to exclude alternative causes of esophageal eosinophilia such as proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. While consensus guidelines recommend a proton pump inhibitor trial prior to diagnosis, little is known about its implementation in clinical practice. The primary aim of this study is to assess the frequency of proton pump inhibitor trial prior to the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis in community practice. The secondary aim is to assess the frequency of other treatments for eosinophilic esophagitis, including topical steroids and/or dietary therapy, in patients who did not undergo a proton pump inhibitor trial prior to diagnosis or who had an alternative diagnosis to eosinophilic esophagitis upon completed workup. We conducted a single-center, case series of patients referred to the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania for eosinophilic esophagitis management between 2010 and 2015. This case series consisted of 125 patients who were referred from community practitioners with a presumptive diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis. Upon review, 90 out of 125 (72%) patients had not had a proton pump inhibitor trial or esophageal pH testing prior to the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis being made. Of these patients, 77.8% (70/90) had already received either topical steroid or dietary therapy for presumed eosinophilic esophagitis. Of the 125 patients initially diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis, 32 (25.6%) were found to have an alternative diagnosis, and 79.2% of this subset of patients (25/32) had previously received topical steroid or dietary therapy. This study demonstrates that a substantial number of patients with presumed eosinophilic esophagitis have not had a proton pump inhibitor

  20. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  1. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  2. 31 CFR 595.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked...

  3. Effects of different building blocks designs on the statistical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prior to any census, the country usually gets demarcated into small geographic units called census enumeration areas, districts or blocks. In most countries, these small geographic units are also used for census dissemination. In cases where they are not used for census release, they are normally used as building blocks ...

  4. Expression of eicosanoid receptors subtypes and eosinophilic inflammation: implication on chronic rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Cauwenberge Paul

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eicosanoid receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors playing an important immunomodulatory role in airway diseases. However, there is little information on the expression of these receptors and their link with eosinophilic inflammation in paranasal sinus diseases. We aimed with this study to investigate the tissue expression of leukotrienes and prostaglandin E2 receptors in chronic rhinosinusitis patients and the link of this regulation with eosinophilic inflammation. Methods Samples were prepared from nasal tissue of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRS, n = 11, with nasal polyps (CRS-NP, n = 13 and healthy subjects (Controls, n = 6. mRNA expression of CysLT1, CysLT2, BLT1, BLT2, E-prostanoid receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, EP4 and sol-IL-5Rα was determined by real-time PCR. Concentrations of PGE2, LTC4/D4/E4, LTB4 and sol-IL-5Rα were determined by ELISA and of ECP by ImmunoCap. Protein expression and tissue localization of eicosanoid receptors and activated eosinophils were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results CysLT1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in CRS-NP compared to CRS and controls, and CRS compared to controls, whereas CysLT2 mRNA was enhanced in both CRS groups without differences between them. Levels of both receptors correlated to the number of activated eosinophils, sol-IL-5Rα, ECP and LTC4/D4/E4 concentrations in the disease groups. PGE2 protein concentrations and prostanoid receptors EP1 and EP3 were down-regulated in the CRS-NP tissue vs. CRS and controls, whereas EP2 and EP4 expression was enhanced in CRS and CRS-NP patients vs. controls. No differences in BLT receptors were observed between patients and controls. Conclusion CyLTs receptors are up-regulated in nasal polyp tissue and their expression correlate with eosinophilic inflammation supporting previous results. Eicosanoid receptors mRNA pattern observed suggests that down-regulation of EP1 and EP3 in CRS-NP and

  5. Tethered SECM endoscopic capsule for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Dukho; Kang, DongKyun; Tabatabaei, Nima; Grant, Catriona N.; Nishioka, Norman S.; Rosenberg, Mireille; Hesterberg, Paul E.; Yuan, Qian; Garber, John J.; Katz, Aubrey J.; Shreffler, Wayne G.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2017-02-01

    Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) is an inflammatory disease caused by inhaled or ingested food allergies, and characterized by the infiltration of eosinophils in the esophagus. The gold standard for diagnosing EoE is to conduct endoscopy and obtain multiple biopsy specimens from different portions of the esophagus; an exam is considered positive if more than 15 eosinophils per high power field (HPF) in any of the biopsies. This method of diagnosis is problematic because endoscopic biopsy is expensive and poorly tolerated and the esophageal eosinophil burden needs to be monitored frequently during the course of the disease. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a high-speed confocal microscopy technology that can visualize individual eosinophils in large microscopic images of the human esophagus, equivalent to more than 30,000 HPF. Previously, we have demonstrated that tethered capsule SECM can be conducted in unsedated subjects with diagnosed EoE. However, speckle noise and the relatively low resolution in images obtained with the first capsule prototypes made it challenging to distinguish eosinophils from other cells. In this work, we present a next-generation tethered SECM capsule, which has been modified to significantly improve image quality. First, we substituted the single mode fiber with a dual-clad fiber to reduce speckle noise. A gradient-index multimode fiber was fusion spliced at the tip of the dual-clad fiber to increase the effective numerical aperture of the fiber from 0.09 to 0.15, expanding the beam more rapidly to increase the illumination aperture at the objective. These modifications enabled the new SECM capsule to achieve a lateral resolution of 1.8 µm and an axial resolution of 16.1 µm, which substantially improves the capacity of this probe to visualize cellular features in human tissue. The total size of the SECM capsule remained 6.75 mm in diameter and 31 mm in length. We are now in the process of testing this new SECM capsule in

  6. Amphiphilic block copolymers for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Monica L; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh; Kwon, Glen S

    2003-07-01

    Amphiphilic block copolymers (ABCs) have been used extensively in pharmaceutical applications ranging from sustained-release technologies to gene delivery. The utility of ABCs for delivery of therapeutic agents results from their unique chemical composition, which is characterized by a hydrophilic block that is chemically tethered to a hydrophobic block. In aqueous solution, polymeric micelles are formed via the association of ABCs into nanoscopic core/shell structures at or above the critical micelle concentration. Upon micellization, the hydrophobic core regions serve as reservoirs for hydrophobic drugs, which may be loaded by chemical, physical, or electrostatic means, depending on the specific functionalities of the core-forming block and the solubilizate. Although the Pluronics, composed of poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide), are the most widely studied ABC system, copolymers containing poly(L-amino acid) and poly(ester) hydrophobic blocks have also shown great promise in delivery applications. Because each ABC has unique advantages with respect to drug delivery, it may be possible to choose appropriate block copolymers for specific purposes, such as prolonging circulation time, introduction of targeting moieties, and modification of the drug-release profile. ABCs have been used for numerous pharmaceutical applications including drug solubilization/stabilization, alteration of the pharmacokinetic profile of encapsulated substances, and suppression of multidrug resistance. The purpose of this minireview is to provide a concise, yet detailed, introduction to the use of ABCs and polymeric micelles as delivery agents as well as to highlight current and past work in this area. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  7. [1st case of eosinophilic meningitis in Ivory Coat with the presence of a Parastrongylus sp. in the cerebrospinal fluid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozais, J P; Moreau, J; Morlier, G; Kouame, J; Doucet, J

    1980-01-01

    The authors report the first observation, in West Africa, of eosinophilic meningitis in an ivorian child who ingested raw Achatina sp. The presence of a Parastrongylus. sp. in the cerebrospinal fluid was detected.

  8. A comparison of the inhibitory activity of selective PDE4 inhibitors on eosinophil recruitment in guinea pig skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro M Teixeira

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP by phosphodiesterase (PDE4 inhibitors in eosinophils is associated with inhibition of the activation and recruitment of these cells. We have previously shown that systemic treatment with the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram effectively inhibt eosinophil migration in guinea pig skin. In the present study we compare the oral potency and efficacy of the PDE4 inhibitors rolipram, RP 73401 and CDP 840 on allergic and PAF-induced eosinophil recruitment. Rolipram and RP 73401 were equally effective and potent when given by the oral route and much more active than the PDE4 inhibitor CDP 840. We suggest that this guinea pig model of allergic and mediator-induced eosinophil recruitment is both a sensitive and simple tool to test the efficacy and potency of PDE4 inhibitors in vivo.

  9. Synchronously diagnosed eosinophilic granuloma and Hodgkin's disease in a 12-year-old boy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmadi Soheila

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Synchronous composite tumors are uncommon. Simultaneous, rather than metachronous or consecutive, occurrences of eosinophilic granuloma and Hodgkin's lymphoma in children are very rare. This is the first report of this kind in the medical literature. Case presentation We report the case of a 12-year-old Iranian boy with eosinophilic granuloma localized in his leg around the knee and Hodgkin's lymphoma in a cervical lymph node. The two tumours occurred synchronously before the patient had received any treatment. Conclusion Several cases of an association between eosinophilic granuloma and lymphoproliferative disorder have been reported. Some of these cases involve Hodgkin's lymphoma and Langerhans cell histiocytosis occurring in the same patient. Genetic or environmental etiologies have been postulated for eosinophilic granulomas which occur following Hodgkin's lymphomas, but have as yet not been proven. To our knowledge, synchronous occurrence of these two malignant processes in a patient who has not received any prior treatment is rare in children.

  10. Quantification of Eosinophilic Granule Protein Deposition in Biopsies of Inflammatory Skin Diseases by Automated Image Analysis of Highly Sensitive Immunostaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kiehl

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granulocytes are major effector cells in inflammation. Extracellular deposition of toxic eosinophilic granule proteins (EGPs, but not the presence of intact eosinophils, is crucial for their functional effect in situ. As even recent morphometric approaches to quantify the involvement of eosinophils in inflammation have been only based on cell counting, we developed a new method for the cell‐independent quantification of EGPs by image analysis of immunostaining. Highly sensitive, automated immunohistochemistry was done on paraffin sections of inflammatory skin diseases with 4 different primary antibodies against EGPs. Image analysis of immunostaining was performed by colour translation, linear combination and automated thresholding. Using strictly standardized protocols, the assay was proven to be specific and accurate concerning segmentation in 8916 fields of 520 sections, well reproducible in repeated measurements and reliable over 16 weeks observation time. The method may be valuable for the cell‐independent segmentation of immunostaining in other applications as well.

  11. Airway responsiveness to mannitol in asthma is associated with chymase-positive mast cells and eosinophilic airway inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrild, Asger; Bergqvist, A; Baines, K J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to inhaled mannitol is associated with indirect markers of mast cell activation and eosinophilic airway inflammation. It is unknown how AHR to mannitol relates to mast cell phenotype, mast cell function and measures of eosinophilic inflammation in airway...... tissue. We compared the number and phenotype of mast cells, mRNA expression of mast cell-associated genes and number of eosinophils in airway tissue of subjects with asthma and healthy controls in relation to AHR to mannitol. METHODS: Airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled mannitol was measured in 23 non......-smoking, corticosteroid-free asthmatic individuals and 10 healthy controls. Mast cells and eosinophils were identified in mucosal biopsies from all participants. Mast cells were divided into phenotypes based on the presence of chymase. mRNA expression of mast cell-associated genes was measured by real-time PCR. RESULTS...

