WorldWideScience

Sample records for blocking variant surface

  1. Light extraction block with curved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  2. Functionalization of Block Copolymer Vesicle Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Meier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In dilute aqueous solutions certain amphiphilic block copolymers self-assemble into vesicles that enclose a small pool of water with a membrane. Such polymersomes have promising applications ranging from targeted drug-delivery devices, to biosensors, and nanoreactors. Interactions between block copolymer membranes and their surroundings are important factors that determine their potential biomedical applications. Such interactions are influenced predominantly by the membrane surface. We review methods to functionalize block copolymer vesicle surfaces by chemical means with ligands such as antibodies, adhesion moieties, enzymes, carbohydrates and fluorophores. Furthermore, surface-functionalization can be achieved by self-assembly of polymers that carry ligands at their chain ends or in their hydrophilic blocks. While this review focuses on the strategies to functionalize vesicle surfaces, the applications realized by, and envisioned for, such functional polymersomes are also highlighted.

  3. An efficient block variant of robust structured multifrontal factorization method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo Xian-Yu; Mo Ze-Yao; Gu Tong-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the two-dimensional three-temperature (2D3T) radiation diffusion equations and its discrete system,using the block diagonal structure of the three-temperature matrix,the reordering and symbolic decomposition parts of the RSMF method are replaced with corresponding block operation in order to improve the solution efficiency.We call this block form method block RSMF (in brief,BRSMF) method.The new BRSMF method not only makes the reordering and symbolic decomposition become more effective,but also keeps the cost of numerical factorization from increasing and ensures the precision of solution very well.The theoretical analysis of the computation complexity about the new BRSMF method shows that the solution efficiency about the BRSMF method is higher than the original RSMF method.The numerical experiments also show that the new BRSMF method is more effective than the original RSMF method.

  4. On improving linear solver performance: a block variant of GMRES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, A H; Dennis, J M; Jessup, E R

    2004-05-10

    The increasing gap between processor performance and memory access time warrants the re-examination of data movement in iterative linear solver algorithms. For this reason, we explore and establish the feasibility of modifying a standard iterative linear solver algorithm in a manner that reduces the movement of data through memory. In particular, we present an alternative to the restarted GMRES algorithm for solving a single right-hand side linear system Ax = b based on solving the block linear system AX = B. Algorithm performance, i.e. time to solution, is improved by using the matrix A in operations on groups of vectors. Experimental results demonstrate the importance of implementation choices on data movement as well as the effectiveness of the new method on a variety of problems from different application areas.

  5. A block variant of the GMRES method on massively parallel processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guangye [Cray Research, Inc., Eagan, MN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a block variant of the GMRES method for solving general unsymmetric linear systems. This algorithm generates a transformed Hessenberg matrix by solely using block matrix operations and block data communications. It is shown that this algorithm with block size s, denoted by BVGMRES(s,m), is theoretically equivalent to the GMRES(s*m) method. The numerical results show that this algorithm can be more efficient than the standard GMRES method on a cache based single CPU computer with optimized BLAS kernels. Furthermore, the gain in efficiency is more significant on MPPs due to both efficient block operations and efficient block data communications. Our numerical results also show that in comparison to the standard GMRES method, the more PEs that are used on an MPP, the more efficient the BVGMRES(s,m) algorithm is.

  6. Fibrinogen adsorption on blocked surface of albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the adsorption of albumin and fibrinogen onto PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and glass surfaces and how pre-adsorption of albumin onto these surfaces can affect the adsorption of later added fibrinogen. For materials and devices being exposed to blood, adsorption...... of fibrinogen is often a non-wanted event, since fibrinogen is part of the clotting cascade and unspecific adsorption of fibrinogen can have an influence on the activation of platelets. Albumin is often used as blocking agent for avoiding unspecific protein adsorption onto surfaces in devices designed to handle...... energies, the adsorption of both albumin and fibrinogen has been monitored simultaneously on the same sample. Information about topography and coverage of adsorbed protein layers has been obtained using AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) analysis in liquid. Our studies show that albumin adsorbs in a multilayer...

  7. Heat Transfer Enhancement in Turbulent Flows by Blocked Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur YEMENİCİ

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the heat transfer analyses over flat and blocked surfaces were carried out in turbulent flow under the influence of the block height. A constant-temperature hot wire anemometer was used to the velocity and turbulent intensity measurements, while temperature values were measured by copper-constantan thermocouples. The average Stanton numbers for block heights of 15 and 25 mm were higher than those of flat surface by %38 and %84, respectively. The results showed that the presence of the blocks increased the heat transfer and the enhancement rose with block heights

  8. Nanopatterned articles produced using surface-reconstructed block copolymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P.; Park, Soojin; Wang, Jia-Yu; Kim, Bokyung

    2016-06-07

    Nanopatterned surfaces are prepared by a method that includes forming a block copolymer film on a substrate, annealing and surface reconstructing the block copolymer film to create an array of cylindrical voids, depositing a metal on the surface-reconstructed block copolymer film, and heating the metal-coated block copolymer film to redistribute at least some of the metal into the cylindrical voids. When very thin metal layers and low heating temperatures are used, metal nanodots can be formed. When thicker metal layers and higher heating temperatures are used, the resulting metal structure includes nanoring-shaped voids. The nanopatterned surfaces can be transferred to the underlying substrates via etching, or used to prepare nanodot- or nanoring-decorated substrate surfaces.

  9. Fabrication of Bioactive Surfaces by Functionalization of Electroactive and Surface-Active Block Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotunde Olubi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofunctional block copolymers are becoming increasingly attractive materials as active components in biosensors and other nanoscale electronic devices. We have described two different classes of block copolymers with biofuctional properties. Biofunctionality for block copolymers is achieved through functionalization with appropriate biospecific ligands. We have synthesized block copolymers of electroactive poly(3-decylthiophene and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate by atom transfer radical polymerization. The block copolymers were functionalized with the dinitrophenyl (DNP groups, which are capable of binding to Immunoglobulin E (IgE on cell surfaces. The block copolymers were shown to be redox active. Additionally, the triblock copolymer of α, ω-bi-biotin (poly(ethylene oxide-b-poly (styrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide was also synthesized to study their capacity to bind fluorescently tagged avidin. The surface-active property of the poly(ethylene oxide block improved the availability of the biotin functional groups on the polymer surfaces. Fluorescence microscopy observations confirm the specific binding of biotin with avidin.

  10. Heparin-containing block copolymers, Part I: Surface characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vulić, I.; Pijpers, A.P.; Okano, T.; Kim, S.W.; Feijen, J.

    1993-01-01

    Newly synthesized heparin-containing block copolymers, consisting of a hydrophobic block of polystyrene (PS), a hydrophilic spacer-block of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and covalently bound heparin (Hep) as bioactive block, were coated on aluminium, glass, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), PS or Biomer sub

  11. Surface energies and self-assembly of block copolymers on grafted surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombly, David M; Pryamitsyn, Victor; Ganesan, Venkat

    2011-09-30

    We present a theoretical analysis of the self-assembly of diblock copolymers on surfaces grafted with random copolymers. Our results demonstrate that the surface energies of homopolymeric components on grafted surfaces differ from the corresponding values for self-assembled morphologies. Moreover, grafted random copolymers are shown to adapt their conformations in response to the morphology of the overlaying block copolymer film to create chemical inhomogeneities which modulate the interfacial interactions. Consequently, the surface energy differences between the different components on the grafted substrate do not serve as a useful measure to predict the stability of self-assembly of the diblock copolymer film.

  12. The role of Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens in protective immunity and vaccine development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Lars

    2010-01-01

    There is substantial immuno-epidemiological evidence that the parasite-encoded, so-called variant surface antigens (VSAs), such as PfEMP1 on the surface of infected erythrocytes (IEs) are important-in some cases probably decisive determinants of clinical outcome of P. falciparum malaria. The evid...

  13. Malaria-induced acquisition of antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ofori, Michael F; Dodoo, Daniel; Staalsoe, Trine

    2002-01-01

    In areas of intense Plasmodium falciparum transmission, protective immunity is acquired during childhood in parallel with acquisition of agglutinating antibodies to parasite-encoded variant surface antigens (VSA) expressed on parasitized red blood cells. In a semi-immune child in such an area, cl...

  14. Mussel-inspired block copolymer lithography for low surface energy materials of teflon, graphene, and gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Hoon; Lee, Duck Hyun; Kim, Ju Young; Shin, Dong Ok; Jeong, Hu Young; Hong, Seonki; Yun, Je Moon; Koo, Chong Min; Lee, Haeshin; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2011-12-15

    Mussel-inspired interfacial engineering is synergistically integrated with block copolymer (BCP) lithography for the surface nanopatterning of low surface energy substrate materials, including, Teflon, graphene, and gold. The image shows the Teflon nanowires and their excellent superhydrophobicity.

  15. Synthesis and Surface Tension Properties of Polyethyleneimine—Polyethylene Oxide Block Copolymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张剑; LONNIE,Bryant

    2003-01-01

    This peper describes the synthesis,surface tension and dispersancy properties of block copolymer nonionic surfactants comprised of polyethyleneimine(PEI) and polyethlene oxide(PEO) blocks of selected lengths.These block copolymers were prepared by a threestep synthetic sequence.Firstly,PEO glycol was converted to its dimethanesulphonylester (dimesyl) derivative by reacting with methanesulphonyl chloride.Then a tri-block polymer was preparaed by the ring-opening polymerization of 2-methly-2-oxazoline(MeOZO)with the dimesyl PEO derivative.Lastly,linear PEI blocks were obtained by subsequent hydrolysis and purification.1H NMR spectra confirmed the structures of the intermediate,final products and their purities(>99%).The utility of these block copolymers is described in terms of their surface tension and clay dispersancy measurements as a function of copolymer chain and block length.

  16. Surface gene variants of hepatitis B Virus in Saudi Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Y Al-Qudari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hepatitis B virus (HBV continues to be one of the most important viral pathogens in humans. Surface (S protein is the major HBV antigen that mediates virus attachment and entry and determines the virus subtype. Mutations in S gene, particularly in the “a” determinant, can influence virus detection by ELISA and may generate escape mutants. Since no records have documented the S gene mutations in HBV strains circulating in Saudi Arabia, the current study was designed to study sequence variation of S gene in strains circulating in Saudi Arabia and its correlation with clinical and risk factors. Patients and Methods: A total of 123 HBV-infected patients were recruited for this study. Clinical and biochemical parameters, serological markers, and viral load were determined in all patients. The entire S gene sequence of samples with viral load exceeding 2000 IU/mL was retrieved and exploited in sequence and phylogenetic analysis. Results: A total of 48 mutations (21 unique were recorded in viral strains in Saudi Arabia, among which 24 (11 unique changed their respective amino acids. Two amino acid changes were recorded in “a” determinant, including F130L and S135F with no evidence of the vaccine escape mutant G145R in any of the samples. No specific relationship was recognized between the mutation/amino acid change record of HBsAg in strains in Saudi Arabia and clinical or laboratory data. Phylogenetic analysis categorized HBV viral strains in Saudi Arabia as members of subgenotypes D1 and D3. Conclusion: The present report is the first that describes mutation analysis of HBsAg in strains in Saudi Arabia on both nucleotide and amino acid levels. Different substitutions, particularly in major hydrophilic region, may have a potential influence on disease diagnosis, vaccination strategy, and antiviral chemotherapy.

  17. Surface Gene Variants of Hepatitis B Virus in Saudi Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qudari, Ahmed Y.; Amer, Haitham M.; Abdo, Ayman A.; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Hamoudi, Waleed; Alswat, Khalid; Almajhdi, Fahad N.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) continues to be one of the most important viral pathogens in humans. Surface (S) protein is the major HBV antigen that mediates virus attachment and entry and determines the virus subtype. Mutations in S gene, particularly in the “a” determinant, can influence virus detection by ELISA and may generate escape mutants. Since no records have documented the S gene mutations in HBV strains circulating in Saudi Arabia, the current study was designed to study sequence variation of S gene in strains circulating in Saudi Arabia and its correlation with clinical and risk factors. Patients and Methods: A total of 123 HBV-infected patients were recruited for this study. Clinical and biochemical parameters, serological markers, and viral load were determined in all patients. The entire S gene sequence of samples with viral load exceeding 2000 IU/mL was retrieved and exploited in sequence and phylogenetic analysis. Patients and Methods: A total of 123 HBV-infected patients were recruited for this study. Clinical and biochemical parameters, serological markers, and viral load were determined in all patients. The entire S gene sequence of samples with viral load exceeding 2000 IU/mL was retrieved and exploited in sequence and phylogenetic analysis. Results: A total of 48 mutations (21 unique) were recorded in viral strains in Saudi Arabia, among which 24 (11 unique) changed their respective amino acids. Two amino acid changes were recorded in “a” determinant, including F130L and S135F with no evidence of the vaccine escape mutant G145R in any of the samples. No specific relationship was recognized between the mutation/amino acid change record of HBsAg in strains in Saudi Arabia and clinical or laboratory data. Phylogenetic analysis categorized HBV viral strains in Saudi Arabia as members of subgenotypes D1 and D3. Conclusion: The present report is the first that describes mutation analysis of HBsAg in strains in Saudi Arabia on both

  18. 3D Identification and Stability Analysis of Key Surface Blocks of Rock Slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明超; 周四宝; 王刚

    2016-01-01

    Complicated geological structures make it difficult to analyze the stability of rock slopes, such as faults, weak intercalated layers or joint fissures. Based on 3D geological modeling and surface block identifying methods, an integrated methodology framework was proposed and realized to analyze the stability of surface blocks in rock slopes. The surface blocks cut by geological structures, fissures or free faces could be identified subjected to the four principles of closure, completeness, uniqueness and validity. The factor of safety(FOS)of single key block was calculated by the limit equilibrium method. If there were two or more connected blocks, they were defined as a block-group. The FOS of a block-group was computed by the Sarma method. The proposed approach was applied to an actual rock slope of a hydropower project, and some possible instable blocks were demonstrated and analyzed visually. The obtained results on the key blocks or block-groups provide essential information for determining po-tential instable region of rock slopes and designing effective support scheme in advance.

  19. Blocking farnesylation of the prelamin A variant in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome alters the distribution of A-type lamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuexia; Ӧstlund, Cecilia; Choi, Jason C.; Swayne, Theresa C.; Gundersen, Gregg G.; Worman, Howard J.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the lamin A/C gene that cause Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome lead to expression of a truncated, permanently farnesylated prelamin A variant called progerin. Blocking farnesylation leads to an improvement in the abnormal nuclear morphology observed in cells expressing progerin, which is associated with a re-localization of the variant protein from the nuclear envelope to the nuclear interior. We now show that a progerin construct that cannot be farnesylated is localized primarily in intranuclear foci and that its diffusional mobility is significantly greater than that of farnesylated progerin localized predominantly at the nuclear envelope. Expression of non-farnesylated progerin in transfected cells leads to a redistribution of lamin A and lamin C away from the nuclear envelope into intranuclear foci but does not significantly affect the localization of endogenous lamin B1 at nuclear envelope. There is a similar redistribution of lamin A and lamin C into intranuclear foci in transfected cells expressing progerin in which protein farnesylation is blocked by treatment with a protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor. Blocking farnesylation of progerin can lead to a redistribution of normal A-type lamins away from the inner nuclear envelope. This may have implications for using drugs that block protein prenylation to treat children with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. These findings also provide additional evidence that A-type and B-type lamins can form separate microdomains within the nucleus. PMID:22895092

  20. Three-dimensional block-based restoration integrated with wide-field fluorescence microscopy for the investigation of thick specimens with spatially variant refractive index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sreya; Preza, Chrysanthe

    2016-04-30

    Development of a block-based restoration (BBR) method that addresses spatially variant (SV) imaging in wide-field fluorescence microscopy of thick samples is presented. The BBR method is based on a block-based imaging model, which approximates SV imaging using an efficient orthonormal basis decomposition of multiple SV point-spread functions computed at block vertices. The effect of reducing the number of blocks needed to account for SV imaging on the restoration accuracy was investigated with simulations using a numerical lung tissue phantom relevant to biological studies. Results show that reducing the number of blocks by 82% and 98% resulted in a 19% and 27% reduction in restoration accuracy, respectively, thereby establishing a reasonable tradeoff between computational resources and accuracy. Comparison of the BBR method to existing methods (deconvolution) that do not account for SV imaging demonstrates a 90% improvement in restoration accuracy. BBR results from synthetic and experimental images of a controlled test sample with SV refractive index (RI) show consistency, providing a validation of the BBR approach. In this study, information from DIC and fluorescence images was combined to identify regions with changing RI within the imaging volume. The BBR method provides a first step toward computationally tractable reconstruction of images from thick samples.

  1. Overlapping antigenic repertoires of variant antigens expressed on the surface of erythrocytes infected by Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giha, H A; Staalsoe, T; Dodoo, D;

    1999-01-01

    Antibodies against variable antigens expressed on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes are believed to be important for protection against malaria. A target for these antibodies is the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1, PfEMP1, which is encoded by around 50 var...... genes and undergoes clonal variation. Using agglutination and mixed agglutination tests and flow cytometry to analyse the recognition of variant antigens on parasitized erythrocytes by plasma antibodies from individuals living in Daraweesh in eastern Sudan, an area of seasonal and unstable malaria...

  2. Influence of localized surface plasmons on Pauli blocking and optical limiting in graphene under femtosecond pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongu, Sudhakara Reddy; Bisht, Prem B.; Namboodiri, Raman C. K.; Nayak, Pranati; Ramaprabhu, Sundara; Kelly, Thomas J.; Fallon, Colm; Costello, John T.

    2014-08-01

    The Pauli blocking limit and optical limiting threshold have been found to be modified following silver-nanoparticle decoration of functionalized hydrogen induced exfoliated graphene. Femtosecond Z-scan experiments have been used to measure the Pauli blocking range, optical limiting threshold, and the third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ(3)) values. The observed results have been explained by modified band structure of graphene in the presence of silver nanoparticles and their localized surface plasmon resonances.

  3. Block regularization of the Kepler problem on surfaces of revolution with positive constant curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Santoprete, Manuele

    2009-01-01

    We consider the Kepler problem on surfaces of revolution that are homeomorphic to $S^2$ and have constant Gaussian curvature. We show that the system is maximally superintegrable, finding constants of motion that generalize the Runge-Lentz vector. Then, using such first integrals, we determine the class of surfaces that lead to block-regularizable collision singularities. In particular we show that the singularities are always regularizable if the surfaces are spherical orbifolds of revolution with constant curvature.

  4. Composition and solution properties of fluorinated block copolymers and their surface structures in the solid state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI HuaGang; XUE DongWu; WANG XiaoFang; ZHANG Wei; WANG XinPing; SHEN ZhiQuan

    2009-01-01

    A series of diblock copolymers composed of methyl methacrylate and 2-perfluorooctylethyl methacry-late (PMMA144-b-PFMAn) with various PFMA block lengths were prepared by atom transfer radical po-lymerization (ATRP). The surface structures and properties of these polymers in the solid state and in solution were investigated using contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, surface tension and dynamic laser light scattering (DLS). It was found that with increasing PFMA block length, water and oil repellency de-creased, the ratio of F/C increased with increasing film depth, and the degree of ordered packing of the perfluoroalkyl side chains at the surface decreased. When the number of PFMA block units reached 10, PMMA segments were detected at the copolymer surface, which was attributed to the PFMA block length affecting molecular aggregation structure of the copolymer in the solution and the interfacial structure at the air/liquid interface, which in turn affects surface structure formation during solution solidification. The results suggest that copolymer solution properties play an important role in struc-ture formation on the solid surface.

  5. Composition and solution properties of fluorinated block copolymers and their surface structures in the solid state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A series of diblock copolymers composed of methyl methacrylate and 2-perfluorooctylethyl methacry-late(PMMA144-b-PFMAn) with various PFMA block lengths were prepared by atom transfer radical po-lymerization(ATRP).The surface structures and properties of these polymers in the solid state and in solution were investigated using contact angle measurement,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS),sum frequency generation(SFG) vibrational spectroscopy,surface tension and dynamic laser light scattering(DLS).It was found that with increasing PFMA block length,water and oil repellency de-creased,the ratio of F/C increased with increasing film depth,and the degree of ordered packing of the perfluoroalkyl side chains at the surface decreased.When the number of PFMA block units reached 10,PMMA segments were detected at the copolymer surface,which was attributed to the PFMA block length affecting molecular aggregation structure of the copolymer in the solution and the interfacial structure at the air/liquid interface,which in turn affects surface structure formation during solution solidification.The results suggest that copolymer solution properties play an important role in struc-ture formation on the solid surface.

  6. Surface charge-specific cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of tri-block copolymer nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhattacharjee, S.; Ershov, D.S.; Gucht, van der J.; Alink, G.M.; Rietjens, I.; Zuilhof, H.; Marcelis, A.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    A series of monodisperse (45 ± 5 nm) fluorescent nanoparticles from tri-block copolymers (polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs)) bearing different surface charges were synthesised and investigated for cytotoxicity in NR8383 and Caco-2 cells. The positive PNPs were more cytotoxic and induced a higher intrac

  7. Experimental verification of the identity of variant-specific surface proteins in Giardia lamblia trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Saraiya, Ashesh A; Wang, Ching C

    2013-05-21

    The cell membrane of a Giardia lamblia trophozoite is covered with a single species of variant-specific surface protein (VSP) that is replaced by another VSP every 6 to 13 generations of cell growth, possibly for an evasion of host immunity. Experimentally, only six VSP species have been verified to localize to the cell membrane thus far. By assuming that VSP contains multiple CXXC motifs, 219 vsp genes were annotated in GiardiaDB of the WB isolate. By further assuming that VSP possesses both CXXC motifs and a CRGKA tail at the C terminus, Adam et al. (BMC Genomics 11:424, 2010) identified a total of 303 potential vsp genes in Giardia WB. The discrepancies between these two assumed VSP identities have caused some confusion. Here, we used experimental approaches to further verify what is required of the structures of a VSP to localize to the surface of cell membrane. The data led to the following conclusions. (i) The C-terminal CRGKA sequence is not essential for localizing VSPs to the cell membrane. (ii) A "motif 1" of 45 residues, consisting of two CXXCs separated by 12 to 15 amino acid residues, located close to the C terminus and a hydrophobic "motif 2" of 38 residues at the C terminus are both essential and sufficient for localizing the protein to the cell membrane. (ii) An N-terminal sequence upstream from motif 1 is not required for targeting VSPs to the cell membrane. By these criteria, we are able to identify 73 open reading frames as the putative vsp genes in Giardia. IMPORTANCE The intestinal pathogen Giardia lamblia expresses only one variant-specific surface protein (VSP) on the cell membrane surface at a given time, but it changes spontaneously every 6 to 13 generations of growth, presumably for evading the host immunity. Only 6 VSPs have been empirically shown to localize to the cell membrane surface thus far. Here, we used mutations of VSPs and methods of identifying their locations in Giardia cells and found that a "motif 1" of 45 residues

  8. Use of surface enhanced blocking (SEB electrodes for microbial cell lysis in flow-through devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdossamad Talebpour

    Full Text Available By simultaneously subjecting microbial cells to high amplitude pulsed electric fields and flash heating of the cell suspension fluid, effective release of intracellular contents was achieved. The synergistic effect of the applied electric field and elevated temperature on cell lysis in a flow-through device was demonstrated for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and Mycobacterium species. The resulting lysate is suitable for downstream nucleic acid amplification and detection without requiring further preparation. The lysis chamber employs surface enhanced blocking electrodes which possess an etched micro-structured surface and a thin layer of dielectric metal oxide which provides a large effective area and blocks transmission of electrical current. The surface enhanced blocking electrodes enable simultaneous suppression of the rapid onset of electric field screening in the bulk of the cell suspension medium and avoidance of undesired electrochemical processes at the electrode-electrolyte interface. In addition the blocking layer ensures the robustness of the cell lysis device in applications involving prolonged flow-through processing of the microbial cells.

  9. Surface functionalization of carbon nanotubes by direct encapsulation with varying dosages of amphiphilic block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xueping; Li, Jie; Kong, Liang; Wang, Yong

    2015-08-01

    Encapsulation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by amphiphilic block copolymers is an efficient way to stabilize CNTs in solvents. However, the appropriate dosages of copolymers and the assembled structures are difficult to predict and control because of the insufficient understanding on the encapsulation process. We encapsulate multiwalled CNTs with polystyrene-block-poly (4-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) by directly mixing them in acetic acid under sonication. The copolymer forms a lamellar structure along the surface of CNTs with the PS blocks anchoring on the tube wall and the P4VP blocks exposed to the outside. The encapsulated CNTs achieve good dispersibility in polar solvents over long periods. To increase our understanding of the encapsulation process we investigate the assembled structures and stability of copolymer/CNTs mixtures with changing mass ratios. Stable dispersions are obtained at high mass ratios between the copolymer and CNTs, i.e. 2 or 3, with the presence of free spherical micelles. Transmission electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis determine that the threshold for the complete coverage of CNTs by the copolymer occurs at the mass ratio of 1.5. The coated copolymer layer activates the surface of CNTs, enabling further functionalization of CNTs. For instance, atomic layer deposition of TiO2 produces conformal thin layers on the encapsulated CNTs while isolated TiO2 bumps are produced on the pristine, inert CNTs.

  10. Geographical and temporal conservation of antibody recognition of Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten A; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Lusingu, John

    2004-01-01

    The slow acquisition of protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria probably reflects the extensive diversity of important antigens. The variant surface antigens (VSA) that mediate parasite adhesion to a range of host molecules are regarded as important targets of acquired protective immunit...

  11. Antibodies to rifin: a component of naturally acquired responses to Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens on infected erythrocytes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdel-Latif, M.S.; Cabrera, G.; Kohler, C.; Kremsner, P.G.; Luty, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    We used a pool of recombinant rifin proteins to pre-adsorb antibodies to rifin in the plasma of semi-immune African (Gabonese) adults and showed that this results in a reduction in the level of IgG antibody reactivity to variant surface antigens (VSA) measured in a standardized flow cytometric assay

  12. Plasmodium falciparum parasites expressing pregnancy-specific variant surface antigens adhere strongly to the choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Rikke N; Megnekou, Rosette; Lundquist, Maja;

    2006-01-01

    Placenta-sequestering Plasmodium falciparum parasites causing pregnancy-associated malaria express pregnancy-specific variant surface antigens (VSA(PAM)). We report here that VSA(PAM)-expressing patient isolates adhere strongly to the choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo and that the BeWo line can...

  13. Functional Perfluoroalkyl Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (F-POSS): Building Blocks for Low Surface Energy Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    Technical Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Functional Perfluoroalkyl Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (F...long chain fluorinated alkyl groups ranging from 6-12 carbon atoms in length. Herein, a disilanol perfluoroalkyl polyhedral oligomeric...FUNCTIONAL PERFLUOROALKYL POLYHEDRAL OLIGOMERIC SILSESQUIOXANES (F-POSS): BUILDING BLOCKS FOR LOW SURFACE ENERGY MATERIA LS Sean M Rami,.e:, Yvonne Dia

  14. Synchronous expression of individual metacyclic variant surface glycoprotein genes in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey-Butler, Kiantra; Ullu, Elisabetta; Kolev, Nikolay G; Tschudi, Christian

    2015-01-01

    One distinctive feature of the Trypanosoma brucei life cycle is the presence of two discrete populations that are based on differential expression of variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs). Both are adapted to the environmental pressures they face and more importantly, both contribute directly to transmission. Metacyclics in the tsetse fly enable transmission to a new mammalian host, whereas bloodstream trypanosomes must avoid immune destruction to the extent that sufficient numbers are available for transmission, when the insect vector takes a blood meal. At present, there are few investigations on the molecular aspects of parasite biology in the tsetse vector and specifically about the activation of metacyclic VSG gene expression. Here we used an established in vitro differentiation system based on the overexpression of the RNA-binding protein 6 (RBP6), to monitor two metacyclic VSGs (VSG 397 and VSG 653) during development from procyclics to infectious metacyclic forms. We observed that activation of these two mVSGs was simultaneous both at the transcript and protein level, and manifested by the appearance of only one of the mVSGs in individual cells.

  15. Analysis of IgG with specificity for variant surface antigens expressed by placental Plasmodium falciparum isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremsner Peter G

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM is caused by Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes that can sequester in placental intervillous space by expressing particular variant surface antigens (VSA that can mediate adhesion to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA in vitro. IgG antibodies with specificity for the VSA expressed by these parasites (VSAPAM are associated with protection from maternal anaemia, prematurity and low birth weight, which is the greatest risk factor for death in the first month of life. Methods In this study, the development of anti-VSAPAM antibodies in a group of 151 women who presented to the maternity ward of Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Lambaréné, Gabon for delivery was analysed using flow cytometry assays. Plasma samples from placenta infected primiparous women were also investigated for their capacity to inhibit parasite binding to CSA in vitro. Results In the study cohort, primiparous as well as secundiparous women had the greatest risk of infection at delivery as well as during pregnancy. Primiparous women with infected placentas at delivery showed higher levels of VSAPAM-specific IgG compared to women who had no malaria infections at delivery. Placental isolates of Gabonese and Senegalese origin tested on plasma samples from Gabon showed parity dependency and gender specificity patterns. There was a significant correlation of plasma reactivity as measured by flow cytometry between different placental isolates. In the plasma of infected primiparous women, VSAPAM-specific IgG measured by flow cytometry could be correlated with anti-adhesion antibodies measured by the inhibition of CSA binding. Conclusion Recognition of placental parasites shows a parity- and sex- dependent pattern, like that previously observed in laboratory strains selected to bind to CSA. Placental infections at delivery in primiparous women appear to be sufficient to induce functional antibodies which can both recognize the surface of

  16. External magnetic field dependent shift of superparamagnetic blocking temperature due to core/surface disordered spin interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan; Jang, Jung-tak; Nakano, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Paek, Sun Ha; Bae, Seongtae

    2017-02-01

    Although the blocking temperature of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPNPs) is crucial for various spintronics and biomedical applications, the precise determination of the blocking temperature is still not clear. Here, we present ‘intrinsic’ and ‘extrinsic’ characteristics of the blocking temperature in SPNP systems. In zero-field-cooled/field-cooled (ZFC-FC) curves, there was no shift of ‘intrinsic blocking temperature’ at different applied external (excitation) magnetic fields. However, ‘extrinsic blocking temperature’ shift is clearly dependent on the external (excitation) magnetic field. According to our newly proposed physical model, the ‘intermediate spin layer’ located between the core and surface disordered spin layers is primarily responsible for the physical nature of the shift of extrinsic blocking temperature. Our new findings offer possibilities for characterizing the thermally induced physical properties of SPNPs. Furthermore, these findings provide a new empirical approach to indirectly estimate the qualitative degree of the disordered surface spin status in SPNPs.

  17. Sulfobetaine-Vinylimidazole Block Copolymers: A Robust Quantum Dot Surface Chemistry Expanding Bioimaging's Horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasso, Mariana; Giovanelli, Emerson; Zala, Diana; Bouccara, Sophie; Fragola, Alexandra; Hanafi, Mohamed; Lenkei, Zsolt; Pons, Thomas; Lequeux, Nicolas

    2015-11-24

    Long-term inspection of biological phenomena requires probes of elevated intra- and extracellular stability and target biospecificity. The high fluorescence and photostability of quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles contributed to foster their promise as bioimaging tools that could overcome limitations associated with traditional fluorophores. However, QDs' potential as a bioimaging platform relies upon a precise control over the surface chemistry modifications of these nano-objects. Here, a zwitterion-vinylimidazole block copolymer ligand was synthesized, which regroups all anchoring groups in one compact terminal block, while the rest of the chain is endowed with antifouling and bioconjugation moieties. By further application of an oriented bioconjugation approach with whole IgG antibodies, QD nanobioconjugates were obtained that display outstanding intra- and extracellular stability as well as biorecognition capacity. Imaging the internalization and intracellular dynamics of a transmembrane cell receptor, the CB1 brain cannabinoid receptor, both in HEK293 cells and in neurons, illustrates the breadth of potential applications of these nanoprobes.

  18. "Click-functional" block copolymers provide precise surface functionality via spin coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengifo, Hernán R; Chen, Lu; Grigoras, Cristian; Ju, Jingyue; Koberstein, Jeffrey T

    2008-07-15

    There are few existing methods for the quantitative functionalization of surfaces, especially for polymeric substrates. We demonstrate that alkyne end-functional diblock copolymers can be used to provide precise areal densities of reactive functionality on both hard (e.g., glass and silicon oxide) and soft (i.e., polymeric) substrates. Alkyne functionality is extremely versatile because the resultant functional surfaces are reactive toward azide functional molecules by Sharpless click chemistry. Spin-coated films of alpha-alkyne-omega-Br-poly( tert-butylacrylate- b-methylmethacrylate) (poly( tBA-MMA)) spontaneously self-assemble on the aforementioned substrates to present a surface monolayer of PtBA with a thickness in the range of 1 to 9 nm. The PMMA block physisorbs to provide multivalent anchoring onto hard substrates and is fixed onto polymer surfaces by interpenetration with the substrate polymer. The areal density of alkyne functional groups is precisely controlled by adjusting the thickness of the block copolymer monolayer, which is accomplished by changing either the spin coating conditions (i.e., rotational speed and solution concentration) or the copolymer molecular weight. The reactivity of surface-bound alkynes, in 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions or by so-called "click chemistry", is demonstrated by covalent surface immobilization of fluorescently labeled azides. The modificed surfaces are characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle, ellipsometry, fluorescent imaging and angle-dependent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ADXPS) measurements. Microarrays of covalently bound fluorescent molecules are created to demonstrate the approach and their performance is evaluated by determining their fluorescence signal-to-noise ratios.

  19. Surface Tension and Lamellar Spacing in Polyelectrolyte Blends and Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Charles; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    2015-03-01

    Heterogeneous polymer systems such as block copolymers (BCPs) are governed primarily by a competition between the surface tension between different chemical species and the entropic stretching of the polymer chains. Charged BCPs represent a class of materials that is currently of great interest to the polymer community due to the promise of charged BCPs as nanostructured membranes for batteries and fuel cells. The inclusion of charge presents a powerful way to tune the structure of BCPs, and we develop our understanding of how to do so by investigating the interfacial properties (surface tension and microstructure size) of polyelectrolyte blends and block copolymers. We use a new method that combines the features of liquid state (LS) theory and self consistent field theory (SCFT) into a multiscale LS-SCFT theory that provides beyond-mean-field predictions of polyelectrolyte systems. We find that charge size, charge correlations, and the fraction of charged monomers plays a crucial role in determining surface tension, and we therefore demonstrate how BCP structure changes upon inclusion of charges. Finally, we will show that these predictions provide the ideal basis for comparison to experiment and subsequent refinement of LS-SCFT theory.

  20. Surface biofunctionalization of β-TCP blocks using aptamer 74 for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardjomandi, N; Huth, J; Stamov, D R; Henrich, A; Klein, C; Wendel, H-P; Reinert, S; Alexander, D

    2016-10-01

    Successful bone regeneration following oral and maxillofacial surgeries depends on efficient functionalization strategies that allow the recruitment of osteogenic progenitor cells at the tissue/implant interface. We have previously identified aptamer 74, which exhibited a binding affinity for osteogenically induced jaw periosteal cells (JPCs). In the present study, this aptamer was used for the surface biofunctionalization of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) blocks. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements showed increased binding activity of aptamer 74 towards osteogenically induced JPCs compared to untreated controls. The immobilization efficiency of aptamer 74 was analyzed using the QuantiFluor ssDNA assay for 2D surfaces and by amino acid analysis for 3D β-TCP constructs. Following the successful immobilization of aptamer 74 in 2D culture wells and on 3D constructs, in vitro assays showed no significant differences in cell proliferation compared to unmodified surfaces. Interestingly, JPC mineralization was significantly higher on the 2D surfaces and higher cell adhesion was detected on the 3D constructs with immobilized aptamer. Herein, we report an established, biocompatible β-TCP matrix with surface immobilization of aptamer 74, which enhances properties such as cell adhesion on 3D constructs and mineralization on 2D surfaces. Further studies need to be performed to improve the immobilization efficiency and to develop a suitable approach for JPC mineralization growing within 3D β-TCP constructs.

  1. Adaptive block dynamic surface control for integrated missile guidance and autopilot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Mingzhe; Liang Xiaoling; Duan Guangren

    2013-01-01

    A novel integrated guidance and autopilot design method is proposed for homing missiles based on the adaptive block dynamic surface control approach.The fully integrated guidance and autopilot model is established by combining the nonlinear missile dynamics with the nonlinear dynamics describing the pursuit situation of a missile and a target in the three-dimensional space.The integrated guidance and autopilot design problem is further converted to a state regulation problem of a time-varying nonlinear system with matched and unmatched uncertainties.A new and simple adaptive block dynamic surface control algorithm is proposed to address such a state regulation problem.The stability of the closed-loop system is proven based on the Lyapunov theory.The six degrees of freedom (6DOF) nonlinear numerical simulation results show that the proposed integrated guidance and autopilot algorithm can ensure the accuracy of target interception and the robust stability of the closed-loop system with respect to the uncertainties in the missile dynamics

  2. Differences in human antibody reactivity to Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens are dependent on age and malaria transmission intensity in northeastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Lasse S; Lusingu, John P; Nielsen, Morten A

    2008-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens (VSA) are involved in the pathogenesis of malaria. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) with specificity for VSA (anti-VSA IgG) is therefore considered important for acquired immunity. To better understand the nature and dynamics of variant-specific IgG responses ...

  3. Effects of surface finish and treatment on the fatigue behaviour of vibrating cylinder block using frequency response approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of surface finish and treatment on the high cycle fatigue behaviour of vibrating cylinder block of a new two-stroke free piston engine at complex variable amplitude loading conditions using frequency response approach,Finite element modelling and frequency response analysis was conducted using finite element analysis software Package MSC.PATRAN/MSC.NASTRAN and fatigue life prediction was carried out using MSC.FATIGUE software. Based on the finite element results, different frequency response approach was applied to predict the cylinder block fatigue life. Results for different load histories and material combinations are also discussed. Results indicated great effects for all surface finish and treatment. It is concluded that polished and cast surface finish conditions give the highest and lowest cylinder block lives, respectively; and that Nitrided treatment leads to longest cylinder block life. The results were used to draw contour plots of fatigue life and damage in the worst or most damaging case.

  4. Trypanosoma evansi: identification and characterization of a variant surface glycoprotein lacking cysteine residues in its C-terminal domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yonggen; Zhao, Xinxin; Zou, Jingru; Suo, Xun

    2011-01-01

    African trypanosomes are flagellated unicellular parasites which proliferate extracellularly in the mammalian host blood-stream and tissue spaces. They evade the hosts' antibody-mediated lyses by sequentially changing their variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). VSG tightly coats the entire parasite body, serving as a physical barrier. In Trypanosoma brucei and the closely related species Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma equiperdum, each VSG polypeptide can be divided into N- and C-terminal domains, based on cysteine distribution and sequence homology. N-terminal domain, the basis of antigenic variation, is hypervariable and contains all the exposed epitopes; C-terminal domain is relatively conserved and a full set of four or eight cysteines were generally observed. We cloned two genes from two distinct variants of T. evansi, utilizing RT-PCR with VSG-specific primers. One contained a VSG type A N-terminal domain followed a C-terminal domain lacking cysteine residues. To confirm that this gene is expressed as a functional VSG, the expression and localization of the corresponding gene product were characterized using Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining of living trypanosomes. Expression analysis showed that this protein was highly expressed, variant-specific, and had a ubiquitous cellular surface localization. All these results indicated that it was expressed as a functional VSG. Our finding showed that cysteine residues in VSG C-terminal domain were not essential; the conserved C-terminal domain generally in T. brucei like VSGs would possibly evolve for regulating the VSG expression.

  5. Microstructured block copolymer surfaces for control of microbe capture and aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ryan R [ORNL; Shubert, Katherine R [ORNL; Morrell, Jennifer L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Lokitz, Bradley S [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The capture and arrangement of surface-associated microbes is influenced by biochemical and physical properties of the substrate. In this report, we develop lectin-functionalized substrates containing patterned, three-dimensional polymeric structures of varied shapes and densities and use these to investigate the effects of topology and spatial confinement on lectin-mediated microbe capture. Films of poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-4,4-dimethyl-2-vinylazlactone (PGMA-b-PVDMA) were patterned on silicon surfaces into line or square grid patterns with 5 m wide features and varied edge spacing. The patterned films had three-dimensional geometries with 900 nm film thickness. After surface functionalization with wheat germ agglutinin, the size of Pseudomonas fluorescens aggregates captured was dependent on the pattern dimensions. Line patterns with edge spacing of 5 m or less led to the capture of individual microbes with minimal formation of aggregates, while grid patterns with the same spacing also captured individual microbes with further reduction in aggregation. Both geometries allowed for increases in aggregate size distribution with increased in edge spacing. These engineered surfaces combine spatial confinement with affinity-based microbe capture based on exopolysaccharide content to control the degree of microbe aggregation, and can also be used as a platform to investigate intercellular interactions and biofilm formation in microbial populations of controlled sizes.

  6. Ellipsoidal Colloids with a Controlled Surface Roughness via Bioinspired Surface Engineering: Building Blocks for Liquid Marbles and Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengjiao; Yang, Lu; Li, Qiang; Wu, Songhai; Jia, Shaoyi; Li, Zhanyong; Zhang, Zhenkun; Shi, Linqi

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the important role of the surface roughness of nano/colloidal particles and harnessing them for practical applications need novel strategies to control the particles' surface topology. Although there are many examples of spherical particles with a specific surface roughness, nonspherical ones with similar surface features are rare. The current work reports a one-step, straightforward, and bioinspired surface engineering strategy to prepare ellipsoidal particles with a controlled surface roughness. By manipulating the unique chemistry inherent to the oxidation-induced self-polymerization of dopamine into polydopamine (PDA), PDA coating of polymeric ellipsoids leads to a library of hybrid ellipsoidal particles (PS@PDA) with a surface that decorates with nanoscale PDA protrusions of various densities and sizes. Together with the advantages originated from the anisotropy of ellipsoids and rich chemistry of PDA, such a surface feature endows these particles with some unique properties. Evaporative drying of fluorinated PS@PDA particles produces a homogeneous coating with superhydrophobicity that arises from the two-scale hierarchal structure of microscale interparticle packing and nanoscale roughness of the constituent ellipsoids. Instead of water repelling that occurs for most of the lotus leaf-like superhydrophobic surfaces, such coating exhibits strong water adhesion that is observed with certain species of rose pedals. In addition, the as-prepared hybrid ellipsoids are very efficient in preparing liquid marble-isolated droplets covered with solid particles. Such liquid marbles can be placed onto many surfaces and might be useful for the controllable transport and manipulation of small volumes of liquids.

  7. Antibodies to variant antigens on the surfaces of infected erythrocytes are associated with protection from malaria in Ghanaian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodoo, D; Staalsoe, T; Giha, H;

    2001-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is a variant antigen expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes. Each parasite genome contains about 40 PfEMP1 genes, but only 1 PfEMP1 gene is expressed at a given time. PfEMP1 serves as a parasite-sequestering ligand...... to endothelial cells and enables the parasites to avoid splenic passage. PfEMP1 antibodies may protect from disease by inhibiting sequestration, thus facilitating the destruction of infected erythrocytes in the spleen. In this study, we have measured antibodies in Ghanaian children to a conserved region of Pf......EMP1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and antibodies to variant molecules on erythrocytes infected with field isolates of P. falciparum by flow cytometry. Based on close clinical monitoring, the children were grouped into those who did (susceptible) and those who did not (protected) have malaria...

  8. Surface biofunctionalization of β-TCP blocks using aptamer 74 for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardjomandi, N.; Huth, J. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Tübingen (Germany); Stamov, D.R. [JPK Instruments AG, Berlin (Germany); Henrich, A. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Tübingen (Germany); Klein, C. [Dental Practice Zahngesundheit Waiblingen, Waiblingen (Germany); Wendel, H.-P. [Department of Thoracic, Cardiac and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital, Tübingen (Germany); Reinert, S. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Tübingen (Germany); Alexander, D., E-mail: dorothea.alexander@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Tübingen (Germany)

    2016-10-01

    Successful bone regeneration following oral and maxillofacial surgeries depends on efficient functionalization strategies that allow the recruitment of osteogenic progenitor cells at the tissue/implant interface. We have previously identified aptamer 74, which exhibited a binding affinity for osteogenically induced jaw periosteal cells (JPCs). In the present study, this aptamer was used for the surface biofunctionalization of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) blocks. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements showed increased binding activity of aptamer 74 towards osteogenically induced JPCs compared to untreated controls. The immobilization efficiency of aptamer 74 was analyzed using the QuantiFluor ssDNA assay for 2D surfaces and by amino acid analysis for 3D β-TCP constructs. Following the successful immobilization of aptamer 74 in 2D culture wells and on 3D constructs, in vitro assays showed no significant differences in cell proliferation compared to unmodified surfaces. Interestingly, JPC mineralization was significantly higher on the 2D surfaces and higher cell adhesion was detected on the 3D constructs with immobilized aptamer. Herein, we report an established, biocompatible β-TCP matrix with surface immobilization of aptamer 74, which enhances properties such as cell adhesion on 3D constructs and mineralization on 2D surfaces. Further studies need to be performed to improve the immobilization efficiency and to develop a suitable approach for JPC mineralization growing within 3D β-TCP constructs. - Highlights: • Covalent binding of aptamer 74 on PLGA-coated β-tricalcium phosphate constructs. • AFM analysis of rupture forces between aptamer 74 and jaw periosteal cells. • Analysis of jaw periosteal cell functions on aptamer coated β-TCP constructs.

  9. Effect of block length on the self-assembly of end-capping perfluoroalkyl moieties on the polymer surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Most research on copolymers with fluorinated monomers has focused on the relationship between fluorinated monomer content and the corresponding surface structure. However,the influence of the non-fluorinated block on the surface structure of the copolymer film is unknown. Various molecular weight poly(butyl methacrylates) (PBMA) end-capped with 2-perfluorooctylethyl methacrylate (FMA) units (PBMA-ec-FMA) have been synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The effect of the PBMA block length on the surface structure and properties of the polymers both in the solid state and in solution was investigated using various techniques. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicated that longer PBMA blocks enhanced both the enrichment of the fluorinated moieties and the order of the packing orientation of the perfluoroalkyl side chains on the surface. This enhancement was attributed mainly to the molecular aggregate structure of the end-capped polymers with long PBMA blocks in the solution and to the interfacial structure at the air/liquid interface,which favors the -(CF2)7CF3 moieties self-assembling on the polymer surface during film formation. This observation suggests that the polyacrylate block structure in fluorinated diblock copolymers,in addition to the fluorinated monomer content,plays an important role in structure formation on the solid surface.

  10. Nanoscale silicon substrate patterns from self-assembly of cylinder forming poly(styrene)-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane) block copolymer on silane functionalized surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Dipu; Cummins, Cian; Rasappa, Sozaraj; Watson, Scott M. D.; Pike, Andrew R.; Horrocks, Benjamin R.; Fulton, David A.; Houlton, Andrew; Liontos, George; Ntetsikas, Konstantinos; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Morris, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Poly(styrene)-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) is an excellent block copolymer (BCP) system for self-assembly and inorganic template fabrication because of its high Flory-Huggins parameter (χ ˜ 0.26) at room temperature in comparison to other BCPs, and high selective etch contrast between PS and PDMS block for nanopatterning. In this work, self-assembly in PS-b-PDMS BCP is achieved by combining hydroxyl-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS-OH) brush surfaces with solvent vapor annealing. As an alternative to standard brush chemistry, we report a simple method based on the use of surfaces functionalized with silane-based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). A solution-based approach to SAM formation was adopted in this investigation. The influence of the SAM-modified surfaces upon BCP films was compared with polymer brush-based surfaces. The cylinder forming PS-b-PDMS BCP and PDMS-OH polymer brush were synthesized by sequential living anionic polymerization. It was observed that silane SAMs provided the appropriate surface chemistry which, when combined with solvent annealing, led to microphase segregation in the BCP. It was also demonstrated that orientation of the PDMS cylinders may be controlled by judicious choice of the appropriate silane. The PDMS patterns were successfully used as an on-chip etch mask to transfer the BCP pattern to underlying silicon substrate with sub-25 nm silicon nanoscale features. This alternative SAM/BCP approach to nanopattern formation shows promising results, pertinent in the field of nanotechnology, and with much potential for application, such as in the fabrication of nanoimprint lithography stamps, nanofluidic devices or in narrow and multilevel interconnected lines.

  11. Size and surface chemistry of nanoparticles lead to a variant behavior in the unfolding dynamics of human carbonic anhydrase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Irem; Lundqvist, Martin; Cabaleiro-Lago, Celia

    2015-10-01

    The adsorption induced conformational changes of human carbonic anhydrase I (HCAi) and pseudo wild type human carbonic anhydrase II truncated at the 17th residue at the N-terminus (trHCAii) were studied in presence of nanoparticles of different sizes and polarities. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies showed that the binding to apolar surfaces is affected by the nanoparticle size in combination with the inherent protein stability. 8-Anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) fluorescence revealed that HCAs adsorb to both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, however the dynamics of the unfolding at the nanoparticle surfaces drastically vary with the polarity. The size of the nanoparticles has opposite effects depending on the polarity of the nanoparticle surface. The apolar nanoparticles induce seconds timescale structural rearrangements whereas polar nanoparticles induce hours timescale structural rearrangements on the same charged HCA variant. Here, a simple model is proposed where the difference in the timescales of adsorption is correlated with the energy barriers for initial docking and structural rearrangements which are firmly regulated by the surface polarity. Near-UV circular dichorism (CD) further supports that both protein variants undergo structural rearrangements at the nanoparticle surfaces regardless of being ``hard'' or ``soft''. However, the conformational changes induced by the apolar surfaces differ for each HCA isoform and diverge from the previously reported effect of silica nanoparticles.The adsorption induced conformational changes of human carbonic anhydrase I (HCAi) and pseudo wild type human carbonic anhydrase II truncated at the 17th residue at the N-terminus (trHCAii) were studied in presence of nanoparticles of different sizes and polarities. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies showed that the binding to apolar surfaces is affected by the nanoparticle size in combination with the inherent protein stability. 8-Anilino

  12. Surface plasmon resonance-based competition assay to assess the sera reactivity of variants of humanized antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Noreen R; Schuck, Peter; Schlom, Jeffrey; Kashmiri, Syed V S

    2002-10-15

    While clinical trials are the only way to evaluate the immunogenicity, in patients, of murine or genetically engineered humanized variants of a potentially therapeutic or diagnostic monoclonal antibody (MAb), ethical and logistical considerations of clinical trials do not permit the evaluation of variants of a given MAb that are generated to minimize its immunogenicity. The most promising variant could be identified by comparing the reactivities of the parental antibody (Ab) and its variants to the sera of patients containing anti-variable region (anti-VR) Abs to the administered parental Ab. We have developed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor-based assay to monitor the binding of the sera anti-VR Abs to the parental Ab and the inhibition of this binding by the variants. SPR biosensors allow the real-time detection and monitoring of the binding between an immobilized protein and its soluble ligand without the need for prior purification and labeling of the mobile analyte. This new assay requires no radiolabeling, is relatively less time-consuming, and uses only small amounts of serum (5-20 microl of diluted serum) through a new microfluidic sample handling technique. To validate the assay, we have tested the relative reactivities of the CDR-grafted anti-carcinoma Ab, HuCC49, and its two variants, designated V5 and V10, to the sera of patients who were earlier administered radiolabeled murine CC49 in a clinical trial. A comparison of IC(50)s (the concentrations of the competitor Abs required for 50% inhibition of the binding of sera to immobilized HuCC49) showed that V5 and V10 were less reactive than HuCC49 to the three patients' sera tested. We have also demonstrated, for the first time, the specific detection and comparison of relative amounts of anti-VR Abs present in the sera of different patients without prior removal of anti-murine Fc Abs and/or circulating antigen. This may facilitate the rapid screening, for the presence of anti-VR Abs, of the

  13. Effect of angstrom-scale surface roughness on the self-assembly of polystyrene-polydimethylsiloxane block copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Shreya; Ganesan, Ramakrishnan; Gaur, Nikita; Saifullah, Mohammad S. M.; Hussain, Hazrat; Yang, Hyunsoo; Bhatia, Charanjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Self-assembly of block copolymers has been identified as a potential candidate for high density fabrication of nanostructures. However, the factors affecting its reliability and reproducibility as a patterning technique on various kinds of surfaces are not well-established. Studies pertaining to block copolymer self-assembly have been confined to ultra-flat substrates without taking into consideration the effect of surface roughness. Here, we show that a slight change in the angstrom-scale roughness arising from the surface of a material creates a profound effect on the self-assembly of polystyrene-polydimethylsiloxane block copolymer. Its self-assembly was found to be dependent on both the root mean square roughness (Rrms) of the surface and the type of solvent annealing system used. It was observed that surface with Rrms< 5.0 Å showed self-assembly. Above this value, the kinetic hindrance posed by the surface roughness on the block copolymer leads to its conforming to the surface without observable phase separation. PMID:22943003

  14. Allelic diversity of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 entails variant-specific red cell surface epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inès Vigan-Womas

    Full Text Available The clonally variant Plasmodium falciparum PfEMP1 adhesin is a virulence factor and a prime target of humoral immunity. It is encoded by a repertoire of functionally differentiated var genes, which display architectural diversity and allelic polymorphism. Their serological relationship is key to understanding the evolutionary constraints on this gene family and rational vaccine design. Here, we investigated the Palo Alto/VarO and IT4/R29 and 3D7/PF13_003 parasites lines. VarO and R29 form rosettes with uninfected erythrocytes, a phenotype associated with severe malaria. They express an allelic Cys2/group A NTS-DBL1α(1 PfEMP1 domain implicated in rosetting, whose 3D7 ortholog is encoded by PF13_0003. Using these three recombinant NTS-DBL1α(1 domains, we elicited antibodies in mice that were used to develop monovariant cultures by panning selection. The 3D7/PF13_0003 parasites formed rosettes, revealing a correlation between sequence identity and virulence phenotype. The antibodies cross-reacted with the allelic domains in ELISA but only minimally with the Cys4/group B/C PFL1955w NTS-DBL1α. By contrast, they were variant-specific in surface seroreactivity of the monovariant-infected red cells by FACS analysis and in rosette-disruption assays. Thus, while ELISA can differentiate serogroups, surface reactivity assays define the more restrictive serotypes. Irrespective of cumulated exposure to infection, antibodies acquired by humans living in a malaria-endemic area also displayed a variant-specific surface reactivity. Although seroprevalence exceeded 90% for each rosetting line, the kinetics of acquisition of surface-reactive antibodies differed in the younger age groups. These data indicate that humans acquire an antibody repertoire to non-overlapping serotypes within a serogroup, consistent with an antibody-driven diversification pressure at the population level. In addition, the data provide important information for vaccine design, as

  15. Determinants of variant surface antigen antibody response in severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in an area of low and unstable malaria transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A-Elgadir, T M E; Theander, T G; Elghazali, G

    2006-01-01

    The variant surface antigens (VSA) of infected erythrocytes are important pathogenic markers, a set of variants (VSA(SM)), were assumed to be associated with severe malaria (SM), while SM constitutes clinically diverse forms, such as, severe malarial anemia (SMA) and cerebral malaria (CM). This s......The variant surface antigens (VSA) of infected erythrocytes are important pathogenic markers, a set of variants (VSA(SM)), were assumed to be associated with severe malaria (SM), while SM constitutes clinically diverse forms, such as, severe malarial anemia (SMA) and cerebral malaria (CM.......001). Parasites obtained from patients with SMA or from children were better recognized than isolates obtained from patients with uncomplicated malaria or from adults, P

  16. A group of Giardia lamblia variant-specific surface protein (VSP) genes with nearly identical 5' regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Adam, R D

    1995-12-01

    The surfaces of Giardia lamblia trophozoites contain one of a set of variant-specific surface proteins. The genes encoding these proteins are highly conserved at the 3' terminus, but frequently demonstrate little similarity in the remainder of the coding region. This report describes a family of vsp genes highly similar to a repeat-containing vsp gene (vspC5) at the 5' coding and flanking regions, but which diverge abruptly from vspC5 in the first repeat and do not themselves contain full copies of the repeat. This observation suggests the possibility that recombination among different vsp genes may have played a role in development of the vsp gene repertoire.

