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Sample records for blockade-assisted external cephalic

  1. Implementation of the external cephalic version in breech delivery. Dutch national implementation study of external cephalic version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlemmix, F.; Rosman, A.N.; Fleuren, M.A.H.; Rijnders, M.E.B.; Beuckens, A.; Haak, M.C.; Akerboom, B.M.C.; Bais, J.M.J.; Kuppens, S.M.I.; Papatsonis, D.N.; Opmeer, B.C.; Post, J.A.M. van der; Mol, B.W.J.; Kok, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Breech presentation occurs in 3 to 4% of all term pregnancies. External cephalic version (ECV) is proven effective to prevent vaginal breech deliveries and therefore it is recommended by clinical guidelines of the Royal Dutch Organisation for Midwives (KNOV) and the Dutch Society for Obs

  2. Classic metaphyseal lesion following external cephalic version and cesarean section

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    Lysack, John T.; Soboleski, Don [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Queen' s University, Kingston General Hospital, 76 Stuart Street, K7L 2V7, Kingston, Ont. (Canada)

    2003-06-01

    We report a case of an otherwise healthy neonate diagnosed at birth with a classic metaphyseal lesion of the proximal tibia following external cephalic version for frank breech presentation and a subsequent urgent cesarean section. Although the classic metaphyseal lesion is considered highly specific for infant abuse, this case demonstrates the importance of obtaining a history of obstetric trauma for neonates presenting to the imaging department for suspected non-accidental injury. (orig.)

  3. Implementation of the external cephalic version in breech delivery. Dutch national implementation study of external cephalic version

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    Papatsonis Dimitri N

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breech presentation occurs in 3 to 4% of all term pregnancies. External cephalic version (ECV is proven effective to prevent vaginal breech deliveries and therefore it is recommended by clinical guidelines of the Royal Dutch Organisation for Midwives (KNOV and the Dutch Society for Obstetrics and Gynaecology (NVOG. Implementation of ECV does not exceed 50 to 60% and probably less. We aim to improve the implementation of ECV to decrease maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality due to breech presentations. This will be done by defining barriers and facilitators of implementation of ECV in the Netherlands. An innovative implementation strategy will be developed based on improved patient counselling and thorough instructions of health care providers for counselling. Method/design The ultimate purpose of this implementation study is to improve counselling of pregnant women and information of clinicians to realize a better implementation of ECV. The first phase of the project is to detect the barriers and facilitators of ECV. The next step is to develop an implementation strategy to inform and counsel pregnant women with a breech presentation, and to inform and educate care providers. In the third phase, the effectiveness of the developed implementation strategy will be evaluated in a randomised trial. The study population is a random selection of midwives and gynaecologists from 60 to 100 hospitals and practices. Primary endpoints are number of counselled women. Secondary endpoints are process indicators, the amount of fetes in cephalic presentation at birth, complications due to ECV, the number of caesarean sections and perinatal condition of mother and child. Cost effectiveness of the implementation strategy will be measured. Discussion This study will provide evidence for the cost effectiveness of a structural implementation of external cephalic versions to reduce the number of breech presentations at term. Trial

  4. Prevalence, outcome, and women's experiences of external cephalic version in a low-risk population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnders, M.; Offerhaus, P.; Dommelen, P. van; Wiegers, T.; Buitendijk, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Until recently, external cephalic version to prevent breech presentation at birth was not widely accepted. The objective of our study was to assess the prevalence, outcomes, and women's experiences of external cephalic version to improve the implementation of the procedure in the Netherl

  5. Update on external cephalic version performed at term.

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    Stine, L E; Phelan, J P; Wallace, R; Eglinton, G S; van Dorsten, J P; Schifrin, B S

    1985-05-01

    External cephalic version under tocolysis at term was investigated during a prospective study at the Los Angeles County/University of Southern California Medical Center from October 1, 1979 to March 16, 1983. Two hundred twelve patients were considered for attempted version. Forty-one patients were excluded, and 23 patients as previously reported were randomized to the control group. The procedure was successful in 73% (108 of 148). Of the 102 successful versions observed until delivery (six lost to follow-up), 93% (95 of 102) presented in labor with a vertex presentation; seven fetuses reverted to abnormal lies. The cesarean section rate in the success group with a vertex presentation was 24% (23 of 95).

  6. Risk factors for cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery after successful external cephalic version.

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    de Hundt, Marcella; Vlemmix, Floortje; Bais, Joke M J; de Groot, Christianne J; Mol, Ben Willem; Kok, Marjolein

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this article is to examine if we could identify factors that predict cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery in women who had a successful external cephalic version. We used data from a previous randomized trial among 25 hospitals and their referring midwife practices in the Netherlands. With the data of this trial, we performed a cohort study among women attempting vaginal delivery after successful ECV. We evaluated whether maternal age, gestational age, parity, time interval between ECV and delivery, birth weight, neonatal gender, and induction of labor were predictive for a vaginal delivery on one hand or a CS or instrumental vaginal delivery on the other hand. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated with univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Among 301 women who attempted vaginal delivery after a successful external cephalic version attempt, the cesarean section rate was 13% and the instrumental vaginal delivery rate 6%, resulting in a combined instrumental delivery rate of 19%. Nulliparity increased the risk of cesarean section (OR 2.7 (95% CI 1.2-6.1)) and instrumental delivery (OR 4.2 (95% CI 2.1-8.6)). Maternal age, gestational age at delivery, time interval between external cephalic version and delivery, birth weight and neonatal gender did not contribute to the prediction of failed spontaneous vaginal delivery. In our cohort of 301 women with a successful external cephalic version, nulliparity was the only one of seven factors that predicted the risk for cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery.

  7. Contraindications for external cephalic version in breech position at term: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosman, A.N.; Guijt, A.; Vlemmix, F.; Rijnders, M.; Mol, B.W.J.; Kok, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. External cephalic version (ECV) is a safe and effective intervention that can prevent breech delivery, thus reducing the need for cesarean delivery. It is recommended in national guidelines. These guidelines also mention contraindications for ECV, and thereby restrict the application of E

  8. Implementation of client versus care-provider strategies to improve external cephalic version rates: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlemmix, F.; Rosman, A.N.; Rijnders, M.E.; Beuckens, A.; Opmeer, B.C.; Mol, B.W.J.; Kok, M.; Fleuren, M.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Onjective: To determine the effectiveness of a client or care-provider strategy to improve the implementation of external cephalic version. Design: Cluster randomized controlled trial.Setting: Twenty-five clusters; hospitals and their referring midwifery practices randomly selected in the Netherland

  9. Amnioinfusion for women with a singleton breech presentation and a previous failed external cephalic version: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Diguisto, Caroline; Winer, Norbert; Descriaud, Celine; Tavernier, Elsa; Weymuller, Victoire; Giraudeau, Bruno; Perrotin, Franck

    2017-03-09

    Purpose Our trial aimed to assess the effectiveness of amnioinfusion for a second attempt at external cephalic version (ECV). Material and methods This open randomized controlled trial was planned with a sequential design. Women at a term ≥ 36 weeks of gestation with a singleton fetus in breech presentation and a first unsuccessful ECV were recruited in two level-3 maternity units. They were randomly allocated to transabdominal amnioinfusion with a 500-mL saline solution under ultrasound surveillance or no amnioinfusion before the second ECV attempt. Trained senior obstetricians performed all procedures. The primary outcome was the cephalic presentation rate at delivery. Analyses were conducted according to intention to treat (NCT00465712) Result Recruitment difficulties led to stopping the trial after a 57-month period, 119 women were randomized: 59 allocated to amnioinfusion + ECV and 60 to ECV only. Data were analyzed without applying the sequential feature of the design. The rate of cephalic presentation at delivery did not differ significantly according to whether the second version attempt was or was not preceded by amnioinfusion (20% vs 12%, p = 0.20). Premature rupture of the membranes occurred for 15% of the women in the amnioinfusion group. Conclusion Amnioinfusion before a second attempt to external version does not significantly increase the rate of cephalic presentation at delivery.

  10. Does fetal weight estimated by ultrasound really affect the success rate of external cephalic version?

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    Burgos, Jorge; Melchor, Juan Carlos; Cobos, Patricia; Centeno, Marimar; Pijoan, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez-Llebrez, Luis; Martinez-Astorquiza, Txanton

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To determine whether fetal weight estimated by ultrasound on the day the external cephalic version (ECV) is related to the procedure's success rate. DESIGN. Retrospective cohort study. Setting. University hospital. POPULATION OR SAMPLE. Two hundred women with a singleton pregnancy undergoing an ECV attempt between March 2002 and March 2006. METHOD. Projected birthweight at delivery was calculated. Logistic regression analysis, by grams and by weight intervals, and multiple correspondence analysis were performed to determine whether or not the weight was related to the procedure's success. Specific statistical analysis was undertaken to minimize measurement bias in fetal weight estimation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE. Success of ECV in relation to estimated fetal weight. RESULTS. Measurement bias was ruled out because no statistically significant differences were identified with the Student's t-test (p>0.05), Bland-Altman's agreement analysis, and the interclass correlation coefficient analysis (ICC = 0.829; CI95% 0.772-0.871; psuccess was detected, while multiple correspondence analysis suggested that variations in fetal weight are weakly related to the procedure's success or failure. No relation was identified between ECV and birthweight (p = 0.38) when the delivery took place in the same week as the version. CONCLUSIONS. Estimated fetal weight before ECV seems not to be related to the outcome of ECV.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of external cephalic version for term breech presentation

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    Carvalho Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background External cephalic version (ECV is recommended by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to convert a breech fetus to vertex position and reduce the need for cesarean delivery. The goal of this study was to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, from society's perspective, of ECV compared to scheduled cesarean for term breech presentation. Methods A computer-based decision model (TreeAge Pro 2008, Tree Age Software, Inc. was developed for a hypothetical base case parturient presenting with a term singleton breech fetus with no contraindications for vaginal delivery. The model incorporated actual hospital costs (e.g., $8,023 for cesarean and $5,581 for vaginal delivery, utilities to quantify health-related quality of life, and probabilities based on analysis of published literature of successful ECV trial, spontaneous reversion, mode of delivery, and need for unanticipated emergency cesarean delivery. The primary endpoint was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in dollars per quality-adjusted year of life gained. A threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-years (QALY was used to determine cost-effectiveness. Results The incremental cost-effectiveness of ECV, assuming a baseline 58% success rate, equaled $7,900/QALY. If the estimated probability of successful ECV is less than 32%, then ECV costs more to society and has poorer QALYs for the patient. However, as the probability of successful ECV was between 32% and 63%, ECV cost more than cesarean delivery but with greater associated QALY such that the cost-effectiveness ratio was less than $50,000/QALY. If the probability of successful ECV was greater than 63%, the computer modeling indicated that a trial of ECV is less costly and with better QALYs than a scheduled cesarean. The cost-effectiveness of a trial of ECV is most sensitive to its probability of success, and not to the probabilities of a cesarean after ECV, spontaneous reversion

  12. An observational study of the success and complications of 2546 external cephalic versions in low-risk pregnant women performed by trained midwives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuckens, A.; Rijnders, M.; Verburgt-Doeleman, G.H.M.; Rijninks-van Driel, G.C.; Thorpe, J.; Huttom, E.K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the success of an external cephalic version (ECV) training programme, and to determine the rates of successful ECV, complications, and caesarean birth in a low-risk population. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Primary health care and hospital settings throughout

  13. Patients' and professionals' barriers and facilitators to external cephalic version for breech presentation at term, a qualitative analysis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosman, A.N.; Vlemmix, F.; Fleuren, M.A.H.; Rijnders, M.E.; Beuckens, A.; Opmeer, B.C.; Mol, B.W.J.; Zwieten, M.C.B. van; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: external cephalic version (ECV) is a relatively simple and safe manoeuvre and a proven effective approach in the reduction of breech presentation at term. There is professional consensus that ECV should be offered to all women with a fetus in breech presentation, but only up to 70% of wom

  14. Facilitators and barriers to external cephalic version for breech presentation at term among health care providers in the Netherlands: A quantitative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosman, A.N.; Vlemmix, F.; Beuckens, A.; Rijnders, M.E.; Opmeer, B.C.; Mol, B.W.J.; Kok, M.; Fleuren, M.A.H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: guidelines recommend that external cephalic version (ECV) should be offered to all women with a fetus in breech presentation at term. However, only 50-60% of the women receive an ECV attempt. We explored the determinants (barriers and facilitators) affecting the uptake of the guidelines a

  15. Cephalic vein aneurysm.

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    Faraj, Walid; Selmo, Francesca; Hindi, Mia; Haddad, Fadi; Khalil, Ismail

    2007-11-01

    Cephalic vein aneurysms are rare malformations that may develop in any part of the vascular system, and their history, presentation, and management vary depending on their site. The etiology of venous aneurysms remains unclear, although several theories have been elaborated. Venous aneurysms are unusual vascular malformations that occur equally between the sexes and are seen at any age; they can present as either a painful or a painless subcutaneous mass. No serious complications have been reported from upper extremity venous aneurysms. Surgical excision is the definitive management for most of these. The case reported here presented with a painless and mobile, soft, subcutaneous mass that caused only cosmetic concern.

  16. Benign cephalic histiocytosis.

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    Gianotti, F; Caputo, R; Ermacora, E; Gianni, E

    1986-09-01

    Benign cephalic histiocytosis is a self-healing non-X, nonlipid cutaneous histiocytosis of children, characterized by a papular eruption on the head. Mucous membranes and viscera are always spared. In the 13 cases reported herein, the children were otherwise in good general health. The disease appeared during the first three years of life, and spontaneous regression was complete by the age of nine years in the four cases healed to date. The histiocytic infiltrate was localized in the upper and middle dermis and contained no lipids at any stage of evolution. All the histiocytes contained coated vesicles, and 5% to 30% also contained comma-shaped bodies in their cytoplasm.

  17. Cephalic Aura after Frontal Lobe Resection

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A cephalic aura is a common sensory aura typically seen in frontal lobe epilepsy. The generation mechanism of cephalic aura is not fully understood. It is hypothesized that to generate cephalic aura more extensive cortical areas need to be excited. Here we report a patient who started to have cephalic aura after right frontal lobe resection. MEG showed interictal spike and ictal change during cephalic aura, both of which were distributed on right frontal region, and the latter involved much m...

  18. Cephalic aura after frontal lobe resection.

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    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Jehi, Lara; Alkawadri, Rafeed; Wang, Zhong I; Enatsu, Rei; Mosher, John C; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; Burgess, Richard C

    2014-08-01

    A cephalic aura is a common sensory aura typically seen in frontal lobe epilepsy. The generation mechanism of cephalic aura is not fully understood. It is hypothesized that to generate a cephalic aura extensive cortical areas need to be excited. We report a patient who started to have cephalic aura after right frontal lobe resection. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) showed interictal spike and ictal change during cephalic aura, both of which were distributed in the right frontal region, and the latter involved much more widespread areas than the former on MEG sensors. The peculiar seizure onset pattern may indicate that surgical modification of the epileptic network was related to the appearance of cephalic aura. We hypothesize that generation of cephalic aura may be associated with more extensive cortical involvement of epileptic activity than that of interictal activity, in at least a subset of cases.

  19. Cephalic arch stenosis in dialysis patients: review of clinical relevance, anatomy, current theories on etiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivananthan, Gajan; Menashe, Leo; Halin, Neil J

    2014-01-01

    Arteriovenous hemodialysis fistulas (AVFs) serve as a lifeline for many individuals with end-stage renal failure. A common cause of AVF failure is cephalic arch stenosis. Its high prevalence compounded with its resistance to treatment makes cephalic arch stenosis important to understand. Proposed etiologies include altered flow in a fistulized cephalic vein, external compression by fascia, the unique morphology of the cephalic arch, large number of valves in the cephalic outflow tract and biochemical changes that accompany renal failure. Management options are also in debate and include angioplasty, cutting balloon angioplasty, bare metal stents, stent grafts and surgical techniques including flow reduction with minimally invasive banding as well as more invasive venovenostomy with transposition surgeries for refractory cases. In this review, the evidence for the clinical relevance of cephalic arch stenosis, its etiology and management are summarized.

  20. Cephalic Tetanus from Penetrating Orbital Wound

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    Eloïse Guyennet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus is a neurologic disorder caused by tetanospasmin, a protein toxin elaborated by Clostridium tetani. Cephalic tetanus is a localized form of the disease causing trismus and dysfunction of cranial nerves. We report the case of a man who presented with facial trauma, complete ophthalmoplegia, exophthalmos, areactive mydriasis, and periorbital hematoma. An orbital CT revealed air bubbles in the right orbital apex. The patient was given a tetanus toxoid booster and antibiotherapy. After extraction of a wooden foreign body, the patient developed right facial nerve palsy, disorders of swallowing, contralateral III cranial nerve palsy, and trismus. Only one case of cephalic tetanus from penetrating orbital wound has been reported in literature 20 years ago. When a patient presents with an orbital wound with ophthalmoplegia and signs of anaerobic infection, cephalic tetanus should be ruled out.

  1. Benign cephalic histiocytosis: report of four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luna, M L; Glikin, I; Golberg, J; Stringa, S; Schroh, R; Casas, J

    1989-09-01

    We cared for four patients with benign cephalic histiocytosis, a self-healing non-X, nonlipid cutaneous histiocytosis of children. The age of onset of the disease was 5 to 9 months, with papules and erythematous macules involving the head (mainly the cheeks), and posterior spread to the trunk and limbs in three patients. Microscopic examination of skin biopsies revealed a histiocytic infiltrate in the superficial dermis that was S100 protein-negative by immunoperoxidase (PAP method). One patient showed comma-shaped bodies and desmosomelike junctions on electron microscopy. No Birbeck's granules were present. Benign cephalic histiocytosis is a self-limiting condition that requires no treatment.

  2. Cephalic veins in coronary artery bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, P; Jakobsen, Erik; Lerbjerg, G;

    1996-01-01

    Various alternative conduits for aortocoronary bypass grafting have been suggested when the saphenous vein quality is inadequate. During a 10-year period we have used the cephalic vein in 39 patients. Eighteen entered an angiographic follow-up study. A total of 31 arm vein grafts were used with 4...

  3. Transposition of cephalic vein to rescue hemodialysis access arteriovenous fistula and treat symptomatic central venous obstruction

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    Felipe Jose Skupien

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that stenosis or central venous obstruction affects 20 to 50% of patients who undergo placement of catheters in central veins. For patients who are given hemodialysis via upper limbs, this problem causes debilitating symptoms and increases the risk of loss of hemodialysis access. We report an atypical case of treatment of a dialysis patient with multiple comorbidities, severe swelling and pain in the right upper limb (RUL, few alternative sites for hemodialysis vascular access, a functioning brachiobasilic fistula in the RUL and severe venous hypertension in the same limb, secondary to central vein occlusion of the internal jugular vein and right brachiocephalic trunk. The alternative surgical treatment chosen was to transpose the RUL cephalic vein, forming a venous necklace at the anterior cervical region, bypassing the site of venous occlusion. In order to achieve this, we dissected the cephalic vein in the right arm to its junction with the axillary vein, devalved the cephalic vein and anastomosed it to the contralateral external jugular vein, providing venous drainage to the RUL, alleviating symptoms of venous hypertension and preserving function of the brachiobasilic fistula.

  4. CEPHALIC INDEX IN NEWBORNS: THE EFFECT OF HEREDITY AND SEX

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    Aprajita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric dimensions are the basis of evaluation of health of new-borns. MATERIALS AND METHOD Head length and Head Width of three hundred sixty normal new-borns (180 male and 180 female belonging to three different endogamous groups, i.e. Jat Sikhs, Banias and Majhbi Sikhs were recorded and Cephalic Index was calculated. RESULTS The difference in mean Cephalic index was found to be highly significant in the three endogamous groups (p<0.001, whereas it was just significant in males and females. CONCLUSION Cephalic index varies with heredity and also shows sexual dimorphism. This variation can be used in forensic practice for identification of skeletal remains. It is also useful in plastic surgery, facial reconstruction, pediatrics, oral surgery, dentistry and various other craniofacial surgeries.

  5. Indeterminate cell histiocytosis that presented clinically as benign cephalic histiocytosis.

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    Haimovic, Adele; Chernoff, Karen; Hale, Christopher S; Meehan, Shane A; Schaffer, Julie V

    2014-12-16

    Indeterminate cell histiocytosis (ICH) is a rare, heterogeneous disorder that is characterized by immunophenotypic features of both Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and non-LCH. We describe a 12-month-old boy with a four-month history of asymptomatic, small, pink-tan papules on his face. Histopathologic evaluation showed a superficial, dermal infiltrate of histiocytes that was positive for S100, CD1a, CD68, and Factor XIIIa. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of the clinical presentation of benign cephalic histiocytosis with immunohistochemical findings of ICH. We review the classification of histiocytic disorders and the clinical and immunohistochemical features of both ICH and benign cephalic histiocytosis.

  6. Neurogenesis of cephalic sensory organs of Aplysia californica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2007-01-01

    The opisthobranch gastropod Aplysia californica serves as a model organism in experimental neurobiology because of its simple and well-known nervous system. However, its nervous periphery has been less intensely studied. We have reconstructed the ontogeny of the cephalic sensory organs (labial te...

  7. Characterization of the cephalic arch and location of stenosis

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    Bennett, Shelby; Hammes, Mary S.; Blicharski, Tom; Watson, Sydeaka; Funaki, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to accurately characterize the cephalic arch segments into four domains and to enable more specific evaluation of cephalic arch stenosis (CAS) and determine the frequency of stenosis in each domain. Methods After Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, a retrospective chart review was done to define a population of patients receiving hemodialysis who developed CAS as apparent on clinically indicated radiologic imaging. A standardized approach was devised to categorize four domains of the cephalic arch. Domain I was defined as the peripheral portion of the arch and Domain IV was the distal portion of the cephalic vein near termination with the axillary vein. The magnitude of stenosis as measured by percentage was determined and compared in the four domains. Results The most frequent location for stenosis was found in domain IV when compared with domains II or I (p<0.01). The magnitude of stenosis differed across all domains (p<0.001) with the least common place for CAS in domain I. Treatment of CAS included angioplasty in all, thrombectomy in eight, and stent placement in five. Conclusions CAS occurs most commonly in the terminal portion of the arch. Four standardized domains have been defined; future work will validate these findings and determine the best intervention for each domain. PMID:25198819

  8. Enteral nutrition in malnutrition following gastric resection and cephalic pancreaticoduodenectomy.

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    Kornowski, A; Cosnes, J; Gendre, J P; Quintrec, Y

    1992-02-01

    Nutritional recovery was studied during continuous enteral nutrition in 29 patients who had developed malnutrition after gastric surgery. Patients were divided into three groups according to the type of surgery involved: total gastrectomy (n = 10), partial gastrectomy (n = 12), or cephalic pancreaticoduodenectomy (n = 7). The evolution of anthropometric and biological nutritional parameters in each group was compared with that observed in a control group of 10 nonoperated anorectic patients. Significant gains in body weight, arm muscle circumference, triceps skinfold, serum transferrin and global nutritional status were observed after 3 to 4 weeks of enteral nutrition in each group, while serum albumin, serum cholesterol, hemoglobin, and total lymphocyte count did not change significantly. No significant difference was observed between the groups. However, weight gain tended to be slower in patients with cephalic pancreaticoduodenectomy. This study confirms that enteral nutrition is an effective method of nutritional repletion after gastrectomy. Enteral nutrition can be used in undernourished gastrectomized patients when dietary measures alone have proven inadequate.

  9. Obesity-related complications in Danish single cephalic term pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Nilas, Lisbeth; Wøjdemann, Karen

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the relationship between prepregnancy and obstetric body mass index (BMI) as well as fetal complications in a large, unselected cohort of Danish women with single cephalic pregnancies. METHODS: A cohort of 8,092 women from the Copenhagen First Trimester...... Study with a registered prepregnancy BMI and a single cephalic term delivery were stratified into 3 BMI groups: normal weight (BMI obese (BMI >/= 30 kg/m(2)). The effects of BMI and parity on the outcome were analyzed using multivariate logistic...... regression analyses. RESULTS: Overweight women had an odds ratio (OR) of 3.4 for diabetes, 1.9 for hypertension, 1.7 for preeclampsia, and 1.5 for cesarean delivery. The corresponding figures for obese women were 15.3, 4.8, 2.7, and 1.7, respectively. No relationship was found between BMI and vacuum...

  10. Neurogenesis of cephalic sensory organs of Aplysia californica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2007-11-01

    The opisthobranch gastropod Aplysia californica serves as a model organism in experimental neurobiology because of its simple and well-known nervous system. However, its nervous periphery has been less intensely studied. We have reconstructed the ontogeny of the cephalic sensory organs (labial tentacles, rhinophores, and lip) of planktonic, metamorphic, and juvenile developmental stages. FMRFamide and serotonergic expression patterns have been examined by immunocytochemistry in conjunction with epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We have also applied scanning electron microscopy to analyze the ciliary distribution of these sensory epithelia. Labial tentacles and the lip develop during metamorphosis, whereas rhinophores appear significantly later, in stage 10 juveniles. Our study has revealed immunoreactivity against FMRFamides and serotonin in all major nerves. The common labial nerve develops first, followed by the labial tentacle base nerve, oral nerve, and rhinophoral nerve. We have also identified previously undescribed neuronal pathways and other FMRFamide-like-immunoreactive neuronal elements, such as peripheral ganglia and glomerulus-like structures, and two groups of conspicuous transient FMRFamide-like cell somata. We have further found two distinct populations of FMRFamide-positive cell somata located both subepidermally and in the inner regions of the cephalic sensory organs in juveniles. The latter population partly consists of sensory cells, suggesting an involvement of FMRFamide-like peptides in the modulation of peripheral sensory processes. This study is the first concerning the neurogenesis of cephalic sensory organs in A. californica and may serve as a basis for future studies of neuronal elements in gastropod molluscs.