  12. Generalized Block Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... shows that no readily available tests with a well-defined substantial eccentricity have been performed. This paper presents theoretical and experimental work leading towards generalized block failure capacity methods. Simple combination of normal force, shear force and moment stress distributions along...

  13. The effect of the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica infestation on the leucocyte eosinophil cell profile on sheep

    OpenAIRE

    S Widjajanti; S.E Estuningsih; Subandriyo; D Piedrafita; H.W Raadsma

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophil is one of the major leucocyte cell in the blood which specifically reacted on parasite infection, thus it is important to determine its profile against the F. gigantica infection. The aims of this study is to determine the differences of the eosinophil count profiles on the different breed of sheep infected with F. gigantica and its relation with the resistance of sheep bred against parasitic disease. Four groups of sheep consist of Indonesian Thin Tail (ITT) sheep, Merino sheep, b...

  14. Oral eosinophilic granulomas in tigers (Panthera tigris)--a collection of 16 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, John M; Garner, Michael M; Greer, Leah L; Lung, Nancy P; Coke, Rob L; Ridgley, Frank; Bush, Mitch; Montali, Richard J; Okimoto, Ben; Schmidt, Robert; Allen, Jack L; Rideout, Bruce A; Pesavento, Patricia A; Ramsay, Edward C

    2007-06-01

    Oral eosinophilic granulomas were diagnosed in 16 tigers (Panthera tigris). All lesions were located on the hard or soft palate and typically consisted of flat or slightly raised circular ulcers. Histologic features of these lesions were essentially identical to those seen in oral eosinophilic granulomas of domestic cats and dogs. No clinical signs were noted in eight cases, though various degrees of inappetence, excessive salivation, and dysphagia were noted in the other eight tigers. Six cases were not treated. Treatment for the remaining 10 cases centered on corticosteroids and additional treatments included surgical removal, cryotherapy, antibiotics, and chlorpheniramine. Treatment with corticosteroids did appear to be effective in some cases, though lesions would worsen after cessation of therapy and no cases were cured. In addition, three cases developed complications possibly related to this corticosteroid therapy. The etiology of these lesions remains unknown, though an underlying allergic condition is likely.

  15. Eosinophilic cholecystitis along with pericarditis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Kosuke; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Yamazaki, Masaharu; Ikenaka, Yasuhide; Noguchi, Ryuichi; Sawai, Masayoshi; Ishikawa, Masatoshi; Mashitani, Tsuyoshi; Kitade, Mitsuteru; Kawaratani, Hideto; Uemura, Masahito; Yamao, Junichi; Fujimoto, Masao; Mitoro, Akira; Toyohara, Masahisa; Yoshida, Motoyuki; Fukui, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Although the etiology of eosinophilic cholecystitis is still obscure, the postulated causes include allergies, parasites, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and eosinophilic gastroenteritis. It is sometimes accompanied by several complications, but a simultaneous onset with pericarditis is very rares. A 28-year-old woman complained of acute right hypocondrial pain and dyspnea associated with systemic eruption. Several imaging modalities revealed acute cholecystitis and pericarditis with massive pericardial effusion. A marked peripheral blood eosinophilia was observed, and the eruption was diagnosed as urticaria. Her serum had a high titer of antibody against Ascaris lumbricoides. Treatment with albendazole drastically improved all clinical manifestations along with normalization of the imaging features and eosinophilia. We report herein a rare case of simultaneous onset of acute cholecystitis and pericarditis associated with a marked eosinophilia caused by parasitic infection. PMID:17659742

  16. Eosinophilic granulomatous gastroenterocolitis and hepatitis in a 1-year-old male Siberian Husky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brellou, G D; Kleinschmidt, S; Meneses, F; Nolte, I; Hewicker-Trautwein, M

    2006-11-01

    A case of eosinophilic granulomatous gastroenterocolitis and hepatitis in a 1-year-old male Siberian Husky is described. The dog presented with a history of diarrhea, weakness, lethargy, and anorexia of several months' duration. Hematologic and biochemical examinations, abdominal ultrasonography, computer tomography, and exploratory laparotomy were performed. Histopathologic examination of full-thickness biopsies from the gastrointestinal tract and liver revealed the presence of eosinophilic granulomatous lesions in the submucosa and tunica muscularis of stomach, jejunum, ileum, colon, and liver. Infectious agents were not detected by light microscopic and electron microscopic examination or by immunohistochemistry. On the basis of the findings, it is concluded that the disease in this dog represents an unusual manifestation of chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

  17. Eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatic patients is associated with an altered airway microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrild, Asger; Kiilerich, Pia; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel

    2017-01-01

    of eosinophilic airway inflammation correlates with variations in the microbiome across asthmatic patients, whereas neutrophilic airway inflammation does not. This warrants further investigation on molecular pathways involved in both patients with eosinophilic and those with noneosinophilic asthma.......BACKGROUND: Asthmatic patients have higher microbiome diversity and an altered composition, with more Proteobacteria and less Bacteroidetes compared with healthy control subjects. Studies comparing airway inflammation and the airway microbiome are sparse, especially in subjects not receiving anti......-inflammatory treatment. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the relationship between the airway microbiome and patterns of airway inflammation in steroid-free patients with asthma and healthy control subjects. METHODS: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected from 23 steroid-free nonsmoking patients with asthma and 10...

  18. Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance with Amyloid Deposition in the Lung and Non-Amyloid Eosinophilic Deposition in the Brain: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Abi-Fadel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS is rarely complicated by amyloidosis. Case. A 66-year-old white male presented to the emergency room (ER after an unwitnessed fall and change in mental status. Patient was awake and alert but not oriented. There was no focal deficit on neurological exam. Past medical history (PMH included hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, aortic valve replacement (nonmetallic, incomplete heart block controlled by a pacemaker and IgG- IgA type Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance. The MGUS was diagnosed 9 months ago on serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP as patient was referred to the outpatient clinic for hyperglobulinemia on routine blood work. In ER, a head-computed tomography (CT revealed multiple parenchymal hemorrhagic lesions suspicious for metastases. A CT chest, abdomen and pelvis revealed numerous ground-glass and solid nodules in the lungs. Lower extremity duplex and transesophageal echocardiogram were negative. Serial blood cultures and serologies for cryptococcus and histoplasmosis, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA, antinuclear antibody (ANA, rheumatoid factor (RF, cryoglobulin, and antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM antibodies were all negative. CT guided lung biopsy was positive for Thioflavin T amyloid deposits. Brain biopsy was positive for eosinophilic material (similar to the lungs but negative for Thioflavin T stain. The patient's clinical status continued to deteriorate with cold cyanotic fingers developing on day 12 and a health care acquired pneumonia, respiratory failure, and fungemia on day 18. On day 29, family withdrew life support and denied any autopsies. Conclusion. Described is an atypical course of MGUS complicated by amyloidosis of the lung and nonamyloid eosinophilic deposition in the brain. As MGUS might be complicated by diseases such as amyloidosis and multiple myeloma, a scheduled follow-up of these patients is always

  19. Eosinophilic drug reactions detected by a prospective pharmacovigilance programme in a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Elena; Medrano-Casique, Nicolás; Tong, Hoi Y; Bellón, Teresa; Cabañas, Rosario; Fiandor, Ana; González-Ramos, Jessica; Herranz, Pedro; Trigo, Elena; Muñoz, Mario; Borobia, Alberto M; Carcas, Antonio J; Frías, Jesús

    2017-02-01

    We conducted a prospective evaluation of all eosinophilic drug reactions (EDRs) through the Prospective Pharmacovigilance Program from Laboratory Signals at Hospital to find out the incidence and distribution of these entities in our hospital, their causative drugs, and predictors. All peripheral eosinophilia >700 × 10 6  cells l -1 detected at admission or during hospitalisation, were prospectively monitored over 42 months. The spectrum of the localised or systemic manifestation of EDR, the incidence, the distribution of causative drugs, and the predictors were analysed. The incidence of EDR was 16.67 (95% Poisson confidence interval [CI]: 9.90-25.98) per 10 000 admissions. Of 274 cases of EDR, 154 (56.2%) cases in 148 patients were asymptomatic hypereosinophilia. In the remaining 120 (43.8%) cases, there was other involvement. Skin and soft tissue reactions were detected in 36 (13.1%) cases; visceral EDRs in 19(7.0%) cases; and drug-induced eosinophilic cutaneous and visceral manifestations were detected in the remaining 65 (23.7%) cases, 64 of which were potential drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). After adjusting for age, sex, and hospitalisation wards, predictors of symptomatic eosinophilia were earlier onset of eosinophilia (hazard ratio [HR], 10.49; 95%CI: 3.13-35.16) higher eosinophil count (HR, 8.51; 95%CI: 3.28-22.08), and a delayed onset of corticosteroids (HR, 1.34; 95%CI: 1.01-1.73). A higher eosinophil count in patients with DRESS was significantly associated with greater impairment of liver function, prolonged hospitalisation, higher cumulative doses of corticosteroids, and if hypogammaglobinaemia was detected, a reactivation of human-herpesvirus 6 was subsequently detected. Half (53.3%, 64/120 cases) of symptomatic EDRs were potential DRESS. The main predictor of severity of EDR was an early severe eosinophilia. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Eosinophilic myocarditis during treatment with olanzapine - report of two possible cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Torkel; Rosenzweig, Mary; Bruhn, Christina Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    similarity between olanzapine and clozapine, we hypothesized the existence of such an association. We searched the spontaneous adverse drug reports database of the Danish Health and Medicines Authority for olanzapine and myocarditis in the period from October 21, 1996 to - June 03, 2015. We identified two...... exceeding the recommendations. CONCLUSION: Olanzapine may have contributed to and/or worsened the two reported fatal cases of myocarditis. Additional studies are required to establish a causal link between olanzapine and eosinophilic myocarditis....