  17. Nine-year longitudinal study of antibodies to variant antigens on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giha, H A; Staalsoe, T; Dodoo, D;

    1999-01-01

    PfEMP1 is an antigenically variable molecule which mediates the adhesion of parasitized erythrocytes to a variety of cell types and which is believed to constitute an important target for naturally acquired protective immune responses in malaria. For 9 years we have monitored individuals living...... in an area of low-intensity, seasonal, and unstable malaria transmission in eastern Sudan, and we have used this database to study the acquisition, specificity, and duration of the antibody response to variant parasitized erythrocyte surface antigens. Both the levels and the spectrum of reactivity...... of these antibodies varied considerably among individuals, ranging from low levels of antibodies recognizing only few parasitized erythrocyte surface antigens to high levels of broad-specificity antibodies. In general, episodes of clinical malaria were associated with increases in the levels of parasitized...

  18. Directed block copolymer self-assembly implemented via surface-embedded electrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei-Ling; Wang, Dong; Wan, Li-Jun

    2016-02-01

    Block copolymer (BCP) nanolithography is widely recognized as a promising complementary approach to circumvent the feature size limits of conventional photolithography. The directed self-assembly of BCP thin film to form ordered nanostructures with controlled orientation and localized pattern has been the key challenge for practical nanolithography applications. Here we show that BCP nanopatterns can be directed on localized surface electrets defined by electron-beam irradiation to realize diverse features in a simple, effective and non-destructive manner. Charged electrets can generate a built-in electric field in BCP thin film and induce the formation of perpendicularly oriented microdomain of BCP film. The electret-directed orientation control of BCP film can be either integrated with mask-based patterning technique or realized by electron-beam direct-writing method to fabricate microscale arbitrary lateral patterns down to single BCP cylinder nanopattern. The electret-directed BCP self-assembly could provide an alternative means for BCP-based nanolithography, with high resolution.

  19. Symmetry Breaking by Surface Blocking: Synthesis of Bimorphic Silver Nanoparticles, Nanoscale Fishes and Apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, Nicole; Kitaev, Vladimir

    2016-09-01

    A powerful approach to augment the diversity of well-defined metal nanoparticle (MNP) morphologies, essential for MNP advanced applications, is symmetry breaking combined with seeded growth. Utilizing this approach enabled the formation of bimorphic silver nanoparticles (bi-AgNPs) consisting of two shapes linked by one regrowth point. Bi-AgNPs were formed by using an adsorbing polymer, poly(acrylic acid), PAA, to block the surface of a decahedral AgNP seed and restricting growth of new silver to a single nucleation point. First, we have realized 2-D growth of platelets attached to decahedra producing nanoscale shapes reminiscent of apples, fishes, mushrooms and kites. 1-D bimorphic growth of rods (with chloride) and 3-D bimorphic growth of cubes and bipyramids (with bromide) were achieved by using halides to induce preferential (100) stabilization over (111) of platelets. Furthermore, the universality of the formation of bimorphic nanoparticles was demonstrated by using different seeds. Bi-AgNPs exhibit strong SERS enhancement due to regular cavities at the necks. Overall, the reported approach to symmetry breaking and bimorphic nanoparticle growth offers a powerful methodology for nanoscale shape design.

  20. Symmetry Breaking by Surface Blocking: Synthesis of Bimorphic Silver Nanoparticles, Nanoscale Fishes and Apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, Nicole; Kitaev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    A powerful approach to augment the diversity of well-defined metal nanoparticle (MNP) morphologies, essential for MNP advanced applications, is symmetry breaking combined with seeded growth. Utilizing this approach enabled the formation of bimorphic silver nanoparticles (bi-AgNPs) consisting of two shapes linked by one regrowth point. Bi-AgNPs were formed by using an adsorbing polymer, poly(acrylic acid), PAA, to block the surface of a decahedral AgNP seed and restricting growth of new silver to a single nucleation point. First, we have realized 2-D growth of platelets attached to decahedra producing nanoscale shapes reminiscent of apples, fishes, mushrooms and kites. 1-D bimorphic growth of rods (with chloride) and 3-D bimorphic growth of cubes and bipyramids (with bromide) were achieved by using halides to induce preferential (100) stabilization over (111) of platelets. Furthermore, the universality of the formation of bimorphic nanoparticles was demonstrated by using different seeds. Bi-AgNPs exhibit strong SERS enhancement due to regular cavities at the necks. Overall, the reported approach to symmetry breaking and bimorphic nanoparticle growth offers a powerful methodology for nanoscale shape design. PMID:27605125

  1. Regional responses of surface ozone in Europe to the location of high-latitude blocks and subtropical ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, Carlos; Barriopedro, David; García-Herrera, Ricardo; Sousa, Pedro M.; Schnell, Jordan L.

    2017-02-01

    This paper analyses for the first time the impact of high-latitude blocks and subtropical ridges on near-surface ozone (O3) in Europe during a 15-year period. For this purpose, a catalogue of blocks and ridges over the Euro-Atlantic region is used together with a gridded dataset of maximum daily 8 h running average ozone (MDA8 O3) covering the period 1998-2012. The response of ozone to the location of blocks and ridges with centres in three longitudinal sectors (Atlantic, ATL, 30-0° W; European, EUR, 0-30° E; Russian, RUS, 30-60° E) is examined. The impact of blocks on ozone is regionally and seasonally dependent. In particular, blocks within the EUR sector yield positive ozone anomalies of ˜ 5-10 ppb over large parts of central Europe in spring and northern Europe in summer. Over 20 and 30 % of the days with blocks in that sector register exceedances of the 90th percentile of the seasonal ozone distribution at many European locations during spring and summer, respectively. The impacts of ridges during those seasons are subtle and more sensitive to their specific location, although they can trigger ozone anomalies above 10 ppb in northern Italy and the surrounding countries in summer, eventually exceeding European air quality (AQ) targets. During winter, surface ozone in the north-west of Europe presents completely opposite responses to blocks and ridges. The anticyclonic circulation associated with winter EUR blocking, and to a lesser extent with ATL blocking, yields negative ozone anomalies between -5 and -10 ppb over the UK, northern France and the Benelux. Conversely, the enhanced zonal flow around 50-60° N during the occurrence of ATL ridges favours the arrival of background air masses from the Atlantic and the ventilation of the boundary layer, producing positive ozone anomalies of ˜ 5 ppb in an area spanning from the British Isles to the northern half of Germany. We also show that multiple linear models on the seasonal frequency of occurrence of these

  2. Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-poly(ethylene oxide)-heparin block copolymers II: Surface characterization and in vitro assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grainger, D.W.; Knutson, K.; Kim, S.W.; Feijen, J.

    1990-01-01

    Amphiphilic block copolymers containing poly(dimethylsiloxane), poly(ethylene oxide), as well as heparin-coated glass beads and tubes were evaluated for the amounts and activities of surface-immobilized heparin. Because the amphiphilic copolymer system is thermodynanmcally predicted to demonstrate l

  3. Surface-compositional Properties of Lava Plains in Syria-Thaumasia Block, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Xiao, L.; Kraft, M. D.; Christensen, P. R.; Edwards, C. S.; Ruff, S. W.; Dohm, J.

    2012-12-01

    Mars has a long and complex volcanic history (Greeley and Spudis, 1981; Carr, 2006). Among abundant plain-style volcanism and various edifices, Tharsis bulge is a prominent and long-lasting (Werner, 2009) volcanic province. However, there is little report about compositional variations before and after Tharsis uplift. The Syria- Thaumasia block (STB) is a complex tectono-volcanic province related to the Tharsis bulge. Understanding its formation is critical to characterizing the early history and planetary evolution of Mars. The STB lies at the southern edge of Tharsis bulge. It consists of lava plains (Syria, Solis, Sinai and Thaumasia Plana) bounded by an arcuate region of higher topography (Thaumasia Highlands, Melas Dorsa and Coprates Rise) and Valles Marineris to the north. Previous work on surface thermophysical properties (Christensen, 1988; Jakosky et al., 2000; Putzig and Mellon, 2007) and visible/near infrared and thermal infrared remote sensing spectroscopic compositional analysis (Bandfield, 2000; Bibring et al., 2006; Rogers and Christensen, 2007) had been done only in a global scale, but regional study of both surface thermophysical properties and compositions for each of the distinct lava plains in STB is lacking. In this study, we characterize a variety of volcanic features, including lava tubes, channels and their relationships with wrinkle ridges within lava plains using THEMIS infrared data (100 m/pixel: Christensen et al., 2004), CTX data (6 m/pixel: Malin et al., 2007) and HiRISE data (25 cm/pixel: McEwen et al., 2007). We assessed the surface thermophysical properties and compositions of lava plains using TES data (Christensen et al., 2001). The geomorphic features imply the lava emplacement mechanisms, while their relationships indicate the chronologic relationships between Tharsis uplift and lava emplacement. The compositional results show variations within the lava plains (Table 1), while the thermophysical results show the compositional

  4. Block Cipher Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miolane, Charlotte Vikkelsø

    Block ciphersarecryptographicprimitivesthatoperateon fixed sizetexts(blocks). Mostdesigns aim towards secure andfastencryption oflarge amounts ofdata. Block ciphers also serve as the building block of a number of hash functions and message authentication codes(MAC).Thetask of cryptanalysisisto en...... on small scale variants of AES. In the final part of the thesis we present a new block cipher proposal Present and examine its security against algebraic and differential cryptanalysis in particular.......Block ciphersarecryptographicprimitivesthatoperateon fixed sizetexts(blocks). Mostdesigns aim towards secure andfastencryption oflarge amounts ofdata. Block ciphers also serve as the building block of a number of hash functions and message authentication codes(MAC).Thetask of cryptanalysisisto...... ensurethat no attack violatesthe securitybounds specifiedbygeneric attack namely exhaustivekey search and table lookup attacks. This thesis contains a general introduction to cryptography with focus on block ciphers and important block cipher designs, in particular the Advanced Encryption Standard...

  5. In vivo switching between variant surface antigens in human Plasmodium falciparum infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staalsoe, Trine; Hamad, Amel A; Hviid, Lars

    2002-01-01

    (VSAs) expressed by an isolate (isolate A) obtained at the time of the episode or by a genotypically identical isolate (isolate B) obtained from the same individual 3 months later. Six weeks after the attack, a strong isolate A-specific VSA antibody response had developed in the complete absence...... of isolate B-specific antibodies. In contrast, plasma obtained 7 months after the attack contained high levels of VSA antibodies recognizing both isolates. This is the first direct evidence of in vivo switching between VSAs in human P. falciparum infection. Our results suggest that VSA switching......A semi-immune individual was retrospectively found to have maintained an apparently monoclonal and genotypically stable asymptomatic infection for months after clinical cure of a Plasmodium falciparum malaria episode. Before the attack, the individual had no antibodies to variant surface antigens...

  6. Chitosan/polyanion surface modification of styrene–butadiene–styrene block copolymer membrane for wound dressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jen Ming, E-mail: jmyang@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Yang, Jhe-Hao [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Huang, Huei Tsz [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-01

    The surface of styrene–butadiene–styrene block copolymer (SBS) membrane is modified with tri-steps in this study. At first, two step modified SBS membrane (MSBS) was prepared with epoxidation and ring opening reaction with maleated ionomer. Then chitosan was used as the polycation electrolyte and sodium alginate, poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) and poly(aspartic acid) (PAsp) were selected as polyanion electrolytes to deposit on the surfaces of MSBS membrane by the layer-by-layer self-assembly (LbL) deposition technique to get three [chitosan/polyanion] LbL modified SBS membranes, ([CS/Alg], [CS/PGA] and [CS/PAsp]). From the quantitative XPS analysis and water contact angle measurement, it is found that the order of wettability and the content of functional group percentages of COO{sup −} and -O=C-N- on the three [CS/polyanion] systems are [CS/Alg] > [CS/PGA] > [CS/PAsp]. Performances of water vapor transmission rates, fibronectin adsorption, antibacterial assessment and 3T3 fibroblast cell growth on [CS/Alg], [CS/PGA] and [CS/PAsp] membranes were also evaluated. With the evaluation of water vapor transmission rate, these [CS/Alg], [CS/PGA] and [CS/PAsp] membranes are sterile semipermeable with water evaporation at about 82 ± 8 g/day · m{sup 2}. It is found that the amount of fibronectin adsorption on the three [CS/polyanion] systems is significantly determined by the sum of the functional group of COO{sup −} and -O=C-N- on the surfaces of [CS/Alg], [CS/PGA] and [CS/PAsp] systems. The results are inverse with the sum of the functional group of COO{sup −} and -O=C-N- on the three [CS/polyanion]. From the cytotoxicity test and cell adhesion and proliferation assay of 3T3 fibroblasts on the three [CS/polyanion] systems, it revealed that the cells not only remained viable but they also proliferated on the surfaces of [CS/Alg], [CS/PGA] and [CS/PAsp]. The bactericidal activity was found on [CS/Alg], [CS/PGA] and [CS/PAsp]. The transport of bacterial through

  7. A case study of sea breeze blocking regulated by sea surface temperature along the English south coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Sweeney

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of sea breeze structure to sea surface temperature (SST and coastal orography is investigated in convection-permitting Met Office Unified Model simulations of a case study along the south coast of England. Changes in SST of 1 K are shown to significantly modify the structure of the sea breeze. On the day of the case study the sea breeze was partially blocked by coastal orography, particularly within Lyme Bay. The extent to which the flow is blocked depends strongly on the static stability of the marine boundary layer. In experiments with colder SST, the marine boundary layer is more stable, and the degree of blocking is more pronounced. The implications of prescribing fixed SST from climatology in numerical weather prediction model forecasts of the sea breeze are discussed.

  8. Assessment of Surface Treatment on Fatigue Life of Cylinder Block for Linear Engine using Frequency Response Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was focused on the finite element techniques to investigate the effect of surface treatment on the fatigue life of the vibrating cylinder block for new two-stroke free piston engine using random loading conditions. Motivation: An understanding of the effects related to the random loading is necessary to improve the ability of designers to accurately predict the fatigue behavior of the components in service. An internal combustion engine cylinder block is a high volume production component subjected to random loading. Problem statement: Proper optimization of this component that is critical to the engine fuel efficiency and more robustly pursued by the automotive industry in recent years. A detailed understanding of the applied loads and resulting stresses under in-service conditions is demanded. Approach: The finite element modeling and analysis were performed utilizing the computer aided design and finite element analysis codes respectively. In addition, the fatigue life prediction was carried out using finite element based fatigue analysis code. Aluminum alloys were considered as typical materials in this study. Results: The frequency response approach was applied to predict the fatigue life of cylinder block using different load histories. Based on the finite element results, it was observed that the fatigue life was significantly influenced for the nitriding treatment. The obtained results were indicated that the nitrided treatment produces longest life for all loading conditions. Conclusion: The nitriding process is one of the promising surface treatments to increase the fatigue life for aluminum alloys linear engine cylinder block.

  9. Intermittent bundle-branch block in patients with accessory atrio-His or atrio-AV nodal pathways. Variants of the Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befeler, B; Castellanos, A; Aranda, J; Gutierrez, R; Lazzara, R

    1976-02-01

    Intracardiac electrophysiological studies were performed in two patients with a documented history of repetitive supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. Case 1, with short PR interval and narrow QRS complexes had a short AH interval and intermittent right bundle-branch block. Thus the short PR wide QRS syndrome is not always a result of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome but can also be seen in the Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome coexisting with bundle-branch block. Case 2, with normal PR and AH at the lower limits of normal, showed the dual pathway response to atrial pacing that can occur in patients with Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome. He also had tachycardia-dependent right bundle-branch block and left posterior hemiblock. Therefore, neither the short PR interval nor the narrow QRS complexes characterized these forms of pre-excitation. The constant features were, from the clinical viewpoint, the occurrence of repetitive supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, and electrophysiologically the abnormal response to atrial stimulation.

  10. Immunoglobulin G isotype responses to variant surface antigens of Plasmodium falciparum in healthy Gabonese adults and children during and after successive malaria attacks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrera, G.; Yone, C.L.; Tebo, A.E.; Aaken, J. van; Lell, B.; Kremsner, P.G.; Luty, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    We assessed immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotype responses with specificity for the variant surface antigens (VSA) of heterologous Plasmodium falciparum isolates by using flow cytometry and plasma from healthy Gabonese adults and from children during and after two consecutive malaria episodes. The individ

  11. Human T-cell recognition of synthetic peptides representing conserved and variant sequences from the merozoite surface protein 2 of Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theander, T G; Hviid, L; Dodoo, D

    1997-01-01

    Merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2) is a malaria vaccine candidate currently undergoing clinical trials. We analyzed the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) response to synthetic peptides corresponding to conserved and variant regions of the FCQ-27 allelic form of MSP2 in Ghanaian individuals...

  12. Expression of variant surface antigens by Plasmodium falciparum parasites in the peripheral blood of clinically immune pregnant women indicates ongoing placental infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ofori, Michael F; Staalsoe, Trine; Bam, Victoria

    2003-01-01

    Placenta-sequestered Plasmodium falciparum parasites that cause pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) in otherwise clinically immune women express distinct variant surface antigens (VSA(PAM)) not expressed by parasites in nonpregnant individuals. We report here that parasites from the peripheral blo...

  13. Analysis of cosmid clones of nuclear DNA from Trypanosome brucei shows that the genes for variant surface glycoproteins are clustered in the genome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Valerio (Dinko); T. de Lange; P. Borst (Piet); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); L.H.T. van der Ploeg

    1982-01-01

    textabstractTrypanosoma brucei contains more than a hundred genes coding for the different variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs). Activation of some of these genes involves the duplication of the gene (the basic copy or BC) and transposition of the duplicate to an expression site (yielding the expres

  14. SiO2-nanocomposite film coating of CAD/CAM composite resin blocks improves surface hardness and reduces susceptibility to bacterial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamonwanon, Pranithida; Hirose, Nanako; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sasaki, Jun-Ichi; Kitagawa, Haruaki; Kitagawa, Ranna; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Srikhirin, Toemsak; Imazato, Satoshi

    2017-01-31

    Composite resin blocks for computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) applications have recently become available. However, CAD/CAM composite resins have lower wear resistance and accumulate more plaque than CAD/CAM ceramic materials. We assessed the effects of SiO2-nanocomposite film coating of four types of CAD/CAM composite resin blocks: Cerasmart, Katana Avencia block, Lava Ultimate, and Block HC on surface hardness and bacterial attachment. All composite blocks with coating demonstrated significantly greater Vickers hardness, reduced surface roughness, and greater hydrophobicity than those without coating. Adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to the coated specimens was significantly less than those for the uncoated specimens. These reduced levels of bacterial adherence on the coated surface were still evident after treatment with saliva. Surface modification by SiO2-nanocomposite film coating has potential to improve wear resistance and susceptibility to plaque accumulation of CAD/CAM composite resin restorations.

  15. Temporal expression and localization patterns of variant surface antigens in clinical Plasmodium falciparum isolates during erythrocyte schizogony.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bachmann

    Full Text Available Avoidance of antibody-mediated immune recognition allows parasites to establish chronic infections and enhances opportunities for transmission. The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum possesses a number of multi-copy gene families, including var, rif, stevor and pfmc-2tm, which encode variant antigens believed to be expressed on the surfaces of infected erythrocytes. However, most studies of these antigens are based on in vitro analyses of culture-adapted isolates, most commonly the laboratory strain 3D7, and thus may not be representative of the unique challenges encountered by P. falciparum in the human host. To investigate the expression of the var, rif-A, rif-B, stevor and pfmc-2tm family genes under conditions that mimic more closely the natural course of infection, ex vivo clinical P. falciparum isolates were analyzed using a novel quantitative real-time PCR approach. Expression patterns in the clinical isolates at various time points during the first intraerythrocytic developmental cycle in vitro were compared to those of strain 3D7. In the clinical isolates, in contrast to strain 3D7, there was a peak of expression of the multi-copy gene families rif-A, stevor and pfmc-2tm at the young ring stage, in addition to the already known expression peak in trophozoites. Furthermore, most of the variant surface antigen families were overexpressed in the clinical isolates relative to 3D7, with the exception of the pfmc-2tm family, expression of which was higher in 3D7 parasites. Immunofluorescence analyses performed in parallel revealed two stage-dependent localization patterns of RIFIN, STEVOR and PfMC-2TM. Proteins were exported into the infected erythrocyte at the young trophozoite stage, whereas they remained inside the parasite membrane during schizont stage and were subsequently observed in different compartments in the merozoite. These results reveal a complex pattern of expression of P. falciparum multi-copy gene families during

  16. Coexistence of sense and anti-sense mRNAs of variant surface protein in Giardia lamblia trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junli; Zheng, Wenyu; Wang, Yuehua; Li, Yao; Lu, Siqi; Feng, Xianmin

    2014-02-14

    A strategy of the parasitic protozoan Giardia lamblia to evade attack from the host immune system is periodic changes of its surface antigen, a member of the variant surface protein (VSP) family. A post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism has been proposed to explain the presence of only one among many possible VSPs at any time. To investigate this phenomenon further, we extracted total RNA from cultured trophozoites of the G. lamblia C2 isolate, and cDNA was reverse-transcribed from the RNA. Sense and anti-sense VSPs were amplified from the total cDNA using nested PCR with primers designed from the 3'-conserved region and the known 5' or 3' end of the cDNA library. Sequence analyses of the amplified products revealed more than 34 full-length antisense VSPs and a smear of sense VSPs. Sequence alignments and comparisons revealed that these VSPs contained variable N-termini and conserved C-termini, and could be classified into 5 clades based on the sizes and variations of the N-terminal sequence. All antisense VSPs existed in the sense forms, but no corresponding antisense VSP existed for sense RNA (snsRNA) 16. The coexistence of sense and antisense VSP mRNAs in cultured G. lamblia supports the post-transcriptional regulation of VSP expression. We propose that VSPs transcribed simultaneously in the sense and antisense forms form double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) which are degraded by the Dicer endonuclease, while a VSP without an antisense transcription (e.g., snsRNA16) will be expressed on the surface of Giardia. In addition, in the course of this investigation VSPs were identified that were previously not known. PCR-based amplification of specific sense and antisense VSP cDNAs can be used to identify the specific VSP on G. lamblia trophozoites, which is easier than using specific monoclonal antibody approaches.

  17. Differential induction of immunoglobulin G to Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens during the transmission season in Daraweesh, Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten A; Grevstad, Berit; A-Elgadir, Thoraya M E;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The acquisition of immunoglobulin (Ig) G to variant surface antigens (VSAs) seems important for the development of protective immunity against malaria. Unlike VSAs expressed by parasite isolates associated with uncomplicated malaria, VSAs expressed by parasite isolates associated...... transmission in a different part of Africa were also analyzed. RESULTS: After the transmission season, individuals with malaria had an increase in IgG recognition to 25.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.9%-31.7%) and a decrease in IgG recognition to 7.6% (95% CI, 4.4%-10.8%) of 79 parasite isolates......, and individuals without malaria had an increase in IgG recognition to 8.1% (95% CI, 6.0%-10.2%) and a decrease in IgG recognition to 11.9% (95% CI, 7.0%-16.8%) of 79 parasite isolates. Most newly acquired IgG responses were against parasite isolates expressing VSAs(SM) that are frequently recognized by Ig...

  18. Comparative Study on the Infectivity and Spore Surface Protein of Nosema bombycis and Its Morphological Variant Strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Shao-kang; LU Xing-meng

    2005-01-01

    A new morphological variant strain of microsporidium was produced by infecting the mulberry looper, Hemerophila atrilineata [Phthonandria atrilineata], with Nosema bombycis successively for 24 times, and named 24Nbh. Comparative studies on morphology, infectivity and spore surface protein were conducted. 24Nbh was short and wide, and had a significant difference (P<0.01) over the Nb spores. The infectivity tests conducted on second instar silkworm larvae showed that IC50 of 24Nbh was 1.98× 104 spores mL-1 and of Nb was 1.72× 103 spores mL-1, thus indicating that the infectivity of Nb decreased 11.5 times after multiplying in mulberry looper for 24 times. The IC50 of spores from silkworm infected with 24 Nbh was 6.9 times less than Nb, showing that the infectivity of 24Nbh spores rejuvenated very fast when reinfected to silkworms, further more, the length and width of such spore was larger than 24Nbh (P<0.01) and smaller than Nb (P<0.05).The SDS-PAGE profiles of Nb and 24Nbh were generally the same, 4 distinct proteins of 12, 17, 30, 33 kDa were obtained with difference in quantity. When 120 μg of protein was applied for 2D-PAGE, five suspected different proteins with difference in quantity were observed. These results demonstrate that these differential proteins maybe associated with variation in infectivity of the spores.

  19. Retinotopic maps, spatial tuning, and locations of human visual areas in surface coordinates characterized with multifocal and blocked FMRI designs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Henriksson

    Full Text Available The localization of visual areas in the human cortex is typically based on mapping the retinotopic organization with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The most common approach is to encode the response phase for a slowly moving visual stimulus and to present the result on an individual's reconstructed cortical surface. The main aims of this study were to develop complementary general linear model (GLM-based retinotopic mapping methods and to characterize the inter-individual variability of the visual area positions on the cortical surface. We studied 15 subjects with two methods: a 24-region multifocal checkerboard stimulus and a blocked presentation of object stimuli at different visual field locations. The retinotopic maps were based on weighted averaging of the GLM parameter estimates for the stimulus regions. In addition to localizing visual areas, both methods could be used to localize multiple retinotopic regions-of-interest. The two methods yielded consistent retinotopic maps in the visual areas V1, V2, V3, hV4, and V3AB. In the higher-level areas IPS0, VO1, LO1, LO2, TO1, and TO2, retinotopy could only be mapped with the blocked stimulus presentation. The gradual widening of spatial tuning and an increase in the responses to stimuli in the ipsilateral visual field along the hierarchy of visual areas likely reflected the increase in the average receptive field size. Finally, after registration to Freesurfer's surface-based atlas of the human cerebral cortex, we calculated the mean and variability of the visual area positions in the spherical surface-based coordinate system and generated probability maps of the visual areas on the average cortical surface. The inter-individual variability in the area locations decreased when the midpoints were calculated along the spherical cortical surface compared with volumetric coordinates. These results can facilitate both analysis of individual functional anatomy and comparisons of visual

  20. Wafer-Scale Nanopillars Derived from Block Copolymer Lithography for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao; Wu, Kaiyu; Rindzevicius, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    ). Direct silicon etching with high aspect ratio templated by the block copolymer mask is realized without any intermediate layer or external precursors. Uniquely, an atomic layer deposition (ALD)-assisted method is introduced to allow reversing of the morphology relative to the initial pattern. As a result......, highly ordered silicon nanopillar arrays are fabricated with controlled aspect ratios. After metallization, the resulting nanopillar arrays are suitable for SERS applications. These structures readily exhibit an average SERS enhancement factor of above 108, SERS uniformities of 8.5% relative standard...

  1. Blocking protein farnesylation improves nuclear shape abnormalities in keratinocytes of mice expressing the prelamin A variant in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuexia; Ostlund, Cecilia; Worman, Howard J

    2010-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is an accelerated aging disorder caused by mutations in LMNA leading to expression of a truncated prelamin A variant termed progerin. Whereas a farnesylated polypeptide is normally removed from the carboxyl-terminus of prelamin A during endoproteolytic processing to lamin A, progerin lacks the cleavage site and remains farnesylated. Cultured cells from human subjects with HGPS and genetically modified mice expressing progerin have nuclear morphological abnormalities, which are reversed by inhibitors of protein farnesylation. In addition, treatment with protein farnesyltransferase inhibitors improves whole animal phenotypes in mouse models of HGPS. However, improvement in nuclear morphology in tissues after treatment of animals has not been demonstrated. We therefore treated transgenic mice that express progerin in epidermis with the protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI-276 or a combination of pravastatin and zoledronate to determine if they reversed nuclear morphological abnormalities in tissue. Immunofluorescence microscopy and "blinded" electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that systemic administration of FTI-276 or pravastatin plus zoledronate significantly improved nuclear morphological abnormalities in keratinocytes of transgenic mice. These results show that pharmacological blockade of protein prenylation reverses nuclear morphological abnormalities that occur in HGPS in vivo. They further suggest that skin biopsy may be useful to determine if protein farnesylation inhibitors are exerting effects in subjects with HGPS in clinical trials.

  2. Surface Modification for Controlling the Orientation of Block Copolymers in thin film and in Cylindrical Nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xin-Guan; Lin, Feng-Cheng; Tung, Shih-Huang

    2012-02-01

    A series of benzocyclobutene-functionalized random copolymers of styrene and 4-vinylpyridine were synthesized by nitroxide-mediated controlled radical polymerization with BPO and TEMPO. Our research was to use these random copolymers of P(S-r-BCB-r-4VP) to control the orientation of microdomains in block copolymers(BCPs) of poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine)(PS-b-P4VP) thin films and in cylindrical nanopores of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. On P(S-r-BCB-r-4VP)-modified substrate,we found that in some particular compositions of random copolymer ,the parallel orientation of the microdomains is switched to be perpendicular in PS-b-P4VP thin film. We also introduced P(S-r-BCB-r-4VP) solution into the nanopores of the AAO and nanotubes formed after solvent evaporation and pyrolysis. And then BCPs of PS-b-P4VP were drawn into the P(S-r-BCB-r-4VP)-modified nanopores in the melt via capillary action to form P(S-r-BCB-r-4VP) coated nanorods of PS-b-P4VP.Similarly,in some particular compositions of random copolymer, we observed that the interactions of the blocks with the walls are not strong or if the interactions are balanced, then the orientation of the microdomains will change from being parallel to being perpendicular to the confining walls.

  3. A new approach for the development of diabatic potential energy surfaces: Hybrid block-diagonalization and diabatization by ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenbrink, Nils; Venghaus, Florian; Williams, David; Eisfeld, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    A new diabatization method is presented, which is suitable for the development of accurate high-dimensional coupled potential energy surfaces for use in quantum dynamics studies. The method is based on the simultaneous use of adiabatic wave function and energy data, respectively, and combines block-diagonalization and diabatization by ansatz approaches. It thus is called hybrid diabatization. The adiabatic wave functions of suitable ab initio calculations are projected onto a diabatic state space and the resulting vectors are orthonormalized like in standard block-diagonalization. A parametrized diabatic model Hamiltonian is set up as an ansatz for which the block-diagonalization data can be utilized to find the optimal model. Finally, the parameters are optimized with respect to the ab initio reference data such that the deviations between adiabatic energies and eigenvalues of the model as well as projected state vectors and eigenvectors of the model are minimized. This approach is particularly advantageous for problems with a complicated electronic structure where the diabatic state space must be of higher dimension than the number of calculated adiabatic states. This is an efficient way to handle problems with intruder states, which are very common for reactive systems. The use of wave function information also increases the information content for each data point without additional cost, which is beneficial in handling the undersampling problem for high-dimensional systems. The new method and its performance are demonstrated by application to three prototypical systems, ozone (O3), methyl iodide (CH3I), and propargyl (H2CCCH).

  4. In-depth TEM characterization of block copolymer pattern transfer at germanium surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Cian; Collins, Timothy W.; Kelly, Roisin A.; McCarthy, Eoin K.; Morris, Michael A.

    2016-12-01

    Dry plasma etching for the pattern transfer of mask features is fundamental to semiconductor processing and the development of device and electrically conducting elements becomes more challenging as features reach the deep nanoscale regime. In this work, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) characterization were used to analyze the pattern transfer of graphoepitaxially aligned block copolymer (BCP) features to germanium (Ge) substrates as a function of time. The BCP patterns were converted into metal oxide hardmasks in order to affect good aspect ratios of the transferred features. An unusual interface layer between metal oxide nanowires and the germanium-on-insulator substrate was observed. EDX analysis shows that the origin of this interface layer is a result of the presence of a negative tone e-beam resist material, HSQ (hydrogen silsesquioxane). HSQ was employed as a guiding material to align line-space features of poly(styrene)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) BCP with 16 nm half-pitch topography. Additionally, the existence of a metal oxide layer (from the initial PS-b-P4VP film) is also shown through ex situ TEM and EDX characterization. Three dimensional modeling of features is also provided giving a unique insight into the arrangement and structure of BCP features prior to and after the pattern transfer process. The results presented in this article highlight the accuracy of high resolution electron microscopy and elemental mapping of BCP generated on-chip etch masks to observe and understand through-film features affecting pattern transfer.

  5. Slicing up the San Francisco Bay Area: Block kinematics and fault slip rates from GPS-derived surface velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessio, M. A.; Johanson, I. A.; Bürgmann, R.; Schmidt, D. A.; Murray, M. H.

    2005-06-01

    Observations of surface deformation allow us to determine the kinematics of faults in the San Francisco Bay Area. We present the Bay Area velocity unification (B?V?, "bay view"), a compilation of over 200 horizontal surface velocities computed from campaign-style and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from 1993 to 2003. We interpret this interseismic velocity field using a three-dimensional block model to determine the relative contributions of block motion, elastic strain accumulation, and shallow aseismic creep. The total relative motion between the Pacific plate and the rigid Sierra Nevada/Great Valley (SNGV) microplate is 37.9 ± 0.6 mm yr-1 directed toward N30.4°W ± 0.8° at San Francisco (±2σ). Fault slip rates from our preferred model are typically within the error bounds of geologic estimates but provide a better fit to geodetic data (notable right-lateral slip rates in mm yr-1: San Gregorio fault, 2.4 ± 1.0; West Napa fault, 4.0 ± 3.0; zone of faulting along the eastern margin of the Coast Range, 5.4 ± 1.0; and Mount Diablo thrust, 3.9 ± 1.0 of reverse slip and 4.0 ± 0.2 of right-lateral strike slip). Slip on the northern Calaveras is partitioned between both the West Napa and Concord/Green Valley fault systems. The total convergence across the Bay Area is negligible. Poles of rotation for Bay Area blocks progress systematically from the North America-Pacific to North America-SNGV poles. The resulting present-day relative motion cannot explain the strike of most Bay Area faults, but fault strike does loosely correlate with inferred plate motions at the time each fault initiated.

  6. Experimental study to analyse the workpiece surface temperature in deep hole drilling of aluminium alloy engine blocks using MQL technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Filipovic

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this applied research is to investigate the MQL deep hole drilling method, in orderto increase productivity and replace the current method of drilling main oil gallery holes in aluminum alloycylinder blocks that uses MWFs.Design/methodology/approach: The experimentation was performed at the Guhring, Inc. (a tool manufacturingcompany in Germany. The MQL drilling machine, machine operators, CNC programming, hole drilling, andtool layouts were be provided by Guhring. The main components of this experiment were the MQL machinewith dual channel system, machine tool fixture, special carbide drills, data acquisition system, thermal opticalcamera to measure surface temperature, and computers. The surface along the axis of the of the oil gallery holewas milled to produce uniform thickness of 2.5 mm. The drill was spinning but not moving into the engineblock, the engine block was moving into the drill. All experiments were performed in random order with noreplications. The other output variables, surface finish, true position, roundness, straightness, diameter andmisalignment, were measured by a surface analyzer and coordinate measuring machine (CMM.Findings: Based on this research it can be concluded that MQL is a viable production solution for DHDin automotive cast aluminum alloy. Good part quality characteristics were achieved using this method withproduction feeds and speeds.Practical implications: The MQL method has shown potential to be even more productive as compared totraditional deep hole drilling which would result in less capital investment.Originality/value: Good part quality characteristics were achieved using this method with production feeds and speeds.

  7. Novel Plasmodium falciparum malaria vaccines: evidence-based searching for variant surface antigens as candidates for vaccination against pregnancy-associated malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staalsoe, Trine; Jensen, Anja T R; Theander, Thor G;

    2002-01-01

    to statistically significant co-variation with protection rather than on demonstration of causal relationships. We have studied the relationship between variant surface antigen-specific antibodies and clinical protection from Plasmodium falciparum malaria in general, and from pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM......) in particular, to provide robust evidence of a causal link between the two in order to allow efficient and evidence-based identification of candidate antigens for malaria vaccine development....

  8. Block-surface staining for differentiation of starch and cell walls in wheat endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, G M; Pitts, M J; Liao, K; Irving, D W

    1992-03-01

    A staining technique for differentiating starch granules and cell walls was developed for computer-assisted studies of starch granule distribution in cells of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) caryopses. Blocks of embedded caryopses were sectioned, exposing the endosperm tissue, and stained with iodine potassium iodide (IKI) and Calcofluor White. Excessive tissue hydration during staining was avoided by using stains prepared in 80% ethanol and using short staining times. The IKI quenched background fluorescence which facilitated the use of higher concentrations of Calcofluor White. Cell wall definition was improved with the IKI-Calcofluor staining combination compared to Calcofluor alone. The high contrast between darkly stained starch granules and fluorescent cell walls permitted computer assisted analysis of data from selected hard and soft wheat varieties. The ratio of starch granule area to cell area was similar for both wheat classes. The starch granule sizes ranged from 2.1 microns 3 to 22,000 microns 3 with approximately 90% of the granules measuring less than 752 microns 3 (ca. 11 microns in diameter). Hard wheat samples had a greater number of small starch granules and a lower mean starch granule area compared to the soft wheat varieties tested. The starch size distribution curve was bimodal for both the hard and soft wheat varieties. Three-dimensional starch size distribution was measured for four cells near the central cheek region of a single caryopsis. The percentage of small granules was higher at the ends than at the mid-section of the cells.

  9. The profile of snoRNA-derived microRNAs that regulate expression of variant surface proteins in Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Saraiya, Ashesh A; Wang, Ching C

    2012-09-01

    In the current investigation, we analysed all the known small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) in the deeply branching protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia for potential microRNAs (miRNAs) that might be derived from them. Two putative miRNAs have since been identified by Northern blot, primer extension, 3' RACE and co-immunoprecipitation with Giardia Argonaute (GlAgo), and designated miR6 and miR10. Giardia Dicer (GlDcr) is capable of processing the snoRNAs into the corresponding miRNAs in vitro. Potential miR6 and miR10 binding sites in Giardia genome were predicted bio-informatically. A miR6 binding site was found at the 3' untranslated regions (UTR) of 44 variant surface protein (vsp) genes, whereas a miR10 binding site was identified at the 3' end of 159 vsp open-reading frames. Thirty-three of these vsp genes turned out to contain binding sites for both miR6 and miR10. A reporter mRNA tagged with the 3' end of vsp1267, which contains the target sites for both miRNAs, was translationally repressed by both miRNAs in Giardia. Episomal expression of an N-terminal c-myc tagged VSP1267 was found significantly repressed by introducing either miR6 or miR10 into the cells and the repressive effects were additive. When the 2'-O-methyl antisense oligos (ASOs) of either miR6 or miR10 was introduced, however, there was an enhancement of tagged VSP1267 expression suggesting an inhibition of the repressive effects of endogenous miR6 or miR10 by the ASOs. Of the total 220 vsp genes in Giardia, we have now found 178 of them carrying putative binding sites for all the miRNAs that have been currently identified, suggesting that miRNAs are likely the regulators of VSP expression in Giardia.

  10. Six host range variants of the xenotropic/polytropic gammaretroviruses define determinants for entry in the XPR1 cell surface receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozak Christine A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionary interactions between retroviruses and their receptors result in adaptive selection of restriction variants that can allow natural populations to evade retrovirus infection. The mouse xenotropic/polytropic (X/PMV gammaretroviruses rely on the XPR1 cell surface receptor for entry into host cells, and polymorphic variants of this receptor have been identified in different rodent species. Results We screened a panel of X/PMVs for infectivity on rodent cells carrying 6 different XPR1 receptor variants. The X/PMVs included 5 well-characterized laboratory and wild mouse virus isolates as well as a novel cytopathic XMV-related virus, termed Cz524, isolated from an Eastern European wild mouse-derived strain, and XMRV, a xenotropic-like virus isolated from human prostate cancer. The 7 viruses define 6 distinct tropisms. Cz524 and another wild mouse isolate, CasE#1, have unique species tropisms. Among the PMVs, one Friend isolate is restricted by rat cells. Among the XMVs, two isolates, XMRV and AKR6, differ from other XMVs in their PMV-like restriction in hamster cells. We generated a set of Xpr1 mutants and chimeras, and identified critical amino acids in two extracellular loops (ECLs that mediate entry of these different viruses, including 3 residues in ECL3 that are involved in PMV entry (E500, T507, and V508 and can also influence infectivity by AKR6 and Cz524. Conclusion We used a set of natural variants and mutants of Xpr1 to define 6 distinct host range variants among naturally occurring X/PMVs (2 XMV variants, 2 PMVs, 2 different wild mouse variants. We identified critical amino acids in XPR1 that mediate entry of these viruses. These gammaretroviruses and their XPR1 receptor are thus highly functionally polymorphic, a consequence of the evolutionary pressures that favor both host resistance and virus escape mutants. This variation accounts for multiple naturally occurring virus resistance phenotypes and

  11. MetQ of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Is a Surface-Expressed Antigen That Elicits Bactericidal and Functional Blocking Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semchenko, Evgeny A.; Day, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection (STI) gonorrhea, is a growing public health threat for which a vaccine is urgently needed. We characterized the functional role of the gonococcal MetQ protein, which is the methionine binding component of an ABC transporter system, and assessed its potential as a candidate antigen for inclusion in a gonococcal vaccine. MetQ has been found to be highly conserved in all strains investigated to date, it is localized on the bacterial surface, and it binds l-methionine with a high affinity. MetQ is also involved in gonococcal adherence to cervical epithelial cells. Mutants lacking MetQ have impaired survival in human monocytes, macrophages, and serum. Furthermore, antibodies raised against MetQ are bactericidal and are able to block gonococcal adherence to epithelial cells. These data suggest that MetQ elicits both bactericidal and functional blocking antibodies and is a valid candidate antigen for additional investigation and possible inclusion in a vaccine for prevention of gonorrhea. PMID:27895130

  12. Blood compatibility comparison for polysulfone membranes modified by grafting block and random zwitterionic copolymers via surface-initiated ATRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Tao; Zhang, Li-Sha; Wang, Rui; Xia, Yi; Su, Bai-Hai; Zhao, Chang-Sheng

    2014-10-15

    For blood-contacting materials, good blood compatibility, especially good anticoagulant property is of great importance. Zwitterionic polymers have been proved to be resistant to nonspecific protein adsorption and platelet adhesion; however, their anticoagulant property is always inadequate. In this study, two kinds of zwitterionic copolymers (sulfobetaine methacrylate and sodium p-styrene sulfonate random copolymer and block copolymer) with sulfonic groups were covalently grafted from polysulfone (PSf) membranes via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) to improve blood compatibility. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectra (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and static water contact angle (WCA) were applied to characterize the morphologies, chemical compositions and hydrophilicity of the modified membranes. All the zwitterionic copolymer modified membranes showed improved blood compatibility, especially the anticoagulant property was obviously enhanced compared to the pristine PSf and simple zwitterionic polymer modified membranes. We also found that the random copolymer modified membranes showed better resistance to platelet adhesion than the block copolymer modified membranes. The zwitterionic copolymer modified membranes with integrated antifouling property and blood compatibility provided wide choice for specific applications such as hemodialysis, hemofiltration, and plasma separation.

  13. Cellulase variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazej, Robert; Toriello, Nicholas; Emrich, Charles; Cohen, Richard N.; Koppel, Nitzan

    2015-07-14

    This invention provides novel variant cellulolytic enzymes having improved activity and/or stability. In certain embodiments the variant cellulotyic enzymes comprise a glycoside hydrolase with or comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to one or more of residues F64, A226, and/or E246 in Thermobifida fusca Cel9A enzyme. In certain embodiments the glycoside hydrolase is a variant of a family 9 glycoside hydrolase. In certain embodiments the glycoside hydrolase is a variant of a theme B family 9 glycoside hydrolase.

  14. Decaborane thiols as building blocks for self-assembled monolayers on metal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bould, Jonathan; Macháček, Jan; Londesborough, Michael G S; Macías, Ramón; Kennedy, John D; Bastl, Zdeněk; Rupper, Patrick; Baše, Tomáš

    2012-02-01

    Three nido-decaborane thiol cluster compounds, [1-(HS)-nido-B(10)H(13)] 1, [2-(HS)-nido-B(10)H(13)] 2, and [1,2-(HS)(2)-nido-B(10)H(12)] 3 have been characterized using NMR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and quantum-chemical calculations. In the solid state, 1, 2, and 3 feature weak intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the sulfur atom and the relatively positive bridging hydrogen atoms on the open face of an adjacent cluster. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the value of the interaction energy is approximately proportional to the number of hydrogen atoms involved in the interaction and that these values are consistent with a related bridging-hydrogen atom interaction calculated for a B(18)H(22)·C(6)H(6) solvate. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 1, 2, and 3 on gold and silver surfaces have been prepared and characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The variations in the measured sulfur binding energies, as thiolates on the surface, correlate with the (CC2) calculated atomic charge for the relevant boron vertices and for the associated sulfur substituents for the parent B(10)H(13)(SH) compounds. The calculated charges also correlate with the measured and DFT-calculated thiol (1)H chemical shifts. Wetting-angle measurements indicate that the hydrophilic open face of the cluster is directed upward from the substrate surface, allowing the bridging hydrogen atoms to exhibit a similar reactivity to that of the bulk compound. Thus, [PtMe(2)(PMe(2)Ph)(2)] reacts with the exposed and acidic B-H-B bridging hydrogen atoms of a SAM of 1 on a gold substrate, affording the addition of the metal moiety to the cluster. The XPS-derived stoichiometry is very similar to that for a SAM produced directly from the adsorption of [1-(HS)-7,7-(PMe(2)Ph)(2)-nido-7-PtB(10)H(11)] 4. The use of reactive boron hydride SAMs as templates on which further chemistry may be carried out is unprecedented, and the principle may be

  15. Fermi surface evolution and checker-board block-spin antiferromagnetism in AxFe2-ySe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yuan-Yen; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Graf, Matthias J.; Ting, C. S.

    2012-10-01

    We develop an effective multiorbital mean-field t-J Hamiltonian with realistic tight-binding and exchange parameters to describe the electronic and magnetic structures of iron-selenide based superconductors AxFe2-ySe2 for iron vacancy doping in the range 0≤y≤0.4. The Fermi surface topology extracted from the spectral function of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) experiments is adequately accounted for by a tight-binding lattice model with random vacancy disorder. Since introducing iron vacancies breaks the lattice periodicity of the stochiometric compound, it greatly affects the electronic band structure. With changing vacancy concentration, the electronic band structure evolves, leading to a reconstruction of the Fermi surface topology. For intermediate doping levels, the realized stable electronic structure is a compromise between the solutions for the perfect lattice with y=0 and the vacancy stripe-ordered lattice with y=0.4, which results in a competition between vacancy random disorder and vacancy stripe order. A multiorbital hopping model is parameterized by comparing Fermi surface topologies to ARPES experiments, from which we construct a mean-field t-J lattice model to study the paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic (AFM) phases of K0.8Fe1.6Se2. In the AFM phase the calculated spin magnetization of the t-J model leads to a checker-board block-spin structure in good agreement with neutron scattering experiments and abinitio calculations.

  16. Inhomogeneous response of expiratory muscle activity to cold block of the ventral medullary surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, T; Okabe, S; Hida, W; Izumiyama, T; Kikuchi, Y; Takishima, T

    1991-11-01

    We assessed the effects of cooling the ventral medullary surface (VMS) on the activity of chest wall and abdominal expiratory muscles in eight anesthetized artificially ventilated dogs after vagotomy and denervation of the carotid sinus nerves. Electromyograms (EMGs) of the triangularis sterni, internal intercostal, abdominal external oblique, abdominal internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles were measured with EMG of the diaphragm as an index of inspiratory activity. Bilateral localized cooling (2 x 2 mm) in the thermosensitive intermediate part of the VMS produced temperature-dependent reduction in the EMG of diaphragm and abdominal muscles. The rib cage expiratory EMGs were little affected at 25 degrees C; their amplitudes decreased at lower VMS temperatures (less than 20 degrees C) but by significantly fewer degrees than the diaphragmatic and abdominal expiratory EMGs at a constant VMS temperature. With moderate to severe cooling (less than 20 degrees C) diaphragmatic EMG disappeared, but rib cage expiratory EMGs became tonic and resumed a phasic pattern shortly before the recovery of diaphragmatic EMG during rewarming of the VMS. These results indicate that the effects of cooling the VMS differ between the activity of rib cage and abdominal expiratory muscles. This variability may be due to inhomogeneous inputs from the VMS to expiratory motoneurons or to a different responsiveness of various expiratory motoneurons to the same input either from the VMS or the inspiratory neurons.

  17. Breaking tolerance in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) transgenic mice by vaccination with cross-reactive, natural HBsAg variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schirmbeck, Reinhold; Dikopoulos, Nektarios; Kwissa, Marcin;

    2003-01-01

    Processing exogenous hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) generates the K(b)-binding S(208-215) epitope 1; processing endogenous HBsAg generates the K(b)-binding S(190-197) epitope 2. Cross-reactive CD8(+) T cell responses were primed to epitope 1 but not epitope 2...... HBs-tg mice showed reduced antigenemia. Hence, vaccination with natural HBsAg variants from different HBV sero/genotypes can prime cross-reactive, specific CD8(+) T cell immunity that breaks tolerance to HBsAg....

  18. Modeling malaria infection and immunity against variant surface antigens in Príncipe Island, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandeiras, Cátia; Trovoada, Maria Jesus; Gonçalves, Lígia A;

    2014-01-01

    the impact of reducing exposure to the parasite on the immune repertoire against P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) variants. The model was parameterized with data from Príncipe Island, West Africa, and applied to simulate two alternative transmission scenarios: one where control measures......-control values, while the re-acquisition of the immune repertoire against PfEMP1 is slower, creating a window for increased severity. The model illustrates the consequences of loss of immune repertoire against PfEMP1 in a given setting and can be applied to other regions where similar data may be available....

  19. Development of flexible LEO-resistant PI films for space applications using a self-healing mechanism by surface-directed phase separation of block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Hartmut R; Tempelaars, Karin; Kerpershoek, Aat; Dingemans, Theo; Iqbal, M; Lonkhuyzen, Henk van; Iwanowsky, Boris; Semprimoschnig, Christopher

    2010-08-01

    Polimide-block-polydimethylsiloxane (PI-b-PDMS) block copolymers have been synthesized from commercially available amino-terminated polysiloxanes with different molecular weights, for use as polymeric materials resistant to the low earth orbit (LEO) space environment. A structural optimization with respect to maximum environmental protection has been performed by varying the PDMS block length as well as the architecture of the block copolymers spanning from multiblock to triblock and star-shaped morphologies. The synthesized polymers and casted films show good mechanical and thermal performance. For block copolymers with a load of 2% PDMS (in the case of the multiblock copolymers), a complete surface coverage of the PDMS has been found. It has been shown that the transfer of the surface enriched PDMS layer into a thin silica layer after atomic oxygen (AO) exposure results in a drastic decrease in AO erosion rate. The silica layer protects the underlying material from oxygen initiated erosion resulting in a drastic decrease of surface roughness. This phenomena is observable for loads as small as 6 wt % PDMS.

  20. Antibodies to the N-terminal block 2 of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 are associated with protection against clinical malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavanagh, David R; Dodoo, Daniel; Hviid, Lars

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal prospective study shows that antibodies to the N-terminal block 2 region of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) are associated with protection against clinical malaria in an area of stable but seasonal malaria transmission of Ghana. Antibodies to the bl...

  1. WAIS-IV administration errors: effects of altered response requirements on Symbol Search and violation of standard surface-variety patterns on Block Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph J; Swopes-Willhite, Nicole; Franklin, Cassi; Kreiner, David S

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized a sample of 50 college students to assess the possibility that responding to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) Symbol Search subtest items with an "x" instead of a "single slash mark" would affect performance. A second sample of 50 college students was used to assess the impact on WAIS-IV Block Design performance of presenting all the items with only red surfaces facing up. The modified Symbol Search and Block Design administrations yielded mean scaled scores and raw scores that did not differ significantly from mean scores obtained with standard administrations. Findings should not be generalized beyond healthy, well-educated young adults.

  2. Rock blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, W.

    2007-01-01

    Consider representation theory associated to symmetric groups, or to Hecke algebras in type A, or to q-Schur algebras, or to finite general linear groups in non-describing characteristic. Rock blocks are certain combinatorially defined blocks appearing in such a representation theory, first observed by R. Rouquier. Rock blocks are much more symmetric than general blocks, and every block is derived equivalent to a Rock block. Motivated by a theorem of J. Chuang and R. Kessar in the case of sym...

  3. Epitaxial variants of VO2 thin films on complex oxide single crystal substrates with 3m surface symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Franklin J.; Zhou, You; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2013-02-01

    Rutile-based monoclinic VO2 films were grown on (1 1 1) LaAlO3, (0 0 0 1) Al2O3, (1 1 1) MgAl2O4, (1 1 1) MgO, and Zn-faced (0 0 0 1) and O-faced (0 0 0 1¯) ZnO substrates. The out-of-plane alignment of the two-fold screw [0 1 0] axis of monoclinic VO2 with three-fold rotational axes of the substrates is made possible by the formation of epitaxial domains. We find that the in-plane [1 0 0] axis of VO2 is always oriented with one of the three in-plane eutactic axes of the all of the substrates, despite significant differences in lattice mismatch from substrate to substrate. From diffractometry analysis and upon considering the in-plane symmetry of the substrates with respect to the (0 1 0) VO2 film, we conclude the presence of 120° rotational variants and 60° twins. The electrical transport characteristics of all of the films except for those on the ZnO substrates are comparable, showing metal-insulator transitions with bulk-like transition temperatures. The growth of different stoichiometric phases and film orientations on ZnO is attributed to large lattice mismatch, and also leads to the apparent in-plane conductance transition being smeared out in temperature. We find that it is more challenging to stabilize (0 1 0) VO2 on O-faced ZnO compared to Zn-faced ZnO and discuss the differences in tetrahedra stacking between the two polarities.

  4. Comparison of invasiveness among surface-adherent variants of Listeria monocytogenes in Caco-2 cell culture assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Kalpana; Muriana, Peter M

    2010-03-31

    The persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in meat processing plants is believed to be partly linked with their adherence properties to abiotic surfaces that may allow contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. Isolates of raw meats, RTE meats and environmental samples from RTE meat processing facilities that demonstrated differences in adherence to abiotic surfaces (glass, plastic, stainless steel, and rubber) were tested for cellular adherence and invasion in the Caco-2 human cell line. Strains of L. monocytogenes were classified into strong (CW50, 99-38, CW77, SM5 and CW62) and weakly adherent (CW34, CW35, CW72, SM3, J7 and J126) based on a microplate adherence assay using the fluorescing substrate, 5,6-CFDA. These strains were tested for adherence and invasion in cell culture assays with Caco-2 cells. At long incubation time (2h) and high multiplicity of infection (MOI, 100:1) we observed equivalent cellular adherence and invasiveness. After optimizing conditions for time of infection (15-, 30-, 60-, 90-, and 120-min) and MOI (100:1, 10:1, 1:1, and 0.1:1), we found that under the conditions of 15-min infection time at an MOI of 10:1 (Listeria:Caco-2 cells), we again observed equivalent cellular adherence by the two distinct surface-adherent groups, but we only recovered invading Listeria from the group that was strongly adherent to environmental surfaces. The data indicate that a surface factor that provides for strong environmental surface adherence may also be involved with internal cellular virulence and survival and implicates strongly adherent strains as possibly being of greater invasiveness than weakly adherent strains.

  5. Growth of a Gas Bubble in a Supersaturated Liquid Under the Effect of Variant Cases of Surface Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadein, S. A.; Mohamed, K. G.

    In this paper, the growth of a gas bubble in a supersaturated liquid is discussed for a constant and variable cases of surface tension effect. The mathematical model is solved analytically by using the method of Plesset and Zwick18 after modified it. The growth process is affected by: diffusion coefficient D, Jacob number Ja, surface tension σ, adjustment factor b and void fraction ϕ0. The famous formula of Plesset and Zwick is produced as a special case of the results at some values of the adjustment factors. Moreover, for some values of the adjustment factors, good approximation is obtained when a comparison between our results and the result that produced by Hashemi et al., 9 who solved the problem with the method of combining variables.

  6. Coexistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag) and anti-HBs antibodies in chronic hepatitis B virus carriers: influence of "a" determinant variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lada, Olivier; Benhamou, Yves; Poynard, Thierry; Thibault, Vincent

    2006-03-01

    In chronic hepatitis B (CHB), the persistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag) is sometimes associated with antibodies (Ab) to HBs (anti-HBs). To assess the hypothesis of the selection of HBs Ag immune escape variants in CHB patients, the variability of the HBV S gene was determined for patients persistently carrying both HBs Ag and anti-HBs antibodies and patients solely positive for HBs Ag. We selected 14 patients who presented both markers (group I) in several consecutive samples and 12 patients positive for HBs Ag only (group II). The HBs Ag-encoding gene was amplified and cloned, and at least 15 clones per patient were sequenced and analyzed. The number of residue changes within the S protein was 2.7 times more frequent for group I than for group II patients and occurred mostly in the "a" determinant of the major hydrophilic region (MHR), with 9.52 versus 2.43 changes per 100 residues (P = 0.009), respectively. Ten patients (71%) from group I, but only three (25%) from group II, presented at least two residue changes in the MHR. The most frequent changes in group I patients were located at positions s145, s129, s126, s144, and s123, as described for immune escape variants. In CHB patients, the coexistence of HBs Ag and anti-HBs Ab is associated with an increase of "a" determinant variability, suggesting a selection of HBV immune escape mutants during chronic carriage. The consequences of this selection process with regard to vaccine efficacy, diagnosis, and clinical evolution remain partially unknown.