  11. Obesity-related complications in Danish single cephalic term pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Nilas, Lisbeth; Wøjdemann, Karen

    2005-01-01

    extraction. Obese women had an increased risk of delivering macrosomic but also low birth weight children. No differences existed among the 3 weight groups with regard to neonatal morbidity estimated by Apgar score, umbilical cord pH, or admittance to a neonatal intensive care unit. Nulliparous women had......OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the relationship between prepregnancy and obstetric body mass index (BMI) as well as fetal complications in a large, unselected cohort of Danish women with single cephalic pregnancies. METHODS: A cohort of 8,092 women from the Copenhagen First Trimester...

  12. Botulinum toxin A for trismus in cephalic tetanus

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    Luiz Augusto F. Andrade

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Cephalic tetanus is a localized form of tetanus. As in generalized forms , trismus is a prominent feature of the disease, leading to considerable difficulty in feeding, swallowing of the saliva and mouth hygiene. These difficulties often precede respiratory problems and aspiration bronchopneumonia is a frequent life-threatening complication. Muscle relaxants other than curare drugs may show a limited benefit for relieving trismus. Tetanospasmin, the tetanic neurotoxin, and botulinum toxin share many similarities, having a closely related chemical structure, an origin from related microorganisms (Clostridium tetani and Clostridium botulinum, respectively, and presumably, the same mechanisms of action in the neuron. The difference between the two lies in their peculiar neurospecificity, acting in different neurons. Injection of minute doses of botulinum toxin in the muscles involved in focal dystonias or other localized spastic disorders have proved to be very effective in these conditions. We describe the use of botulinum toxin A in the successful treatment of trismus in a patient suffering from cephalic tetanus. We believe that this form of treatment may be of value in lowering the risk of pulmonary complications in tetanic patients.

  13. Cephalic arch stenosis in autogenous brachiocephalic hemodialysis fistulas: results of cutting balloon angioplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Søren Thorup; Lönn, Lars; Schroeder, Torben V;

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic arch stenosis is a known cause of hemodialysis access failure in patients with brachiocephalic fistulas (BCFs). Outcomes of endovascular treatment are affected by resistance of the stenosis to balloon dilation, a high vein rupture rate and the development of early restenosis. The purpose...... of this retrospective study was to report outcomes after cutting balloon angioplasty (CBA) of cephalic arch stenosis....

  14. Cephalic vein: Saviour in the microsurgical reconstruction of breast and head and neck cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay K Shankhdhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reconstruction with microvascular free flaps is considered the reconstructive option of choice in cancer of the head and neck regions and breast. Rarely, there is paucity of vessels, especially the veins, at the recipient site. The cephalic vein with its good caliber and constant anatomy is a reliable recipient vein available in such situations. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective study from January 2010 to July 2012 and includes 26 patients in whom cephalic vein was used for free-flap reconstruction in head and neck (3 cases and breast cancers (23 cases. Results: All flaps in which cephalic vein was used survived completely. Conclusion: Cephalic vein can be considered as a reliable source of venous drainage when there is a non-availability/unusable of veins during free-flap reconstruction in the head and neck region and breast and also when additional source of venous drainage is required in these cases.

  15. Teratological Development in the Cephalic Anatomy of the Nematode Romanomermis culicivorax

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, K A; S. Richter

    1982-01-01

    Adults of Romanomermis culicivorax obtained from mass cultures were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy to determine the organization of their anterior sense organs. The normal pattern apparently consists of two lateral amphids plus six cephalic papillae. Lateral cephalic papillae contain two sense organs, each with a cuticular pore, while subdorsal and subventral papillae have three sense organs, each with a cuticular pore. About 30% of females and 80% of males examined...

  16. Cell shape change and invagination of the cephalic furrow involves reorganization of F-actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Allison K; Siddiqui, Bilal A; Thomas, Jeffrey H

    2015-06-15

    Invagination of epithelial sheets to form furrows is a fundamental morphogenetic movement and is found in a variety of developmental events including gastrulation and vertebrate neural tube formation. The cephalic furrow is a deep epithelial invagination that forms during Drosophila gastrulation. In the first phase of cephalic furrow formation, the initiator cells that will lead invagination undergo apicobasal shortening and apical constriction in the absence of epithelial invagination. In the second phase of cephalic furrow formation, the epithelium starts to invaginate, accompanied by both basal expansion and continued apicobasal shortening of the initiator cells. The cells adjacent to the initiator cells also adopt wedge shapes, but only after invagination is well underway. Myosin II does not appear to drive apical constriction in cephalic furrow formation. However, cortical F-actin is increased in the apices of the initiator cells and in invaginating cells during both phases of cephalic furrow formation. These findings suggest that a novel mechanism for epithelial invagination is involved in cephalic furrow formation.

  17. The benefit of external cephalic version with tocolysis as a routine procedure in late pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunedborg, P; Fischer-Rasmussen, W; Tollund, L

    1991-01-01

    /1038 = 9.6%. As the mean caesarean section rate in women with breech presentation was 81% during the period studied, the estimated reduction in the number of caesarean sections during those seven years was 81. Thus the total caesarean section rate (11.3%) was estimated to be reduced by 0.4%. No immediate...

  18. Prediction of Success in External Cephalic Version under Tocolysis: Still a Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz de Macedo, Carolina; Clode, Nuno; Mendes da Graça, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A versão cefálica externa é o procedimento de rotação fetal para uma apresentação cefálica através de manobras sobre o abdómen materno. Encontram-se descritos na literatura vários factores prognósticos para o sucesso da versão cefálica externa e foram propostos scores preditores, mas a sua verdadeira implicação para a prática clínica é controversa. Pretendemos identificar possíveis factores contributivos para o sucesso de uma tentativa de versão cefálica externa na nossa população. Material e Métodos: Examinámos retrospectivamente 207 tentativas consecutivas de versão cefálica externa sob tocólise conduzidas entre Janeiro de 1997 e Julho de 2012. Consultámos a base de dados do departamento para as seguintes variáveis: raça, idade, paridade, índice de massa corporal, idade gestacional, peso fetal estimado, categoria de apresentação, localização placentária e índice de líquido amniótico. Efectuámos avaliação estatística descritiva e analítica monovariada e regressão binária logística. Resultados: A versão cefálica externa foi bem-sucedida em 46,9% dos casos (97/207). Nenhuma das variáveis incluídas se associou com o desfecho da tentativa após ajuste para factores de confundimento.Discussão: Apresentamos uma taxa de sucesso semelhante ao descrito na literatura. No entanto, ao contrário de estudos anteriores, não associámos nenhuma das variáveis analisadas com o sucesso das tentativas de versão cefálica externa. Acreditamos que esta discrepância poderá ser parcialmente explicada pelo tipo de análise estatística efectuada. Conclusões: Apesar de terem sido identificados numerosos factores de prognóstico para o seu sucesso, o aconselhamento e selecção de grávidas para versão cefálica externa deverão ser cautelosos. Os dados obtidos sugerem que a versão cefálica externa deverá continuar a ser oferecida a todas as grávidas elegíveis independentemente de factores prognósticos de sucesso.

  19. Cephalic arch stenosis in autogenous brachiocephalic hemodialysis fistulas: results of cutting balloon angioplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Søren Thorup; Lönn, Lars; Schroeder, Torben V;

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic arch stenosis is a known cause of hemodialysis access failure in patients with brachiocephalic fistulas (BCFs). Outcomes of endovascular treatment are affected by resistance of the stenosis to balloon dilation, a high vein rupture rate and the development of early restenosis. The purpose...

  20. A study of cephalic index and facial index in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lakshmi Kumari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The description of the human body has been a major concern since ancient times. The use of medical terminology enhances reliability of comparison made between studies from different areas thereby contributing higher level of scientific evidence. Cephalic index is an important parameter in forensic medicine, anthropology and genetics to know the sex and racial differences between individuals. Facial index is useful index for forensic scientists, plastic surgeons and anatomist. The parameters are useful for plastic surgeons during treatment of congenital and traumatic deformities, identification of individuals in medicolegal cases by forensic scientists and identifying craniofacial deformities of genetic syndromes by geneticist. Methods: 170 males and 110 female adults from Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India region are included in this study. Anthropometric points for cephalic index were measured by using spreading calipers. Facial index measurements were taken by measuring tape. All measurements were taken in subjects sitting in relaxed condition and subjects head is in anatomical position. Cranial index and facial index were calculated as per the formula. Results: Maximum number of males with mean cephalic index values of 80.21 were observed as mesocephalic and female with mean value of 79.25 observed as brachycephalic. Regarding facial index males were leptoprosopic and females were mesoprosopic. Conclusion: Cephalic index and facial index were terms used by anthropologists, anatomists, plastic surgeons and forensic scientists to identify individual's race and sex for treatment of craniofacial deformities. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 656-658

  1. Cephalic phase secretion of insulin and other enteropancreatic hormones in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veedfald, Simon; Plamboeck, Astrid; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2016-01-01

    Enteropancreatic hormone secretion is thought to include a cephalic phase, but the evidence in humans is ambiguous. We studied vagally induced gut hormone responses with and without muscarinic blockade in 10 glucose-clamped healthy men (age: 24.5 ± 0.6 yr, means ± SE; body mass index: 24.0 ± 0.5 ...

  2. Enhanced ghrelin secretion in the cephalic phase of food ingestion in women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Palmiero; Serritella, Cristina; Scognamiglio, Pasquale; Maj, Mario

    2010-02-01

    In humans, the cephalic phase response to food ingestion consists mostly of vagal efferent activation, which promotes the secretion of entero-pancreatic hormones, including ghrelin. Since symptomatic patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) are characterized by increased vagal tone, we hypothesized an enhanced ghrelin secretion in the cephalic phase of vagal stimulation. Therefore, we investigated ghrelin response to modified sham feeding (MSF) in both BN and healthy women. Six drug-free BN women and 7 age-matched healthy females underwent MSF with initially seeing and smelling a meal, and then chewing the food without swallowing it. Blood samples were drawn immediately before and after MSF for hormone assay. Circulating ghrelin increased after MSF in both groups with BN individuals exhibiting a greater ghrelin increase, which positively correlated with the patients' weekly frequency of binge-purging. These results show for the first time an increased ghrelin secretion in the cephalic phase of vagal stimulation in symptomatic BN patients, likely resulting in a potentiation of the peripheral hunger signal, which might contribute to their aberrant binge-purging behavior.

  3. The Management of Cephalic Arch Stenosis in Arteriovenous Fistulas for Hemodialysis: A Systematic Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasanthamohan, Lakshman, E-mail: lakshman.vasanthamohan@medportal.ca; Gopee-Ramanan, Prasaanthan, E-mail: Prasa.gopee@medportal.ca; Athreya, Sriharsha, E-mail: sathreya@stjoes.ca [McMaster University, Faculty of Health Sciences (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    AimTo conduct a systematic review of management of current cephalic arch stenosis (CAS) and associated outcomes in the context of dysfunctional hemodialysis access.Materials and MethodsPubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched to retrieve literature on the management of CAS. Studies had to focus on management of access stenosis solely in the cephalic arch. Case reports and literature reviews were excluded. Studies were categorized by intervention, and primary and secondary patency data were compiled. Studies were aggregated, and meta-analyses were performed where possible.ResultsNine papers satisfied the aforementioned criteria: five were retrospective studies and four were prospective studies. CAS management strategies have included percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA), peripheral cutting balloons, surgical cephalic vein transpositions, bare stents, and stent grafts. Reporting strategies varied between studies. Meta-analyses showed that results were variable even within studies using the same modality, particularly for PTA.ConclusionNo singular, definitive management strategy exists for CAS. Current studies are limited by being primarily single-center retrospective trials featuring heterogenous patient populations, interventions, and endpoints. Priorities for future studies should include larger randomized trials, more uniform management strategies and endpoints, and a longer duration of follow-up.

  4. Cephalic measures in normal pre-school children 3 to 7-years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Diament

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available In a study designed to determine standards for the Developmental Neurological Examination (DNE several measures of the head were also recorded. The study consisted in the examination of 200 children, half from each sex, 40 from each age group (3 to 7-years of age. These children were selected among 755 normal pre-school-age children, living in the city of São Paulo (Brazil. The criteria for selection were both anamnestic and clinic. The following measures of the head were recorded: cephalic perimeter, biauricular and antero-posterior distances (Diament, 1967. A new cephalic index (nCI was also determined (Diament, 1968. This index is useful in detecting changes in head shape mainly in cases of precocious cranioestenosis (Diament, 1968; Facure, 1972. The statistical analysis consisted in determining means and standard errors for each measure. For the new cephalic index it was shown through the Kruskal-Wallis test that there were no significant difference between age and sex. Therefore we considered all groups together to find out the tolerance region for the new index which turned out to be given by the interval: 0.848-1.002. This result is based in 186 cases since 14 were excluded because of some problems in the recording process. Therefore we expect with a confidence of 95% that the above interval covers 90% of the population, in the 3 to 7 years age-groups independently of sex.

  5. Study about the ontogenetic development of cephalic sensory system of Cottus Gobio Linaeus 1758 (Pisces; Cottidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie C. TELCEAN

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The lateral-cephalic channels system of Cotus gobio L. was studied for a number of 66 juveniles originated from the upper Tisa River. The topography of cephalic channels system and the number of their opening pores present a lot of similarities between different fishes groups that is close related in their phylogeny. The jointly characters are in fact the results of convergent evolution.The study on the ontogenesis of cephalic-laterals channels system and its pores at Cottus gobio can offer an image on the main stages of their phylogeny. The first channels which are forming are the preoperculo-mandibularis (POM followed by the infraorbitalis (IO, supratemporalis (ST and the occipital (OC channel. The last formed seem to be the supraorbital channels (SO. The main stages of this ontogeny suggest that the sensory channels from the mandible and upper head have the priority in their development. A number of genipores are the forerunner for the cephalic pores. The beginning genipores from the infraorbital and supratemporal cephalic surface are the most similar with those from the Gobiidae fish family. The secondary process in sensory system ontogeny consists in developing of the channel structure. The channels structure development occurred principally in the fresh water fishes it seems to be related with their environment.The total length of lateral line at the populations of Cottus gobio from the upper Tisa River is already complete at the individuals with 35-40 mm standard length. That earliest development of the cannels and its opening pores are distinctive for Cottus gobio from the Tisa River system or generally for the entire lower Danube rivers system. The mature individuals have an average number of 30-33 pores on the lateral line. The comparative study of the lateral line lengthiness correlated with the standard length of specimens reveal that the individuals from Tisa River have similarities with the populations of Cottus gobio from Czech

  6. Comparison of Venous Return Characteristics with Right Ventricular Mechanics During Cephalic Fluid Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Morgan; Martin, David

    2015-01-01

    For my summer internship project, I organized a pilot study to analyze the effects of a cephalic fluid shift on venous return and right ventricular mechanics to increase right ventricular and venous knowledge. To accomplish this pilot study, I wrote a testing protocol, obtained Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, completed subject payment forms, lead testing sessions, and analyzed the data. This experiment used -20deg head down tilt (20 HDT) as the ground based simulation for the fluid shift that occurs during spaceflight and compared it to data obtained from the seated and supine positions. Using echocardiography, data was collected for the right ventricle, hepatic vein, internal jugular vein, external jugular vein, and inferior vena cava. Additionally, non-invasive venous pressure measurements, similar to those soon to be done in-orbit, were collected. It was determined that the venous return from below the heard is increased during 20 HDT, which was supported by increased hepatic vein velocities, increased right ventricular inflow, and increased right ventricular strain at 20 HDT relative to seated values. Jugular veins in the neck undergo an increase in pressure and area, but no significant increase in flow, relative to seated values when a subject is tilted 20 HDT. Contrary to the initial expectations based on this jugular flow, there was no significant increase in central venous pressure, as evidenced by no change in Doppler indices for right arterial pressure or inferior vena cava diameter. It is suspected that these differences in pressure are due to the hydrostatic pressure indifference point shifting during tilt; there is a potential for a similar phenomenon with microgravity. This data will hopefully lead to a more in-depth understanding of the response of the body to microgravity and how those relate to the previously mentioned cardiovascular risk of fluid shift that is associated with spaceflight. These results were presented in greater detail

  7. Cephalic And Prosopic Indices: Comparison In One-Day Newborn Boys In Zahedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidari Z

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cephalometry is one of the important branches of anthropometry that has wide uses in identification, forensic medicine, plastic surgery, orthodontics, archeology and determining the origins of races. This research was investigated to determine the head and face phenotypes among one-day newborn boys in two aborigines of Sistani and Baluchi who were resident in Zahedan. Materials and Methods: The investigation is based on cross-sectional analytical descriptions of 420 newborn aborigine boys (216 Sistani & 204 Baluchi, who were clinically healthy, in Quds hospital in summer 1381, in Zahedan. In this study cephalic and prosopic indices were determined by classical cephalometric. Results: The mean and the standard deviations of cephalic index were 83.67±4.80 and 83.64±4.77 and prosopic index 86.79±5.87 and 86.53±6.76 for Sistani and Baluchi subjects respectively. Based on the cephalic index, the dominant head types in sistani group were hyperbrachycephalic (37% and brachycephalic (37%. In Blachui group, the hyperbrachycephalic (37.3% and brachycephalic (35.3% type were the dominant one. Furthermore, according to the prosopic index. The dominant face type among sistanis was euryprosopic type (42.6%. In Baluchi group, the dominant face type was also euryprosopic (39.2%. Conclusion: This research showed no statistically significant differences in terms of head and face type indices between two aborigines of Zahedan. Based on this cross-sectional study, it seems that there is similarities between the aforementioned groups

  8. Automatic Assessment of Global Craniofacial Differences between Crouzon mice and Wild-type mice in terms of the Cephalic Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Oubel, Estanislao; Frangi, Alejandro F.;

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the automatic assessment of differences between Wild-Type mice and Crouzon mice based on high-resolution 3D Micro CT data. One factor used for the diagnosis of Crouzon syndrome in humans is the cephalic index, which is the skull width/length ratio. This index has traditionally...... been computed by time-consuming manual measurements that prevent large-scale populational studies. In this study, an automatic method to estimate cephalic index for this mouse model of Crouzon syndrome is presented. The method is based on constructing a craniofacial atlas of Wild-type mice...... and then registering each mouse to the atlas using affine transformations. The skull length and width are then measured on the atlas and propagated to all subjects to obtain automatic measurements of the cephalic index. The registration accuracy was estimated by RMS landmark errors. Even though the accuracy...

  9. Cephalic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it is believed that the mother's diet and vitamin intake may play a role, scientists agree that ... Complications of AIDS Information Page Neurological Complications of Lyme Disease Information Page Neuromyelitis Optica Information Page Neuronal Migration ...

  10. Cephalic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include a study to evaluate increased risk of neural tube defects and various other congenital malformations in association ... involved in neurulation -- the process of forming the neural tube. Investigators are also conducting a variety of genetic ...

  11. Neutral Sterols of Cephalic Glands of Stingless Bees and Their Correlation with Sterols from Pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Juliana Ferreira-Caliman

    2012-01-01

    de novo and, thus, all phytophagous insects depend on an exogenous source of sterols for growth, development, and reproduction. The sterol requirements of social bees are not fully known due to the fact that there is no well-defined diet available throughout the year with regard to floral resources. Our study aimed to characterize the sterols present in pollen stored in Melipona marginata and Melipona scutellaris colonies, as well as evaluating their presence in the mandibular, hypopharyngeal, and cephalic salivary gland secretions. We analyzed the chemical composition of pollen stored in the colonies and the composition of the cephalic glands of workers in three adult functional phases (newly emerged, nurses, and foragers by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The results showed that the pollen analyzed contained campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol, isofucosterol, lanosterol, and small amounts of cholesterol. The glands showed the same compounds found in the pollen analyzed, except lanosterol that was not found in M. scutellaris glands. Surprisingly, cholesterol was found in some glands with relative ratios greater than those found in pollen.

  12. In situ cephalic vein bypasses from axillary to the brachial artery after catheterization injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudorovic, Narcis; Lovricevic, Ivo; Ahel, Zaky

    2010-07-01

    The need to bypass to the brachial artery is rare. Over a five-year period, 16 patients had suffered iatrogenic post-catheterization injuries of the upper extremity. We have performed 16 bypasses, in 16 patients, mean age was 65 years (range 47-75), to the brachial artery originating from an artery proximal to the shoulder joint. In all cases, the axillary artery was the donor artery. All bypasses were created by using the cephalic vein with the in situ technique and distal anastomoses were made to a distance-free section of brachial artery. No operative mortality, neurological complications or major upper-extremity amputation was associated with the procedure. Life-long-conduit analysis showed 75% patency in the five-year period. After iatrogenic post-catheterization trauma of arterial system of upper extremity, bypasses from axillary to brachial artery with the cephalic vein with the in situ technique is a safe operation with satisfactory long-term patency.

  13. Peripheral sensory cells in the cephalic sensory organs of Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyeth, Russell C; Croll, Roger P

    2011-07-01

    The peripheral nervous system in gastropods plays a key role in the neural control of behaviors, but is poorly studied in comparison with the central nervous system. Peripheral sensory neurons, although known to be widespread, have been studied in a patchwork fashion across several species, with no comprehensive treatment in any one species. We attempted to remedy this limitation by cataloging peripheral sensory cells in the cephalic sensory organs of Lymnaea stagnalis employing backfills, vital stains, histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry. By using at least two independent methods to corroborate observations, we mapped four different cell types. We have found two different populations of bipolar sensory cells that appear to contain catecholamines(s) and histamine, respectively. Each cell had a peripheral soma, an epithelial process bearing cilia, and a second process projecting to the central nervous system. We also found evidence for two populations of nitric oxide-producing sensory cells, one bipolar, probably projecting centrally, and the second unipolar, with only a single epithelial process and no axon. The various cell types are presumably either mechanosensory or chemosensory, but the complexity of their distributions does not allow formation of hypotheses regarding modality. In addition, our observations indicate that yet more peripheral sensory cell types are present in the cephalic sensory organs of L. stagnalis. These results are an important step toward linking sensory cell morphology to modality. Moreover, our observations emphasize the size of the peripheral nervous system in gastropods, and we suggest that greater emphasis be placed on understanding its role in gastropod neuroethology.

  14. Prediction of neonatal metabolic acidosis in women with a singleton term pregnancy in cephalic presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhuis, Michelle E M H; Schuit, Ewoud; Kwee, Anneke; Zuithoff, Nicolaas P A; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Van Den Akker, Eline S A; Van Beek, Erik; Van Dessel, Hendrikus J H M; Drogtrop, Addy P; Van Geijn, Herman P; Graziosi, Guiseppe C M; Van Lith, Jan M M; Nijhuis, Jan G; Oei, S Guid; Oosterbaan, Herman P; Porath, Martina M; Rijnders, Robert J P; Schuitemaker, Nico W E; Wijnberger, Lia D E; Willekes, Christine; Wouters, Maurice G A J; Visser, Gerard H A; Mol, Ben Willem J; Moons, Karel G M

    2012-03-01

    We sought to predict neonatal metabolic acidosis at birth using antepartum obstetric characteristics (model 1) and additional characteristics available during labor (model 2). In 5667 laboring women from a multicenter randomized trial that had a high-risk singleton pregnancy in cephalic presentation beyond 36 weeks of gestation, we predicted neonatal metabolic acidosis. Based on literature and clinical reasoning, we selected both antepartum characteristics and characteristics that became available during labor. After univariable analyses, the predictors of the multivariable models were identified by backward stepwise selection in a logistic regression analysis. Model performance was assessed by discrimination and calibration. To correct for potential overfitting, we (internally) validated the models with bootstrapping techniques. Of 5667 neonates born alive, 107 (1.9%) had metabolic acidosis. Antepartum predictors of metabolic acidosis were gestational age, nulliparity, previous cesarean delivery, and maternal diabetes. Additional intrapartum predictors were spontaneous onset of labor and meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Calibration and discrimination were acceptable for both models (c-statistic 0.64 and 0.66, respectively). In women with a high-risk singleton term pregnancy in cephalic presentation, we identified antepartum and intrapartum factors that predict neonatal metabolic acidosis at birth.

  15. Isolated Unilateral Tongue Atrophy: A Possible Late Complication of Juxta Cephalic Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Saeed A; Agha, Caroline; Rothstein, Ted

    2016-07-26

    BACKGROUND Isolated unilateral hypoglossal nerve injury is extremely rare. It may be caused by radiation therapy targeting neoplasms of the cephalic region. CASE REPORT A 51-year-old man with synovial sarcoma of the left upper arm status post extensive radiation therapy in 1980 presented in late 2014 with gradual onset of speech difficulty and difficulty moving his tongue for a couple of weeks. Neurological examination revealed isolated left-sided unilateral tongue atrophy. Postradiation residual extensive cicatrix with erythema over the whole left upper extremity extending to the neck on the affected side was noticed. On head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after administration of gadolinium, he was found to have asymmetrically fatty striations, atrophy, and fibrosis in the left tongue consistent with radiation toxicity. The patient's tongue weakness persisted without improvement. CONCLUSIONS The diagnosis of unilateral hypoglossal nerve injury is usually difficult. Detailed neurological examinations and thorough investigations including head MRI are very helpful. Previous exposure to radiation therapy is a potential cause of hypoglossal nerve injury. To our knowledge, this is the first case report that presents isolated unilateral tongue atrophy as a late complication of juxta cephalic radiation therapy.