  1. Asian sand dust enhances ovalbumin-induced eosinophil recruitment in the alveoli and airway of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiyoshi, Kyoko; Ichinose, Takamichi; Sadakane, Kaori; Takano, Hirohisa; Nishikawa, Masataka; Mori, Ikuko; Yanagisawa, Rie; Yoshida, Seiichi; Kumagai, Yoshito; Tomura, Shigeo; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2005-01-01

    Asian sand dust (ASD) containing sulfate (SO 4 2- ) reportedly causes adverse respiratory health effects but there is no experimental study showing the effect of ASD toward allergic respiratory diseases. The effects of ASD and ASD plus SO 4 2- toward allergic lung inflammation induced by ovalbumin (OVA) were investigated in this study. ICR mice were administered intratracheally with saline; ASD alone (sample from Shapotou desert); and ASD plus SO 4 2- (ASD-SO 4 ); OVA+ASD; OVA+ASD-SO 4 . ASD or ASD-SO 4 alone caused mild nutrophilic inflammation in the bronchi and alveoli. ASD and ASD-SO 4 increased pro-inflammatory mediators, such as Keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF). ASD and ASD-SO 4 enhanced eosinophil recruitment induced by OVA in the alveoli and in the submucosa of the airway, which has a goblet cell proliferation in the bronchial epithelium. However, a further increase of eosinophils by addition of SO 4 2- was not observed. The two sand dusts synergistically increased interleukin-5 (IL-5) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), which were associated with OVA, in BALF. However, the increased levels of IL-5 were lower in the OVA+ASD-SO 4 group than in the OVA+ASD group. ASD caused the adjuvant effects to specific-IgG1 production by OVA, but not to specific-IgE. These results suggest that the enhancement of eosinophil recruitment in the lung is mediated by synergistically increased IL-5 and MCP-1. IgG1 antibodies may play an important role in the enhancement of allergic reaction caused by OVA and sand dust. However, extra sulfate may not contribute to an increase of eosinophils

  2. The Role of Eosinophil Cationic Protein in Patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chun-Jen; Hung, Miao-Chiu; Kuo, Kai-Liang; Chung, Jui-Lung; Wu, Keh-Gong; Hwang, Be-Tau; Tang, Ren-Bin

    2008-01-01

    To study the role played by eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in patients with Mycoplasma pneumonia infection. Methods: Pediatric patients aged 4 to 14 years old were divided into 3 groups, each consisting of 30 patients. Group 1 comprised patients with known M. pneumoniae infection. Group 2 comprised patients with asthma who were in a stable condition with no infection, acute asthma exacerbation or steroid use in the last 2 months. Group 3 consisted of healthy children and was designated ...

  3. Eosinophilic Myocarditis Associated with Visceral Larva Migrans Caused by Toxocara Canis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hee; Chang, Kyung-Yoon; Ko, Sun-Young; Park, Mi-Hee; Sa, Young-Kyoung; Choi, Yun-Seok; Park, Chul-Soo; Lee, Man-Young

    2012-01-01

    A 41-year-old woman who was diagnosed with myocarditis presented eosinophilia. Since the antibody against Toxocara canis (T. canis) was positive, we diagnosed that she had visceral larva migrans due to T. canis associated with myocarditis. She was treated with oral albendazole and prednisolone for two weeks, eosinophil count and hepatic enzymes were normalized after completion of treatment. This is the first report of myocarditis caused by T. canis infection in Korea. PMID:23185659

  4. Serum eosinophil cationic protein levels can be useful for predicting acute exacerbation of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Kamimura

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a case in which five consecutive exacerbations of asthma were monitored by following serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP levels. The serum ECP level correlated well with each exacerbation and tended to increase even before the exacerbations of asthma became apparent. This case shows that serum levels of ECP can be useful markers of disease activity and may also be predictive markers for acute exacerbation.

  5. Long-term budesonide maintenance treatment is partially effective for patients with eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex; Conus, Sebastien; Degen, Lukas; Frei, Cornelia; Bussmann, Christian; Beglinger, Christoph; Schoepfer, Alain; Simon, Hans-Uwe

    2011-05-01

    Topical corticosteroids are effective in inducing clinical and histologic remission in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). However, the best long-term management strategy for this chronic inflammatory disease has not been determined. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 50-week trial, we evaluated in 28 patients the efficacy of twice-daily swallowed budesonide (0.25 mg each) to maintain quiescent EoE in remission. Pretreatment and posttreatment activity was assessed clinically, endoscopically, histologically, immunohistologically, and by endosonography. The primary end point was the therapy's ability to maintain EoE in histologic remission. Secondary end points were efficacy in symptom control, prevention of tissue remodeling, and safety. In patients given low-dose budesonide, the load of esophageal eosinophils increased from 0.4 to 31.8 eosinophils/high-power field (P = .017). In patients given placebo, the load increased from 0.7 to 65.0 eosinophils/high-power field (P = .0001); this increase was significantly greater than in patients given budesonide (P = .024). The symptom scores developed in a similar manner in the 2 groups. Budesonide, but not placebo, reduced noneosinophilic markers of inflammation, epithelial cell apoptosis, and remodeling events. Compared with control individuals, patients had significantly thickened esophageal walls, based on endosonography (3.05 vs 2.18 mm; P < .0001). Budesonide therapy was associated with a significant reduction in mucosal thickness (0.75-0.45 mm; P = .025), but epithelial thickness remained stable (261.22 vs 277.23 μm; P = .576). No serious adverse events occurred. Low-dose budesonide is more effective than placebo in maintaining EoE in histologic and clinical remission. Signs of esophageal remodeling showed a trend toward normalization. Long-term administration of topical corticosteroids was well tolerated without induction of epithelial atrophy. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by

  6. Angiostrongylus cantonensis Is an Important Cause of Eosinophilic Meningitis in Southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Angela; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Hong, Nguyen Thi Thu; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Anh, Nguyen To; Thanh, Tran Tan; Van, Tran Thi Hue; Xuan, Le Thi; Sieu, Tran Phu Manh; Thai, Le Hong; Chuong, Ly Van; Sinh, Dinh Xuan; Phong, Nguyen Duy; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Day, Jeremy; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Hien, Tran Tinh; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Tan, Le Van

    2017-06-15

    We utilized polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to demonstrate that Angiostrongylus cantonensis was responsible for 67.3% of 55 cases of eosinophilic meningitis from a cohort of 1,690 adult patients with CNS infection at a tertiary hospital in southern Vietnam. Longer duration of illness, depressed consciousness, and peripheral blood eosinophilia were associated with PCR positivity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  7. Bronchodilator responses after methacholine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) challenges in children with asthma: their relationships with eosinophil markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young; Seo, Sung Chul; Kim, Young Il; Chung, Bo Hyun; Song, Dae Jin; Choung, Ji Tae

    2012-09-01

    Bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) and eosinophilic inflammation are characteristic features of asthma. Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the relationships of BDR after methacholine challenge or adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) challenge to blood eosinophil markers in children with asthma. Methacholine and AMP challenges were performed on 69 children with mild intermittent to moderate persistent asthma. BDR was calculated as the change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second, expressed as percentage change of the value immediately after the each challenge and the value after inhalation of salbutamol. Serum total IgE levels, blood eosinophil counts, and serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels were determined for each subject. A positive relationship between serum total IgE levels and BDR was found only after the AMP challenge (R(2) = 0.345, p = .001) rather than after the methacholine challenge (R(2) = 0.007, p = .495). Peripheral blood eosinophil counts correlated more significantly with BDR after AMP challenge (R(2) = 0.212, p = .001) than BDR after methacholine challenge (R(2) = 0.002, p = .724). Both BDR after methacholine challenge (R(2) = 0.063, p = .038) and BDR after AMP challenge (R(2) = 0.192, p = .001) were significantly correlated with serum ECP levels. BDR after AMP challenge may be more closely related to eosinophilic inflammation, compared with that after methacholine challenge.

  8. Eosinophil and mast cell expression in host skin during larval development of the human bot fly Dermatobia hominis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira M.C.T.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils and mast cells in the skin of Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus infested with Dermatobia hominis larvae were quantified and analysed. Eosinophils in parasitised skin increased markedly until 10 days post-infestation (dpi and then decreased up to 28 dpi, close to the point at which third stage larvae (L3 emerged from the host. In ascending order, the highest numbers of eosinophils were seen in rats at 1, 4, 28, 20, 15 and 10 dpi, corresponding to the first, (1 and 4 third (20 and 28 and second (10 and 15 instars. Except for 1 dpi, eosinophil numbers were significantly higher than those seen in control animals. Mast cell numbers were highest in early infestations (4 dpi, followed by those at 20 dpi. In increasing order, numbers of mast cells were greatest at 10, 28, 15, 1, 20 and 4 dpi, although significant differences with control animals were only seen at 10 and 28 dpi. Eosinophils and mast cells showed negative correlation only in animals with second instar larvae (10 and 15 dpi. Comparative analyses were also carried out after considering the skin into four distinct regions. The results suggest that the expression of both cell types, particularly eosinophils, is an important host response to infestation by D. hominis.

  9. Eosinophil and mast cell expression in host skin during larval development of the human bot fly Dermatobia hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M C T; Leite, A C R

    2002-12-01

    Eosinophils and mast cells in the skin of Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) infested with Dermatobia hominis larvae were quantified and analysed. Eosinophils in parasitised skin increased markedly until 10 days post-infestation (dpi) and then decreased up to 28 dpi, close to the point at which third stage larvae (L3) emerged from the host. In ascending order, the highest numbers of eosinophils were seen in rats at 1, 4, 28, 20, 15 and 10 dpi, corresponding to the first, (1 and 4) third (20 and 28) and second (10 and 15) instars. Except for 1 dpi, eosinophil numbers were significantly higher than those seen in control animals. Mast cell numbers were highest in early infestation (4 dpi), followed by those at 20 dpi. In increasing order, numbers of mast cells were greatest at 10, 28, 15, 1, 20 and 4 dpi, although significant differences with control animals were only seen at 10 and 28 dpi. Eosinophils and mast cells showed negative correlation only in animals with second instar larvae (10 and 15 dpi). Comparative analyses were also carried out after considering the skin into four distinct regions. The results suggest that the expression of both cell types, particularly eosinophils, is an important host response to infestation by D. hominis.

  10. Identification of Fetal Inflammatory Cells in Eosinophilic/T-cell Chorionic Vasculitis Using Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Philip J; Li, LiQiong; Wang, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic/T-cell chorionic vasculitis (ETCV) is an inflammatory lesion of placental fetal vessels. In contrast to acute chorionic vasculitis, inflammation in ETCV is seen in chorionic vessel walls opposite the amnionic surface. It is not known whether inflammation in ETCV consists of maternal cells from the intervillous space or fetal cells migrating from the vessel. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to differentiate fetal versus maternal cells in ETCV. Placentas with ETCV, previously identified for a published study, were used. Infant sex in each case was identified using the electronic medical record. For male infants, 3-μm sections were cut from archived tissue blocks from placentas involving ETCV and stained with fluorescent X- and Y-chromosome centromeric probes. A consecutive hematoxylin/eosin-stained section was used for correlation. FISH analysis was performed on 400 interphase nuclei at the site of ETCV to determine the proportion of XX, XY, X, and Y cells. Of 31 ETCV cases, 20 were female and 10 were male (1 sex not recorded). Six of 10 cases with male infants had recuts with visible ETCV. In these 6 cases the average percentages (ranges) of XY cells, X-only cells, and Y-only cells in the region of inflammation were 81 (70-90), 11 (6-17), and 8 (2-14), respectively. There was a 2:1 female:male infant ratio in ETCV. Similar to acute chorionic vasculitis, the inflammation in ETCV is of fetal origin. It is still unknown, however, whether the stimulus for ETCV is of fetal or maternal origin.