  7. Association of common genetic variants in GPCPD1 with scaling of visual cortical surface area in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Trygve E; Roddey, J Cooper; Djurovic, Srdjan; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Amaral, David G; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Casey, B J; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M; Gruen, Jeffrey R; Jernigan, Terry L; Kaufmann, Walter E; Kenet, Tal; Kennedy, David N; Kuperman, Joshua M; Murray, Sarah S; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Rimol, Lars M; Mattingsdal, Morten; Melle, Ingrid; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Schork, Nicholas J; Dale, Anders M; Weiner, Michael; Aisen, Paul; Petersen, Ronald; Jack, Clifford R; Jagust, William; Trojanowki, John Q; Toga, Arthur W; Beckett, Laurel; Green, Robert C; Saykin, Andrew J; Morris, John; Liu, Enchi; Montine, Tom; Gamst, Anthony; Thomas, Ronald G; Donohue, Michael; Walter, Sarah; Gessert, Devon; Sather, Tamie; Harvey, Danielle; Kornak, John; Dale, Anders; Bernstein, Matthew; Felmlee, Joel; Fox, Nick; Thompson, Paul; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene; DeCarli, Charles; Bandy, Dan; Koeppe, Robert A; Foster, Norm; Reiman, Eric M; Chen, Kewei; Mathis, Chet; Cairns, Nigel J; Taylor-Reinwald, Lisa; Trojanowki, J Q; Shaw, Les; Lee, Virginia M Y; Korecka, Magdalena; Crawford, Karen; Neu, Scott; Foroud, Tatiana M; Potkin, Steven; Shen, Li; Kachaturian, Zaven; Frank, Richard; Snyder, Peter J; Molchan, Susan; Kaye, Jeffrey; Quinn, Joseph; Lind, Betty; Dolen, Sara; Schneider, Lon S; Pawluczyk, Sonia; Spann, Bryan M; Brewer, James; Vanderswag, Helen; Heidebrink, Judith L; Lord, Joanne L; Johnson, Kris; Doody, Rachelle S; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Chowdhury, Munir; Stern, Yaakov; Honig, Lawrence S; Bell, Karen L; Morris, John C; Ances, Beau; Carroll, Maria; Leon, Sue; Mintun, Mark A; Schneider, Stacy; Marson, Daniel; Griffith, Randall; Clark, David; Grossman, Hillel; Mitsis, Effie; Romirowsky, Aliza; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Shah, Raj C; Duara, Ranjan; Varon, Daniel; Roberts, Peggy; Albert, Marilyn; Onyike, Chiadi; Kielb, Stephanie; Rusinek, Henry; de Leon, Mony J; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Doraiswamy, P Murali; Petrella, Jeffrey R; Coleman, R Edward; Arnold, Steven E; Karlawish, Jason H; Wolk, David; Smith, Charles D; Jicha, Greg; Hardy, Peter; Lopez, Oscar L; Oakley, MaryAnn; Simpson, Donna M; Porsteinsson, Anton P; Goldstein, Bonnie S; Martin, Kim; Makino, Kelly M; Ismail, M Saleem; Brand, Connie; Mulnard, Ruth A; Thai, Gaby; Mc-Adams-Ortiz, Catherine; Womack, Kyle; Mathews, Dana; Quiceno, Mary; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; King, Richard; Weiner, Myron; Martin-Cook, Kristen; DeVous, Michael; Levey, Allan I; Lah, James J; Cellar, Janet S; Burns, Jeffrey M; Anderson, Heather S; Swerdlow, Russell H; Apostolova, Liana; Lu, Po H; Bartzokis, George; Silverman, Daniel H S; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Parfitt, Francine; Johnson, Heather; Farlow, Martin R; Hake, Ann Marie; Matthews, Brandy R; Herring, Scott; van Dyck, Christopher H; Carson, Richard E; MacAvoy, Martha G; Chertkow, Howard; Bergman, Howard; Hosein, Chris; Black, Sandra; Stefanovic, Bojana; Caldwell, Curtis; Ging-Yuek; Hsiung, Robin; Feldman, Howard; Mudge, Benita; Assaly, Michele; Kertesz, Andrew; Rogers, John; Trost, Dick; Bernick, Charles; Munic, Donna; Kerwin, Diana; Mesulam, Marek-Marsel; Lipowski, Kristina; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Johnson, Nancy; Sadowsky, Carl; Martinez, Walter; Villena, Teresa; Turner, Raymond Scott; Johnson, Kathleen; Reynolds, Brigid; Sperling, Reisa A; Johnson, Keith A; Marshall, Gad; Frey, Meghan; Yesavage, Jerome; Taylor, Joy L; Lane, Barton; Rosen, Allyson; Tinklenberg, Jared; Sabbagh, Marwan; Belden, Christine; Jacobson, Sandra; Kowall, Neil; Killiany, Ronald; Budson, Andrew E; Norbash, Alexander; Johnson, Patricia Lynn; Obisesan, Thomas O; Wolday, Saba; Bwayo, Salome K; Lerner, Alan; Hudson, Leon; Ogrocki, Paula; Fletcher, Evan; Carmichael, Owen; Olichney, John; Kittur, Smita; Borrie, Michael; Lee, T-Y; Bartha, Rob; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Potkin, Steven G; Preda, Adrian; Nguyen, Dana; Tariot, Pierre; Fleisher, Adam; Reeder, Stephanie; Bates, Vernice; Capote, Horacio; Rainka, Michelle; Scharre, Douglas W; Kataki, Maria; Zimmerman, Earl A; Celmins, Dzintra; Brown, Alice D; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Blank, Karen; Anderson, Karen; Santulli, Robert B; Schwartz, Eben S; Sink, Kaycee M; Williamson, Jeff D; Garg, Pradeep; Watkins, Franklin; Ott, Brian R; Querfurth, Henry; Tremont, Geoffrey; Salloway, Stephen; Malloy, Paul; Correia, Stephen; Rosen, Howard J; Miller, Bruce L; Mintzer, Jacobo; Longmire, Crystal Flynn; Spicer, Kenneth; Finger, Elizabether; Rachinsky, Irina; Drost, Dick; Jernigan, Terry; McCabe, Connor; Grant, Ellen; Ernst, Thomas; Kuperman, Josh; Chung, Yoon; Murray, Sarah; Bloss, Cinnamon; Darst, Burcu; Pritchett, Lexi; Saito, Ashley; Amaral, David; DiNino, Mishaela; Eyngorina, Bella; Sowell, Elizabeth; Houston, Suzanne; Soderberg, Lindsay; Kaufmann, Walter; van Zijl, Peter; Rizzo-Busack, Hilda; Javid, Mohsin; Mehta, Natasha; Ruberry, Erika; Powers, Alisa; Rosen, Bruce; Gebhard, Nitzah; Manigan, Holly; Frazier, Jean; Kennedy, David; Yakutis, Lauren; Hill, Michael; Gruen, Jeffrey; Bosson-Heenan, Joan; Carlson, Heatherly

    2012-03-06

    Visual cortical surface area varies two- to threefold between human individuals, is highly heritable, and has been correlated with visual acuity and visual perception. However, it is still largely unknown what specific genetic and environmental factors contribute to normal variation in the area of visual cortex. To identify SNPs associated with the proportional surface area of visual cortex, we performed a genome-wide association study followed by replication in two independent cohorts. We identified one SNP (rs6116869) that replicated in both cohorts and had genome-wide significant association (P(combined) = 3.2 × 10(-8)). Furthermore, a metaanalysis of imputed SNPs in this genomic region identified a more significantly associated SNP (rs238295; P = 6.5 × 10(-9)) that was in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs6116869. These SNPs are located within 4 kb of the 5' UTR of GPCPD1, glycerophosphocholine phosphodiesterase GDE1 homolog (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which in humans, is more highly expressed in occipital cortex compared with the remainder of cortex than 99.9% of genes genome-wide. Based on these findings, we conclude that this common genetic variation contributes to the proportional area of human visual cortex. We suggest that identifying genes that contribute to normal cortical architecture provides a first step to understanding genetic mechanisms that underlie visual perception.

  8. In vitro selection of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 for expression of variant surface antigens associated with severe malaria in African children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staalsoe, Trine; Nielsen, Morten A; Vestergaard, Lasse S;

    2003-01-01

    P. falciparum-infected red blood cells (IRBC) can adhere to endothelial host receptors through parasite-encoded, clonally variant surface antigens (VSA). The VSA-mediated IRBC adhesion and the acquired VSA-specific antibody response have both been linked to IRBC organ tropism and disease severity...

  9. Variant of a volume-of-fluid method for surface tension-dominant two-phase flows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Biswas

    2013-12-01

    The capabilities of the volume-of-fluid method for the calculation of surface tension-dominant two-phase flows are explained. The accurate calculation of the interface remains a problem for the volume-of-fluid method if the density ratios of the fluids in different phases are high. The simulations of bubble growth is performed in water at near critical pressure for different degrees of superheat using combined levelset and volume-of fluid (CLSVOF) method. The effect of superheat on the frequency of bubble formation was analyzed. A deviation from the periodic bubble release is observed in the case of superheat of 20 K in water. The vapor-jet-like columnar structure is observed. Effect of heat flux on the slender vapor column has also been explained.

  10. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  11. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Abnormal Prion Protein on Steel Surfaces by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Application to Prion Decontamination Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belondrade, Maxime; Nicot, Simon; Béringue, Vincent; Coste, Joliette; Lehmann, Sylvain; Bougard, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the population remains uncertain, although it has been estimated that 1 in 2000 people in the United Kingdom are positive for abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) by a recent survey of archived appendix tissues. The prominent lymphotropism of vCJD prions raises the possibility that some surgical procedures may be at risk of iatrogenic vCJD transmission in healthcare facilities. It is therefore vital that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated. A current limitation is the lack of a rapid model permissive to human prions. Here, we developed a prion detection assay based on protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technology combined with stainless-steel wire surfaces as carriers of prions (Surf-PMCA). This assay allowed the specific detection of minute quantities (10-8 brain dilution) of either human vCJD or ovine scrapie PrPTSE adsorbed onto a single steel wire, within a two week timeframe. Using Surf-PMCA we evaluated the performance of several reference and commercially available prion-specific decontamination procedures. Surprisingly, we found the efficiency of several marketed reagents to remove human vCJD PrPTSE was lower than expected. Overall, our results demonstrate that Surf-PMCA can be used as a rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of human vCJD PrPTSE adsorbed onto a metallic surface, therefore facilitating the development and validation of decontamination procedures against human prions.

  12. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Abnormal Prion Protein on Steel Surfaces by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Application to Prion Decontamination Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Belondrade

    Full Text Available The prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD in the population remains uncertain, although it has been estimated that 1 in 2000 people in the United Kingdom are positive for abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE by a recent survey of archived appendix tissues. The prominent lymphotropism of vCJD prions raises the possibility that some surgical procedures may be at risk of iatrogenic vCJD transmission in healthcare facilities. It is therefore vital that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated. A current limitation is the lack of a rapid model permissive to human prions. Here, we developed a prion detection assay based on protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA technology combined with stainless-steel wire surfaces as carriers of prions (Surf-PMCA. This assay allowed the specific detection of minute quantities (10-8 brain dilution of either human vCJD or ovine scrapie PrPTSE adsorbed onto a single steel wire, within a two week timeframe. Using Surf-PMCA we evaluated the performance of several reference and commercially available prion-specific decontamination procedures. Surprisingly, we found the efficiency of several marketed reagents to remove human vCJD PrPTSE was lower than expected. Overall, our results demonstrate that Surf-PMCA can be used as a rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of human vCJD PrPTSE adsorbed onto a metallic surface, therefore facilitating the development and validation of decontamination procedures against human prions.

  13. Surface Mechanical and Rheological Behaviors of Biocompatible Poly((D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) and Poly((D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid-ran-ε-caprolactone)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGACL-PEG) Block Copolymers at the Air-Water Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Chang; Lee, Hoyoung; Khetan, Jawahar; Won, You-Yeon [Purdue

    2016-02-01

    Air–water interfacial monolayers of poly((d,l-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGA–PEG) exhibit an exponential increase in surface pressure under high monolayer compression. In order to understand the molecular origin of this behavior, a combined experimental and theoretical investigation (including surface pressure–area isotherm, X-ray reflectivity (XR) and interfacial rheological measurements, and a self-consistent field (SCF) theoretical analysis) was performed on air–water monolayers formed by a PLGA–PEG diblock copolymer and also by a nonglassy analogue of this diblock copolymer, poly((d,l-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid-ran-caprolactone)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGACL–PEG). The combined results of this study show that the two mechanisms, i.e., the glass transition of the collapsed PLGA film and the lateral repulsion of the PEG brush chains that occur simultaneously under lateral compression of the monolayer, are both responsible for the observed PLGA–PEG isotherm behavior. Upon cessation of compression, the high surface pressure of the PLGA–PEG monolayer typically relaxes over time with a stretched exponential decay, suggesting that in this diblock copolymer situation, the hydrophobic domain formed by the PLGA blocks undergoes glass transition in the high lateral compression state, analogously to the PLGA homopolymer monolayer. In the high PEG grafting density regime, the contribution of the PEG brush chains to the high monolayer surface pressure is significantly lower than what is predicted by the SCF model because of the many-body attraction among PEG segments (referred to in the literature as the “n-cluster” effects). The end-grafted PEG chains were found to be protein resistant even under the influence of the “n-cluster” effects.

  14. Surface Mechanical and Rheological Behaviors of Biocompatible Poly((D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) and Poly((D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid-ran-ε-caprolactone)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGACL-PEG) Block Copolymers at the Air-Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Chang; Lee, Hoyoung; Khetan, Jawahar; Won, You-Yeon

    2015-12-29

    Air-water interfacial monolayers of poly((D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) exhibit an exponential increase in surface pressure under high monolayer compression. In order to understand the molecular origin of this behavior, a combined experimental and theoretical investigation (including surface pressure-area isotherm, X-ray reflectivity (XR) and interfacial rheological measurements, and a self-consistent field (SCF) theoretical analysis) was performed on air-water monolayers formed by a PLGA-PEG diblock copolymer and also by a nonglassy analogue of this diblock copolymer, poly((D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid-ran-caprolactone)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGACL-PEG). The combined results of this study show that the two mechanisms, i.e., the glass transition of the collapsed PLGA film and the lateral repulsion of the PEG brush chains that occur simultaneously under lateral compression of the monolayer, are both responsible for the observed PLGA-PEG isotherm behavior. Upon cessation of compression, the high surface pressure of the PLGA-PEG monolayer typically relaxes over time with a stretched exponential decay, suggesting that in this diblock copolymer situation, the hydrophobic domain formed by the PLGA blocks undergoes glass transition in the high lateral compression state, analogously to the PLGA homopolymer monolayer. In the high PEG grafting density regime, the contribution of the PEG brush chains to the high monolayer surface pressure is significantly lower than what is predicted by the SCF model because of the many-body attraction among PEG segments (referred to in the literature as the "n-cluster" effects). The end-grafted PEG chains were found to be protein resistant even under the influence of the "n-cluster" effects.

  15. Zitongdong Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ The Zitongdong Block (Eastern Zitong Block) is located in the northwest of the Sichuan Basin. Tectonically, it is situated in the east part of Zitong Depression, southeast of mid-Longmenshan folded and faulted belt( as shown on Fig. 8 ), covering an area of 1 730 km2. The traffic is very convenient, the No. 108 national highway passes through the north of the block. Topographically, the area belongs to low hilly land at the elevation of 500-700 m.

  16. Cryptanalysis of SIMON Variants with Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alizadeh, Javad; Alkhzaimi, Hoda A.; Aref, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    SIMON is a family of 10 lightweight block ciphers published by Beaulieu et al. from the United States National Security Agency (NSA). A cipher in this family with K-bit key and N-bit block is called SIMONN/K. We present several linear characteristics for reduced-round SIMON32/64 that can be used...... the presented observations do not directly yield an attack, but provide a basis for further analysis for the specific SIMON variant. Finally, we exploit a connection between linear and differential characteristics for SIMON to construct linear characteristics for different variants of reduced-round SIMON. Our...

  17. Human T-cell recognition of synthetic peptides representing conserved and variant sequences from the merozoite surface protein 2 of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theander, T G; Hviid, L; Dodoo, D; Afari, E A; Jensen, J B; Rzepczyk, C M

    1997-06-01

    Merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2) is a malaria vaccine candidate currently undergoing clinical trials. We analyzed the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) response to synthetic peptides corresponding to conserved and variant regions of the FCQ-27 allelic form of MSP2 in Ghanaian individuals from an area of hyperendemic malaria transmission and in Danes without exposure to malaria. PBMC from 20-39% of Ghanaians responded to each of the peptides by proliferation and 29-36% had PBMC which produced interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in response to peptide stimulation. In Danes, there was no proliferation to two of the peptides and only PBMC from 5% of the individuals proliferated to the other three peptides. IFN-gamma production was not detected to any peptide. In both Danes and Ghanaians in only a few instances was IL-4 detected in the PBMC cultures. Overall PBMC from 79% of the Ghanaians responded by proliferation and/or cytokine secretion to at least one of three peptides tested, whereas responses were only observed in 14% of Danes (P = 0.002). These data suggest that the Ghanaians had expanded peripheral blood T-cell populations recognizing the peptides as a result of natural infection. The findings are encouraging for the development of a vaccine based on these T-epitope containing regions of MSP2, as the peptides were broadly recognized suggesting that they can bind to diverse HLA alleles and also because they include conserved MSP2 sequences. Immunisation with a vaccine construct incorporating the sequences present in these peptides could thus be expected to be immunogenic in a high percentage of individuals and lead to the establishment of memory T-cells, which can be boosted through natural infection.

  18. The microRNAs in an ancient protist repress the variant-specific surface protein expression by targeting the entire coding sequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashesh A Saraiya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNA have been detected in the deeply branched protist, Giardia lamblia, and shown to repress expression of the family of variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs, only one of which is expressed in Giardia trophozoite at a given time. Three next-generation sequencing libraries of Giardia Argonaute-associated small RNAs were constructed and analyzed. Analysis of the libraries identified a total of 99 new putative miRNAs with a size primarily in the 26 nt range similar to the size previously predicted by the Giardia Dicer crystal structure and identified by our own studies. Bioinformatic analysis identified multiple putative miRNA target sites in the mRNAs of all 73 VSPs. The effect of miRNA target sites within a defined 3'-region were tested on two vsp mRNAs. All the miRNAs showed partial repression of the corresponding vsp expression and were additive when the targeting sites were separately located. But the combined repression still falls short of 100%. Two other relatively short vsp mRNAs with 15 and 11 putative miRNA target sites identified throughout their ORFs were tested with their corresponding miRNAs. The results indicate that; (1 near 100% repression of vsp mRNA expression can be achieved through the combined action of multiple miRNAs on target sites located throughout the ORF; (2 the miRNA machinery could be instrumental in repressing the expression of vsp genes in Giardia; (3 this is the first time that all the miRNA target sites in the entire ORF of a mRNA have been tested and shown to be functional.

  19. Wind-tunnel experiments of turbulent flow over a surface-mounted 2-D block in a thermally-stratified boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Markfort, Corey; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    Turbulent flows over complex surface topography have been of great interest in the atmospheric science and wind engineering communities. The geometry of the topography, surface roughness and temperature characteristics as well as the atmospheric thermal stability play important roles in determining momentum and scalar flux distribution. Studies of turbulent flow over simplified topography models, under neutrally stratified boundary-layer conditions, have provided insights into fluid dynamics. However, atmospheric thermal stability has rarely been considered in laboratory experiments, e.g., wind-tunnel experiments. Series of wind-tunnel experiments of thermally-stratified boundary-layer flow over a surface-mounted 2-D block, in a well-controlled boundary-layer wind tunnel, will be presented. Measurements using high-resolution PIV, x-wire/cold-wire anemometry and surface heat flux sensors were conducted to quantify the turbulent flow properties, including the size of the recirculation zone, coherent vortex structures and the subsequent boundary layer recovery. Results will be shown to address thermal stability effects on momentum and scalar flux distribution in the wake, as well as dominant mechanism of turbulent kinetic energy generation and consumption. The authors gratefully acknowledge funding from the Swiss National Foundation (Grant 200021-132122), the National Science Foundation (Grant ATM-0854766) and NASA (Grant NNG06GE256).

  20. A poly(acrylic acid)-block-poly(L-glutamic acid) diblock copolymer with improved cell adhesion for surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bin; Yan, Shifeng; Zhang, Kunxi; Song, Zhijiang; Cao, Tian; Chen, Xuesi; Cui, Lei; Yin, Jingbo

    2011-07-07

    A novel PAA-b-PLGA diblock copolymer is synthesized and characterized that has excellent cell adhesion and biocompatibility. Fluorescent DiO labeling is used to monitor the attachment and growth of hASCs on the film surface, and cell proliferation over time is studied. Results show that PLLA modified by a CS/PAA-b-PLGA multilayer film can promote the attachment of human hASCs and provide an advantageous environment for their proliferation. The multilayer film presents excellent biocompatibility and cell adhesive properties, which will provide a new choice for improving the cell attachment in surface modification for tissue engineering. Hydroxyl, carboxyl and amine groups in the CS/PAA-b-PLGA multilayer film may be combined with drugs and growth factors for therapy and differentiation.

  1. Zitongxi Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Zitongxi Block (Western Zitong Block), is located in Zitong County, northwest of Sichuan Province (as shown on Fig. 8 ). Geologically. it is situated in the Zitong Depression, southwest of the middle Longmenshan faulted and folded belt, covering an area of 1 830 km2. Transportation is very convenient. A crisscross network of highways run through the block and the Baocheng railway is nearby. The climate is moderate. Most area belongs to hilly land with the elevation of 500-600 m.The Tongjiang River runs across the area.

  2. Chengzikou Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Chengzikou Block is located in the north of Hekou district, Dongying City, Shandong Province, adjacent to Bohai Bay. It can be geographically divided into three units: onshore, transitional zone and offshore ultrashallow zone, totally covering an area of 470 km2. The southern onshore area is low and gentle in topography;the northern shallow sea is at water depths of 2-8 m below sea level, and the transitional zone occupies more than 60% of the whole block. The climate belongs to temperate zone with seasonal wind. Highways are welldeveloped here, and the traffic is very convenient. The Chengzikou Block is about 80 km away from Dongying City and 290 km from Jinan City in the south. The northern offshore area of the block is 160 km away from Longkou port in the east and only 38 km away in the west from Zhuangxi port.

  3. Longmenshan Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Longmenshan Block is located in Jiange County of Jiangyou City in the northwest of Sichuan Basin. covering an area of 2 628 km2. Geologically, it is situated in the Mid-Longmenshan fault and fold belt, neighbouring Zitong Depression in its southeast. There are mountains surrounding its northwest , the rest area being hilly land,with the elevation of 500-700 m. The BaoCheng railway and the No. 108 highway run through the block, the traffic is very convenient.

  4. Monoclonal antibodies specific for Candida albicans Als3 that immunolabel fungal cells in vitro and in vivo and block adhesion to host surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, David A.; Oh, Soon-Hwan; Zhao, Xiaomin; Zhao, Hongyuan; Hutchins, Jeff T.; Vernachio, John H.; Patti, Joseph M.; Hoyer, Lois L.

    2009-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were raised against the Candida albicans cell-surface glycoprotein Als3 using the N-terminal domain of the protein as the immunogen. ELISA was used to demonstrate the specificity of the MAbs for the Als3 fragment, but not for the corresponding N-terminal domain fragments from other proteins in the Als family. The anti-Als3 MAbs immunolabeled the surface of germ tubes from a diverse collection of wild-type C. albicans isolates, but did not label yeast cells, an als3Δ/als3Δ deletion mutant strain, nor isolates of other Candida species associated with human disease. Als3 was visualized readily in fresh and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded kidney tissue from a murine model of candidiasis. The anti-Als3 MAbs were also useful for immunogold electron microscopy and Western blotting. Both MAbs blocked C. albicans adhesion to vascular endothelial cells and buccal epithelial cells. These versatile MAbs are a valuable addition to the reagents available to study C. albicans cell surface dynamics and interaction of the fungus with host cells. PMID:19427882

  5. Polymer Coatings of Cochlear Implant Electrode Surface - An Option for Improving Electrode-Nerve-Interface by Blocking Fibroblast Overgrowth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Hadler

    Full Text Available Overgrowth of connective tissue and scar formation induced by the electrode array insertion increase the impedance and, thus, diminish the interactions between neural probes as like cochlear implants (CI and the target tissue. Therefore, it is of great clinical interest to modify the carrier material of the electrodes to improve the electrode nerve interface for selective cell adhesion. On one side connective tissue growth needs to be reduced to avoid electrode array encapsulation, on the other side the carrier material should not compromise the interaction with neuronal cells. The present in vitro-study qualitatively and quantitatively characterises the interaction of fibroblasts, glial cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGN with ultrathin poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide (PDMAA, poly(2-ethyloxazoline (PEtOx and poly([2-methacryloyloxyethyl]trimethylammoniumchlorid (PMTA films immobilised onto glass surfaces using a photoreactive anchor layer. The layer thickness and hydrophilicity of the polymer films were characterised by ellipsometric and water contact angle measurement. Moreover the topography of the surfaces was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM. The neuronal and non-neuronal cells were dissociated from spiral ganglions of postnatal rats and cultivated for 48 h on top of the polymer coatings. Immunocytochemical staining of neuronal and intermediary filaments revealed that glial cells predominantly attached on PMTA films, but not on PDMAA and PEtOx monolayers. Hereby, strong survival rates and neurite outgrowth were only found on PMTA, whereas PDMAA and PEtOx coatings significantly reduced the SG neuron survival and neuritogenesis. As also shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM SGN strongly survived and retained their differentiated phenotype only on PMTA. In conclusion, survival and neuritogenesis of SGN may be associated with the extent of the glial cell growth. Since PMTA was the only of the polar polymers used in this study

  6. Serodiagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis caused by non-tsetse transmitted Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax parasites using the soluble form of a Trypanozoon variant surface glycoprotein antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzcanga, Graciela L; Pérez-Rojas, Yenis; Camargo, Rocío; Izquier, Adriana; Noda, José A; Chacín, Ronny; Parra, Nereida; Ron, Lenin; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Bubis, José

    2016-03-15

    Previous studies have shown that a 64-kDa antigen (p64) that was purified from the Venezuelan TeAp-N/D1 isolate of Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) equiperdum corresponds to the soluble form of its predominant variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), and exhibited cross-reactivity with Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax. The course of experimental acute infections of bovines with T. vivax were followed by measuring whole anti-p64 antibodies and specific anti-p64 IgG and IgM antibodies in animal sera by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The value of p64 to diagnose bovine trypanosomosis was also examined using 350 sera from healthy and T. vivax-infected cows living in a trypanosomosis-endemic and enzootic stable area, and 48 sera obtained during a trypanosomosis outbreak. Serological assays showed that ∼ 70-80% of the infected sera contained anti-p64 antibodies, based on the comparative immunodetection of the T. equiperdum clarified antigenic fraction used as a reference test. In the absence of a gold standard, Bayesian analysis for multiple testing estimated a sensitivity and specificity of 71.6% and 98.8%, respectively, for the indirect ELISA using p64 as antigen. An apparent prevalence of 37.7% for bovine trypanosomosis infection was also estimated with a Bayesian approach when the p64 ELISA test was used. Employing blood from acute infected cows, the indirect ELISA response against p64 was contrasted with the microhematocrit centrifuge method and analyses by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers targeting the inter-specific length variation of the internal transcribed spacer 1 region of the 18S ribosomal gene. The efficiency of p64 for the detection of anti-trypanosome antibodies in acute infected bovines was also corroborated serologically by comparing its response to that of the Indonesian Trypanosoma evansi Rode Trypanozoon antigen type (RoTat) 1.2 VSG, which possesses high specificity and sensitivity. As expected, PCR was the best

  7. Comparative molecular surface analysis (CoMSA) for virtual combinatorial library screening of styrylquinoline HIV-1 blocking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedbala, Halina; Polanski, Jaroslaw; Gieleciak, Rafal; Musiol, Robert; Tabak, Dominik; Podeszwa, Barbara; Bak, Andrzej; Palka, Anna; Mouscadet, Jean-Francois; Gasteiger, Johann; Le Bret, Marc

    2006-12-01

    We used comparative molecular surface analysis to design molecules for the synthesis as part of the search for new HIV-1 integrase inhibitors. We analyzed the virtual combinatorial library (VCL) constituted from various moieties of styrylquinoline and styrylquinazoline inhibitors. Since imines can be applied in a strategy of dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC), we also tested similar compounds in which the -C=N- or -N=C- linker connected the heteroaromatic and aromatic moieties. We then used principal component analysis (PCA) or self-organizing maps (SOM), namely, the Kohonen neural networks to obtain a clustering plot analyzing the diversity of the VCL formed. Previously synthesized compounds of known activity, used as molecular probes, were projected onto this plot, which provided a set of promising virtual drugs. Moreover, we further modified the above mentioned VCL to include the single bond linker -C-N- or -N-C-. This allowed increasing compound stability but expanded also the diversity between the available molecular probes and virtual targets. The application of the CoMSA with SOM indicated important differences between such compounds and active molecular probes. We synthesized such compounds to verify the computational predictions.

  8. Superparamagnetic Ironoxide Nanoparticles via Ligand Exchange Reactions: Organic 1,2-Diols as Versatile Building Blocks for Surface Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sachsenhofer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A method for the preparation of ligand-covered superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles via exchange reactions is described. 1,2-diol-ligands are used to provide a stable binding of the terminally modified organic ligands onto the surface of γ-Fe2O3-nanoparticles (r∼4 nm. The 1,2-diol-ligands are equipped with variable terminal functional groups (i.e., hydrogen bonding moieties, azido- bromo-, fluorescent moieties and can be easily prepared via osmium tetroxide-catalyzed 1,2-dihydroxylation reactions of the corresponding terminal alkenes. Starting from octylamine-covered Î��-Fe2O3-nanoparticles, ligand exchange was effected at 50∘C over 24–48 hours, whereupon complete ligand exchange is taking place as proven by thermogravimetric (TGA- and IR-spectroscopic measurements. A detailed kinetic analysis of the ligand exchange reaction was performed via TGA analysis, demonstrating a complete ligand exchange after 24 hours. The method offers a simple approach for the generation of various γ-Fe2O3-nanoparticles with functional organic shells in a one-step procedure.

  9. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-03-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  10. Chadong Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ The Chadong Block, located in the east of Qaidam Basin, Qinghai Province, covers an area of 12 452 km2. It is bounded by Kunlum Mountains in the south and the northwest is closely adjacent to Aimunike Mountain.Rivers are widely distributed, which always run in NWSE direction, including the Sulunguole, Qaidam and Haluwusu Rivers. The traffic condition is good, the Qinghai-Tibet highway stretching through the whole area and the Lan-Qing railway, 20-50 km away from the block, passing from north to west. A lot of Mongolia minority people have settled there, of which herdsmen always live nearby the Qaidam River drainage area.

  11. Surface modification of paclitaxel-loaded tri-block copolymer PLGA- b-PEG- b-PLGA nanoparticles with protamine for liver cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nansha; Chen, Zhihong; Xiao, Xiaojun; Ruan, Changshun; Mei, Lin; Liu, Zhigang; Zeng, Xiaowei

    2015-08-01

    In order to enhance the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy on liver cancer, a biodegradable formulation of protamine-modified paclitaxel-loaded poly(lactide- co-glycolide)- b-poly(ethylene glycol)- b-poly(lactide- co-glycolide) (PLGA- b-PEG- b-PLGA) nanoparticles (PTX-loaded/protamine NPs) was prepared. Tri-block copolymer PLGA- b-PEG- b-PLGA was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography. PTX-loaded and PTX-loaded/protamine NPs were characterized in terms of size, size distribution, zeta potential, surface morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency, and drug release. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that coumarin 6-loaded/protamine NPs were internalized by hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. The cellular uptake efficiency of NPs was obviously elevated after protamine modification. With commercial formulation Taxol® as the reference, HepG2 cells were also used to study the cytotoxicity of the NPs. PTX-loaded/protamine NPs exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity than PTX-loaded NPs and Taxol® did. All the results suggested that surface modification of PTX-loaded PLGA- b-PEG- b-PLGA NPs with protamine boosted the therapeutic efficacy on liver cancer.

  12. Surface modification of paclitaxel-loaded tri-block copolymer PLGA-b-PEG-b-PLGA nanoparticles with protamine for liver cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Nansha [Chinese Academy of Science, Research Center for Human Tissues and Organs Degeneration, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology (China); Chen, Zhihong [Guangdong Medical College, Analysis Centre (China); Xiao, Xiaojun [Shenzhen University, Institute of Allergy and Immunology, School of Medicine (China); Ruan, Changshun [Chinese Academy of Science, Research Center for Human Tissues and Organs Degeneration, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology (China); Mei, Lin [Tsinghua University, The Shenzhen Key Lab of Gene and Antibody Therapy, and Division of Life and Health Sciences, Graduate School at Shenzhen (China); Liu, Zhigang, E-mail: lzg@szu.edu.cn [Shenzhen University, Institute of Allergy and Immunology, School of Medicine (China); Zeng, Xiaowei, E-mail: zeng.xiaowei@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University, The Shenzhen Key Lab of Gene and Antibody Therapy, and Division of Life and Health Sciences, Graduate School at Shenzhen (China)

    2015-08-15

    In order to enhance the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy on liver cancer, a biodegradable formulation of protamine-modified paclitaxel-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA-b-PEG-b-PLGA) nanoparticles (PTX-loaded/protamine NPs) was prepared. Tri-block copolymer PLGA-b-PEG-b-PLGA was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and characterized by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography. PTX-loaded and PTX-loaded/protamine NPs were characterized in terms of size, size distribution, zeta potential, surface morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency, and drug release. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that coumarin 6-loaded/protamine NPs were internalized by hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. The cellular uptake efficiency of NPs was obviously elevated after protamine modification. With commercial formulation Taxol{sup ®} as the reference, HepG2 cells were also used to study the cytotoxicity of the NPs. PTX-loaded/protamine NPs exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity than PTX-loaded NPs and Taxol{sup ®} did. All the results suggested that surface modification of PTX-loaded PLGA-b-PEG-b-PLGA NPs with protamine boosted the therapeutic efficacy on liver cancer.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of a poly(dimethylsiloxane)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymer for fabrication of amphiphilic surfaces on microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasner, Scott A; Metto, Eve C; Roman, Gregory T; Culbertson, Christopher T

    2009-09-01

    A poly(dimethylsiloxane)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PDMS-PEO) vinyl terminated block copolymer has been synthesized via a simple hydrosilylation reaction between hydride-terminated PDMS and PEO divinyl ether. This prepolymer can be subsequently cross-linked into an elastomer in a second hydrosilylation reaction involving a methylhydrosiloxane-dimethylsiloxane copolymer, forming a material suitable for the purposes of fabricating microfluidic devices. The presence of the PEO block in the prepolymer chain results in a much more hydrophilic material following cross-linking. The surface water contact angle of the PDMS-PEO material is 65 degrees +/- 3 (n = 6), as opposed to approximately 110 degrees for native PDMS. Droplets of water straddled by air within molded channels of the PDMS-PEO are concave in shape with contact angles where the fluid meets the side walls of 32 degrees +/- 4 (n = 8), while droplets in PDMS microchannels are more convex with contact angles of 95 degrees +/- 6 (n = 6). The length of the PDMS-PEO prepolymer chain and the multifunctional hydride cross-linker chains appear to dictate the durability of the elastomeric material. Young's modulus measurements yielded values of 0.94 +/- 0.08, 2.6 +/- 0.8, and 1.91 +/- 0.06 MPa for a [5% vinyl excess prepolymer and 10-fold excess of cross-linker], [10% vinyl excess prepolymer and 5-fold excess of cross-linker], and 10:1 PDMS, respectively, confirming that the elasticity of the cross-linked PDMS-PEO is similar to that of PDMS (Sylgard 184:10:1 mixture of elastomeric base to elastomer curing agent). The PDMS-PEO material still possesses enough PDMS character to allow molded channel architectures to be sealed between two pieces of the block copolymer by conformal contact. As a result of the more hydrophilic nature of the material, the channels of devices fabricated from this polymer are self-filling when using aqueous buffers, making it more user-friendly than PDMS for applications calling for background

  14. Surface chemical immobilization of parylene C with thermosensitive block copolymer brushes based on N-isopropylacrylamide and N-tert-butylacrylamide: synthesis, characterization, and cell adhesion/detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changhong; Vernier, P Thomas; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Yang, Wangrong; Thompson, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM), poly(N-tert-butylacrylamide) (pNTBAM), and their copolymer brushes were covalently immobilized onto parylene C (PC) surfaces via surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Contact angle measurement between 13 and 40°C showed that the hydrophobicity of the modified PC surfaces was thermally sensitive. Among these samples, PC grafted with pNIPAM (PC-NI), PC grafted with pNTBAM (PC-NT) and PC grafted with copolymer brushes containing pNTBAM and pNIPAM (PC-NT-NI) exhibited the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at 29, 22, and 24°C, respectively. Cytocompatibility study for the modified surfaces was performed by 5 days human skin fibroblast culture at 37°C. Data showed that only a very small amount of cells adhered on the PC and PC-NI surfaces, while a significantly higher amount of cell adhesion and growth was observed on PC-NT and PC-NT-NI surfaces. Furthermore, cell detachment at the temperatures of 24 and 6°C were studied after the substrates were cultured with cells at 37°C for 24 h. The results showed that the cells on PC-NI formed the aggregations and loosely attached on the substrate after 30-min culture at 24°C, while no significant cell detachment was observed for PC-NT and PC-NT-NI samples at this temperature. By continuing the cell culture for additional 100 min at 6°C for PC-NT and PC-NT-NI, about 10 and 35% of the cells were found detached respectively, and the unattached cells aggregated on the substrate. In comparison, cells cultured on the tissue culture petri dish (TCP) exhibited no quantity and morphology changes at the culture temperatures of 37, 24, and 6°C. This study showed that: (1) immobilization of PC with nonthermal sensitive pNTBAM could provide PC surface thermal sensitive hydrophilicity; (2) the chlorines on the polymer brushes of PC-NT could be used to further initiate the ATRP pNIPAM and form block copolymer brushes; (3) the incorporation of pNTBAM into pNIPAM on PC

  15. Development of Blocked-Impurity-Band-Type Ge Detectors Fabricated with the Surface-Activated Wafer Bonding Method for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, M.; Kaneda, H.; Oyabu, S.; Yamagishi, M.; Hattori, Y.; Ukai, S.; Shichi, K.; Wada, T.; Suzuki, T.; Watanabe, K.; Nagase, K.; Baba, S.; Kochi, C.

    2016-07-01

    We report the current status of the development of our new detectors for far-infrared (FIR) astronomy. We develop Blocked-Impurity-Band (BIB)-type Ge detectors to realize large-format compact arrays covering a wide FIR wavelength range up to 200 \\upmu m. We fabricated Ge junction devices of different physical parameters with a BIB-type structure, using the room temperature, surface-activated wafer bonding (SAB) method. We measured the absolute responsivity and the spectral response curve of each device at low temperatures, using an internal blackbody source in a cryostat and a Fourier transform spectrometer, respectively. The results show that the SAB Ge junction devices have significantly higher absolute responsivities and longer cut-off wavelengths of the spectral response than the conventional bulk Ge:Ga device. Based upon the results, we discuss the optimum parameters of SAB Ge junction devices for FIR detectors. We conclude that SAB Ge junction devices possess a promising applicability to next-generation FIR detectors covering wavelengths up to ˜ 200 \\upmu m with high responsivity. As a next step, we plan to fabricate a BIB-type Ge array device in combination with a low-power cryogenic readout integrated circuit.

  16. Block-Localized Density Functional Theory (BLDFT), Diabatic Coupling, and Their Use in Valence Bond Theory for Representing Reactive Potential Energy Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembran, Alessandro; Song, Lingchun; Mo, Yirong; Gao, Jiali

    2009-10-13

    A multistate density functional theory in the framework of the valence bond model is described. The method is based on a block-localized density functional theory (BLDFT) for the construction of valence-bond-like diabatic electronic states and is suitable for the study of electron transfer reactions and for the representation of reactive potential energy surfaces. The method is equivalent to a valence bond theory with the treatment of the localized configurations by using density functional theory (VBDFT). In VBDFT, the electron densities and energies of the valence bond states are determined by BLDFT. A functional estimate of the off-diagonal matrix elements of the VB Hamiltonian is proposed, making use of the overlap integral between Kohn-Sham determinants and the exchange-correlation functional for the ground state substituted with the transition (exchange) density. In addition, we describe an approximate approach, in which the off-diagonal matrix element is computed by wave function theory using block-localized Kohn-Sham orbitals. The key feature is that the electron density of the adiabatic ground state is not directly computed nor used to obtain the ground-state energy; the energy is determined by diagonalization of the multistate valence bond Hamiltonian. This represents a departure from the standard single-determinant Kohn-Sham density functional theory. The multistate VBDFT method is illustrated by the bond dissociation of H2+ and a set of three nucleophilic substitution reactions in the DBH24 database. In the dissociation of H2+, the VBDFT method yields the correct asymptotic behavior as the two protons stretch to infinity, whereas approximate functionals fail badly. For the S(N)2 nucleophilic substitution reactions, the hybrid functional B3LYP severely underestimates the barrier heights, while the approximate two-state VBDFT method overcomes the self-interaction error, and overestimates the barrier heights. Inclusion of the ionic state in a three

  17. Hierarchical self-assembly of spider silk-like block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaji, Sreevidhya; Huang, Wenwen; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David

    2011-03-01

    Block copolymers provide an attractive venue to study well-defined nano-structures that self-assemble to generate functionalized nano- and mesoporous materials. In the present study, a novel family of spider silk-like block copolymers was designed, bioengineered and characterized to study the impact of sequence chemistry, secondary structure and block length on assembled morphology. Genetic variants of native spider dragline silk (major ampullate spidroin I, Nephila clavipes) were used as polymer building blocks. Characterization by FTIR revealed increased ?-sheet content with increasing hydrophobic A blocks; SEM revealed spheres, rod-like structures, bowl-shaped and giant compound micelles. Langmuir Blodgett monolayers were prepared at the air-water interface at different surface pressures and monolayer films analyzed by AFM revealed oblate to prolate structures. Circular micelles, rod-like, densely packed circular structures were observed for HBA6 at increasing surface pressure. Exploiting hierarchical assembly provide a promising approach to rationale designs of protein block copolymer systems, allowing comparison to traditional synthetic systems.

  18. Natural acquired inhibitory antibodies to Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP-II) equally block erythrocyte binding of homologous and heterologous expressed PvDBP-II on the surface of COS-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Vahideh; Zakeri, Sedigheh; Mehrizi, Akram A; Mirkazemi, Sedigheh; Djadid, Navid D

    2016-02-01

    The binding domain of Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP-II) is a promising blood-stage vaccine candidate for vivax malaria. For the development of a successful vivax malaria vaccine based on DBP-II, the antigenic diversity and also naturally occurring functional antibodies to different PvDBP-II variant types in the various populations must be determined. However, similar to other blood-stage antigens, allelic variation within the PvDBP-II is a fundamental challenge for the development of a broadly efficient vaccine. The present study was performed to define whether the polymorphisms in PvDBP-II influence the nature of functional inhibitory activity of naturally acquired or induced anti-DBP-II antibodies in mice. In this investigation, five genetically distinct variants of PvDBP-II were transiently expressed on the COS-7 cell surface. Erythrocyte-binding inhibition assay (EBIA) was performed using human sera infected with corresponding and non-corresponding P. vivax variants as well as by the use of mice sera immunized with different expressed recombinant PvDBP-IIs. EBIA results showed that the inhibitory percentage varied between 50 and 63 % by using sera from infected individuals, and in case of mouse antisera, inhibition was in the range of 76-86 %. Interestingly, no significant difference was detected in red blood cell binding inhibition when different PvDBP-II variants on the COS-7 cell surfaces were incubated with heterologous and homologous sera infected with PvDBP-II variants. This suggests that the detected polymorphisms in all five forms of PvDBP-II may not affect functional activity of anti-DBP-II antibodies. In conclusion, our results revealed that there are functional cross-reactive antibody responses to heterologous PvDBP-II variants that might provide a broader inhibitory response against all, or at least the majority of strains compared to single allele of this protein that should be considered in development of PvDBP-II-based vaccine.

  19. Large Block Test Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, W

    2001-12-01

    This report documents the Large-Block Test (LBT) conducted at Fran Ridge near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The LBT was a thermal test conducted on an exposed block of middle non-lithophysal Topopah Spring tuff (Tptpmn) and was designed to assist in understanding the thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes associated with heating and then cooling a partially saturated fractured rock mass. The LBT was unique in that it was a large (3 x 3 x 4.5 m) block with top and sides exposed. Because the block was exposed at the surface, boundary conditions on five of the six sides of the block were relatively well known and controlled, making this test both easier to model and easier to monitor. This report presents a detailed description of the test as well as analyses of the data and conclusions drawn from the test. The rock block that was tested during the LBT was exposed by excavation and removal of the surrounding rock. The block was characterized and instrumented, and the sides were sealed and insulated to inhibit moisture and heat loss. Temperature on the top of the block was also controlled. The block was heated for 13 months, during which time temperature, moisture distribution, and deformation were monitored. After the test was completed and the block cooled down, a series of boreholes were drilled, and one of the heater holes was over-cored to collect samples for post-test characterization of mineralogy and mechanical properties. Section 2 provides background on the test. Section 3 lists the test objectives and describes the block site, the site configuration, and measurements made during the test. Section 3 also presents a chronology of events associated with the LBT, characterization of the block, and the pre-heat analyses of the test. Section 4 describes the fracture network contained in the block. Section 5 describes the heating/cooling system used to control the temperature in the block and presents the thermal history of the block during the test

  20. Girlhood, Sexual Violence, and Agency in Francesca Lia Block's "Wolf"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the representation of adolescent girlhood, sexual violence and agency in Francesca Lia Block's contemporary fairy tale collection "The Rose and The Beast." Focusing specifically on the tale "Wolf," the author provides a literary analysis of how Block draws on and reworks traditional Western fairy tale variants to reintroduce…

  1. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  2. Modeling Np and Pu transport with a surface complexation model and spatially variant sorption capacities: Implications for reactive transport modeling and performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P.D.

    2003-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) geochemical transport modeling is used to demonstrate the effects of speciation and sorption reactions on the ground-water transport of Np and Pu, two redox-sensitive elements. Earlier 1D simulations (Reardon, 1981) considered the kinetically limited dissolution of calcite and its effect on ion-exchange reactions (involving 90Sr, Ca, Na, Mg and K), and documented the spatial variation of a 90Sr partition coefficient under both transient and steady-state chemical conditions. In contrast, the simulations presented here assume local equilibrium for all reactions, and consider sorption on constant potential, rather than constant charge, surfaces. Reardon's (1981) seminal findings on the spatial and temporal variability of partitioning (of 90Sr) are reexamined and found partially caused by his assumption of a kinetically limited reaction. In the present work, sorption is assumed the predominant retardation process controlling Pu and Np transport, and is simulated using a diffuse-double-layer-surface-complexation (DDLSC) model. Transport simulations consider the infiltration of Np- and Pu-contaminated waters into an initially uncontaminated environment, followed by the cleanup of the resultant contamination with uncontaminated water. Simulations are conducted using different spatial distributions of sorption capacities (with the same total potential sorption capacity, but with different variances and spatial correlation structures). Results obtained differ markedly from those that would be obtained in transport simulations using constant Kd, Langmuir or Freundlich sorption models. When possible, simulation results (breakthrough curves) are fitted to a constant K d advection-dispersion transport model and compared. Functional differences often are great enough that they prevent a meaningful fit of the simulation results with a constant K d (or even a Langmuir or Freundlich) model, even in the case of Np, a weakly sorbed radionuclide under the

  3. Down-regulation of complement receptors on the surface of host monocyte even as in vitro complement pathway blocking interferes in dengue infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Cintia Ferreira; Azeredo, Elzinandes Leal; Torrentes-Carvalho, Amanda; Marins-Dos-Santos, Alessandro; Kubelka, Claire Fernandes; de Souza, Luiz José; Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio; de-Oliveira-Pinto, Luzia Maria

    2014-01-01

    In dengue virus (DENV) infection, complement system (CS) activation appears to have protective and pathogenic effects. In severe dengue fever (DF), the levels of DENV non-structural-1 protein and of the products of complement activation, including C3a, C5a and SC5b-9, are higher before vascular leakage occurs, supporting the hypothesis that complement activation contributes to unfavourable outcomes. The clinical manifestations of DF range from asymptomatic to severe and even fatal. Here, we aimed to characterise CS by their receptors or activation product, in vivo in DF patients and in vitro by DENV-2 stimulation on monocytes. In comparison with healthy controls, DF patients showed lower expression of CR3 (CD11b), CR4 (CD11c) and, CD59 on monocytes. The DF patients who were high producers of SC5b-9 were also those that showed more pronounced bleeding or vascular leakage. Those findings encouraged us to investigate the role of CS in vitro, using monocytes isolated from healthy subjects. Prior blocking with CR3 alone (CD11b) or CR3 (CD11b/CD18) reduced viral infection, as quantified by the levels of intracellular viral antigen expression and soluble DENV non-structural viral protein. However, we found that CR3 alone (CD11b) or CR3 (CD11b/CD18) blocking did not influence major histocompatibility complex presentation neither active caspase-1 on monocytes, thus probably ruling out inflammasome-related mechanisms. Although it did impair the secretion of tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon alpha. Our data provide strategies of blocking CR3 (CD11b) pathways could have implications for the treatment of viral infection by antiviral-related mechanisms.

  4. Down-regulation of complement receptors on the surface of host monocyte even as in vitro complement pathway blocking interferes in dengue infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Ferreira Marinho

    Full Text Available In dengue virus (DENV infection, complement system (CS activation appears to have protective and pathogenic effects. In severe dengue fever (DF, the levels of DENV non-structural-1 protein and of the products of complement activation, including C3a, C5a and SC5b-9, are higher before vascular leakage occurs, supporting the hypothesis that complement activation contributes to unfavourable outcomes. The clinical manifestations of DF range from asymptomatic to severe and even fatal. Here, we aimed to characterise CS by their receptors or activation product, in vivo in DF patients and in vitro by DENV-2 stimulation on monocytes. In comparison with healthy controls, DF patients showed lower expression of CR3 (CD11b, CR4 (CD11c and, CD59 on monocytes. The DF patients who were high producers of SC5b-9 were also those that showed more pronounced bleeding or vascular leakage. Those findings encouraged us to investigate the role of CS in vitro, using monocytes isolated from healthy subjects. Prior blocking with CR3 alone (CD11b or CR3 (CD11b/CD18 reduced viral infection, as quantified by the levels of intracellular viral antigen expression and soluble DENV non-structural viral protein. However, we found that CR3 alone (CD11b or CR3 (CD11b/CD18 blocking did not influence major histocompatibility complex presentation neither active caspase-1 on monocytes, thus probably ruling out inflammasome-related mechanisms. Although it did impair the secretion of tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon alpha. Our data provide strategies of blocking CR3 (CD11b pathways could have implications for the treatment of viral infection by antiviral-related mechanisms.

  5. Hemoglobin Variants in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, Raymond A.

    1965-04-22

    Variability among mammalian hemoglobins was observed many years ago (35). The chemical basis for differences among hemoglobins from different species of mammals has been studied by several investigators (5, 11, 18, 48). As well as interspecies differences, hemoglobin variants are frequently found within a species of mammals (2, 3, 7, 16) The inheritance of these intraspecies variants can be studied, and pedigrees indicate that the type of hemoglobin synthesized in an individual is genetically controlled (20). Several of the variant human hemoglobins are f'unctionally deficient (7, 16). Such hemoglobin anomalies are of basic interest to man because of the vital role of hemoglobin for transporting oxygen to all tissues of the body.

  6. 抗水牛伊氏锥虫变异表面糖蛋白抗原单克隆抗体的研制%Preparation of Monoclonal Antibody against Variant Surface Glucoprotein Antigen of Trypanosoma evansi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾晓飞; 陈汉忠; 韦英益; 何木荣; 李晓栩

    2009-01-01

    用纯化的伊氏锥虫变异表面糖蛋白(variant surface glucoprotein,VSG)免疫BALB/c小鼠,取免疫小鼠脾细胞与SP2/0骨髓瘤细胞进行融合,经过3次克隆和间接ELISA方法筛选,获得3D7、5B9 2株稳定分泌单克隆抗体的杂交瘤细胞株,用间接ELISA方法检测杂交瘤细胞培养液上清效价和小鼠腹水效价,其中细胞培养上清效价分别为1:6400和1:12800,腹水效价分别为1:105和1:106.单抗的亚型鉴定结果表明,3D7、5B9分泌的抗体都为IgG1亚类κ链.

  7. Plasma antibodies from malaria-exposed pregnant women recognize variant surface antigens on Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in a parity-dependent manner and block parasite adhesion to chondroitin sulfate A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricke, C H; Staalsoe, T; Koram, K;

    2000-01-01

    In areas of intense Plasmodium falciparum transmission, clinical immunity is acquired during childhood, and adults enjoy substantial protection against malaria. An exception to this rule is pregnant women, in whom malaria is both more prevalent and severe than in nonpregnant women. Pregnancy-asso...

  8. Earthquake Resistant Submarine Drydock Block System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    acceleration time history. It Is observed that the block on block surfaces for this system had been painted. According to Rabinowicz (1987) [13J, a...Maryland, 1982, p. 272. 166 13. Rabinowicz , Ernest, Lecture, "Tribology", M.I.T., Course 2.800, Fall 1987. 14. Telephone conversation between Tingley

  9. Reduction of protein adsorption on silica and polysulfone surfaces coated with complex coacervate core micelles with poly(vinyl alcohol) as a neutral brush forming block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brzozowska, A. M.; Zhang, Q.; de Keizer, A.; Norde, W.; Stuart, M. A. Cohen

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the formation and stability of complex coacervate core micelles (C3Ms) in solution, and the influence of C3M coatings on the adsorption of the proteins beta-lactoglobulin (beta-lac), bovine serum albumin (BSA). and lysozyme (Lsz) on silica and polysulfone surfaces. The C3M5 consist o

  10. 用反圆环面刀加工变曲率过渡曲面原理%Principle of machining variant with counter curvature blending surfaces torus cutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄魏; 陈志同; 陈五一; 贺英

    2012-01-01

    基于宽行加工理论和广域曲率吻合原则,提出一种利用圆环面内侧作为刀具工作面的反圆环面刀具宽行加工叶片进排气边的新方法.该方法通过优化刀具摆角使具有定母圆半径刀具工作面的包络面充分逼近叶片进排气边曲面,从而使刀具能在给定的精度范围内以最大行宽和最少刀轨行数加工出进排气边.最后,以某型号发动机叶片的进气边为例进行了加工实验.结果表明该方法能够大幅提高进排气边的加工质量,且反圆环面刀的加工行宽比球头刀提高了5倍.%Based on the stripe-width-maximization machining theory and the principle of global curvature fitting, a novel counter torus cutter, which uses the inner surface of torus as the cutting edge, was proposed to machine the leading and trailing edge of a turbine blade. Through optimizing the raw angle of the counter torus cutter with a circular generatrix of given radius, the envelope surface of the tool can closely approximate the leading and trailing edge surface of the turbine blade with variant curvature, which can be machined by maxi- mizing the machining strip width and minimizing the number of tool paths under a given tolerance. An experi- ment to machine the leading and trailing edge of an aero-engine turbine blade was carried out. Results illus- trate that the proposed method could greatly improve the machining quality of the leading and trailing edge, and the machining strip-width using a counter torus cutter is 5 times larger than that using a ball nose cutter.

  11. Migraine Variants And Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Classic presenting features of both migraine with and without aura have been clearly defined. Occasionally however migrainous headaches are accompanied by abrupt appearance of focal and ominous neurological signs. Such attacks can be labelled as migraine variants and the diagnosis in reality is one made by exclusion of other CNS diseases. Some but not all such conditions are mentioned in the International Headache Society (IHS classification under the general heading of migraine with aura. Rarely, the focal neurological deficit may outlast the migraine attack by days and occasionally with appearance of structural brain lesions on neuroimaging. Such attacks have been labelled as complicated Migraine by the IHS. The present review deal with the clinical, radiologic and pathophysiologic aspects of both these conditions - migraine variants and complicated migraine.