  16. The cephalic and pharyngeal sense organs of Calliphora vicina 3rd instar larvae are mechanosensitive but have no profound effect on ongoing feeding related motor patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Niederegger, Senta; Heinzel, H-G; Spiess, Roland

    2010-11-01

    The anterior segments of cyclorraphous Diptera larvae bear various sense organs: the dorsal- and terminal organ located on the cephalic lobes, the ventral- and labial organs associated with the mouthplate and the internal labral organ which lies on the dorsal surface of the esophagus. The sense organs are connected to the brain via the antennal nerve (dorsal- and labral organ) or the maxillary nerve (terminal-, ventral-, labial organ). Although their ultrastructure suggests also a mechanosensory function only their response to olfactory and gustatory stimuli has been investigated electrophysiologically. Here we stimulated the individual organs with step-, ramp-, and sinusoidal stimuli of different amplitude while extracellulary recording their afferents from the respective nerves. The external organs show a threshold of approximately 2 microm. All organs responded phasically and did not habituate to repetitive stimuli. The low threshold of the external organs combined with their rhythmically exposure to the substrate suggested a putative role in the temporal coordination of feeding. We therefore repetitively stimulated individual organs while simultaneously monitoring the centrally generated motor pattern for food ingestion. Neither the dorsal-, terminal- or ventral organ afferents had an obvious effect on the ongoing motor rhythm. Various reasons explaining these results are discussed.

  17. Radiotherapy of the cephalic segment in patients with advanced neuroblastoma; Radioterapia do segmento cefalico em pacientes portadores de neuroblastoma avancado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weltman, Eduardo

    1995-07-01

    Although the treatment results have significantly improved for several pediatric malignant neoplasms, particularly Wilms's tumor, lymphomas and leukemia, in the last decade, the prognosis of the INSS, stage 4 neuroblastoma over one year one old patients remains poor. Even for the more advanced centers, using the more aggressive treatment schedules, such as bone marrow transplantation, the probability of a 2 year progression free interval varies from 6 to 50% and at 3 to 6 years, from 13 to 54%. Thereby, at least, 46 to 94% of these patients are expected to die due to the merciless neoplasm progression. The hypothesis here to be tested is regarding the impact of the cephalic irradiation on the outcome of stage 4 patients with skull metastasis at diagnosis. The end point was to establish, under the NEURO-III-85 protocol chemotherapy schedule, the possible benefit of this radiotherapy in preventing the cephalic recurrence, and its reflex on these patients total and diseases free survival. These results disclosed that the cephalic segment irradiation may prevent recurrences at this site. Unfortunately, the decrease in the cranial recurrence frequency did not affect either the disease free interval, or the total survival. The conclusion was that cephalic irradiation have the potential of avoiding these recurrences, without modifying the final outcome. This modality of radiotherapy must be reevaluated under more effective systemic treatments. (author)

  18. Role of nitrite in regulation of fetal cephalic circulation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Giang T; Schröder, Hobe J; Liu, Taiming; Zhang, Meijuan; Kanda, Eriko; Bragg, Shannon; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2014-04-15

    Nitrite has been postulated to provide a reservoir for conversion to nitric oxide (NO), especially in tissues with reduced oxygen levels as in the fetus. Nitrite would thus provide local vasodilatation and restore a balance between oxygen supply and need, a putative mechanism of importance especially in the brain. The current experiments test the hypothesis that exogenous nitrite acts as a vasodilator in the cephalic vasculature of the intact, near term fetal sheep. Fetuses were first instrumented to measure arterial blood pressure and carotid artery blood flow and then studied 4-5 days later while in utero without anaesthesia. Initially l-nitro-arginine (LNNA) was given to block endogenous NO production. Carotid resistance to flow increased 2-fold from 0.54 ± 0.01 (SEM) to 1.20 ± 0.08 mmHg min ml(-1) (in 13 fetuses, P fetal sheep.

  19. Morphological changes in the cephalic salivary glands of females and males of Apis mellifera and Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiani, Silvana Beani; Da Cruz-Landim, Carminda

    2010-06-01

    The cephalic salivary glands of some species of bees are exclusive and well developed only in Apinae. These glands were studied with light and scanning electron microscopy in workers, queens and males from the honey bee Apis mellifera, and the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica in different life phases. The results show that the cephalic salivary glands are present in females of both the species, and in males of S. postica. Nevertheless, they are poorly developed in young males of A. mellifera. In both species, gland growth is progressive from the time of emergence to the oldest age but, in A. mellifera males, the gland degenerates with age. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the secretory units of newly emerged workers are collapsed while in older workers they are turgid. Some pits on the surface of the secretory units correspond to open intercellular spaces. The possible functions of these glands in females and males of both species are discussed.

  20. Morphological changes in the cephalic salivary glands of females and males of Apis mellifera and Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silvana Beani Poiani; Carminda Da Cruz-Landim

    2010-06-01

    The cephalic salivary glands of some species of bees are exclusive and well developed only in Apinae. These glands were studied with light and scanning electron microscopy in workers, queens and males from the honey bee Apis mellifera, and the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica in different life phases. The results show that the cephalic salivary glands are present in females of both the species, and in males of S. postica. Nevertheless, they are poorly developed in young males of A. mellifera. In both species, gland growth is progressive from the time of emergence to the oldest age but, in A. mellifera males, the gland degenerates with age. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the secretory units of newly emerged workers are collapsed while in older workers they are turgid. Some pits on the surface of the secretory units correspond to open intercellular spaces. The possible functions of these glands in females and males of both species are discussed.

  1. A modified DRIL procedure by flow reversal of an aborted distal cephalic vein for critical hand ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzer, D; Czerny, M; Widmer, M K

    2011-09-01

    Treatment of dialysis access-related hand ischaemia with preservation of the access remains an issue. We report the case of a patient presenting critical hand ischaemia 2 years after proximalisation of a distal radio-cephalic fistula with preservation of the original access. After valvulotomy, the distal cephalic vein was used as in situ bypass and directly anastomosed to the distal brachial artery, providing a direct flow to the hand. This procedure relieved the hand ischaemia without sacrificing the functioning fistula. Six months later, the fistula and bypass were still patent, showing that flow reversal of a previous fistula can be an efficient strategy to correct dialysis access-related hand ischaemia in selected cases.

  2. Cephalic Arch Stenosis in Autogenous Haemodialysis Fistulas: Treatment With the Viabahn Stent-Graft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawyer, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.shawyer@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk [The Royal London Hospital, Radiology Department (United Kingdom); Fotiadis, Nicos I., E-mail: fotiadis.nicholas@gmail.com [Royal Marsden Hospital, Radiology Department, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Namagondlu, Girish, E-mail: girish.namagondlu@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk [The Royal London Hospital, Renal Medicine Department (United Kingdom); Iyer, Arun, E-mail: arun.iyer@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk [The Royal London Hospital, Radiology Department (United Kingdom); Blunden, Mark, E-mail: mark.blunden@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Raftery, Martin, E-mail: martin.raftery@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Yaqoob, Magdi, E-mail: magdi.yaqoob@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk [The Royal London Hospital, Renal Medicine Department (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Cephalic arch stenosis (CAS) is an important and common cause of dysfunction in autogenous haemodialysis fistulas that requires multiple reinterventions and aggressive surveillance. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the Viabahn stent-graft for the management of CAS. Between April 2005 and October 2011, 11 consecutive patients [four men and seven women (mean age 56.7 years)] with CAS and dysfunctional fistulas were treated with insertion of 11 Viabahn stent-grafts. Six stent-grafts were inserted due to residual stenosis after angioplasty and five for fistuloplasty-induced rupture. No patient was lost to follow-up. The technical and clinical success rate was 100 %. Primary access patency rates were 81.8 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.482-0.977] at 6 months and 72.7 % (95 % CI 0.390-0.939) at 12 months. Secondary access patency rates were 90.9 % at 6 months (95 % CI 0.587-0.997). There were no procedure-related complications. Mean follow-up was 543.8 days (range 156-2,282). The use of the Viabahn stent-graft in the management of CAS is technically feasible and, in this small series, showed patency rates that compare favorably with historical data of angioplasty and bare stents.

  3. Cephalic salivary glands of two species of advanced eusocial bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: morphology and secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana B. Poiani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some adult eusocial bees have a pair of cephalic salivary glands (CSG in addition to the thoracic labial or salivary gland pairs. This paper deals with variations in morphological features and secretion production of the CSG of females and males of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 and Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1807. The following life stages were studied: newly emerged, nurse, and forager workers; newly emerged and egg-laying queens; and newly emerged and sexually mature males. The histological results showed that the CSG differs between the two species in the following features: while alveoli and duct cells are cuboidal in workers and queens of A. mellifera, they change from cuboidal to flat in S. postica as the workers age. The glands of newly emerged males and females of A. mellifera are similar. However, as males become sexually mature, glands degenerate and practically disappear. The secretion from the glands of females of both species is oleaginous and gradually accumulates in the lumen of the alveoli in the beginning of the adult phase. Consequently, forager workers and egg-laying queens exhibit more turgid alveoli than younger individuals. Sudan black and Nile's blue staining indicated that the CSG secretion consists of neutral lipids. The possible role of gland secretion is discussed taking in account tasks performed by the individuals in the particular phases studied.

  4. A comparative ultrastructural investigation of the cephalic sensory organs in Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbbeler, K; Klussmann-Kolb, A

    2007-12-01

    Cephalic sensory organs (CSOs) are specialised structures in the head region of adult Opisthobranchia involved in perception of different stimuli. The gross morphology of these organs differs considerably among taxa. The current study aims at describing the cellular morphology of the CSOs in order to reveal cellular patterns, especially of sensory epithelia, common for opisthobranchs. Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterise the fine structure of the organs and to compare the CSOs of four different opisthobranch species. The cellular composition of the sensory system is conserved among taxa. The epidermal cells in sensory regions are always columnar and ciliated cells are frequently apparent. The sensory cells are primary receptors arranged in subepidermal cell clusters. They extend dendrites which penetrate the epithelium and reach the surface. Some of the dendrites bear cilia, whereas others only build a small protuberance. Processing of sensory information takes place in the peripheral glomeruli of all species. Moreover, few taxa possess additional peripheral ganglia at the base of their CSOs. The results of the present study might support other investigations indicating that the posterior CSOs are primarily involved in distance chemoreception, whereas the anterior CSOs might be used for contact chemoreception and mechanoreception.

  5. Anatomy of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve in relation to the lateral epicondyle and cephalic vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkerdsook, Wachara; Agthong, Sithiporn; Amarase, Chavarin; Yotnuengnit, Pattarapol; Huanmanop, Thanasil; Chentanez, Vilai

    2011-01-01

    The lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LACN) is the terminal sensory branch of the musculocutaneous nerve supplying the lateral aspect of forearm. Because of its close proximity to the biceps brachii tendon (BBT), the lateral epicondyle (LE), and the cephalic vein (CV), surgery and venipuncture in the cubital fossa can injure the LACN. Measurement data regarding the relative anatomy of LACN are scarce. We, therefore, dissected 96 upper extremities from 26 males and 22 females to expose the LACN in the cubital fossa and forearm. The LACN consistently emerged from the lateral margin of BBT. It then pierced the deep fascia distal to the interepicondylar line (IEL) in 84.4% with mean distances of 1.8 ± 1.1 and 1.2 ± 0.9 cm (male and female, respectively). At the level of IEL, the LACN in all cases was medial to the LE (5.9 ± 1.1 cm male and 5.2 ± 0.9 cm female). Two types of branching were observed: single trunk (78.1%) and bifurcation (21.9%). Asymmetry in the branching pattern was observed in 6 males and 1 female. Concerning the relationship to the CV, the LACN ran medially within 1 cm at the level of IEL in 78.7%. Moreover, in 10 specimens, the LACN was directly beneath the CV. In the forearm, the LACN tends to course medial to the CV. Significant differences in the measurement data between genders but not sides were found in some parameters. These data are important for avoiding LACN injury and locating the LACN during relevant medical procedures.

  6. Anatomic research on distally based compound flap pedicled with the nutrient vessels of cephalic vein%头静脉营养血管远端蒂复合瓣的解剖学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张发惠; 林松庆; 郑和平; 张国栋

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Distally based flap pedicled with the distal nutritional vessels in forearm is especially suitable for reconstructing the tissue defects in the distal end of hands, while high rotation point cannot satisfy the requirements of reconstructing the distal injuries or defects in hands, and severer lesion may even be caused in the donor site.OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomic proceeding of artery perforators in distal radial margin of forearms, so as to provide anatomic basis for the design of distally based compound flap pedicled with the nutrient vessel of cephalic vein in distal radial margin of forearms.DESIGN: Single sample experiment.SETTING: Center for Clinical Anatomy of the Department of Orthopedics,Fuzhou General Hospital of Chinese PLA of Nanjing Military Area Command.MATERIALS: The experiment was conducted in the Laboratory of Center for Clinical Anatomy of Department of Orthopedics, Fuzhou General Hospital of Chinese PLA of Nanjing Military Area Command between August and December 2004. The upper extremities of 30 cadavers injected with a mixture of red gelatin into the artery (provided by the Center for Clinical Anatomy of Department of Orthopedics, Fuzhou General Hospital of Chinese PLA of Nanjing Military Area Command) were adopted.METHODS: The vascular external diameter and distance were measured with sliding caliper and ruler with radial styloid process as the marker.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① The perforator artery in distal radial margin of forearms. ② The nutrient vessels of cephalic vein. ③ The relationship of blood supply between the nutrient vessels and vicinal bone and skin as well as the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve. ④ The superficial and deep communicating branches of cephalic vein.RESULTS: The perforator artery in distal radial margin of forearms derived from: 6-11 cutaneous branches of radial artery with external diameter of (0.7±0.3) mm; 2-6 cutaneous branches of superficial palma with the external diameter of (0.5±0

  7. Increased muscular and cutaneous pain sensitivity in cephalic region in patients with chronic tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashina, S; Babenko, L; Jensen, R; Ashina, M; Magerl, W; Bendtsen, L

    2005-07-01

    Increased excitability of the central nervous system generated by repetitive and sustained pericranial myofascial nociception may be responsible for transformation of episodic tension-type headache into chronic form. We aimed to compare mechanical and electrical (intramuscular and cutaneous) pain thresholds in trapezius and anterior tibial regions between 20 patients with chronic tension type headache and 20 healthy controls. Pain thresholds to three types of electrical stimulation (single pulse, 2 and 100 Hz) were significantly lower in patients than in controls in trapezius muscle (P tension-type headache than in healthy controls. Increased sensitivity in nociceptive pathways from cephalic region may be of importance in the pathophysiology of chronic tension type headache.

  8. THE EFECTS OF MAGNESIUM NITRATE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CEPHALIC EXTREMITY OF ROSS-308 AVIAN EMBRYOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca TEUȘAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium nitrate, a substance occurring naturally in soil and water, or obtainable through synthesis, is mostly used as a compound in plant fertilizers. If animals ingest food previously treated with large amounts of magnesium nitrate, residues of it may remain in their flesh, then can reach the human body. Epidemiological studies suggest that high levels of nitrates in food and water can cause congenital malformations and spontaneous abortions in humans. The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of magnesium nitrate on the development of chicken embryos, and to observe the changes induced in their cephalic extremity. Egg inoculation with a magnesium nitrate solution of two different concentrations (0.16 and 0.61%, respectively showed that: the higher concentration affected the hatching process (32.64% of the viable embryos, the rest of them dying at 43-45 embryonic stages/HH, while 2.04% of them evidenced severe malformations of the cephalic extremity (abnormally developed jaw and beak, absence of eyelids, growths in the occipital and frontal areas of the skull.

  9. Bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS with two active electrodes of the same polarity modulates bilateral cognitive processes differentially [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Klein

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is an innovative method to explore the causal structure-function relationship of brain areas. We investigated the specificity of bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS with two active electrodes of the same polarity (e.g., cathodal on both hemispheres applied to intraparietal cortices bilaterally using a combined between- and within-task approach. Regarding between-task specificity, we observed that bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS affected a numerical (mental addition but not a control task (colour word Stroop, indicating a specific influence of tDCS on numerical but not on domain general cognitive processes associated with the bilateral IPS. In particular, the numerical effect of distractor distance was more pronounced under cathodal than under anodal stimulation. Moreover, with respect to within-task specificity we only found the numerical distractor distance effect in mental addition to be modulated by direct current stimulation, whereas the effect of target identity was not affected. This implies a differential influence of bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS on the recruitment of different processing components within the same task (number magnitude processing vs. recognition of familiarity. In sum, this first successful application of bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS with two active electrodes of the same polarity in numerical cognition research corroborates the specific proposition of the Triple Code Model that number magnitude information is represented bilaterally in the intraparietal cortices.

  10. Changes in the size of cephalic salivary glands of Apis mellifera and Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera: Apidae queens and workers in different life phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana B. Poiani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The bee species of the Apinae, in addition to the thoracic salivary glands, possess a pair of cephalic glands originating as branches of the excretory duct that crosses the head. These glands are known as cephalic salivary or labial cephalic glands. The degree of development of these glands in newly emerged, nurse and forager workers and virgin and egg-laying queens of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 and Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1807 were evaluated by measuring the secretory alveolar units. The area of the secretory alveoli, measured in total gland preparations, was used to evaluate differences in size. In both species, gland size was found to increase progressively from newly emerged workers to foragers and from virgin to egg-laying queens. A statistical analysis revealed significant differences (p < 0.05 in the area of gland alveoli of workers in different life phases in both species, and between S. postica virgin and egg-laying queens, but not between A. mellifera queens. In the case of workers, this suggests cephalic salivary gland secretion has a function in forager activity and, in queens, a possible pheromonal function.

  11. Wernicke's encephalopathy after cephalic pancreaticoduodenectomy Encefalopatía de Wernicke tras duodenopancreatectomía cefálica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gabriel Onieva-González

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Wernicke's encephalopathy is an acute neurological disorder resulting from thiamine deficiency. We report a case in a young patient who underwent a cephalic duodenopancreatectomy with a bleeding duodenal ulcer refractory to endoscopic and surgical treatment, requiring total parenteral nutrition, without thiamine supplementation.La encefalopatía de Wernicke (EW es un trastorno neurológico agudo resultado del déficit de tiamina. Presentamos la aparición de dicho cuadro en un enfermo joven que es sometido a una duodenopancreatectomía cefálica ante una úlcera duodenal sangrante refractaria a tratamiento endoscópico y quirúrgico previo, precisando de una nutrición parenteral total, sin suplementos de tiamina.

  12. Intranidal worker reactions to volatile compounds identified from cephalic secretions in the stingless bee,Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera, Meliponinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, E; Engels, W; Schröder, W; Francke, W

    1987-02-01

    From pentane extracts of worker heads of the stingless bee (Scaptotrigona postica), 70 volatile compounds were identified by combined gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic analyses. A bioassay was developed to evaluate intranidal reactions of workers to synthetic volatiles. Thirty-six of the cephalic volatiles were tested. Thirteen types of behavioral reactions were recorded in a semiquantitative manner. The test was run in the brood nest where mainly young nurse bees are present and also in the storage area of the nest with old foragers traffic. The results obtained were compared and discussed in order to understand the chemical communication system of this species. Especially in the dark interior of the nest, which in nature is found in hollow tree cavities, chemical messages obviously play a particularly important role in the communication systems of the bees.

  13. The Effects of Clinical Hypnosis versus Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) before External Cephalic Version (ECV): A Prospective Off-Centre Randomised, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Joscha; Peiffer, Swati; Sänger, Nicole; Herrmann, Eva; Yuan, Juping; Louwen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effects of clinical hypnosis versus NLP intervention on the success rate of ECV procedures in comparison to a control group. Methods. A prospective off-centre randomised trial of a clinical hypnosis intervention against NLP of women with a singleton breech fetus at or after 37(0/7) (259 days) weeks of gestation and normal amniotic fluid index. All 80 participants heard a 20-minute recorded intervention via head phones. Main outcome assessed was success rate of ECV. The intervention groups were compared with a control group with standard medical care alone (n = 122). Results. A total of 42 women, who received a hypnosis intervention prior to ECV, had a 40.5% (n = 17), successful ECV, whereas 38 women, who received NLP, had a 44.7% (n = 17) successful ECV (P > 0.05). The control group had similar patient characteristics compared to the intervention groups (P > 0.05). In the control group (n = 122) 27.3% (n = 33) had a statistically significant lower successful ECV procedure than NLP (P = 0.05) and hypnosis and NLP (P = 0.03). Conclusions. These findings suggest that prior clinical hypnosis and NLP have similar success rates of ECV procedures and are both superior to standard medical care alone.

  14. The Effects of Clinical Hypnosis versus Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP before External Cephalic Version (ECV: A Prospective Off-Centre Randomised, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joscha Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the effects of clinical hypnosis versus NLP intervention on the success rate of ECV procedures in comparison to a control group. Methods. A prospective off-centre randomised trial of a clinical hypnosis intervention against NLP of women with a singleton breech fetus at or after 370/7 (259 days weeks of gestation and normal amniotic fluid index. All 80 participants heard a 20-minute recorded intervention via head phones. Main outcome assessed was success rate of ECV. The intervention groups were compared with a control group with standard medical care alone (=122. Results. A total of 42 women, who received a hypnosis intervention prior to ECV, had a 40.5% (=17, successful ECV, whereas 38 women, who received NLP, had a 44.7% (=17 successful ECV (>0.05. The control group had similar patient characteristics compared to the intervention groups (>0.05. In the control group (=122 27.3% (=33 had a statistically significant lower successful ECV procedure than NLP (=0.05 and hypnosis and NLP (=0.03. Conclusions. These findings suggest that prior clinical hypnosis and NLP have similar success rates of ECV procedures and are both superior to standard medical care alone.

  15. Ultrastructural detection of lipids in the cephalic salivary glands of Apis mellifera and Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera: Apidae workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Beani Poiani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Secretory cells of the cephalic salivary glands (CSGs of eusocial bees produce and accumulate lipid-like secretion in the lumens of their alveoli. Correspondingly, secretory cells present typical ultrastructural features of lipid-compound producers. Previous work on bees has revealed inter-specific differences in the chemical composition of secretion, and the production mechanisms and secretory cycle of secretory cells. In this work a comparative analysis of the mechanisms of lipid storage in the CSGs of Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1758 and Scaptotrigona postica (Latreille, 1807 workers was carried out. The ultrastructural location of lipids was ascertained using imidazole-osmium (IO, using individuals in different stages of their life cycles. Lipid deposits were identified inside glandular cells and in the alveolar lumens in all individuals, but differences were observed between the species. The glandular cells of A. mellifera workers presented positive reactions to IO as droplets dispersed in the cytoplasm, as vesicles and in the channels formed by apical plasma membrane infolds. In S. postica , lipid compounds were detected inside the mitochondrial matrix and in smooth endoplasmic reticulum cisterns. In both species, forager workers exhibited the largest amounts of lipids stored in the alveolar lumen. The differences between the species are discussed, taking into account specific behavioral differences.

  16. The External Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  17. Botulinum toxin type A for cephalic cutaneous allodynia in chronic migraine: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Hollanda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cephalic allodynia (CA can be observed in 50-70% of patients with chronic migraine (CM. The aim of this trial was to assess the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (Botx-A in the treatment of CA associated with CM. In this placebo-controlled trial, patients were randomized either into Botx-A or 0.9% saline injections and efficacy measures were assessed every 4 weeks for 3 months. Efficacy endpoints were number of migraine episodes associated with CA, changes from baseline in visual analogical scale scores for pain (VAS and frequency of common analgesics use for migraine. A total of 38 subjects were randomized to saline (n=18 or Botx-A (n=20. There were no significant differences in baseline between active intervention or placebo groups regarding mean age, number of headache episodes [mean 12.1 (9.22 and 17.00 (9.69 respectively; P=0.12], pain severity as measured by the VAS or frequency of analgesic use for headache episodes. Efficacy analysis showed that Botx-A injections led to an important decrease from baseline in the mean migraine episodes associated with CA after 12 weeks (5.20 versus 11.17; P=0.01. Also, VAS scores and frequency of analgesics use for headache were significantly reduced in the Botx-A group. This study suggests that Botx-A injections are superior to saline in the treatment of CA associated with CM, with mild self limited side effects.

  18. Changes in the chemical profile of cephalic salivary glands of Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera, Meliponini) workers are phase related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiani, Silvana B; Morgan, E David; Drijfhout, Falko P; da Cruz-Landim, Carminda

    2015-09-01

    Most advanced eusocial bees recruit their nest mates to food resources. Recent studies in Meliponini species have revealed that the cephalic salivary (labial) glands (CSGs) are responsible for the production of scent trail pheromones. Studies on CSGs have shown that changes occur in worker glandular cell morphology from emergence from brood combs until forager phase, which may be correlated to changes in the composition of the CSG secretion. However, the composition of the CSG secretion and the chemical changes that occur in it according to the worker's life phase or tasks performed are unknown for many species, including Scaptotrigona postica. In this study, the chemical profile of CSG secretion in S. postica workers was studied. Glands were taken from specimens that were newly emerged (NE), working in the brood comb area (CA) and foraging (FO), and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the glandular secretion consists of oxygenated compounds of middle volatility (acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters and ether), and their quantity varies among the different life phases, increasing as the individual moves from intra- to extra-colonial activities. The NE phase contained the smallest variety and quantity of compounds. Because of the variability of compounds, the CA workers were separated into three subgroups according to the chemical constitution of their secretion. Forager workers showed the largest quantity and variety of chemical compounds. The major compounds in forager gland secretion were 7-hexadecen-1-yl acetate and 5-tetradecen-1-yl acetate. Statistical analysis indicates that the chemical composition of glandular secretion is phase related.