  11. Dynamic CT findings of eosinophilic hepatic abscess and its clinical course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Dae Hyoun; Chang, Jae Chun; Seong, Ki Ho

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate dynamic CT features and its clinical courses of eosinophilic hepatic abscess. Two-phase dynamic CT findings and the clinical courses of 13 pathologically proven cases of eosinophilic abscess were reviewed. All patients showed peripheral eosinophilia, and diagnoses were confirmed by ultrasound-guided biopsy(n=9) or operation(n=4). In two of the four patients who underwent segmental hepatectomy, worms of the species fasciola hepatica were detected. Follow-up CT scans after treatment with antibiotics or praziquantel were available in seven and eitht patients, respectively. All hepatic lesions were found in a subcapsular location or in contact with Glisson's capsule around the bile duct Arterial-dominant phase CT(n=11) demonstrated clusters of ill-defined low density masses without rim enhancement. Late-phase CT(n=13) more clearly depicted clustering lesions with enhancing rims and diminyution of the low-density area. Follow-up CT scans after treatment with antibiotics(n=7) showed no change in the lesions in three patients and slight shrinkage of the main mass with additional new lesions in four. On CT scans of nine patients performad after praziquantel therapy, hepatic masses were seen in all patients to be very slightly smaller after improvement of peripheral hypereosinophilia. Two-phase dynamic CT features appear to be helpful for the diagnosis of eosinophilic hepatic abscess in patients with peripheral eosinophilia. Parasitic infestation by Fasciola hepatica for example, is the presumed cause of such abscesses, though further studies are required

  12. A Patient with Bronchial Asthma in Whom Eosinophilic Bronchitis and Bronchiolitis Developed during Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutsugu Fukushima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of dyspnea, wheezing, and a productive cough. Eight years before presentation, bronchial asthma was diagnosed and the patient received inhaled corticosteroids plus antiasthmatic agents (a long-acting inhaled p2-agonist, leukotriene modifiers, and theophylline. Chest radiography showed small diffuse nodular shadows, and a computed tomographic scan showed thickening of the bronchi and bronchioles, with diffuse centrilobular nodules in both lung fields. A blood test and microscopic examination of the bronchoalveolar fluid revealed marked eosinophilia. Transbronchial lung biopsy and transbronchial biopsy showed eosinophilic bronchitis and bronchiolitis. After treatment with oral prednisolone (40 mg daily and inhaled corticosteroids, the symptoms, blood eosinophilia, and radiographic findings improved. Recently, several similar cases of eosinophilic bronchiolitis have been reported. Studies of further cases and elucidation of the pathophysiology of eosinophilic bronchiolitis are necessary to establish a concept for this disease and to determine whether it should be classified as a subtype of bronchial asthma or as a distinct entity.

  13. Interventional management of spine eosinophilic granuloma in children: preliminary investigation of its clinical value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yu; Wu Chungen; Gu Yifeng; Cheng Yongde

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of interventional management in treating spine eosinophilic granuloma in children. Methods: Interventional therapies, including per cutaneous biopsy and percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP), were carried out in three child patients with five pathologically-proved eosinophilic granuloma lesions, which were localized in the vertebrae. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Visual analogue pain scale (VAS) and Oswesty disability index (ODI) were assessed before and after operation. Results: A total of four operations were successfully carried out in all of three patients. The mean VAS score reduced from 7 before treatment of 1 after treatment. The mean ODI decreased from preoperative 52.5% to postoperative 10.5%. During procedures no significant complications occurred except for cement leakage in some cases. Pain relief and daily activity were remarkably improved after treatment. All patients were followed up for 3 months to 5 years. Conclusion: For the treatment of spine eosinophilic granuloma in children, interventional techniques are mini-invasive, safe and effective therapeutic methods. (authors)

  14. Mast cells and eosinophils in rat mammary gland tumours induced by N-Nitroso-N-methylurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissová Viktória

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the distribution and number of mast cells and eosinophils in rat mammary gland tumours induced by N-Nitroso-N-methylurea. The highest density of mast cells was found in cystic papillary adenocarcinomas of grade II. Eosinophils were detected only in the cystic papillary adenocarcinoma of grades I and II, in non-invasive cribriform adenocarcinoma and comedo-type carcinoma. Mast cell populations were observed perivascularly in the tumour stroma, in the host tumour interface, as well as in necrotic areas of neoplasms. Mast cells were observed to be intact according to their morphological changes, collectively referred to as degranulation. The obtained results indicate that mast cells and eosinophils play an important role in tumour micro-environment formation. The increased density of these cells in experimentally-induced rat mammary gland tumours suggests a poor prognosis in these cancers. Our results also confirmed that rat mammary gland tumours are good models for the study of breast cancers.

  15. Laser irradiation of centrosomes in newt eosinophils: evidence of centriole role in motility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koonce, M.P.; Cloney, R.A.; Berns, M.W.

    1984-06-01

    Newt eosinophils are motile granulated leukocytes that uniquely display a highly visible centrosomal area. Electron microscope and tubulin antibody fluorescence confirms the presence of centrioles, pericentriolar material, and radiating microtubules within this visible area. Actin antibodies intensely stain the advancing cell edges and tail but only weakly stain pseudopods being withdrawn into the cell. Randomly activated eosinophils follow a roughly consistent direction with an average rate of 22.5 ..mu..m/min. The position of the centrosome is always located between the trailing cell nucleus and advancing cell edge. If the cell extends more than one pseudopod, the one closest to or containing the centrosome is always the one in which motility continues. Laser irradiation of the visible centrosomal area resulted in rapid cell rounding. After several minutes following irradiation, most cells flattened and movement continued. However, postirradiation motility was uncoordinated and directionless, and the rate decreased to an average of 14.5 ..mu..m/min. Electron microscopy and tubulin immunofluorescence indicated that an initial disorganization of microtubules resulted from the laser microirradiations. After several minutes, organized microtubules reappeared, but the centrioles appeared increasingly damaged. The irregularities in motility due to irradiation are probably related to the damaged centrioles. The results presented in this paper suggest that the centrosome is an important structure in controlling the rate and direction of newt eosinophil motility.

  16. Intrathecal synthesis of IgE in children with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barroso Jesús

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by the helminth Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is an emerging infectious disease in America. The objective of this paper was to determine if the intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin E is produced during the acute phase of the disease. Methods Thirteen patients, mean age 4.5 years were studied; a diagnostic lumbar puncture was performed and serum samples taken. Immunoglobulin E (IgE in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was quantified by nephelometry. Control patients had other infections or other neurological diseases. Results The mean cell count in the CSF was 500 × 10-6 cells/L and of these 23% were eosinophils. In blood the eosinophils were 13%. The chief symptoms of the patients were migraine, vomiting and fever and 50% presented some meningeal signs. IgE intrathecal synthesis analyzed by the corresponding quotient diagram (Reibergram was observed in all patients. No intrathecal IgE synthesis was seen in control patients. Conclusion Intrathecal synthesis of IgE demonstrates the participation of this immunoglobulin in the destruction of the third stage larvae of the parasite in the CSF. The test should be considered in our environment as a tool to aid diagnosis.

  17. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Homogeneous bilateral block shifts. ADAM KORÁNYI. Department of Mathematics, The Graduate Center, City University of New York,. New York, NY 10016, USA. E-mail: Adam.Koranyi@lehman.cuny.edu. MS received 18 January 2013. Abstract. A new 3-parameter family of homogeneous 2-by-2 block shifts is described.

  18. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix.

  19. Control rod blocking monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigeru.

    1993-01-01

    The number of times for setting up a control rod blocking monitor of a BWR type power plant is remarkably reduced to mitigate operator's burden. In the control rod blocking monitor, trip levels, as a judging standard upon outputting control rod blocking inhibition signals, are set up stepwise depending on the power level around control rods put to blocking control. The present invention comprises an allowance judging means capable of setting up trip levels for each of power levels corresponding to a plurality of control rods at once if the power levels are within the set up allowable range. With such a constitution, the set up allowable range is determined previously in the allowance judging means. Accordingly, when a gang blocking is conducted to control rods, if power levels around the control rods are increased at once into the set up allowable range, the trip levels for each of the control rods are set up at once. (I.S.)

  20. Elevated Plasma Chemokines for Eosinophils in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders during Remission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Tong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA prominent pathological feature of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD is markedly greater eosinophilic infiltration than that seen in other demyelinating diseases, like multiple sclerosis (MS. Eosinophils express the chemokine receptor CCR3, which is activated by eotaxins (CCL11/eotaxin-1, CCL24/eotaxin-2, CCL26/eotaxin-3 and CCL13 [monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-4]. Moreover, CCL13 is part of the chemokine set that activates CCR2. The present study aimed to evaluate plasma levels of eotaxins (CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26 and MCPs (CCL13, CCL2, CCL8, and CCL7 in patients with NMOSD during remission.MethodsHealthy controls (HC; n = 30 and patients with MS (n = 47 and NMOSD (n = 58 in remission were consecutively enrolled in this study between January 2016 and August 2017. Plasma CCL11, CCL24, CCL26, CCL2, CCL8, CCL7, CCL13, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and interleukin (IL-1β levels were detected using the human cytokine multiplex assay.ResultsPlasma CCL13, CCL11, and CCL26 levels were all significantly higher in patients with NMOSD than in HC and patients with MS. No significant differences were found in the CCL13, CCL11, or CCL26 levels between patients with NMOSD receiving and not receiving immunosuppressive therapy. The plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-1β, which stimulate the above chemokines, were higher in patients with NMOSD than in HC. There was no difference in CCL24 levels among the three groups. In most cases, the CCL7 levels were below the threshold value of the human cytokine multiplex assay, which is in line with other studies. Adjusted multiple regression analyses showed a positive association of CCL13 levels with the number of relapses after controlling gender, age, body mass index, and disease duration in patients with NMOSD.ConclusionThe study indicates that in NMOSD, the overproduction of cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α during remission stimulates eosinophilic chemoattractants such as