  12. Skin delivery by block copolymer nanoparticles (block copolymer micelles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laredj-Bourezg, Faiza; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Pelletier, Jocelyne; Valour, Jean-Pierre; Rovère, Marie-Rose; Smatti, Batoule; Chevalier, Yves

    2015-12-30

    Block copolymer nanoparticles often referred to as "block copolymer micelles" have been assessed as carriers for skin delivery of hydrophobic drugs. Such carriers are based on organic biocompatible and biodegradable materials loaded with hydrophobic drugs: poly(lactide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer (PLA-b-PEG) nanoparticles that have a solid hydrophobic core made of glassy poly(d,l-lactide), and poly(caprolactone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer (PCL-b-PEG) nanoparticles having a liquid core of polycaprolactone. In vitro skin absorption of all-trans retinol showed a large accumulation of retinol in stratum corneum from both block copolymer nanoparticles, higher by a factor 20 than Polysorbate 80 surfactant micelles and by a factor 80 than oil solution. Additionally, skin absorption from PLA-b-PEG nanoparticles was higher by one order of magnitude than PCL-b-PEG, although their sizes (65nm) and external surface (water-swollen PEG layer) were identical as revealed by detailed structural characterizations. Fluorescence microscopy of histological skin sections provided a non-destructive picture of the storage of Nile Red inside stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis. Though particle cores had a different physical states (solid or liquid as measured by (1)H NMR), the ability of nanoparticles for solubilization of the drug assessed from their Hildebrand solubility parameters appeared the parameter of best relevance regarding skin absorption.

  13. Variants of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-15

    Variants of Uncertainty Daniel Kahneman University of British Columbia Amos Tversky Stanford University DTI-C &%E-IECTE ~JUNO 1i 19 8 1j May 15, 1981... Dennett , 1979) in which different parts have ac- cess to different data, assign then different weights and hold different views of the situation...2robable and t..h1 provable. Oxford- Claredor Press, 1977. Dennett , D.C. Brainstorms. Hassocks: Harvester, 1979. Donchin, E., Ritter, W. & McCallum, W.C

  14. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teter, Sarah (Davis, CA); Ward, Connie (Hamilton, MT); Cherry, Joel (Davis, CA); Jones, Aubrey (Davis, CA); Harris, Paul (Carnation, WA); Yi, Jung (Sacramento, CA)

    2011-04-26

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  15. Thin Film Assembly of Spider Silk-like Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Film Assembly of Spider Silk -like Block Copolymers Sreevidhya T. Krishnaji,†,‡ Wenwen Huang,§ Olena Rabotyagova,†,‡ Eugenia Kharlampieva, ) Ikjun Choi...Received November 26, 2010 We report the self-assembly of monolayers of spider silk -like block copolymers. Langmuir isotherms were obtained for a series of...bioengineered variants of the spider silks , and stable monolayers were generated. Langmuir-Blodgett films were prepared by transferring the monolayers

  16. Adenosine and Preexcitation Variants: Reappraisal of Electrocardiographic Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hussam; Lupo, Pierpaolo; Foresti, Sara; De Ambroggi, Guido; Epicoco, Gianluca; Fundaliotis, Angelica; Cappato, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    Intravenous adenosine is a short-acting blocker of the atrioventricular node that has been used to unmask subtle or latent preexcitation, and also to enable catheter ablation in selected patients with absent or intermittent preexcitation. Depending on the accessory pathway characteristics, intravenous adenosine may produce specific electrocardiographic changes highly suggestive of the preexcitation variant. Herein, we view different ECG responses to this pharmacological test in various preexcitation patterns that were confirmed by electrophysiological studies. Careful analysis of electrocardiographic changes during adenosine test, with emphasis on P-delta interval, preexcitation degree, and atrioventricular block, can be helpful to diagnose the preexcitation variant/pattern.

  17. Total Spinal Block after Thoracic Paravertebral Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan; Özocak, Hande; Ergönenç, Tolga; Erdem, Ali Fuat; Palabıyık, Onur

    2014-02-01

    Thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) can be performed with or without general anaesthesia for various surgical procedures. TPVB is a popular anaesthetic technique due to its low side effect profile and high analgesic potency. We used 20 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine for a single injection of unilateral TPVB at the T7 level with neurostimulator in a 63 year old patient with co-morbid disease who underwent cholecystectomy. Following the application patient lost consciousness, and was intubated. Haemodynamic instability was normalised with rapid volume replacement and vasopressors. Anaesthetic drugs were stopped at the end of the surgery and muscle relaxant was antagonised. Return of mucle strenght was shown with neuromuscular block monitoring. Approximately three hours after TPVB, spontaneous breathing started and consciousness returned. A total spinal block is a rare and life-threatening complication. A total spinal block is a complication of spinal anaesthesia, and it can also occur after peripheral blocks. Clinical presentation is characterised by hypotension, bradicardia, apnea, and cardiac arrest. An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is life saving. In this case report, we want to present total spinal block after TPVB.

  18. Generalized Block Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... yield lines around the block leads to simple interaction formulas similar to other interaction formulas in the codes.......Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...

  19. Common susceptibility variants examined for association with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, Evadnie; Kinnamon, Daniel D; Hamilton, Kara; Khuri, Sawsan; Hershberger, Ray E; Martin, Eden R

    2010-03-01

    Rare mutations in more than 20 genes have been suggested to cause dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), but explain only a small percentage of cases, mainly in familial forms. We hypothesised that more common variants may also play a role in increasing genetic susceptibility to DCM, similar to that observed in other common complex disorders. To test this hypothesis, we performed case-control analyses on all DNA polymorphic variation identified in a resequencing study of six candidate DCM genes (CSRP3, LDB3, MYH7, SCN5A, TCAP, and TNNT2) conducted in 289 unrelated white probands with DCM of unknown cause and 188 unrelated white controls. In univariate analyses, we identified associated common variants at LDB3 site 10779, LDB3 site 57877, MYH7 sites 16384 and 17404, and TCAP sites 140 and 1735. Multivariate analyses to examine the joint effects of multiple gene variants confirmed univariate results for MYH7 and TCAP and identified a block of nine variants in MYH7 that was strongly associated with DCM. Common variants in genes known to be causative of DCM may play a role in genetic susceptibility to DCM. Our results suggest that examination of common genetic variants may be warranted in future studies of DCM and other Mendelian-like disorders.

  20. Rare variants in PLXNA4 and Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva C Schulte

    Full Text Available Approximately 20% of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD report a positive family history. Yet, a large portion of causal and disease-modifying variants is still unknown. We used exome sequencing in two affected individuals from a family with late-onset familial PD followed by frequency assessment in 975 PD cases and 1014 ethnically-matched controls and linkage analysis to identify potentially causal variants. Based on the predicted penetrance and the frequencies, a variant in PLXNA4 proved to be the best candidate and PLXNA4 was screened for additional variants in 862 PD cases and 940 controls, revealing an excess of rare non-synonymous coding variants in PLXNA4 in individuals with PD. Although we cannot conclude that the variant in PLXNA4 is indeed the causative variant, these findings are interesting in the light of a surfacing role of axonal guidance mechanisms in neurodegenerative disorders but, at the same time, highlight the difficulties encountered in the study of rare variants identified by next-generation sequencing in diseases with autosomal dominant or complex patterns of inheritance.

  1. Gaussian curvature analysis allows for automatic block placement in multi-block hexahedral meshing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramme, Austin J; Shivanna, Kiran H; Magnotta, Vincent A; Grosland, Nicole M

    2011-10-01

    Musculoskeletal finite element analysis (FEA) has been essential to research in orthopaedic biomechanics. The generation of a volumetric mesh is often the most challenging step in a FEA. Hexahedral meshing tools that are based on a multi-block approach rely on the manual placement of building blocks for their mesh generation scheme. We hypothesise that Gaussian curvature analysis could be used to automatically develop a building block structure for multi-block hexahedral mesh generation. The Automated Building Block Algorithm incorporates principles from differential geometry, combinatorics, statistical analysis and computer science to automatically generate a building block structure to represent a given surface without prior information. We have applied this algorithm to 29 bones of varying geometries and successfully generated a usable mesh in all cases. This work represents a significant advancement in automating the definition of building blocks.

  2. Sialyloligosaccharide receptors of binding variants of polyoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahan, L D; Singh, R; Paulson, J C

    1983-10-30

    Hemagglutination and lytic infection of host cells by polyoma virus has been shown to require specific sialyloligosaccharide structures. The nature of the sialyloligosaccharide sequence recognized by three binding variants of polyoma virus, the large plaque (LP), small plaque (SP), and Py235 variants, was examined. Hemagglutination of native erythrocytes and erythrocytes derivatized with highly specific sialyltransferases to contain cell surface sialyloligosaccharides of defined sequence was compared for the three variants. In addition, soluble glycoprotein inhibitors of known sialyloligosaccharide structure were used to further elucidate the specificities of the three variants. There are important differences in the receptors for these variants. While all three appear to bind the structure NeuAc alpha 2,3Gal beta 1,3GalNAc the LP and Py235 variant bind the disialyl structure NeuAc alpha 2,3Gal beta 1,3(NeuAc alpha 2,6)GalNAc with much lower affinity than does the SP virus. It is suggested that polyoma virus adsorption to cells may depend on the cell surface content of at least three different sialyloligosaccharide sequences and the relative abilities of the virus variant to utilize them as receptor determinants.

  3. Block ground interaction of rockfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkwein, Axel; Gerber, Werner; Kummer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During a rockfall the interaction of the falling block with the ground is one of the most important factors that define the evolution of a rockfall trajectory. It steers the rebound, the rotational movement, possibly brake effects, friction losses and damping effects. Therefore, if most reliable rockfall /trajectory simulation software is sought a good understanding of the block ground interaction is necessary. Today's rockfall codes enable the simulation of a fully 3D modelled block within a full 3D surface . However, the details during the contact, i.e. the contact duration, the penetration depth or the dimension of the marks in the ground are usually not part of the simulation. Recent field tests with rocks between 20 and 80 kg have been conducted on a grassy slope in 2014 [1]. A special rockfall sensor [2] within the blocks measured the rotational velocity and the acting accelerations during the tests. External video records and a so-called LocalPositioningSystem deliver information on the travel velocity. With these data not only the flight phases of the trajectories but also the contacts with the ground can be analysed. During the single jumps of a block the flight time, jump length, the velocity, and the rotation are known. During the single impacts their duration and the acting accelerations are visible. Further, the changes of rotational and translational velocity influence the next jump of the block. The change of the rotational velocity over the whole trajectory nicely visualizes the different phases of a rockfall regarding general acceleration and deceleration in respect to the inclination and the topography of the field. References: [1] Volkwein A, Krummenacher B, Gerber W, Lardon J, Gees F, Brügger L, Ott T (2015) Repeated controlled rockfall trajectory testing. [Abstract] Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17: EGU2015-9779. [2] Volkwein A, Klette J (2014) Semi-Automatic Determination of Rockfall Trajectories. Sensors 14: 18187-18210.

  4. BLOCK H-MATRICES AND SPECTRUM OF BLOCK MATRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄廷祝; 黎稳

    2002-01-01

    The block H-matrices are studied by the concept of G-functions, several concepts of block matrices are introduced. Equivalent characters of block H-matrices are obtained. Spectrum localizations claracterized by Gfunctions for block matrices are got.

  5. Observations on the SIMON Block Cipher Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kölbl, Stefan; Leander, Gregor; Tiessen, Tyge

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the general class of functions underlying the Simon block cipher. In particular, we derive efficiently computable and easily implementable expressions for the exact differential and linear behaviour of Simon-like round functions. Following up on this, we use those...... expressions for a computer aided approach based on SAT/SMT solvers to find both optimal differential and linear characteristics for Simon. Furthermore, we are able to find all characteristics contributing to the probability of a differential for Simon32 and give better estimates for the probability for other...... variants. Finally, we investigate a large set of Simon variants using different rotation constants with respect to their resistance against differential and linear cryptanalysis. Interestingly, the default parameters seem to be not always optimal....

  6. 16α-Hydroxyfriedelin and 3-Oxo-16-methylfriedel-16-ene as Building Blocks: Crystal Structure and Hirshfeld Surfaces Decoding Intermolecular Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo S. Corrêa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the importance of C–H⋯O intermolecular hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces in crystal packing stabilization of 16α-hydroxyfriedelin (1 and 3-oxo-16-methylfriedel-16-ene (2 is described. Compound 1 is a natural product isolated from the hexane extract of Salacia elliptica branches, whereas compound 2 is obtained from compound 1 after dehydration accompanied by methyl migration of C-17 to C-16. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments for 1 and 2 were carried out at 150 K, and the crystallographic study demonstrated that these compounds crystallize in noncentrosymmetric space groups, with 1 showing an orthorhombic P212121 space group and 2 a monoclinic P21 one. Compounds 1 and 2 are composed of five fused six-membered rings presenting a chair conformation, except for the central ring of 2, which adopts a half-chair conformation. In addition, the intra- and intermolecular parameters were studied using CCDC MOGUL analyses and Hirshfeld surfaces.

  7. Block TERM factorization of block matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Yiyuan; HAO Pengwei

    2004-01-01

    Reversible integer mapping (or integer transform) is a useful way to realize Iossless coding, and this technique has been used for multi-component image compression in the new international image compression standard JPEG 2000. For any nonsingular linear transform of finite dimension, its integer transform can be implemented by factorizing the transform matrix into 3 triangular elementary reversible matrices (TERMs) or a series of single-row elementary reversible matrices (SERMs). To speed up and parallelize integer transforms, we study block TERM and SERM factorizations in this paper. First, to guarantee flexible scaling manners, the classical determinant (det) is generalized to a matrix function, DET, which is shown to have many important properties analogous to those of det. Then based on DET, a generic block TERM factorization,BLUS, is presented for any nonsingular block matrix. Our conclusions can cover the early optimal point factorizations and provide an efficient way to implement integer transforms for large matrices.

  8. Giardia intestinalis: conservation of the variant-specific surface protein VSP417-1 (TSA417) and identification of a divergent homologue encoded at a duplicated locus in genetic group II isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ey, P L; Darby, J M

    1998-11-01

    The stability of the gene encoding TSA417, a 72-kDa variant-specific surface protein (VSP) produced by trophozoites of Giardia intestinalis isolate WB-C6, was investigated in isolates of similar (Assemblage A / Group I) or distinct (Assemblage A / Group II) genotype. Using primers specific for the WB-C6 tsa417 gene, DNA amplified in polymerase chain reactions from genomic DNA indicated the presence, in every isolate, of an intact coding sequence possessing conserved restriction sites diagnostic for this locus (herein designated vsp417-1). Sequence analysis of the DNA amplified from the genomes of genetic Group I ("A-I") isolates revealed complete identity with the published WB-C6 tsa417 (vsp417-1(A-I)) sequence. Equivalent products, amplified from the genomes of genetic Group II ("A-II") isolates, similarly yielded an invariant and apparently allelic 2142-bp coding sequence (designated vsp417-1(A-II)) possessing 79% nucleotide identity with vsp417-1(A-I) and polymorphisms unique to Group II organisms. The encoded polypeptides (VSP417-1(A-I) and VSP417-1(A-II)) are identical at 75% of amino acid positions. Substitutions are concentrated within the N-terminal portions of the proteins, but the overall structure of VSP417-1 has changed little during the evolution of the Group I and Group II genotypes from their common clonal ancestor. An additional 0.7-kb DNA, representing a separate locus (vsp417-5) encoding a 22.3-kDa VSP, was amplified from genetic Group II genomes exclusively but only using particular primer combinations. The vsp417-5(A-II) gene exhibits >85% sequence identity with the 5' and 3' segments of vsp417-1(A-I) and vsp417-1(A-II) but it lacks a 1482-bp segment that comprises the central portion of the vsp417-1 locus. Excision of this segment seems to have occurred by intragenic recombination, possibly initiated by a stem loop formed between palindromic sequences which border the 1482-bp segment within vsp417-1 but which are contiguous in vsp417-5(A

  9. Lesson Thirteen Trifascicular Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁端; 王劲

    2005-01-01

    @@ A complete trifascicular block would result in complete AV block. The idio ventricular rhythm has a slower rate and a wide QRS complex because the pacemaker is located at the peripheral part of the conduction system distal to the sites of the block1. Such a rhythm may be difficult to differentiate from bifascicular or bundle branch block combined with complete block at a higher level such as the AV node or His bundle2. Besides a slower ventricular rate, a change in the morphology of the QRS complex from a previous known bifascicular pattern would be strongly suggestive of a trifascicular origin of the complete AV block3. A His bundle recording is required for a definitive diagnosis, however.

  10. Product Variant Master as a Means to Handle Variant Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildre, Hans Petter; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1996-01-01

    The overall time requiered to design a new product variant relies on two factor: how good the methods to design the new variant are and how good these method are supported by computers.It has been estimated that 80% of all design tasks are variational in that the goal of the design is to adapt an...

  11. Variants of windmill nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Dong; Shin, Hae Kyung; Kim, Ji-Soo; Kim, Sung-Hee; Choi, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Zee, David S

    2016-07-01

    Windmill nystagmus is characterized by a clock-like rotation of the beating direction of a jerk nystagmus suggesting separate horizontal and vertical oscillators, usually 90° out of phase. We report oculographic characteristics in three patients with variants of windmill nystagmus in whom the common denominator was profound visual loss due to retinal diseases. Two patients showed a clock-like pattern, while in the third, the nystagmus was largely diagonal (in phase or 180° out of phase) but also periodically changed direction by 180°. We hypothesize that windmill nystagmus is a unique manifestation of "eye movements of the blind." It emerges when the central structures, including the cerebellum, that normally keep eye movements calibrated and gaze steady can no longer perform their task, because they are deprived of the retinal image motion that signals a need for adaptive recalibration.

  12. Exome Sequencing Identifies Compound Heterozygous Mutations in SCN5A Associated with Congenital Complete Heart Block in the Thai Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuphong Thongnak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital heart block is characterized by blockage of electrical impulses from the atrioventricular node (AV node to the ventricles. This blockage can be caused by ion channel impairment that is the result of genetic variation. This study aimed to investigate the possible causative variants in a Thai family with complete heart block by using whole exome sequencing. Methods. Genomic DNA was collected from a family consisting of five family members in three generations in which one of three children in generation III had complete heart block. Whole exome sequencing was performed on one complete heart block affected child and one unaffected sibling. Bioinformatics was used to identify annotated and filtered variants. Candidate variants were validated and the segregation analysis of other family members was performed. Results. This study identified compound heterozygous variants, c.101G>A and c.3832G>A, in the SCN5A gene and c.28730C>T in the TTN gene. Conclusions. Compound heterozygous variants in the SCN5A gene were found in the complete heart block affected child but these two variants were found only in the this affected sibling and were not found in other unaffected family members. Hence, these variants in the SCN5A gene were the most possible disease-causing variants in this family.

  13. 城市小区下垫面结构对热环境的影响研究%Impact of underlying surface structures of various urban blocks on the thermal environment by taking Lanzhou as a case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘竟虎; 李民生

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is oriented to explore the thermal environment and vegetation coverage, the two key factors for urban eco-environment. Taking Lanzhou, the capital of Gansu Province as a case,and by using the remote sensing data,we have retrieved the land surface temperature (LST)via mono-window algorithm. Then, we have chosen 20 blocks of the city, including commercial districts, school areas, residential quarters and park zones in the city to extract the land surface temperatures form both Landsat/TM images gained on August 26,1993 and August 6,2010, by using the geographic data-retrieval system and a remote sensing software. Land-cover types we have gained from the interpretation of remote sensing images, and the pattern of ecological green space we have worked out has been e-valuated with a landscape software. And, last of all, we have explored the relationship between the ground surface temperatures of various blocks and the underlying ground structures. The results of our investigation show that water area surface and the green space play a significant cooling role,while the building ground surface also produce very noticeable warming effects. All the above three kinds of surface area and the average LST of the explored blocks are closely related with each other. The effects of the following selected ecological green space indexes on the LST can be arranged in a declining order: the green space coverage, the separation space, average area of patch,cohesion index,shape index,and fractional dimensions. In addition, a positive correlation can be found between the fractional dimensions and LST, whereas a negative correlation proves to be existing between LST and other index. Of all the kinds of the selected blocks, a descending order of their LST can be detected from the commercial districts through school areas and residential quarters to the park zones. Whereas the LST distributions of the park zones are extremely sparse, those of commercial districts are most

  14. Histone variants and lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghesan, Michela; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Oben, Jude; Pazienza, Valerio; Vinciguerra, Manlio

    2014-01-01

    Within nucleosomes, canonical histones package the genome, but they can be opportunely replaced with histone variants. The incorporation of histone variants into the nucleosome is a chief cellular strategy to regulate transcription and cellular metabolism. In pathological terms, cellular steatosis i

  15. Synthesis of polyacrylonitrile-block-polydimethylsiloxane-block-polyacrylonitrile triblock copolymers via RAFT polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yue; Deng Xu Wang; Jing Quan Liu; Jie Zhang; Sheng Yu Feng

    2012-01-01

    A new A-B-A type of block copolymers,polyacrylonitrile-block-polydimethylsiloxane-block-polyacrylonitrile (PAN-b-PDMS-b-PAN),which comprises two polymer blocks of different polarities and compatibilities,were synthesized for the first time via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization.Reaction kinetics was investigated.PAN-b-PDMS-b-PAN films were prepared by spin-coating on glass chips.Significant order on the film surface morphologies was observed.(C) 2012 Jie Zhang.Published by Elsevier B.V.on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society.All rights reserved.

  16. Blocked Urethral Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blocked Urethral Valves Health Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Blocked Urethral Valves Page Content Article Body Urine leaves the bladder through a tube called the urethra, which in boys passes through the penis. Rarely, small membranes form across the urethra in ...

  17. Types of Heart Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... P wave as it normally would. If an electrical signal is blocked before it reaches the ventricles, they won't contract and pump blood to the lungs and the rest of the body. Second-degree heart block is divided into two ...

  18. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix. Inde

  19. The Block Neighborhood

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    We define the block neighborhood of a reversible CA, which is related both to its decomposition into a product of block permutations and to quantum computing. We give a purely combinatorial characterization of the block neighborhood, which helps in two ways. First, it makes the computation of the block neighborhood of a given CA relatively easy. Second, it allows us to derive upper bounds on the block neighborhood: for a single CA as function of the classical and inverse neighborhoods, and for the composition of several CAs. One consequence of that is a characterization of a class of "elementary" CAs that cannot be written as the composition of two simpler parts whose neighborhoods and inverse neighborhoods would be reduced by one half.

  20. Current conveyors variants, applications and hardware implementations

    CERN Document Server

    Senani, Raj; Singh, A K

    2015-01-01

    This book serves as a single-source reference to Current Conveyors and their use in modern Analog Circuit Design. The authors describe the various types of current conveyors discovered over the past 45 years, details of all currently available, off-the-shelf integrated circuit current conveyors, and implementations of current conveyors using other, off-the-shelf IC building blocks. Coverage includes prominent bipolar/CMOS/Bi-CMOS architectures of current conveyors, as well as all varieties of starting from third generation current conveyors to universal current conveyors, their implementations and applications. •Describes all commercially available off-the-shelf IC current conveyors, as well as hardware implementations of current conveyors using other off-the-shelf ICs; • Describes numerous variants of current conveyors evolved over the past forty five years; • Describes a number of Bipolar/CMOS/Bi-CMOS architectures of current conveyors, along with their characteristic features; • Includes a comprehe...

  1. Delivering Antisense Morpholino Oligonucleotides to Target Telomerase Splice Variants in Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radan, Lida; Hughes, Chris S; Teichroeb, Jonathan H; Postovit, Lynne-Marie; Betts, Dean H

    2016-01-01

    Morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) are an innovative tool that provides a means for examining and modifying gene expression outcomes by antisense interaction with targeted RNA transcripts. The site-specific nature of their binding facilitates focused modulation to alter splice variant expression patterns. Here we describe the steric-blocking of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) Δα and Δβ splice variants using MO to examine cellular outcomes related to pluripotency and differentiation in human embryonic stem cells.

  2. Cellobiohydrolase variants and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wogulis, Mark

    2017-04-04

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent cellobiohydrolase II. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the variants.

  3. Identifying a Small Molecule Blocking Antigen Presentation in Autoimmune Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheuk Wun; Menconi, Francesca; Osman, Roman; Mezei, Mihaly; Jacobson, Eric M; Concepcion, Erlinda; David, Chella S; Kastrinsky, David B; Ohlmeyer, Michael; Tomer, Yaron

    2016-02-19

    We previously showed that an HLA-DR variant containing arginine at position 74 of the DRβ1 chain (DRβ1-Arg74) is the specific HLA class II variant conferring risk for autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD). We also identified 5 thyroglobulin (Tg) peptides that bound to DRβ1-Arg74. We hypothesized that blocking the binding of these peptides to DRβ1-Arg74 could block the continuous T-cell activation in thyroiditis needed to maintain the autoimmune response to the thyroid. The aim of the current study was to identify small molecules that can block T-cell activation by Tg peptides presented within DRβ1-Arg74 pockets. We screened a large and diverse library of compounds and identified one compound, cepharanthine that was able to block peptide binding to DRβ1-Arg74. We then showed that Tg.2098 is the dominant peptide when inducing experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in NOD mice expressing human DRβ1-Arg74. Furthermore, cepharanthine blocked T-cell activation by thyroglobulin peptides, in particular Tg.2098 in mice that were induced with EAT. For the first time we identified a small molecule that can block Tg peptide binding and presentation to T-cells in autoimmune thyroiditis. If confirmed cepharanthine could potentially have a role in treating human AITD.

  4. 散射计海面非气旋风场块状模糊去除方法%Ocean Surface Non-cyclone Wind Block Ambiguity Removal Algorithm for Scatterometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安大伟; 谷松岩; 杨忠东; 陆风

    2012-01-01

    need no statistical circular histogram, nor do they need to calculate the mean. Third, the definition of circular median is only one rather than getting multiple solutions. And last, the calculation will not be interrupted by the narrow wind element values in the boundary region. The enhanced circular median filtering method based on non-cyclone wind field vector distribution characteristics can overcome the harsh conditions of the traditional method (such as wind field must be randomly distributed, non-block fuzzy), extracting the true wind vector solutions to overcome the fuzzy block. In order to apply this method widely, a crucial issue is to determine and eliminate the coverage typhoon cloud by operational satellite equipment properly. The method provides a new idea for exacting data of non-cyclone wind field on the ocean surface.%利用最大似然法(MLE)对散射计数据反演得出的风矢量,一般存在多个模糊解,故需采用圆中数滤波法进行模糊去除.但传统圆中数滤波法难以解决风场反演中块状模糊问题.该文根据散射计非气旋性第1风场的空间分布特性,归纳出一套适合散射计的加强型圆中数滤波块状模糊去除方法,并探讨了其适应性.该方法定义简单,计算量小,且易收敛.利用欧洲EUMETSAT提供的部分ASCAT( Advanced SCATterometer) L2原始数据对该方法进行验证结果表明,对于非气旋风场分布情况,该方法在利用其他工具去除台风气旋覆盖区域后,能有效解决非气旋区域风场块状模糊问题.

  5. Double hazards of ischemia and reperfusion arrhythmias in a patient with variant angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingzhu; Yang, Xiangjun

    2015-01-01

    Variant angina pectoris, also called Prinzmetal's angina, is a syndrome caused by vasospasms of the coronary arteries. It can lead to myocardial infarction, ventricular arrhythmias, atrioventricular block and even sudden cardiac death. We report the case of a 53 year-old male patient with recurrent episodes of chest pain and arrhythmias in the course of related variant angina pectoris. It is likely that the reperfusion following myocardial ischemia was responsible for the ventricular fibrillation while the ST-segment returned to the baseline. This case showed that potential lethal arrhythmias could arise due to variant angina pectoris. It also indicated that ventricular fibrillation could be self-terminated.

  6. Block copolymer battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  7. Hawaii Census 2000 Blocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups...

  8. Steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda, JMKH; Mori, K; Ohmura, A; Toyooka, H; Hatano, Y; Shingu, K; Fukuda, K

    1998-01-01

    Since 1964 approximately 20 steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents have been evaluated clinically. Pancuronium, a bisquaternary compound designed on the drawingboard, was the first steroidal relaxant introduced into clinical practice worldwide in the 1970's. Although a major improvement, pancuroniu

  9. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathal, M. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kantzos, P. T.; Krause, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Initial investigations of investment cast superalloy lattice block suggest that this technology will yield a low cost approach to utilize the high temperature strength and environmental resistance of superalloys in lightweight, damage tolerant structural configurations. Work to date has demonstrated that relatively large superalloy lattice block panels can be successfully investment cast from both IN-718 and Mar-M247. These castings exhibited mechanical properties consistent with the strength of the same superalloys measured from more conventional castings. The lattice block structure also accommodates significant deformation without failure, and is defect tolerant in fatigue. The potential of lattice block structures opens new opportunities for the use of superalloys in future generations of aircraft applications that demand strength and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures along with low weight.

  10. Endothelial adhesion of synchronized gastric tumor cells changes during cell cycle transit and correlates with the expression level of CD44 splice variants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anton Oertl; Jens Castein; Tobias Engl; Wolf-Dietrich Beecken; Dietger Jonas; Richard Melamed; Roman A. Blaheta

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study adhesion capacity and CD44 expression of human gastric adenocarcinoma MKN45 cells at different stages of a first cell cycle.METHODS: MKN45 cells were synchronized by aphidicolin and assayed for adhesion to an endothelial cell (HUVEC)monolayer. Surface expression of CD44 and CD44 splice variants on MKN45 cells was evaluated by flow cytometry.Functional relevance of CD44 adhesion receptors was investigated by blocking studies using anti CD44 monoclonal antibodies or by hyaluronan digestion.RESULTS: Adhesion of MKN45 to HUVEC was increased during G2/M transit, after which adhesion returned to baseline levels with cell cycle completion. In parallel, CD44splice variants CD44v4, CD44v5, and CD44v7 were all upregulated on MKN45 during cell cycle progression with a maximum effect in G2/M. The function of CD44 surface receptors was assessed with specific receptor blocking monodonal antibodies or removal of hyaluronan by digestion with hyaluronidase. Both strategies inhibited tumor cell adhesion to HUVEC by nearly 50%, which indicates that MKN45-HUVEC-interaction is CD44 dependent.CONCLUSION: CD44 expression level is linked to the cell cycle in gastrointestinal tumor cells, which in turn leads to cell cyde dependent alterations of their adhesion behaviour to endothelium.

  11. Gene Variants Reduce Opioid Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/Nicotine ... variant of the gene for the μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) with a decreased risk for addiction to ...

  12. DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF TYRE TREAD BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sridharan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tyre tread pattern is the arrangement of blocks, grooves and voids, sipes and channels designed into the tread to enhance its grip on the road. Tread is the uppermost part of any tyre which contact into the road and it has its own performance towards mileage, traction, low noise and heat built up properties. It would be meaningful to conduct an extended analysis on the tyre tread blocks for its performance in static and dynamic condition to predict its behavior and wear of tread block in on-road condition. The Finite Element software Abaqus is used for the present analysis of the tread block and its behavior was studied on two different contact surfaces. The tread block is modeled in six different shapes and analyzed for is performance. The deformation stress strain characteristic of different blocks is studied which will be useful in deciding the contact behavior, friction and road grip. The regular shape/geometry has common behavior and the mixed type geometry shows a distinguished variation in the analysis. The dynamic stiffness and deformed shape was analyzed in this study and it has its own effect in tyre design. The tread block dynamics study by geometric shape would be vital in tread pattern optimization to enhance the traction, better hydroplaning and rolling resistance under all operating conditions.

  13. Slickenside developed in chert block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, J.; Hayasaka, Y.; Nishiwaki, T.

    2011-12-01

    We observe the microstructures of slickenside developed in chert block mainly with a TEM, in order to clarify generation mechanism of the slickenside. This chert block occurs in the Jurassic accretionary complex in eastern Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. The complex, chaotic sediment, is composed of allochthonous blocks, mainly of chert, limestone, sandstone and mudstone in the argillaceous matrix. The color of the undeformed chert is pale blue to white, while the surface of slickenside is black. The stereo microscopy indicates the top surface of slickenside is covered with a transparent material, whose composition is mainly Si, measured by EPMA. The striation is well developed on the transparent-Si-material. We made thin sections, parallel and perpendicular to striation and slickenside, respectively. On the thin sections, the elongated quartz grains are oriented obliquely to the slickenside with 20-30 degree. Many fluid inclusions, which represent healed microcracks, are observed within the quartz grains. These quartz grains show strong undulose extinction and bulging-recrystallization. Apatite grains are also observed as a main constituent mineral. We made TEM foils from the above thin section by FIB. TEM observation indicates the amorphous layer with several ten nanometers in width distributes along the slickenside. (We speculate the most part of the amorphous layer are taken away during polishing of the thin section, because the strength of the amorphous layer is weak. Therefore we now make thin section again with care.) The tangled dislocations are developed within the quartz grains. They make subgrains with ca. 1 micrometer in size. These results suggest the slickenside was generated by the frictional melting of quartz grains on slip plane under very high stress condition, same as pseudotachylyte.

  14. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse;

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly.......60-1.62). The presence of IRBBB was not associated with any adverse outcome.ConclusionIn this cohort study, RBBB and IRBBB were two to three times more common among men than women. Right bundle branch block was associated with increased cardiovascular risk and all-cause mortality, whereas IRBBB was not. Contrary...

  15. CO2 Storage and Surface Flooding Process of Wu 38 Well Block in Yanchang Oilfield%延长油田吴38井区CO2埋存与驱油地面工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙龙; 江绍静; 杨永超; 黄春霞; 余华贵; 白成来

    2016-01-01

    3 movable injection stations have been built in Wu38 well block of YanChang Oilfield. At the same time, five gas injection wells can be gas injected, which involving 24 production Wells. It is the first standardization surface process system that CO2 storage and CO2-EOR in the northwest.The system main body consists of two big modules:low pres-sure and high pressure. Low pressure module includes CO2 storage tank, CO2 feeding and circulation area, supercharging area; high-pressure module includes CO2 injection and loop area, auxiliary monitoring system. After the surface process system put into use, the single well CO2 injection rate is 25 t/d, it can realize automatic monitoring and data storage. Ac-cording to the forecast, the oil recovery of CO2 flooding is 10.79% higher than that of water flooding, which has the vital significance to the reduction of CO2 greenhouse gas emissions and low permeability reservoir development.%延长油田吴38井区已建成3座橇装式注入站,可同时对5口井实施注气,涉及24口生产井受效。它是西北第一个实施CO2埋存与驱油的标准化地面工艺系统,系统主体由低压及高压两大模块组成,低压模块包括CO2存储区、CO2喂液及循环区、增压区,高压模块包括CO2注入及循环区、辅助监测系统。地面工艺系统投入使用后,单井注入量为25 t/d,可实现数据全自动监控和存储。根据预测,原油采收率与水驱相比提高10.79%,这对减少CO2温室气体排放及低渗油藏开发具有重要的意义。

  16. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, de A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In ord

  17. Effects of Block Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Veal

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of a tri-schedule on the academic achievement of students in a high school. The tri-schedule consists of traditional, 4x4 block, and hybrid schedules running at the same time in the same high school. Effectiveness of the schedules was determined from the state mandated test of basic skills in reading, language, and mathematics. Students who were in a particular schedule their freshman year were tested at the beginning of their sophomore year. A statistical ANCOVA test was performed using the schedule types as independent variables and cognitive skill index and GPA as covariates. For reading and language, there was no statistically significant difference in test results. There was a statistical difference mathematics-computation. Block mathematics is an ideal format for obtaining more credits in mathematics, but the block format does little for mathematics achievement and conceptual understanding. The results have content specific implications for schools, administrations, and school boards who are considering block scheduling adoption.

  18. Concrete Block Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    1967, Cedergren 1974, Federal Highway .’,U .. V,47 -’":: 37 Administration 1980). Block pavements have essentially the same prob- lems with moisture...Vicksburg, Miss. Cedergren , H. R. 1974. Drainage of Highway and Airfield Pavements, John Wiley and Sons, New VOk. I Cement and Concrete Association

  19. Block That Pain!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... along with the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS). This finding shows that a specific combination of two molecules can block only pain-related neurons. It holds the promise of major ...

  20. Floating asphalt blocks of the Dead Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, A. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot, Israel); Aizenshtat, Z.; Goldberg, M.

    1980-01-01

    Large blocks of mineral matter free (less than 0.1%) asphalt are occasionally found floating on the surface of the Dead Sea. Chemical, spectroscopic and isotopic data are given for the asphalt. The source of the asphalt is not accurately known, but presumably it represents mobilization of heavy viscous asphaltic masses at depth below the lake bottom into the floor of the lake. It may be released to the surface by earth tremors.

  1. Conservation analysis of dengue virust-cell epitope-based vaccine candidates using peptide block entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars Rønn; Zhang, Guang Lan; Keskin, Derin B.;

    2011-01-01

    Broad coverage of the pathogen population is particularly important when designing CD8+ T-cell epitope vaccines against viral pathogens. Traditional approaches are based on combinations of highly conserved T-cell epitopes. Peptide block entropy analysis is a novel approach for assembling sets...... residues. The block entropy analysis provides broad coverage of variant antigens. We applied the block entropy analysis method to the proteomes of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) and found 1,551 blocks of 9-mer peptides, which cover 99% of available sequences with five or fewer unique peptides...

  2. Data-variant kernel analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Motai, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Describes and discusses the variants of kernel analysis methods for data types that have been intensely studied in recent years This book covers kernel analysis topics ranging from the fundamental theory of kernel functions to its applications. The book surveys the current status, popular trends, and developments in kernel analysis studies. The author discusses multiple kernel learning algorithms and how to choose the appropriate kernels during the learning phase. Data-Variant Kernel Analysis is a new pattern analysis framework for different types of data configurations. The chapters include

  3. Decision making in the reward and punishment variants of the Iowa gambling task: Evidence of foresight or framing?

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha eSingh; Azizuddin eKhan

    2012-01-01

    Surface-level differences in the reward and punishment variants, specifically greater long-term decision making in the punishment variant of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) observed in previous studies led to the present comparison of long-term decision making in the two IGT variants (n = 320, male = 160). It was contended that risk-aversion triggered by a positive frame of the reward variant and risk seeking triggered by a negative frame of the punishment variant appears as long-term decision m...

  4. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Croes (Esther); C.M. van Duijn (Cock)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) has had major impact in Europe during the last decade. In this article, we review the aetiology of vCJD and its relation with bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Further, treatment of the disease, the strategies focusing on prevention of t

  5. Recovery from blocking between outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Daniel S; Miller, Ralph R

    2005-10-01

    Contemporary associative learning research largely focuses on cue competition phenomena that occur when 2 cues are paired with a common outcome. Little research has been conducted to investigate similar phenomena occurring when a single cue is trained with 2 outcomes. Three conditioned lick suppression experiments with rats assessed whether treatments known to alleviate blocking between cues would also attenuate blocking between outcomes. In Experiment 1, conditioned responding recovered from blocking between outcomes when a long retention interval was interposed between training and testing. Experiment 2 obtained recovery from blocking between outcomes when the blocking outcome was extinguished after the blocking treatment. In Experiment 3, a recovery from blocking between outcomes occurred when a reminder stimulus was presented in a novel context prior to testing. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that blocking of outcomes, like blocking of cues, appears to be caused by a deficit in the expression of an acquired association.

  6. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  7. Modeling disease risk through analysis of physical interactions between genetic variants within chromatin regulatory circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradin, Olivia; Cohen, Andrea J; Luppino, Jennifer M; Bayles, Ian M; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Scacheri, Peter C

    2016-11-01

    SNPs associated with disease susceptibility often reside in enhancer clusters, or super-enhancers. Constituents of these enhancer clusters cooperate to regulate target genes and often extend beyond the linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks containing risk SNPs identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We identified 'outside variants', defined as SNPs in weak LD with GWAS risk SNPs that physically interact with risk SNPs as part of a target gene's regulatory circuitry. These outside variants further explain variation in target gene expression beyond that explained by GWAS-associated SNPs. Additionally, the clinical risk associated with GWAS SNPs is considerably modified by the genotype of outside variants. Collectively, these findings suggest a potential model in which outside variants and GWAS SNPs that physically interact in 3D chromatin collude to influence target transcript levels as well as clinical risk. This model offers an additional hypothesis for the source of missing heritability for complex traits.

  8. Managing access block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Peter; Scown, Paul; Campbell, Donald

    2002-01-01

    There is pessimism regarding the ability of the Acute Health Sector to manage access block for emergency and elective patients. Melbourne Health suffered an acute bed crisis in 2001 resulting in record ambulance diversions and emergency department (ED) delays. We conducted an observational study to reduce access block for emergency patients whilst maintaining elective throughput at Melbourne Health. This involved a clinician-led taskforce using previously proven principles for organisational change to implement 51 actions to improve patient access over a three-month period. The primary outcome measures were ambulance diversion, emergency patients waiting more than 12 hours for an inpatient bed, elective throughput and theatre cancellations. Despite a reduction in multi-day bed numbers all primary objectives were met, ambulance diversion decreased to minimal levels, 12-hour waits decreased by 40% and elective throughput was maintained. Theatre cancellations were also minimised. We conclude that access block can be improved by clinician-led implementation of proven process improvements over a short time frame. The ability to sustain change over the longer term requires further study.

  9. Clinical relevance of hepatitis B virus variants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a global public health problem with more than 240 million people chronicallyinfected worldwide, who are at risk for end-stage liverdisease and hepatocellular carcinoma. There are anestimated 600000 deaths annually from complications ofHBV-related liver disease. Antiviral therapy with nucleos/tide analogs (NA) targeting the HBV polymerase (P) caninhibit disease progression by long-term suppression ofHBV replication. However, treatment may fail with firstgeneration NA therapy due to the emergence of drugresistantmutants, as well as incomplete medicationadherence. The HBV replicates via an error-prone reversetranscriptase leading to quasispecies. Due to overlappingopen reading frames mutations within the HBV P cancause concomitant changes in the HBV surface gene (S )and vice versa. HBV quasispecies diversity is associatedwith response to antiviral therapy, disease severity andlong-term clinical outcomes. Specific mutants havebeen associated with antiviral drug resistance, immuneescape, liver fibrosis development and tumorgenesis.An understanding of HBV variants and their clinicalrelevance may be important for monitoring chronichepatitis B disease progression and treatment response.In this review, we will discuss HBV molecular virology,mechanism of variant development, and their potentialclinical impact.

  10. Second-Degree Interatrial Block in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Enriquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interatrial conduction delays manifest as a prolonged P-wave duration on surface ECG and the term interatrial block (IAB has been coined. They are usually fixed, but cases of intermittent IAB have been described, suggesting functional conduction block at the Bachmann bundle region. We report 2 cases of patients on chronic hemodialysis therapy presenting with intermittent IAB.

  11. Second-Degree Interatrial Block in Hemodialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, Andres; D'Amato, Anna; de Luna, Antoni Bayes; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Interatrial conduction delays manifest as a prolonged P-wave duration on surface ECG and the term interatrial block (IAB) has been coined. They are usually fixed, but cases of intermittent IAB have been described, suggesting functional conduction block at the Bachmann bundle region. We report 2 cases of patients on chronic hemodialysis therapy presenting with intermittent IAB. PMID:25755895

  12. 21 CFR 177.1810 - Styrene block polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Styrene block polymers. 177.1810 Section 177.1810... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1810 Styrene block polymers. The...

  13. Block Transfer Handbook: Constructing and Negotiating Block Transfer Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Finola

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide resources for institutions or articulation committees who are engaged in the task of investigating the feasibility of block transfer agreements. Block transfer is the process whereby a block of credits is granted to students who have successfully completed a certificate, diploma, or cluster of courses…

  14. Genetic variants involved in gallstone formation and capsaicin metabolism,and the risk of gallbladder cancer in Chilean women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergio; Báez; Yasuo; Tsuchiya; Alfonso; Calvo; Martha; Pruyas; Kazutoshi; Nakamura; Chikako; Kiyohara; Mari; Oyama; Masaharu; Yamamoto

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To determine the effects of genetic variants associated with gallstone formation and capsaicin (a pungent component of chili pepper) metabolism on the risk of gallbladder cancer (GBC).METHODS: A total of 57 patients with GBC, 119 patients with gallstones, and 70 controls were enrolled in this study. DNA was extracted from their blood or paraffi n block sample using standard commercial kits. The statuses of the genetic variants were assayed using Taqman SNP Genotyping Assays or Custom Taqman SNP Genotypi...

  15. Resistance of Abaca Somaclonal Variant Against Fusarium

    OpenAIRE

    RULLY DYAH PURWATI; SUDARSONO

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to evaluate responses against F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) infection of abaca variants regenerated using four different methods, (ii) to determine initial root length and plant height effects on survival of inoculated abaca variants, and (iii) to identify Foc resistance abaca variants. In the previous experiment, four abaca variant lines were regenerated from (i) embryogenic calli (TC line), (ii) ethyl methyl sulphonate (EMS) treated embryogenic calli...

  16. A 3-Subset Meet-in-the-Middle Attack: Cryptanalysis of the Lightweight Block Cipher KTANTAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Rechberger, Christian

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a variant of existing meet-in-the-middle attacks on block ciphers. As an application, we propose meet-in-the-middle attacks that are applicable to the KTANTAN family of block ciphers accepting a key of 80 bits. The attacks are due to sonic weaknesses in its bitwise key s...... requirements, these attacks are valid even in RFID-like environments where only a very limited amount of text material may be available to an attacker....

  17. Far-Field Tunable Nano-focusing Based on Metallic Slits Surrounded with Nonlinear-Variant Widths and Linear-Variant Depths of Circular Dielectric Grating

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Wei-Ping; Kong, Wei-Jie; Liang, Xue-Wu

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we design a new tunable nanofocusing lens by the linear-variant depths and nonlinear-variant widths of circular grating for far field practical applications. The constructively interference of cylindrical surface plasmon launched by the subwavelength metallic structure can form a subdiffraction-limited focus, and the focal length of the this structures can be adjusted if the each groove depth and width of circular grating are arranged in traced profile. According to the numerical calculation, the range of focusing points shift is much more than other plasmonic lens, and the relative phase of emitting light scattered by surface plasmon coupling circular grating can be modulated by the nonlinear-variant width and linear-variant depth. The simulation result indicates that the different relative phase of emitting light lead to variant focal length. We firstly show a unique phenomenon for the linear-variant depths and nonlinear-variant widths of circular grating that the positive change and negative ...

  18. Demographic Data - MDC_Block

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade Census 2000 Blocks. Census blocks are areas bounded on all sides by visible and/or invisible features shown on a map prepared...

  19. Habitat Blocks and Wildlife Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Habitat blocks are areas of contiguous forest and other natural habitats that are unfragmented by roads, development, or agriculture. Vermonts habitat blocks are...

  20. Development of Deflection Prediction Model for Concrete Block Pavement Considering the Block Shapes and Construction Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuguang Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete block pavement (CBP is distinct from typical concrete or asphalt pavements. It is built by using individual blocks with unique construction patterns forming a discrete surface layer to bear traffic loadings. The surface structure of CBP varies depending on the block shapes and construction patterns, so it is hard to apply a general equivalent elastic modulus estimation method to define the surface structural strength. In this study, FEM analysis and dynamic loading test were carried out to develop a deflection prediction model for CBP considering the block shapes and construction patterns. Based on the analysis results, it was found that block shapes did not have much effect on load distribution, whereas construction patterns did. By applying the deflection prediction model to the rutting model for CBP proposed by Sun, the herringbone bond pattern showed the best performance comparing with stretcher bond or basket weave bond pattern. As the load repetition increased to 1.2 million, the rutting depth of CBP constructed by herringbone bond pattern was 2 mm smaller than those constructed by the other two patterns.

  1. DHAD variants and methods of screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kristen J.; Ye, Rick W.

    2017-02-28

    Methods of screening for dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (DHAD) variants that display increased DHAD activity are disclosed, along with DHAD variants identified by these methods. Such enzymes can result in increased production of compounds from DHAD requiring biosynthetic pathways. Also disclosed are isolated nucleic acids encoding the DHAD variants, recombinant host cells comprising the isolated nucleic acid molecules, and methods of producing butanol.

  2. A potential vorticity perspective on atmospheric blocking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croci Maspoli, M.; Schwierz, C.

    2003-04-01

    A persistent large-scale anomaly of the west to east flow in the midlatitudes with a weakening and meridional splitting of the jet can be specified as atmospheric blocking. Lifetimes last from several days up to weeks so that blocking can therefore significantly determine monthly circulation index values. The vertical range affected by this phenomenon covers the entire troposphere as mirrored in increased surface pressure as well as an elevated tropopause and is also felt in the lower-stratosphere. Here we seek to shed more light on the physical mechanisms related to blocking by adopting the PV (potential vorticity) perspective with a focus on tropopause-level dynamics. Processes such as Rossby-wave breaking and diabatic heating can modify the conservative behaviour of the PV and are therefore important features for the formation and maintenance of atmospheric blocking. This motivates the definition of a novel blocking index based upon the three-dimensional structure of the phenomenon. A vertically integrated measure (PV within the 500 - 150 hPa layer, VIPV) is calculated, underlining the quasi-barotropic nature of blocked atmospheric state. Benefits of the new index include: representation of the two-dimensional structure of the phenomenon, its lifecycle and geographical distribution. The investigation is conducted over the period 1979 to 2001 using ECMWF reanalysis data. Characteristics of the VIPV field are presented. The new VIPV index is compared to a standard blocking index (e.g. Tibaldi and Molteni (1989)) on a case study basis and also with respect to seasonal variability. Relations to climate modes/indices (NAO, AO) are also discussed.

  3. Porous block nanofiber composite filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginley, David S.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Weiss, Alan J.; Paddock, Arnold

    2016-08-09

    Porous block nano-fiber composite (110), a filtration system (10) and methods of using the same are disclosed. An exemplary porous block nano-fiber composite (110) includes a porous block (100) having one or more pores (200). The porous block nano-fiber composite (110) also includes a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers (211) formed within at least one of the pores (200).

  4. Properties of blocked linear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weitian; Anderson, Brian D O; Deistler, Manfred; Filler, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a systematic study on the properties of blocked linear systems that have resulted from blocking discrete-time linear time invariant systems. The main idea is to explore the relationship between the blocked and the unblocked systems. Existing results are reviewed and a number of important new results are derived. Focus is given particularly on the zero properties of the blocked system as no such study has been found in the literature.

  5. Appropriate schemata and building blocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haijun; Li Minqiang

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate schemata as a novel concept to characterize building blocks are introduced, and then, the traits of appropriate schemata are presented. The effects of building blocks by search operators are analyzed. Hence, the experiments on RR-8X8 are employed to verify that appropriate schemata construct the building blocks. The validity of appropriate schemata and building blocks from the views of theory and practice is presented.

  6. Natural convection through enclosed disconnected solid blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lao, Fernando Cesar De; Junqueira, Silvio L.M.; Franco, Admilson T. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mails: fernandodelai@gmail.com; silvio@utfpr.edu.br; admilson@utfpr.edu.br; Lage, Jose L. [Southern Methodist University (SMU), Dallas, TX (United States)]. E-mail: JLL@smu.edu

    2008-07-01

    In this study, the natural convection inside a fluid filled, enclosure containing several solid obstructions and being heated from the side is modeled and numerically simulated. The solid obstructions are equally spaced, conducting, and disconnected square blocks. The mathematical model is based on the balance equations of mass, momentum and energy, which are then solved numerically via the finite-volume method with the SIMPLEST algorithm and the HYBRID scheme. The effects of varying the solid-fluid thermal conductivity ratio (K), the fluid volume-fraction or porosity ({phi}), the number of solid blocks (N) and the heating strength (represented by the Rayleigh number, Ra) of the enclosure on the Nusselt number based on the surface-averaged heat transfer coefficient along the heated wall of the enclosure are studied. The results indicate a competing effect caused by the proximity of the solid blocks to the heated and cooled walls, vis-a-vis hindering the boundary layer growth, hence reducing the heat transfer effectiveness, and at the same time enhancing the heat transfer when the blocks' thermal conductivity is larger than that of the fluid. An analytical estimate of the minimum number of blocks beyond which the convection hindrance becomes predominant is presented and validated by the numerical results. (author)

  7. Blocking the Hawking radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autzen, M.; Kouvaris, C.

    2014-01-01

    grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics, i.e., accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how...... the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star....

  8. Antigen Loss Variants: Catching Hold of Escaping Foes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Maulik; Müller, Rolf; Pogge von Strandmann, Elke

    2017-01-01

    Since mid-1990s, the field of cancer immunotherapy has seen steady growth and selected immunotherapies are now a routine and preferred therapeutic option of certain malignancies. Both active and passive cancer immunotherapies exploit the fact that tumor cells express specific antigens on the cell surface, thereby mounting an immune response specifically against malignant cells. It is well established that cancer cells typically lose surface antigens following natural or therapy-induced selective pressure and these antigen-loss variants are often the population that causes therapy-resistant relapse. CD19 and CD20 antigen loss in acute lymphocytic leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, respectively, and lineage switching in leukemia associated with mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene rearrangements are well-documented evidences in this regard. Although increasing number of novel immunotherapies are being developed, majority of these do not address the control of antigen loss variants. Here, we review the occurrence of antigen loss variants in leukemia and discuss the therapeutic strategies to tackle the same. We also present an approach of dual-targeting immunoligand effectively retargeting NK cells against antigen loss variants in MLL-associated leukemia. Novel immunotherapies simultaneously targeting more than one tumor antigen certainly hold promise to completely eradicate tumor and prevent therapy-resistant relapses. PMID:28286501

  9. [Mirizzi syndrome and its variants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G J; Runge, D; Gebhardt, J

    1990-04-01

    Between 1981 and 1987 5434 patients were studied by ERCP in Allgemeines Krankenhaus Hamburg-Barmbeck. 26 (i.e. 0.43%) suffered from Mirizze syndrome with the triad of cholelithiasis, cholecystitis and obstructive biliary disease. They were classified in four different types according to the variable localisation and origin of the biliary obstruction. 16 patients corresponded to the classical type (I and II) with compression, penetration, and obturation by the concrement, five patients matched borderline with infiltration (III) and five patients were classified as variants of this syndrome. A mild elevation of serum bilirubine and alkaline phosphatase indicated more likely the benign etiology of type I to III, however, a marked elevation of alkaline phosphatase in the variants suggested more likely a malignant underlying disease. The diagnosis was ascertained in all cases by ERC and sonography preoperatively and was verified by laparotomy (n = 18) and follow-up (n = 6).

  10. Clinical variants of lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gunnar; Rose, Christian; Sachse, Michael Max

    2013-04-01

    Lichen planus is characterized by lichenoid, polygonal papules with fine white lines, called Wickham striae. Lesions most commonly occur on the limbs and on the dorsal aspect of the trunk. At the same time often leukoplakia of mucous membranes as well as nail disorders are seen. There are numerous variants of lichen planus which can be distinguished from the classical form on the basis of morphology and distribution of the lesions. The typical primary lesion of lichen planus may be replaced by other forms, such as patches, hyperkeratoses, ulcerations, or bullous lesions. Moreover, distribution patterns of these lesions may vary and include erythrodermic, inverse or linear arrangements. In contrast to these numerous clinical features, histologic findings remain characteristic in the variants, so that the diagnosis can be made securely. Differential diagnoses of lichen planus include diverse dermatoses such as bullous pemphigoid or paronychia.

  11. Property Blocks: Games and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Alan, Ed.; Dailey, Jean, Ed.

    This pamphlet describes the property blocks produced by MINNEMAST, and discusses their use in the development of thinking processes. Classification systems, including block diagrams and tree diagrams, are discussed. Sixteen classroom activities and eleven games which use the blocks are described. Suggestions to the teacher for further reading are…

  12. Unusual variant of Cantrell's pentalogy?

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Basant; Sharma, S.B.; Kandpal, Deepak K.; Agrawal, L. D.

    2008-01-01

    A 12-hour-old male infant presented with prolapsed abdominal content through a defect on left side of chest wall with respiratory distress. A thorough clinical examination suggested absence of ectopia cordis, abdominal wall defect, and any bony anomaly. The child expired after 6 hours of admission because of respiratory distress and electrolyte imbalance. Is congenital defect of chest wall associated with diaphragmatic hernia without ectopia cordis and omphalocele, an unusual variant of Cantr...