  19. 分娩镇痛对头位难产影响的观察%Observation of labor analgesia on cephalic presentation dystocia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe analgesia clinical effect of cephalic presentation diystocia.Methods Our hospital between February 2010 to December 2010,78 patients with cephalic presentation dystocia were randomly divided into two groups,the control group received conventional delivery method,the observation group in the conventional intervention methods give the town childbirth pain were observed maternal childbirth.Results The observation group stage of labor,fetal asphyxia,fetal distress and pain VAS scores were significantly lower than those the control group,the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).Conclusions Cephalic presentation dystocia give labor analgesia can effectively shorten delivery time,reduce maternal pain and improve fetal outcomes,worthy of clinical application.%目的 观察头位难产实施分娩镇痛的临床效果.方法 将深圳市西乡人民医院2010年2月至2010年12月之间收治的78例头位难产产妇随机的分为两组,对照组给予常规的分娩方法,而观察组在常规干预方法给予镇分娩痛,观察两组产妇的分娩情况.结果 观察组产程时间、胎儿窒息率、胎儿窘迫率以及疼痛VAS评分均明显的低于对照组的情况,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 对于头位难产产妇给予分娩镇痛能够有效的缩短分娩时间,降低产妇疼痛,并改善胎儿结局,值得临床中应用.

  20. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory instrume......Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...

  1. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  2. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  3. Morphology of the prosomal endoskeleton of Scorpiones (Arachnida) and a new hypothesis for the evolution of cuticular cephalic endoskeletons in arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Jeffrey W

    2007-03-01

    Skeletomuscular anatomy of the scorpion prosoma is examined in an attempt to explain the evolution of two endoskeletal features, a muscular diaphragm dividing the prosoma and opisthosoma and cuticular epistomal entapophyses with a uniquely complex arrangement of muscles, tendons and ligaments. Both structures appear to be derived from modifications of the mesodermal intersegmental endoskeleton that is primitive for all major arthropod groups. The scorpion diaphragm is a compound structure comprising axial muscles and pericardial ligaments of segments VI to VIII and extrinsic muscles of leg 4 brought into contact by longitudinal reduction of segment VII and integrated into a continuous subvertical sheet. This finding reconciles a long-standing conflict between one interpretation of opisthosomal segmentation based on scorpion embryology and another derived from comparative skeletomuscular anatomy. A new evolutionary-developmental mechanism is proposed to account for the complex morphology of the epistomal entapophyses. Each entapophysis receives 14 muscles and tendons that in other taxa would attach to the anterior connective endoskeleton in the same relative positions. This observation suggests that the embryological precursor to the connective endoskeleton can initiate and guide ectodermal invagination and thereby serve as a spatial template for the development of cuticular apodemes. This mesoderm-template model of ectodermal invagination is potentially applicable to all arthropods and may explain structural diversity and convergence in cephalic apodemes throughout the group. The model is used to interpret the cephalic endoskeletons of two non-chelicerate arthropods, Archaeognatha (Hexapoda) and Symphyla (Myriapoda), to demonstrate the generality of the model.

  4. Abnormalities on cephalic hooklets of advanced third-stage larvae from Gnathostoma Owen, 1836 (Nematoda: Gnathostomidae) collected from Mexican rivulus Millerichthys robustus Costa, 1995 (Ciprinodontiformes: Rivulidae) in Tlacotalpan, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosqueda-Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Ocampo-Jaimes, Angélica

    2009-11-01

    Morphological abnormalities were observed on the cephalic bulb hooklets of advanced third-stage larvae (AdvL(3)) of genus Gnathostoma. The larvae were obtained from the fish "Mexican rivulus" Millerichthys robustus collected from a seasonal pond near Tlacotalpan, Veracruz, Mexico. The abnormalities involved (1) extra rudimentary hooklets, located between the four rows and after the fourth row, (2) branched or lobulated hooklets, and (3) fragmented hooklets not uniformly disposed in rows. The alterations observed on the cephalic bulb hooklets do not represent intraspecific variations, and they may be considered as a potential tool for assessing the presence of pollutants or stressors located within the ecosystem.

  5. Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism. A taxonomic revision and a phylogeny for the species of Rhinocorynura are provided. Six species are recognized: R. briseis, R. crotonis, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae stat. nov., the latter removed from synonymy with R. inflaticeps, in addition to two newly described species, R. brunnea sp. nov. and R. viridis sp. nov. Lectotypes for Halictus crotonis Ducke, 1906 and Halictus inflaticeps Ducke, 1906 are hereby designated. Another available name included in Rhinocorynura, Corynuropsis ashmeadi Schrottky, 1909, is removed from the genus and treated as species inquerenda in Augochlorini. Rhinocorynura is monophyletic in the phylogenetic analysis and the following relationships were found among its species: (R. crotonis (R. briseis ((R. brunnea sp. nov. + R. viridis sp. nov. (R. inflaticeps + R. vernoniae. Biogeographic relationships within the genus and comparisons with related taxa are presented. Females of all species exhibit pronounced variation in body size, in two of them, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae, with structural modifications possibly linked to division of labor. Identification key and illustrations for the species are provided.Filogenia e revisão taxonômica das abelhas do gênero Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, com comentários sobre o poliformismo cefálico das fêmeas. São apresentadas uma revisão taxonômica e filogenia para as espécies de Rhinocorynura. Seis espécies são reconhecidas, duas descritas como novas, R. brunnea sp. nov. e R. viridis sp. nov., e quatro com nomes disponíveis, R. briseis, R. crotonis, R. inflaticeps e R. vernoniae stat. nov., esta última removida da sinonímia com R. inflaticeps. Designam-se aqui lectótipos para Halictus crotonis Ducke, 1906 e Halictus inflaticeps Ducke, 1906. Outro nome disponível incluído em

  6. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  7. Simple in vitro migration assay for neural crest cells and the opposite effects of all-trans-retinoic acid on cephalic- and trunk-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Makoto; Mitsunaga, Katsuyoshi; Irie, Tomohiko; Miyajima, Atsuko; Doi, Osamu

    2014-08-01

    Here, we describe a simple in vitro neural crest cell (NCC) migration assay and the effects of all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) on NCCs. Neural tubes excised from the rhombencephalic or trunk region of day 10.5 rat embryos were cultured for 48 h to allow emigration and migration of NCCs. Migration of NCCs was measured as the change in the radius (radius ratio) calculated from the circular spread of NCCs between 24 and 48 h of culture. RA was added to the culture medium after 24 h at embryotoxic concentrations determined by rat whole embryo culture. RA (10 μM) reduced the migration of cephalic NCCs, whereas it enhanced the migration of trunk NCCs, indicating that RA has opposite effects on these two types of NCCs.

  8. Absorbed doses received by infants subjected to panoramic dental and cephalic radiographs; Dosis absorbida recibida por infantes sometidos a radiografias dentales panoramicas y cefalicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrizales, L.; Carreno, S. [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas. Laboratorio Secundario de Calibracion Dosimetrica. Carretera Panamericana Km. 11. Apartado Postal 21827, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1998-12-31

    The IAEA Report No. 115 recommends that each country or region can establish levels of absorbed doses for each radiographic technique employed in diagnostic. assuming the extended and expensive of this purpose, we have been to begin in a first step with the dentistry area, in order to estimate the dose levels received at crystalline and thyroid level in infants that go to an important public institution in our country to realize panoramic and cephalic radiographs. This work will serve to justify and impel a quality assurance program in Venezuela on the dentistry area which includes aspects such as training for the medical lap referring the justification of the radiological practice, optimization of X-ray units to produce an adequate image quality that delivers to patient an absorbed dose as much lower as reasonably it can be reached without diagnostic detriment. (Author)

  9. 良性头部组织细胞增多症1例%A Case of Benign Cephalic Histiocytosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓川; 曹萍; 吴一菲

    2012-01-01

    A 10-month-old boy has presented with papular and plaques on his head for 7 months and generalized to trunk in 3 months. Histopathological examination showed a large number of histiocytes and lymphocytes infiltration in dermis. Immunohistochemistry revealed CD68( + ) ,LCA( + ) ,S-100( - ) ,CD34( - ) and CD12 scattered positive in epidermis. Diagnosis of benign cephalic histiocytosis was made.%患儿男,10个月,头部丘疹、斑块7个月,泛发全身3个月.皮损组织病理示:真皮层见大量的组织细胞、淋巴细胞浸润.免疫组化示:CD68(+),LCA(+),S-100(-),CD34(-),CD12表皮内散在阳性.符合良性头部组织细胞增多症诊断.

  10. TRH/TRH-R1 receptor signaling in the brain medulla as a pathway of vagally mediated gut responses during the cephalic phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taché, Yvette; Adelson, David; Yang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Pavlov's seminal findings in the early twentieth century showed that the sight, smell or taste of food in dogs with chronic esophagostomy induces a vagal-dependent gastric acid secretion. These observations established the concept of the cephalic phase of digestion. Compelling experimental evidence in rats indicates that the three amino acid peptide thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) expressed in the brainstem plays a key role in the vagal stimulation of gastric function. Neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMN) expressed TRH receptor subtype (TRH-R1) and received efferent input from TRH containing fibers arising from TRH synthesizing neurons in the raphe pallidus, raphe obscurus, and the parapyramidal regions. TRH microinjected into the DMN or intracisternally excites the firing of DMN neurons and stimulates efferent activity in the gastric branch of the vagus nerve and gastric myenteric cholinergic neurons. At the functional level, this results in a vagally-mediated and atropine-sensitive stimulation of gastric epithelial and endocrine cells secreting acid, pepsin, serotonin, histamine and ghrelin, and enteric neurons leading to increased gastric motility and emptying. Importantly, the blockade of TRH or TRH-R1 in the brainstem by pretreatment into the cisterna magna or the DMN with TRH antibody or TRH-R1 oligodeoxynucleotide antisense respectively abolishes the stimulation of gastric acid induced by sham-feeding. The gastric response to TRH injected into the DMN is potentiated by serotonin and the proTRH flanking peptide, Ps4 and suppressed by a number of brainstem peptides and cytokines activated during stress or immune response and inhibiting food intake and gastric acid secretion. These convergent data strongly support a physiological involvement of TRH signaling pathway in the brainstem to stimulate vagal activity and identified TRH-TRH-R1 system as a major effector in the dorsal vagal complex to drive the vagally mediated gut response

  11. Auto-rotação cefálica ativa em pacientes com tontura/ vertigem Active cephalic auto-rotation in patients with dizziness/ vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aída R.M. de Assunção

    Full Text Available Introdução: A auto-rotação cefálica ativa é um teste rápido, de simples realização, não invasivo, que não causa desconforto ao paciente, pode ser realizado com facilidade em crianças e avalia o reflexo vestíbulo-ocular nas freqüências fisiológicas de movimentação da cabeça, utilizadas na vida cotidiana (de 1 a 4 Hz. Forma de estudo: clínico retrospectivo não randomizado. Objetivo: Avaliar pacientes com queixas de tontura/vertigem através da auto-rotação cefálica ativa comparando os sintomas com as alterações encontradas. Material e método: Um grupo de 1281 pacientes com queixa de tontura/vertigem foi submetido ao teste de auto-rotação cefálica ativa horizontal com alvo fixo, como uma etapa da avaliação otoneurológica. Resultados: As idades variaram de três a 93 anos com média de 49,6 anos, sendo 946 (73,8% do sexo feminino e 335 (26,2% do sexo masculino. A queixa de vertigem foi relatada por 896 (69,9% dos pacientes e a tontura por 385 (30,1%. A faixa de freqüência de resposta à prova de auto-rotação cefálica variou de 1,5 a 7,5Hz com média de 3,5Hz. A prova de auto-rotação cefálica ativa foi normal em 937 (73,1% e alterada em 344 (26,9% dos pacientes. As alterações mais freqüentes foram as relacionadas ao ganho (aumento, redução isoladas ou associadas a alterações de fase e simetria, em 241 (19% pacientes. O aumento do ganho isolado foi verificado em 92 pacientes (7,2%. Conclusão: Não houve relação entre as alterações na prova de auto-rotação cefálica ativa horizontal e as queixas de tontura e vertigem.Introduction: Active cephalic auto-rotation is a rapid, easy, painless and comfort test, that can be done in children and evaluate the vestibulo-ocular reflex in the physiologic frequencies of head, used in the every day life (from one to four hertz. Study design: clinical retrospective not randomized. Aim: Evaluate patients with complaints of dizziness/vertigo through the active

  12. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke;

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The quality of the current literature on external validity varies considerably. An improved checklist with validated items on external validity would aid decision-makers in judging similarities among circumstances when transferring evidence from a study setting...... to an implementation setting. In this paper, currently available checklists on external validity are identified, assessed and used as a basis for proposing a new improved instrument. METHOD: A systematic literature review was carried out in Pubmed, Embase and Cinahl on English-language papers without time restrictions....... The retrieved checklist items were assessed for (i) the methodology used in primary literature, justifying inclusion of each item; and (ii) the number of times each item appeared in checklists. RESULTS: Fifteen papers were identified, presenting a total of 21 checklists for external validity, yielding a total...

  13. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Esophageal Cancer Treatment Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Why is ... Radiation Oncology) Breast Cancer Treatment Esophageal Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Images related to External Beam Therapy (EBT) Sponsored ...

  14. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... otitis. Fungal external otitis (otomycosis), typically caused by Aspergillus niger or Candida albicans, is less common. Boils are ... of fullness in the ear. Otomycosis caused by Aspergillus niger usually causes grayish black or yellow dots (called ...

  15. Sen cycles and externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Piggins, Ashley; Salerno, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    It has long been understood that externalities of some kind are responsible for Sen’s (1970) theorem on the impossibility of a Paretian liberal. However, Saari and Petron (2006) show that for any social preference cycle generated by combining the weak Pareto principle and individual decisiveness, every decisive individual must suffer at least one strong negative externality. We show that this fundamental result only holds when individual preferences are strict. Building on their contribution,...

  16. Migration with fiscal externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1991-11-01

    "This paper analyses the distribution of a country's population among regions when migration involves fiscal externalities. The main question addressed is whether a decentralized decision making [by] regional governments can produce an optimal population distribution...or a centralized intervention is indispensable, as argued before in the literature.... It turns out that, while with costless mobility the fiscal externality is fully internalized by voluntary interregional transfers, with costly mobility, centrally coordinated transfers still remain indispensable for achieving the socially optimal allocation."

  17. The supratemporal system and the pattern of ramification of cephalic sensory canals in Denticeps clupeoides (Denticipitoidei, Teleostei: additional evidence for monophyly of Clupeiformes and Clupeoidei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Di Dario

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The cephalic portions of the latero-sensory canal system in Denticeps clupeoides are described and analyzed. The species, a small herring-like fish from relictual West African streams, is the most primitive living clupeomorph and sole Recent representative of suborder Denticipitoidei. As sister group to over 360 species in Clupeoidei, Denticeps is a key taxon in understanding clupeomorph and lower teleostean relationships. Observations on recently-collected specimens of Denticeps clupeoides revealed comparatively-important and previously-unrecorded details of the cephalic latero-sensory canals which are relevant for understanding relationships at different levels in clupeomorph phylogeny. The infraorbital, supraorbital, preopercular, extrascapular and post-temporal canals of Denticeps have unbranched tubules in soft tissue, as in the hypothesized plesiomorphic condition for lower teleosts. Contrastingly, the presence of a complex network formed by a high order of branching of cephalic canals is hypothesized as a synapomorphy of the Clupeoidei. Denticeps and the Clupeoidei share an exclusive sensory branch that originates at the junction between the extrascapular bone and the recessus lateralis, here hypothesized as an additional synapomorphy of Clupeiformes. A supratemporal system is newly recorded in Denticeps, and the character is proposed as a synapomorphy of Clupeiformes, and not of Clupeoidei as previously thought. The hypothesis that the supratemporal system is homologous to the supraorbital cavern is refuted, and the latter is corroborated as an autapomorphy of Denticeps. Another autapomorphy of Denticeps (or Denticipitoidei is the presence of the postorbital bulla, a hitherto unrecorded specialization of the infraorbital canal associated with infraorbitals 4 and 5. Homologies of other tubules of the cephalic sensory canals in Denticeps are also discussed, with emphasis on their bearing on the recognition of homologies of infraorbital

  18. Environmental external effects from wind power based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  19. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  20. Externality or sustainability economics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den [ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Economics and Economic History and Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  1. Productivity Change and Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    firms and the economy as a whole. The approach used in the current research accounts for different internal as well as external factors that individual firms face and evaluates the effect on changes in productivity, technology as well as the efficiency of domestic firms. The empirical analysis focuses...... change in different types of firms and sectors of the economy...

  2. Stochastic Control - External Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2005-01-01

    This note is devoted to control of stochastic systems described in discrete time. We are concerned with external descriptions or transfer function model, where we have a dynamic model for the input output relation only (i.e.. no direct internal information). The methods are based on LTI systems...

  3. Cystein-serine-rich nuclear protein 1, Axud1/Csrnp1, is essential for cephalic neural progenitor proliferation and survival in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijóo, Carmen G; Sarrazin, Andres F; Allende, Miguel L; Glavic, Alvaro

    2009-08-01

    The CSRNP (cystein-serine-rich nuclear protein) family has been conserved from Drosophila to human. Although knockout mice for each of the mammalian proteins have been generated, their function during vertebrate development has remained elusive. As an alternative to obtain insights on CSRNP's role in development, we have analysed the expression pattern and function of one member of this family, axud1, during zebrafish development. Our expression analysis indicates that axud1 is expressed from cleavage to larval stages in a dynamic pattern, becoming restricted after gastrulation to anterior regions of the developing neuraxis and later on concentrated predominantly in proliferating domains of the brain. Knockdown analysis using antisense morpholinos shows that reducing Axud1 levels impairs neural progenitor cell proliferation and survival, revealing an essential function of this gene for the growth of cephalic derivatives. The brain growth phenotypes elicited by decreasing Axud1 expression are specific and independent of anterior-posterior patterning events, initial establishment of neural progenitors, or neural differentiation occurring in this tissue. However, Axud1 is necessary for six3.1 expression and is positively regulated by sonic hedgehog. Phylogenetic examination shows that axud1 is likely to be the ortholog of the only member of this family present in Drosophila, as well as to the previously described mouse CSRNP1 and to human AXUD1 (Axin upregulated-1). Thus, we provide evidence as to the role of axud1 in brain growth in vertebrates.

  4. Caudal polymorphism and cephalic morphology among first-stage larvae of Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei (Protostrongylidae: Elaphostrongylinae) in Dall's sheep from the Mackenzie Mountains, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, Eric P; Jenkins, Emily J; Rosenthal, Benjamin; Wong, Mayee; Erbe, Eric F; Kutz, Susan J; Polley, Lydden

    2005-12-01

    We demonstrate polymorphism in the structure of the tail among first-stage larvae of Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei (Protostrongylidae). Two distinct larvae, both with a characteristic dorsal spine, include (1) a morphotype with a kinked conical tail marked by 3 distinct transverse folds or joints and a symmetrical terminal tail spike and (2) a morphotype with a digitate terminal region lacking folds or joints and with an asymmetrical, subterminal tail spike. These divergent larval forms had been postulated as perhaps representing distinct species of elaphostrongyline nematodes. Application of a multilocus approach using ITS-2 sequences from the nuclear genome and COX-II sequences from the mitochondrial genome confirmed the identity of these larvae as P. odocoilei. Additionally, based on scanning electron microscopy (low-temperature field emission), the cephalic region of these larvae consisted of a cuticular triradiate stoma surrounded by 6 single circumoral papillae of the inner circle, 10 papillae of the outer circle (4 paired and 2 single), and 2 lateral amphids. Our's is the first demonstration of structural polymorphism among larval conspecifics in the Metastrongyloidea and Strongylida. The basis for this polymorphism remains undetermined, but such phenomena, if discovered to be more widespread, may contribute to continued confusion in discriminating among first-stage larvae for species, genera, and subfamilies within Protostrongylidae.

  5. External-Memory Multimaps

    CERN Document Server

    Angelino, Elaine; Mitzenmacher, Michael; Thaler, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Many data structures support dictionaries, also known as maps or associative arrays, which store and manage a set of key-value pairs. A \\emph{multimap} is generalization that allows multiple values to be associated with the same key. For example, the inverted file data structure that is used prevalently in the infrastructure supporting search engines is a type of multimap, where words are used as keys and document pointers are used as values. We study the multimap abstract data type and how it can be implemented efficiently online in external memory frameworks, with constant expected I/O performance. The key technique used to achieve our results is a combination of cuckoo hashing using buckets that hold multiple items with a multiqueue implementation to cope with varying numbers of values per key. Our external-memory results are for the standard two-level memory model.

  6. 头静脉周围血管营养皮瓣修复皮肤缺损45例%Repairing skin and soft tissue defect in 45 cases by vasculotrophic flaps around cephalic vein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宣生; 周巨良; 应素兰; 石小龙; 王振翼; 李庆泰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical effect of treating skin defect with vasculotrophic flaps around cephalic veins. Methods We used 45 vasculotrophic flaps around cephalic veins to treat 45 patients with skin defect, from February 2008 to March 2012. The follow-up time was 6 months to 1 year, 10 months on average. Based on the surgical methods, the surgical flaps were divided into two classes, one was antegrade flap, with the flap at the distal end of the pedicle. And the other was retrograde flap, with the flap at the proximal of the pedicle. Type I of the second class:reflux vein could be found inside the wound surface, and the cephalic vein inside the flap was anastomosed with the reflux vein inside the wound surface. Type II of the second class: reflux vein could not be found inside the wound surface, and the cephalic vein inside the flap tissues was ligated. Flaps were cut from deep fascial layer, the pedicle width has cephalic vein as the center, not less than 3.0 cm, and the flap length-to-width ratio should not be greater than 5:1. The pedicle of free flap has a strip of skin for reducing tension during suturing. The superficial cutaneous nerves should be kept when cutting the skin flaps. Results Through the method of vasculotrophic flaps around cephalic veins, 45 flaps all survived. As the cutaneous nerve was kept when cutting the flaps, the sensory function of the body was good. Conclusion The cephalic veins exist inside the fascia tissues, and have more concentrated arteries around to supply blood, which provide nutrition to cephalic veins and peripheral tissues. Various vasculotrophic flaps around cephalic veins could be designed by utilizing these tissues for blood supply. As the skin flaps only contain cephalic veins and don't injure nerves and arteries, the damage to the limb is small and higher survival rate, so it has broad application prospects.%目的:探讨头静脉周围血管营养皮瓣修复皮肤缺损的临床疗效。方法对2008年2

  7. Cephalic phase responses and appetite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Erkner, A.; Graaf, de C.

    2010-01-01

    The current food supply in many parts of the world differs substantially from that which existed during most of human evolution. It is characterized by a high variety of palatable foods with high energy density and low fiber content. Many foods can be eaten very quickly, and there is not always cong

  8. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summaris...... how the methodology has been applied so far in a previous Danish study. Finally, results of a case study are reported. Exposure factors have been calculated for various urban categories in the Greater Copenhagen Area...

  9. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  10. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages...

  11. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs.

  12. External fuel thermionic reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Peelgren, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    Thermionic reactors are prime candidates for nuclear electric propulsion. The national thermionic reactor effort is concentrated on the flashlight concept with the external-fuel concept as the backup. The external-fuel concept is very adaptable to a completely modular power subsystem which is attractive for highly reliable long-life applications. The 20- to 25-cm long, externally-fueled converters have been designed, fabricated, and successfully tested with many thermal cycles by electrical heating. However, difficulties have been encountered during encapsulation for nuclear heated tests and none have been started to date. These nuclear tests are required to demonstrate the concept feasibility.

  13. Combination of external loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, S.; Tarp Johansen, N.J.; Joergensen, H. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Gravesen, H.; Soerensen, S.L. [Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark); Pedersen, J. [Elsam Engineering, Fredericia (Denmark); Zorn, R.; Hvidberg Knudsen, M. [DHI Water and Environment, Hoersholm (Denmark); Voelund, P. [Energi E2, Koebenhavn (Denmark)

    2003-09-01

    The project onbectives have been: To improve and consequently opimise the basis for design of offshore wind turbines. This is done through 1) mapping the wind, wave ice and current as well as correlations of these, and 2) by clarifyring how these external conditions transform into loads. A comprehensive effort has been made to get a thorough understanding of the uncertainties that govern the reliability of wind turbines with respect to wind and wave loading. One of the conclusions is that the reliability of wind turbines is generally lower, than the average reliability of building structures that are subject not only to environmental loads, which are very uncertain, but also imposed loads and self weight, which are less uncertain than the environmental loads. The implication is that, at the moment lower load partial safety factors for onshore wind turbines cannot be recommended. For the combination of wind and wave design loads the problem is twofold: 1). A very conservative design will be generated by simply adding the individual wind and wave design loads disregarding the independence of the short-term fluctuations of wind and wave loads. 2). Characteristic values and partial safety factors for wind and wave loads are not defined similarly. This implies that the reliability levels of turbine support structures subject to purely aerodynamic loads and subject to purely hydrodynamic loads are not identical. For the problem of combining aerodynamic design loads and hydrodynamic design loads two results have been obtained in the project: 1). By simple means a site specific wave load safety factor rendering the same safety level for hydrodynamic loads as for aerodynamic loads is derived, and next, by direct square summation of extreme fluctuations, the wind and wave load safety factors are weighted. 2). Under the assumptions that a deep water site is considered and that the wave loading is a fifty-fifty mix of drag and inertia the same wind and wave load safety factor

  14. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P. [eds.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs.