  1. Predictability of blocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, E.; Ruti, P.; Tibaldi, S.; D'Andrea, F.

    1994-01-01

    Tibaldi and Molteni (1990, hereafter referred to as TM) had previously investigated operational blocking predictability by the ECMWF model and the possible relationships between model systematic error and blocking in the winter season of the Northern Hemisphere, using seven years of ECMWF operational archives of analyses and day 1 to 10 forecasts. They showed that fewer blocking episodes than in the real atmosphere were generally simulated by the model, and that this deficiency increased with increasing forecast time. As a consequence of this, a major contribution to the systematic error in the winter season was shown to derive from the inability of the model to properly forecast blocking. In this study, the analysis performed in TM for the first seven winter seasons of the ECMWF operational model is extended to the subsequent five winters, during which model development, reflecting both resolution increases and parametrisation modifications, continued unabated. In addition the objective blocking index developed by TM has been applied to the observed data to study the natural low frequency variability of blocking. The ability to simulate blocking of some climate models has also been tested

  2. Phase 4 paroxysmal AV block in a patient with scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butschek, Ross; Powell, Brian D; Littmann, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    A 72-year-old man with limited cutaneous systemic scleroderma was hospitalized for two episodes of witnessed syncope. The baseline 12-lead electrocardiogram was normal but on telemetry there were numerous episodes of paroxysmal AV block with asystolic periods of up to 7.5 s duration. Analysis of the rhythm strips revealed phase 4 intra-His bundle block characterized by critical P-P intervals that triggered the AV block, and a narrow range of junctional escape to subsequent P wave intervals that were required to release the AV block. A dual chamber pacemaker was implanted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of anti-IgE therapy on food allergen specific T cell responses in eosinophil associated gastrointestinal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prussin Calman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-IgE therapy inhibits mast cell and basophil activation, blocks IgE binding to both FcεRI and CD23 and down regulates FcεRI expression by antigen (Ag presenting cells (APCs. In addition to its classical role in immediate hypersensitivity, IgE has been shown in vitro to facilitate Ag presentation of allergens, whereby APC bound IgE preferentially takes up allergens for subsequent processing and presentation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether anti-IgE therapy, by blocking facilitated Ag presentation in vivo, attenuates allergen specific Th2 cell responses. Methods To test this hypothesis, food allergen specific T cell responses were examined during a 16-week clinical trial of omalizumab in nine subjects with eosinophilic gastroenteritis and food sensitization. Allergen specific T cell responses were measured using carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester dye dilution coupled with intracellular cytokine staining and polychromatic flow cytometry. Four independent indices of allergen specific T cell response (proliferation, Ag dose response, precursor frequency, and the ratio of Th2:Th1 cytokine expression were determined. Results Eight of the 9 subjects had measurable food allergen specific responses, with a median proliferation index of 112-fold. Allergen specific T cell proliferation was limited to CD4 T cells, whereas CD8 T cell did not proliferate. Food allergen specific responses were Th2 skewed relative to tetanus specific responses in the same subjects. In contradistinction to the original hypothesis, anti-IgE treatment did not diminish any of the four measured indices of allergen specific T cell response. Conclusions In sum, using multiple indices of T cell function, this study failed to demonstrate that anti-IgE therapy broadly or potently inhibits allergen specific T cell responses. As such, these data do not support a major role for IgE facilitated Ag presentation augmenting allergen specific T cell

  4. Increased CCL24/eotaxin-2 with postnatal ozone exposure in allergen-sensitized infant monkeys is not associated with recruitment of eosinophils to airway mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Debbie L.; Gerriets, Joan E. [California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Schelegle, Edward S.; Hyde, Dallas M. [California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Miller, Lisa A., E-mail: lmiller@ucdavis.edu [California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Epidemiology supports a causal link between air pollutant exposure and childhood asthma, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have previously reported that ozone exposure can alter the anatomic distribution of CD25+ lymphocytes in airways of allergen-sensitized infant rhesus monkeys. Here, we hypothesized that ozone may also affect eosinophil trafficking to allergen-sensitized infant airways. To test this hypothesis, we measured blood, lavage, and airway mucosa eosinophils in 3-month old monkeys following cyclical ozone and house dust mite (HDM) aerosol exposures. We also determined if eotaxin family members (CCL11, CCL24, CCL26) are associated with eosinophil location in response to exposures. In lavage, eosinophil numbers increased in animals exposed to ozone and/or HDM. Ozone + HDM animals showed significantly increased CCL24 and CCL26 protein in lavage, but the concentration of CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26 was independent of eosinophil number for all exposure groups. In airway mucosa, eosinophils increased with exposure to HDM alone; comparatively, ozone and ozone + HDM resulted in reduced eosinophils. CCL26 mRNA and immunofluorescence staining increased in airway mucosa of HDM alone animals and correlated with eosinophil volume. In ozone + HDM animal groups, CCL24 mRNA and immunofluorescence increased along with CCR3 mRNA, but did not correlate with airway mucosa eosinophils. Cumulatively, our data indicate that ozone exposure results in a profile of airway eosinophil migration that is distinct from HDM mediated pathways. CCL24 was found to be induced only by combined ozone and HDM exposure, however expression was not associated with the presence of eosinophils within the airway mucosa. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ozone can modulate the localization of eosinophils in infant allergic airways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of eotaxins within the lung is affected by ozone and allergen exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CCL24 induction by

  5. Eosinophil granule proteins ECP and EPX as markers for a potential early-stage inflammatory lesion in female genital schistosomiasis (FGS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramarokoto, Charles Emile; Kildemoes, Anna M. O.; Randrianasolo, Bodo Sahondra

    2014-01-01

    pathology, as viable schistosome egg granulomas often are eosinophil rich. Here it was investigated whether eosinophil granule proteins ECP (eosinophil cationic protein) and EPX (eosinophil protein-X) in urine and genital lavage can be used as markers for active FGS lesions. METHODS: Uro-genital samples...... with GSP. This could indicate that RP lesions might be more recently established and thus represent an earlier inflammatory lesion stage. CONCLUSION: ECP in genital lavage might be a future tool aiding the identification of FGS pathology at a stage where reversibility remains a possibility following...

  6. 31 CFR 594.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and...

  7. Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015. Bundle branch block Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  8. Blocked Urethral Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the penis. Rarely, small membranes form across the urethra in boys early in pregnancy, and they can block the flow of urine out of the bladder. These membranes are called posterior urethral valves and can have life-threatening consequences ...

  9. Optoelectronics using block copolymers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botiz, I.; Darling, S. B.; Center for Nanoscale Materials

    2010-05-01

    Block copolymers, either as semiconductors themselves or as structure directors, are emerging as a promising class of materials for understanding and controlling processes associated with both photovoltaic energy conversion and light emitting devices.

  10. Successful Treatment of Idiopathic Eosinophilic Peritonitis by Oral Corticosteroid Therapy in a Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaowen; Gao, Chenni; Xu, Jing; Chen, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic peritonitis is a well-described complication of peritoneal dialysis and is often associated with either a reaction to the dialysis system constituent (tubing, sterilant or solution) or an underlying bacterial or fungal reaction. We report a case of eosinophilic peritonitis, which is treated by oral prednisone acetate therapy. A 43-year-old female patient developed end-stage renal disease and underwent continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for 2.5 years. The patient received 2,000 ml of 1.5% dialysis solution (PD2) with three exchanges daily and 2,000 ml of 2.5% PDF overnight (PD2). She went to the consultation because of a constant turbid peritoneal dialysis effluent for 3 months without abdominal pain. Repeated peritoneal effluent samples showed an elevated white blood cell count of 500 cells/mm(3), with 87% eosinophils. The peripheral blood test revealed a white blood cell count of 3.8 × 10(9)/l, with 32.2% eosinophils. Etiology like bacterial and fungal infection was excluded by peritoneal fluid culture. Turbidness persisted in spite of diagnostic antibiotic treatment. Given the fact that we found a significant elevation of eosinophils in the peripheral blood and an absolute increase in the eosinophil count of >30/mm(3) in dialysis fluid (up to 400/mm(3) in our patient), obvious dialysate effluent turbidness, negative results of repeated peritoneal fluid cultures, inefficacy of antibiotic therapy, and negativity of serum tumor and immunological markers, we drew the conclusion that the patient had idiopathic eosinophilic peritonitis. Oral corticosteroid was administered at once (20 mg prednisone acetate daily), which was gradually weaned off and stopped over an 8-week period. Afterwards, the dialysis effluent became clear, and the cytological analysis showed that the white blood cell count decreased to 1 × 10(6)/l, with no eosinophils. This case reminds us that the diagnosis of eosinophilic peritonitis should be considered when repeated

  11. The Eosinophil Count Tends to Be Negatively Associated with Levels of Serum Glucose in Patients with Adrenal Cushing Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Younghak; Yi, Hyon Seung; Kim, Hae Ri; Joung, Kyong Hye; Kang, Yea Eun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Koon Soon; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ku, Bon Jeong; Shong, Minho

    2017-09-01

    Cushing syndrome is characterized by glucose intolerance, cardiovascular disease, and an enhanced systemic inflammatory response caused by chronic exposure to excess cortisol. Eosinopenia is frequently observed in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome, but the relationship between the eosinophil count in peripheral blood and indicators of glucose level in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome has not been determined. A retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical and laboratory findings of 40 patients diagnosed with adrenal Cushing syndrome at Chungnam National University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2016. Clinical characteristics, complete blood cell counts with white blood cell differential, measures of their endocrine function, description of imaging studies, and pathologic findings were obtained from their medical records. Eosinophil composition and count were restored by surgical treatment of all of the patients with adrenal Cushing disease. The eosinophil count was inversely correlated with serum and urine cortisol, glycated hemoglobin, and inflammatory markers in the patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome. Smaller eosinophil populations in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome tend to be correlated with higher levels of blood sugar and glycated hemoglobin. This study suggests that peripheral blood eosinophil composition or count may be associated with serum glucose levels in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Korean Endocrine Society

  12. The Eosinophil Count Tends to Be Negatively Associated with Levels of Serum Glucose in Patients with Adrenal Cushing Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghak Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCushing syndrome is characterized by glucose intolerance, cardiovascular disease, and an enhanced systemic inflammatory response caused by chronic exposure to excess cortisol. Eosinopenia is frequently observed in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome, but the relationship between the eosinophil count in peripheral blood and indicators of glucose level in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome has not been determined.MethodsA retrospective study was undertaken of the clinical and laboratory findings of 40 patients diagnosed with adrenal Cushing syndrome at Chungnam National University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2016. Clinical characteristics, complete blood cell counts with white blood cell differential, measures of their endocrine function, description of imaging studies, and pathologic findings were obtained from their medical records.ResultsEosinophil composition and count were restored by surgical treatment of all of the patients with adrenal Cushing disease. The eosinophil count was inversely correlated with serum and urine cortisol, glycated hemoglobin, and inflammatory markers in the patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome.ConclusionSmaller eosinophil populations in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome tend to be correlated with higher levels of blood sugar and glycated hemoglobin. This study suggests that peripheral blood eosinophil composition or count may be associated with serum glucose levels in patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome.