  13. Microcystic Variant of Urothelial Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Microcystic variant of urothelial carcinoma is one of the new variants of urothelial carcinoma that was added to the WHO classification in 2004. Aims. To review the literature on microcystic variant of urothelial carcinoma. Methods. Various internet search engines were used to identify reported cases of the tumour. Results. Microscopic features of the tumour include: (i Conspicuous intracellular and intercellular lumina/microcysts encompassed by malignant urothelial or squamous cells. (ii The lumina are usually empty; may contain granular eosinophilic debris, mucin, or necrotic cells. (iii The cysts may be variable in size; round, or oval, up to 2 mm; lined by urothelium which are either flattened cells or low columnar cells however, they do not contain colonic epithelium or goblet cells; are infiltrative; invade the muscularis propria; mimic cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis; occasionally exhibit neuroendocrine differentiation. (iv Elongated and irregular branching spaces are usually seen. About 17 cases of the tumour have been reported with only 2 patients who have survived. The tumour tends to be of high-grade and high-stage. There is no consensus opinion on the best option of treatment of the tumour. Conclusions. It would prove difficult at the moment to be dogmatic regarding its prognosis but it is a highly aggressive tumour. New cases of the tumour should be reported in order to document its biological behaviour.

  14. Humanoid by ROBO-BLOCK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Hirofumi; Koike, Minoru; Takeuchi, Seiichi; Douhara, Noriyoshi

    2007-12-01

    Humanoid by ROBO-BLOCK (robot block system) and the rational formula of robots were proposed. ROBO-BLOCK is composed of servo motors, the parts for servomotor rotor, the brackets for servomotor fixation, the board parts and the controllers. A robot can be assembled easily by ROBO-BLOCK. Meanwhile, it is convenient when the structure of the robot can be described easily as a character. The whole structure of the robot is expressed as rational formula of the robot to show molecule structure in chemistry. ROBO-BLOCK can be useful for not only the research but also the education. Creative student experiment was done in the college of industrial technology.

  15. [Ultrasound for peripheral neural block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalianakis, F

    2005-03-01

    Ultrasound is well established in medicine. Unfortunately, ultrasound is still rarely used in the area of anesthesia. The purpose of the article is to illustrate the possibilities and limitations of ultrasound in regional anesthesia. The basic principles of ultrasound are the piezoelectric effect and the behaviour of acoustic waveforms in human tissue. Ultrasound imaging in medicine uses high frequency pulses of sound waves (2.5-10 MHz). The following images are built up from the reflected sounds. The ultrasound devices used in regional anesthesia (commonly by 10 MHz) deliver a two-dimensional view. The main step for a successful regional anaesthesia is to identify the exact position of the nerve. In addition, specific surface landmarks and the use of peripheral nerve stimulator help to detect the correct position of the needle. Nerves are demonstrated as an composition of hyperechogenic (white) and hypoechogenic (black) areas. The surrounding hyperechogenic parts are epi- and perineurium, the dark hypoechogenic part is the neural tissue. The composition of peripheral nerves are always similar, but the quantities of each part, of surrounding perineurium and nerval structures, differ. Further the imaging of nerves is significantly influenced by the angle of beam to the nerve and the surrounding anatomic structures. Only experience and correct interpretation make the ultrasound a valid method in clinical practice. Correct interpretation has to be learned by standardized education. Three examples of peripheral nerve blocks are described. The detection of nerves and the visualization of the correct spread of local anesthetics to the nerves are the main principles of effective ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia, whereas closest proximity of the needle to the target nerve is not necessary. The described examples of ultrasound guidance for nerval block illustrates the specific procedures with reduced probability of nerval irritation, high success and low rate of

  16. The human 5-HT7 serotonin receptor splice variants: constitutive activity and inverse agonist effects

    OpenAIRE

    Krobert, Kurt A; Levy, Finn Olav

    2002-01-01

    Using membranes from stably or transiently transfected HEK293 cells cultured in 5-HT-free medium and expressing the recombinant human 5-HT7 receptor splice variants (h5-HT7(a), h5-HT7(b) and h5-HT7(d)), we compared their abilities to constitutively activate adenylyl cyclase (AC).All h5-HT7 splice variants elevated basal and forskolin-stimulated AC. The basal AC activity was reduced by the 5-HT7 antagonist methiothepin and this effect was blocked by mesulergine (neutral 5-HT7 antagonist) indic...

  17. Spintronics: Conceptual Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansermet, J.-Ph.

    The purpose of this introduction to spintronics is to provide some elementary description of its conceptual building blocks. Thus, it is intended for a newcomer to the field. After recalling rudimentary descriptions of spin precession and spin relaxation, spin-dependent transport is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. This suffices to introduce key notions such as the spin asymmetry of the conductivities in the two-current model, the spin diffusion length, and spin accumulation. Two basic mechanisms of spin relaxation are then presented, one arising from spin-orbit scattering and the other from electron-magnon collisions. Finally, the action of a spin-polarized current on magnetization is presented in a thermodynamics framework. This introduces the notion of spin torque and the characteristic length scale over which the transverse spin polarization of conduction electron decays as it is injected into a magnet.

  18. Photovoltaic building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanberg, Peter Jesper; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2014-01-01

    it directcompetitive with fossil energy sources a further reduction is needed. By increasing the efficiency of the solar cells one gain an advantage through the whole chain of cost. So that per produced Watt of power less material is spent, installation costs are lower, less area is used etc. With an average...... efficiency of about 15% for commercial Silicon solar cells there is still much to gain. DTU Danchip provides research facilities, equipment and expertise for the building blocks that comprises fabricating the efficient solar cell. In order to get more of the sun light into the device we provide thin film......Photovoltaics (PV), better known as solar cells, are now a common day sight on many rooftops in Denmark.The installed capacity of PV systems worldwide is growing exponentially1 and is the third most importantrenewable energy source today. The cost of PV is decreasing fast with ~10%/year but to make...

  19. Celiac ganglia block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinci, Devrim [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Akhan, Okan [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: oakhan@hacettepe.edu.tr

    2005-09-01

    Pain occurs frequently in patients with advanced cancers. Tumors originating from upper abdominal viscera such as pancreas, stomach, duodenum, proximal small bowel, liver and biliary tract and from compressing enlarged lymph nodes can cause severe abdominal pain, which do not respond satisfactorily to medical treatment or radiotherapy. Percutaneous celiac ganglia block (CGB) can be performed with high success and low complication rates under imaging guidance to obtain pain relief in patients with upper abdominal malignancies. A significant relationship between pain relief and degree of tumoral celiac ganglia invasion according to CT features was described in the literature. Performing the procedure in the early grades of celiac ganglia invasion on CT can increase the effectiveness of the CGB, which is contrary to World Health Organization criteria stating that CGB must be performed in patients with advanced stage cancer. CGB may also be effectively performed in patients with chronic pancreatitis for pain palliation.

  20. Atomic Basic Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  1. Discovery of a mammalian splice variant of myostatin that stimulates myogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Jeanplong

    Full Text Available Myostatin plays a fundamental role in regulating the size of skeletal muscles. To date, only a single myostatin gene and no splice variants have been identified in mammals. Here we describe the splicing of a cryptic intron that removes the coding sequence for the receptor binding moiety of sheep myostatin. The deduced polypeptide sequence of the myostatin splice variant (MSV contains a 256 amino acid N-terminal domain, which is common to myostatin, and a unique C-terminus of 65 amino acids. Western immunoblotting demonstrated that MSV mRNA is translated into protein, which is present in skeletal muscles. To determine the biological role of MSV, we developed an MSV over-expressing C2C12 myoblast line and showed that it proliferated faster than that of the control line in association with an increased abundance of the CDK2/Cyclin E complex in the nucleus. Recombinant protein made for the novel C-terminus of MSV also stimulated myoblast proliferation and bound to myostatin with high affinity as determined by surface plasmon resonance assay. Therefore, we postulated that MSV functions as a binding protein and antagonist of myostatin. Consistent with our postulate, myostatin protein was co-immunoprecipitated from skeletal muscle extracts with an MSV-specific antibody. MSV over-expression in C2C12 myoblasts blocked myostatin-induced Smad2/3-dependent signaling, thereby confirming that MSV antagonizes the canonical myostatin pathway. Furthermore, MSV over-expression increased the abundance of MyoD, Myogenin and MRF4 proteins (P<0.05, which indicates that MSV stimulates myogenesis through the induction of myogenic regulatory factors. To help elucidate a possible role in vivo, we observed that MSV protein was more abundant during early post-natal muscle development, while myostatin remained unchanged, which suggests that MSV may promote the growth of skeletal muscles. We conclude that MSV represents a unique example of intra-genic regulation in which a

  2. The influence of the Gulf Stream on wintertime European blocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Christopher H.; Minobe, Shoshiro; Kuwano-Yoshida, Akira

    2016-09-01

    Wintertime blocking is responsible for extended periods of anomalously cold and dry weather over Europe. In this study, the influence of the Gulf Stream sea surface temperature (SST) front on wintertime European blocking is investigated using a reanalysis dataset and a pair of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations. The AGCM is forced with realistic and smoothed Gulf Stream SST, and blocking frequency over Europe is found to depend crucially on the Gulf Stream SST front. In the absence of the sharp SST gradient European blocking is significantly reduced and occurs further downstream. The Gulf Stream is found to significantly influence the surface temperature anomalies during blocking periods and the occurrence of associated cold spells. In particular the cold spell peak, located in central Europe, disappears in the absence of the Gulf Stream SST front. The nature of the Gulf Stream influence on European blocking development is then investigated using composite analysis. The presence of the Gulf Stream SST front is important in capturing the observed quasi-stationary development of European blocking. The development is characterised by increased lower-tropospheric meridional eddy heat transport in the Gulf Stream region and increased eddy kinetic energy at upper-levels, which acts to reinforce the quasi-stationary jet. When the Gulf Stream SST is smoothed the storm track activity is weaker, the development is less consistent and European blocking occurs less frequently.

  3. Perpendicularly Aligned, Anion Conducting Nanochannels in Block Copolymer Electrolyte Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arges, Christopher G.; Kambe, Yu; Suh, Hyo Seon; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Nealey, Paul F.

    2016-03-08

    Connecting structure and morphology to bulk transport properties, such as ionic conductivity, in nanostructured polymer electrolyte materials is a difficult proposition because of the challenge to precisely and accurately control order and the orientation of the ionic domains in such polymeric films. In this work, poly(styrene-block-2-vinylpyridine) (PSbP2VP) block copolymers were assembled perpendicularly to a substrate surface over large areas through chemical surface modification at the substrate and utilizing a versatile solvent vapor annealing (SVA) technique. After block copolymer assembly, a novel chemical vapor infiltration reaction (CVIR) technique selectively converted the 2-vinylpyridine block to 2-vinyl n-methylpyridinium (NMP+ X-) groups, which are anion charge carriers. The prepared block copolymer electrolytes maintained their orientation and ordered nanostructure upon the selective introduction of ion moieties into the P2VP block and post ion-exchange to other counterion forms (X- = chloride, hydroxide, etc.). The prepared block copolymer electrolyte films demonstrated high chloride ion conductivities, 45 mS cm(-1) at 20 degrees C in deionized water, the highest chloride ion conductivity for anion conducting polymer electrolyte films. Additionally, straight-line lamellae of block copolymer electrolytes were realized using chemoepitaxy and density multiplication. The devised scheme allowed for precise and accurate control of orientation of ionic domains in nanostructured polymer electrolyte films and enables a platform for future studies that examines the relationship between polymer electrolyte structure and ion transport.

  4. New adhesive systems based on functionalized block copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, M.; Saunders, R.; Hurst, M.; Small, J.; Emerson, J.; Zamora, D.

    1997-05-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate chemically-functionalized block copolymers as adhesion promoters for metal/thermoset resin interfaces. Novel block copolymers were synthesized which contain pendant functional groups reactive toward copper and epoxy resins. In particular, imidazole and triazole functionalities that chelate with copper were incorporated onto one block, while secondary amines were incorporated onto the second block. These copolymers were found to self-assemble from solution onto copper surfaces to form monolayers. The structure of the adsorbed monolayers were studied in detail by neutron reflection and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The monolayer structure was found to vary markedly with the solution conditions and adsorption protocol. Appropriate conditions were found for which the two blocks form separate layers on the surface with the amine functionalized block exposed at the air surface. Adhesion testing of block copolymer-coated copper with epoxy resins was performed in both lap shear and peel modes. Modest enhancements in bond strengths were observed with the block copolymer applied to the native oxide. However, it was discovered that the native oxide is the weak link, and that by simply removing the native oxide, and then applying an epoxy resin before the native oxide can reform, excellent bond strength in the as-prepared state as well as excellent retention of bond strength after exposure to solder in ambient conditions are obtained. It is recommended that long term aging studies be performed with and without the block copolymer. In addition, the functionalized block copolymer method should be evaluated for another system that has inherently poor bonding, such as the nickel/silicone interface, and for systems involving metals and alloys which form oxides very rapidly, such as aluminum and stainless steel, where bonding strategies involve stabilizing the native oxide.

  5. A PYY Q62P variant linked to human obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Kavaslar, Nihan; Schackwitz, Wendy; Ustaszewska,Anna; Collier, John Michael; Hebert, Sybil; Doelle, Heather; Dent,Robert; Pennacchio, Len A.; McPherson, Ruth

    2005-06-27

    Members of the pancreatic polypeptide family and the irreceptors have been implicated in the control of food intake in rodents and humans. To investigate whether nucleotide changes in these candidate genes result in abnormal weight in humans, we sequenced the coding exons and splice sites of seven family members (NPY, PYY, PPY, NPY1R, NPY2R, NPY4R, and NPY5R) in a large cohort of extremely obese (n=379) and lean (n=378) individuals. In total we found eleven rare non-synonymous variants, four of which exhibited familial segregation, NPY1R L53P and PPY P63L with leanness and NPY2R D42G and PYY Q62P with obesity. Functional analysis of the obese variants revealed NPY2R D42G to have reduced cell surface expression, while previous cell culture based studies indicated variant PYY Q62P to have altered receptor binding selectivity and we show that it fails to reduce food intake through mouse peptide injection experiments. These results support that rare non-synonymous variants within these genes can alter susceptibility to human body mass index extremes.

  6. Study on Variant Anatomy of Sciatic Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    V, Sangeetha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sciatic Nerve (SN) is the nerve of the posterior compartment of thigh formed in the pelvis from the ventral rami of the L4 to S3 spinal nerves. It leaves the pelvis via the greater sciatic foramen below piriformis and divides into Common Peroneal Nerve (CPN) and Tibial Nerve (TN) at the level of the upper angle of the popliteal fossa. Higher division of the sciatic nerve is the most common variation where the TN and CPN may leave the pelvis through different routes. Such variation may lead to compression of the nerve and lead to Non-discogenic sciatica. Materials and Methods: Fifty lower limbs were used for the study from Department of Anatomy, J.J.M.M.C Davangere, Karnataka, India. Observation and Results: In our study on 25 cadavers (50 lower limbs), we have observed 4 (8 %) lower limbs high division of sciatic nerve was noted. High division of sciatic nerve in the back of thigh was noted in one specimen (2%), while high division within the pelvis was noted in 3 specimens (6%), while in 46 (92%) it occurred outside the pelvis. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding such variation and differences in the course of SN is important for the surgeons to plan for various surgical interventions pertaining to the gluteal region. The variant anatomy of SN may cause piriformis syndrome and failure of SN block. Hence present study is undertaken to know the level of division, exit, course, relationship to piriformis and variations in the branching pattern of SN. PMID:25302181

  7. CAMELOT: A machine learning approach for coarse-grained simulations of aggregation of block-copolymeric protein sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruff, Kiersten M. [Computational and Systems Biology Program and Center for Biological Systems Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130-4899 (United States); Harmon, Tyler S. [Department of Physics and Center for Biological Systems Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130-4899 (United States); Pappu, Rohit V., E-mail: pappu@wustl.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Center for Biological Systems Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, CB 1097, St. Louis, Missouri 63130-4899 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    We report the development and deployment of a coarse-graining method that is well suited for computer simulations of aggregation and phase separation of protein sequences with block-copolymeric architectures. Our algorithm, named CAMELOT for Coarse-grained simulations Aided by MachinE Learning Optimization and Training, leverages information from converged all atom simulations that is used to determine a suitable resolution and parameterize the coarse-grained model. To parameterize a system-specific coarse-grained model, we use a combination of Boltzmann inversion, non-linear regression, and a Gaussian process Bayesian optimization approach. The accuracy of the coarse-grained model is demonstrated through direct comparisons to results from all atom simulations. We demonstrate the utility of our coarse-graining approach using the block-copolymeric sequence from the exon 1 encoded sequence of the huntingtin protein. This sequence comprises of 17 residues from the N-terminal end of huntingtin (N17) followed by a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract. Simulations based on the CAMELOT approach are used to show that the adsorption and unfolding of the wild type N17 and its sequence variants on the surface of polyQ tracts engender a patchy colloid like architecture that promotes the formation of linear aggregates. These results provide a plausible explanation for experimental observations, which show that N17 accelerates the formation of linear aggregates in block-copolymeric N17-polyQ sequences. The CAMELOT approach is versatile and is generalizable for simulating the aggregation and phase behavior of a range of block-copolymeric protein sequences.

  8. Dimensional Reduction for Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Hogervorst, Matthijs

    2016-01-01

    We consider the dimensional reduction of a CFT, breaking multiplets of the d-dimensional conformal group SO(d+1,1) up into multiplets of SO(d,1). This leads to an expansion of d-dimensional conformal blocks in terms of blocks in d-1 dimensions. In particular, we obtain a formula for 3d conformal blocks as an infinite sum over 2F1 hypergeometric functions with closed-form coefficients.

  9. Common blocks for ASQS(12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Milazzo

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available An ASQS(v is a particular Steiner system featuring a set of v vertices and two separate families of blocks, B and G, whose elements have a respective cardinality of 4 and 6. It has the property that any three vertices of X belong either to a B-block or to a G-block. The parameter cb is the number of common blocks in two separate ASQSs, both defined on the same set of vertices X . In this paper it is shown that cb ≤ 29 for any pair of ASQSs(12.

  10. Eikonalization of Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, A Liam; Walters, Matthew T; Wang, Junpu

    2015-01-01

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the $t$-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the `eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator $T$ appears in the OPE $\\mathcal{O}(x) \\mathcal{O}(0)$, then the large spin $\\ell$ Fock space states $[TT \\cdots T]_{\\ell}$ also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an $\\langle \\mathcal{O} \\mathcal{O} \\mathcal{O} \\mathcal{O} \\rangle$ correlator build the classical `$T$ field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock space exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single $T$ exchange in the 4-pt correlator of $\\mathcal{O}$. Our results should be useful for systematizing $1/\\ell$ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading $\\log \\ell$...

  11. Adductor Canal Block versus Femoral Nerve Block and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia Therese; Nielsen, Zbigniew Jerzy Koscielniak; Henningsen, Lene Marianne;

    2013-01-01

    : The authors hypothesized that the adductor canal block (ACB), a predominant sensory blockade, reduces quadriceps strength compared with placebo (primary endpoint, area under the curve, 0.5-6 h), but less than the femoral nerve block (FNB; secondary endpoint). Other secondary endpoints were...

  12. Genetic analysis of Kruppel-like zinc finger 11 variants in 5864 Danish individuals: potential effect on insulin resistance and modified signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 binding by promoter variant -1659G>C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutiérrez-Aguilar, Ruth; Froguel, Philippe; Hamid, Yasmin H

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: The transcription factor Krüppel-like zinc finger 11 (KLF11) has been suggested to contribute to genetic risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our previous results showed that four KLF11 variants, in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD block including +185 A>G/Gln62Arg and -1659 G>C) were...

  13. Block Transfer Agreement Evaluation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastedo, Helena

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate for the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) the effectiveness of block transfer agreements (BTAs) in the BC Transfer System and recommend steps to be taken to improve their effectiveness. Findings of this study revealed that institutions want to expand block credit transfer;…

  14. Four-block beam collimator

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The photo shows a four-block collimator installed on a control table for positioning the alignment reference marks. Designed for use with the secondary beams, the collimators operated in vacuum conditions. The blocks were made of steel and had a standard length of 1 m. The maximum aperture had a square coss-section of 144 cm2. (See Annual Report 1976.)

  15. OPAL Various Lead Glass Blocks

    CERN Multimedia

    These lead glass blocks were part of a CERN detector called OPAL (one of the four experiments at the LEP particle detector). OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies in the electromagnetic calorimeter. This detector measured the energy deposited when electrons and photons were slowed down and stopped.

  16. Block storage subsystem performance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    You feel that your service is slow because of the storage subsystem? But there are too many abstraction layers between your software and the raw block device for you to debug all this pile... Let's dive on the platters and check out how the block storage sees your I/Os! We can even figure out what those patterns are meaning.

  17. Decision Making in the Reward and Punishment Variants of the Iowa Gambling Task: Evidence of “Foresight” or “Framing”?

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Varsha; Khan, Azizuddin

    2012-01-01

    Surface-level differences in the reward and punishment variants, specifically greater long-term decision making in the punishment variant of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) observed in previous studies led to the present comparison of long-term decision making in the two IGT variants (n = 320, male = 160). It was contended that risk aversion triggered by a positive frame of the reward variant and risk seeking triggered by a negative frame of the punishment variant appears as long-term decision m...

  18. Resistance of Abaca Somaclonal Variant Against Fusarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RULLY DYAH PURWATI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were (i to evaluate responses against F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc infection of abaca variants regenerated using four different methods, (ii to determine initial root length and plant height effects on survival of inoculated abaca variants, and (iii to identify Foc resistance abaca variants. In the previous experiment, four abaca variant lines were regenerated from (i embryogenic calli (TC line, (ii ethyl methyl sulphonate (EMS treated embryogenic calli (EMS line, (iii EMS treated embryogenic calli, followed by in vitro selection on Foc culture filtrate (EMS+CF line, and (iv EMS treated embryogenic calli, followed by in vitro selection on fusaric acid (EMS+FA line. All abaca variants were grown in a glasshouse and inoculated with Banyuwangi isolate of Foc (Foc Bw. Initial root length (RL and plant height (PH of the abaca variants were recorded before inoculation, while scores of plant damage (SPD, and their survival were recorded at 60 days after inoculation (DAI. The results showed that the initial RL and PH did not affect survival of the tested abaca variants. Regardless of their initial RL and PH, susceptible abaca variants died before 60 DAI while resistance ones still survived. Abaca variants regenerated from single clump of embryogenic callus showed an array of responses against Foc Bw infection, indicating the existence of a mix cells population. The Foc Bw resistance abaca variants were successfully identified from four tested abaca variant lines, although with different frequencies. However, more Foc Bw resistance abaca plants were identified from EMS+CF line than the others. Using the developed procedures, 8 resistance abaca plants were identified from abaca cv. Tangongon and 12 from abaca cv. Sangihe-1.

  19. Block copolymer adhesion promoters via ring-opening metathesis polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, M.S.; Saunders, R.

    1997-02-18

    Coupling agents are disclosed based on functionalized block copolymers for bonding thermoset polymers to solid materials. These are polymers which possess at least two types of functional groups, one which is able to attach to and react with solid surfaces, and another which can react with a thermoset resin, which are incorporated as pendant groups in monomers distributed in blocks (typically two) along the backbone of the chain. The block copolymers in this invention are synthesized by living ring-opening metathesis polymerization. 18 figs.

  20. Beta-glucosidase I variants with improved properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bott, Richard R.; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley; Goedegebuur, Frits; Hommes, Ronaldus Wilhelmus; Kralj, Slavko; Kruithof, Paulien; Nikolaev, Igor; Van Der Kley, Wilhelmus Antonious Hendricus; Van Lieshout, Johannes Franciscus Thomas; Van Stigt Thans, Sander

    2016-09-20

    The present disclosure is generally directed to enzymes and in particular beta-glucosidase variants. Also described are nucleic acids encoding beta-glucosidase variants, compositions comprising beta-glucosidase variants, methods of using beta-glucosidase variants, and methods of identifying additional useful beta-glucosidase variants.

  1. Fundamental Characteristics of Industrial Variant Specification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the operational task of creating customised variants of industrial specifications (e.g. drawings, routings and bill-of-materials). Rooted in a lack of existing literature on the subject the paper describes the nature of variant specification systems. It introduces some funda...... examples. In general the paper discusses an important focus area within mass customization and build-to-order production: the nature of industrial variant specification systems.......This paper focuses on the operational task of creating customised variants of industrial specifications (e.g. drawings, routings and bill-of-materials). Rooted in a lack of existing literature on the subject the paper describes the nature of variant specification systems. It introduces some...

  2. Local binary patterns new variants and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Nanni, Loris; Lumini, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces Local Binary Patterns (LBP), arguably one of the most powerful texture descriptors, and LBP variants. This volume provides the latest reviews of the literature and a presentation of some of the best LBP variants by researchers at the forefront of textual analysis research and research on LBP descriptors and variants. The value of LBP variants is illustrated with reported experiments using many databases representing a diversity of computer vision applications in medicine, biometrics, and other areas. There is also a chapter that provides an excellent theoretical foundation for texture analysis and LBP in particular. A special section focuses on LBP and LBP variants in the area of face recognition, including thermal face recognition. This book will be of value to anyone already in the field as well as to those interested in learning more about this powerful family of texture descriptors.

  3. The SKINNY Family of Block Ciphers and Its Low-Latency Variant MANTIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierle, Christof; Jean, Jérémy; Kölbl, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    all known ciphers for ASIC round-based implementations, while still reaching an extremely small area for serial implementations and a very good efficiency for software and micro-controllers implementations (SKINNY has the smallest total number of AND/OR/XOR gates used for encryption process). Secondly...

  4. Bilateral variant of sciatic nerve exhibiting intra-pelvic division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejeena P Raj, Kunjumon PC, More Anju B

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context (background: In case of high division of the sciatic nerve in the pelvis its, common peroneal component may pierce the Piriformis muscle. This anatomical variant can explain many clinical findings. Aims: Its objective is to report a case of high division of the sciatic nerve in order to contribute towards better anatomical understanding of the gluteal region. Methods and Material: Routine undergraduate dissection of a male cadaver revealed bilateral variation in sciatic nerve. Results: Sciatic nerve is dividing into tibial and common peroneal components in the pelvis. Common peroneal component is piercing through the piriformis muscle. Tibial component is emerging between piriformis and superior gemelli muscle. Conclusions: Sciatic nerve variation can lead to a Piriformis muscle syndrome, inadvertent injury during operations in the gluteal region, failure of sciatic nerve block and/or sciatic neuropathy. The differences in routes of these two nerve components can explain them.

  5. Identification, characteristics and classification of cryogenic block streams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stuart A. Harris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryogenic block streams consist of a stream of rocks superficially resembling a stream deposit but lacking a matrix, usually occurring on a valley or gully floor or on slopes that are less steep than the maximum angle of repose of coarse sediments. They are usually formed on perennially frozen ground, but can also occur as relict landforms. There are three main active kinds forming today,viz., Siberian and Tibetan dynamic rock streams and lag block streams. During their formation, the blocks in the active Siberian and Tibetan dynamic block streams move downslope at up to 1 m/a. They are forming today on the Tibetan Plateau and in the more arid parts of south-central Siberia, although the processes involved in the movement are different. In the case of the Tibetan type, individual blocks slide downslope over the substrate in winter on an icy coating in areas of minimal winter precipitation. The Siberian type develops in areas of 15–80 cm of winter snow cover and an MAAT (mean annual air temperature) of−4 °C to−17 °C. The movement is due to creep of snow and ice and collapse of the blocks downslope during thawing. Lag block streams are formed by meltwater flowing over the surface of sediment consisting primarily of larger blocks with a limited amount of interstitial sediment. The erosion of the matrix is primarily in the spring in areas of higher winter precipitation on 10°–30° slopes. The blocks remain stationary, but the interstitial sediment is washed out by strong seasonal flows of meltwater or rain to form an alluvial fan. The boulders undergo weathering and become more rounded in the process. Lag block streams can also develop without the presence of permafrost in areas with cold climates or glaciers. Block streams also occur as relict deposits in older deposits under various climatic regimes that are unsuitable for their formation today. An example of relict lag block streams with subangular to subrounded blocks occurs in gullies on the

  6. Antigenic Relatedness of Norovirus GII.4 Variants Determined by Human Challenge Sera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chun Dai

    Full Text Available The GII.4 noroviruses (NoVs are a single genotype that is responsible for over 50% of NoV gastroenteritis epidemics worldwide. However, GII.4 NoVs have been found to undergo antigenic drifts, likely selected by host herd immunity, which raises an issue for vaccine strategies against NoVs. We previously characterized GII.4 NoV antigenic variations and found significant levels of antigenic relatedness among different GII.4 variants. Further characterization of the genetic and antigenic relatedness of recent GII.4 variants (2008b and 2010 cluster was performed in this study. The amino acid sequences of the receptor binding interfaces were highly conserved among all GII.4 variants from the past two decades. Using serum samples from patients enrolled in a GII.4 virus challenge study, significant cross-reactivity between major GII.4 variants from 1998 to 2012 was observed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and HBGA receptor blocking assays. The overall abilities of GII.4 NoVs to bind to the A/B/H HBGAs were maintained while their binding affinities to individual ABH antigens varied. These results highlight the importance of human HBGAs in NoV evolution and how conserved antigenic types impact vaccine development against GII.4 variants.

  7. Modeling of protein-anion exchange resin interaction for the human growth hormone charge variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapelosa, Mauro; Patapoff, Thomas W; Zarraga, Isidro E

    2015-12-01

    Modeling ion exchange chromatography (IEC) behavior has generated significant interest because of the wide use of IEC as an analytical technique as well as a preparative protein purification process; indeed there is a need for better understanding of what drives the unique behavior of protein charge variants. We hypothesize that a complex protein molecule, which contains both hydrophobic and charged moieties, would interact strongly with an in silico designed resin through charged electrostatic patches on the surface of the protein. In the present work, variants of recombinant human growth hormone that mimic naturally-occurring deamidation products were produced and characterized in silico. The study included these four variants: rhGH, N149D, N152D, and N149D/N152D. Poisson-Boltzmann calculations were used to determine surface electrostatic potential. Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations were carried out with the resulting variants to simulate IEC systems, examining the free energy of the interaction of the protein with an in silico anion exchange column represented by polylysine polypeptide. The results show that the charge variants have different average binding energies and the free energy of interaction can be used to predict the retention time for the different variants.

  8. MarineMineralsProgramBlocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains OCS block outlines and delineated polygons in ESRI ArcGIS shape file format for the BOEM Gulf of Mexico Region that contain sediment resources...

  9. Hawaii Census 2000 Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups...

  10. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  11. Variant angina and coronary artery spasm: the clinical spectrum, pathophysiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusama, Yoshiki; Kodani, Eitaro; Nakagomi, Akihiro; Otsuka, Toshiaki; Atarashi, Hirotsugu; Kishida, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Kyoichi

    2011-01-01

    Variant angina is a form of angina pectoris that shows transient ST-segment elevation on electrocardiogram during an attack of chest pain. Ischemic episodes of variant angina show circadian variation and often occur at rest from midnight to early morning. Ischemic episodes also occur during mild exercise in the early morning. However, they are not usually induced by strenuous exercise in the afternoon. Other important clinical features of variant angina include the high frequency of asymptomatic ischemic episodes and the syncope that sometimes occur during the ischemic episodes. Syncope is due to severe arrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and high-degree atrioventricular block. Coronary artery spasm is the mechanism of ischemic episodes in variant angina. The incidence of coronary artery spasm shows a racial difference and is higher in Japanese than in Caucasians. Coronary arteriograms are normal or near-normal in most Japanese patients with variant angina. Deficient basal release of nitric oxide (NO) due to endothelial dysfunction, and enhanced vascular smooth muscle contractility with the involvement of the Rho/Rho-kinase pathway are reported to play important roles in the pathogenesis of coronary artery spasm. Other precipitating factors of coronary artery spasm include imbalance in autonomic nervous activity, increased oxidative stress, chronic low-grade inflammation, magnesium deficiency, and genetic susceptibility. The genetic risk factors associated with coronary artery spasm include gene polymorphisms of endothelial NO synthase (NOS), paraoxonase, and other genes. Calcium channel blockers are extremely effective in preventing coronary spasm. The long-acting nitrate, nicorandil, and Rho-kinase inhibitor are also useful for inhibiting coronary artery spasm. Because variant angina can lead to acute myocardial infarction, fatal arrhythmias, and sudden death, early treatment is important. The prognosis of patients with

  12. Multi-block and path modelling procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2008-01-01

    The author has developed a unified theory of path and multi-block modelling of data. The data blocks are arranged in a directional path. Each data block can lead to one or more data blocks. It is assumed that there is given a collection of input data blocks. Each of them is supposed to describe one...

  13. Thalamic pain alleviated by stellate ganglion block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chenlong; Yang, Min; Liu, Pengfei; Zhong, Wenxiang; Zhang, Wenchuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Thalamic pain is a distressing and treatment-resistant type of central post-stroke pain. Although stellate ganglion block is an established intervention used in pain management, its use in the treatment of thalamic pain has never been reported. Patient concerns: A 66-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of severe intermittent lancinating pain on the right side of the face and the right hand. The pain started from the ulnar side of the right forearm after a mild ischemic stroke in bilateral basal ganglia and left thalamus. Weeks later, the pain extended to the dorsum of the finger tips and the whole palmar surface, becoming more severe. Meanwhile, there was also pain with similar characteristics emerging on her right face, resembling atypical trigeminal neuralgia. Diagnoses: Thalamic pain was diagnosed. Interventions: After refusing the further invasive treatment, she was suggested to try stellate ganglion block. Outcomes: After a 3-day period of pain free (numerical rating scale: 0) postoperatively, she reported moderate to good pain relief with a numerical rating scale of about 3 to 4 lasting 1 month after the first injection. Pain as well as the quality of life was markedly improved with less dose of analgesic agents. Lessons: Stellate ganglion block may be an optional treatment for thalamic pain. PMID:28151918

  14. Chemokine gene variants in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasdemir, Selcuk; Kucukali, Cem Ismail; Bireller, Elif Sinem; Tuzun, Erdem; Cakmakoglu, Bedia

    2016-08-01

    Background Chemokines are known to play a major role in driving inflammation and immune responses in several neuroinflammatory diseases, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Inflammation has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Aim We aimed to investigate a potential link between chemokines and schizophrenia and analyze the role of MCP-1-A2518G, SDF-1-3'A, CCR5-delta32, CCR5-A55029G, CXCR4-C138T and CCR2-V64I gene polymorphisms in the Turkish population. Methods Genotyping was conducted by PCR-RFLP based on 140 patients and 123 unrelated healthy controls to show the relation between chemokine gene variants and schizophrenia risk. Results Frequencies of CCR5-A55029G A genotypes and CCR5-A55029G AG genotypes were found higher in patients than the controls and even also CCR2-V64I WT: CCR5-A55029G A and CCR2-V64I 64I: CCR5-A55029G A haplotypes significantly associated according to Bonferroni correction. However, no significant association was found for any of the other polymorphisms with the risk of schizophrenia. Conclusions Our findings suggest that CCR5-A55029G polymorphisms and CCR2-V64I WT: CCR5-A55029G A and CCR2-V64I 64I: CCR5-A55029G A haplotypes might have association with schizophrenia pathogenesis.

  15. Different Variants of Fundamental Portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarczyński Waldemar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the fundamental portfolio of securities. This portfolio is an alternative for the classic Markowitz model, which combines fundamental analysis with portfolio analysis. The method’s main idea is based on the use of the TMAI1 synthetic measure and, in limiting conditions, the use of risk and the portfolio’s rate of return in the objective function. Different variants of fundamental portfolio have been considered under an empirical study. The effectiveness of the proposed solutions has been related to the classic portfolio constructed with the help of the Markowitz model and the WIG20 market index’s rate of return. All portfolios were constructed with data on rates of return for 2005. Their effectiveness in 2006- 2013 was then evaluated. The studied period comprises the end of the bull market, the 2007-2009 crisis, the 2010 bull market and the 2011 crisis. This allows for the evaluation of the solutions’ flexibility in various extreme situations. For the construction of the fundamental portfolio’s objective function and the TMAI, the study made use of financial and economic data on selected indicators retrieved from Notoria Serwis for 2005.

  16. NANOSTRUCTURES OF FUNCTIONAL BLOCK COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guojun Liu

    2000-01-01

    Nanostructure fabrication from block copolymers in my group normally involves polymer design, synthesis, selfassembly, selective domain crosslinking, and sometimes selective domain removal. Preparation of thin films with nanochannels was used to illustrate the strategy we took. In this particular case, a linear triblock copolymer polyisopreneblock-poly(2-cinnamoylethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(t-butyl acrylate), PI-b-PCEMA-b-PtBA, was used. Films, 25 to50μm thick, were prepared from casting on glass slides a toluene solution of PI-b-PCEMA-b-PtBA and PtBA homopolymer,hPtBA, where hPtBA is shorter than the PtBA block. At the hPtBA mass fraction of 20% relative to the triblock or the total PtBA (hPtBA and PtBA block) volume fraction of 0.44, hPtBA and PtBA formed a seemingly continuous phase in the matrix of PCEMA and PI. Such a block segregation pattern was locked in by photocrosslinking the PCEMA domain. Nanochannels were formed by extracting out hPtBA with solvent. Alternatively, larger channels were obtained from extracting out hPtBA and hydrolyzing the t-butyl groups of the PtBA block. Such membranes were not liquid permeable but had gas permeability constants ~6 orders of magnitude higher than that of low-density polyethylene films.

  17. Investigation on Strength Parameters of Interlocking Hollow Block Strengthened with Steel Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarath P

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces a specially designed hollow block in such a way that the bonding was achieved by interlocking. The block provides facility for concealing electrical conduit, water and sewer pipes wherever so desired without causing much damage to the block. Proper surface finish was achieved by M10 mix. In order to get a finished surface several trial mixes were tested. The respective blocks were casted with and without steel fibres and the test results were compared. A comparative study of strength parameters is to be executed with respect to solid concrete block and concrete hollow block. Hollow block strengthened with steel fibre can be effectively used as load bearing wall.

  18. Decision making in the reward and punishment variants of the iowa gambling task: evidence of "foresight" or "framing"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varsha; Khan, Azizuddin

    2012-01-01

    Surface-level differences in the reward and punishment variants, specifically greater long-term decision making in the punishment variant of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) observed in previous studies led to the present comparison of long-term decision making in the two IGT variants (n = 320, male = 160). It was contended that risk aversion triggered by a positive frame of the reward variant and risk seeking triggered by a negative frame of the punishment variant appears as long-term decision making in the two IGT variants. Apart from the frame of the variant as a within-subjects factor (variant type: reward and punishment), the order in which the frame was triggered (order type: reward-punishment or punishment-reward), and the four types of instructions that delineated motivation toward reward from that of punishment (reward, punishment, reward and punishment, and no-hint) were hypothesized to have an effect on foresighted decision making in the IGT. As expected, long-term decision making differed across the two IGT variants suggesting that the frame of the variant has an effect on long-term decision making in the IGT (p punishment resulted in greater foresight than the commonly used IGT instructions that fail to distinguish between reward and punishment. As observed in previous studies, there were more number of participants (60%) who showed greater foresight in the punishment variant than in the reward variant (p punishment frame in an asymmetric manner, an observation that is aligned with the behavioral decision making framework. Benefits of integrating findings from behavioral studies in decision neuroscience are discussed, and a need to investigate cultural differences in the IGT studies is pointed out.

  19. Histological variants of cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantanowitz Liron

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review provides a comprehensive overview of the broad clinicopathologic spectrum of cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma (KS lesions. Variants discussed include: usual KS lesions associated with disease progression (i.e. patch, plaque and nodular stage; morphologic subtypes alluded to in the older literature such as anaplastic and telangiectatic KS, as well as several lymphedematous variants; and numerous recently described variants including hyperkeratotic, keloidal, micronodular, pyogenic granuloma-like, ecchymotic, and intravascular KS. Involuting lesions as a result of treatment related regression are also presented.

  20. Seismic waves in a three-dimensional block medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, N. I.

    2016-08-01

    We study numerically the propagation of seismic waves in a three-dimensional block medium. The medium is modelled by a spatial lattice of masses connected by elastic springs and viscous dampers. We study Lamb's problem under a surface point vertical load. The cases of both step and pulse load are considered. The displacements and velocities are calculated for surface masses. The influence of the viscosity of the dampers on the attenuation of perturbations is studied. We compare our numerical results for the block medium with known analytical solutions for the elastic medium.

  1. Seismic waves in a three-dimensional block medium

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksandrova, Nadezhda

    2016-01-01

    We study numerically the propagation of seismic waves in a three-dimensional block medium. The medium is modeled by a spatial lattice of masses connected by elastic springs and viscous dampers. We study Lamb's problem under a surface point vertical load. The cases of both step and pulse load are considered. The displacements and velocities are calculated for surface masses. The influence of the viscosity of the dampers on the attenuation of perturbations is studied. We compare our numerical results for the block medium with known analytical solutions for the elastic medium.

  2. Variant surface antigens, virulence genes and the pathogenesis of malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deitsch, Kirk W; Hviid, Lars

    2004-01-01

    The first Molecular Approaches to Malaria meeting was held 2-5 February 2000 in Lorne, Australia. Following the meeting, Brian Cooke, Mats Wahlgren and Ross Coppel predicted that research into the molecular details of the mechanisms behind sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes would "become...... increasingly more complicated, with further interactions, receptors, ligands and functional domains". Furthermore, they cautioned that "the challenge will be not to lose ourselves in the molecular detail, but remain focused on the role of [the var genes and other multigene families] in pathogenesis of malaria......". We contemplate on these statements, following the recent second Molecular Approaches to Malaria meeting, which was held at the same venue on 2-5 February 2004....

  3. Identifying rock blocks based on hierarchical rock-mass structure model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Rock-masses are divided into many closed blocks by deterministic and stochastic discontinuities and engineering interfaces in complex rock-mass engineering. Determining the sizes, shapes, and adjacent relations of blocks is important for stability analysis of fractured rock masses. Here we propose an algorithm for identifying spatial blocks based on a hierarchical 3D Rock-mass Structure Model (RSM). First, a model is built composed of deterministic discontinuities, engineering interfaces, and the earth’s surface, and the deterministic blocks surrounded by these interfaces are traced. Then, in each deter-ministic block, a network model of stochastic discontinuities is built and the stochastic blocks are traced. Building a unitary wire frame that connects all interfaces seamlessly is the key for our algorithm to identify the above two kinds of blocks. Using this algorithm, geometric models can be built for block theory, discrete element method, and discontinuous deformation analysis.

  4. The response of high-impact blocking weather systems to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Daniel; Parker, Tess; Woollings, Tim; Harvey, Benjamin; Shaffrey, Len

    2016-07-01

    Midlatitude weather and climate are dominated by the jet streams and associated eastward moving storm systems. Occasionally, however, these are blocked by persistent anticyclonic regimes known as blocking. Climate models generally predict a small decline in blocking frequency under anthropogenic climate change. However, confidence in these predictions is undermined by, among other things, a lack of understanding of the physical mechanisms underlying the change. Here we analyze blocking (mostly in the Euro-Atlantic sector) in a set of sensitivity experiments to determine the effect of different parts of the surface global warming pattern. We also analyze projected changes in the impacts of blocking such as temperature extremes. The results show that enhanced warming both in the tropics and over the Arctic act to strengthen the projected decline in blocking. The tropical changes are more important for the uncertainty in projected blocking changes, though the Arctic also affects the temperature anomalies during blocking.

  5. Optimal Backward Perturbation Analysis for the Block Skew Circulant Linear Systems with Skew Circulant Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We first give the block style spectral decomposition of arbitrary block skew circulant matrix with skew circulant blocks. Secondly, we obtain the singular value of block skew circulant matrix with skew circulant blocks as well. Finally, based on the block style spectral decomposition, we deal with the optimal backward perturbation analysis for the block skew circulant linear system with skew circulant blocks.

  6. Splicing variants of porcine synphilin-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud Erik; Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Farajzadeh, Leila;

    2015-01-01

    %) and to mouse (84%) synphilin-1. Three shorter transcript variants of the synphilin-1 gene were identified, all lacking one or more exons. SNCAIP transcripts were detected in most examined organs and tissues and the highest expression was found in brain tissues and lung. Conserved splicing variants and a novel......RNA was investigated by RNAseq. The presented work reports the molecular cloning and characterization of the porcine (Sus scrofa) synphilin-1 cDNA (SNCAIP) and three splice variants hereof. The porcine SNCAIP cDNA codes for a protein (synphilin-1) of 919 amino acids which shows a high similarity to human (90...... splice form of synhilin-1 were found in this study. All synphilin-1 isoforms encoded by the identified transcript variants lack functional domains important for protein degradation....

  7. TCM Differential Treatment of Cough Variant Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong-de; DENG Yi-qi; ZHANG Yu; HAN Yun; LIN Lin; CHAO En-xiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cough variant asthma (CVA), also called latent asthma or cough asthma, is a special type of asthma. With gradually deepened understanding of CVA in recent years, good curative effect has been achieved in TCM treatment of CVA.

  8. Histone variants in plant transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Danhua; Berger, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Chromatin based organization of eukaryotic genome plays a profound role in regulating gene transcription. Nucleosomes form the basic subunits of chromatin by packaging DNA with histone proteins, impeding the access of DNA to transcription factors and RNA polymerases. Exchange of histone variants in nucleosomes alters the properties of nucleosomes and thus modulates DNA exposure during transcriptional regulation. Growing evidence indicates the important function of histone variants in programming transcription during developmental transitions and stress response. Here we review how histone variants and their deposition machineries regulate the nucleosome stability and dynamics, and discuss the link between histone variants and transcriptional regulation in plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Gene Regulatory Mechanisms and Networks, edited by Dr. Erich Grotewold and Dr. Nathan Springer.

  9. Bisalbuminemia. A new molecular variant, albumin Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, J; Kozier, J; Campbell, D J; Curnow, J V; Tárnoky, A L

    1978-11-01

    Of 18 members of a Fiji Indian family investigated, eight of the 12 males and two of the six females had an electrophoretically slow-type bisalbuminemia (alloalbuminemia). The albumin was characterized by the hiterto unique ratio of the two bands (Al A 35%: variant 65%), and by dye-binding studies and electrophoretic mobility in different media. The data suggest that this is a new variant, which we propose to call albumin Vancouver (Al Va).

  10. Variant profiling of evolving prokaryotic populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zojer, Markus; Schuster, Lisa N.; Schulz, Frederik; Pfundner, Alexander; Horn, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Genomic heterogeneity of bacterial species is observed and studied in experimental evolution experiments and clinical diagnostics, and occurs as micro-diversity of natural habitats. The challenge for genome research is to accurately capture this heterogeneity with the currently used short sequencing reads. Recent advances in NGS technologies improved the speed and coverage and thus allowed for deep sequencing of bacterial populations. This facilitates the quantitative assessment of genomic heterogeneity, including low frequency alleles or haplotypes. However, false positive variant predictions due to sequencing errors and mapping artifacts of short reads need to be prevented. We therefore created VarCap, a workflow for the reliable prediction of different types of variants even at low frequencies. In order to predict SNPs, InDels and structural variations, we evaluated the sensitivity and accuracy of different software tools using synthetic read data. The results suggested that the best sensitivity could be reached by a union of different tools, however at the price of increased false positives. We identified possible reasons for false predictions and used this knowledge to improve the accuracy by post-filtering the predicted variants according to properties such as frequency, coverage, genomic environment/localization and co-localization with other variants. We observed that best precision was achieved by using an intersection of at least two tools per variant. This resulted in the reliable prediction of variants above a minimum relative abundance of 2%. VarCap is designed for being routinely used within experimental evolution experiments or for clinical diagnostics. The detected variants are reported as frequencies within a VCF file and as a graphical overview of the distribution of the different variant/allele/haplotype frequencies. The source code of VarCap is available at https://github.com/ma2o/VarCap. In order to provide this workflow to a broad community

  11. Another new variant of Bouveret's syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seong-Heum Park; Sang-Woo Lee; Tae-Jin Song

    2009-01-01

    Although Bouveret's syndrome, i.e. gastric outlet obstruction by a large gallstone impacted in the proximal duodenum secondary to a cholecystoduodenal fistula,is rare, its pathogenesis and clinical features are well characterized. However, existence of variant forms of the syndrome are not well known, and as far as we have been described in the English-language literature.We present a case of another new variant of Bouveret's syndrome in a 54-year-old Korean woman.

  12. Brief Analysis of Regional Variants in English%Brief Analysis of Regional Variants in Enghsh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炳科

    2008-01-01

    It is universally acknowledged that regional variants exist in each language, for it is impossible that people always employ the same pronunciation or vocabulary or even grammar to express the same meaning no matter how large the scope in which a language is used may be. The author of this paper is just to exemplify some regional variants in English and to analyze the factors that account for the variants ,with the purpose of teaching English well in the most efficient way.

  13. Histone variants: key players of chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biterge, Burcu; Schneider, Robert

    2014-06-01

    Histones are fundamental structural components of chromatin. Eukaryotic DNA is wound around an octamer of the core histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Binding of linker histone H1 promotes higher order chromatin organization. In addition to their structural role, histones impact chromatin function and dynamics by, e.g., post-translational histone modifications or the presence of specific histone variants. Histone variants exhibit differential expression timings (DNA replication-independent) and mRNA characteristics compared to canonical histones. Replacement of canonical histones with histone variants can affect nucleosome stability and help to create functionally distinct chromatin domains. In line with this, several histone variants have been implicated in the regulation of cellular processes such as DNA repair and transcriptional activity. In this review, we focus on recent progress in the study of core histone variants H2A.X, H2A.Z, macroH2A, H3.3, and CENP-A, as well as linker histone H1 variants, their functions and their links to development and disease.

  14. Contrasting reduced overshadowing and blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Daniel S; Miller, Ralph R

    2007-07-01

    Preexposure of a cue without an outcome (X-) prior to compound pairings with the outcome (XZ-->O) can reduce overshadowing of a target cue (Z). Moreover, pairing a cue with an outcome (X-->O) before compound training can enhance its ability to compete with another cue (i.e., blocking). Four experiments were conducted in a conditioned bar-press suppression preparation with rats to determine whether spacing of the X- or X-->O trials would differentially affect reduced overshadowing and blocking. Experiment 1a showed that reduced overshadowing was larger with massed trials than with spaced trials. Experiment 1b found that blocking was larger with spaced trials than with massed trials. Experiments 2a and 2b indicated that these effects of trial spacing were both mediated by the associative status of the context at test. The results are interpreted in the framework of contemporary learning theories.

  15. Diversity Gain through Antenna Blocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dehghanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the typical usage mode, interaction between a handheld receiver antenna and the operator's RF absorbing body and nearby objects is known to generate variability in antenna radiation characteristics through blocking and pattern changes. It is counterintuitive that random variations in blocking can result in diversity gain of practical applicability. This diversity gain is quantified from a theoretical and experimental perspective. Measurements carried out at 1947.5 MHz verify the theoretical predictions, and a diversity gain of 3.1 dB was measured through antenna blocking and based on the utilized measurement setup. The diversity gain can be exploited to enhance signal detectability of handheld receivers based on a single antenna in indoor multipath environments.

  16. Population diversity and antibody selective pressure to Plasmodium falciparum MSP1 block2 locus in an African malaria-endemic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trape Jean-François

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic evidence for diversifying selection identified the Merozoite Surface Protein1 block2 (PfMSP1 block2 as a putative target of protective immunity against Plasmodium falciparum. The locus displays three family types and one recombinant type, each with multiple allelic forms differing by single nucleotide polymorphism as well as sequence, copy number and arrangement variation of three amino acid repeats. The family-specific antibody responses observed in endemic settings support immune selection operating at the family level. However, the factors contributing to the large intra-family allelic diversity remain unclear. To address this question, population allelic polymorphism and sequence variant-specific antibody responses were studied in a single Senegalese rural community where malaria transmission is intense and perennial. Results Family distribution showed no significant temporal fluctuation over the 10 y period surveyed. Sequencing of 358 PCR fragments identified 126 distinct alleles, including numerous novel alleles in each family and multiple novel alleles of recombinant types. The parasite population consisted in a large number of low frequency alleles, alongside one high-frequency and three intermediate frequency alleles. Population diversity tests supported positive selection at the family level, but showed no significant departure from neutrality when considering intra-family allelic sequence diversity and all families combined. Seroprevalence, analysed using biotinylated peptides displaying numerous sequence variants, was moderate and increased with age. Reactivity profiles were individual-specific, mapped to the family-specific flanking regions and to repeat sequences shared by numerous allelic forms within a family type. Seroreactivity to K1-, Mad20- and R033 families correlated with the relative family genotype distribution within the village. Antibody specificity remained unchanged with cumulated exposure

  17. Self-assembly of block copolymers on topographically patterned polymeric substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P.; Park, Soojin; Lee, Dong Hyun; Xu, Ting

    2016-05-10

    Highly-ordered block copolymer films are prepared by a method that includes forming a polymeric replica of a topographically patterned crystalline surface, forming a block copolymer film on the topographically patterned surface of the polymeric replica, and annealing the block copolymer film. The resulting structures can be used in a variety of different applications, including the fabrication of high density data storage media. The ability to use flexible polymers to form the polymeric replica facilitates industrial-scale processes utilizing the highly-ordered block copolymer films.

  18. Investigation of protein selectivity in multimodal chromatography using in silico designed Fab fragment variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Krogh, Berit Olsen; Woo, James; Parimal, Siddharth; Ahmadian, Haleh; Cramer, Steven M

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a unique set of antibody Fab fragments was designed in silico and produced to examine the relationship between protein surface properties and selectivity in multimodal chromatographic systems. We hypothesized that multimodal ligands containing both hydrophobic and charged moieties would interact strongly with protein surface regions where charged groups and hydrophobic patches were in close spatial proximity. Protein surface property characterization tools were employed to identify the potential multimodal ligand binding regions on the Fab fragment of a humanized antibody and to evaluate the impact of mutations on surface charge and hydrophobicity. Twenty Fab variants were generated by site-directed mutagenesis, recombinant expression, and affinity purification. Column gradient experiments were carried out with the Fab variants in multimodal, cation-exchange, and hydrophobic interaction chromatographic systems. The results clearly indicated that selectivity in the multimodal system was different from the other chromatographic modes examined. Column retention data for the reduced charge Fab variants identified a binding site comprising light chain CDR1 as the main electrostatic interaction site for the multimodal and cation-exchange ligands. Furthermore, the multimodal ligand binding was enhanced by additional hydrophobic contributions as evident from the results obtained with hydrophobic Fab variants. The use of in silico protein surface property analyses combined with molecular biology techniques, protein expression, and chromatographic evaluations represents a previously undescribed and powerful approach for investigating multimodal selectivity with complex biomolecules.

  19. OPAL 96 Blocks Lead Glass

    CERN Multimedia

    This array of 96 lead glass bricks formed part of the OPAL electromagnetic calorimeter. One half of the complete calorimeter is shown in the picture above. There were 9440 lead glass counters in the OPAL electromagnetic calorimeter. These are made of Schott type SF57 glass and each block weighs about 25 kg and consists of 76% PbO by weight. Each block has a Hamamatsu R2238 photomultiplier glued on to it. The complete detector was in the form of a cylinder 7m long and 6m in diameter. It was used to measure the energy of electrons and photons produced in LEP interactions.

  20. Block sparse Cholesky algorithms on advanced uniprocessor computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, E.G.; Peyton, B.W.

    1991-12-01

    As with many other linear algebra algorithms, devising a portable implementation of sparse Cholesky factorization that performs well on the broad range of computer architectures currently available is a formidable challenge. Even after limiting our attention to machines with only one processor, as we have done in this report, there are still several interesting issues to consider. For dense matrices, it is well known that block factorization algorithms are the best means of achieving this goal. We take this approach for sparse factorization as well. This paper has two primary goals. First, we examine two sparse Cholesky factorization algorithms, the multifrontal method and a blocked left-looking sparse Cholesky method, in a systematic and consistent fashion, both to illustrate the strengths of the blocking techniques in general and to obtain a fair evaluation of the two approaches. Second, we assess the impact of various implementation techniques on time and storage efficiency, paying particularly close attention to the work-storage requirement of the two methods and their variants.

  1. MULTI-BLOCK CHAINING-BASED AUTHENTICATION MODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Yuhua; Hu Aiqun; Zhong Ziguo

    2006-01-01

    A fast authentication mode based on Multi-Block Chaining (MBC) is put forward; and its security is proved. The MBC mode is for new generation block cipher algorithms. Its speed is about 13% faster than that of the authentication modes in common use (for example, cipher block chaining-message authentication code mode). The dependence test results meet the requirement. The MBC mode is complete; its degree of avalanche effect is about 0.9993; its degree of strict avalanche criterion is 0.992 or so. The frequency test results indicate that the output generated by the MBC mode has uniformity. The binary matrix rank test results imply that it is linear independent among disjoint sub-matrices of the output. Maurer's universal statistical test results show that the output could be significantly compressed without loss of information. Run test, spectral test,non-overlapping template matching test, overlapping template matching test, Lempel-Ziv compression test,linear complexity test, serial test, approximate entropy test, cumulative sums test, random excursions test and random excursions variant test results fulfill the requirements of all. Therefore the MBC mode has good pseudo-randomness. Thus the security of MBC mode is verified by the way of statistical evaluation.