  15. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    as a market mechanism that can be brought inside the firm to provide incentives for continuous improvement and the development of competitive advances. However, whereas extant research primarily has focused on the importance and effects of using external benchmarks, less attention has been directed towards...... towards the conditions for the use of the external benchmarks we provide more insights to some of the issues and challenges that are related to using this mechanism for performance management and advance competitiveness in organizations....

  16. Externality and burnout among dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Yves, A; Freeston, M H; Godbout, F; Poulin, L; St-Amand, C; Verret, M

    1989-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and locus of control as measured by the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Locus of Control (ANS-IE) for 82 dentists. Significant Pearson correlations between two Maslach subscales and locus of control show Personal Accomplishment to be negatively associated -.31 and Emotional Exhaustion to be positively correlated .21 to externality.

  17. Relatie interne en externe audit

    OpenAIRE

    Ghys, Emelie

    2011-01-01

    In het eerste hoofdstuk wordt de probleemstelling van deze eindverhandeling besproken. Interne en externe audit worden de laatste jaren internationaal en nationaal meer en meer erkend in het bedrijfsleven. Aanleiding voor de toenemende belangstelling van de interne en externe auditfunctie zijn de verschillende boekhoudschandalen rond corporate governance of deugdelijk bestuur. Deze financiële mislukkingen leidden wereldwijd tot diverse wetten, nieuwe regels en verbeterde standaarden om zo een...

  18. External Costs Related to Power Production Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  19. A retrospective analysis of 52 cases with cephalic presentation dystocia of painless labor%无痛分娩发生头位难产病例的回顾性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾丽芳; 黄鹰; 苏平平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the incidence and causes of cephalic presentation dystocia of painless labor. Methods 506 cases of painless labor ( observation group ) in Pudong New Area Maternity & Child Health Hospital in 2009 were retrospectively analyzed, and contemporary 506 cases of vaginal deliver ( control group ) were randomly selected as the controls. The incidence of cephalic presentation dystocia, indication of cesarean section, neonatal birth weight and the influence on mother and infant were compared between two groups.Results The incidence of cephalic presentation dystocia in observation group ( 10.28%, 52/506 ) was lower than that in control group ( 22.13%, 112/506 ). Abnormal fetal position was the major cause of cesarean section in two groups. The difference in cesarean section because of protracted active phase and social factors between two groups was statistically significant (x2 was 6. 413 and 4. 772 respectively,P < 0. 05 ). There was no significant difference in neonatal birth weight, postpartum hemorrhage within 2 hours and Apgar score.Conclusion Painless labor can reduce the incidence of cesarean sections because of protracted active phase and social factors, and it does not increase the probability of cephalic presentation dystocia. In addition, it has no harmful effect on mother and infant. Painless labor is worth popularizing.%目的 分析无痛分娩发生头位难产的比率及原因.方法 回顾性分析2009年上海市浦东新区妇幼保健院506例无痛分娩病例,并随机抽取同期非无痛分娩阴道试产506例作为对照,分析两组头位难产的发生率、剖宫产指征、新生儿体重及对母儿的影响.结果 观察组发生头位难产占10.28%(52/506),低于对照组的22.13%(112/506);胎位异常是两组行剖宫产的主要指征,两组因活跃期停滞和社会因素导致的剖宫产比较差异有统计学意义(χ2值分别为6.413、4.772,均P0.05).结论 无痛分娩可减少因社会因素及活

  20. Morfología cefálica en fetos bovinos. Un estudio en la raza “Bruna dels pirineus” - Cephalic morphology in bovine fetuses. A study in the race “Bruna dels pirineus”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere-Miquel Parés i Casanova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenA partir del estudio de treinta fetos bovinos de la raza bovina “Brunadels Pirineus” se obtuvieron diez medidas lineales y cuatro índicescefálicos con el objetivo de describir la conformación cefálica durante el desarrollo fetal. En el estudio se refleja claramente que son los índices relacionados con el víscerocráneo las variables más discriminantes, siendo además los índices las variables que no presentaban ninguna correlación significativa con la edad estimada.SummaryThirty heads of fetus belonging to “Bruna dels Pirineus” bovine breedwere studied. Ten lineal measurements and four indexes were obtainedin order to describe the cephalic conformation during fetal growth.Indexes related with viscerocranium appear as the most discriminantones and were no related with estimated fetus age.

  1. Therapy of Acupressure Pointer before Intravenous Infusion in Cephalic Vein Applied Nursing Research%穴位指针疗法在头静脉输液前应用的护理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋应玲; 刘倩; 冯珏; 肖艳平; 郭庆; 乔艾春; 邓玲华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cephalic vein puncture on hand in three acupressure pointer therapy intervention on the comfortable degree of infusion nursing. Methods In 2010 March to 2012 March in hospitalized patients with standard 160 patients according to the time of admission, were randomLy divided into experimental group and control group, 80 cases in each group. The control group in the"new"basis of nursing science"for the standard, using conventional intravenous infusion method. In experimental group received puncture side hand in three acupressure pointer therapy after routine intravenous infusion, observe two groups of patients in the cephalic vein puncture disposable puncture success rate, pain response and transfusion puncture nursing satisfaction were compared. Results The patients in the experimental group received acupuncture needle therapy, cephalic vein puncture success rate of puncture, disposable transfusion puncture pain reaction and nursing satisfaction compared with the control group had statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion The cephalic vein puncture on hand in three acupressure pointer therapy intervention, can significantly reduce the puncture pain, so that patients can cooperate smoothly infusion operation, improve the success rate of puncture and intravenous transfusion of patients satisfaction.%  目的探讨头静脉穿刺前行手三里穴位指针疗法干预对输液护理舒适度的影响.方法将2010年3月至2012年3月住院患者中符合标准的160例患者按照入院时间,随机分成实验组和对照组,每组80例.对照组以《新编护理学基础》为标准,采用常规静脉输液法.实验组在接受穿刺侧手三里穴位指针疗法后按常规静脉输液法,观察两组患者在头静脉穿刺的一次性穿刺成功率、疼痛反应及输液穿刺满意度等进行比较.结果实验组患者在接受穴位指针疗法后,头静脉穿刺的一次性穿刺成功率、疼痛反应及

  2. Parallel External Memory Graph Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study parallel I/O efficient graph algorithms in the Parallel External Memory (PEM) model, one o f the private-cache chip multiprocessor (CMP) models. We study the fundamental problem of list ranking which leads to efficient solutions to problems on trees, such as computing lowest...

  3. Matchings with Externalities and Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal;

    2013-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real-life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...

  4. [Treatment by external insulin pump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Sylvaine

    2010-12-01

    Since the recent recommendations by the French speaking association for research on diabetes and metabolic illnesses (Alfediam), treatment by insulin pump has found itself in competition with basal-bolus, a procedure using similar injections of insulin which has become a benchmark treatment. The latest Alfediam guidelines focus on defining ways of treating diabetics with an external insulin pump.

  5. Femoral Reconstruction Using External Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Palatnik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of an external fixator for the purpose of distraction osteogenesis has been applied to a wide range of orthopedic problems caused by such diverse etiologies as congenital disease, metabolic conditions, infections, traumatic injuries, and congenital short stature. The purpose of this study was to analyze our experience of utilizing this method in patients undergoing a variety of orthopedic procedures of the femur. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed our experience of using external fixation for femoral reconstruction. Three subgroups were defined based on the primary reconstruction goal lengthening, deformity correction, and repair of nonunion/bone defect. Factors such as leg length discrepancy (LLD, limb alignment, and external fixation time and complications were evaluated for the entire group and the 3 subgroups. Results. There was substantial improvement in the overall LLD, femoral length discrepancy, and limb alignment as measured by mechanical axis deviation (MAD and lateral distal femoral angle (LDFA for the entire group as well as the subgroups. Conclusions. The Ilizarov external fixator allows for decreased surgical exposure and preservation of blood supply to bone, avoidance of bone grafting and internal fixation, and simultaneous lengthening and deformity correction, making it a very useful technique for femoral reconstruction.

  6. Conceptual challenges for internalising externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miguel, Brandão; Weidema, Bo Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii) The relev...

  7. Organizing for External Knowledge Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbiosi, Larissa; Reichstein, Toke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to the special issue. We briefly consider the external knowledge sourcing and organizing for innovation literatures, which offer a background for the special issue, and we highlight their mutual dialogue. We then illustrate the main findings...

  8. Optimal Auctions with Financial Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maasland, E.; Onderstal, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    We construct optimal auctions when bidders face financial externalities.In a Coasean World, in which the seller cannot prevent a perfect resale market, nor withhold the object, the lowest-price all-pay auction is optimal.In a Myersonean World, in which the seller can both prevent resale after the au

  9. Lupus vulgaris of external nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B Usha

    2008-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  10. Defensive externality and blame projection following failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochreich, D J

    1975-09-01

    This study focuses upon the relationship between internal-external control and defensive blame projection. Trust was used as a moderator variable for making differential predictions concerning the behavior of two subgroups of externals: defensive externals, whose externality is presumed to reflect primarily a verbal technique of defense, and congruent externals, whose externality reflects a more genuine belief that most outcomes are determined by forces beyond their personal control. As predicted, defensive externals showed a stronger tendency than did congruent externals and internals to resort to blame projection following failure at an achievement task. There were no group differences in attribution following task success. Defensive externals were found to be more responsive to negative feedback than were congruent externals.

  11. Cephalic measures in normal pre-school children 3 to 7-years of age Medidas cranianas em crianças pré-escolares normais de 3 a 7 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Diament

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available In a study designed to determine standards for the Developmental Neurological Examination (DNE several measures of the head were also recorded. The study consisted in the examination of 200 children, half from each sex, 40 from each age group (3 to 7-years of age. These children were selected among 755 normal pre-school-age children, living in the city of São Paulo (Brazil. The criteria for selection were both anamnestic and clinic. The following measures of the head were recorded: cephalic perimeter, biauricular and antero-posterior distances (Diament, 1967. A new cephalic index (nCI was also determined (Diament, 1968. This index is useful in detecting changes in head shape mainly in cases of precocious cranioestenosis (Diament, 1968; Facure, 1972. The statistical analysis consisted in determining means and standard errors for each measure. For the new cephalic index it was shown through the Kruskal-Wallis test that there were no significant difference between age and sex. Therefore we considered all groups together to find out the tolerance region for the new index which turned out to be given by the interval: 0.848-1.002. This result is based in 186 cases since 14 were excluded because of some problems in the recording process. Therefore we expect with a confidence of 95% that the above interval covers 90% of the population, in the 3 to 7 years age-groups independently of sex.As medidas da cabeça — perímetro craniano e distâncias bi-auricular e ântero-posterior — foram estudadas em 200 crianças, metade de cada sexo, 40 para cada grupo etário de pré-escolares normais de 3 a 7 anos de idade. A análise estatística consistiu em se determinar médias, desvios-padrões e limites de tolerância (LT para cada medida. Utilisando as duas distâncias (BA e AP determinou-se um índice Cefálico novo (ICn, para o qual tam- bém se calculou médias, desvios-padrões e LT para cada idade e sexo. Pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis verificou-se n

  12. Dipolar fluids under external perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapp, Sabine H L [Stranski-Laboratorium fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie Sekretariat TC7, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 124, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2005-04-20

    We discuss recent developments and present new findings on the structural and phase properties of dipolar model fluids influenced by various external perturbations. We concentrate on systems of spherical particles with permanent (point) dipole moments. Starting from what is known about the three-dimensional systems, particular emphasis is given to dipolar fluids in different confining situations involving both simple and complex (disordered) pore geometries. Further topics concern the effect of quenched positional disorder, the influence of external (electric or magnetic) fields, and the fluid-fluid phase behaviour of various dipolar mixtures. It is demonstrated that due to the translational-orientational coupling and due to the long range of dipolar interactions even simple perturbations such as hard walls can have a profound impact on the systems. (topical review)

  13. Firm Search for External Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The innovation performance of modern firms is increasingly determined by their ability to search and absorb external knowledge. However, after a certain threshold firms "oversearch" their environment and innovation performance declines. In this paper, we argue that prior literature has largely...... ignored the institutional context that provides or denies access to external knowledge at the country level. Combining institutional and knowledge search theory, we suggest that the market orientation of the institutional environment and the magnitude of institutional change influence when firms begin...... to experience the negative performance effects of oversearch. Based on a comprehensive sample of almost 8,000 firms from ten European countries, we find that institutions matter considerably for firms' search activity. Higher market orientation of institutions increases the effectiveness of firms' search...

  14. External observer reflections on QBism

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    In this short review I present my personal reflections on QBism. I have no intrinsic sympathy neither to QBism nor to subjective interpretation of probability in general. However, I have been following development of QBism from its very beginning, observing its evolution and success, sometimes with big surprise. Therefore my reflections on QBism can be treated as "external observer" reflections. I hope that my representation of this interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) has some degree of objectivity. It may be useful for researchers who are interested in quantum foundations, but do not belong to the QBism-community, because I tried to analyze essentials of QBism critically (i.e., not just emphasizing its advantages, as in a typical publication of QBists). QBists may be interested as well - in comments of an external observer who monitored development of this approach to QM during last 16 years. The second part of the paper is devoted to interpretations of probability, objective versus subjective, and view...

  15. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  16. Matching Games with Additive Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2012-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas......, optimistic, and pessimistic behaviour, and provide both computational hardness results and polynomial-time algorithms for computing stable outcomes....

  17. Externe Kosten in der Energiewirtschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Voß, Alfred; Friedrich, Rainer

    1994-01-01

    Als externe Effekte werden unbeteiligte Dritte betreffende Zusatzkosten oder Zusatznutzen verstanden, die sich in den jeweiligen Güterpreisen nicht wiederfinden und denen die Betroffenen nicht indifferent gegenüberstehen. Die gegenwärtige Energiebereitstellung und -nutzung ist in vielen Bereichen eine wesentliche Quelle der Belastung von Umwelt und Natur. Begriffe und Schlagworte wie Waldsterben, Tankerunglücke, Tschernobyl und Treibhauseffekt seien in diesem Zusammenhang erwähnt.

  18. ENDOSCOPIC DCR VERSUS EXTERNAL DCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare success rates of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR and external DCR for acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective comparative non randomized study of 64 patients who presented with acquired NLD obstruction to a tertiary hospital. They were fully evaluated to ascertain the site of obstruction and patients with distal obstruction were included in the study. 34 patients underwent endoscopic DCR and 30 patients underwent external DCR RESULTS: 64 patients were included in the study and 72 procedures carried out. Success was achieved in 65 cases and failure in 7. Of the 7 failed cases, anatomical obstruction at the fistula site was found in 3, whereas functional failure was found in 4. In our patients, endoscopic DCR had a significantly higher success rate than external DCR, 95.23% versus 83.33% (P = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: The success rate of Endoscopic DCR for acquired NLDO in our group of patients was 95.23%, with endoscopic surgery showing better results.

  19. Individuals' insight into intrapersonal externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Stillwell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An intrapersonal externality exists when an individual's decisions affect the outcomes of her future decisions. It can result in decreasing or increasing average returns to the rate of consumption, as occurs in addiction or exercise. Experimentation using the Harvard Game, which models intrapersonal externalities, has found differences in decision making between drug users and control subjects, leading to the argument that these externalities influence the course of illicit drug use. Nevertheless, it is unclear how participants who behave optimally conceptualise the problem. We report two experiments using a simplified Harvard Game, which tested the differences in contingency knowledge between participants who chose optimally and participants who did not. Those who demonstrated optimal performance exhibited both a pattern of correct responses and systematic errors to questions about the payoff schedules. The pattern suggested that they learned explicit knowledge of the change in reinforcement on a trail-by-trial basis. They did not have, or need, a full knowledge of the historical interaction leading to each payoff. We also found no evidence of choice differences between participants who were given a guaranteed payment and participants who were paid contingent on their performance, but those given a guaranteed payment were able to report more contingency knowledge as the experiment progressed, suggesting that they explored more rather than settling into a routine. Experiment 2 showed that using a fixed inter-trial interval did not change the results.

  20. "降落伞式"缝合技术在鼻烟窝动静脉内瘘中的应用%The application of parachute-style running suture for radio-cephalic fistulae in anatomical snuff-box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周忠信; 刘正军

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨"降落伞式"连续缝合技术(PSRS)在鼻烟窝桡动脉-头静脉内瘘(RCF)中的应用.方法 回顾性分析42例尿毒症患者PSRS行鼻烟窝RCF的资料.结果 左鼻烟窝造瘘36例,右鼻烟窝造瘘6例,手术时间45~120 min,出血5~30 mL.所有患者术后扪及震颤,39例术后5~6周经内瘘行透析,3例术后6周内瘘血流量低于220 mL/min,均为女性,其中2例为糖尿病肾病患者,1例为高血压肾病患者.结论 鼻烟窝内采用PSRS行RCF可确保吻合口的质量,大大降低吻合的难度,提高造瘘成功率.%Objective To explore the application of parachute-style running suture( PSRS ) during end-to-side anastomosis for radio-cephalic fistulae( RCF ) in anatomical snuff-box. Methods There were 42 cases of uremia who admitted the procedures of RCF with end-to-side anastomosis in anatomical snuff-box, and whose data were analyzed retrospectively. Results There were 36 cases who had RCF in left anatomical snuff-box, and 6 cases in right anatomical snuff-box. The operating time was 45120 minutes, and the bleeding volume was 530 mL. All patients were palpated tremor along cephalic veins after operation. 39 cases had routine dialysis from RCF 6 weeks after operations, and 3 cases whose RCF was dysfunctional, among whom 2 cases had diabetic nephropathy and 1 had hypertensive nephropathy. Conclusion It is favorable to have RCF in anatomical snuff-box with PSRS, which can decrease difficulty of anastomosis and improve the success of RCF.

  1. Osteology and myology of the cephalic region and pectoral girdle of Pimelodus blochii, comparison with other pimelodines, and comments on the synapomorphies and phylogenetic relationships of the Pimelodinae (Ostariophysi: Siluriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui

    2005-07-01

    The cephalic and pectoral girdle structures of the pimelodin Pimelodus blochii (Pimelodus group) are described and compared to those of representatives of the two other main pimelodin groups, namely Calophysus macropterus (Calophysus group) and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Sorubim group), and of a representative of the peculiar pimelodin genus Hypophthalmus, H. edentatus, and several other catfishes, as the foundation for a discussion on the synapomorphies and phylogenetic relationships of the Pimelodinae. Three new, additional potential synapomorphies to support the monophyly of the Pimelodinae are pointed out: (1) presence of a 'muscle 1 of the mandibular barbels' running from the antero-ventro-mesial surface of the cartilaginous plates carrying these barbels to the dentaries; (2) presence of a muscle tensor tripodis running from the posterior surface of the neurocranium to the dorsal surface of the swimbladder near the tripus; and (3) presence of a 'drumming muscle of the swimbladder' running from the parapophyses of the fourth vertebra and, eventually, the posterior surface of the neurocranium, to the antero and antero-ventral surface of the swimbladder. The subfamilies Pimelodinae, Heptapterinae and Pseudopimelodinae seem to constitute a monophyletic assemblage, thus contradicting the commonly accepted idea that the family Pimelodidae is a polyphyletic clade.

  2. Leveraging External Sources of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    own specific set of mechanisms and conditions. Integrating innovations has been mostly studied from an absorptive capacity perspective, with less attention given to the impact of competencies and culture (including “not invented here”). Commercializing innovations puts the most emphasis on how......” in a way inconsistent with earlier definitions in innovation management. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research that include examining the end-to-end innovation commercialization process, and studying the moderators and limits of leveraging external sources of innovation....

  3. Skepticism, Contextualism, Externalism and Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wilburn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I argue for the following claims. Contextualist strategies to tame or localize epistemic skepticism are hopeless if contextualist factors are construed internalistically. However, because efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis court circularity, it is only on an internalistic interpretation that contextualist strategies can even be motivated. While these claims do not give us an argument for skepticism, they do give us an argument that contextualism, as such, is not likely to provide us with an argument against skepticism.

  4. Quantum electrodynamics on background external fields

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics in presence of background external fields is developed. Modern methods of local quantum physics allow to formulate the theory on arbitrarily strong possibly time-dependent external fields. Non-linear observables which depend only locally on the external field are constructed. The tools necessary for this formulation, the parametrices of the Dirac operator, are investigated.

  5. Quantum Electrodynamics on background external fields

    CERN Document Server

    Marecki, P

    2003-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics in presence of background external fields is developed. Modern methods of local quantum physics allow to formulate the theory on arbitrarily strong possibly time-dependent external fields. Non-linear observables which depend only locally on the external field are constructed. The tools necessary for this formulation, the parametrices of the Dirac operator, are investigated.

  6. Externally Wetted Ionic Liquid Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, P.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Lopez-Urdiales, J. M.

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents initial developments of an electric propulsion system based on ionic liquid ion sources (ILIS). Propellants are ionic liquids, which are organic salts with two important characteristics; they remain in the liquid state at room temperature and have negligible vapor pressure, thus allowing their use in vacuum. The working principles of ILIS are similar to those of liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), in which a Taylor cone is electrostatically formed at the tip of an externally wetted needle while ions are emitted directly from its apex. ILIS have the advantage of being able to produce negative ions that have similar masses than their positive counterparts with similar current levels. This opens up the possibility of achieving plume electrical neutrality without electron emitters. The possible multiplexing of these emitters is discussed in terms of achievable thrust density for applications other than micro-propulsion.

  7. External symmetry in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Cotaescu, I I

    2000-01-01

    We propose a generalization of the isometry transformations to the geometric context of the field theories with spin where the local frames are explicitly involved. We define the external symmetry transformations as isometries combined with suitable tetrad gauge transformations and we show that these form a group which is locally isomorphic with the isometry one. We point out that the symmetry transformations that leave invariant the equations of the fields with spin have generators with specific spin terms which represent new physical observables. The examples we present are the generators of the central symmetry and those of the maximal symmetries of the de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spacetimes derived in different tetrad gauge fixings. Pacs: 04.20.Cv, 04.62.+v, 11.30.-j

  8. ANALYSIS OF EXTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kiseleva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The external factors influencing the process of formation of tariffs of commercial services are considered in the article. External environment is known to be very diverse and changeable. Currently, pricing has become one of the key processes of strategic development of a company. Pricing in the service sector, in turn, is highly susceptible to changes in the external environment. Its components directly or indirectly affect the market of services, changing it adopted economic processes. As a rule, firms providing services can’t influence the changes in external factors. However, the service market is very flexible, which enables businesses to reshape pricing strategy, to adapt it to the new environment.

  9. Control of External Kink Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratil, Gerald

    2004-11-01

    A fundamental pressure and current limiting phenomenon in magnetically confined plasmas for fusion energy is the long wavelength ideal-MHD kink mode. These modes have been extensively studied in tokamak and reversed field pinch (RFP) devices. They are characterized by significant amplitude on the boundary of the confined plasma and can therefore be controlled by manipulation of the external boundary conditions. In the past ten years, the theoretically predicted stabilizing effect of a nearby conducting wall has been documented in experiments, which opens the possibility of a significant increase in maximum stable plasma pressure. While these modes are predicted to remain unstable when the stabilizing wall is resistive, their growth rates are greatly reduced from the hydrodynamic time scale to the time scale of magnetic diffusion through the resistive wall. These resistive wall slowed kink modes have been identified as limiting phenomena in tokamak (DIII-D, PBX-M, HBT-EP, JT-60U, JET, NSTX) and RFP (HBTX, Extrap, T2R) devices. The theoretical prediction of stabilization to nearly the ideal wall pressure limit by toroidal plasma rotation and/or active feedback control using coils has recently been realized experimentally. Sustained, stable operation at double the no-wall pressure limit has been achieved. Discovery of the phenomenon of resonant field amplification by marginally stable kink modes and its role in the momentum balance of rotationally stabilized plasmas has emerged as a key feature. A theoretical framework, based on an extension of the very successful treatment of the n=0 axisymmetric mode developed in the early 1990's, to understand the stabilization mechanisms and model the performance of active feedback control systems is now established. This allows design of kink control systems for burning plasma experiments like ITER.

  10. Lattice Planar QED in external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Cea, Paolo; Giudice, Pietro; Papa, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We investigate planar Quantum ElectroDynamics (QED) with two degenerate staggered fermions in an external magnetic field on the lattice. Our preliminary results indicate that in external magnetic fields there is dynamical generation of mass for two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions in the weak coupling region. We comment on possible implications to the quantum Hall effect in graphene.