  13. Controlled Release from Recombinant Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. PMID:24956486

  14. Dynamic CT findings of eosinophilic hepatic abscess and its clinical course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Dae Hyoun; Chang, Jae Chun; Seong, Ki Ho [Yeungnam Univ. School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate dynamic CT features and its clinical courses of eosinophilic hepatic abscess. Two-phase dynamic CT findings and the clinical courses of 13 pathologically proven cases of eosinophilic abscess were reviewed. All patients showed peripheral eosinophilia, and diagnoses were confirmed by ultrasound-guided biopsy(n=9) or operation(n=4). In two of the four patients who underwent segmental hepatectomy, worms of the species fasciola hepatica were detected. Follow-up CT scans after treatment with antibiotics or praziquantel were available in seven and eitht patients, respectively. All hepatic lesions were found in a subcapsular location or in contact with Glisson's capsule around the bile duct Arterial-dominant phase CT(n=11) demonstrated clusters of ill-defined low density masses without rim enhancement. Late-phase CT(n=13) more clearly depicted clustering lesions with enhancing rims and diminyution of the low-density area. Follow-up CT scans after treatment with antibiotics(n=7) showed no change in the lesions in three patients and slight shrinkage of the main mass with additional new lesions in four. On CT scans of nine patients performad after praziquantel therapy, hepatic masses were seen in all patients to be very slightly smaller after improvement of peripheral hypereosinophilia. Two-phase dynamic CT features appear to be helpful for the diagnosis of eosinophilic hepatic abscess in patients with peripheral eosinophilia. Parasitic infestation by Fasciola hepatica for example, is the presumed cause of such abscesses, though further studies are required.

  15. Cost Utility Analysis of Topical Steroids Compared With Dietary Elimination for Treatment of Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Cary C; Erim, Daniel; Eluri, Swathi; Palmer, Sarah H; Green, Daniel J; Wolf, W Asher; Runge, Thomas M; Wheeler, Stephanie; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Dellon, Evan S

    2017-06-01

    Topical corticosteroids or dietary elimination are recommended as first-line therapies for eosinophilic esophagitis, but data to directly compare these therapies are scant. We performed a cost utility comparison of topical corticosteroids and the 6-food elimination diet (SFED) in treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis, from the payer perspective. We used a modified Markov model based on current clinical guidelines, in which transition between states depended on histologic response simulated at the individual cohort-member level. Simulation parameters were defined by systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the base-case estimates and bounds of uncertainty for sensitivity analysis. Meta-regression models included adjustment for differences in study and cohort characteristics. In the base-case scenario, topical fluticasone was about as effective as SFED but more expensive at a 5-year time horizon ($9261.58 vs $5719.72 per person). SFED was more effective and less expensive than topical fluticasone and topical budesonide in the base-case scenario. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis revealed little uncertainty in relative treatment effectiveness. There was somewhat greater uncertainty in the relative cost of treatments; most simulations found SFED to be less expensive. In a cost utility analysis comparing topical corticosteroids and SFED for first-line treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis, the therapies were similar in effectiveness. SFED was on average less expensive, and more cost effective in most simulations, than topical budesonide and topical fluticasone, from a payer perspective and not accounting for patient-level costs or quality of life. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Treatment response with mepolizumab in severe eosinophilic asthma patients with previous omalizumab treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, A; Bourdin, A; Prazma, C M; Albers, F C; Price, R G; Yancey, S W; Ortega, H

    2016-09-01

    We performed post hoc analyses to evaluate the effect of humanized monoclonal antibody mepolizumab in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma previously treated with omalizumab. Data were collected from two randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled studies: MENSA (NCT01691521: 32-week treatment phase) and SIRIUS (NCT01691508: 24-week treatment phase). Active treatment was 75 mg intravenous mepolizumab (MENSA) or 100 mg subcutaneous mepolizumab (MENSA, SIRIUS). Patients had evidence of eosinophilic inflammation ≥150 cells/μl (at screening) or ≥300 cells/μl (during the previous year). Primary outcomes were the rate of exacerbations (MENSA) and the percentage reduction in oral corticosteroid (OCS) dose (SIRIUS). Other outcomes included lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s and morning peak expiratory flow), Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-5), St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scores, and safety. Overall, 576 patients were included from MENSA and 135 from SIRIUS, with 13% and 33% previously receiving omalizumab, respectively. In MENSA, mepolizumab reduced the rate of exacerbations by 57% (prior omalizumab) and 47% (no prior omalizumab) vs placebo. In SIRIUS, reductions in OCS use were comparable regardless of prior omalizumab use. Despite reducing chronic OCS use, mepolizumab also resulted in similar reductions in exacerbation rate relative to placebo in both subgroups. Asthma control and quality of life improved with mepolizumab vs placebo in both studies independent of prior omalizumab use, as shown by ACQ-5 and SGRQ scores. Adverse events were also comparable irrespective of prior omalizumab use. These post hoc analyses indicate that patients with severe eosinophilic asthma respond positively to mepolizumab regardless of prior use of omalizumab. © 2016 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Communicating hydrocephalus following eosinophilic meningitis is pathogenic for chronic Viliuisk encephalomyelitis in Northeastern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Alexander; Kassubek, Jan; Tumani, Hayrettin; Vladimirtsev, Vsevolod A; Hermann, Andreas; Osakovsky, Vladimir L; Baranov, Vladimir A; Krivoshapkin, Vadim G; Ludolph, Albert C

    2014-01-01

    Viliuisk encephalomyelitis (VE) is an endemic neurological disease in Northeast Siberia and generally considered to be a chronic encephalomyelitis of unknown origin actually spreading in the Sakha (Yakutian) Republic. In search for the pathophysiology and causative agent of VE, we performed a cross-sectional study on clinical, serological and neuroimaging data on chronic VE patients during two medical expeditions to three villages within the Viliuiski river basin in the Republic of Sakha in 2000 and to the capital Yakutsk in 2006. The severity of the core clinical picture with predominant sensory ataxia, gait apraxia, lower limb spasticity, cognitive impairment and bladder dysfunction correlated with the degree of MRI findings showing enlargement of inner ventricular spaces as in communicating hydrocephalus. Laboratory studies revealed transient eosinophilia during the preceding acute meningitis-like phase, but no ongoing inflammatory process in the CSF. We found immune reactions against Toxocara canis in the majority of chronic VE patients but rarely in controls (P = 0.025; Fisher's exact test). Histological analysis of subacute to subchronic VE brain samples showed eosinophilic infiltrations with no signs of persistent Toxocara canis infection. Our data showed that pressure by the communicating hydrocephalus as a mechanical factor is the major pathogenic mechanism in chronic VE, most likely triggered by eosinophilic meningitis. There are no signs for an ongoing inflammatory process in chronic VE. The past eosinophilic reaction in VE might be caused by Toxocara ssp. infection and might therefore represent the first hint for an initial cause leading to the development of chronic VE. Our data provide a framework for future studies and potential therapeutic interventions for this enigmatic epidemic neurological disease potentially spreading in Sakha Republic.

  18. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia due to radiographic contrast administration: an orphan disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Riedel, Andreas; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Franke, Christian; Gschwendtner, Andreas; Huang, Haidong; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Dramba, Vasiliki; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Brachmann, Johnannes

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary eosinophilia comprises a heterogeneous group of diseases that are defined by eosinophilia in pulmonary infiltrates or in tissue. Drugs can cause almost all histopathologic patterns of interstitial pneumonias, such as cellular and fibrotic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary infiltrates and eosinophilia, organizing pneumonia, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, a pulmonary granulomatosis-like reaction, and a usual interstitial pneumonia-like pattern. We present a very rare case of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia due to radiographic contrast infusion diagnosed with video-assisted thoracoscopy. The patient after 1 year is still under corticosteroid treatment with the disease stabilized.

  19. Eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis in an HIV-positive patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Dennis Baroni; Friedrisch, Bruno Kras; Fontanive Junior, Vilmar; da Rocha, Vívian Wünderlich

    2012-03-27

    A 29 year old female HIV-positive patient presented in emergency with acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain, fever, tenderness and positive Blumberg sign. Laboratorial tests revealed eosinophilia, anaemia and leukocytosis. She underwent exploratory laparotomy followed by appendectomy. The pathological analysis of the appendix revealed acute appendicitis, accentuated eosinophilia and infestation by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis. She did well after surgery and adequate treatment. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by these two parasitic worms reported in the medical literature.

  20. Eosinophilic granuloma of the skull base: patient with unique clinical moreover, radiographic presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Dalili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report presents an eight-year-old girl having periauricular swelling and severe pain during mouth opening on the right-side temporomandibular joint (TMJ. CBCT showed extensive destruction of the base of the skull and the roof of the glenoid fossa on the right side. The findings based on CT and MRI images with and without contrast are discussed herein. This report highlights a skull base eosinophilic granuloma that mimics TMJ disorder and the importance of proper evaluation of CBCT images to make an early diagnosis.

  1. Allergen-induced increase of eosinophil cationic protein in nasal lavage fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Grønborg, H; Mygind, N

    1990-01-01

    It was our aim to study the effect of nasal allergen provocation on the concentration of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in nasal lavage fluid, with and without glucocorticoid pretreatment. Twenty grass-pollen sensitive volunteers were provoked outside the pollen season on 2 consecutive days af...... after pretreatment for 2 weeks with the glucocorticoid, budesonide, as a nasal spray (400 micrograms/day) and with placebo with a double-blind, crossover design. Nasal lavage fluid was repeatedly collected during a 10-hour period to study both early and late-phase responses. 99m...

  2. Primary sclerosing cholangitis associated with increased peripheral eosinophils and serum IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, I; Takase, Y; Matsumoto, S; Kuyama, J; Nakajima, T; Maeda, H; Sugase, T; Hata, A; Hanada, M; Okuno, M

    1996-10-01

    Symptoms of cholestasis, including epigastralgia, fever, and jaundice, with marked increases in peripheral eosinophils and serum IgE in a 20-year-old man are reported here. Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) detected constrictions of the bile ducts, compatible with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The symptoms and blood parameters of liver dysfunction were associated with the degree of eosinophilia and high serum IgE levels. During corticosteroid therapy, all of these parameters improved, and morphologic improvements of the bile ducts were also observed. The pathogenesis of PSC may be explained, in part, by the concept of hypereosinophilic syndrome or allergic reaction.