  2. α1-Syntrophin Variant Identified in Drug-Induced Long QT Syndrome Increases Late Sodium Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-Il; Wang, Chaojian; Thomas, Matthew J; Pitt, Geoffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced long-QT syndrome (diLQTS) is often due to drug block of IKr, especially in genetically susceptible patients with subclinical mutations in the IKr-encoding KCHN2. Few variants in the cardiac NaV1.5 Na+ channel complex have been associated with diLQTS. We tested whether a novel SNTA1 (α1-syntrophin) variant (p.E409Q) found in a patient with diLQTS increases late sodium current (INa-L), thereby providing a disease mechanism. Electrophysiological studies were performed in HEK293T cells co-expressing human NaV1.5/nNOS/PMCA4b with either wild type (WT) or SNTA1 variants (A390V-previously reported in congenital LQTS; and E409Q); and in adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes infected with SNTA1 expressing adenoviruses (WT or one of the two SNTA1 variants). In HEK293T cells and in cardiomyocytes, there was no significant difference in the peak INa densities among the SNTA1 WT and variants. However, both variants increased INa-L (% of peak current) in HEK293T cells (0.58 ± 0.10 in WT vs. 0.90 ± 0.11 in A390V, p = 0.048; vs. 0.88 ± 0.07 in E409Q, p = 0.023). In cardiomyocytes, INa-L was significantly increased by E409Q, but not by A390V compared to WT (0.49 ± 0.14 in WT vs.0.94 ± 0.23 in A390V, p = 0.099; vs. 1.12 ± 0.24 in E409Q, p = 0.019). We demonstrated that a novel SNTA1 variant is likely causative for diLQTS by augmenting INa-L. These data suggest that variants within the NaV1.5-interacting α1-syntrophin are a potential mechanism for diLQTS, thereby expanding the concept that variants within congenital LQTS loci can cause diLQTS.

  3. α1-Syntrophin Variant Identified in Drug-Induced Long QT Syndrome Increases Late Sodium Current.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Il Choi

    Full Text Available Drug-induced long-QT syndrome (diLQTS is often due to drug block of IKr, especially in genetically susceptible patients with subclinical mutations in the IKr-encoding KCHN2. Few variants in the cardiac NaV1.5 Na+ channel complex have been associated with diLQTS. We tested whether a novel SNTA1 (α1-syntrophin variant (p.E409Q found in a patient with diLQTS increases late sodium current (INa-L, thereby providing a disease mechanism. Electrophysiological studies were performed in HEK293T cells co-expressing human NaV1.5/nNOS/PMCA4b with either wild type (WT or SNTA1 variants (A390V-previously reported in congenital LQTS; and E409Q; and in adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes infected with SNTA1 expressing adenoviruses (WT or one of the two SNTA1 variants. In HEK293T cells and in cardiomyocytes, there was no significant difference in the peak INa densities among the SNTA1 WT and variants. However, both variants increased INa-L (% of peak current in HEK293T cells (0.58 ± 0.10 in WT vs. 0.90 ± 0.11 in A390V, p = 0.048; vs. 0.88 ± 0.07 in E409Q, p = 0.023. In cardiomyocytes, INa-L was significantly increased by E409Q, but not by A390V compared to WT (0.49 ± 0.14 in WT vs.0.94 ± 0.23 in A390V, p = 0.099; vs. 1.12 ± 0.24 in E409Q, p = 0.019. We demonstrated that a novel SNTA1 variant is likely causative for diLQTS by augmenting INa-L. These data suggest that variants within the NaV1.5-interacting α1-syntrophin are a potential mechanism for diLQTS, thereby expanding the concept that variants within congenital LQTS loci can cause diLQTS.

  4. The New Block Cipher Design (Tigris Cipher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Dawood

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we have proposed a new variant of AES cipher with high level of security and an elegant construction called TIGRIS cipher. The TIGRIS name has been derived from one of the two famous rivers in Iraq. The proposed TIGRIS cipher is a revision for the proposed Euphrates cipher which has already been published. It has been designed with a good coherent structure that is based on solid algebraic and well mathematical opinions. The proposed cipher uses the SPN structure and what is known by the Galois Field GF (28. It is an iterated cipher that has a conservative design which is easily implemented on both hardware and software. It operates with block size of 128-bits and with three variable key lengths of 128-bits, 192-bits and 256-bits in addition to sixteen rounds or multiples of four rounds. The proposed cipher works with good invertible operations' stages and a compact duplicated ciphering key. The Tigris cipher construction strategy includes the adoption of construction a new S-box with high non-linearity that uses the same routines of the AES-S-box stage but with different modular arithmetic of irreducible polynomial and different affine matrix in addition to the distinct constant vector. The second and the third layers of the proposed model are based on the shifting concept for the confusion and diffusion process with reversible operations. The last layer of the proposed model is the key addition layer that is responsible for the expanding and generating the ciphering key by two directions those of row and column expansion, which are associated with two constant vectors of golden ratio and base nature algorithm as a fixed word to eliminate any weak or semi-weak ciphering key.

  5. Structural insight into a novel human CCR5-V130I variant associated with resistance to HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambouli, Nejla; Wei, Ning-Ning; Jlizi, Asma; Aissa, Samah; Abdelmalek, Rim; Kilani, Baderredine; Slim, Amine; Tiouiri, Ben Aissa Hanen; Dridi, Mahdi; Hamza, Adel; Ben Ammar Elgaied, Amel

    2014-01-01

    We report the identification of a novel CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) variant that seems associated with resistance to HIV-1 infection. The V130I mutation of the CCR5 receptor is located in the intracellular loop ICL2 known as DRY box and described in the literature as a nonsynonymous mutation present in nonhuman primates group. Extensive molecular modeling and dynamics simulations were performed to elucidate the mechanism by which the V130I mutation may induce conformational change of the CCR5 folding protein and prevent the interaction with the β-arrestin protein. Our study provides new mechanistic insight into how a specific mutation in the regulatory domain of CCR5 might alter the structural folding of the DRY box and the possible ICL2 loop binding with the β-arrestin protein, as described in our previous computational study. The results from our large-scale simulations complement recent experimental results and clinical features and offer useful insights into the mechanism behind CCR5 protein folding and signal transduction. In order for HIV, the entry of the virus to the cells must fuse with the CCR5 receptor that sits on the surface of T-helper immune cells. The described V130I mutation in the gene encoding the CCR5 protein may results in a defective CCR5-Arrestin binding complex that blocks entry of the virus.

  6. Sympathetic blocks for visceral cancer pain management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Klepstad, Pal; Kurita, Geana Paula

    2015-01-01

    The neurolytic blocks of sympathetic pathways, including celiac plexus block (CPB) and superior hypogastric plexus block (SHPB) , have been used for years. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence to support the performance of sympathetic blocks in cancer patients with abdominal visceral...

  7. Scattering matrices with block symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Życzkowski, Karol

    1997-01-01

    Scattering matrices with block symmetry, which corresponds to scattering process on cavities with geometrical symmetry, are analyzed. The distribution of transmission coefficient is computed for different number of channels in the case of a system with or without the time reversal invariance. An interpolating formula for the case of gradual time reversal symmetry breaking is proposed.

  8. Architectures for block Toeplitz systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouras, Ilias; Glentis, George-Othon; Kalouptsidis, Nicholas

    1996-01-01

    In this paper efficient VLSI architectures of highly concurrent algorithms for the solution of block linear systems with Toeplitz or near-to-Toeplitz entries are presented. The main features of the proposed scheme are the use of scalar only operations, multiplications/divisions and additions, and th

  9. Building Blocks for Personal Brands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the four essential building blocks for personal brands: (1) name; (2) message; (3) channels; and (4) bridges. However, outstanding building materials can only take a person so far. The author emphasizes that vision, determination, faith, a sense of humor, and humility are also required.

  10. First Degree Pacemaker Exit Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Usually atrial and ventricular depolarizations follow soon after the pacemaker stimulus (spike on the ECG. But there can be an exit block due to fibrosis at the electrode - tissue interface at the lead tip. This can increase the delay between the spike and atrial or ventricular depolarization.

  11. Block copolymer/ferroelectric nanoparticle nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xinchang; He, Yanjie; Jiang, Beibei; Iocozzia, James; Zhao, Lei; Guo, Hanzheng; Liu, Jin; Akinc, Mufit; Bowler, Nicola; Tan, Xiaoli; Lin, Zhiqun

    2013-08-01

    Nanocomposites composed of diblock copolymer/ferroelectric nanoparticles were formed by selectively constraining ferroelectric nanoparticles (NPs) within diblock copolymer nanodomains via judicious surface modification of ferroelectric NPs. Ferroelectric barium titanate (BaTiO3) NPs with different sizes that are permanently capped with polystyrene chains (i.e., PS-functionalized BaTiO3NPs) were first synthesized by exploiting amphiphilic unimolecular star-like poly(acrylic acid)-block-polystyrene (PAA-b-PS) diblock copolymers as nanoreactors. Subsequently, PS-functionalized BaTiO3 NPs were preferentially sequestered within PS nanocylinders in the linear cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) diblock copolymer upon mixing the BaTiO3 NPs with PS-b-PMMA. The use of PS-b-PMMA diblock copolymers, rather than traditional homopolymers, offers the opportunity for controlling the spatial organization of PS-functionalized BaTiO3 NPs in the PS-b-PMMA/BaTiO3 NP nanocomposites. Selective solvent vapor annealing was utilized to control the nanodomain orientation in the nanocomposites. Vertically oriented PS nanocylinders containing PS-functionalized BaTiO3 NPs were yielded after exposing the PS-b-PMMA/BaTiO3 NP nanocomposite thin film to acetone vapor, which is a selective solvent for PMMA block. The dielectric properties of nanocomposites in the microwave frequency range were investigated. The molecular weight of PS-b-PMMA and the size of BaTiO3 NPs were found to exert an apparent influence on the dielectric properties of the resulting nanocomposites.Nanocomposites composed of diblock copolymer/ferroelectric nanoparticles were formed by selectively constraining ferroelectric nanoparticles (NPs) within diblock copolymer nanodomains via judicious surface modification of ferroelectric NPs. Ferroelectric barium titanate (BaTiO3) NPs with different sizes that are permanently capped with polystyrene chains (i.e., PS-functionalized BaTiO3NPs) were

  12. Pourfour Du Petit syndrome after interscalene block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Mysore Chandramouli Basappji; Pai, Rohini B; Rao, Raghavendra P

    2013-04-01

    Interscalene block is commonly associated with reversible ipsilateral phrenic nerve block, recurrent laryngeal nerve block, and cervical sympathetic plexus block, presenting as Horner's syndrome. We report a very rare Pourfour Du Petit syndrome which has a clinical presentation opposite to that of Horner's syndrome in a 24-year-old male who was given interscalene block for open reduction and internal fixation of fracture upper third shaft of left humerus.

  13. Endoscopic sphenopalatine ganglion block for pain relief

    OpenAIRE

    Murty, P. S. N.; Prasanna, Atma

    1998-01-01

    The anaesthetic effect of the sphenopalatine (SPG) block has been well utilized for intranasal topical anaesthesia but the analgesic efficacy of (SPG) block, though well documented in literature, has not been put into practice. The methods available for SPG block till date were blind as they do not visualize the foramen. Nasal endoscopies have been used to visualize the foramen for an effective block. The authors present their experience with the endoscopic sphenopalatine ganglion block for p...

  14. Pourfour Du Petit syndrome after interscalene block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysore Chandramouli Basappji Santhosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interscalene block is commonly associated with reversible ipsilateral phrenic nerve block, recurrent laryngeal nerve block, and cervical sympathetic plexus block, presenting as Horner′s syndrome. We report a very rare Pourfour Du Petit syndrome which has a clinical presentation opposite to that of Horner′s syndrome in a 24-year-old male who was given interscalene block for open reduction and internal fixation of fracture upper third shaft of left humerus.

  15. Block Textured a-Si:H Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Jae Moon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of etching experiments on light trapping structure have been carried out by glass etching. The block structure provides long light traveling path and a constant distance between the cathode and anode electrodes regardless of the block height, which results in higher efficiency of the block textured solar cell. In terms of etching profile of the glass substrate, the addition of NH4F resulted in the smooth and clean etching profile, and the steep slope of the block was obtained by optimizing the composition of etching solution. For a higher HF concentration, a more graded slope was obtained and the addition of HNO3 and NH4F provided steep slope and clean etching profile. The effects of the block textured glass were verified by a comparison of the solar cell efficiency. For the textured solar cell, the surface was much rougher than that of the plain glass, which also contributes to the improvement of the efficiency. We accomplished block shaped light trapping structure for the first time by wet etching of the glass substrate, which enables the high efficiency thin film solar cell with the aid of the good step coverage deposition.

  16. Maisonneuve-hyperplantarflexion variant ankle fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Richard M; Tran, Wesley H; Lorich, Dean G

    2014-11-01

    Maisonneuve fractures are rare ankle injuries, accounting for up to 7% of all ankle fractures. They consist of a proximal third fibula fracture, syndesmotic disruption, and medial ankle injury (either a deltoid ligament disruption or a medial malleolus fracture), and are often successfully managed with nonoperative treatment of the proximal fibula fracture and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of the medial ankle injury and syndesmotic disruption. The hyperplantarflexion variant ankle fracture comprises approximately 7% of all ankle fractures and features dual posterior tibial lip fractures featuring a posterolateral fragment and a posteromedial fragment. Good functional results have been reported in the literature after ORIF of both the posterolateral and posteromedial fragments of this variant fracture that is not described by the Lauge-Hansen classification. In this report, the authors present the unique case of an isolated ankle fracture demonstrating characteristics of both a Maisonneuve fracture and a hyperplantarflexion variant ankle fracture. They also highlight the diagnostic imaging characteristics, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and preoperative radiograph findings, surgical treatment, and postoperative clinical outcome for this patient with a Maisonneuve-hyperplantarflexion variant ankle fracture. To the authors' knowledge, this unique fracture pattern has not been reported previously in the literature. The authors conclude that although good results were seen postoperatively in this case, the importance of ORIF of both the posteromedial and posterolateral fragments of variant fractures cannot be overstated. They also found MRI to be a particularly helpful adjunct in formulating the correct diagnosis and treatment plan.

  17. Word Variant Identification in Old French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Willett

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of historical texts are available in machine-readable form, which retain the original spelling, which can be very different from the modern-day equivalents due to the natural evolution of a language, and because the concept of standardisation in spelling is comparatively modern. Among medieval vernacular writers, the same word could be spelled in different ways and the same author (or scribe might even use several alternative spellings in the same passage. Thus, we do not know,a priori, how many variant forms of a particular word there are in such texts, let alone what these variants might be. Searching on the modern equivalent, or even the commonest historical variant, of a particular word may thus fail to retrieve an appreciable number of occurrences unless the searcher already has an extensive knowledge of the language of the documents. Moreover, even specialist scholars may be unaware of some idiosyncratic variants. Here, we consider the use of computer methods to retrieve variant historical spellings.

  18. The Duffy-Binding-Like β domain (DBLβ) of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) variant, PFD1235w, binds ICAM1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. A.; Bengtsson, A.; Rask, Thomas Salhøj

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is by far the most virulent human malaria parasite. P. falciparum variant erythrocyte surface antigens, known as PfEMP1, play a crucial role in malaria pathogenesis as they mediate adhesion to host endothelial receptors. The PfEMP1 variant, PFD1235w, encoded by the 3D7 group...

  19. Curli variants of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 display distinct survival fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curli are adhesive fimbriae of Enterobactericaeae and are involved in surface attachment, cell aggregation and biofilm formation. They also mediate host cell invasion and are potent inducers of the host inflammatory response. Here we report that curli variants are distributed widely in Enterohemorrh...

  20. Performance of block lining in the zone of slanted ducts of a coke dry quenching unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolova, L.S.; Drozd, V.I.; Zadorozhnaya, T.A.; Minasov, A.N.; Surenskii, O.N.; Ershov, N.A.; Ignashin, G.I.; Mishin, E.N. (UkrNIIO (USSR))

    1991-01-01

    Discusses service life and wear of concrete blocks used for construction of dry coke quenching chambers. Concrete blocks replaced conventional refractory bricks. A filler from calcinated bauxites and a high-alumina cement were used for concrete block production. The blocks were used for construction of the zones of slanted ducts. Concrete block properties are analyzed: dimensions, weight, ultimate compression strength, open porosity, apparent density, linear shrinkage at 1,400 C and holding for 5 hours, content of calcium, aluminium and iron oxides. Abrasive wear and spalling of the working surface of the slanted duct zone made of the concrete blocks was 1.5-2.0 lower than that of conventional refractory bricks in chambers with the same service life. Tests carried out 8 years long showed that the slanted duct zones made of concrete blocks were characterized by higher abrasion resistance and heat resistance, reduced number of joints and increased rigidity of the slanted duct structure. 4 refs.

  1. Limiting Spectral Distribution of Block Matrices with Toeplitz Block Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Riddhipratim; Ganguly, Shirshendu; Hazra, Rajat Subhra

    2011-01-01

    We study two specific symmetric random block Toeplitz (of dimension $k \\times k$) matrices: where the blocks (of size $n \\times n$) are (i) matrices with i.i.d. entries, and (ii) asymmetric Toeplitz matrices. Under suitable assumptions on the entries, their limiting spectral distributions (LSDs) exist (after scaling by $\\sqrt{nk}$) when (a) $k$ is fixed and $n \\to\\infty$ (b) $n$ is fixed and $k\\rightarrow \\infty$ (c) $n$ and $k$ go to $\\infty$ simultaneously. Further the LSD's obtained in (a) and (b) coincide with those in (c) when $n$ or respectively $k$ tends to infinity. This limit in (c) is the semicircle law in case (i). In Case (ii) the limit is related to the limit of the random symmetric Toepiltz matrix as obtained by Bryc et al.(2006) and Hammond and Miller(2005).

  2. Fluorosilicone multi-block copolymers tethering quaternary ammonium salt groups for antimicrobial purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Fang; Qin, Xiaoshuai; Li, Yancai; Ren, Lixia; Zhao, Yunhui, E-mail: zhaoyunhui@tju.edu.cn; Yuan, Xiaoyan

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • QAS-containing fluorosilicone multi-block copolymers were synthesized. • The block length of PHFBMA in the copolymers was tailored via RAFT polymerization. • Surface roughness of the copolymers decreased with the increased PHFBMA content. • A certain length of PHFBMA block enhanced C−N{sup +} percentage on the surface. - Abstract: Symmetrically structured fluorosilicone multi-block copolymers containing poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) and poly(hexafluorobutyl methacrylate) (PHFBMA) were sequentially synthesized via reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chain transfer agent with dithiocarbonate groups at both ends. Then, the CBABC-type block copolymers were quaternized with n-octyliodide to tether quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) groups in the PDMAEMA blocks for the antimicrobial use. The obtained fluorosilicone copolymers showed clear variations in the C-N{sup +} composition and surface morphology on their films depending on the content of the PHFBMA blocks, which were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The results indicated that the symmetrical CBABC structure favored PDMS and QAS tethered blocks migrating to the film surface. With the mass percentage of the PHFBMA increased from 0 to 32.5%, the surface roughness of the copolymer film decreased gradually with a tendency to form a smooth surface. Owing to the surface properties, fluorosilicone multi-block copolymers containing a certain amount of PHFBMA with higher C-N{sup +} content and relatively smooth morphology demonstrated obvious antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli. The functionalized multi-block copolymers based on fluorosilicone and QAS groups would have potential applications in antimicrobial coatings.

  3. From Single Variants to Protein Cascades: MULTISCALE MODELING OF SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE VARIANT SETS IN GENETIC DISORDERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sabine C; Sommer, Björn; Backes, Christina; Haas, Jan; Meder, Benjamin; Meese, Eckart; Keller, Andreas

    2016-01-22

    Understanding the role of genetics in disease has become a central part of medical research. Non-synonymous single nucleotide variants (nsSNVs) in coding regions of human genes frequently lead to pathological phenotypes. Beyond single variations, the individual combination of nsSNVs may add to pathogenic processes. We developed a multiscale pipeline to systematically analyze the existence of quantitative effects of multiple nsSNVs and gene combinations in single individuals on pathogenicity. Based on this pipeline, we detected in a data set of 842 nsSNVs discovered in 76 genes related to cardiomyopathies, associated nsSNV combinations in seven genes present in at least 70% of all 639 patient samples, but not in a control cohort of healthy humans. Structural analyses of these revealed primarily an influence on the protein stability. For amino acid substitutions located at the protein surface, we generally observed a proximity to putative binding pockets. To computationally analyze cumulative effects and their impact, pathogenicity methods are currently being developed. Our approach supports this process, as shown on the example of a cardiac phenotype but can be likewise applied to other diseases such as cancer.

  4. Hemoglobin variants: biochemical properties and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Christopher S; Dickson, Claire F; Gell, David A; Weiss, Mitchell J

    2013-03-01

    Diseases affecting hemoglobin synthesis and function are extremely common worldwide. More than 1000 naturally occurring human hemoglobin variants with single amino acid substitutions throughout the molecule have been discovered, mainly through their clinical and/or laboratory manifestations. These variants alter hemoglobin structure and biochemical properties with physiological effects ranging from insignificant to severe. Studies of these mutations in patients and in the laboratory have produced a wealth of information on hemoglobin biochemistry and biology with significant implications for hematology practice. More generally, landmark studies of hemoglobin performed over the past 60 years have established important paradigms for the disciplines of structural biology, genetics, biochemistry, and medicine. Here we review the major classes of hemoglobin variants, emphasizing general concepts and illustrative examples.

  5. A case of reninoma with variant angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Ah Jo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Reninoma is a tumor of the renal juxtaglomerular cell apparatus that causes hypertension and hypokalemia because of hypersecretion of renin. We present a case of a 29-year-old female patient with reninoma and concomitant variant angina. The patient had uncontrolled hypertension and elevated plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels. Imaging studies revealed a mass in the left kidney, which was further confirmed as a renin-producing lesion via selective venous catheterization. During the evaluation, the patient had acute-onset chest pain that was diagnosed as variant angina after a provocation test. After partial nephrectomy, the plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone levels decreased and blood pressure normalized. We report a case of reninoma with variant angina.

  6. Genetics in psychiatry: common variant association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buxbaum Joseph D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many psychiatric conditions and traits are associated with significant heritability. Genetic risk for psychiatric conditions encompass rare variants, identified due to major effect, as well as common variants, the latter analyzed by association analyses. We review guidelines for common variant association analyses, undertaking after assessing evidence of heritability. We highlight the importance of: suitably large sample sizes; an experimental design that controls for ancestry; careful data cleaning; correction for multiple testing; small P values for positive findings; assessment of effect size for positive findings; and, inclusion of an independent replication sample. We also note the importance of a critical discussion of any prior findings, biological follow-up where possible, and a means of accessing the raw data.

  7. Variants of Monteggia Type Injury: Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamudin NAF

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Monteggia fracture-dislocation is rare in children. Various reports attest to its rarity, while recording the many variant of this injury. It is, therefore, easy to miss the diagnosis in the absence of proper clinical examination and radiographs. Case Report : This report highlights two rare variants of Monteggia fracture-dislocation seen in children. The first case was a 12-year old girl alleged to have fallen from a 15-feet tall tree and sustaining a combined type III Monteggia injury with ipsilateral Type II Salter-Harris injury of distal end radius with a metaphyseal fracture of the distal third of the ulna. The second case was a 13-year old who had sustained a closed fracture of atypical Type I Monteggia hybrid lesion, in a road traffic accident. Conclusion: This report highlights the rare variants of Monteggia fracture dislocation which could have been missed without proper clinical examinations and radiographs.

  8. Clear cell variant of squamous cell carcinoma of skin: A report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Oluwatoyin Lawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is a rare variant of SCC of skin in which ultraviolet radiation has been suggested as possible etiology. This case is that of a 62-year-old male concrete block maker/bricklayer who presented with a 6 months history of a non-healing ulcer on the left side of his face. Histology showed features of malignant epithelial neoplasm composed of islands of large oval to polyhedral malignant squamous cells with eosinophilic to amphophilic cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei and there were areas showing clear cell differentiation and isolated areas of keratin pearl formation. The lesion was also negative for periodic acid schiff, mucicarmine, and alcian blue stains but was strongly positive for AE1/AE3 (immuno-stain. This case showed an aggressive and bizarre clinical presentation but more report of cases are needed to have a better characterization of the clinical presentation and prognosis of this variant of SCC.

  9. Clear cell variant of squamous cell carcinoma of skin: A report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Ahmed Oluwatoyin; Adisa, Akinyele Olumuyiwa; Olajide, Mofoluwaso A; Olusanya, Adeola Adenike

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare variant of SCC of skin in which ultraviolet radiation has been suggested as possible etiology. This case is that of a 62-year-old male concrete block maker/bricklayer who presented with a 6 months history of a non-healing ulcer on the left side of his face. Histology showed features of malignant epithelial neoplasm composed of islands of large oval to polyhedral malignant squamous cells with eosinophilic to amphophilic cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei and there were areas showing clear cell differentiation and isolated areas of keratin pearl formation. The lesion was also negative for periodic acid schiff, mucicarmine, and alcian blue stains but was strongly positive for AE1/AE3 (immuno-stain). This case showed an aggressive and bizarre clinical presentation but more report of cases are needed to have a better characterization of the clinical presentation and prognosis of this variant of SCC.

  10. On the Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Block Triangular Preconditioned Block Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Block lower triangular matrices and block upper triangular matrices are popular preconditioners for 2×2 block matrices. In this note we show that a block lower triangular preconditioner gives the same spectrum as a block upper triangular preconditioner and that the eigenvectors of the two preconditioned matrices are related. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  11. Nonparametric Bayesian inference of the microcanonical stochastic block model

    CERN Document Server

    Peixoto, Tiago P

    2016-01-01

    A principled approach to characterize the hidden modular structure of networks is to formulate generative models, and then infer their parameters from data. When the desired structure is composed of modules or "communities", a suitable choice for this task is the stochastic block model (SBM), where nodes are divided into groups, and the placement of edges is conditioned on the group memberships. Here, we present a nonparametric Bayesian method to infer the modular structure of empirical networks, including the number of modules and their hierarchical organization. We focus on a microcanonical variant of the SBM, where the structure is imposed via hard constraints. We show how this simple model variation allows simultaneously for two important improvements over more traditional inference approaches: 1. Deeper Bayesian hierarchies, with noninformative priors replaced by sequences of priors and hyperpriors, that not only remove limitations that seriously degrade the inference on large networks, but also reveal s...

  12. Genetic variants in toll-like receptors are not associated with rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility or anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coenen, Marieke J H; Enevold, Christian; Barrera, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Several studies point to a role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated if genetic variants in TLR genes are associated with RA and response to tumour necrosis factor blocking (anti-TNF) medication....

  13. Histone variants and melanoma: facts and hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Nikifor K; Ulff-Møller, Constance J; Dimitrov, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer with rising incidence and morbidity. Despite advances in treatment, the 10-yr survival for patients with metastatic disease is less than 10%. During the past few years, ongoing research on different epigenomic aberrations in melanoma has catalyzed better understanding of its pathogenesis and identification of new therapeutics. In our review, we will focus on the role of histone variants, key epigenetic players in melanoma initiation and progression. Specifically, incorporation of histone variants enables additional layers of chromatin structure, and here, we will describe how alterations in this epigenetic behavior impact melanoma.

  14. Variant profiling of evolving prokaryotic populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Zojer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Genomic heterogeneity of bacterial species is observed and studied in experimental evolution experiments and clinical diagnostics, and occurs as micro-diversity of natural habitats. The challenge for genome research is to accurately capture this heterogeneity with the currently used short sequencing reads. Recent advances in NGS technologies improved the speed and coverage and thus allowed for deep sequencing of bacterial populations. This facilitates the quantitative assessment of genomic heterogeneity, including low frequency alleles or haplotypes. However, false positive variant predictions due to sequencing errors and mapping artifacts of short reads need to be prevented. We therefore created VarCap, a workflow for the reliable prediction of different types of variants even at low frequencies. In order to predict SNPs, InDels and structural variations, we evaluated the sensitivity and accuracy of different software tools using synthetic read data. The results suggested that the best sensitivity could be reached by a union of different tools, however at the price of increased false positives. We identified possible reasons for false predictions and used this knowledge to improve the accuracy by post-filtering the predicted variants according to properties such as frequency, coverage, genomic environment/localization and co-localization with other variants. We observed that best precision was achieved by using an intersection of at least two tools per variant. This resulted in the reliable prediction of variants above a minimum relative abundance of 2%. VarCap is designed for being routinely used within experimental evolution experiments or for clinical diagnostics. The detected variants are reported as frequencies within a VCF file and as a graphical overview of the distribution of the different variant/allele/haplotype frequencies. The source code of VarCap is available at https://github.com/ma2o/VarCap. In order to provide this workflow to

  15. Tunneling of the blocked wave in a circular hydraulic jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K.

    2017-02-01

    The formation of a circular hydraulic jump in a thin liquid layer involves the creation of a horizon where the incoming wave (surface ripples) is blocked by the fast flowing fluid. That there is a jump at the horizon is due to the viscosity of the fluid which is not relevant for the horizon formation. By using a tunneling formalism developed for the study of the Hawking radiation from black holes, we explicitly show that there will be an exponentially small tunneling of the blocked wave across the horizons as anticipated in studies of "analog gravity".

  16. Graphs obtained from collections of blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colton Magnant

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Given a collection of $d$-dimensional rectangular solids called blocks, no two of which sharing interior points, construct a block graph by adding a vertex for each block and an edge if the faces of the two corresponding blocks intersect nontrivially.  It is known that if $d \\geq 3$, such block graphs can have arbitrarily large chromatic number.  We prove that the chromatic number can be bounded with only a mild restriction on the sizes of the blocks.  We also show that block graphs of block configurations arising from partitions of $d$-dimensional hypercubes into sub-hypercubes are at least $d$-connected.  Bounds on the diameter and the hamiltonicity of such block graphs are also discussed.

  17. Block copolymer templated etching on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yinghong; Wang, Dong; Buriak, Jillian M

    2007-02-01

    The use of self-assembled polymer structures to direct the formation of mesoscopic (1-100 nm) features on silicon could provide a fabrication-compatible means to produce nanoscale patterns, supplementing conventional lithographic techniques. Here we demonstrate nanoscale etching of silicon, applying standard aqueous-based fluoride etchants, to produce three-dimensional nanoscale features with controllable shapes, sizes, average spacing, and chemical functionalization. The block copolymers serve to direct the silicon surface chemistry by controlling the spatial location of the reaction as well as concentration of reagents. The interiors of the resulting etched nanoscale features may be selectively functionalized with organic monolayers, metal nanoparticles, and other materials, leading to a range of ordered arrays on silicon.

  18. A conformal block Farey tail

    CERN Document Server

    Maloney, Alexander; Ng, Gim Seng

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the constraints of crossing symmetry on CFT correlation functions. Four point conformal blocks are naturally viewed as functions on the upper-half plane, on which crossing symmetry acts by PSL(2,Z) modular transformations. This allows us to construct a unique, crossing symmetric function out of a given conformal block by averaging over PSL(2,Z). In some two dimensional CFTs the correlation functions are precisely equal to the modular average of the contributions of a finite number of light states. For example, in the two dimensional Ising and tri-critical Ising model CFTs, the correlation functions of identical operators are equal to the PSL(2,Z) average of the Virasoro vacuum block; this determines the 3 point function coefficients uniquely in terms of the central charge. The sum over PSL(2,Z) in CFT2 has a natural AdS3 interpretation as a sum over semi-classical saddle points, which describe particles propagating along rational tangles in the bulk. We demonstrate this explicitly for the corre...

  19. An efficient block-discriminant identification of packed malware

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Smita Naval; Vijay Laxmi; Manoj Singh Gaur; P Vinod

    2015-08-01

    Advanced persistent attacks, incorporated by sophisticated malware, are on the rise against hosts, user applications and utility software. Modern malware hide their malicious payload by applying packing mechanism. Packing tools instigate code encryption to protect the original malicious payload. Packing is employed in tandem with code obfuscation/encryption/compression to create malware variants. Despite being just a variant of known malware, the packed malware invalidates the traditional signature based malware detection as packing tools create an envelope of packer code around the original base malware. Therefore, unpacking becomes a mandatory phase prior to anti-virus scanning for identifying the known malware hidden behind packing layers. Existing techniques of unpacking solutions increase execution overhead of AV scanners in terms of time. This paper illustrates an easy to use approach which works in two phases to reduce this overhead. The first phase (ESCAPE) discriminates the packed code from the native code (non-packed) by using random block entropy. The second phase (PEAL) validates inferences of ESCAPE by employing bi-classification (packed vs native) model using relevant hex byte features extracted blockwise. The proposed approach is able to shrink the overall execution time of AV scanners by filtering out native samples and avoiding excessive unpacking overhead. Our method has been evaluated against a set consisting of real packed instances of malware and benign programs.

  20. Decision making in the reward and punishment variants of the Iowa gambling task: Evidence of foresight or framing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha eSingh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface-level differences in the reward and punishment variants, specifically greater long-term decision making in the punishment variant of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT observed in previous studies led to the present comparison of long-term decision making in the two IGT variants (n = 320, male = 160. It was contended that risk-aversion triggered by a positive frame of the reward variant and risk seeking triggered by a negative frame of the punishment variant appears as long-term decision making in the two IGT variants. Apart from the frame of the variant as a within-subjects factor (variant type: reward and punishment, the order in which the frame was triggered (order type: reward–punishment or punishment–reward, and the four types of instructions that delineated motivation towards reward from that of punishment (reward, punishment, reward and punishment, and no-hint were hypothesized to have an effect on foresighted decision making in the IGT. As expected, long-term decision making differed across the two IGT variants suggesting that the frame of the variant has an effect on long-term decision making in the IGT (p < 0.001. The order in which a variant was presented, and the type of the instructions that were used both had an effect on long-term decision making in the two IGT variants (p < 0.05. A post hoc test suggested that the instructions that differentiated between reward and punishment resulted in greater foresight than the commonly used IGT instructions that fail to distinguish between reward and punishment. As observed in previous studies, there were more number of participants (60% who showed greater foresight in the punishment variant than in the reward variant (p< 0.001. The results suggest that foresight in IGT decision making is sensitive to reward and punishment frame in an asymmetric manner, an observation that is aligned with the behavioral decision-making framework. Benefits of integrating findings from behavioral studies

  1. Sinking of irregular shape blocks into marine seabed under wave-induced liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, Özgür

    2013-01-01

    The sinking of initially buried irregular blocks into the seabed under wave-induced liquefaction was investigated by experimental methods. Pore-water pressure in the soil, water surface elevation time series and block displacements were measured. Results indicated that initiation of sinking...

  2. Adsorption of charged di-block copolymers : effect on colloidal stability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Israëls, R.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis we present Scheutjens-Fleer (SF) calculations on the adsorption of diblock copolymers. More specifically, we restrict ourselves to adsorption at uncharged surfaces, while the specific type of block copolymers we consider have one uncharged adsorbing "anchor" block and one non-adsorbin

  3. The current state of clinical interpretation of sequence variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Derick C; Dubuc, Adrian M; Mason-Suares, Heather

    2017-01-31

    Accurate and consistent variant classification is required for Precision Medicine. But clinical variant classification remains in its infancy. While recent guidelines put forth jointly by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and Association of Molecular Pathology (AMP) for the classification of Mendelian variants has advanced the field, the degree of subjectivity allowed by these guidelines can still lead to inconsistent classification across clinical molecular genetic laboratories. In addition, there are currently no such guidelines for somatic cancer variants, only published institutional practices. Additional variant classification guidelines, including disease- or gene-specific criteria, along with inter-laboratory data sharing is critical for accurate and consistent variant interpretation.

  4. Iterative decoding of Generalized Parallel Concatenated Block codes using cyclic permutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Allouch

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Iterative decoding techniques have gain popularity due to their performance and their application in most communications systems. In this paper, we present a new application of our iterative decoder on the GPCB (Generalized Parallel Concatenated Block codes which uses cyclic permutations. We introduce a new variant of the component decoder. After extensive simulation; the obtained result is very promising compared with several existing methods. We evaluate the effects of various parameters component codes, interleaver size, block size, and the number of iterations. Three interesting results are obtained; the first one is that the performances in terms of BER (Bit Error Rate of the new constituent decoder are relatively similar to that of original one. Secondly our turbo decoding outperforms another turbo decoder for some linear block codes. Thirdly the proposed iterative decoding of GPCB-BCH (75, 51 is about 2.1dB from its Shannon limit.

  5. [Multifocal demyelinating polyneuropathy with persistent conduction block (Lewis-Sumner syndrome)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezaki, T; Kaji, R; Hamano, T; Kimura, J; Kameyama, M

    1990-11-01

    Multifocal demyelinating neuropathy with persistent conduction block (Lewis-Sumner syndrome) is a variant of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), which often clinically simulates a motor neuron disease (MND). We report here three patients initially suspected to have MND, who later were diagnosed as a Lewis-Sumner syndrome. One of them showed a remarkable clinical improvement after immunoglobulin therapy. The definitive diagnosis of this syndrome rests upon nerve conduction studies, uncovering multiple sites of persistent conduction block. Technically, it is important to exclude insufficient stimulus which may lead to an erroneous impression of conduction block. Magnetic stimulation, as compared to electric current, elicited larger responses possibly because of deeper current penetration. We found this mode of stimulation useful especially in testing focal demyelination requiring full activation of a diseased nerve at a most proximal segment.

  6. Phasing Variants in Poplar Trees using a Hybrid of Short & Long Read Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schackwitz, Wendy; Martin, Joel; Lipzen, Anna; Pennacchio, Len; Tuskan, Gerald

    2013-03-26

    Poplar grow throughout the West coast & are adapted to extremely variable conditions. To examine what allows for this wide range of growth conditions, Jerry Tuskan's team has collected 1000 different individuals from British Columbia to California. In 2009, three Common Gardens were established where each individual was cloned in triplicate. Nearly all of these trees have been sequenced using short read technology, revealing a huge degree of variation in genotype. Correlating this genomic variation to phenotype would be greatly be strengthened if the variants could be phased into long haplotype blocks.

  7. Report of a rare anatomic variant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Brucker, Y; Ilsen, B; Muylaert, C;

    2015-01-01

    We report the CT findings in a case of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) from the left upper lobe in an adult. PAPVR is an anatomic variant in which one to three pulmonary veins drain into the right atrium or its tributaries, rather than into the left atrium. This results in a lef...

  8. Splicing variants of porcine synphilin-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knud Larsen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, idiopathic and familial, is characterized by degradation of dopaminergic neurons and the presence of Lewy bodies (LB in the substantia nigra. LBs contain aggregated proteins of which α-synuclein is the major component. The protein synphilin-1 interacts and colocalizes with α-synuclein in LBs. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize porcine synphilin-1 and isoforms hereof with the future perspective to use the pig as a model for Parkinson's disease. The porcine SNCAIP cDNA was cloned by reverse transcriptase PCR. The spatial expression of SNCAIP mRNA was investigated by RNAseq. The presented work reports the molecular cloning and characterization of the porcine (Sus scrofa synphilin-1 cDNA (SNCAIP and three splice variants hereof. The porcine SNCAIP cDNA codes for a protein (synphilin-1 of 919 amino acids which shows a high similarity to human (90% and to mouse (84% synphilin-1. Three shorter transcript variants of the synphilin-1 gene were identified, all lacking one or more exons. SNCAIP transcripts were detected in most examined organs and tissues and the highest expression was found in brain tissues and lung. Conserved splicing variants and a novel splice form of synhilin-1 were found in this study. All synphilin-1 isoforms encoded by the identified transcript variants lack functional domains important for protein degradation.

  9. New genetic variants associated with prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have newly identified 23 common genetic variants -- one-letter changes in DNA known as single-nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs -- that are associated with risk of prostate cancer. These results come from an analysis of more than 10 million SNP

  10. Cellobiohydrolase I gene and improved variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adney, William S.; Decker, Stephen R.; Mc Carter, Suzanne; Baker, John O.; Nieves, Raphael; Himmel, Michael E.; Vinzant, Todd B.

    2008-05-20

    The disclosure provides a method for preparing an active exoglucanase in a heterologous host of eukaryotic origin. The method includes mutagenesis to reduce glycosylation of the exoglucanase when expressed in a heterologous host. It is further disclosed a method to produce variant cellobiohydrolase that is stable at high temperature through mutagenesis.

  11. PIN1 gene variants in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedlecki Janusz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, NIMA-interacting 1 (PIN1 plays a significant role in the brain and is implicated in numerous cellular processes related to Alzheimer's disease (AD and other neurodegenerative conditions. There are confounding results concerning PIN1 activity in AD brains. Also PIN1 genetic variation was inconsistently associated with AD risk. Methods We performed analysis of coding and promoter regions of PIN1 in early- and late-onset AD and frontotemporal dementia (FTD patients in comparison with healthy controls. Results Analysis of eighteen PIN1 common polymorphisms and their haplotypes in EOAD, LOAD and FTD individuals in comparison with the control group did not reveal their contribution to disease risk. In six unrelated familial AD patients four novel PIN1 sequence variants were detected. c.58+64C>T substitution that was identified in three patients, was located in an alternative exon. In silico analysis suggested that this variant highly increases a potential affinity for a splicing factor and introduces two intronic splicing enhancers. In the peripheral leukocytes of one living patient carrying the variant, a 2.82 fold decrease in PIN1 expression was observed. Conclusion Our data does not support the role of PIN1 common polymorphisms as AD risk factor. However, we suggest that the identified rare sequence variants could be directly connected with AD pathology, influencing PIN1 splicing and/or expression.

  12. Mining Process Variants: Goals and Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, C.; Reichert, M.U.; Wombacher, A.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Process-Aware Information Systems (PAIS) were introduced, which allow for dynamic process and service changes. This, in turn, has led to a large number of process model variants, which are difficult to maintain and expensive to configure. This paper deals with goals and issues related to t

  13. A compendium of genetic variant data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, Joao; Schöning, Lars Yannik; Herrgard, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory strains are genetically unstable if exposed to selective pressure as encountered, for example, during molecular cloning, fermentation, or adaptive laboratory evolution experiments. This genetic variation is the consequence of an adaptation process of the microorganism to stress...... obtained from distinct experiments. This compendium of genetic variant is a critical step to develop approaches to automatically and systematically characterize mutated strains in the future....

  14. Histone Variants in Development and Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Chen; Jicheng Zhao; Guohong Li

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomic DNA is highly packaged into chromatin by histones to fit inside the nucleus.Other than the bulk packaging role of canonical histones with an expression peak at S phase and replication-coupled deposition,different histone variants have evolved distinct regulatory mechanisms for their expression,deposition and functional implications.The diversity of histone variants results in structural plasticity of chromatin and highlights functionally distinct chromosomal domain,which plays critical roles in development from a fertilized egg into a complex organism,as well as in aging and diseases.However,the mechanisms of this fundamental process are poorly understood so far.It is of particular interest to investigate how the variants are incorporated into chromatin and mark specific chromatin states to regulate gene expression,and how they are involved in development and diseases.In this review,we focus on recent progress in studies of epigenetic regulation of three extensively investigated variants including H2A.Z,macroH2A and H3.3,and their functional implications in development and diseases.

  15. Two Extension Block Kirschner Wires' Technique for Bony Mallet Thumb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Fumiaki; Ueda, Yasuhiro; Shinohara, Issei; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kokubu, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Mallet fingers with an avulsion fracture of the distal phalanx or rupture of the terminal tendon of the extensor mechanism is known as a common injury, while mallet thumb is very rare. In this paper, the case of a 19-year-old woman with a sprained left thumb sustained while playing basketball is presented. Plain radiographs and computed tomography revealed an avulsion fracture involving more than half of the articular surface at the base of the distal phalanx. Closed reduction and percutaneous fixation were performed using the two extension block Kirschner wires' technique under digital block anesthesia. At 4 months postoperatively, the patient had achieved excellent results according to Crawford's evaluation criteria and had no difficulties in working or playing basketball. Various conservative and operative treatment strategies have been reported for management of mallet thumb. We chose the two extension block Kirschner wires' technique to minimize invasion of the extensor mechanism and nail bed and to stabilize the large fracture fragment.

  16. Characterization of splice variants of the genes encoding human mitochondrial HMG-CoA lyase and HMG-CoA synthase, the main enzymes of the ketogenesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puisac, Beatriz; Ramos, Mónica; Arnedo, María; Menao, Sebastián; Gil-Rodríguez, María Concepción; Teresa-Rodrigo, María Esperanza; Pié, Angeles; de Karam, Juan Carlos; Wesselink, Jan-Jaap; Giménez, Ignacio; Ramos, Feliciano J; Casals, Nuria; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Hegardt, Fausto G; Pié, Juan

    2012-04-01

    The genes HMGCS2 and HMGCL encode the two main enzymes for ketone-body synthesis, mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase and HMG-CoA lyase. Here, we identify and describe possible splice variants of these genes in human tissues. We detected an alternative transcript of HMGCS2 carrying a deletion of exon 4, and two alternative transcripts of HMGCL with deletions of exons 5 and 6, and exons 5, 6 and 7, respectively. All splice variants maintained the reading frame. However, Western blot studies and overexpression measurements in eukaryotic or prokaryotic cell models did not reveal HL or mHS protein variants. Both genes showed a similar distribution of the inactive variants in different tissues. Surprisingly, the highest percentages were found in tissues where almost no ketone bodies are synthesized: heart, skeletal muscle and brain. Our results suggest that alternative splicing might coordinately block the two main enzymes of ketogenesis in specific human tissues.

  17. A Non-Synonymous HMGA2 Variant Decreases Height in Shetland Ponies and Other Small Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, Mirjam; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Plattet, Philippe; Neuditschko, Markus; Signer-Hasler, Heidi; Bachmann, Iris; Pacholewska, Alicja; Drögemüller, Cord; Dietschi, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) such as height and their underlying causative variants is still challenging and often requires large sample sizes. In humans hundreds of loci with small effects control the heritable portion of height variability. In domestic animals, typically only a few loci with comparatively large effects explain a major fraction of the heritability. We investigated height at withers in Shetland ponies and mapped a QTL to ECA 6 by genome-wide association (GWAS) using a small cohort of only 48 animals and the Illumina equine SNP70 BeadChip. Fine-mapping revealed a shared haplotype block of 793 kb in small Shetland ponies. The HMGA2 gene, known to be associated with height in horses and many other species, was located in the associated haplotype. After closing a gap in the equine reference genome we identified a non-synonymous variant in the first exon of HMGA2 in small Shetland ponies. The variant was predicted to affect the functionally important first AT-hook DNA binding domain of the HMGA2 protein (c.83G>A; p.G28E). We assessed the functional impact and found impaired DNA binding of a peptide with the mutant sequence in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. This suggests that the HMGA2 variant also affects DNA binding in vivo and thus leads to reduced growth and a smaller stature in Shetland ponies. The identified HMGA2 variant also segregates in several other pony breeds but was not found in regular-sized horse breeds. We therefore conclude that we identified a quantitative trait nucleotide for height in horses. PMID:26474182

  18. Hillslope-derived blocks retard river incision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobe, Charles M.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Anderson, Robert S.

    2016-05-01

    The most common detachment-limited river incision models ignore the effects of sediment on fluvial erosion, yet steep reaches of mountain rivers often host clusters of large (>1 m) blocks. We argue that this distribution of blocks is a manifestation of an autogenic negative feedback in which fast vertical river incision steepens adjacent hillslopes, which deliver blocks to the channel. Blocks inhibit incision by shielding the bed and enhancing form drag. We explore this feedback with a 1-D channel-reach model in which block delivery by hillslopes depends on the river incision rate. Results indicate that incision-dependent block delivery can explain the block distribution in Boulder Creek, Colorado. The proposed negative feedback may significantly slow knickpoint retreat, channel adjustment, and landscape response compared to rates predicted by current theory. The influence of hillslope-derived blocks may complicate efforts to extract base level histories from river profiles.

  19. Demographic Data - MDC_BlockGroup

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County Census 2000 Block Groups. A census Block Group is a statistical subdivision of a census Tract consisting of a cluster...

  20. Dynamic response analysis of structure under time-variant interval process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Baizhan; Qin, Yuan; Yu, Dejie; Jiang, Chao

    2016-10-01

    Due to the aggressiveness of the environmental factor, the variation of the dynamic load, the degeneration of the material property and the wear of the machine surface, parameters related with the structure are distinctly time-variant. Typical model for time-variant uncertainties is the random process model which is constructed on the basis of a large number of samples. In this work, we propose a time-variant interval process model which can be effectively used to deal with time-variant uncertainties with limit information. And then two methods are presented for the dynamic response analysis of the structure under the time-variant interval process model. The first one is the direct Monte Carlo method (DMCM) whose computational burden is relative high. The second one is the Monte Carlo method based on the Chebyshev polynomial expansion (MCM-CPE) whose computational efficiency is high. In MCM-CPE, the dynamic response of the structure is approximated by the Chebyshev polynomials which can be efficiently calculated, and then the variational range of the dynamic response is estimated according to the samples yielded by the Monte Carlo method. To solve the dependency phenomenon of the interval operation, the affine arithmetic is integrated into the Chebyshev polynomial expansion. The computational effectiveness and efficiency of MCM-CPE is verified by two numerical examples, including a spring-mass-damper system and a shell structure.

  1. Traces of warping subsided tectonic blocks on Miranda, Enceladus, Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G.

    2007-08-01

    Icy satellites of the outer Solar system have very large range of sizes - from kilometers to thousands of kilometers. Bodies less than 400-500 km across have normally irregular shapes , often presenting simple Plato's polyhedrons woven by standing inertiagravity waves (see an accompanying abstract of Kochemasov). Larger bodies with enhanced gravity normally are rounded off and have globular shapes but far from ideal spheres. This is due to warping action of inertia-gravity waves of various wavelengths origin of which is related to body movements in elliptical keplerian orbits with periodically changing accelerations (alternating accelerations cause periodically changing forces acting upon a body what means oscillations of its spheres in form of standing warping waves). The fundamental wave 1 and its first overtone wave 2 produce ubiquitous tectonic dichotomy - two segmental structure and tectonic sectoring superimposed on this dichotomy. Two kinds of tectonic blocks (segments and sectors) are formed: uplifted (+) and subsided (-). Uplifting means increasing planetary radius of blocks, subsiding - decreasing radius (as a sequence subsiding blocks diminishing their surfaces must be warped, folded, wrinkled; uplifting blocks increasing their surfaces tend to be deeply cracked, fallen apart). To level changing angular momenta of blocks subsided areas are filled with denser material than uplifted ones (one of the best examples is Earth with its oceanic basins filled with dense basalts and uplifted continents built of less dense on average andesitic material). Icy satellites follow the same rule. Their warped surfaces show differing chemistries or structures of constructive materials. Uplifted blocks are normally built with light (by color and density) water ice. Subsided blocks - depressions, "seas', "lakes", coronas - by somewhat denser material differing in color from water ice (very sharply - Iapetus, moderately - Europa, slightly - many saturnian satellites). A very

  2. Practical Binary Adaptive Block Coder

    CERN Document Server

    Reznik, Yuriy A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes design of a low-complexity algorithm for adaptive encoding/ decoding of binary sequences produced by memoryless sources. The algorithm implements universal block codes constructed for a set of contexts identified by the numbers of non-zero bits in previous bits in a sequence. We derive a precise formula for asymptotic redundancy of such codes, which refines previous well-known estimate by Krichevsky and Trofimov, and provide experimental verification of this result. In our experimental study we also compare our implementation with existing binary adaptive encoders, such as JBIG's Q-coder, and MPEG AVC (ITU-T H.264)'s CABAC algorithms.

  3. New Considerations of Turbo Block Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUEDianwu; EdSHWEDYK

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that (1) a general linear systematic block code can be expressed as a turbo block code and therefore can be decoded using any turbo decoding algorithm; (2) a turbo block code can be also encoded and decoded without any interleaver with the same performance as when an interleaver is present.

  4. Writer's block in a Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sy-Ying; Krashen, Stephen

    2003-10-01

    To assess whether writer's block occurs in languages other than English, a Chinese language translation of Rose's Writer's Block questionnaire was administered to 98 university students in Taiwan. Analysis suggests that writer's block occurs for Chinese students, and, as in English, it is related to premature editing and to a lack of strategies for dealing with complex writing tasks.

  5. Micellization and Dynamics of a Block Copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Triblock copolymers of the type EPE, where E and P denote ethylene oxide and propylene oxide blocks, respectively, are industrially important copolymers often called Pluronics or Poloxamers. EPE copolymers form micelles with a core of P blocks and different micellar shapes depending on block leng...

  6. Gene Variant from Africa Linked to Black Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Gene Variant From Africa Linked to Black Obesity Study sees first biological pathway to weight gain ... identified an Africa-specific gene variant associated with obesity. The team found that about 1 percent of ...

  7. Effect of bone block removal and patellar prosthesis on stresses in the human patella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, E A; Cooke, F W; McQueen, D A; Henning, C E

    1994-01-01

    Thermoelastic stress analysis was used to examine stresses on the anterior surface of patellae after patellar bone block excision for autogenous graft anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Complications of anterior cruciate ligament injury often lead to degenerative changes in the knee that can require total knee joint replacement. It was hypothesized that stresses in a bone block-compromised patella may be increased even further by insertion of a patellar prosthesis. All patellae were first tested intact and then were retested after a sequence of surgical modifications including patellar prosthesis implantation, tapered bone block excision, square bone block excision, and both shapes of excised bone blocks with a patellar prosthesis in place. Stresses in patellae with bone blocks excised were significantly greater than stresses in intact patellae. The anterior surface stress pattern in the loaded patella was significantly altered by excision of a bone block. There were no significant differences between maximum stress in patellae with tapered and square bone blocks excised. A finite element analysis showed that excision of a larger trapezoid-shaped bone block greatly increased maximum stress levels. Insertion of a patellar prosthesis did not significantly alter stress patterns or maximum stress levels in the patella.

  8. Cutaneous Sensory Block Area, Muscle-Relaxing Effect, and Block Duration of the Transversus Abdominis Plane Block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, Kion; Rothe, Christian; Rosenstock, Charlotte V

    2015-01-01

    into a medial and lateral part by a vertical line through the anterior superior iliac spine. We measured muscle thickness of the 3 lateral abdominal muscle layers with ultrasound in the relaxed state and during maximal voluntary muscle contraction. The volunteers reported the duration of the sensory block...... and the abdominal muscle-relaxing effect. RESULTS: The lateral part of the cutaneous sensory block area was a median of 266 cm2 (interquartile range, 191-310 cm2) and the medial part 76 cm 2(interquartile range, 54-127 cm2). In all the volunteers, lateral wall muscle thickness decreased significantly by 9.2 mm (6......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a widely used nerve block. However, basic block characteristics are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to assess the cutaneous sensory block area, muscle-relaxing effect, and block duration. METHODS: Sixteen...

  9. Produce reserves from shallow reservoirs under surface pressure-summing zones by large drill platform in Fuyu oilfield-a case in Chengping 12 block%利用浅层大平台钻井技术挖潜扶余油田压覆区储量——以城平12区块为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何增军; 林燕萍; 李桂娟; 张莉; 王鑫

    2012-01-01

    Fuyu oilfield development has been affected by its special geographical conditions of surface pressure-summing zones which have led to poor well conditions, imperfect well pattern, big difficulty in potential tapping, and ineffective reserves recovery. This paper takes the reservoir in Chengping 12 block as an example to study the application of large drill platform technology for drilling horizontal wells in shallow reservoirs of Fuyu oilfield. The technology has been successfully applied to confined surface condition and has fully produced the reserves. This study provides a solid basis for increasing recoverable reserves and stabilizing oil production for the " twelfth five-year plan" .%地面压覆区的特殊地理条件造成了油水井井况差、井网不完善、措施挖潜难度大、储量无法有效动用等现状,影响了扶余油田的综合调整.针对此问题,以城平12块油藏为例,开展了浅层大平台水平井技术在扶余油田的试用研究.该项技术在有限的地面条件下得到了成功应用,地下储量得到充分动用.该研究为扶余油田增加可采储量、实现“十二五”稳产奠定了坚实基础.

  10. Rare variant density across the genome and across populations

    OpenAIRE

    Raska Paola; Zhu Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Next-generation sequencing allows for a new focus on rare variant density for conducting analyses of association to disease and for narrowing down the genomic regions that show evidence of functionality. In this study we use the 1000 Genomes Project pilot data as distributed by Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 to compare rare variant densities across seven populations. We made the comparisons using regressions of rare variants on total variant counts per gene for each population and Taji...