  11. Crossing boundaries : Involving external parties in innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    To improve the return on investments in innovation, firms increasingly open up their new product development (NPD) processes by inviting external parties to participate. This dissertation focuses on the involvement of three different types of external parties in the NPD process: suppliers, customers

  12. Forms of Spanking and Children's Externalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Wager, Laura B.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that corporal punishment is related to higher levels of child externalizing behavior, but there has been controversy regarding whether infrequent, mild spanking predicts child externalizing or whether more severe and frequent forms of corporal punishment account for the link. Mothers rated the frequency with which they spanked…

  13. Externalities and Compensation : Primeval Games and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.; Borm, P.E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The classical literature (Pigou (1920), Coase (1960), Arrow (1970)) and the relatively recent studies (cf.Varian (1994)) associate the externality problem with efficiency.This paper focuses explicitly on the compensation problem in the context of externalities.To capture the features of inter-indivi

  14. Computing betweenness centrality in external memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Goodrich, Michael T.; Walderveen, Freek van

    2013-01-01

    Betweenness centrality is one of the most well-known measures of the importance of nodes in a social-network graph. In this paper we describe the first known external-memory and cache-oblivious algorithms for computing betweenness centrality. We present four different external-memory algorithms...

  15. Internal and External Forces in Language Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Charles D.

    2000-01-01

    Develops a model of language change characterizing the dynamic interaction between internal universal grammar and external linguistic evidence, as mediated by language acquisition. Borrows insights from the study of biological evolution, where internal and external forces interact in similar fashion. Applies the model to explore the loss of the…

  16. Environmental externalities related to power production on biogas and natural gas based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the environmental impacts and external costs from selected electricity generation systems in Denmark. The assessment is carried out as part of the ExternE National Implementation, which is the second phase of the ExternE project and involves case studies from all Western Europ...... show that estimated damages due to the greenhouse effect are predominant, however, the uncertainty is high. The predominant damage at the local and regional level is related to emission of NOx, which results in effects on public health....... European countries. The project use a “bottom-up” methodology to evaluate the external costs associated with a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project has identified priority impacts, where most are impacts from air emissions. Externalities due to atmospheric emissions are calculated through...... the use of a software package, EcoSence, having an environmental database at both a local and regional level including population, crops, building materials and forest. The system also incorporates two air transport models, allowing local and regional scale modelling. The results of the Danish case study...

  17. Use of Automated External Defibrillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory K Christensen

    2009-02-01

    In an effort to improve survival from cardiac arrest, the American Heart Association (AHA) has promoted the Chain of Survival concept, describing a sequence of prehospital steps that result in improved survival after sudden cardiac arrest. These interventions include immediate deployment of emergency medical services, prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation when indicated, and early initiation of advanced medical care. Early defibrillation has emerged as the most important intervention with survival decreasing by 10% with each minute of delay in defibrillation. Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) is a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the heart cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them tremble rather than contract properly. VF is a medical emergency and if the arrhythmia continues for more than a few seconds, blood circulation will cease, and death can occur in a matter of minutes. During VF, contractions of the heart are not synchronized, blood flow ceases, organs begin to fail from oxygen deprivation and within 10 minutes, death will occur. When VF occurs, the victim must be defibrillated in order to establish the heart’s normal rhythm. On average, the wait for an ambulance in populated areas of the United States is about 11 minutes. In view of these facts, the EFCOG Electrical Safety Task Group initiated this review to evaluate the potential value of deployment and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) for treatment of SCA victims. This evaluation indicates the long term survival benefit to victims of SCA is high if treated with CPR plus defibrillation within the first 3-5 minutes after collapse. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), survival rates as high as 74% are possible if treatment and defibrillation is performed in the first 3 minutes. In contrast survival rates are only 5% where no AED programs have been established to provide prompt CPR and defibrillation. ["CPR statistics

  18. Environment and externalization; Environnement et externalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremlis, G.; Renaud, R. [Association francaise des ingenieurs et techniciens de l' environnement, AFITE, 75 - Paris (France); Touron, M. [Veritas, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the discussions of the 16 may 2000, concerning the externalization and the environment and proposes to answer the following questions: is the externalization a new strategy to better perceive, hopeful engineering department, the technological risks problems, the environment or the land pollution? Does the externalization allow a better organization of the enterprise? To analyse the situation, the document presents the white book of the environmental liability, the administration point of view, some enterprises examples and the importance of the environmental management. (A.L.B.)

  19. Concurrent sourcing and external supplier opportunism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    When a firm simultaneously makes and buys the same components then the firm uses concurrent sourcing. This paper presents an agency model for explaining how and when concurrent sourcing reduces the likelihood of external supplier opportunism. In the proposed model, the external supplier’s expected...... costs of opportunism are determined as a product of four factors. The four factors are: likelihood of discovering supplier opportunism, buyer’s internalized quantity as reaction to supplier opportunism, asset specificity of external supplier’s investments, and multiplicator effects. Each...

  20. Leiomyosarcoma of the external iliac vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Wakako; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2012-06-01

    Leiomyosarcoma of the iliac vein is an uncommon tumor. We report a case of a 63-year-old Japanese woman with leiomyosarcoma of the right external iliac vein. The patient complained of right inguinal pain and swelling. Computed tomography demonstrated a mass surrounding the right external iliac artery and vein. Metastases in the lungs and liver were found. Complete resection of the tumor along with the involved vessels was performed. Polytetrafluoroethylene grafts were used to reconstruct the vessels. Pathological examination revealed leiomyosarcoma of the external iliac vein. Although the prognosis of leiomyosarcoma is poor, en bloc tumor resection is the treatment of choice.

  1. The sustainability of Serbia's external position: The impact of fiscal adjustment and external shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zildžović Emir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of fiscal policy and external shocks on the sustainability of Serbia’s external position. The key determinants of Serbia's current account balance are identified using model averaging techniques and are compared with estimates obtained for other small open economies (Poland, Georgia, Morocco, Ukraine, and Estonia. The paper uses estimated influences of macrovariables on the current account balance to generate a rich set of possible outcomes for the external position of the country. The results suggest the importance of fiscal policy for the reduction of external imbalances in all countries in our sample. In particular, credible and sustained fiscal adjustment can reduce current account deficit and stabilize Serbia’s external position close to its current level over the medium term. The analysis also warns that lack of success in fiscal consolidation coupled with external shocks may easily push the external position onto an unsustainable path.

  2. The effect of sumatriptan on cephalic arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Ravneberg, Julie W;

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To explore a possible differential effect of sumatriptan on extracerebral versus cerebral arteries, we examined the superficial temporal (STA), middle meningeal (MMA), extracranial internal carotid (ICAextra), intracranial internal carotid (ICAintra), middle cerebral (MCA) and basilar arteries...

  3. Proceedings: National conference on environmental externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This report is the proceedings of the National Conference on Environmental Externalities. A environmental externality is the environmental impact of a process or a plant that society must endure. It is a social cost and is paid, but not by the company who produced it or the company`s customers who endure it. The main purpose of this report is to gather the many designs and ideas of how and why to internalize the externalities into the pricing systems of the public utility commissions, especially that of the electric utilities. Economic and sociological aspects of the internalization of these externalities are given in these proceedings. Individual papers are processed separately for databases. (MB)

  4. Externality, environment, and obesity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stager, S F

    1981-07-01

    On the assumption that external responsiveness and environmental characteristics jointly determine whether a child will achieve an excessive weight gain, perpetuating and maintaining obesity, probability hierarchy was hypothesized and tested. Ss of the study were 24 obese and 24 average-weight, white boys, mean age 9 years, 5 months. An auditory distraction task and Kagan's Matching Familiar Figures Test were used to measure auditory and visual responsivity to external cues, respectively. Socioeconomic status was used as an indicator of the childhood environment. As predicted, the greatest percentages of obese children were observed in the lower-socioeconomic, external group, followed by the lower-socioeconomic, internal group and middle-socioeconomic, external group. The smallest percentage of obese children was observed in the middle-socioeconomic, internal group.

  5. Sleep disturbances in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, B.W.; Westeneng, H.J.; Hal, M.A. van; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Overeem, S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) is a relatively common mitochondrial disorder. In addition to extraocular muscle weakness, various other organs can typically be affected, including laryngeal and limb muscles, cerebrum, cerebellum, and peripheral nerves. Given this mul

  6. Owl Mountain Partnership : An external assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — External review of the Owl Mountain Partnership (OMP) to identify benefits and successes associatedwith collaborative work through the perceptions of participating...

  7. Infrared limit in external field scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Herdegen, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Scattering of electrons/positrons by external classical electromagnetic wave packet is considered in infrared limit. In this limit the scattering operator exists and produces physical effects, although the scattering cross-section is trivial.

  8. Operating protocols of external root cervical resorption

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Venuti

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Theme of this report is the external cervical root resorption and the sequence of clinical procedures to be implemented during the phases of treatment. The external cervical root resorption (ICR) presents particular pathological conditions such as to classify between resorption of inflammatory origin.1–3 It is generally presented as a complex clinical situation both in the diagnosis in a predictable prognosis.3–6 It's often associated with loss of calcified tissue: dentin, cementum, a...

  9. Consumption Externalities, Rental Markets and Purchase Clubs.

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanne Scotchmer

    2002-01-01

    A premise of general equilibrium theory is that private goods are rival. Nevertheless, many private goods are shared, e.g., through barter, through co-ownership, or simply because one person’s consumption affects another person’s wellbeing. We analyze consumption externalities from the perspective of club theory, and argue that, provided consumption externalities are limited in scope, they can be internalized through membership fees to groups. Our main applications are to rental markets and “...

  10. External Prestressing Bridge Reinforcement Technology Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Hanbing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Externally prestressed bridge can not only limit and reduce the cracks and deformation of the structure, improve the rigidity and bearing capacity of structure, improve the stress state of structure, but also have less interference for bridge operation when it is operating and have the good economic efficiency. This paper introduces the advantages and disadvantages of external prestressed strengthening technique, its calculation theory and construction technology described in detail, and finally the paper discusses the deficiency of existing research.

  11. Negative ion source with external RF antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Hahto, Sami K.; Hahto, Sari T.

    2007-02-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source. A converter can be included in the ion source to produce negative ions.

  12. The ventilatory effect of external oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabey, D; Piquet, J

    1989-01-01

    High frequency ventilation (HFV) may be achieved by external oscillation (external HFV) applied around the chest wall (HFCWO) in large animals and humans, or over the entire body (HFBSO) in small animals, instead of being applied via the trachea (internal HFV). We present a synthesis of the results obtained with external HFV in both normal and bronchoconstricted subjects. Whereas external and internal HFV were found to be equivalent in terms of gas exchange in normal rats, external HFV was found to have a beneficial effect in bronchoconstricted rabbits, but internal HFV did not. From the frequency-oscillatory tidal volume relationship determined in normocapnic rabbits, HFBSO at 5 Hz was found to be the optimal frequency at which to ventilate with tidal volumes close to the dead space volume, and which was also shown to be the optimal volume to obtain normocapnia. Moreover, 5 Hz oscillations (HFCWO) at 20 ml and 40 ml superimposed on tidal breathing accelerated nitrogen washout, i.e., gas exchange in normal humans. Unfortunately, only oscillations with much smaller volumes (5-10 ml) were obtainable in COPD patients. Nevertheless, they produced a clear change in breathing pattern associated with a slight improvement in gas exchange and a potentially positive effect on inspiratory muscle fatigue. These results support the concept that non-invasive external HFV technique may be of use in assisting ventilation in bronchoconstricted subjects and may possibly replace conventional controlled ventilation, at least in subjects with high lung compliance, such as babies, neonates and normal adults.

  13. External cost assessment for nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Heung [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Nuclear power is currently the second largest power supply method in Korea and the number of nuclear power plants are planned to be increased as well. However, clear management policy for spent fuels generated from nuclear power plants has not yet been established. The back-end fuel cycle, associated with nuclear material flow after nuclear reactors is a collection of technologies designed for the spent fuel management and the spent fuel management policy is closely related with the selection of a nuclear fuel cycle. Cost is an important consideration in selection of a nuclear fuel cycle and should be determined by adding external cost to private cost. Unlike the private cost, which is a direct cost, studies on the external cost are focused on nuclear reactors and not at the nuclear fuel cycle. In this research, external cost indicators applicable to nuclear fuel cycle were derived and quantified. OT (once through), DUPIC (Direct Use of PWR SF in CANDU), PWR-MOX (PWR PUREX reprocessing), and Pyro-SFR (SFR recycling with pyroprocessing) were selected as nuclear fuel cycles which could be considered for estimating external cost in Korea. Energy supply security cost, accident risk cost, and acceptance cost were defined as external cost according to precedent and estimated after analyzing approaches which have been adopted for estimating external costs on nuclear power generation.

  14. Externalities - an analysis using the EU ExternE-results; Externaliteter - en analys utifraan EU:s ExternE-resultat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    The EU project ExternE quantified the externalities for the different energy technologies. In this work, the ExternE results are used in a MARKAL-analysis for the Nordic countries. The analysis does not go into detail, but gives some interesting indications: The external costs are not fully covered in the Nordic energy systems, the present taxes and charges are not high enough. The emissions from the energy systems would be strongly reduced, if taxes/environmental charges were set at the level ExternE calculate. The emissions from power production would be reduced most. Renewable energy sources and natural gas dominate the energy systems in the ExternE case.

  15. Internalizing Externalities through Payments for Environmental Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsono Soedomo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems, including plantation forests, provide goods and services that are marketable and non-marketable. Positive externalities produced by forest ecosystems are rarely considered in pricing of marketable products that result in economic inefficiencies. Internalizing externalities is required to improve the economic efficiency. The traditional way to internalize an externality is by providing subsidies or imposing taxes. Recently, payments for environmental services  are receiving more attention as an instrument for internalizing externalities provided by forest ecosystems. This promising alternative to improve our environment needs to be studied more extensively. In this paper, it can be indicated theoretically that the Pigovian tax, as a traditional way of addressing environmental problems, is able to mimic the result derived from the employment of environmental services payment. The difference is that environmental services payment improves the welfare of environmental service producers, whereas the Pigovian tax reduces it. A positive Pigovian tax increases the optimal rotation, which is positively associated with environmental improvement, but certainly reduces forest owner's welfare. This difference should be taken into account in the public policymaking so that perverse incentive may be avoided. Payment for environmental services  as an additional income to forest growers, not as alternative source of income, is a potential tool to address simultaneously issues of environment and poverty that are frequently contested.Keywords: externalities, payments for environmental services, tax, perverse incentive, social welfare

  16. External-field-free magnetic biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuanpeng; Wang, Yi; Klein, Todd; Wang, Jian-Ping, E-mail: jpwang@umn.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-03-24

    In this paper, we report a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) detection scheme without the presence of any external magnetic field. The proposed magnetic sensor uses a patterned groove structure within the sensor so that no external magnetic field is needed to magnetize the MNPs. An example is given based on a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensing device with a spin valve structure. For this structure, the detection of MNPs located inside the groove and near the free layer is demonstrated under no external magnetic field. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to calculate the signal to noise level of this detection scheme. A maximum signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 18.6 dB from one iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle with 8 nm radius is achieved. As proof of concept, this external-field-free GMR sensor with groove structure of 200 nm × 200 nm is fabricated using a photo and an electron beam integrated lithography process. Using this sensor, the feasibility demonstration of the detection SNR of 9.3 dB is achieved for 30 μl magnetic nanoparticles suspension (30 nm iron oxide particles, 1 mg/ml). This proposed external-field-free sensor structure is not limited to GMR devices and could be applicable to other magnetic biosensing devices.

  17. External GSM phone calls now made simpler

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    On 2 July, the IT/CS Telecom Service introduced a new service making external calls from CERN GSM phones easier. A specific prefix is no longer needed for calls outside CERN. External calls from CERN GSM phones are to be simplified. It is no longer necessary to use a special prefix to call an external number from the CERN GSM network.The Telecom Section of the IT/CS Group is introducing a new system that will make life easier for GSM users. It is no longer necessary to use a special prefix (333) to call an external number from the CERN GSM network. Simply dial the number directly like any other Swiss GSM customer. CERN currently has its own private GSM network with the Swiss mobile operator, Sunrise, covering the whole of Switzerland. This network was initially intended exclusively for calls between CERN numbers (replacing the old beeper system). A special system was later introduced for external calls, allowing them to pass thr...

  18. Atomic excitation and recombination in external fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayfeh, M.H.; Clark, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    This volume offers a timely look at Rydberg states of atoms in external fields and dielectronic recombination. Each topic provides authoritative coverage, presents a fresh account of a flourishing field of current atomic physics and introduces new opportunities for discovery and development. Topics considered include electron-atom scattering in external fields; observations of regular and irregular motion as exemplified by the quadratic zeeman effect and other systems; Rydberg atoms in external fields and the Coulomb geometry; crossed-field effects in the absorption spectrum of lithium in a magnetic field; precise studies of static electric field ionization; widths and shapes of stark resonances in sodium above the saddle point; studies of electric field effects and barium autoionizing resonances; autoionization and dielectronic recombination in plasma electric microfields; dielectronic recombination measurements on multicharged ions; merged beam studies of dielectronic recombination; Rydberg atoms and dielectronic recombination in astrophysics; and observations on dielectronic recombination.

  19. Landscape externalities from onshore wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyerhoff, Juergen; Hartje, Volkmar [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institute for Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning, Strasse des 17. Juni 145, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Ohl, Cornelia [UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    The expansion of renewable energy is a central element of the German Federal Government's climate and energy policy. The target for 2020 is to produce 30% of the electricity from renewable energies. Wind power has been selected to be a major contributor to this change. Replacing old wind turbines by modern ones and building new turbines on land will be crucial in meeting this target. However, the expansion of onshore wind power is not universally accepted. In several regions of Germany residents are protesting against setting up new wind turbines. To determine the negative effects two choice experiments were applied in Westsachsen and Nordhessen, Germany. In both regions the externalities of wind power generation until 2020 based on today's state of technology were measured. The results show that negative landscape externalities would result from expanding wind power generation. Using latent class models three different groups of respondents experiencing different degrees of externalities were identified. (author)

  20. Human Sound Externalization in Reverberant Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catic, Jasmina

    occur. In this thesis, the spatial cues that arise from a combined effect of filtering due to the head, torso, and pinna and the acoustic environment were analysed and the impact of such cues for the perception of externalization in different frequency regions was investigated. Distant sound sources...... level differences (ILDs) that occurs in reverberant environments was altered via modifications of the signal envelope in the left and right ear. It was found that the dynamic ILDs had an effect on externalization for broadband and highpass filtered speech, while no effect was found for lowpass filtered......, this work contributes to the understanding of the auditory processing of spatial cues that are important for externalization in reverberant environments and may have implications for hearing instrument signal processing....

  1. Performance Targets and External Market Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan; Friis, Ivar; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    In this paper we explore the processes of ‘bringing the market inside the firm’ to set performance targets and benchmark production workers productivity. We analyze attempts to use external suppliers’ bids in target setting in a Danish manufacturing company. The case study illustrates how...... the implementation of external market information in target setting – well known in transfer pricing, relative performance evaluation, beyond budgeting, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management – relate to challenging motivation and information problem. The analysis and discussion of those...... problems, in particular those related to accounting for the internal performance (that are going to be compared with the external target), calculating the ‘inside’ costs and defining controllability, contributes to the management accounting as well as the piece-rate literature....

  2. DFB laser with attached external intensity modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuse, D. (AT and T Bell Labs. Holmdel, NJ (US))

    1990-02-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of the frequency pulling effect exerted on a DFB laser by an external amplitude modulator that is directly attached to it. The modulator consists of a piece of waveguide whose loss is modulated by means of an externally applied voltage. The modulator affects the laser due to residual reflections from its far end which appear as a variable effective reflectivity to the output end of the DFB laser. Modulation affects the magnitude as well as the phase of the effective reflection coefficient presented to the laser due to the coupling of the real and imaginary parts of the effective refractive index of the modulator waveguide. The tuning problem is formulated as an eigenvalue equation for the DFB laser in the presence of an externally attached lossy cavity.

  3. External Tonehole Interactions in Woodwind Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Lefebvre, Antoine; Kergomard, Jean

    2012-01-01

    The transfer matrix method is often used to calculate the input impedance of woodwind instruments but it ignores the possible influence of the radiated sound from toneholes on other open holes. In this paper, a method is proposed to account for external tonehole interactions. It is found that the external tonehole interactions increase the amount of radiated energy, reduce slightly the lower resonance frequencies, and modify significantly the response near and above the tonehole lattice cutoff frequency. The results of simulations with the Finite Element Method, as well as experimental measurements, are presented and compared to the calculation with the method presented in this paper, confirming that the external tonehole interactions play a significant role in woodwind instrument.

  4. The External Networking Behaviour of Public Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2017-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on managerial external networking behaviour within public administration. While most previous quantitative research has analysed such behaviour one-dimensionally, we suggest a two-dimensional conceptualization based on the concepts of weak and strong ties. Utili...... that a conceptualization based on the distinction between strong and weak ties provides a promising framework for future research.......There has been an increasing focus on managerial external networking behaviour within public administration. While most previous quantitative research has analysed such behaviour one-dimensionally, we suggest a two-dimensional conceptualization based on the concepts of weak and strong ties....... Utilizing measures resembling previous research, we explore the utility of the approach in an exploratory study of Danish local government. Our findings suggest that the two dimensions of external networking behaviour are distinct. We discuss our approach compared to previous approaches and argue...

  5. Automatic Planning of External Search Engine Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Jasevičiūtė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an investigation of the external search engine optimization (SEO action planning tool, dedicated to automatically extract a small set of most important keywords for each month during whole year period. The keywords in the set are extracted accordingly to external measured parameters, such as average number of searches during the year and for every month individually. Additionally the position of the optimized web site for each keyword is taken into account. The generated optimization plan is similar to the optimization plans prepared manually by the SEO professionals and can be successfully used as a support tool for web site search engine optimization.

  6. External Link Policy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following graphic notice means that you are leaving the DCP Web site: (link is external)This external link provides additional information that is consistent with the intended purpose of DCP.The National Cancer Institute (NCI) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal site.Linking to a non-federal site does not constitute an endorsement by HHS or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the site.You will be subject to the destination site |

  7. RAM-Efficient External Memory Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Thorup, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    In recent years a large number of problems have been considered in external memory models of computation, where the complexity measure is the number of blocks of data that are moved between slow external memory and fast internal memory (also called I/Os). In practice, however, internal memory time...... often dominates the total running time once I/O-efficiency has been obtained. In this paper we study algorithms for fundamental problems that are simultaneously I/O-efficient and internal memory efficient in the RAM model of computation....

  8. Black holes under external influence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jiří Bičák

    2000-10-01

    The work on black holes immersed in external fields is reviewed in both test-field approximation and within exact solutions. In particular we pay attention to the effect of the expulsion of the flux of external fields across charged and rotating black holes which are approaching extremal states. Recently this effect has been shown to occur for black hole solutions in string theory. We also discuss black holes surrounded by rings and disks and rotating black holes accelerated by strings.

  9. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; Aken, M.A. van; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large p

  10. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large p

  11. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents : familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large p

  12. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: Familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J.M. Buschgens (Cathelijne); M.A.G. van Aken (Marcel); S.H.N. Swinkels (Sophie); J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J.K. Buitelaar (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAIL

  13. network externalities into the technology acceptance model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Michael; Parry, Mark E.; Kawakami, Tomoko

    2009-01-01

    Research on network externalities has identified a number of product categories in which the market performance of an innovation (e.g., unit sales and revenues) is an increasing function of that innovation's installed base and the availability of complementary products. Innovation scholars have attr

  14. External cervical resorption: diagnostic and treatment tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT External cervical resorption is caused, almost exclusively, by dental trauma - especially those characterized by concussion - and is a dental disease to be diagnosed and treated accurately by endodontists. However, the vast majority of the cases is initially diagnosed by an orthodontist, due to the imaging possibilities in standardized documentations. Among the causes of external cervical resorption, it is common to mistakenly attribute it to orthodontic treatment, traumatic occlusion or even to chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. External cervical resorption is associated to dental trauma in several situations mentioned in this paper. In old cases, and eventually still nowadays, it may have been induced by internal tooth bleaching, which is increasingly less frequent in endodontically treated teeth. There are some tips to be followed and some care that must be taken during the diagnosis and treatment of external cervical resorption clinical cases. The present study lists foundations that will allow the professional to perform safely and accurately in each specific case. Some of these tips and care measures are of orthodontic nature. PMID:27901225

  15. KEUNTUNGAN PENGGUNAAN EXTERNAL FUNCTION PADA DATABASE POSTGRESQL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahrun Hartono

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Database id a central data for an information system, there were many database system applications that revolve both paid and free. PostgreSQL is one of the free database system and it has the powerful feature, one of the feature that make it different with others sysem is a function features, where the users can make their function by them selves by using spesific programming language, then it can be called return for executed. In this research the writer tries for conducting additional data testing by using INSERT Query and External Function Query on the terminal/command prompt and web browser. From the result of the trial, the research found that the average of time in additional data processing on the terminal/command prompt by using INSERT Query was 185.293 ms and the average of time External Function Query proccess was 129.52 ms, while the average of time in additional data processing on web browser by using INSERT Query was 168.363 ms and External Function Query was 145.64 ms. There was a difference both of the query, but the important thing and should be noted that external function is a command was defined by stand alone by the user, this matter lets the user to determine a specify command that they need.

  16. Internal Versus External Knowledge Sourcing Of Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Pedersen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    's ability to build on two knowledge networks depends on itsscale of resources, absorptive capacity and the role it plays in the corporation.The relationship between internal and external sourcing is tested using a unique dataset that coversmore than 2,000 subsidiaries located in seven different European...

  17. Externally definable sets and dependent pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Chernikov, Artem

    2010-01-01

    We prove that externally definable sets in first order NIP theories have honest definitions, giving a new proof of Shelah's expansion theorem. Also we discuss a weak notion of stable embeddedness true in this context. Those results are then used to prove a general theorem on dependent pairs, which in particular answers a question of Baldwin and Benedikt on naming an indiscernible sequence.