  3. Curine inhibits eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness in a mouse model of allergic asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Departamento de Fisiologia e Patologia, UFPB, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Calheiros, Andrea Surrage; Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Moraes de Carvalho, Katharinne Ingrid [Laboratório de Inflamação, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva Mendes, Diego da [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Melo, Christianne Bandeira [Laboratório de Inflamação, Instituto Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Martins, Marco Aurélio [Laboratório de Inflamação, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva Dias, Celidarque da [Laboratório de Fitoquímica, Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, UFPB, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Piuvezam, Márcia Regina, E-mail: mrpiuvezam@ltf.ufpb.br [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Departamento de Fisiologia e Patologia, UFPB, João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); and others

    2013-11-15

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease with increasing prevalence around the world. Current asthma therapy includes drugs that usually cause significant side effects, justifying the search for new anti-asthmatic drugs. Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid that modulates calcium influx in many cell types; however, its anti-allergic and putative toxic effects remain to be elucidated. Our aim was to investigate the effects of curine on eosinophil activation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and to characterize its potential toxic effects. We used a mouse model of allergic asthma induced by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) to evaluate the anti-allergic effects of oral treatment with curine. The oral administration of curine significantly inhibited eosinophilic inflammation, eosinophil lipid body formation and AHR in animals challenged with OVA compared with animals in the untreated group. The curine treatment also reduced eotaxin and IL-13 production triggered by OVA. Verapamil, a calcium channel antagonist, had similar anti-allergic properties, and curine pre-treatment inhibited the calcium-induced tracheal contractile response ex-vivo, suggesting that the mechanism by which curine exerts its effects is through the inhibition of a calcium-dependent response. A toxicological evaluation showed that orally administered curine did not significantly alter the biochemical, hematological, behavioral and physical parameters measured in the experimental animals compared with saline-treated animals. In conclusion, curine showed anti-allergic activity through mechanisms that involve inhibition of IL-13 and eotaxin and of Ca{sup ++} influx, without inducing evident toxicity and as such, has the potential for the development of anti-asthmatic drugs. - Highlights: • Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid from Chondrodendron platyphyllum. • Curine inhibits eosinophil influx and activation and airway hyper-responsiveness. • Curine

  4. Eosinophilic fasciitis in a military recruit: MRI evaluation with clinical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Chang-Hsien; Juan, Chun-Jung; Chen, Cheng-Yu. [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital and National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (Taiwan); Huang, Guo-Shu [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital and National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (Taiwan); Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, 325, Sec. 2, Neihu 114, Cheng-Kung Road, Taipei, Taiwan (Taiwan); Taylor, John A.M. [Department of Diagnosis, New York Chiropractic College, Seneca Falls, New York (United States); Gao, Hong-Wei [Department of Pathology, Tri-Service General Hospital and National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (Taiwan)

    2003-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is an uncommon connective tissue disease. We report a patient with EF who presented with episodic swelling and stiffness of his legs and forearms in combination with peripheral eosinophilia. Imaging studies of the legs and forearms, including computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), clearly demonstrated the characteristic finding of fascial thickening. The complete clinical imaging and pathological findings are described in this report. Cross-sectional imaging is useful in diagnosing EF and in the appropriate clinical scenario may be helpful in differentiating EF from other connective tissue diseases. (orig.)

  5. Radiation protection: an analysis of thyroid blocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, D.C.; Blond, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis was performed to provide guidance to policymakers concerning the effectiveness of potassium iodide (KI) as a thyroid blocking agent in potential reactor accident situations, the distance to which (or area within which) it should be distributed, and its relative effectiveness compared to other available protective measures. The analysis was performed using the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) consequence model. Four categories of accidents were addressed: gap activity release accident (GAP), GAP without containment isolation, core melt with a melt-through release, and core melt with an atmospheric release. Cost-benefit ratios (US $/thyroid nodule prevented) are given assuming that no other protective measures are taken. Uncertainties due to health effects parameters, accident probabilities, and costs are assessed. The effects of other potential protective measures, such as evacuation and sheltering, and the impact on children (critical population) are evaluated. Finally, risk-benefit considerations are briefly discussed

  6. Sistema de blocos prensados e doses de adubo de liberação lenta na formação de porta-enxerto cítrico Pressed blocks system and slow release fertilizer levels for citrus rootstock formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Lopes Serrano

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Devido à restrição que os tubetes impõem ao crescimento lateral do sistema radicular, o uso de materiais orgânicos prensados está sendo utilizado para a produção de mudas de espécies florestais. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a produção do porta-enxerto cítrico limoeiro 'Cravo' no sistema de blocos prensados até a repicagem, e o efeito deste sistema e de doses de um fertilizante de liberação lenta sobre o crescimento desse porta-enxerto até o ponto de enxertia. Avaliaram-se três sistemas de produção até a repicagem: em tubetes preenchidos com substrato comercial composto por casca de pínus; em tubetes preenchidos com substrato composto pela mistura entre bagaço de cana e torta de filtro (3:2; v:v; e em "blocos prensados" constituídos pela prensagem do substrato composto pela mistura entre bagaço de cana e torta de filtro (3:2; v:v. Da repicagem à enxertia, foram empregadas cinco doses de Osmocote® (NPK 14-14-14: 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25g planta-1. As mudas provenientes do sistema de blocos prensados atingiram o ponto de repicagem e o de enxertia mais rapidamente que as produzidas em tubetes. No ponto de enxertia, estas apresentaram maiores médias de diâmetro de caule e massa seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular. O sistema utilizado na produção do porta-enxerto também interferiu na resposta das mudas à adubação empregada.Due to the restriction that the stiff plastic tubes impose to the lateral growth of the root system, the use of pressed organic materials has been proposed for the production of forests species seedlings. The research was carried out with the objectives of evaluating the production of rootstock 'Rangpur' lime tree in pressed blocks until the transplant, and the effect of those systems were evaluated and doses of slow release fertilizer on the growth of that rootstock until the grafting point. Three production systems were evaluated: in stiff plastic tubes filled up with commercial substrate

  7. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...

  8. Sputum eosinophils and exhaled nitric oxide during late asthmatic reaction in patients with western red cedar asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, H; Dittrick, M; Chan, H; Chan-Yeung, M

    1999-03-01

    Examination of sputum for eosinophils and measurement of exhaled nitric oxide have been proposed as noninvasive methods of assessing airway inflammation in asthma. The use of these tests in the evaluation of patients with occupational asthma has not been reported. This study investigated the changes in sputum eosinophils and exhaled NO before and at intervals after inhalation challenge with plicatic acid in patients with suspected western red cedar asthma. Of 17 subjects who underwent challenge, nine had a positive bronchoconstrictor reaction (responders) and eight had a negative reaction (nonresponders). At 6 and 24 h after plicatic acid challenge, there was a significant increase in sputum eosinophils among responders, which was inversely related to the fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at 6 h. An increase in sputum eosinophils was also found in three nonresponders. Levels of exhaled NO increased at 24 h after challenge with plicatic acid in both responders and nonresponders, being significant only in nonresponders. No correlation was found between the increase in nitric oxide and the magnitude of the functional changes in the airways. There were significant correlations between the degree of sputum eosinophilia and the level of exhaled NO before and after methacholine and plicatic acid challenge. In conclusion, the late asthmatic reaction induced by plicatic acid in patients with western red cedar asthma is associated with an increase in sputum eosinophils. The usefulness of measuring sputum eosinophils and exhaled nitric oxide in the clinical evaluation of patients with suspected occupational asthma caused by low molecular weight compounds has yet to be determined.

  9. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Danli Wang; Yang Zhang; Shengyong Chen

    2013-01-01

    This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transfer...

  10. Effect of eccentric location of the RBMK CPS displacer graphite block in the shielding sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dostov, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    Temperature conditions and accumulation of Wigner energy in the graphite block of the RBMK reactor CPS (control power system) displacer is examined. It is shown, that at eccentric location of the block in the shielding sheath average temperature of the block drops sharply. Due to the design demerit quantity of the stored energy in the block may be so great, that its release will result in melting of the displacer tube. (author)

  11. A rare IL33 loss-of-function mutation reduces blood eosinophil counts and protects from asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Dirk; Helgason, Hannes; Sulem, Patrick; Bjornsdottir, Unnur Steina; Lim, Ai Ching; Sveinbjornsson, Gardar; Hasegawa, Haruki; Brown, Michael; Ketchem, Randal R.; Gavala, Monica; Garrett, Logan; Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg; Jonasdottir, Aslaug; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Magnusson, Olafur T.

    2017-01-01

    IL-33 is a tissue-derived cytokine that induces and amplifies eosinophilic inflammation and has emerged as a promising new drug target for asthma and allergic disease. Common variants at IL33 and IL1RL1, encoding the IL-33 receptor ST2, associate with eosinophil counts and asthma. Through whole-genome sequencing and imputation into the Icelandic population, we found a rare variant in IL33 (NM_ 001199640: exon7: c.487-1G> C(rs146597587- C), allele frequency = 0.65%) that disrupts a canonical s...

  12. Blood Eosinophils and World Trade Center Exposure Predict Surgery in Chronic Rhinosinusitis. A 13.5-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sophia; Putman, Barbara; Weakley, Jessica; Hall, Charles B; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Schwartz, Theresa; Olivieri, Brianne; Singh, Ankura; Huie, Maryann; Morrison, Debra; Webber, Mayris P; Cohen, Hillel W; Kelly, Kerry J; Aldrich, Thomas K; Nolan, Anna; Prezant, David J; Shohet, Michael R; Weiden, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) collapse generated caustic airborne particulates that caused chronic rhinosinusitis in exposed Fire Department of New York firefighters. Surgery was performed when symptoms remained uncontrolled despite medical management. To identify predictors of surgical intervention for chronic rhinosinusitis in firefighters exposed to airborne irritants at the WTC collapse site. We assessed in 8,227 firefighters with WTC exposure between September 11, 2001 (9/11), and September 25, 2001, including WTC-site arrival time, months of rescue and recovery work, and eosinophil concentration measured between 9/11 and March 10, 2003. We assessed the association of serum cytokines and immunoglobulins with eosinophil concentration and surgery for rhinosinusitis in 112 surgical cases and 376 control subjects with serum available from the first 6 months after exposure to the WTC collapse site. Between 9/11 and March 10, 2015, the surgery rate was 0.47 cases per 100 person-years. In the first 18 months post-9/11, surgical patients had higher mean blood eosinophil levels than study cohort patients (219 ± 155 vs. 191 ± 134; P < 0.0001). Increased surgery risk was associated with increasing blood eosinophil counts (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12 per 100 cells/μl; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.17; P < 0.001); arriving at the WTC site on 9/11 or September 12, 2001 (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.04-1.99; P = 0.03); and working 6 months or longer at the WTC site (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.14-1.93; P < 0.01). Median blood eosinophil levels for surgical patients were above levels for the cohort in all 18-month intervals March 11, 2000, through March 10, 2015, using 51,163 measurements representing 97,733 person-years of observation. Increasing age, increasing IL-17A, and low IgA in serum from 2001 to 2002 predicted blood eosinophil concentration in surgical patients but not in control subjects (R(2) = 0.26, P < 0.0001; vs. R(2) = 0.008, P = 0