  11. Combined analyses of 20 common obesity susceptibility variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Camilla Helene; Sparsø, Thomas; Grarup, Niels;

    2010-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies and linkage studies have identified 20 validated genetic variants associated with obesity and/or related phenotypes. The variants are common, and they individually exhibit small-to-modest effect sizes.......Genome-wide association studies and linkage studies have identified 20 validated genetic variants associated with obesity and/or related phenotypes. The variants are common, and they individually exhibit small-to-modest effect sizes....

  12. Polystyrene-Polylactide Bottlebrush Block Copolymer at the Air/Water Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Byun, Myunghwan; Rzayev, Javid; Lin, Zhiqun

    2010-03-01

    Hydrophobic ultrahigh molecular weight bottlebrush block copolymer and linear block copolymer of polystyrene-polylactide (PS-PLA) were shown to be capable of forming Langmuir monolayers and exhibiting unique assembly behaviors at the air/water interface, which cannot be addressed by the classic theory of Langmuir monolayer of amphiphilic copolymers. New models were proposed to illustrate these intriguing surface behaviors. The self-assembled structure of Langmuir monolayer of bottlebrush block copolymer was determined by a combination of AFM measurement, thermal annealing, and enzymatic degradation experiment. To the best of our knowledge, this is among few studies on hydrophobic block copolymers at the air/water interface. As such, it not only complements the well-known models of self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers at the air/water interface but also expands the use of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique to hydrophobic block copolymers.

  13. Seismicity of the Jalisco Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Rutz, M.; Camarena-Garcia, M.; Trejo-Gomez, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.

    2002-12-01

    In April 2002 began to transmit the stations of the first phase of Jalisco Telemetric Network located at the northwest of Jalisco Block and at the area of Volcan de Fuego (Colima Volcano), in June were deployed four additional MarsLite portable stations in the Bahia de Banderas area, and by the end of August one more portable station at Ceboruco Volcano. The data of these stations jointly with the data from RESCO (Colima Telemetric Network) give us the minimum seismic stations coverage to initiate in a systematic and permanent way the study of the seismicity in this very complex tectonic region. A preliminary analysis of seismicity based on the events registered by the networks using a shutter algorithm, confirms several important features proposed by microseismicity studies carried out between 1996 and 1998. A high level of seismicity inside and below of Rivera plate is observed, this fact suggest a very complex stress pattern acting on this plate. Shallow seismicity at south and east of Bahia de Banderas also suggest a complex stress pattern in this region of the Jalisco Block, events at more than 30 km depth are located under the mouth of the bay and in face of it, a feature denominated Banderas Boundary mark the change of the seismic regime at north of this latitude (20.75°N), however some shallow events were located at the region of Nayarit.

  14. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  15. Anti-Biofouling Effect of PEG-Grafted Block Copolymer Synthesized by RAFT Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon-Mi; Han, Sang Suk; Kim, A Young; Choi, Beom-Jin; Paik, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Inwon; Park, Hyun; Chun, Ho Hwan; Cho, Youngjin; Hwang, Do-Hoon

    2015-10-01

    Poly(glycidyl methadrylate-block-styrene) (PGMA-b-PS), a block copolymer consisting of glycidyl methacrylate and styrene, was synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer living polymerization. The synthesized PGMA-b-PS was then grafted with low-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) via epoxy ring opening to give PGMA-g-PEG-b-PS, which was evaluated as an anti-biofouling coating material. As a preliminary test for the anti-biofouling effect, a protein adsorption experiment was performed on the synthesized block copolymer surface. The block copolymers were spin-coated onto silicon wafers, and protein adsorption experiments were carried out using fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate-labeled bovine serum albumin. The fluorescence intensity of the protein adsorbed on the block copolymer surface was compared with that of a polystyrene film as a reference. The synthesized PGMA-g-PEG-b-PS film showed much lower fluorescence intensity than that of the PS film.

  16. GenOVa: a computer program to generate orientational variants

    OpenAIRE

    Cayron, Cyril

    2007-01-01

    A computer program called GenOVa, written in Python, calculates the orientational variants, the operators (special types of misorientations between variants) and the composition table associated with a groupoid structure. The variants can be represented by three-dimensional shapes or by pole figures.

  17. Processing of No-Release Variants in Connected Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoCasto, Paul C.; Connine, Cynthia M.

    2011-01-01

    The cross modal repetition priming paradigm was used to investigate how potential lexically ambiguous no-release variants are processed. In particular we focus on segmental regularities that affect the variant's frequency of occurrence (voicing of the critical segment) and phonological context in which the variant occurs (status of the following…

  18. The power of multiplexed functional analysis of genetic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, Molly; Starita, Lea; Shendure, Jay

    2016-10-01

    New technologies have recently enabled saturation mutagenesis and functional analysis of nearly all possible variants of regulatory elements or proteins of interest in single experiments. Here we discuss the past, present, and future of such multiplexed (functional) assays for variant effects (MAVEs). MAVEs provide detailed insight into sequence-function relationships, and they may prove critical for the prospective clinical interpretation of genetic variants.

  19. Variants in CUL4B are Associated with Cerebral Malformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T.; Nakagawa, Tadashi; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Haas, Stefan A.; Hu, Hao; Bienek, Melanie; Vissers, Lisenka E. L. M.; Gilissen, Christian; Tzschach, Andreas; Busche, Andreas; Muesebeck, Joerg; Rump, Patrick; Mathijssen, Inge B.; Avela, Kristiina; Somer, Mirja; Doagu, Fatma; Philips, Anju K.; Rauch, Anita; Baumer, Alessandra; Voesenek, Krysta; Poirier, Karine; Vigneron, Jacqueline; Amram, Daniel; Odent, Sylvie; Nawara, Magdalena; Obersztyn, Ewa; Lenart, Jacek; Charzewska, Agnieszka; Lebrun, Nicolas; Fischer, Ute; Nillesen, Willy M.; Yntema, Helger G.; Jarvela, Irma; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; de Vries, Bert B. A.; Brunner, Han G.; van Bokhoven, Hans; Raymond, F. Lucy; Willemsen, Michel A. A. P.; Chelly, Jamel; Xiong, Yue; Barkovich, A. James; Kalscheuer, Vera M.; Kleefstra, Tjitske; de Brouwer, Arjan P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Variants in cullin 4B (CUL4B) are a known cause of syndromic X-linked intellectual disability. Here, we describe an additional 25 patients from 11 families with variants in CUL4B. We identified nine different novel variants in these families and confirmed the pathogenicity of all nontruncating varia

  20. Variants in CUL4B are associated with cerebral malformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vulto-van Silfhout, A.T.; Nakagawa, T.; Bahi-Buisson, N.; Haas, S.A.; Hu, H; Bienek, M.; Vissers, L.E.L.M.; Gilissen, C.F.H.A.; Tzschach, A.; Busche, A.; Musebeck, J.; Rump, P.; Mathijssen, I.B.; Avela, K.; Somer, M.; Doagu, F.; Philips, A.K.; Rauch, A.; Baumer, A.; Voesenek, K.E.J.; Poirier, K.; Vigneron, J.; Amram, D.; Odent, S.; Nawara, M.; Obersztyn, E.; Lenart, J.; Charzewska, A.; Lebrun, N.; Fischer, U.; Nillesen, W.M.; Yntema, H.G.; Jarvela, I.; Ropers, H.H.; Vries, B. de; Brunner, H.G.; Bokhoven, H. van; Raymond, F.L.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Chelly, J.; Xiong, Y.; Barkovich, A.J.; Kalscheuer, V.M.; Kleefstra, T.; Brouwer, A.P.M. de

    2015-01-01

    Variants in cullin 4B (CUL4B) are a known cause of syndromic X-linked intellectual disability. Here, we describe an additional 25 patients from 11 families with variants in CUL4B. We identified nine different novel variants in these families and confirmed the pathogenicity of all nontruncating varia

  1. Rare ADH Variant Constellations are Specific for Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Lingjun; Zhang, Heping; Malison, Robert T; Li, Chiang-shan R.; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Fei; Lu, Lingeng; Lu, Lin; Wang, Xiaoping; Krystal, John H.; Zhang, Fengyu; Deng, Hong-Wen; Luo, Xingguang

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Some of the well-known functional alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene variants (e.g. ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3 and ADH1C*2) that significantly affect the risk of alcohol dependence are rare variants in most populations. In the present study, we comprehensively examined the associations between rare ADH variants [minor allele frequency (MAF)

  2. Alternative splice variants of the human PD-1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Ohm-Laursen, Line; Barington, Torben;

    2005-01-01

    PD-1 is an immunoregulatory receptor expressed on the surface of activated T cells, B cells, and monocytes. We describe four alternatively spliced PD-1 mRNA transcripts (PD-1Deltaex2, PD-1Deltaex3, PD-1Deltaex2,3, and PD-1Deltaex2,3,4) in addition to the full length isoform. PD-1Deltaex2 and PD-1......Deltaex3 are generated by alternative splicing where exon 2 (extracellular IgV-like domain) and exon 3 (transmembrane domain) respectively are spliced out. PD-1Deltaex3 is therefore likely to encode a soluble form of PD-1. PD-1Deltaex2,3 lacks exon 2 and 3. These three variants have unaffected open...

  3. Silver-enhanced block copolymer membranes with biocidal activity

    KAUST Repository

    Madhavan, Poornima

    2014-11-12

    Silver nanoparticles were deposited on the surface and pore walls of block copolymer membranes with highly ordered pore structure. Pyridine blocks constitute the pore surfaces, complexing silver ions and promoting a homogeneous distribution. Nanoparticles were then formed by reduction with sodium borohydride. The morphology varied with the preparation conditions (pH and silver ion concentration), as confirmed by field emission scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Silver has a strong biocide activity, which for membranes can bring the advantage of minimizing the growth of bacteria and formation of biofilm. The membranes with nanoparticles prepared under different pH values and ion concentrations were incubated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and compared with the control. The strongest biocidal activity was achieved with membranes containing membranes prepared under pH 9. Under these conditions, the best distribution with small particle size was observed by microscopy.

  4. System Synthesis for Networks of Programmable Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Mannion, Ryan; Cotterell, Susan; Vahid, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The advent of sensor networks presents untapped opportunities for synthesis. We examine the problem of synthesis of behavioral specifications into networks of programmable sensor blocks. The particular behavioral specification we consider is an intuitive user-created network diagram of sensor blocks, each block having a pre-defined combinational or sequential behavior. We synthesize this specification to a new network that utilizes a minimum number of programmable blocks in place of the pre-defined blocks, thus reducing network size and hence network cost and power. We focus on the main task of this synthesis problem, namely partitioning pre-defined blocks onto a minimum number of programmable blocks, introducing the efficient but effective PareDown decomposition algorithm for the task. We describe the synthesis and simulation tools we developed. We provide results showing excellent network size reductions through such synthesis, and significant speedups of our algorithm over exhaustive search while obtaining...

  5. Wham: Identifying Structural Variants of Biological Consequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zev N Kronenberg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing methods for identifying structural variants (SVs from short read datasets are inaccurate. This complicates disease-gene identification and efforts to understand the consequences of genetic variation. In response, we have created Wham (Whole-genome Alignment Metrics to provide a single, integrated framework for both structural variant calling and association testing, thereby bypassing many of the difficulties that currently frustrate attempts to employ SVs in association testing. Here we describe Wham, benchmark it against three other widely used SV identification tools-Lumpy, Delly and SoftSearch-and demonstrate Wham's ability to identify and associate SVs with phenotypes using data from humans, domestic pigeons, and vaccinia virus. Wham and all associated software are covered under the MIT License and can be freely downloaded from github (https://github.com/zeeev/wham, with documentation on a wiki (http://zeeev.github.io/wham/. For community support please post questions to https://www.biostars.org/.

  6. Discussing and managing hematologic germ line variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmann, Wendy; Schiffman, Joshua D

    2016-11-24

    With the introduction of genomic technologies, more hereditary cancer syndromes with hematologic malignancies are being described. Up to 10% of hematologic malignancies in children and adults may be the result of an underlying inherited genetic risk. Managing these patients with hereditary hematologic malignancies, including familial leukemia, remains a clinical challenge because there is little information about these relatively rare disorders. This article covers some of the issues related to the diagnosis and interpretation of variants associated with hereditary hematologic malignancies, including the importance of an accurate family history in interpreting genetic variants associated with disease. The challenges of screening other family members and offering the most appropriate early malignancy detection is also discussed. We now have a good opportunity to better define hereditary cancer syndromes with associated hematologic malignancies and contribute to clinically effective guidelines.

  7. Wham: Identifying Structural Variants of Biological Consequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Zev N; Osborne, Edward J; Cone, Kelsey R; Kennedy, Brett J; Domyan, Eric T; Shapiro, Michael D; Elde, Nels C; Yandell, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Existing methods for identifying structural variants (SVs) from short read datasets are inaccurate. This complicates disease-gene identification and efforts to understand the consequences of genetic variation. In response, we have created Wham (Whole-genome Alignment Metrics) to provide a single, integrated framework for both structural variant calling and association testing, thereby bypassing many of the difficulties that currently frustrate attempts to employ SVs in association testing. Here we describe Wham, benchmark it against three other widely used SV identification tools-Lumpy, Delly and SoftSearch-and demonstrate Wham's ability to identify and associate SVs with phenotypes using data from humans, domestic pigeons, and vaccinia virus. Wham and all associated software are covered under the MIT License and can be freely downloaded from github (https://github.com/zeeev/wham), with documentation on a wiki (http://zeeev.github.io/wham/). For community support please post questions to https://www.biostars.org/.

  8. Small colony variants and their clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataramana Venkataramana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the many factors that contribute to bacterial colonization, persistence and development of infection, the ability of microorganisms to form small colony variants (SCVs assumes great significance. Although bacteria require intrinsic virulence factors to cause pathogenesis, some of them regularly evolve mechanisms to evade immune mechanisms, become resistant to antibiotics, and sustain in the human/animal cells to cause chronic infections. This mini review highlights the recent advances in the study of SCVs.

  9. Unusual variant of Cantrell′s pentalogy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Basant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 12-hour-old male infant presented with prolapsed abdominal content through a defect on left side of chest wall with respiratory distress. A thorough clinical examination suggested absence of ectopia cordis, abdominal wall defect, and any bony anomaly. The child expired after 6 hours of admission because of respiratory distress and electrolyte imbalance. Is congenital defect of chest wall associated with diaphragmatic hernia without ectopia cordis and omphalocele, an unusual variant of Cantrell′s pentalogy?

  10. Variant position of the medial plantar nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Astik RB; Dave UH; Gajendra KS

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of variation of position of the medial plantar nerve is important for the forefoot surgeon for plantar reconstruction, local injection therapy and an excision of interdigital neuroma. During routine dissection of 50-year-old female cadaver, we found the medial plantar nerve and vessels variably located between plantar aponeurosis and the muscles of the first layer of the sole of the right foot. Due to this variant position, the medial plantar nerve and vessels lose their protection ...

  11. Molecular Characterization of Attenuated Junin Virus Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-14

    No. DAMD17-89-Z-9024 Area de Quimica Biologica y Biologia Molecular Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Universidad Nacional de La Plata Calles 47 y 115, 1900...MONITORING ORGANIZATION Area de Quimica Biologica (If applicable) y Biologia Molecular I 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIPCode) 7b. ADDRESS (City, State...AD-A260 128 AD____ MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF ATTENUATED JUNIN VIRUS VARIANTS FINAL REPORT VICTOR ROMANOWSKI PABLO D. GHIRINGHELLI CESAR G

  12. Unusual variant of Cantrell′s pentalogy?

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Basant; Sharma S.; Kandpal Deepak; Agrawal L

    2008-01-01

    A 12-hour-old male infant presented with prolapsed abdominal content through a defect on left side of chest wall with respiratory distress. A thorough clinical examination suggested absence of ectopia cordis, abdominal wall defect, and any bony anomaly. The child expired after 6 hours of admission because of respiratory distress and electrolyte imbalance. Is congenital defect of chest wall associated with diaphragmatic hernia without ectopia cordis and omphalocele, an unusual variant of Cantr...

  13. Fine-Mapping of Common Genetic Variants Associated with Colorectal Tumor Risk Identified Potential Functional Variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Du

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified many common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with colorectal cancer risk. These SNPs may tag correlated variants with biological importance. Fine-mapping around GWAS loci can facilitate detection of functional candidates and additional independent risk variants. We analyzed 11,900 cases and 14,311 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colon Cancer Family Registry. To fine-map genomic regions containing all known common risk variants, we imputed high-density genetic data from the 1000 Genomes Project. We tested single-variant associations with colorectal tumor risk for all variants spanning genomic regions 250-kb upstream or downstream of 31 GWAS-identified SNPs (index SNPs. We queried the University of California, Santa Cruz Genome Browser to examine evidence for biological function. Index SNPs did not show the strongest association signals with colorectal tumor risk in their respective genomic regions. Bioinformatics analysis of SNPs showing smaller P-values in each region revealed 21 functional candidates in 12 loci (5q31.1, 8q24, 11q13.4, 11q23, 12p13.32, 12q24.21, 14q22.2, 15q13, 18q21, 19q13.1, 20p12.3, and 20q13.33. We did not observe evidence of additional independent association signals in GWAS-identified regions. Our results support the utility of integrating data from comprehensive fine-mapping with expanding publicly available genomic databases to help clarify GWAS associations and identify functional candidates that warrant more onerous laboratory follow-up. Such efforts may aid the eventual discovery of disease-causing variant(s.

  14. Fine-Mapping of Common Genetic Variants Associated with Colorectal Tumor Risk Identified Potential Functional Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gala, Manish; Abecasis, Goncalo; Bezieau, Stephane; Brenner, Hermann; Butterbach, Katja; Caan, Bette J.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Casey, Graham; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Conti, David V.; Curtis, Keith R.; Duggan, David; Gallinger, Steven; Haile, Robert W.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Küry, Sébastien; Le Marchand, Loic; Leal, Suzanne M.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Potter, John D.; Schoen, Robert E.; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Seminara, Daniela; Slattery, Martha L.; Hsu, Li; Chan, Andrew T.; White, Emily; Berndt, Sonja I.; Peters, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with colorectal cancer risk. These SNPs may tag correlated variants with biological importance. Fine-mapping around GWAS loci can facilitate detection of functional candidates and additional independent risk variants. We analyzed 11,900 cases and 14,311 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colon Cancer Family Registry. To fine-map genomic regions containing all known common risk variants, we imputed high-density genetic data from the 1000 Genomes Project. We tested single-variant associations with colorectal tumor risk for all variants spanning genomic regions 250-kb upstream or downstream of 31 GWAS-identified SNPs (index SNPs). We queried the University of California, Santa Cruz Genome Browser to examine evidence for biological function. Index SNPs did not show the strongest association signals with colorectal tumor risk in their respective genomic regions. Bioinformatics analysis of SNPs showing smaller P-values in each region revealed 21 functional candidates in 12 loci (5q31.1, 8q24, 11q13.4, 11q23, 12p13.32, 12q24.21, 14q22.2, 15q13, 18q21, 19q13.1, 20p12.3, and 20q13.33). We did not observe evidence of additional independent association signals in GWAS-identified regions. Our results support the utility of integrating data from comprehensive fine-mapping with expanding publicly available genomic databases to help clarify GWAS associations and identify functional candidates that warrant more onerous laboratory follow-up. Such efforts may aid the eventual discovery of disease-causing variant(s). PMID:27379672

  15. General Floorplans with L/T-Shaped Blocks Using Corner Block List

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Chun Ma; Xian-Long Hong; She-Qin Dong; C.K.Cheng; Jun Gu

    2006-01-01

    With the recent advent of deep submicron technology and new packing schemes, the components in the integrated circuit are often not rectangular. On the basis of the representation of Corner Block List (CBL), we propose a new method of handling rectilinear blocks. In this paper, the handling of the rectilinear blocks is simplified by transforming the L/T-shaped block problem into the align-abutment constraint problem. We devise the block rejoining process and block alignment operation for forming the L/T-shaped blocks into their original configurations. The shape flexibility of the soft blocks, and the rotation and reflection of L/T-shaped blocks are exploited to obtain a tight packing. The empty rooms are introduced to the process of block rejoining. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by the experimental results on a set of some benchmark examples.

  16. Mathematical modeling and simulation of nanopore blocking by precipitation

    KAUST Repository

    Wolfram, M-T

    2010-10-29

    High surface charges of polymer pore walls and applied electric fields can lead to the formation and subsequent dissolution of precipitates in nanopores. These precipitates block the pore, leading to current fluctuations. We present an extended Poisson-Nernst-Planck system which includes chemical reactions of precipitation and dissolution. We discuss the mathematical modeling and present 2D numerical simulations. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  17. Warty Carcinoma Penis: An Uncommon Variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Shrestha, Santosh; Ghartimagar, Dilasma; Narasimhan, Raghavan; Talwar, OP

    2017-01-01

    Penile carcinoma frequency varies widely in different parts of the world and comprises 1–10% of all the malignancies in males. Majority of the cases of penile carcinoma are squamous cell carcinoma of penis comprising 60% to 70% of all cases. Warty carcinoma of penis is an unusual neoplasm and a variant of penile squamous cell carcinoma comprising 5%–10% of all the variants. The other histological variants include basaloid, verrucous, papillary, sarcomatous, mixed, and adenosquamous carcinoma. The various histological entities with an exophytic papillary lesions including warty carcinoma are together referred to as the “verruciform” group of neoplasms. The warty carcinoma has to be differentiated from these lesions and is typically distinguished by histological features of hyperkeratosis, arborescent papillomatosis, acanthosis, and prominent koilocytosis with nuclear pleomorphism. We present a case of 65-year-old male with growth measuring 6 × 4 cm in the penis who underwent total penectomy and was diagnosed as warty carcinoma penis. PMID:28154768

  18. Primary Aldosteronism and ARMC5 Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilbermint, Mihail; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Faucz, Fabio R.; Berthon, Annabel; Gkourogianni, Alexandra; Schernthaner-Reiter, Marie Helene; Batsis, Maria; Sinaii, Ninet; Quezado, Martha M.; Merino, Maria; Hodes, Aaron; Abraham, Smita B.; Libé, Rossella; Assié, Guillaume; Espiard, Stéphanie; Drougat, Ludivine; Ragazzon, Bruno; Davis, Adam; Gebreab, Samson Y.; Neff, Ryan; Kebebew, Electron; Bertherat, Jérôme; Lodish, Maya B.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Primary aldosteronism is one of the leading causes of secondary hypertension, causing significant morbidity and mortality. A number of genetic defects have recently been identified in primary aldosteronism, whereas we identified mutations in ARMC5, a tumor-suppressor gene, in cortisol-producing primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. Objective: We investigated a cohort of 56 patients who were referred to the National Institutes of Health for evaluation of primary aldosteronism for ARMC5 defects. Methods: Patients underwent step-wise diagnosis, with measurement of serum aldosterone and plasma renin activity followed by imaging, saline suppression and/or oral salt loading tests, plus adrenal venous sampling. Cortisol secretion was also evaluated; unilateral or bilateral adrenalectomy was performed, if indicated. DNA, protein, and transfection studies in H295R cells were conducted by standard methods. Results: We identified 12 germline ARMC5 genetic alterations in 20 unrelated and two related individuals in our cohort (39.3%). ARMC5 sequence changes in 6 patients (10.7%) were predicted to be damaging by in silico analysis. All affected patients carrying a variant predicted to be damaging were African Americans (P = .0023). Conclusions: Germline ARMC5 variants may be associated with primary aldosteronism. Additional cohorts of patients with primary aldosteronism and metabolic syndrome, particularly African Americans, should be screened for ARMC5 sequence variants because these may underlie part of the known increased predisposition of African Americans to low renin hypertension. PMID:25822102

  19. Association of genetic variants with diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Saliha; Raza, Syed Tasleem; Mahdi, Farzana

    2014-12-15

    Diabetic nephropathy accounts for the most serious microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy will continue to increase in future posing a major challenge to the healthcare system resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. It occurs as a result of interaction between both genetic and environmental factors in individuals with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Genetic susceptibility has been proposed as an important factor for the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy, and various research efforts are being executed worldwide to identify the susceptibility gene for diabetic nephropathy. Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms have been found in various genes giving rise to various gene variants which have been found to play a major role in genetic susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy. The risk of developing diabetic nephropathy is increased several times by inheriting risk alleles at susceptibility loci of various genes like ACE, IL, TNF-α, COL4A1, eNOS, SOD2, APOE, GLUT, etc. The identification of these genetic variants at a biomarker level could thus, allow the detection of those individuals at high risk for diabetic nephropathy which could thus help in the treatment, diagnosis and early prevention of the disease. The present review discusses about the various gene variants found till date to be associated with diabetic nephropathy.

  20. Association of genetic variants with diabetic nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saliha; Rizvi; Syed; Tasleem; Raza; Farzana; Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy accounts for the most serious microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy will continue to increase in future posing a major challenge to the healthcare system resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. It occurs as a result of interaction between both genetic and environmental factors in individuals with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Genetic susceptibility has been proposed as an important factor for the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy, and various research efforts are being executed worldwide to identify the susceptibility gene for diabetic nephropathy. Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms have been found in various genes giving rise to various gene variants which have been found to play a major role in genetic susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy. The risk of developing diabetic nephropathy is increased several times by inheriting risk alleles at susceptibility loci of various genes like ACE, IL, TNF-α, COL4A1, e NOS, SOD2, APOE, GLUT, etc. The identification of these genetic variants at a biomarker level could thus, allow the detection of those individuals at high risk for diabetic nephropathy which could thus help in the treatment, diagnosis and early prevention of the disease. The present review discusses about the various gene variants found till date to be associated with diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Genetic variants associated with Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sonia Michail,1 Gilberto Bultron,1 R William DePaolo2 1The University of Southern California, Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Crohn's disease is an immune-related disorder characterized by inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, which can occur in any area throughout the digestive tract. This life-long disease commonly presents with abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss. While the exact etiology of this disease is largely unknown, it is thought to arise from an interaction between microbial, immunological, and environmental factors in a genetically susceptible host, whereby the immune system attacks the intestine as it cross reacts against gut microbial antigens. The study of genetic variants associated with Crohn's disease has shed light on our understanding of disease pathophysiology. A large number of genetic variants identified in Crohn's disease are related to genes targeting microbial recognition and bacterial wall sensing, the most common being NOD2/CARD15 gene. This review will discuss the recent advance in our knowledge of genetic variants of this disease and how they influence the disease course and prognosis. Keywords: Crohn's disease, genetics, autophagy

  2. Cryptanalysis of Selected Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkhzaimi, Hoda A.

    thoroughly, no security assessment is given. We present a series of observations on the presented construction that, in some cases, yield attacks, while in other cases may provide basis of further analysis by the cryptographic community. Specifically, The attacks obtained are using classical- as well...... ciphers initiatives, and the Competition for Authenticated Encryption: Security, Applicability, and Robustness (CAESAR). In this thesis, we first present cryptanalytic results on different ciphers. We propose attack named the Invariant Subspace Attack. It is utilized to break the full block cipher...... PRINTcipher for a significant fraction of its keys. This new attack also gives us new insights into other, more well-established attacks. In addition, we also show that for weak keys, strongly biased linear approximations exists for any number of rounds. Furthermore, we provide variety of attacks...

  3. Functional variant in the autophagy-related 5 gene promotor is associated with childhood asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J Martin

    Full Text Available RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Autophagy is a cellular process directed at eliminating or recycling cellular proteins. Recently, the autophagy pathway has been implicated in immune dysfunction, the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders, and response to viral infection. Associations between two genes in the autophagy pathway, ATG5 and ATG7, with childhood asthma were investigated. METHODS: Using genetic and experimental approaches, we examined the association of 13 HapMap-derived tagging SNPs in ATG5 and ATG7 with childhood asthma in 312 asthmatic and 246 non-allergic control children. We confirmed our findings by using independent cohorts and imputation analysis. Finally, we evaluated the functional relevance of a disease associated SNP. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We demonstrated that ATG5 single nucleotide polymorphisms rs12201458 and rs510432 were associated with asthma (p = 0.00085 and 0.0025, respectively. In three independent cohorts, additional variants in ATG5 in the same LD block were associated with asthma (p<0.05. We found that rs510432 was functionally relevant and conferred significantly increased promotor activity. Furthermore, Atg5 expression was increased in nasal epithelium of acute asthmatics compared to stable asthmatics and non-asthmatic controls. CONCLUSION: Genetic variants in ATG5, including a functional promotor variant, are associated with childhood asthma. These results provide novel evidence for a role for ATG5 in childhood asthma.

  4. Cloning and functional expression of alternative spliced variants of the ρ1 γ-aminobutyrate receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo; Vazquez, Ana E.; Panicker, Mitradas M.; Miledi, Ricardo

    1998-01-01

    The ρ1 γ-aminobutyrate receptor (GABAρ1) is expressed predominantly in the retina and forms homomeric GABA-gated Cl− channels that are clearly different from the multisubunit GABAA receptors. In contrast to these, GABAρ1 receptors desensitize very little and are not blocked by bicuculline. In addition to GABAρ1, two new variants were identified in human retina cDNA libraries. Cloning and sequence analysis showed that both variants contain large deletions in the putative extracellular domain of the receptor. These deletions extend from a common 5′ site to different 3′ sites. The cDNA with the largest deletion, named GABAρ1Δ450, contains a complete ORF identical to that of GABAρ1 but missing 450 nt. This cDNA encodes a protein of 323 aa, identical to the GABAρ1, but has a deletion of 150 aa in the amino-terminal extracellular domain. GABAρ1Δ450 mRNA injected into Xenopus oocytes did not produce functional GABA receptors. The second GABAρ1 variant (GABAρ1Δ51) contains a 51-nt deletion. In Xenopus oocytes, GABAρ1Δ51 led to the expression of GABA receptors that had the essential GABAρ1 characteristics of low desensitization and bicuculline resistance. Therefore, alternative splicing increases the coding potential of this gene family expressed in the human retina, but the functional diversity created by the alternative spliced forms is still not understood. PMID:9520485

  5. PEGYLATED SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES WITH GELABLE BLOCK COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Zhang; Wen Zhu; Lei Gao; Yong-ming Chen

    2011-01-01

    Functional amphiphilic block copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly[(3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate)-co-(1-pyrene-methyl) methacrylate], PEG113-b-P(TEPM26-co-PyMMA4),was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiated by monomethoxy capped poly(ethylene glycol) bromoisobutyrate.This polymer exhibited strong ability to disperse and exfoliate single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in different solvents due to the adhesion of pyrene units to surface of SWNTs.In aqueous solution,the PTEPM segments that were located on the nanotube surfaces with the pyrene units could be gelated and,as a result,the silica oxide networks with PEG coronas were formed on the surface of nanotubes,which ensured the composites with a good dispersibility and stability.Furthermore,functional silane coupling agents,3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane,were introduced during dispersion of SWNTs using the block copolymers.They were co-gelated with PTEPM segments,and the -SH and -NH2 functionalitieswere introduced into the silica oxide coats respectively.

  6. Splicing analysis of 14 BRCA1 missense variants classifies nine variants as pathogenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlborn, Lise B; Dandanell, Mette; Steffensen, Ane Y;

    2015-01-01

    needed to classify whether these uncertain variants are pathogenic or benign. In this study, we investigated 14 BRCA1 variants by in silico splicing analysis and mini-gene splicing assay. All 14 alterations were missense variants located within the BRCT domain of BRCA1 and had previously been examined...... by functional analysis at the protein level. Results from a validated mini-gene splicing assay indicated that nine BRCA1 variants resulted in splicing aberrations leading to truncated transcripts and thus can be considered pathogenic (c.4987A>T/p.Met1663Leu, c.4988T>A/p.Met1663Lys, c.5072C>T/p.Thr1691Ile, c...... to have no or an uncertain effect on the protein level, whereas one variant (c.5072C>T/p.Thr1691Ile) were shown to have a strong effect on the protein level as well. In conclusion, our study emphasizes that in silico splicing prediction and mini-gene splicing analysis are important for the classification...

  7. String Variant Alias Extraction Method using Ensemble Learner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Selvaperumal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available String variant alias names are surnames which are string variant form of the primary name. Extracting string variant aliases are important in tasks such as information retrieval, information extraction, and name resolution etc. String variant alias extraction involves candidate alias name extraction and string variant alias validation. In this paper, string variant aliases are first extracted from the web and then using seven different string similarity metrics as features, candidate aliases are validated using ensemble classifier random forest. Experiments were conducted using string variant name-alias dataset containing name-alias data for 15 persons containing 30 name-alias pairs. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms other similar methods in terms of accuracy.

  8. New poly(dimethylsiloxane)/poly(perfluorooctylethyl acrylate) block copolymers: structure and order across multiple length scales in thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Martinelli, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Three sets of a new class of low surface tension block copolymers were synthesized consisting of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) block and a poly(perfluorooctylethyl acrylate) (AF8) block. The polymers were prepared using a bromo-terminated PDMS macroinitiator, to which was attached an AF8 block grown using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) in such a designed way that the molecular weight and composition of the two polymer blocks were regularly varied. The interplay of both the phase separated microstructure and the mesomorphic character of the fluorinated domains with their effect on surface structure was evaluated using a suite of analytical tools. Surfaces of spin-coated and thermally annealed films were assessed using a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) studies. Both atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) studies were carried out to evaluate the microstructure of the thin films. Even in block copolymers in which the PDMS block was the majority component, a significant presence of the lower surface energy AF8 block was detected at the film surface. Moreover, the perfluorooctyl helices of the AF8 repeat units were highly oriented at the surface in an ordered, tilted smectic structure, which was compared with those of the bulk powder samples using wide-angle X-ray powder diffraction (WAXD) studies. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Var2CSA DBL6-epsilon domain expressed in HEK293 induces limited cross-reactive and blocking antibodies to CSA binding parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherf Artur

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM is a serious consequence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes sequestration in the placenta through the adhesion to the placental receptor chondroitin sulfate A (CSA. Although women become resistant to PAM as they acquire transcending inhibitory immunity against CSA-binding parasites, hundreds of thousands of lives could be saved if a prophylactic vaccine targeting the surface proteins of placental parasites could be designed. Recent works point to the variant protein var2CSA as the key target for the development of a pregnancy-associated malaria vaccine. However, designing such a prophylactic vaccine has been hindered by the difficulty in identifying regions of var2CSA that could elicit broadly neutralizing and adhesion-blocking antibodies. Methods Var2CSA is a very large protein with an estimated molecular weight of 350 kDa, and can be divided into six cysteine rich Duffy binding-like domains (DBL. The human embryonic kidney 293 cell line (HEK293 was used to produce secreted soluble recombinant forms of var2CSA DBL domains. The Escherichia coli expression system was also assessed for the domains not expressed or expressed in low amount in the HEK293 system. To investigate whether var2CSA binding DBL domains can induce biologically active antibodies recognizing the native var2CSA and blocking the interaction, mice were immunized with the refolded DBL3-X or the HEK293 secreted DBL6-ε domains. Results Using the HEK293 expression system, DBL1-X, DBL4-ε and DBL6-ε were produced at relatively high levels in the culture supernatant, while DBL3-X and DBL5-ε were produced at much lower levels. DBL2-X and DBL3-X domains were obtained after refolding of the inclusion bodies produced in E. coli. Importantly, mice antisera raised against the recombinant DBL6-ε domain, specifically reacted against the surface of CSA-binding parasites and revealed adhesion blocking activity. Conclusion This

  10. Efficient Distribution of Triggered Synchronous Block Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    called a trigger. At a given synchronous step, if the trigger is true , the block fires normally; otherwise, the block stutters , that is, keeps its...outputs have the same value as in the previous step, but they are still transmitted to downstream blocks. In this paper we present an implementation...optimizations that apply to general Triggered SBDs, we also present further optimizations for the case of Timed SBDs. 1.1 Motivating Examples Fig. 1

  11. Advanced heart block in acute rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubail, Zakariya; Ebrahim, Ishaq M

    2016-04-01

    First degree heart block is considered a minor criterion for the diagnosis of this condition. The cases presented here demonstrate that higher degrees of heart block do occur in rheumatic fever. Children presenting with acquired heart block should be worked-up for rheumatic fever. Likewise, it is imperative to serially follow the electrocardiogram in patients already diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever, as the conduction abnormalities can change during the course of the disease.

  12. Advanced heart block in acute rheumatic fever

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    First degree heart block is considered a minor criterion for the diagnosis of this condition. The cases presented here demonstrate that higher degrees of heart block do occur in rheumatic fever. Children presenting with acquired heart block should be worked-up for rheumatic fever. Likewise, it is imperative to serially follow the electrocardiogram in patients already diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever, as the conduction abnormalities can change during the course of the disease.

  13. A new variant selection criterion for twin variants in titanium alloys. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuman, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures et de Mecanique des Materiaux, LEM3, CNRS 7239, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, Ile du Saulcy, Metz (France); Bao, Lei; Lecomte, Jean Sebastien; Zhang, Yudong; Raulot, Jean Marc; Philippe, Marie Jeanne; Esling, Claude [LEM3, CNRS 7239, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, Ile du Saulcy, Metz (France)

    2012-05-15

    A new selection criterion to explain the activation of the twinning variant is proposed. This criterion is based on the calculation of the deformation energy to create a primary twin. The calculation takes into account the effect of the grain size using a Hall-Petch type relation. This criterion allows to obtain a very good prediction for the twin family selection and twin variant selection. The calculations are compared with the experimental results obtained on T40 (ASTM grade 2) deformed by Channel Die compression. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Metal Nanoparticle/Block Copolymer Composite Assembly and Disassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zihui; Sai, Hiroaki; Warren, Scott C; Kamperman, Marleen; Arora, Hitesh; Gruner, Sol M; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Ligand-stabilized platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) were self-assembled with poly(isoprene-block-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PI-b-PDMAEMA) block copolymers to generate organic-inorganic hybrid materials. High loadings of NPs in hybrids were achieved through usage of N,N-di-(2-(allyloxy)ethyl)-N-3-mercaptopropyl-N-3-methylammonium chloride as the ligand, which provided high solubility of NPs in various solvents as well as high affinity to PDMAEMA. From NP synthesis, existence of sub-1 nm Pt NPs was confirmed by high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) images. Estimations of the Pt NP ligand head group density based on HAADF-STEM images and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data yielded results comparable to what has been found for alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on flat Pt {111} surfaces. Changing the volume fraction of Pt NPs in block copolymer-NP composites yielded hybrids with spherical micellar, wormlike micellar, lamellar and inverse hexagonal morphologies. Disassembly of hybrids with spherical, wormlike micellar, and lamellar morphologies generated isolated metal-NP based nano-spheres, cylinders and sheets, respectively. Results suggest the existence of powerful design criteria for the formation of metal-based nanostructures from designer blocked macromolecules.

  15. Using Interference to Block RFID Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag.......We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag....

  16. Modelling of multi-block data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar; Svinning, K.

    2006-01-01

    Here is presented a unified approach to modelling multi-block regression data. The starting point is a partition of the data X into L data blocks, X = (X-1, X-2,...X-L), and the data Y into M data-blocks, Y = (Y-1, Y-2,...,Y-M). The methods of linear regression, X -> Y, are extended to the case...... these methods can be extended to a network of data blocks. Examples of the optimisation procedures in a network are shown. The examples chosen are the ones that are useful to work within industrial production environments. The methods are illustrated by simulated data and data from cement production....

  17. A New Relationship between Block Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shramchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a procedure of constructing new block designs starting from a given one by looking at the intersections of its blocks with various sets and grouping those sets according to the structure of the intersections. We introduce a symmetric relationship of friendship between block designs built on a set V and consider families of block designs where all designs are friends of each other, the so-called friendly families. We show that a friendly family admits a partial ordering. Furthermore, we exhibit a map from the power set of V, partially ordered by inclusion, to a friendly family of a particular type which preserves the partial order.

  18. Recent developments in paediatric neuraxial blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrushali Chandrashekhar Ponde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric anaesthesia and paediatric regional anaesthesia are intertwined. Almost all surgeries unless contradicted could be and should be supplemented with a regional block. The main objective of this review is to elaborate on the recent advances of the central neuraxial blocks, such as application of ultrasound guidance and electrical stimulation in the pursuit of safety and an objective end point. This review also takes account of the traditional technique and understand the benefits as well the risk of each as compared with the recent technique. The recent trends in choosing the most appropriate peripheral block for a given surgery thereby sparing the central neuroaxis is considered. A penile block for circumcision or a sciatic block for unilateral foot surgery, rather than caudal epidural would have a better risk benefit equation. Readers will find a special mention on the recent thoughts on continuous epidural analgesia in paediatrics, especially its rise and fall, yet its unique importance. Lastly, the issue of block placements under sedation or general anaesthesia with its implication in this special population is dealt with. We conducted searches in MEDLINE (PubMed and assessed the relevance of the abstracts of citations identified from literature searches. The search was carried out in English, for last 10 years, with the following key words: Recent advances in paediatric regional anaesthesia; ultrasound guidance for central neuraxial blocks in children; role of electrical stimulation in neuraxial blocks in children; complications in neuraxial block. Full-text articles of potentially relevant abstracts were retrieved for further review.

  19. Interband Plasmonics with p-block Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Toudert, Johann

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the origin of the near-ultraviolet visible plasmonic properties of three elemental materials from the p-block: Bi, Sb and Ga, with the aim to achieve and exploit unconventional plasmonic effects beyond those provided by noble metals. At such aim, we review and analyze a broad range of optically-determined dielectric functions e of these elemental materials available in the literature, covering a wide photon energy range (from 0.03 to 24 eV). It is shown that the contribution of Drude-like carriers to e1 (real part of e) in the near-ultraviolet visible is negligible for Bi and Sb and moderate for Ga. In contrast, the interband transitions of these elemental materials show a high oscillator strength that yields a strong negative contribution to e1 in the near-ultraviolet visible. Therefore in these materials interband transitions are not a mere damping channel detrimental to plasmonic properties. Remarkably, these interband transitions induce fully (partially) the localized surface plasmon-like r...

  20. PACS photometer calibration block analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Moór, A; Kiss, Cs; Balog, Z; Billot, N; Marton, G

    2013-01-01

    The absolute stability of the PACS bolometer response over the entire mission lifetime without applying any corrections is about 0.5% (standard deviation) or about 8% peak-to-peak. This fantastic stability allows us to calibrate all scientific measurements by a fixed and time-independent response file, without using any information from the PACS internal calibration sources. However, the analysis of calibration block observations revealed clear correlations of the internal source signals with the evaporator temperature and a signal drift during the first half hour after the cooler recycling. These effects are small, but can be seen in repeated measurements of standard stars. From our analysis we established corrections for both effects which push the stability of the PACS bolometer response to about 0.2% (stdev) or 2% in the blue, 3% in the green and 5% in the red channel (peak-to-peak). After both corrections we still see a correlation of the signals with PACS FPU temperatures, possibly caused by parasitic h...

  1. Formation of nanophases in epoxy thermosets containing amphiphilic block copolymers with linear and star-like topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Chongyin; Cong, Houluo; Li, Lei; Zheng, Sixun; Li, Xiuhong; Wang, Jie

    2013-07-11

    In this work, we investigated the effect of topological structures of block copolymers on the formation of the nanophase in epoxy thermosets containing amphiphilic block copolymers. Two block copolymers composed of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl acrylate) (PTFEA) blocks were synthesized to possess linear and star-shaped topologies. The star-shaped block copolymer composed a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) core and eight poly(ε-caprolactone)-block-poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl acrylate) (PCL-b-PTFEA) diblock copolymer arms. Both block copolymers were synthesized via the combination of ring-opening polymerization and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer/macromolecular design via the interchange of xanthate (RAFT/MADIX) process; they were controlled to have identical compositions of copolymerization and lengths of blocks. Upon incorporating both block copolymers into epoxy thermosets, the spherical PTFEA nanophases were formed in all the cases. However, the sizes of PTFEA nanophases from the star-like block copolymer were significantly lower than those from the linear diblock copolymer. The difference in the nanostructures gave rise to the different glass transition behavior of the nanostructured thermosets. The dependence of PTFEA nanophases on the topologies of block copolymers is interpreted in terms of the conformation of the miscible subchain (viz. PCL) at the surface of PTFEA microdomains and the restriction of POSS cages on the demixing of the thermoset-philic block (viz. PCL).

  2. Association of corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 (CRHR2) genetic variants with acute bronchodilator response in asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Audrey H.; Tantisira, Kelan G.; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Lazarus, Ross; Xu, Jingsong; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Lima, John J.; Irvin, Charles G.; Hanrahan, John P.; Lange, Christoph; Weiss, Scott T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Corticotropin - releasing hormone receptor 2 (CRHR2) participates in smooth muscle relaxation response and may influence acute airway bronchodilator response to short – acting β2 agonist treatment of asthma. We aim to assess associations between genetic variants of CRHR2 and acute bronchodilator response in asthma. Methods We investigated 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms in CRHR2 for associations with acute bronchodilator response to albuterol in 607 Caucasian asthmatic subjects recruited as part of the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). Replication was conducted in two Caucasian adult asthma cohorts – a cohort of 427 subjects enrolled in a completed clinical trial conducted by Sepracor Inc. (MA, USA) and a cohort of 152 subjects enrolled in the Clinical Trial of Low-Dose Theopylline and Montelukast (LODO) conducted by the American Lung Association Asthma Clinical Research Centers. Results Five variants were significantly associated with acute bronchodilator response in at least one cohort (p-value ≤ 0.05). Variant rs7793837 was associated in CAMP and LODO (p-value = 0.05 and 0.03, respectively) and haplotype blocks residing at the 5’ end of CRHR2 were associated with response in all three cohorts. Conclusion We report for the first time, at the gene level, replicated associations between CRHR2 and acute bronchodilator response. While no single variant was significantly associated in all three cohorts, the findings that variants at the 5’ end of CRHR2 are associated in each of three cohorts strongly suggest that the causative variants reside in this region and its genetic effect, although present, is likely to be weak. PMID:18408560

  3. [Necrobiosis lipoidica. Variants on a theme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, E; Laaff, H; Technau, K; Bruckner-Tuderman, L; Nashan, D

    2011-08-01

    A 69-year-old patient presented with different skin lesions all of which belonged to group of necrobiosis lipoidica. The initial histologic diagnosis was actinic granuloma O'Brien. A subsequent biopsy was interpreted as granulomatous necrobiosis lipoidica. The history of these necrobiotic variants is reviewed and exemplarily depicted with this case. Necrobiosis lipoidica is part of the spectrum of granulomatous skin disorders. Although its etiology is unclear, an association with diabetes mellitus is often discussed. Multiple therapeutic options exist, but standardized guidelines for treatment are missing.

  4. Research progress of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-hua GU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no epidemiological data of frontotemporal dementia (FTD in China. The application of updated diagnostic criteria, publishing of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD consensus in China, development of multimodal imaging and biomarkers promote the clinical understanding on behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD. There is still no drugs treating FTD approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Multidisciplinary intervention may delay the progression of bvFTD. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.006

  5. Clinical variants of idiopathic torsion dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahn, S

    1989-06-01

    Some patients with dystonic movements and postures not known to be caused by environmental or degenerative disorders can be segregated from classical-appearing idiopathic torsion dystonia on the basis of distinctive clinical and pharmacologic features. Many of them should be considered within the family of dystonia, as clinical variants of idiopathic torsion dystonia, while others are better classified as being part of other families of dyskinesias. In the former group are paradoxical dystonia, myoclonic dystonia, diurnal dystonia, and dopa-responsive dystonia. The latter group consists of dystonic tics and the various entities comprising paroxysmal dystonia, namely kinesigenic, nonkinesigenic and hypnogenic dystonia.

  6. Space-variant polarized Airy beam

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally generate an Airy beam with polarization structure while keeping its original amplitude and phase profile intact. This class of Airy beam preserves the acceleration properties. By monitoring their initial polarization structure we have provided insight concerning the self-healing mechanism of Airy beams. We investigate both theoretically and experimentally the self-healing polarization properties of the space-variant polarized Airy beams. Amplitude as well as the polarization structure tends to reform during propagation in spite of the severe truncation of the beam by finite apertures.

  7. XVCL: XML-based Variant Configuration Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarzabek, Stan; Basset, Paul; Zhang, Hongyu;

    2003-01-01

    XVCL (XML-based Variant Configuration Language) is a meta-programming technique and tool that provides effective reuse mechanisms. XVCL is an open source software developed at the National University of Singapore. Being a modern and versatile version of Bassett's frames, a technology that has...... achieved substantial gains in industry, the underlying principles of the XVCL have been thoroughly tested in practice. We envision many other applications in software and non-software domains, as we can apply XVCL to any domain that can be represented as a collection of textual documents....

  8. Oral fibrolipoma: A rare histological variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treville Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipomas are benign soft tissue mesenchymal neoplasms. Fibrolipoma is a histological variant of lipoma that mostly affects the buccal mucosa and causes functional and cosmetic disabilities. The diagnosis and differentiation of fibrolipoma with clinically similar lesions such as fibroma and pleomorphic adenoma is very essential for a correct treatment plan and complete follow-up. This article presents a case of a 35-year-old female with a fibrolipoma on the lingual marginal gingiva of the mandibular left third molar.

  9. Performance comparison of various time variant filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwata, M. [JEOL Engineering Co. Ltd., Akishima, Tokyo (Japan); Husimi, K.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes the advantage of the trapezoidal filter used in semiconductor detector system comparing with the other time variant filters. The trapezoidal filter is the compose of a rectangular pre-filter and a gated integrator. We indicate that the best performance is obtained by the differential-integral summing type rectangular pre-filter. This filter is not only superior in performance, but also has the useful feature that the rising edge of the output waveform is linear. We introduce an example of this feature used in a high-energy experiment. (author)

  10. Variant position of the medial plantar nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astik RB

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of variation of position of the medial plantar nerve is important for the forefoot surgeon for plantar reconstruction, local injection therapy and an excision of interdigital neuroma. During routine dissection of 50-year-old female cadaver, we found the medial plantar nerve and vessels variably located between plantar aponeurosis and the muscles of the first layer of the sole of the right foot. Due to this variant position, the medial plantar nerve and vessels lose their protection from the muscles of the first layer of the sole of the foot and became vulnerable for compression.

  11. Pitfalls and variants in pediatric chest imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Asensio, D; Fernández Martín, M

    2016-05-01

    Most pitfalls in the interpretation of pediatric chest imaging are closely related with the technique used and the characteristics of pediatric patients. To obtain a quality image that will enable the correct diagnosis, it is very important to use an appropriate technique. It is important to know how technical factors influence the image and to be aware of the possible artifacts that can result from poor patient cooperation. Moreover, radiologists need to be familiar with the normal anatomy in children, with the classic radiologic findings, and with the anatomic and developmental variants to avoid misinterpreting normal findings as pathological.

  12. Comparative study between ultrasound guided tap block and paravertebral block in upper abdominal surgeries. Randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqaya M. Elsayed

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block and thoracic paravertebral block were safe and effective anesthetic technique for upper abdominal surgery with longer and potent postoperative analgesia in thoracic paravertebral block than transversus abdominis block.

  13. Heterologous Expression of Rat Testis GABAA Receptor β3t Splicing Variant in CHO Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-feng LI; Yu-guang CHEN; Yuan-chang YAN; Yi-ping LI

    2004-01-01

    Objective To characterize a possible retention function of unique sequence in the 5'end of rat testis GABAA receptor β3t splicing variantMethods Rat testis GABAA receptor β3t splicing variant cDNA was cloned and two eukaryotic expression recombinant plasmids of pEGFP-N1 and pEGFP-C1 were constructed respectively by fusing green fluorescent protein to the N or C-terminus of β3t isoform. The recombinant plasmids were transfected into CHO cells by calcium phosphate co-precipitation method. Fluorescence microscope and laser confocal microscope were used to analyze localization of β3t in the transfected cells. ConA-Texas-Red was used to label cell ER and the localization of rat testis β3t splicing variant in CHO cells was determined.Results When rat testis β3t splicing variant was expressed in CHO cells, two expression patterns were delineated, the distributions of uniform and mainly discrete intracellular compartments respectively. The chimera product failed to be translocated into the cell surface when expressed in CHO cells; whereas the β3 subunit of rat brain was incorporated into the plasma membrane.Conclusion The inability of β3t to target into the ER may be a consequence of the unique 25 specific amino acid segments in the N terminus.

  14. Psoriasis patients are enriched for genetic variants that protect against HIV-1 disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyan Chen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An important paradigm in evolutionary genetics is that of a delicate balance between genetic variants that favorably boost host control of infection but which may unfavorably increase susceptibility to autoimmune disease. Here, we investigated whether patients with psoriasis, a common immune-mediated disease of the skin, are enriched for genetic variants that limit the ability of HIV-1 virus to replicate after infection. We analyzed the HLA class I and class II alleles of 1,727 Caucasian psoriasis cases and 3,581 controls and found that psoriasis patients are significantly more likely than controls to have gene variants that are protective against HIV-1 disease. This includes several HLA class I alleles associated with HIV-1 control; amino acid residues at HLA-B positions 67, 70, and 97 that mediate HIV-1 peptide binding; and the deletion polymorphism rs67384697 associated with high surface expression of HLA-C. We also found that the compound genotype KIR3DS1 plus HLA-B Bw4-80I, which respectively encode a natural killer cell activating receptor and its putative ligand, significantly increased psoriasis susceptibility. This compound genotype has also been associated with delay of progression to AIDS. Together, our results suggest that genetic variants that contribute to anti-viral immunity may predispose to the development of psoriasis.

  15. [The phonological variant of primary progressive aphasia, a single case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2011-04-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by an insidious onset and gradual progression of deficits that can involve any aspect of language, including word finding, object naming, fluency, syntax, phonology and word comprehension. The initial symptoms occur in the absence of major deficits in other cognitive domains, including episodic memory, visuospatial abilities and visuoconstruction. According to recent diagnostic guidelines, PPA is typically divided into three variants: nonfluent variant PPA (also termed progressive nonfluent aphasia), semantic variant PPA (also termed semantic dementia) and logopenic/phonological variant PPA (also termed logopenic progressive aphasia). The paper describes a 79-yr old man, who presented with normal motor speech and production rate, impaired single word retrieval and phonemic errors in spontaneous speech and confrontational naming. Confrontation naming was strongly affected by lexical frequency. He was impaired on repetition of sentences and phrases. Reading was intact for regularly spelled words but not for irregular words (surface dyslexia). Comprehension was spared at the single word level, but impaired for complex sentences. He performed within the normal range on the Dutch equivalent of the Pyramids and Palm Trees (PPT) Pictures Test, indicating that semantic processing was preserved. There was, however, a slight deficiency on the PPT Words Test, which appeals to semantic knowledge of verbal associations. His core deficit was interpreted as an inability to retrieve stored lexical-phonological information for spoken word production in spontaneous speech, confrontation naming, repetition and reading aloud.

  16. Bulk Vitrification Castable Refractory Block Protection Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Beck, Andrew E.; Brouns, Thomas M.; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Elliott, Michael L.; Matyas, Josef; Minister, Kevin BC; Schweiger, Michael J.; Strachan, Denis M.; Tinsley, Bronnie P.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

    2005-05-01

    Bulk vitrification (BV) was selected for a pilot-scale test and demonstration facility for supplemental treatment to accelerate the cleanup of low-activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford U.S. DOE Site. During engineering-scale (ES) tests, a small fraction of radioactive Tc (and Re, its nonradioactive surrogate) were transferred out of the LAW glass feed and molten LAW glass, and deposited on the surface and within the pores of the castable refractory block (CRB). Laboratory experiments were undertaken to understand the mechanisms of the transport Tc/Re into the CRB during vitrification and to evaluate various means of CRB protection against the deposition of leachable Tc/Re. The tests used Re as a chemical surrogate for Tc. The tests with the baseline CRB showed that the molten LAW penetrates into CRB pores before it converts to glass, leaving deposits of sulfates and chlorides when the nitrate components decompose. Na2O from the LAW reacts with the CRB to create a durable glass phase that may contain Tc/Re. Limited data from a single CRB sample taken from an ES experiment indicate that, while a fraction of Tc/Re is present in the CRB in a readily leachable form, most of the Tc/Re deposited in the refractory is retained in the form of a durable glass phase. In addition, the molten salts from the LAW, mainly sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates, begin to evaporate from BV feeds at temperatures below 800 C and condense on solid surfaces at temperatures below 530 C. Three approaches aimed at reducing or preventing the deposition of soluble Tc/Re within the CRB were proposed: metal lining, sealing the CRB surface with a glaze, and lining the CRB with ceramic tiles. Metal liners were deemed unsuitable because evaluations showed that they can cause unacceptable distortions of the electric field in the BV system. Sodium silicate and a low-alkali borosilicate glaze were selected for testing. The glazes slowed down molten salt condensate penetration, but did little to reduce the

  17. Antibody blocks acquisition of bacterial colonization through agglutination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, A M; Richard, A L; Rahkola, J T; Janoff, E N; Weiser, J N

    2015-01-01

    Invasive infection often begins with asymptomatic colonization of mucosal surfaces. A murine model of bacterial colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae was used to study the mechanism for mucosal protection by immunoglobulin. In previously colonized immune mice, bacteria were rapidly sequestered within large aggregates in the nasal lumen. To further examine the role of bacterial agglutination in protection by specific antibodies, mice were passively immunized with immunoglobulin G (IgG) purified from antipneumococcal sera or pneumococcal type-specific monoclonal human IgA (hIgA1 or hIgA2). Systemically delivered IgG accessed the mucosal surface and blocked acquisition of colonization and transmission between littermates. Optimal protection by IgG was independent of Fc fragment and complement and, therefore, did not involve an opsonophagocytic mechanism. Enzymatic digestion or reduction of IgG before administration showed that protection required divalent binding that maintained its agglutinating effect. Divalent hIgA1 is cleaved by the pneumococcal member of a family of bacterial proteases that generate monovalent Fabα fragments. Thus, passive immunization with hIgA1 blocked colonization by an IgA1-protease-deficient mutant (agglutinated) but not the protease-producing wild-type parent (not agglutinated), whereas protease-resistant hIgA2 agglutinated and blocked colonization by both. Our findings highlight the importance of agglutinating antibodies in mucosal defense and reveal how successful pathogens evade this effect.