  18. Identifying Cross-Sided Liquidity Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Skjeltorp (Johannes); E. Sojli (Elvira); W.W. Tham (Wing Wah)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We study the relevance of the cross-sided externality between liquidity makers and takers from the two-sided market perspective. We use exogenous changes in the make/take fee structure, minimum tick-size and technological shocks for liquidity takers and makers, as exper

  19. External cervical resorption: diagnostic and treatment tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT External cervical resorption is caused, almost exclusively, by dental trauma - especially those characterized by concussion - and is a dental disease to be diagnosed and treated accurately by endodontists. However, the vast majority of the cases is initially diagnosed by an orthodontist, due to the imaging possibilities in standardized documentations. Among the causes of external cervical resorption, it is common to mistakenly attribute it to orthodontic treatment, traumatic occlusion or even to chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. External cervical resorption is associated to dental trauma in several situations mentioned in this paper. In old cases, and eventually still nowadays, it may have been induced by internal tooth bleaching, which is increasingly less frequent in endodontically treated teeth. There are some tips to be followed and some care that must be taken during the diagnosis and treatment of external cervical resorption clinical cases. The present study lists foundations that will allow the professional to perform safely and accurately in each specific case. Some of these tips and care measures are of orthodontic nature.

  20. Thoughts on Internal and External Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianxin

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance of higher education is made up of two parts: internal quality assurance (IQA) and external quality assurance (EQA). Both belong to a union of the coexistence and balance of yin and yang. But in reality there exists a paradox of "confusion of quality assurance (QA) subject consciousness, singularity of social QA and lack of QA…

  1. Fiscal externalities of becoming a parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Douglas A; Lee, Ronald D; Miller, Timothy; Donehower, Gretchen; Genest, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical results suggest that there are externalities to childbearing, but those results usually assume that these externalities accrue uniformly within a homogeneous population. We advance this argument by developing separate estimates of the fiscal externalities associated with parents—those who devote time or material resources to minor children—and nonparents. Our analysis uses data from the US Panel Study of income Dynamics on the age profiles of taxes paid and publicly funded benefits consumed by parents and nonparents, together with a previously developed intertemporal economic-demographic accounting model. The accounting framework takes into account the net fiscal impacts of future generations as well as the present population. Our findings indicate that, with a 3 percent discount rate, parents produce a substantial net fiscal externality, about $217,000 in 2009 dollars. This is equivalent to a lifetime annuity of nearly $8,100 per year beginning at age 18. The results are sensitive to both the discount rate used and the proportion of parents within the cohort.

  2. The external microenvironment of healing skin wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Carla R; Nuutila, Kristo; Lee, Cameron Cy

    2015-01-01

    The skin wound microenvironment can be divided into two main components that influence healing: the external wound microenvironment, which is outside the wound surface; and the internal wound microenvironment, underneath the surface, to which the cells within the wound are exposed. Treatment...

  3. The External Dimension of EU Migration Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Gjipali

    2017-01-01

    Defining the conditions of consistency and flexibility to which the Union’s external action can bring the management of migration - a management which will pursue all objectives of the EU’s migration policy in accordance with the its principles, such as solidarity and the protection of fundamental rights - is the focus of this paper.

  4. 75 FR 70015 - External Defibrillators; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... of innovative AED features such as automated integration into local 9-1-1 systems. FDA will work with... consumers, to share perspectives. II. Topics for Discussion at the Public Workshop The public workshop will... signals, or enhance the use of external defibrillators? III. Transcripts Please be advised that as soon...

  5. International Labor Migration and External Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Jorge A.

    1987-01-01

    Mexico and the United States have different perspectives on undocumented migrant workers. Possible solutions to this dilemma are (1) deciding on a common definition; (2) bilateral negotiations on the status of migrant workers; (3) addressing Mexico's external debt and scarce money resources; and (4) addressing the ways the American economy…

  6. An Indicator for ecosystem externalities in fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars; Andersen, Ken Haste; Vestergaard, Niels

    a benefit indicator that explicitly divides the consequences of fishing into internal and external benefits. This analysis demonstrates that the forage fish fleet has a notable economic impact on the large fish fleet, but the reverse is not true. The impact can be either negative or positive, which entails...

  7. An indicator for ecosystem externalities in fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars; Andersen, Ken Haste; Vestergaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    a benefit indicator that explicitly divides the consequences of fishing into internal and external benefits. This analysis demonstrates that the forage fish fleet has a notable economic impact on the large fish fleet, but the reverse is not true. The impact can be either negative or positive, which entails...

  8. Frequent external focus feedback enhances motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eWulf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the hypothesis that feedback inducing an external focus of attention enhances motor learning if it is provided frequently (i.e., 100% rather than less frequently. Children (10-12 year olds practiced a soccer throw-in task and were provided feedback about movement form. The feedback statements, provided either after every (100% or every third (33% practice trial, were similar in content but induced either an internal focus (body-movement related or external focus (movement-effect related. The results demonstrated that learning of the movement form was enhanced by external-focus feedback after every trial (100% relative to external-focus feedback after every third trial (33% or internal-focus feedback (100%, 33%, as demonstrated by immediate and delayed transfer tests without feedback. There was no difference between the two internal-focus feedback groups. These findings indicate that the attentional focus induced by feedback is an important factor in determining the effectiveness of different feedback frequencies. We argue that the informational properties of feedback cannot sufficiently account for these and related findings, and suggest that the attentional role of feedback be given greater consideration in future studies.

  9. External Environment and Upper Echelons Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escribá-Esteve, Alejandro; Nielsen, Sabina; Yamak, Sibel

    This work reviews empirical research on TMTs with a specific emphasis on the role of the external environment. We extend the existing research on upper echelons theory, which has largely focused on the team and firm level of analyses of top management teams (TMT). Considering institutional...

  10. A taxonomy of external and internal attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Marvin M; Golomb, Julie D; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2011-01-01

    Attention is a core property of all perceptual and cognitive operations. Given limited capacity to process competing options, attentional mechanisms select, modulate, and sustain focus on information most relevant for behavior. A significant problem, however, is that attention is so ubiquitous that it is unwieldy to study. We propose a taxonomy based on the types of information that attention operates over--the targets of attention. At the broadest level, the taxonomy distinguishes between external attention and internal attention. External attention refers to the selection and modulation of sensory information. External attention selects locations in space, points in time, or modality-specific input. Such perceptual attention can also select features defined across any of these dimensions, or object representations that integrate over space, time, and modality. Internal attention refers to the selection, modulation, and maintenance of internally generated information, such as task rules, responses, long-term memory, or working memory. Working memory, in particular, lies closest to the intersection between external and internal attention. The taxonomy provides an organizing framework that recasts classic debates, raises new issues, and frames understanding of neural mechanisms.

  11. External Approach Microsurgery of Retinal Dialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhang; Piqing Hu; Lixin Shun; Xuechun Zhu; Yingwu Yi; Wen Liu

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the effect of external approach microsurgery in retinal dialysis.Methods: Consecutive 30 eyes of 28 patients with retinal dialysis were enrolled for this study. The progresses of the external approach microsurgery were following. Under the surgical microscopy, the preplacement of mattress sutures for buckling and/or encircling following retrobulbar anesthesia and scleral exposure, draining subretinal fluid, the cryotherapy of retinal breaks, checking the position of breaks on scleral buckle and gases injection were performed in turn.Results: After drainage of subretinal fluid, with scleral depression cryotherapy reaction around breaks could be observed clearly under the microscopy. All breaks were located on anterior slope of the buckle. Intraoperative complications were mild subretinal hemorrhage at drainage site and corneal epithelium exfoliation in 3 eyes, respectively.Postoperative complications were mainly secondary glaucoma and retinal redetachment.The one-operation reattachmentl rate was 96.7% (29 eyes), and the final reattachment rate was 100% after one eye had a second external approach microsurgery. The postoperative vision acuity (VA) was significantly better than the preoperative VA (X2=9.529, P< 0.01).Conclusion: External approach microsurgery has favourable effect on the surgery of retinal dialysis.

  12. Ion Plasma Responses to External Electromagnetic Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2010-01-01

    The response of ion plasmas to external radiation fields is investigated in a quantum mechanical formalism.We focus on the total electric field within the plasma. For general bandpass signals three frequency regions can be distinguished in terms of the plasma frequency. For low frequencies, the exte

  13. Dyadic Parenting and Children's Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Karen B.; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    We explore dyadic parenting styles and their association with first-grade children's externalizing behavior symptoms in a sample of 85 working-class, dual-earner families. Cluster analysis is used to create a typology of parenting types, reflecting the parental warmth, overreactivity, and laxness of both mothers and fathers in two-parent families.…

  14. Video exams and the external examiners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Palle

    to the Master’s programme. The programme offers streamed videos in combination with other learning resources. Oral exams have been mediated with the help of Skype and later with Adobe Connect Professional. It has for all participants - students, examiners and external examiners – been both a challenge...

  15. Health insurance and the obesity externality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Jay; Sood, Neeraj

    2007-01-01

    If rational individuals pay the full costs of their decisions about food intake and exercise, economists, policy makers, and public health officials should treat the obesity epidemic as a matter of indifference. In this paper, we show that, as long as insurance premiums are not risk rated for obesity, health insurance coverage systematically shields those covered from the full costs of physical inactivity and overeating. Since the obese consume significantly more medical resources than the non-obese, but pay the same health insurance premiums, they impose a negative externality on normal weight individuals in their insurance pool. To estimate the size of this externality, we develop a model of weight loss and health insurance under two regimes--(1) underwriting on weight is allowed and (2) underwriting on weight is not allowed. We show that under regime (1), there is no obesity externality. Under regime (2), where there is an obesity externality, all plan participants face inefficient incentives to undertake unpleasant dieting and exercise. These reduced incentives lead to inefficient increases in bodyweight, and reduced social welfare. Using data on medical expenditures and bodyweight from the National Health and Interview Survey and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we estimate that, in a health plan with a coinsurance rate of 17.5%, the obesity externality imposes a welfare cost of about $150 per capita. Our results also indicate that the welfare loss can be reduced by technological change that lowers the pecuniary and non-pecuniary costs of losing weight, and also by increasing the coinsurance rate.

  16. 21 CFR 878.3800 - External aesthetic restoration prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External aesthetic restoration prosthesis. 878... External aesthetic restoration prosthesis. (a) Identification. An external aesthetic restoration prosthesis... external prosthesis adhesive. The device is not intended to be implanted. (b) Classification. Class...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3500 - External assembled lower limb prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External assembled lower limb prosthesis. 890.3500... External assembled lower limb prosthesis. (a) Identification. An external assembled lower limb prosthesis... the lower extremity. Examples of external assembled lower limb prostheses are the following:...

  18. Cost-Effective Abatement of Multiple Production Externalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jeffery D.; Perry, Gregory M.; Adams, Richard M.

    1995-07-01

    This article explores the issue of multiple externalities through a case study of irrigated agricultural production in eastern Oregon. A mathematical programming model is used to demonstrate the manner in which a policy directed at one externality (soil erosion) may influence the incidence of another externality (groundwater pollution). A key determinant of multiple externality outcomes is interdependence in the processes producing agricultural commodities and externalities. Potential benefits from coordinating a policy to address multiple environmental objectives are discussed.

  19. [Progressive external ophthalmoplegia and distal myopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, C

    1993-01-01

    A patient, 58 years old, presents progressive blepharoptosis, in both eyes and external ophthalmoplegia. The general somatic examination, shows, at the level of the higher limbs, distal myopathy with muscular hypotony and articular deformities fibrosis and tendinous retraction. On examining the eye bottom we found colloid degeneration in the muscle region. Within the same family a ten-year-old nephew presents congenital ptosis. The muscular biopsy from the levator palpebrae shows muscular degenerative lesions with the reduction of nuclei and the proliferation of conjunctive tissue. It is shown that progressive external ophthalmoplegia must be interpreted as an ocular myopathy. The association with the distal myopathy at the level of the higher limbs, in the presented observation, upholds this pathogeny.

  20. Dissemination of CERN Technologies Through External Entrepreneurs

    CERN Document Server

    Lande, Bjørnulf Visdal; Huuse, Henning

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on dissemination of innovations through external entrepreneurs. The innovations studied are developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and commercialized by entrepreneurs establishing spin-off companies on the outside of the Organization. The objective of this study is to provide knowledge to facilitate future external entrepreneurs to increase dissemination of CERN technologies. The research questions looks at the timeline from preparations for creating the spin-off company, until having a product for commercialization in the market. A qualitative cross case investigation was conducted to assess the experiences of four spin-off companies. A framework was created to structure the discussion by finding and categorizing impeding- and success factors seen from the entrepreneurs point of view. The findings where structured in three phases respectively, the time before starting the company, the beginning of the company and the final development before selling products. Th...

  1. Enlargement of the External Mobility Programme

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The External Mobility Programme was launched at the end of September 2007. Initially, the programme was aimed at staff members on limited-duration contracts, having received formal notification of the termination of their employment contract at CERN, to help them towards their next employment. The programme provides a privileged, fast-track entry into the recruitment process of partner companies. Despite the short time since its inception, the programme has already delivered some encouraging and concrete results in terms of interviews granted to participating staff. The Programme has raised considerable interest from both CERN personnel as well as from several major European companies. CERN Management has decided to broaden the scope of the External Mobility Programme. The Programme is now open to: All staff members whose limited duration contract will end in less than one year, as well as all those with indefinite contracts. All fellows who have been employed by CERN fo...

  2. Enlargement of the External Mobility Programme

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The External Mobility Programme was launched at the end of September 2007. Initially, the programme was aimed at staff members on limited-duration contracts having received formal notification of the termination of their employment contract at CERN, to help them towards their next employment. The programme provides a privileged, fast-track entry into the recruitment process of partner companies. Despite the short time since its inception, the programme has already delivered some encouraging and concrete results in terms of interviews granted to participating staff. The Programme has attracted considerable interest from both CERN personnel as well as from several major European companies. The CERN Management has decided to broaden the scope of the External Mobility Programme. The Programme is now open to: All staff members whose limited duration contract will end in less than one year, as well as all those with indefinite contracts. All fellows who have been employed by CE...

  3. Composite Vector Particles in External Electromagnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Davoudi, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) studies of electromagnetic properties of hadrons and light nuclei, such as magnetic moments and polarizabilities, have proven successful with the use of background field methods. With an implementation of nonuniform background electromagnetic fields, properties such as charge radii and higher electromagnetic multipole moments (for states of higher spin) can be additionally obtained. This can be achieved by matching lattice QCD calculations to a corresponding low-energy effective theory that describes the static and quasi-static response of hadrons and nuclei to weak external fields. With particular interest in the case of vector mesons and spin-1 nuclei such as the deuteron, we present an effective field theory of spin-1 particles coupled to external electromagnetic fields. To constrain the charge radius and the electric quadrupole moment of the composite spin-1 field, the single-particle Green's functions in a linearly varying electric field in space are obtained within t...

  4. Cleaning MEG artifacts using external cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, I; Abeles, M

    2013-07-15

    Using EEG, ECoG, MEG, and microelectrodes to record brain activity is prone to multiple artifacts. The main power line (mains line), video equipment, mechanical vibrations and activities outside the brain are the most common sources of artifacts. MEG amplitudes are low, and even small artifacts distort recordings. In this study, we show how these artifacts can be efficiently removed by recording external cues during MEG recordings. These external cues are subsequently used to register the precise times or spectra of the artifacts. The results indicate that these procedures preserve both the spectra and the time domain wave-shapes of the neuromagnetic signal, while successfully reducing the contribution of the artifacts to the target signals without reducing the rank of the data.

  5. Renal transplantation using external continent urinary diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucon, A M; Sabbaga, E; Ianhez, L E; Chocair, P R; Pestana, J O; Arap, S

    1994-02-01

    A 29-year-old man born with bladder exstrophy presented with end stage renal failure many years after ileal conduit diversion. Bilateral nephrectomy and continent external urinary diversion were performed, and 1.5 months later a cadaveric kidney was grafted into the right iliac fossa. The patient was well at 18 months with a serum creatinine level of 1.2 mg./dl. and he was completely dry with 4 or 5 daily catheterizations. Although followup is still short, renal transplantation with drainage into an external continent urinary diversion permits excellent quality of life and good renal function. Therefore, this alternative is worth consideration whenever other reconstructive alternatives are not possible in candidates for renal transplantation.

  6. External Field QED on Cauchy Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Deckert, D -A

    2015-01-01

    The Shale-Stinespring Theorem (1965) together with Ruijsenaar's criterion (1977) provide a necessary and sufficient condition for the implementability of the evolution of external field quantum electrodynamics between constant-time hyperplanes on standard Fock space. The assertion states that an implementation is possible if and only if the spacial components of the external electromagnetic four-vector potential $A_\\mu$ are zero. We generalize this result to smooth, space-like Cauchy surfaces and, for general $A_\\mu$, show how the second-quantized Dirac evolution can always be implemented as a map between varying Fock spaces. Furthermore, we give equivalence classes of polarizations, including an explicit representative, that give rise to those admissible Fock spaces. We prove that the polarization classes only depend on the tangential components of $A_\\mu$ w.r.t. the particular Cauchy surface, and show that they behave naturally under Lorentz and gauge transformations.

  7. External ionization mechanisms for advanced thermionic converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatziprokopiou, M. E.

    Ion generation and recombination mechanisms in the cesium plasma were investigated as they pertain to the advanced mode thermionic energy converters. The changes in plasma density and temperature within the converter were studied under the influence of several promising auxiliary ionization candidate sources. Three novel approaches of external cesium ion generation were investigated in some detail, namely vibrationally excited N2 as an energy source of ionization of Cs ions in a DC discharge, microwave power as a means of resonant sustenance of the cesium plasma, and ion generation in a pulse N2-Cs mixture. The experimental data obtained and discussed in this work show that all three techniques--i.e. the non-LTE high-voltage pulsing, the energy transfer from vibrationally excited diatomic gases, and the external pumping with a microwave power--have considerable promise as schemes in auxiliary ion generation applicable to the advanced thermionic energy converter.

  8. External jugular venous aneurysm: A clinical curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Debajyoti; Jain, Bhupendra Kumar; Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Tandon, Anupama

    2013-01-01

    Jugular venous aneurysm is an extremely rare condition. The patients presented with a painless swelling in the neck that appears while coughing, straining, bending, or breath holding. Detection of a soft and compressible swelling in the course of an external jugular vein (EJV) superficial to the sternomastoid muscle, non-filling on compression of the EJV during Valsalva maneuver clinches the diagnosis of EJV aneurysm. Color Doppler ultrasound allows precise delineation of the lesion and is considered the gold standard for confirming the diagnosis. Surgical excision is indicated mostly for cosmetic reasons and symptomatic aneurysms. We, herein, report a patient with saccular external jugular venous aneurysm to highlight the typical clinical presentation and diagnosis of this rare entity. PMID:23633867

  9. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO EXTERNAL RADIATION IN SWITZERLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, S; Baechler, S; Damet, J; Elmiger, R; Frei, D; Giannini, S; Leupin, A; Sarott, F; Schuh, R

    2016-09-01

    Individual monitoring for both external and internal exposures is well regulated in Switzerland. The article gives an overview on the occupational exposure to external radiation of workers based on the data collected in the Swiss national dose registry (NDR) in 2013. The NDR records the monthly doses of radiation workers since the introduction of ICRP 60 recommendations and is manifested in the Swiss ordinance since 1994. Annual dose limits for effective dose are typically exceeded once a year in Switzerland, mostly in medicine. The NDR is a useful optimisation tool to identify and characterise areas with the highest exposures. While exceeded dose limits were often related to accidental acute exposure in the past, they are now more related to continuous exposure during normal work, especially in medicine.

  10. Experiments with Externally Prestressed Continuous Composite Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel-concrete composite girders have attractive potentials when applied in bridge construction. The serviceability performance of continuous composite girders is becoming more and more a deterministic parameter in the design of this type of structures. An effective method for improving this performance is to apply prestressing to control or completely eliminate concrete deck cracking caused by static and time dependent actions. Little literature has been found addressing the experimental analysis of continuous girders prestressed by means of external deviated tendons. The current research aims to investigate the behavior of a double-span steel composite beam externally prestressed by means of continuous tendons in terms of cracking characteristics, load deflection response, and load carrying capacity. The efficiency of prestressing is evaluated by comparing the results to those of a non-prestressed beam with similar cross sections and spans.

  11. Vertical external cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Holm, M

    2001-01-01

    Active stabilisation showed a relative locked linewidth of approx 3 kHz. Coarse tuning over 7 nm was achieved using a 3-plate birefingent filter plate while fine-tuning using cavity length change allowed tuning over 250 MHz. Vertical external cavity semiconductor lasers have emerged as an interesting technology based on current vertical cavity semiconductor laser knowledge. High power output into a single transverse mode has attracted companies requiring good fibre coupling for telecommunications systems. The structure comprises of a grown semiconductor Bragg reflector topped with a multiple quantum well gain region. This is then included in an external cavity. This device is then optically pumped to promote laser action. Theoretical modelling of AIGaAs based VECSEL structures was undertaken, showing the effect of device design on laser characteristics. A simple 3-mirror cavity was constructed to assess the static characteristics of the structure. Up to 153 mW of output power was achieved in a single transver...

  12. Internal entanglement amplification by external interactions

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme to control the level of entanglement between two fixed spin-1/2 systems by interaction with a third particle. For specific designs, entanglement is shown to be "pumped" into the system from the surroundings even when the spin-spin interaction within the system is small or nonexistent. The effect of the external particle on the system is introduced by including a dynamic spinor in the Hamiltonian. Controlled amplification of the internal entanglement to its maximum value is...

  13. Stabilization of Externally Slung Helicopter Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-01

    maximum slir^ Loao weighting and " vertical bounce ." The last question provides information on multi-point suspension of external 1oads. PHASE...an allowable cargo load, and vertical bounce . 110 Maximum Sling Load Weight The maximum sling load lifted by a CH-47B helicopter under...changes were made in their flying technique except for very smooth flight control inputs when lifting an ACL. Vertical Bounce Fifteen of the forty Army

  14. External Performance in Low-Income Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Prati; Luca A Ricci; Lone Engbo Christiansen; Stephen Tokarick; Thierry Tressel

    2011-01-01

    Assessments of exchange rate misalignments and external imbalances for low-income countries are challenging because methodologies developed for advanced and emerging economies cannot be automatically applied to poorer nations. This paper uses a large database, unique in the set of indicators and number of countries it covers, to estimate the relationship in low-income countries between a set of fundamentals in the medium to long term and the real effective exchange rate, the current account, ...

  15. Lesions in the external auditory canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank S Chatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The external auditory canal is an S- shaped osseo-cartilaginous structure that extends from the auricle to the tympanic membrane. Congenital, inflammatory, neoplastic, and traumatic lesions can affect the EAC. High-resolution CT is well suited for the evaluation of the temporal bone, which has a complex anatomy with multiple small structures. In this study, we describe the various lesions affecting the EAC.

  16. Dynamic Range Reporting in External Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Nekrich, Yakov

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a dynamic external memory data structure that supports range reporting queries in three dimensions in $O(\\log_B^2 N + \\frac{k}{B})$ I/O operations, where $k$ is the number of points in the answer and $B$ is the block size. This is the first dynamic data structure that answers three-dimensional range reporting queries in $\\log_B^{O(1)} N + O(\\frac{k}{B})$ I/Os.

  17. Imaging findings in external snapping hip syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh; Connolly, Bairbre L. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Image Guided Therapy, Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Narayanan, Unni [The Hospital for Sick Children, Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery, Toronto (Canada); Babyn, Paul S. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    We describe a case of external snapping hip diagnosed by dynamic sonography. The case prompted us to retrospectively review the imaging findings of children who clinically had presented with snapping hip. From this review we identified the features on MRI and CT of either thickening of the iliotibial band or thickening of the anterior edge of the gluteus maximus muscle as the cause of snapping and atrophy of the bulk of gluteus maximus muscle as an important secondary sign associated with snapping. (orig.)

  18. On Expressing Value Externalities in Position Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin, Florin; Rao, Malvika; Huang, Chien-Chung; Parkes, David C.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a bidding language for expressing negative value externalities in position auctions for online advertising. The unit-bidder constraints (UBC) language allows a bidder to condition a bid on its allocated slot and on the slots allocated to other bidders. We introduce a natural extension of the Generalized Second Price (GSP) auction, the expressive GSP (eGSP) auction, that induces truthful revelation of constraints for a rich subclass of unit-bidder types,namely downward-monotonic U...

  19. Position Auctions with Externalities and Brand Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, Patrick; McAfee, R. Preston

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents models for predicted click-through rates in position auctions that take into account two possibilities that are not normally considered---that the identities of ads shown in other positions may affect the probability that an ad in a particular position receives a click (externalities) and that some ads may be less adversely affected by being shown in a lower position than others (brand effects). We present a general axiomatic methodology for how click probabilities are aff...

  20. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL NETWORK ENTERPRISES GENERAL APPROACHES

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to make distinction between multiple uses of the word "network" considered both inside and outside the enterprise. Starting from the reference literature on supply chain management, logistic, networks of enterprises, this article presents the main features of internal and external enterprise networks and investigates their impact on enterprises' organization manner. We also explore the relationship between networks and innovation deployment.

  1. The MNC as an Externally Embedded Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Ambos, Björn; Schlegelmilch, Bodo B.