  13. Signal peptide of eosinophil cationic protein is toxic to cells lacking signal peptide peptidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.-M.; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is a toxin secreted by activated human eosinophils. The properties of mature ECP have been well studied but those of the signal peptide of ECP (ECPsp) are not clear. In this study, several chimeric proteins containing N-terminal fusion of ECPsp were generated, and introduced into Escherichia coli, Pichia pastoris, and human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431 to study the function of ECPsp. We found that expression of ECPsp chimeric proteins inhibited the growth of E. coli and P. pastoris but not A431 cells. Primary sequence analysis and in vitro transcription/translation of ECPsp have revealed that it is a potential substrate for human signal peptide peptidase (hSPP), an intramembrane protease located in endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, knockdown of the hSPP mRNA expression in ECPsp-eGFP/A431 cells caused the growth inhibitory effect, whereas complementally expression of hSPP in P. pastoris system rescued the cell growth. Taken together, we have demonstrated that ECPsp is a toxic signal peptide, and expression of hSPP protects the cells from growth inhibition

  14. Omalizumab in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis: a 36-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detoraki, Aikaterini; Di Capua, Lorena; Varricchi, Gilda; Genovese, Arturo; Marone, Gianni; Spadaro, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a systemic vasculitis characterized by asthma and blood eosinophilia, with the lung being the organ most frequently affected. Oral glucocorticoids and/or immunosuppressive drugs are the mainstay therapy of EGPA. Occasional reports suggest that EGPA patients can be treated with omalizumab in addition to conventional therapy to achieve asthma control. To investigate the long-term effects of omalizumab in patients with EGPA and asthma (2 females, 3 males, age 41-64 years), we carried out a 36-month follow-up observational study. At the time of enrollment, the patients were on maintenance therapy and had moderate to severe allergic asthma, eosinophilia and rhinosinusitis. Mononeuropathy/polyneuropathy and/or histological evidence of tissue eosinophilic infiltration were also present. Patients were treated with omalizumab (300-600 mg s.c. every 2-4 weeks) as add-on therapy to prednisone, inhaled steroids and bronchodilators. During omalizumab treatment, spirometry, the asthma control test (ACT) score and eosinophilia were evaluated, and prednisone dosage was recorded. During the 36 months of omalizumab treatment asthma progressively improved as indicated by spirometry and the ACT score. Eosinophilia progressively decreased. The oral prednisone dose was reduced or withdrawn during treatment. No adverse events were recorded. In patients with EGPA and moderate to severe allergic asthma, omalizumab can be beneficial and safe. It enables corticosteroid tapering while decreasing eosinophilia and improving asthma symptoms over 36 months.

  15. Eosinophil and neutrophil granulocyte exudation in the Chediak-Higashi (beige) mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, M. P.; Brandt, E. J.; Swank, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    Humans with Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) and mice carrying the beige mutation have a heritable defect which results in the presence of giant inclusion granules in the cytoplasm in a wide variety of cells and a markedly increased susceptibility to infections. To test whether this increased susceptibility to infection might be a consequence of impaired accumulation of granulocytes at sites of inflammatory-immune stimulation, we quantitated the exudation of granulocytes into the peritoneum in response to secondary tetanus toxoid challenge in normal mice and in two inbred mouse strains with the beige mutation. Neutrophil and eosinophil granulocyte responses in the peritoneal cavity were not diminished in the beige mice as compared to normal mice when previously sensitized animals were challenged intraperitoneally with tetanus toxoid. Since accumulation of cells at the in vivo site of inflammatory immune stimulation did not seem impaired in the mutant beige mice, it would appear that their increased susceptibility to infections is not due to impairment of cellular exudative responses, including the immune components of the eosinophil response. PMID:998737

  16. Eosinophilic esophagitis in children: immunopathological analysis and response to fluticasone propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Jonathan E; Fox, Victor L; Twarog, Frank J; Nurko, Samuel; Antonioli, Don; Gleich, Gerald; Badizadegan, Kamran; Furuta, Glenn T

    2002-05-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) shares symptoms with gastroesophageal reflux disease but has distinctive pathologic features and unknown immunopathology. Treatments with antigen restriction or systemic immunosuppression pose problems with compliance and side effects. Topically applied steroids offer an attractive alternative treatment. The aims of this study were to determine the immunopathologic features of EE and the effectiveness of antigen-specific diet restriction (DR) and topical immunosuppression. A prospective trial was conducted examining the impact of DR and swallowed fluticasone propionate (FP) on pediatric patients with EE. Clinicopathologic features, including immunohistochemical analysis of the esophageal mucosa, were measured before and after treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis of 11 prospectively identified children showed a significantly greater number of mucosal CD3 and CD8 lymphocytes, as well as CD1a antigen-presenting cells compared with normal controls. DR did not induce clinical improvement in any patients, whereas all children who completed treatment with FP had resolution of symptoms. Posttreatment analysis of proximal and distal esophageal mucosa showed a significant reduction in the number of eosinophils, as well as CD3(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes compared with pretreatment sections. EE is characterized by immunologically active esophageal mucosa. FP, not DR, effectively relieves symptoms. FP significantly reduces mucosal inflammation associated with EE.

  17. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis complicated by cholecystitis: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lu; Lu, Xiaoyong; Xue, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The objectives are to report an atypical case of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) associated with cholecystitis and to review the main clinical features, therapy, and prognosis of it. We present a 49-year-old male with non-classic clinical manifestations of EGPA and EGPA-related cholecystitis. EGPA was diagnosed by histology of the gallbladder after cholecystectomy. In addition, 11 cases of EGPA-associated cholecystitis have been reported and were described in details in this article. Gallbladder involvement is very uncommon in EGPA. All cases reviewed showed multiple organs involved as well as obviously elevated eosinophilic granulocyte proportion with inflammatory index, although antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody may be negative. All patients in this cohort that showed gallbladder involvement were eventually confirmed with EGPA by histology examination after cholecystectomy. The pathological change could be infiltration of inflammatory mononuclear cells of small- and medium-sized vessels. Of the cases, 91.7% responded well to steroid and immunosuppressant therapy. Gallbladder involvement is a very rare comorbid condition in EGPA. However, it is an important symptom or secondary condition to alert physicians the diagnosis of EGPA. Moreover, timely diagnosis and correct administration in the early stage of this disease could obviously improve the prognosis.

  18. Spontaneous remission of eosinophilic granuloma of the maxilla after incisional biopsy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Alex; Ramírez, Hernán; Ramírez, Pablo; Foncea, Camila; Venegas, Bernardo; Astorga, Paula

    2016-06-02

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), previously known as Histiocytosis X, is an infrequent disease that congregates a wide spectrum of clinical presentations with variable systemic involvement. Unification of these diseases under only one category is based on the almost identical histopathologic features of the lesions, but the etiology and proper approach for each presentation remains controversial. The localized alternative of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LLCH), known as Eosinophilic Granuloma (EG) of bone, is the predominant clinical presentation of LCH. The maxilla is involved in 1 % of the head and neck region cases, representing an uncommon condition in this area. In this clinical case report, it is described a case of a 16-year-old male patient with an asymptomatic osteolytic lesion at first upper left molar apical level, a finding detected on control radiographic images was reported as "Monostotic Eosinophilic granuloma of the maxillary bone", which was later confirmed through an incisional biopsy. A surgical excision was initially planned, but finally it was not performed due to a spontaneous healing of the lesion after the incisional biopsy. The presented case supports a conservative approach in the management of solitary EG of maxillary and mandibular bone lesions and even supports an expectant attitude in the course of treatment given the possibility of a spontaneous regression after the biopsy, especially in small lesions.

  19. Serum biomarkers in patients with relapsing eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dejaco

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest a role for eotaxin-3, TARC/CCL17 and IgG4 in newly-diagnosed patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, Churg-Strauss with highly active disease. The role of these biomarkers in relapsing disease is unclear.Serum levels of TARC/CCL17, eotaxin-3, IgG4, and IgG4/IgG ratio were determined in serum samples from a longitudinal cohort of patients with EGPA (105 visits of 25 patients. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data were available for all visits.At the first visit, 80% of patients were using glucocorticoids and 68% additional immunosuppressive drugs. Disease flares were seen at 18 visits. The median BVAS and BVAS/WG scores at time of relapse were 4 and 2, respectively. None of the biomarkers tested were useful to discriminate between active disease and remission. Patients treated with prednisone had lower eotaxin-3 and eosinophil levels compared to patients not taking glucocorticoids irrespective of disease activity. Use of immunosuppressive agents was not associated with biomarker levels.Serum levels of TARC/CCL17, eotaxin-3, IgG4, and IgG4/IgG ratio do not clearly differentiate active and inactive disease in established EGPA. Defining biomarkers in EGPA remains a challenge especially during times of glucocorticoid use.

  20. Intramuscular inoculation of cattle with Sarcocystis antigen results in focal eosinophilic myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeel, L; Houf, K; Geldhof, P; Nollet, H; Vercruysse, J; Ducatelle, R; Chiers, K

    2012-02-10

    Bovine eosinophilic myositis (BEM) is a subclinical myopathy characterized by multifocal white to grey-green discolorations in skeletal muscles, heart, tongue and oesophagus. These lesions are found at slaughter or during meat cutting and result in considerable economic losses. The etiology and pathogenesis are unclear, although it has been suggested, that Sarcocystis species are involved. To elucidate their role, two calves were repeatedly injected intramuscularly with adjuvanted Sarcocystis antigen. The morphological changes at the injection sites in these calves were histologically and immunohistochemically compared to spontaneous lesions from 44 BEM condemned carcasses sampled in slaughterhouses. Experimental intramuscular injection of Sarcocystis antigen resulted in lesions at the injection sites that were similar to the lesions of natural cases of BEM. They were characterized by massive infiltration of eosinophilic granulocytes, reactive macrophages (MAC387(+) cells), T-cells (CD3(+)) and B-cells (CD20(+)). Both in the experimental and in the natural cases, COX-2 expression was present in endothelial cells adjacent to lesional areas. MHC class II(+) staining was found amongst others in muscle cells surrounding the lesion. These results show that Sarcocystis antigens can induce an inflammatory response in bovine muscle having the characteristics of natural BEM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.