  18. Polymorphic Ring-Shaped Molecular Clusters Made of Shape-Variable Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Salguero, Keitel; Hamada, Shogo; Nomura, Shin-ichiro M.; Murata, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembling molecular building blocks able to dynamically change their shapes, is a concept that would offer a route to reconfigurable systems. Although simulation studies predict novel properties useful for applications in diverse fields, such kinds of building blocks, have not been implemented thus far with molecules. Here, we report shape-variable building blocks fabricated by DNA self-assembly. Blocks are movable enough to undergo shape transitions along geometrical ranges. Blocks connect to each other and assemble into polymorphic ring-shaped clusters via the stacking of DNA blunt-ends. Reconfiguration of the polymorphic clusters is achieved by the surface diffusion on mica substrate in response to a monovalent salt concentration. This work could inspire novel reconfigurable self-assembling systems for applications in molecular robotics.

  19. Polymorphic Ring-Shaped Molecular Clusters Made of Shape-Variable Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitel Cervantes-Salguero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembling molecular building blocks able to dynamically change their shapes, is a concept that would offer a route to reconfigurable systems. Although simulation studies predict novel properties useful for applications in diverse fields, such kinds of building blocks, have not been implemented thus far with molecules. Here, we report shape-variable building blocks fabricated by DNA self-assembly. Blocks are movable enough to undergo shape transitions along geometrical ranges. Blocks connect to each other and assemble into polymorphic ring-shaped clusters via the stacking of DNA blunt-ends. Reconfiguration of the polymorphic clusters is achieved by the surface diffusion on mica substrate in response to a monovalent salt concentration. This work could inspire novel reconfigurable self-assembling systems for applications in molecular robotics.

  20. Immunogenic variants obtained by mutagenesis of mouse mastocytoma P815. V. H-2 associativity of variant-specific antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Snick, J; Maryanski, J; Van Pel, A; Parmiani, G; Boon, T

    1982-11-01

    By in vitro mutagenesis of mastocytoma P815, it is possible to obtain tumor cell variants that are rejected by syngeneic mice (tum-). Most of these variants carry new individual antigens and stimulate a specific cytolytic T cell (CTL) response in mixed leukocyte tumor cell culture (MLTC). The H-2 associativity of this response was examined for six different variants by measuring the inhibition of cell-mediated cytolysis by antibodies directed against products of the K or the D end of the H-2d complex. The lysis was either not inhibited (variants P91 and P116) or inhibited selectively by anti-Kd (variants P21, P32 and P198) or anti-Dd antibodies (variant P35). All these tum- variants expressed Kd and Dd antigens as measured by absorption of H-2 alloantisera. Long-term CTL clones can be obtained that are specific for individual tum- antigens. The pattern of H-2 associativity obtained with MLTC-derived CTL against four tum- variants was verified with CTL clones directed against the specific antigens of these variants. Concordant results were observed in all cases. In addition to CTL clones specific for tum- antigens, it is possible to isolate clones against a P815 tumor-associated antigen found on all P815 tum- variants. For these clones no clear associativity with either Kd or Dd products was found.

  1. Conservation analysis of dengue virus T-cell epitope-based vaccine candidates using peptide block entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Ronn Olsen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Broad coverage of the pathogen population is particularly important when designing CD8+ T-cell epitope vaccines against viral pathogens. Traditional approaches to assembling broadly covering sets of peptides are commonly based on assembling highly conserved epitopes. Peptide block entropy analysis is a novel approach to assembling sets of broadly covering antigens. Since T-cell epitopes are recognized as peptides rather than individual residues, this method is based on calculating the information content of blocks of peptides from a multiple sequence alignment of homologous proteins rather than individual residues. The block entropy analysis provides broad coverage by variant inclusion, since high frequency may not be the sole determinant of the immunogenic potential of a predicted MHC class I binder. We applied block entropy analysis method to the proteomes of the four serotypes of dengue virus and found 1,551 blocks of 9-mer peptides, which covered all available sequences with five or fewer unique peptides. In contrast, the benchmark study by Khan et al. (2008, resulted in 165 9-mers being determined as conserved. Many of the blocks are located consecutively in the proteins, so connecting these blocks resulted in 78 conserved regions which can be covered with 457 subunit peptides. Of the 1551 blocks of 9-mer peptides, 110 blocks consisted of peptides all predicted to bind to MHC with similar affinity and the same HLA restriction. In total, we identified a pool of 333 peptides as T-cell epitope candidates. This set could form the basis for a broadly neutralizing dengue virus vaccine. The peptide block entropy analysis approach significantly increases the number of conserved peptide regions in comparison to traditional conservation analysis of individual residues. We determined 457 subunit peptides with the capacity to encompass the diversity of all sequenced DENV strains.

  2. Erosion patterns on dissolving blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courrech du Pont, Sylvain; Cohen, Caroline; Derr, Julien; Berhanu, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Patterns in nature are shaped under water flows and wind action, and the understanding of their morphodynamics goes through the identification of the physical mechanisms at play. When a dissoluble body is exposed to a water flow, typical patterns with scallop-like shapes may appear [1,2]. These shapes are observed on the walls of underground rivers or icebergs. We experimentally study the erosion of dissolving bodies made of salt, caramel or ice into water solutions without external flow. The dissolving mixture, which is created at the solid/liquid interface, undergoes a buoyancy-driven instability comparable to a Rayleigh-Bénard instability so that the dissolving front destabilizes into filaments. This mechanism yields to spatial variations of solute concentration and to differential dissolution of the dissolving block. We first observe longitudinal stripes with a well defined wavelength, which evolve towards chevrons and scallops that interact and move again the dissolving current. Thanks to a careful analysis of the competing physical mechanisms, we propose scaling laws, which account for the characteristic lengths and times of the early regime in experiments. The long-term evolution of patterns is understood qualitatively. A close related mechanism has been proposed to explain structures observed on the basal boundary of ice cover on brakish lakes [3] and we suggest that our experiments are analogous and explain the scallop-like patterns on iceberg walls. [1] P. Meakin and B. Jamtveit, Geological pattern formation by growth and dissolution in aqueous systems, Proc. R. Soc. A 466, 659-694 (2010). [2] P.N. Blumberg and R.L. Curl, Experimental and theoretical studies of dissolution roughness, J. Fluid Mech. 65, 735-751 (1974). [3] L. Solari and G. Parker, Morphodynamic modelling of the basal boundary of ice cover on brakish lakes, J.G.R. 118, 1432-1442 (2013).

  3. New routes to the synthesis of amylose-block-polystyrene rod-coil block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, Katja; Müller, Axel H.E.

    2002-01-01

    Hybrid block copolymers amylose-block-polystyrene were synthesized by covalent attachment of maltoheptaose derivatives to end-functionalized polystyrene and subsequent enzymatic grafting from polymerization. The maltoheptaose derivatives were attached by reductive amination or hydrosilation to amino

  4. Block-based image hashing with restricted blocking strategy for rotational robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Shijun; Yang, Jianquan

    2012-12-01

    Image hashing is a potential solution for image content authentication (a desired image hashing algorithm should be robust to common image processing operations and various geometric distortions). In the literature, researchers pay more attention to block-based image hashing algorithms due to their robustness to common image processing operations (such as lossy compression, low-pass filtering, and additive noise). However, the block-based hashing strategies are sensitive to rotation processing operations. This indicates that the robustness of the block-based hashing methods against rotation operations is an important issue. Towards this direction, in this article we propose a restricted blocking strategy by investigating effect of two rotation operations on an image and its blocks in both theoretical and experimental ways. Furthermore, we apply the proposed blocking strategy for the recently reported non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) hashing. Experimental results have demonstrated the validity of the block-based hashing algorithms with restricted blocking strategy for rotation operations.

  5. La influencia de la superficie articular y la membrana sinovial en la evolución de pacientes afectos por bloqueo crónico de la articulación temporomandibular tratados mediante artroscopia Influence of the joint surface and the synovial membrane on the evolution of patients affected by chronic temporomandibular joint block who were treated with arthroscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. González-García

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Se ha referido la artroscopia de la articulación temporomandibular (ATM como una técnica efectiva en el tratamiento del bloqueo crónico (BC articular. El propósito del presente estudio es evaluar si el estado de la superficie articular y la membrana sinovial directamente visualizados por artroscopia pueden determinar el resultado posoperatorio de pacientes afectos por BC de la ATM. Pacientes y método: Doscientos cincuenta y siete de 500 pacientes (344 articulaciones cumplieron los criterios de inclusión para BC de la ATM. Para el presente estudio se seleccionaron 172 pacientes con afectación unilateral. Se eligieron los parámetros "sinovitis" y "condromalacia" para la evaluación de la membrana sinovial y la superficie articular, respectivamente. Se establecieron dos grupos de pacientes: a pacientes con afectación leve: sinovitis grados I/II más condromalacia I/II, y b pacientes con afectación grave: sinovitis grados III/IV más condromalacia grados III/IV. Se eligieron el dolor y la máxima apertura oral (MAO interincisal como variables dependientes. Todos los pacientes se revisaron de modo posoperatorio al mes, 3, 6, 12 y 24 meses. Se utilizó la prueba de la "t" de Student para muestras pareadas para comparar los valores medios de dolor (escala visual analógica, EVA y función (MAO, de modo preoperatorio y posoperatorio. Se utilizó la "t" de Student para muestras independientes para la comparación de los diferentes grupos establecidos. Se consideró estadísticamente significativo un valor de p Introduction: Arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ has been considered an effective technique to treat close lock (CL. The purpose of this study is to evaluate if the status of the joint surface and the synovial membrane directly seen via arthroscopy can determine the post operative results of patients with chronic block of the TMJ. Patients and methods: Two hundred and fifty-seven out of the 500 patients (344

  6. Nanostructured Polysulfone-Based Block Copolymer Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yihui

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work is to fabricate nanostructured membranes from polysulfone-based block copolymers through self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation. Block copolymers containing polysulfone are novel materials for this purpose providing better mechanical and thermal stability to membranes than polystyrene-based copolymers, which have been exclusively used now. Firstly, we synthesized a triblock copolymer, poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polsulfone-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) through polycondensation and reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization. The obtained membrane has a highly porous interconnected skin layer composed of elongated micelles with a flower-like arrangement, on top of the graded finger-like macrovoids. Membrane surface hydrolysis was carried out in a combination with metal complexation to obtain metal-chelated membranes. The copper-containing membrane showed improved antibacterial capability. Secondly, a poly(acrylic acid)-b-polysulfone-b-poly(acrylic acid) triblock copolymer obtained by hydrolyzing poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polsulfone-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) formed a thin film with cylindrical poly(acrylic acid) microdomains in polysulfone matrix through thermal annealing. A phase inversion membrane was prepared from the same polymer via self-assembly and chelation-assisted non-solvent induced phase separation. The spherical micelles pre-formed in a selective solvent mixture packed into an ordered lattice in aid of metal-poly(acrylic acid) complexation. The space between micelles was filled with poly(acrylic acid)-metal complexes acting as potential water channels. The silver0 nanoparticle-decorated membrane was obtained by surface reduction, having three distinct layers with different particle sizes. Other amphiphilic copolymers containing polysulfone and water-soluble segments such as poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) were also synthesized through coupling reaction and copper0-mediated

  7. Canonical and variant histones of protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmasso, Maria Carolina; Sullivan, William Joseph; Angel, Sergio Oscar

    2011-06-01

    Protozoan parasites have tremendously diverse lifestyles that require adaptation to a remarkable assortment of different environmental conditions. In order to complete their life cycles, protozoan parasites rely on fine-tuning gene expression. In general, protozoa use novel regulatory elements, transcription factors, and epigenetic mechanisms to regulate their transcriptomes. One of the most surprising findings includes the nature of their histones--these primitive eukaryotes lack some histones yet harbor novel histone variants of unknown function. In this review, we describe the histone components of different protozoan parasites based on literature and database searching. We summarize the key discoveries regarding histones and histone variants and their impact on chromatin regulation in protozoan parasites. In addition, we list histone genes IDs, sequences, and genomic localization of several protozoan parasites and Microsporidia histones, obtained from a thorough search of genome databases. We then compare these findings with those observed in higher eukaryotes, allowing us to highlight some novel aspects of epigenetic regulation in protists and to propose questions to be addressed in the upcoming years.

  8. Kenny-Caffey syndrome: an Arab variant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, M A; Farag, T I; Shaltout, A A; Zaki, M; Al-Mazidi, Z; Abulhassan, S J; Al-Torki, N; Quishawi, A; Al Awadi, S A

    1999-01-01

    We describe 2 unrelated Bedouin girls who met the criteria for the diagnosis of Kenny-Caffey syndrome. The girls had some unusual features--microcephaly and psychomotor retardation--that distinguish the Kenny-Caffey syndrome profile in Arab children from the classical Kenny-Caffey syndrome phenotype characterized by macrocephaly and normal intelligence. The 2 girls did not harbor the 22q11 microdeletion (the hallmark of the DiGeorge cluster of diseases) that we previously reported in another Bedouin family with the Kenny-Caffey syndrome (Sabry et al. J Med Genet 1998: 35(1): 31-36). This indicates considerable genetic heterogeneity for this syndrome. We also review previously reported 44 Arab/Bedouin patients with the same profile of hypoparathyroidism, short stature, seizures, mental retardation and microcephaly. Our results suggest that these patients represent an Arab variant of Kenny-Caffey syndrome with characteristic microcephaly and psychomotor retardation. We suggest that all patients with Kenny-Caffey syndrome should be investigated for the 22q11 microdeletion. Other possible genetic causes for the Kenny-Caffey syndrome or its Arab variant include chromosome 10p abnormalities.

  9. Schizophrenia copy number variants and associative learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, N E; Pocklington, A J; Scholz, B; Rees, E; Walters, J T R; Kirov, G; O'Donovan, M C; Owen, M J; Wilkinson, L S; Thomas, K L; Hall, J

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale genomic studies have made major progress in identifying genetic risk variants for schizophrenia. A key finding from these studies is that there is an increased burden of genomic copy number variants (CNVs) in schizophrenia cases compared with controls. The mechanism through which these CNVs confer risk for the symptoms of schizophrenia, however, remains unclear. One possibility is that schizophrenia risk CNVs impact basic associative learning processes, abnormalities of which have long been associated with the disorder. To investigate whether genes in schizophrenia CNVs impact on specific phases of associative learning we combined human genetics with experimental gene expression studies in animals. In a sample of 11 917 schizophrenia cases and 16 416 controls, we investigated whether CNVs from patients with schizophrenia are enriched for genes expressed during the consolidation, retrieval or extinction of associative memories. We show that CNVs from cases are enriched for genes expressed during fear extinction in the hippocampus, but not genes expressed following consolidation or retrieval. These results suggest that CNVs act to impair inhibitory learning in schizophrenia, potentially contributing to the development of core symptoms of the disorder. PMID:27956746

  10. Block Gas Sol Unit in Haderslev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    2000-01-01

    Investigation of a SDHW system based on a Block Gas Sol Unit from Baxi A/S installed by a consumer i Haderslev, Denmark.......Investigation of a SDHW system based on a Block Gas Sol Unit from Baxi A/S installed by a consumer i Haderslev, Denmark....

  11. Benchmarking Block Ciphers for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    Choosing the most storage- and energy-efficient block cipher specifically for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is not as straightforward as it seems. To our knowledge so far, there is no systematic evaluation framework for the purpose. We have identified the candidates of block ciphers suitable for W

  12. The Block Grant Record: Lessons from Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Anne H.

    1982-01-01

    Evaluates the performance of federal block grants in health, law enforcement, peoplepower training, community development, and Social Security programs, to help forecast the effects of such grants in education. Finds that block grants did not improve local control, accountability, citizen participation, efficiency, targeting of funds, or program…

  13. CONJUGATED BLOCK-COPOLYMERS FOR ELECTROLUMINESCENT DIODES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilberer, A; Gill, R.E; Herrema, J.K; Malliaras, G.G; Wildeman, J.; Hadziioannou, G

    1995-01-01

    In this article we review results obtained in our laboratory on the design and study of new light-emitting polymers. We are interested in the synthesis and characterisation of block copolymers with regularly alternating conjugated and non conjugated sequences. The blocks giving rise to luminescence

  14. PEO-related block copolymer surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Non-ionic block copolymer systems based on hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) and more hydrophobic co-polymer blocks are used intensively in a variety of industrial and personal applications. A brief description on the applications is presented. The physical properties of more simple model systems ...

  15. Micellization and Characterization of Block Copolymer Detergents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    Triblock copolymers of the type EPE, where E and P denote ethylene oxide and propylene oxide blocks, respectively, are used widely in industry as emulsifiers, anti-foaming agents, and in delayed drug release. EPE copolymers form micelles with a core of P blocks and different micellar shapes depen...

  16. Haplotype block structure is conserved across mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guryev, Victor; Smits, Bart M G; van de Belt, Jose; Verheul, Mark; Hubner, Norbert; Cuppen, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    Genetic variation in genomes is organized in haplotype blocks, and species-specific block structure is defined by differential contribution of population history effects in combination with mutation and recombination events. Haplotype maps characterize the common patterns of linkage disequilibrium i

  17. C++ application development with Code::Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Modak, Biplab Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This is a comprehensive tutorial with step-by-step instructions on how to develop applications with Code::Blocks.This book is for C++ developers who wish to use Code::Blocks to create applications with a consistent look and feel across multiple platforms. This book assumes that you are familiar with the basics of the C++ programming language.

  18. Ultrasonographic evaluation of neck hematoma and block salvage after failed neurostimulation-guided interscalene block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Stephen M; Unger, M W Todd; Colson, James D; Serafini, Mario

    2010-11-01

    Ultrasound-guided regional anesthetic techniques have shown some advantages over conventional paresthesia and neurostimulation techniques. We report the case of a neurostimulation-guided continuous interscalene block that would have ended in complication were it not for experience with ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia. Familiarity with ultrasound-guided block techniques permitted assessment of a neck hematoma during interscalene block and ultimately allowed successful peripheral nerve block.

  19. Blending of styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene copolymer with sulfonated vinyl aromatic polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggeri, Giacomo; Passaglia, Elisa; Giorgi, Ivan; Picchioni, Francesco; Aglietto, Mauro

    2001-01-01

    Different polymers containing sulfonic groups attached to the phenyl rings were prepared by sulfonation of polystyrene (PS) and styrene-block-(ethylene-co-1-butene)-block-styrene (SEBS). The sulfonation degree (SD) was varied between 1 and 20 mol% of the styrene units. Polyphase materials containing sulfonated units were prepared by blending styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene (SBS), with both sulfonated PS and sulfonated SEBS in a Brabender mixer. Such a procedure was performed as an alter...

  20. A Nonlinear Multi-Scale Interaction Model for Atmospheric Blocking: The Eddy-Blocking Matching Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dehai; Cha, Jing; Zhong, Linhao; Dai, Aiguo

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear multi-scale interaction (NMI) model is used to propose an eddy-blocking matching (EBM) mechanism to account for how synoptic eddies reinforce or suppress a blocking flow. It is shown that the spatial structure of the eddy vorticity forcing (EVF) arising from upstream synoptic eddies determines whether an incipient block can grow into a meandering blocking flow through its interaction with the transient synoptic eddies from the west. Under certain conditions, the EVF exhibits a low-frequency oscillation on timescales of 2-3 weeks. During the EVF phase with a negative-over- positive dipole structure, a blocking event can be resonantly excited through the transport of eddy energy into the incipient block by the EVF. As the EVF changes into an opposite phase, the blocking decays. The NMI model produces life cycles of blocking events that resemble observations. Moreover, it is shown that the eddy north-south straining is a response of the eddies to a dipole- or Ω-type block. In our model, as in observations, two synoptic anticyclones (cyclones) can attract and merge with one another as the blocking intensifies, but only when the feedback of the blocking on the eddies is included. Thus, we attribute the eddy straining and associated vortex interaction to the feedback of the intensified blocking on synoptic eddies. The results illustrate the concomitant nature of the eddy deformation, whose role as a PV source for the blocking flow becomes important only during the mature stage of a block. Our EBM mechanism suggests that an incipient block flow is amplified (or suppressed) under certain conditions by the EVF coming from the upstream of the blocking region.

  1. Maternal inheritance and mitochondrial DNA variants in familial Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeiffer Ronald F; Rudolph Alice; Halter Cheryl A; Pauciulo Michael W; Kissell Diane K; Pankratz Nathan; Simon David K; Nichols William C; Foroud Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Mitochondrial function is impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD) and may contribute to the pathogenesis of PD, but the causes of mitochondrial impairment in PD are unknown. Mitochondrial dysfunction is recapitulated in cell lines expressing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from PD patients, implicating mtDNA variants or mutations, though the role of mtDNA variants or mutations in PD risk remains unclear. We investigated the potential contribution of mtDNA variants or mutations to t...

  2. Block-to-Point Fine Registration in Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fine registration of point clouds plays an important role in data analysis in Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS. This work proposes a block-to-point fine registration approach to correct the errors of point clouds from TLS and of geodetic networks observed using total stations. Based on a reference coordinate system, the block-to-point estimation is performed to obtain representative points. Then, fine registration with a six-parameter transformation is performed with the help of an Iterative Closest Point (ICP method. For comparisons, fine registration with a seven-parameter transformation is introduced by applying a Singular Value Decomposition (SVD algorithm. The proposed method not only corrects the registration errors between a geodetic network and the scans, but also considers the errors among the scans. The proposed method was tested on real TLS data of a dam surface, and the results showed that distance discrepancies of estimated representative points between scans were reduced by approximately 60%.

  3. Functional materials derived from block copolymer self-assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao

    is to fabricate interconnected and highly ordered metal oxide films by using a nano-porous polymer with gyroid morphology as the template. This unique structure is ideal for the solar cell application where a mesoscopic metal oxide scaffold functions as the electron collection and transport material. Two......The main objective of this project is to explore block copolymer self-assembly for generating functional materials with well-defined morphology on sub-20 nanometer length scale, which can be utilized in many important applications such as solar cells and nanolithography. One of the specific targets......-casting, the block copolymer self-organizes into monolayer packed sphere pattern, without any surface treatment of the substrate and annealing process. Arrays of nano-pillars and nanowells of various materials are fabricated in dry etch processes over wafer scale without defects. We also show an in situ Al2O3 hard...

  4. The undesirable effects of neuromuscular blocking drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Garvey, L H; Viby-Mogensen, J

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular blocking drugs are designed to bind to the nicotinic receptor at the neuromuscular junction. However, they also interact with other acetylcholine receptors in the body. Binding to these receptors causes adverse effects that vary with the specificity for the cholinergic receptor...... in question. Moreover, all neuromuscular blocking drugs may cause hypersensitivity reactions. Often the symptoms are mild and self-limiting but massive histamine release can cause systematic reactions with circulatory and respiratory symptoms and signs. At the end of anaesthesia, no residual effect...... of a neuromuscular blocking drug should be present. However, the huge variability in response to neuromuscular blocking drugs makes it impossible to predict which patient will suffer postoperative residual curarization. This article discusses the undesirable effects of the currently available neuromuscular blocking...

  5. Fermion RG blocking transformations and IR structure

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, X

    2011-01-01

    We explore fermion RG block-spinning transformations on the lattice with the aim of studying the IR structure of gauge theories and, in particular, the existence of IR fixed points for varying fermion content. In the case of light fermions the main concern and difficulty is ensuring locality of any adopted blocking scheme. We discuss the problem of constructing a local blocked fermion action in the background of arbitrary gauge fields. We then discuss the carrying out of accompanying gauge field blocking. In the presence of the blocked fermions implementation of MCRG is not straightforward. By adopting judicious approximations we arrive at an easily implementable approximate RG recursion scheme that allows quick, inexpensive estimates of the location of conformal windows for various groups and fermion representations. We apply this scheme to locate the conformal windows in the case of SU(2) and SU(3) gauge groups. Some of the reasons for the apparent efficacy of this and similar decimation schemes are discuss...

  6. STUDY ON POLYSULFONE-POLYESTER BLOCK COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Youjun; QI Daquan

    1988-01-01

    Synthesis and characterization of a series of Polysulfone (PSF)-Polyester (PEs) block copolymers were studied.The degree of randomness (B) of these block copolymers was calculated from the intensities of their proton signals in 1H NMR spectra and lies in the region of 0 < B < 1. It was shown that the degree of randomness (B) and the average sequence length (L) in block copolymers were relatively dependent on the reaction conditions, various feed ratios and structure of diols.The phenomenon was observed, when the PSF-PEs block copolymers dissolved in different solvents they had different viscosities and molecular conformations.The PSF-PEs block copolymers had better solvent resistance than homo-polysulfone.

  7. Wear mechanism of disc-brake block material for new type of drilling rig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhua WANG; Simin WANG; Siwei ZHANG; Deguo WANG

    2008-01-01

    To improve friction and wear performance and service life of the disc-brake pair material of a drilling rig, a new type of asbestos-free frictional material with better performance for disc-brake blocks is developed, and its wear mechanism is investigated by friction and wear experiments. Topography and ele-mentary components of the brake block's wear surface are analyzed by employing SEM and EDAX patterns, revealing its tribological behaviour and wear mechan-ism. When the frictional temperature is lower, the surface film of the brake block is thinner, dense, smooth with plasticity, and divided into the mixture area, Fe-abundant area, carbon-abundant area and spalling area. The mixture area consists of various constituents of frictional pairs without ploughing and rolling trace. The Fe-abundant area mainly consists of iron and other constituents. The carbon-abundant area is the zone where graphite and organic fibre are comparatively gathered, while the spalling area is the zone where the surface film is spalled and its surface is rough and uneven, with a loose and denuded state. During the period of high frictional temperature, the frictional surface is also divided into the mixture area, Fe-abundant area and spalling area. In this case, the mixture area consists of abrasive dust from friction pairs, and the surface film is distributed with crumby hard granules, exiguous oxide, carbide granules and sheared slender fibre. The Fe-abundant area is mostly an oxide layer of iron with a flaky distribution. Fracture and spalling traces as well as an overlapping structure of multilayer surface films can be easily found on the surface film. The components of the spalling area are basically the same as that of the matrix. At the beginning of wear, the hard peaks from the friction surface of the disc-brake plough on the surface of the brake block. With increasing frictional temperature, the friction surface begins to soften and expand, and oxidized wear occurs at the same

  8. Nanopatterned block copolymers for use as vascular biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Joshua S.

    Manipulation of surface topography or chemistry has been a growing trend in efforts to enhance the properties of medical devices. Understanding the interactions of biomolecules with nanoengineered surfaces is vital to assess the safety and efficacy of devices that incorporate these structures. In this dissertation, a model block copolymer (BCP) system based on poly(styrene)-block-poly(1,2-butadiene) was systematically modified using photochemical thiol-ene chemistry. Poly(1,2-butadiene) molecular weight and thiol-ene ratios were systematically varied based on a model monomer, boc-cysteamine, to determine the efficiency of the reaction. The results demonstrate the polydispersity index of modified BCPs significantly increased when low thiol-ene ratios were employed and sometimes induced gelation of the reacted polymers. Using a tenfold excess of thiol, functionalizations between 60-90% were obtained for an acid, amine, amide, and a pharmaceutical with a pendant thiol. Calorimetry showed a 30-60 °C increase in the glass transition temperature of the daughter polymers. Subsequently, films were cast from solvents found suitable to forming self-assembled BCP thin films. The synthetic and processing approach allows for the formation of nanopatterned block copolymer films with controlled chemistries from a single source material. The BCPs were further characterized using water contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy in liquid. Significantly decreased contact angles were caused by selective swelling of charged BCP domains. Protein (fibrinogen, albumin, cytochrome C, immunoglobulin G) adsorption experiments were conducted under static and dynamic conditions with a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. The results indicate that nanopatterned chemistry and experimental conditions strongly impact adsorption dynamics. Adsorption behavior was dependent both on protein structure and the characteristics of the surface. Depending on the structural stability

  9. A note on "Block H-matrices and spectrum of block matrices"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-zhou; HUANG Ze-jun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we make further discussions and improvements on the results presented in the previously published work "Block H-matrices and spectrum of block matrices". Furthermore, a new bound for eigenvalues of block matrices is given with examples to show advantages of the new result.

  10. Population structure analysis using rare and common functional variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Lili

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Next-generation sequencing technologies now make it possible to genotype and measure hundreds of thousands of rare genetic variations in individuals across the genome. Characterization of high-density genetic variation facilitates control of population genetic structure on a finer scale before large-scale genotyping in disease genetics studies. Population structure is a well-known, prevalent, and important factor in common variant genetic studies, but its relevance in rare variants is unclear. We perform an extensive population structure analysis using common and rare functional variants from the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 mini-exome sequence. The analysis based on common functional variants required 388 principal components to account for 90% of the variation in population structure. However, an analysis based on rare variants required 532 significant principal components to account for similar levels of variation. Using rare variants, we detected fine-scale substructure beyond the population structure identified using common functional variants. Our results show that the level of population structure embedded in rare variant data is different from the level embedded in common variant data and that correcting for population structure is only as good as the level one wishes to correct.

  11. A unified phylogeny-based nomenclature for histone variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talbert Paul B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Histone variants are non-allelic protein isoforms that play key roles in diversifying chromatin structure. The known number of such variants has greatly increased in recent years, but the lack of naming conventions for them has led to a variety of naming styles, multiple synonyms and misleading homographs that obscure variant relationships and complicate database searches. We propose here a unified nomenclature for variants of all five classes of histones that uses consistent but flexible naming conventions to produce names that are informative and readily searchable. The nomenclature builds on historical usage and incorporates phylogenetic relationships, which are strong predictors of structure and function. A key feature is the consistent use of punctuation to represent phylogenetic divergence, making explicit the relationships among variant subtypes that have previously been implicit or unclear. We recommend that by default new histone variants be named with organism-specific paralog-number suffixes that lack phylogenetic implication, while letter suffixes be reserved for structurally distinct clades of variants. For clarity and searchability, we encourage the use of descriptors that are separate from the phylogeny-based variant name to indicate developmental and other properties of variants that may be independent of structure.

  12. Rare variant detection using family-based sequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Gang; Fan, Yu; Palculict, Timothy B; Shen, Peidong; Ruteshouser, E Cristy; Chi, Aung-Kyaw; Davis, Ronald W; Huff, Vicki; Scharfe, Curt; Wang, Wenyi

    2013-03-05

    Next-generation sequencing is revolutionizing genomic analysis, but this analysis can be compromised by high rates of missing true variants. To develop a robust statistical method capable of identifying variants that would otherwise not be called, we conducted sequence data simulations and both whole-genome and targeted sequencing data analysis of 28 families. Our method (Family-Based Sequencing Program, FamSeq) integrates Mendelian transmission information and raw sequencing reads. Sequence analysis using FamSeq reduced the number of false negative variants by 14-33% as assessed by HapMap sample genotype confirmation. In a large family affected with Wilms tumor, 84% of variants uniquely identified by FamSeq were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. In children with early-onset neurodevelopmental disorders from 26 families, de novo variant calls in disease candidate genes were corrected by FamSeq as mendelian variants, and the number of uniquely identified variants in affected individuals increased proportionally as additional family members were included in the analysis. To gain insight into maximizing variant detection, we studied factors impacting actual improvements of family-based calling, including pedigree structure, allele frequency (common vs. rare variants), prior settings of minor allele frequency, sequence signal-to-noise ratio, and coverage depth (∼20× to >200×). These data will help guide the design, analysis, and interpretation of family-based sequencing studies to improve the ability to identify new disease-associated genes.

  13. Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia with dominant gait disturbances - case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Guenter

    2016-04-01

    Presented case emphasises the significance of accurately gathered anamnesis with patient and his family. Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia should be considered in cases of unexplained gait abnormalities.

  14. PSM/SH2B1 splice variants: critical role in src catalytic activation and the resulting STAT3s-mediated mitogenic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Manchao; Deng, Youping; Riedel, Heimo

    2008-05-01

    A role of PSM/SH2B1 had been shown in mitogenesis and extending to phenotypic cell transformation, however, the underlying molecular mechanism remained to be established. Here, four alternative PSM splice variants and individual functional protein domains were compared for their role in the regulation of Src activity. We found that elevated cellular levels of PSM variants resulted in phenotypic cell transformation and potentiated cell proliferation and survival in response to serum withdrawal. PSM variant activity presented a consistent signature pattern for any tested response of highest activity observed for gamma, followed by delta, alpha, and beta with decreasing activity. PSM-potentiated cell proliferation was sensitive to Src inhibitor herbimycin and PSM and Src were found in the same immune complex. PSM variants were substrates of the Src Tyr kinase and potentiated Src catalytic activity by increasing the V(max) and decreasing the K(m) for ATP with the signature pattern of variant activity. Dominant-negative PSM peptide mimetics including the SH2 or PH domains inhibited Src catalytic activity as well as Src-mediated phenotypic cell transformation. Activation of major Src substrate STAT3 was similarly potentiated by the PSM variants in a Src-dependent fashion or inhibited by PSM domain-specific peptide mimetics. Expression of a dominant-negative STAT3 mutant blocked PSM variant-mediated phenotypic cell transformation. Our results implicate an essential role of the PSM variants in the activation of the Src kinase and the resulting mitogenic response--extending to phenotypic cell transformation and involving the established Src substrate STAT3.

  15. Evolution History of Asteroid Itokawa Based on Block Distribution Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazrouei, Sara; Daly, Michael; Barnouin, Olivier; Ernst, Carolyn

    2013-04-01

    This work investigates trends in the global and regional distribution of blocks on asteroid 25143 Itokawa in order to discover new findings to better understand the history of this asteroid. Itokawa is a near-Earth object, and the first asteroid that was targeted for a sample return mission. Trends in block population provide new insights in regards to Itokawa's current appearance following the disruption of a possible parent body, and how its surface might have changed since then. Here blocks are defined as rocks or features with distinctive positive relief that are larger than a few meters in size. The size and distribution of blocks are measured by mapping the outline of the blocks using the Small Body Mapping Tool (SBMT) created by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory [1]. The SBMT allows the user to overlap correctly geo-located Hayabusa images [2] onto the Itokawa shape model. This study provides additional inferences on the original disruption and subsequent re-accretion of Itokawa's "head" and "body" from block analyses. A new approach is taken by analyzing the population of blocks with respect to latitude for both Itokawa's current state, and a hypothetical elliptical body. Itokawa currently rotates approximately about its maximum moment of inertia, which is expected due to conservation of momentum and minimum energy arguments. After the possible disruption of the parent body of Itokawa, the "body" of Itokawa would have tended to a similar rotation. The shape of this body is made by removing the head of Itokawa and applying a semispherical cap. Using the method of [3] inertial properties of this object are calculated. With the assumption that this object had settled to its stable rotational axis, it is found that the pole axis could have been tilted about 13° away from the current axis in the direction opposite the head, equivalent to a 33 meter change in the center of mass. The results of this study provide means to test the hypothesis

  16. Biofilm formation in a hydrodynamic environment by novel FimH variants and ramifications for virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Klemm, Per

    2001-01-01

    Type 1 fimbriae are surface-located adhesion organelles of Escherichia coli that are directly associated with virulence of the urinary tract. They mediate D-mannose-sensitive binding to different host surfaces by way of the minor fimbrial component FimH. Naturally occurring variants of Fim...... to mannose inhibition and represent novel phenotypes not previously identified in naturally occurring isolates. Characterization of our enriched clones revealed some similarities to amino acid alterations that occur in urinary tract infection (UTI) strains. Subsequent screening of a selection of UTI Fim...

  17. Phenotypic and Enzymatic Comparative Analysis of the KPC Variants, KPC-2 and Its Recently Discovered Variant KPC-15

    OpenAIRE

    Dongguo Wang; Jiayu Chen; Linjun Yang; Yonghua Mou; Yijun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen different variants (KPC-2 to KPC-17) in the KPC family have been reported, and most current studies are focusing on KPC-2 and KPC-3. The KPC-15 variant, which isolated from Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Chinese hospital, was a recently discovered KPC enzyme. To compare the characteristics of KPC-15 and KPC-2, the variants were determined by susceptibility testing, PCR amplification and sequencing, and study of kinetic parameters. The strain harboring the KPC-15 showed resistance to 18 co...

  18. Automation of block assignment planning using a diagram-based scenario modeling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Hyuck; Kim, Youngmin; Lee, Dong Kun; Shin, Jong Gye

    2014-03-01

    Most shipbuilding scheduling research so far has focused on the load level on the dock plan. This is be¬cause the dock is the least extendable resource in shipyards, and its overloading is difficult to resolve. However, once dock scheduling is completed, making a plan that makes the best use of the rest of the resources in the shipyard to minimize any additional cost is also important. Block assignment planning is one of the midterm planning tasks; it assigns a block to the facility (factory/shop or surface plate) that will actually manufacture the block according to the block characteristics and current situation of the facility. It is one of the most heavily loaded midterm planning tasks and is carried out manu¬ally by experienced workers. In this study, a method of representing the block assignment rules using a diagram was su¬ggested through analysis of the existing manual process. A block allocation program was developed which automated the block assignment process according to the rules represented by the diagram. The planning scenario was validated through a case study that compared the manual assignment and two automated block assignment results.

  19. Automation of block assignment planning using a diagram-based scenario modeling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang In Hyuck

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most shipbuilding scheduling research so far has focused on the load level on the dock plan. This is be¬cause the dock is the least extendable resource in shipyards, and its overloading is difficult to resolve. However, once dock scheduling is completed, making a plan that makes the best use of the rest of the resources in the shipyard to minimize any additional cost is also important. Block assignment planning is one of the midterm planning tasks; it assigns a block to the facility (factory/shop or surface plate that will actually manufacture the block according to the block characteristics and current situation of the facility. It is one of the most heavily loaded midterm planning tasks and is carried out manu¬ally by experienced workers. In this study, a method of representing the block assignment rules using a diagram was su¬ggested through analysis of the existing manual process. A block allocation program was developed which automated the block assignment process according to the rules represented by the diagram. The planning scenario was validated through a case study that compared the manual assignment and two automated block assignment results.

  20. Surface Plasmon Based Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, Andrew; Passian, Ali; Boudreaux, Philip; Ferrell, Tom

    2008-03-01

    A spectrometer that uses surface plasmon excitation in thin metal films to separate light into its component wavelengths is described. The use of surface plasmons as a dispersive medium sets this spectrometer apart from prism, grating, and interference based variants and allows for the miniaturization of this device. Theoretical and experimental results are presented for two different operation models. In the first case surface plasmon tunneling in the near field is used to provide transmission spectra of different broad band-pass, glass filters across the visible wavelength range with high stray-light rejection at low resolution as well as absorption spectra of chlorophyll extracted from a spinach leaf. The second model looks at the far field components of surface plasmon scattering.

  1. Development of Alkali Activated Geopolymer Masonry Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, K.; Radhakrishna; Sasalatti, Vinod

    2016-09-01

    Cement masonry units are not considered as sustainable since their production involves consumption of fuel, cement and natural resources and therefore it is essential to find alternatives. This paper reports on making of geopolymer solid & hollow blocks and masonry prisms using non conventional materials like fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and manufactured sand and curing at ambient temperature. They were tested for water absorption, initial rate of water absorption, dry density, dimensionality, compressive, flexural and bond-strength which were tested for bond strength with and without lateral confinement, modulus of elasticity, alternative drying & wetting and masonry efficiency. The properties of geopolymer blocks were found superior to traditional masonry blocks and the masonry efficiency was found to increase with decrease in thickness of cement mortar joints. There was marginal difference in strength between rendered and unrendered geopolymer masonry blocks. The percentage weight gain after 7 cycles was less than 6% and the percentage reduction in strength of geopolymer solid blocks and hollow blocks were 26% and 28% respectively. Since the properties of geopolymer blocks are comparatively better than the traditional masonry they can be strongly recommended for structural masonry.

  2. Circular block matching based video stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lidong; Fu, Fangwen; Lin, Xinggang

    2005-07-01

    Video sequences captured by handheld digital camera need to be stabilized to eliminate the tiresome effects caused by camera"s undesirable shake or jiggle. The key issue of video stabilization is to estimate the global motion parameters between two successive frames. In this paper, a novel circular block matching algorithm is proposed to estimate the global motion parameters. This algorithm can deal with not only translational motion but even large rotational motion. For an appointed circular block in current frame, a four-dimensional rotation invariant feature vector is firstly extracted from it and used to judge if it is an effective block. Then the rotation invariant features based circular block matching process is performed to find the best matching blocks in reference frame for those effective blocks. With the matching results of any two effective blocks, a two-dimensional motion model is constructed to produce one group of frame motion parameters. A statistical method is proposed to calculate the estimated global motion parameters with all groups of global motion parameters. Finally, using the estimated motion parameters as the initial values, an iteration algorithm is introduced to obtain the refined global motion parameters. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is excellent in stabilizing frames with even burst global translational and rotational motions.

  3. A look-ahead variant of TFQMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, R.W. [AT& T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Nachtigal, N.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Recently, Freund proposed a Krylov subspace iteration, the transpose-free quasi-minimal residual method (TFQMR), for solving general nonsingular non-Hermitian linear systems. The algorithm relies on a version of the squared Lanczos process to generate the basis vectors for the underlying Krylov subspace. It then constructs iterates defined by a quasi-minimization property, which leads to a smooth and nearly monotone convergence behavior. The authors investigate a variant of TFQMR that uses look-ahead to avoid some of the problems associated with breakdowns in the underlying squared Lanczos procedure. They also present some numerical examples that illustrate the properties of the new method, as compared to the original TFQMR algorithm.

  4. Genetic variants in periodontal health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitrescu, Alexandrina L. [Tromsoe Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Clinical Dentistry; Kobayashi, Junya [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Genome Repair Dynamics

    2010-07-01

    Periodontitis is a complex, multifactorial disease and its susceptibility is genetically determined. The present book systematically reviews the evidence of the association between the genetic variants and periodontitis progression and/or treatment outcomes. Genetic syndromes known to be associated with periodontal disease, the candidate gene polymorphisms investigated in relation to periodontitis, the heritability of chronic and aggressive periodontitis, as well as common guidelines for association studies are described. This growing understanding of the role of genetic variation in inflammation and periodontal chronic disease presents opportunities to identify healthy persons who are at increased risk of disease and to potentially modify the trajectory of disease to prolong healthy aging. The book represents a new concept in periodontology with its pronounced focus on understanding through knowledge rather than presenting the presently valid answers. Connections between genetics and periodontology are systematically reviewed and covered in detail. (orig.)

  5. Some variants of SAT and their properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new model for the well-known problem, the satisfiablility problem of boolean formula (SAT), is introduced. Based on this model, some variants of SAT and their properties are presented. Denote by NP the class of all languages which can be decided by a non-deterministic polynomial Turing machine and by P the class of all languages which can be decided by a deterministic polynomial-time Turing machine. This model also allows us to give another candidate for the natural problems in ((NP-NPC)-P), denoted as NPI, under the assumption P≠NP, where NPC represents NP-complete. It is proven that this candidate is not in NPC under P≠NP. While, it is indeed in NPI under some stronger but reasonable assumption, specifically, under the Exponential-Time Hypothesis (ETH). Thus we can partially solve this long standing important open problem.

  6. Lipoleiomyoma: A rare variant of uterine leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Manimaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine fatty tumors are rare variants of benign leiomyoma. Lipoleiomyoma, lipomyoma, fibromyolipoma are various synonyms for this lesion. They usually occur in the obese perimenopausal and postmenopausal females in the age group 50-70 years and 90% cases occur in patients older than 40 years. There were only few cases reported in the literature. These lesions are interesting due to the occasional diagnostic confusion with sarcomas and the curiosity regarding its histogenesis. We are presenting three cases of lipoleiomyoma whose age ranged from 40 to 50 years with clinical, radiologic and pathologic correlation. All three cases came with complaints of abnormal vaginal bleeding and found to have intramural heteroechoic nodule in the ultrasonogram.

  7. Probabilistic Transcriptome Assembly and Variant Graph Genotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibbesen, Jonas Andreas

    the resulting sequencing data should be interpreted. This has over the years spurred the development of many probabilistic methods that are capable of modelling dierent aspects of the sequencing process. Here, I present two of such methods that were developed to each tackle a dierent problem in bioinformatics......, together with an application of the latter method to a large Danish sequencing project. The rst is a probabilistic method for transcriptome assembly that is based on a novel generative model of the RNA sequencing process and provides condence estimates on the assembled transcripts. We show...... that this approach outperforms existing state-of-the-art methods measured using sensitivity and precision on both simulated and real data. The second is a novel probabilistic method that uses exact alignment of k-mers to a set of variants graphs to provide unbiased estimates of genotypes in a population...

  8. Nuclear variants of bone morphogenetic proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meinhart Christopher A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs contribute to many different aspects of development including mesoderm formation, heart development, neurogenesis, skeletal development, and axis formation. They have previously been recognized only as secreted growth factors, but the present study detected Bmp2, Bmp4, and Gdf5/CDMP1 in the nuclei of cultured cells using immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting of nuclear extracts. Results In all three proteins, a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS was found to overlap the site at which the proproteins are cleaved to release the mature growth factors from the propeptides. Mutational analyses indicated that the nuclear variants of these three proteins are produced by initiating translation from downstream alternative start codons. The resulting proteins lack N-terminal signal peptides and are therefore translated in the cytoplasm rather than the endoplasmic reticulum, thus avoiding proteolytic processing in the secretory pathway. Instead, the uncleaved proteins (designated nBmp2, nBmp4, and nGdf5 containing the intact NLSs are translocated to the nucleus. Immunostaining of endogenous nBmp2 in cultured cells demonstrated that the amount of nBmp2 as well as its nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution differs between cells that are in M-phase versus other phases of the cell cycle. Conclusions The observation that nBmp2 localization varies throughout the cell cycle, as well as the conservation of a nuclear localization mechanism among three different BMP family members, suggests that these novel nuclear variants of BMP family proteins play an important functional role in the cell.

  9. Measurement of soil moisture using gypsum blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Dela, B.

    the building. Consequently, measuring the moisture of the surrounding soil is of great importance for detecting the source of moisture in a building. Up till now, information has been needed to carry out individual calibrations for the different types of gypsum blocks available on the market and to account......For the past 50 years, gypsum blocks have been used to determine soil moisture content. This report describes a method for calibrating gypsum blocks for soil moisture measurements. Moisture conditions inside a building are strongly influenced by the moisture conditions in the soil surrounding...

  10. Theory of circuit block switch-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henzler

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Switching-off unused circuit blocks is a promising approach to supress static leakage currents in ultra deep sub-micron CMOS digital systems. Basic performance parameters of Circuit Block Switch-Off (CBSO schemes are defined and their dependence on basic circuit parameters is estimated. Therefore the design trade-off between strong leakage suppression in idle mode and adequate dynamic performance in active mode can be supported by simple analytic investigations. Additionally, a guideline for the estimation of the minimum time for which a block deactivation is useful is derived.

  11. Lidocaine block of cardiac sodium channels

    OpenAIRE

    Bean, BP; Cohen, CJ; Tsien, RW

    1983-01-01

    Lidocaine block of cardiac sodium channels was studied in voltage-clamped rabbit purkinje fibers at drug concentrations ranging from 1 mM down to effective antiarrhythmic doses (5-20 μM). Dose-response curves indicated that lidocaine blocks the channel by binding one-to-one, with a voltage-dependent K(d). The half-blocking concentration varied from more than 300 μM, at a negative holding potential where inactivation was completely removed, to approximately 10 μM, at a depolarized holding pote...

  12. Comparative Analysis of Sandcrete Hollow Blocks and Laterite Interlocking Blocks as Walling Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeem Ayinde Raheem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study considered the production and testing of sandcrete hollow blocks and laterite interlocking blocks with a view to comparing their physical characteristics and production cost. Some units of sandcrete hollow blocks and laterite interlocking blocks were made using machine vibrated sandcrete block mould and hydraulic interlocking block making machine respectively. The blocks were tested to determine their density and compressive strength. The results obtained from the tests were compared with the specifications of Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute (2006, Nigerian Building Code (2006, and Nigerian Industrial Standards (2000. The results indicated that the compressive strength of 225mm and 150mm sandcrete hollow blocks varies from 1.59 N/mm2 to 4.25 N/mm2 and 1.48N/mm2 to 3.35N/mm2 respectively, as the curing age increases from 7 to 28 days. For laterite interlocking blocks, the strength varies from 1.70N/mm2 at 7 days to 5.03N/mm2 at 28 days. All the blocks produced satisfied the minimum requirements in terms of compressive strength, by all available codes. The cost per square metre of 225mm and 150mm sandcrete hollow blocks are ₦2,808:00 and ₦2,340:00 respectively, while that of laterite interlocking blocks is ₦2,121:20.It was concluded that laterite interlocking blocks have better strength and are cheaper than sandcrete hollow blocks.

  13. Signal-Conditioning Block of a 1 × 200 CMOS Detector Array for a Terahertz Real-Time Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ryul Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A signal conditioning block of a 1 × 200 Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS detector array is proposed to be employed with a real-time 0.2 THz imaging system for inspecting large areas. The plasmonic CMOS detector array whose pixel size including an integrated antenna is comparable to the wavelength of the THz wave for the imaging system, inevitably carries wide pixel-to-pixel variation. To make the variant outputs from the array uniform, the proposed signal conditioning block calibrates the responsivity of each pixel by controlling the gate bias of each detector and the voltage gain of the lock-in amplifiers in the block. The gate bias of each detector is modulated to 1 MHz to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the imaging system via the electrical modulation by the conditioning block. In addition, direct current (DC offsets of the detectors in the array are cancelled by initializing the output voltage level from the block. Real-time imaging using the proposed signal conditioning block is demonstrated by obtaining images at the rate of 19.2 frame-per-sec of an object moving on the conveyor belt with a scan width of 20 cm and a scan speed of 25 cm/s.

  14. Signal-Conditioning Block of a 1 × 200 CMOS Detector Array for a Terahertz Real-Time Imaging System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jong-Ryul; Lee, Woo-Jae; Han, Seong-Tae

    2016-03-02

    A signal conditioning block of a 1 × 200 Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) detector array is proposed to be employed with a real-time 0.2 THz imaging system for inspecting large areas. The plasmonic CMOS detector array whose pixel size including an integrated antenna is comparable to the wavelength of the THz wave for the imaging system, inevitably carries wide pixel-to-pixel variation. To make the variant outputs from the array uniform, the proposed signal conditioning block calibrates the responsivity of each pixel by controlling the gate bias of each detector and the voltage gain of the lock-in amplifiers in the block. The gate bias of each detector is modulated to 1 MHz to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the imaging system via the electrical modulation by the conditioning block. In addition, direct current (DC) offsets of the detectors in the array are cancelled by initializing the output voltage level from the block. Real-time imaging using the proposed signal conditioning block is demonstrated by obtaining images at the rate of 19.2 frame-per-sec of an object moving on the conveyor belt with a scan width of 20 cm and a scan speed of 25 cm/s.

  15. Sclerosing variant of perivascular epithelioid cell tumor in the female genital organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Ohishi, Yoshihiro; Nishiyama, Kenichi; Fukuhara, Masao; Saitou, Toshiaki; Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi; Oda, Yoshinao

    2011-12-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComas), other than angiomyolipoma, clear cell 'sugar' tumor of the lung, and lymphangioleiomyomatosis, is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm that arises in the soft tissue and visceral organs. We report herein two cases of sclerosing PEComa; a distinctive variant of PEComa, which is characterized by extensive stromal hyalinization, occurring in the uterus and broad ligament. The patients were 34- and 51-year-old females with no family history of tuberous sclerosis complex. Macroscopically, the tumors had white to gray cut surfaces and were microscopically composed of predominantly spindle- to polygon-shaped cells with clear to slightly eosinophilic cytoplasm and pleomorphic nuclei focally arranged in a perivascular pattern, accompanied by marked stromal hyalinization. These tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for HMB45 and α-smooth muscle actin. Although this variant of PEComa is very rare, this entity should be considered as a potential primary neoplasm of the female genital organs.

  16. Detecting rare variants in case-parents association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Fu Cheng

    Full Text Available Despite the success of genome-wide association studies (GWASs in detecting common variants (minor allele frequency ≥0.05 many suggested that rare variants also contribute to the genetic architecture of diseases. Recently, researchers demonstrated that rare variants can show a strong stratification which may not be corrected by using existing methods. In this paper, we focus on a case-parents study and consider methods for testing group-wise association between multiple rare (and common variants in a gene region and a disease. All tests depend on the numbers of transmitted mutant alleles from parents to their diseased children across variants and hence they are robust to the effect of population stratification. We use extensive simulation studies to compare the performance of four competing tests: the largest single-variant transmission disequilibrium test (TDT, multivariable test, combined TDT, and a likelihood ratio test based on a random-effects model. We find that the likelihood ratio test is most powerful in a wide range of settings and there is no negative impact to its power performance when common variants are also included in the analysis. If deleterious and protective variants are simultaneously analyzed, the likelihood ratio test was generally insensitive to the effect directionality, unless the effects are extremely inconsistent in one direction.

  17. Isolation and characterization of human rhinovirus antigenic variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    Isolation of antigenic variants of human rhinovirus types 2, 14, and 17 was attempted by plaquing untreated virus (P-isolates), selecting variants in the presence of homologous antiserum (C-isolates), and by selecting variants in the presence of antibody following 5-fluorouracil mutagenesis (M-isolates). All viruses were triple-plaque purified and purity neutralization tested prior to isolate selection. Based on a fourfold reduction in neutralizing antibody titer to homologous antiserum, no antigenic variation was found in P-isolates from the three serotypes examined. Antigenic variants of all three serotypes could be isolated by the antiserum selection method (C-isolates). However, antigenic variants of RV17 were isolated at a much higher frequency and showed a larger degree of variation than those of RV2 and RV14. At least two of the variants selected, RV17 (C301) and RV2 (M803), failed to be neutralized by the known 89 rhinovirus antiserum. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of (/sup 35/S) methionine-labelled virion polypeptides revealed that each serotype had a characteristic pattern and that selected RV2 and RV17 isolates had patterns identical to those of the prototype strains. By isoelectric focusing an antigenic variant of RV2 was shown to contain altered virion polypeptides VP1 and VP2 whereas two RV17 antigenic variants demonstrated alterations only in the VP1 polypeptide.

  18. Two new variants of the manifold-mapping technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Echeverria, D.

    2006-01-01

    Manifold-mapping is an efficient surrogate-based optimization technique aimed at the acceleration of very time-consuming design problems. In this paper we present two new variants of the original algorithm that make it applicable to a broader range of optimization scenarios. The first variant is use

  19. Hepatitis E Virus Variant in Farmed Mink, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic virus for which pigs are the primary animal reservoir. To investigate whether HEV occurs in mink in Denmark, we screened feces and tissues from domestic and wild mink. Our finding of a novel HEV variant supports previous findings of HEV variants in a variety...

  20. Rare variants in XRCC2 as breast cancer susceptibility alleles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbers, F.S.; Wijnen, J.T.; Hoogerbrugge-van der Linden, N.; Oosterwijk, J.C.; Collee, M.J.; Peterlongo, P.; Radice, P.; Manoukian, S.; Feroce, I.; Capra, F.; Couch, F.J.; Wang, X.; Guidugli, L.; Offit, K.; Shah, S.; Campbell, I.G.; Thompson, E.R.; James, P.A.; Trainer, A.H.; Gracia, J.; Benitez, J.; Asperen, C.J. van; Devilee, P.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, rare germline variants in XRCC2 were detected in non-BRCA1/2 familial breast cancer cases, and a significant association with breast cancer was reported. However, the breast cancer risk associated with these variants needs further evaluation. METHODS: The coding regions and exo