    2011-01-01

    MNCs have been conceptualized as differentiated networks that, in turn, are embedded in external networks. Previous research has predominantly focused on the embeddedness of established subsidiaries into their local environment, omitting to shed light on the phenomenon of headquarters linkages to...... more overlapping network ties when subsidiaries are high performers, hold important resources, operate in turbulent environments, and are closely connected to multinational actors as opposed to purely domestic firms....

  2. External legitimation in international new ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores within the framework of new venture legitimation how and why international new ventures acquire external legitimacy and strive for survival in the face of critical events. Following a longitudinal multiple-case study methodology that was adopted for the purpose of theory...... threshold, and on the valuation of the venture are discussed and respective propositions are put forward to guide future research....

  3. Dynamic External Hashing: The Limit of Buffering

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Zhewei; Zhang, Qin

    2008-01-01

    Hash tables are one of the most fundamental data structures in computer science, in both theory and practice. They are especially useful in external memory, where their query performance approaches the ideal cost of just one disk access. Knuth gave an elegant analysis showing that with some simple collision resolution strategies such as linear probing or chaining, the expected average number of disk I/Os of a lookup is merely $1+1/2^{\\Omega(b)}$, where each I/O can read a disk block containing $b$ items. Inserting a new item into the hash table also costs $1+1/2^{\\Omega(b)}$ I/Os, which is again almost the best one can do if the hash table is entirely stored on disk. However, this assumption is unrealistic since any algorithm operating on an external hash table must have some internal memory (at least $\\Omega(1)$ blocks) to work with. The availability of a small internal memory buffer can dramatically reduce the amortized insertion cost to $o(1)$ I/Os for many external memory data structures. In this paper we...

  4. Externalities, Floating Population and Spatial Agglomeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Yu; Wang Chuansheng; Fan Jie

    2007-01-01

    With the further development of socialist market economy,the mobility of factor markets in China,especially the labor market.is strengthened.Extemalities interacts with the agglomeration of productive factors.Under the framework of new economic geographg this article presents a theoretical model involving the endogenous population density affected by urban externalities.Results show that the population density is more concentrated around the center because the degree and extent of interaction between individuals intensifies when the distance from the center decreases.When there are several extemalifies resonurces,the aggregation of externalities changes the configuration of spatial factor allocation.These results fit well with the empirical facts about the decreasing density of floating population along the cities of Guangzhou,Dongguan and Shenzhen in Guangdong Province which is situat d in the eastern coast of the Pearl River Delta.We find that under the impacts of externalities released from Hong Kong into the coast,floating population Was more concentrated around Shenzhen and Dongguan,which are more adjacent to Hong Kong compared with Guangzhou City.

  5. Monetization of Environmental Externalities (Emissions from Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle BROSE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy from agriculture is today in the heart of sustainabledevelopment, integrating its key components: environment and climate change,energy economics and energy supply, agriculture, rural and social development.Each bioenergy production route presents externalities that must be assessed inorder to compare one bioenergy route to another (bioenergy route. The lack ofprimary and reliable data on externalities is, nevertheless, an important nontechnologicalbarrier to the implementation of the best (bioenergy routes. In thisarticle, we want to monetize one environmental externality from bioenergy:emissions (GHG: CO2, CH4, N2O, O3; CO, NOx, SO2, metal, and PM. We have tomonetize emissions on the basis of their effects on health, global warming, and soiland water quality. Emissions will be quantified through Life Cycle Analysis (LCAand ECOINVENT database. Impacts on health will be monetized on the basis ofmortality (number of life expectancy years lost multiplied by Value Of Life Year(VOLY and morbidity (number of ill persons multiplied by Cost Of Illness(COI. Impacts on global warming will be monetized by Benefits Transfers fromthe Stern Review and its critics. Finally, impacts on soil and water quality will bemonetized by Averting Behaviour or Defensive Expenses methods. Monetizationresults will be gathered, weighted, and incorporated in states and firms’ decisionmakingtools. They would enhance capacity of policy makers and managers tochose the best (bioenergy routes.

  6. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany’s leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information. PMID:26204451

  7. Holographic Interferometry Applications In External Osteosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquot, P.; Rastogi, P. K.; Pflug, L.

    1985-08-01

    In order to maintain fragments of fractured bones in a state of immobilization, the use of an external rigid frame has proved to be very advantageous. Confronted by contradictory requirements, the conception of external fixation has, however, been a difficult task. The present paper aims to show, through three examples of varied bearings, the interest of holographic interferometry in external osteosynthesis. The first example deals with the mechanical behavior of a key element of the fixation device the ball joint submitted to realistic loads. The last two examples compare two models of ball joints as to their characteristics of rigidity and of resistance to slipping. Whereas in the former case holographic interferometry primarily fulfills the function of a prelude to the modelization work, in the latter cases it serves to formulate an engineering diagnostic. The findings relate to the remarkable elastic behavior of the ball joint, to the effectiveness of a lightened bowl design, and to the fact that cousin models may behave quite differently as to their resistance to slipping rotations of the bar. In comparison with other experimental methods, holographic interferometry appears to be very competitive and result-oriented and, as such, is expected to multiply applications in similar evaluation tasks.

  8. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany's leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information.

  9. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Carro

    Full Text Available We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany's leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information.

  10. Classical Noncommutative Electrodynamics with External Source

    CERN Document Server

    Adorno, T C; Shabad, A E; Vassilevich, D V

    2011-01-01

    In a $U(1)_{\\star}$-noncommutative (NC) gauge field theory we extend the Seiberg-Witten (SW) map to include the (gauge-invariance-violating) external current and formulate - to the first order in the NC parameter - gauge-covariant classical field equations. We find solutions to these equations in the vacuum and in an external magnetic field, when the 4-current is a static electric charge of a finite size $a$, restricted from below by the elementary length. We impose extra boundary conditions, which we use to rule out all singularities, $1/r$ included, from the solutions. The selected solutions neither should nor do withstand the limiting transition $a \\rightarrow 0$. The static charge proves to be a magnetic dipole, with the magnetic moment depending on its size $a$. The external magnetic field modifies the long-range Coulomb field and some electromagnetic form-factors. We also analyze the ambiguity in the SW map and show that at least to the order studied here it is equivalent to the ambiguity of adding a ho...

  11. External CSR Communication in a Strategic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Corina GLIGOR-CIMPOIERU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of a strategic approach, aimed at assuring mutual benefits for the social cause and the business organization, a good CSR - Corporate Social Responsibility communication is vital for the success of a CSR program. We argue that there is not a problem with the legitimacy of the CSR concept, but rather to its implementation. If a business organization implementing socially responsible initiatives is focusing only on reaping the image benefits from a simple public relations perspective, then it loses all the potential business benefits it could gain from a strategic approach focused on long term real results in a win-win perspective. The fact that the image benefit is one of the most important incentives that a business organization could obtain for engaging in CSR activities cannot be ignored, and that is the reason why we have chosen to analyse the topic of CSR communication, mainly external communication, as an important link in the process of implementing a CSR program, that plays an important part for the success of a CSR program. The approach on CSR communication should definitely be a strategic one, and long already common forms of external CSR communication like web pages or CSR annual reports new means of social media networks have an increasing importance. For the practical part of the paper, we were interested in analyzing how much of the external CSR communication in the Romanian business environment is oriented toward a traditional or a strategic approach.

  12. Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis.

  13. International labor migration and external debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, J A

    1987-01-01

    The prevailing Mexican and US definitions of undocumented migration are poles apart. The US views it as a criminal problem. Mexicans view the undocumented migrants as actors in an economic game in which the rules are extremely disadvantageous to these migrants. Migrants themselves and their communities view the undocumented as a positive element. It is necessary to move toward a bilateral focus and bilateral negotiation on the issue of migratory workers. This proposal derives from several assumptions: 1) the external debt is a bilateral or multilateral issue, 2) it is important to avoid forcing debtor countries to choose between stimulating economic growth or making payment on their foreign debt, 3) prevailing public opinion in the US favors halting undocumented migration, 4) the US views the migration of undocumented Mexicans as the result of forces endogenous to Mexico and exogenous to the US, 5) the US views both Mexico's ability to make payment on its external debt and to halt emigration as tied to the Mexican government's ability or inability to reconcile political stability with scarce monetary resources, and 6) political instability in Mexico could augment emigration to the US and undermine Mexico's ability to address its foreign debt. The following proposal suggests means to link negotiation on the external debt to that of undocumented migration: 1) The Mexican government could reach an accord with the US to channel a portion of the actual interest on the external debt as a fund to be invested in Mexico to construct a system of labor intensive agroindustrial productive units designed to attract former or potential migratory workers; 2) the total amount of these funds would be deducted from interest payments on the principal of the actual external debt and redefined as an ad hoc loan to Mexico to finance these production units; 3) part of the production from these units would be incorporated into ongoing US food relief and food assistance programs; 4) the

  14. A Methodology Proposal to Calculate the Externalities of Liquid Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Varela, M. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    The aim of the survey is to propose a methodology to calculate the externalities associated with the liquid bio fuels cycle. The report defines the externalities from a theoretical point of view and classifies them. The reasons to value the externalities are explained as well as the existing methods. Furthermore, an evaluation of specific environmental and non-environmental externalities is also presented. The report reviews the current situation of the transport sector, considering its environmental effects and impacts. The progress made by the ExternE and ExternE-transport projects related the externalities of transport sector is assessed. Finally, the report analyses the existence of different economic instruments to internalize the external effects of the transport sector as well as other aspects of this internalization. (Author) 58 refs.

  15. IMPORTANCE OF DELIVERY CONDITIONS IN THE EXTERNAL PRICE CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The delivery conditions of the merchandise at export, established by the rules INCOTERMS2000, influence the external price structure. There are some conditions in which the external priceincludes only the value of the merchandise and other conditions in which, besides the value of themerchandise, the price includes also the external transport and insurance. In the case of the exportson commercial credit, when it appears the notion of external interest, this one may be included in theprice or may be invoiced separately, thus defining gross external prices and net external prices.

  16. External NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antos-Krzeminska, Nina; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2014-09-01

    The mitochondrial respiratory chain of plants and some fungi contains multiple rotenone-insensitive NAD(P)H dehydrogenases, of which at least two are located on the outer surface of the inner membrane (i.e., external NADH and external NADPH dehydrogenases). Annotated sequences of the putative alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenases of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii demonstrated similarity to plant and fungal sequences. We also studied activity of these dehydrogenases in isolated A. castellanii mitochondria. External NADPH oxidation was observed for the first time in protist mitochondria. The coupling parameters were similar for external NADH oxidation and external NADPH oxidation, indicating similar efficiencies of ATP synthesis. Both external NADH oxidation and external NADPH oxidation had an optimal pH of 6.8 independent of relevant ubiquinol-oxidizing pathways, the cytochrome pathway or a GMP-stimulated alternative oxidase. The maximal oxidizing activity with external NADH was almost double that with external NADPH. However, a lower Michaelis constant (K(M)) value for external NADPH oxidation was observed compared to that for external NADH oxidation. Stimulation by Ca(2+) was approximately 10 times higher for external NADPH oxidation, while NADH dehydrogenase(s) appeared to be slightly dependent on Ca(2+). Our results indicate that external NAD(P)H dehydrogenases similar to those in plant and fungal mitochondria function in mitochondria of A. castellanii.

  17. In vitro test of external Qigong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reading Melissa

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Practitioners of the alternative medical practice 'external Qigong' generally claim the ability to emit or direct "healing energy" to treat patients. We investigated the ability of experienced Qigong practitioners to enhance the healthy growth of cultured human cells in a series of studies, each following a rigorously designed protocol with randomization, blinding and controls for variability. Methods Qigong practitioners directed healing intentionality toward normal brain cell cultures in a basic science laboratory. Qigong treatments were delivered for 20 minutes from a minimum distance of 10 centimeters. Cell proliferation was measured by a standard colony-forming efficiency (CFE assay and a CFE ratio (CFE for treated samples/CFE for sham samples was the dependent measure for each experiment. Results During a pilot study (8 experiments, a trend of increased cell proliferation in Qigong-treated samples (CFE Qigong/sham ratios > 1.0 was observed (P = 0.162. In a formal study (28 experiments, a similar trend was observed, with Qigong-treated samples showing on average more colony formation than sham samples (P = 0.036. In a replication study (60 experiments, no significant difference between Qigong-treated samples and sham samples was observed (P = 0.465. Conclusion We observed an apparent increase in the proliferation of cultured cells following external Qigong treatment by practitioners under strictly controlled conditions, but we did not observe this effect in a replication study. These results suggest the need for more controlled and thorough investigation of external Qigong before scientific validation is claimed.

  18. Optimal External-Memory Planar Point Enclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Samoladas, Vasilis; Yi, Ke

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study the external memory planar point enclosure problem: Given N axis-parallel rectangles in the plane, construct a data structure on disk (an index) such that all K rectangles containing a query point can be reported I/O-efficiently. This problem has important applications in e...... term O(K/B) is desired. To show this we prove a general lower bound on the tradeoff between the size of the data structure and its query cost. We also develop a family of structures with matching space and query bounds....

  19. Externally definable sets and dependent pairs II

    CERN Document Server

    Chernikov, Artem

    2012-01-01

    We continue investigating the structure of externally definable sets in NIP theories and preservation of NIP after expanding by new predicates. Most importantly: types over finite sets are uniformly definable; over a model, a family of non-forking instances of a formula (with parameters ranging over a type-definable set) can be covered with finitely many invariant types; we give some criteria for the boundedness of an expansion by a new predicate in a distal theory; naming an arbitrary small indiscernible sequence preserves NIP, while naming a large one doesn't; there are models of NIP theories over which all 1-types are definable, but not all n-types.

  20. EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL CONTROL IN PLANT DEVELOPMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beáta Oborny

    2003-01-01

    Bodies of plants are modularly organized. Development proceeds by adding new modules to open endings with a potential for branching. Each module is autonomous to some extent. Development relies on the self-organized patterns that emerge from the interactions of individual modules. Interactions include both competition and cooperation, and several types of positive and negative feedback loops are involved. Development can be open to external influences, thus enabling the plant to adjust its form to the environment, for example, to the spatial distribution of ecological resources. This paper provides a review on adaptive plasticity in plants.

  1. Migration cost externality and interregional equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, C

    1994-01-01

    "This paper will investigate the characteristics of population allocation between two regions in the presence of migration cost. It will also examine both populations and the non-migration range of the initial population in which migration does not occur, in social optimum and market equilibrium with central government intervention, to reveal migration cost externality, and to propose a remedy for it." The author finds that "migration cost gives the social planner an additional burden of population reallocation, and it has an important effect upon an individual's decisions on migration in a decentralized market mechanism."

  2. Cancer of the external auditory canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyrop, Mette; Grøntved, Aksel

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of surgery for cancer of the external auditory canal and relate this to the Pittsburgh staging system used both on squamous cell carcinoma and non-squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: Retrospective case series of all patients who had surgery between 1979 and 2000....... PATIENTS: Ten women and 10 men with previously untreated primary cancer. Median age at diagnosis was 67 years (range, 31-87 years). Survival data included 18 patients with at least 2 years of follow-up or recurrence. INTERVENTION: Local canal resection or partial temporal bone resection. MAIN OUTCOME...

  3. Extremely Intense Magnetospheric Substorms : External Triggering? Preconditioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Echer, Ezequiel; Hajra, Rajkumar

    2016-07-01

    We study particularly intense substorms using a variety of near-Earth spacecraft data and ground observations. We will relate the solar cycle dependences of events, determine whether the supersubstorms are externally or internally triggered, and their relationship to other factors such as magnetospheric preconditioning. If time permits, we will explore the details of the events and whether they are similar to regular (Akasofu, 1964) substorms or not. These intense substorms are an important feature of space weather since they may be responsible for power outages.

  4. External combustion wankel engine for solar applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovarsky, N.; Kaftori, D.; Gamzon, E.; Dgani, E. [Silver Arrow (Israel)

    1999-03-01

    An External Combustion Wankel Engine (ECWE), intended for use in a dish-engine solar power plant is discussed. The engine operates in a Brayton cycle using a gaseous working fluid, which is heated outside of the engine by concentrated solar radiation or fossil fuel. A computer simulation code that models the ECWE's operation and performance has been developed The program takes into account all of the engine's characteristics, subsystems and operating conditions. In the present work, the advantages and features of ECWE are considered in detail, together with simulation results of its performance. (authors)

  5. Learning from external environments using Soar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, John E.

    1989-01-01

    Soar, like the previous PRODIGY and Theo, is a problem-solving architecture that attempts to learn from experience; unlike them, it takes a more uniform approach, using a single forward-chaining architecture for planning and execution. Its single learning mechanism, designated 'chunking', is domain-independent. Two developmental approaches have been employed with Soar: the first of these allows the architecture to attempt a problem on its own, while the second involves a degree of external guidance. This learning through guidance is integrated with general problem-solving and autonomous learning, leading to an avoidance of human interaction for simple problems that Soar can solve on its own.

  6. Weld pool visual sensing without external illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jinchao; Fan, Zhun; Olsen, Soren Ingvor

    2011-01-01

    Visual sensing in arc welding has become more and more important, but still remains challenging because of the harsh environment with extremely strong illumination from the arc. This paper presents a low-cost camera-based sensor system, without using external Illumination, but nevertheless able...... to sense and model the weld pool. Central is a carefully selected optical filtering as well as an active contour-based tracking of the weld pool boundary. The system is able to extract the 2D shape of the weld pool in real time. The reported experiments show the feasibility of this approach....

  7. Dollarization and External Sustainability of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Karimova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we attempt to explain that expanding current account deficit of Turkey can be a highlighting signal of its dependency on foreign capital inflows. When private non-financial firms borrow in foreign currency, they face currency mismatch in their balance sheets. Statistical analyses of aggregated balance sheet data of non-financial sector revealed that the negative gap between firms’ dollarized assets and liabilities has been increasing considerably in Turkey. This creates financial exposure by private non-financial sector. Given a high level of liability dollarization by firms in Turkish economy, it is exposed dramatically to the changes in external and domestic conditions.

  8. External Debt and Economic Growth in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasfi Fkili Wahiba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify the effect of external debt on economic growth; we used the debt service as percentage of exports and debt indicators in the first and second degree. The econometric estimation showed that the sign of the coefficient of debt is positive and the debt squared is negative, and beyond a certain stock, the impact of debt on growth becomes negative and Tunisia must control its debts as additional increases will have adverse impacts on the economic performance of the country. Therefore, the borrowing should remain a necessity in cases of extreme emergency, not a solution to all economic problems experienced by the country.

  9. External insulation with cellular plastic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Nielsen, Anker

    2014-01-01

    External thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS) can be used as extra insulation of existing buildings. The system can be made of cellular plastic materials or mineral wool. There is a European Technical guideline, ETAG 004, that describe the tests that shall be conducted on such systems....... This paper gives a comparison of systems with mineral wool and cellular plastic, based on experience from practice and literature. It is important to look at the details in the system and at long time stability of the properties such as thermal insulation, moisture and fire. Investigation of fire properties...... insulation....

  10. Capsules with external navigation and triggered release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchukin, Dmitry G; Shchukina, Elena

    2014-10-01

    Encapsulation is an important technology for pharmaceutical industry, food production, et cetera. Its current level of development requires capsule functionalization. One of the interesting ideas to provide new functionality to the microcapsule and nanocapsule is layer-by-layer deposition of functional species. This technique provides step-by-step adsorption of various species (polyelectrolytes, nanoparticles, proteins) when the layer growth is controlled by electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic forces and forming multilayer shells with nanometer precision. This review article introduces recent achievements of layer-by-layer technique attaining external navigation ability and release properties the capsule shell.

  11. External cavity diode laser around 657 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Desheng Lǖ (吕德胜); Kaikai Huang (黄凯凯); Fengzhi Wang (王凤芝); DonghaiYang (杨东海)

    2003-01-01

    Operating a laser diode in an external cavity, which provides frequency-selective feedback, is a very effective method to tune the laser frequency to a range far from its free running frequency. For the Ca atomic Ramsey spectroscopy experiment, we have constructed a 657-nm laser system based on the LittmanMetcalf configuration with a 660-nm commercial laser diode. Continuously 10-GHz tuning range was achieved with about 100-kHz spectral linewidth, measured with beat-note spectrum of two identical laser systems.

  12. EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2014-01-01

    EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Bart Van Vooren and Ramses A. Wessel, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2014.......EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Bart Van Vooren and Ramses A. Wessel, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2014....

  13. Intradermal melanocytic nevus of the external auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Renato V; Brandão, Fabiano H; Aquino, José E P; Carvalho, Maria R M S; Giancoli, Suzana M; Younes, Eduado A P

    2005-01-01

    Intradermal nevi are common benign pigmented skin tumors. Their occurrence within the external auditory canal is uncommon. The clinical and pathologic features of an intradermal nevus arising within the external auditory canal are presented, and the literature reviewed.

  14. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschgens, Cathelijne J M; van Aken, Marcel A G; Swinkels, Sophie H N; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2010-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands (N = 2,230). Regression analyses were used to determine the relative contribution of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles to parent and teacher ratings of externalizing behaviors. FR-EXT was based on lifetime parental externalizing psychopathology and the different parenting styles (emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection) were based on the child's perspective. We also investigated whether different dimensions of perceived parenting styles had different effects on subdomains of externalizing behavior. We found main effects for FR-EXT (vs. no FR-EXT), emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection that were fairly consistent across rater and outcome measures. More specific, emotional warmth was the most consistent predictor of all outcome measures, and rejection was a stronger predictor of aggression and delinquency than of inattention. Interaction effects were found for FR-EXT and perceived parental rejection and overprotection; other interactions between FR-EXT and parenting styles were not significant. Correlations between FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles were absent or very low and were without clinical significance. Predominantly main effects of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles independently contribute to externalizing behaviors in preadolescents, suggesting FR-EXT and parenting styles to be two separate areas of causality. The relative lack of gene-environment interactions may be due to the epidemiological nature of the study, the preadolescent age of the subjects, the measurement level of parenting and the measurement level of FR-EXT, which might be a consequence of both genetic and

  15. External-Memory Algorithms and Data Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Zeh, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    . This is due to the huge difference in access time of fast internal memory and slower external memory such as disks. The goal of theoretical work in the area of external memory algorithms (also called I/O algorithms or out-of-core algorithms) has been to develop algorithms that minimize the Input....../Output communication (or just I/O) performed when solving a given problem. The area was effectively started in the late eighties by Aggarwal and Vitter and subsequently I/O algorithms have been developed for several problem domain. Also I/O performance can often be improved if many disks can efficiently be used...... in parallel and the use of parallel disks has received a lot of theoretical attention. See below for recent surveys of theoretical results in the area of I/O-efficient algorithms. TPIE is designed to bridge the gap between the theory and practice of parallel I/O systems. It is intended to demonstrate all...

  16. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J{sub 2}/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated.

  17. The SNS External Antenna H- Ion Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welton, Robert F [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL; Crisp, Danny W [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Han, Baoxi [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL; Santana, Manuel [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based, pulsed neutron-scattering facility, currently in the process of ramping up neutron production. In order to insure that we will meet our operational commitments as well as provide for future facility upgrades with high reliability, we have developed an RF-driven, H- ion source based on a ceramic aluminum nitride (AlN) plasma chamber [1]. This source is expected to be utilized by the SNS for neutron production starting in 2009. This report details the design of the production source which features an AlN plasma chamber, 2-layer external antenna, cooled-multicusp magnet array, Cs2CrO4 cesium system and a Molybdenum plasma ignition gun. Performance of the production source both on the SNS accelerator and SNS test stand is reported. The source has also been designed to accommodate an elemental Cs system with an external reservoir which has demonstrated unanalyzed beam currents up to ~100mA (60Hz, 1ms) on the SNS ion source test stand.

  18. Economical evaluation of electricity generation considering externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Kordy, M.N.; Badr, M.A.; Abed, K.A. [National Research Center, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Giza (Egypt); Ibrahim, Said M.A. [Al-Azhar Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    2002-02-01

    The economics of renewable energy are the largest barrier to renewable penetration. Nevertheless, the strong desire to reduce environmental emissions is considered a great support for renewable energy sources. In this paper, a full analysis for the cost of the kWh of electricity generated from different systems actually used in Egypt is presented. Also renewable energy systems are proposed and their costs are analyzed. The analysis considers the external cost of emissions from different generating systems. A proposed large scale PV plant of 3.3 MW, and a wind farm 11.25 MW grid connected at different sites are investigated. A life cycle cost analysis for each system was performed using the present value criterion. The comparison results showed that wind energy generation has the lowest cost, followed by a combined cycle-natural gas fired system. A photovoltaic system still uses comparatively expensive technology for electricity generation; even when external costs are considered the capital cost of photovoltaic needs to be reduced by about 60% in order to be economically competitive. (Author)

  19. Plasmonic external cavity laser refractometric sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Lu, Meng; Ge, Chun; Cunningham, Brian T

    2014-08-25

    Combining the high sensitivity properties of surface plasmon resonance refractive index sensing with a tunable external cavity laser, we demonstrate a plasmonic external cavity laser (ECL) for high resolution refractometric sensing. The plasmonic ECL utilizes a plasmonic crystal with extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) as the wavelength-selective element, and achieves single mode lasing at the transmission peak of the EOT resonance. The plasmonic ECL refractometric sensor maintains the high sensitivity of a plasmonic crystal sensor, while simultaneously providing a narrow spectral linewidth through lasing emission, resulting in a record high figure of merit for refractometric sensing with an active or passive optical resonator. We demonstrate single-mode and continuous-wave operation of the electrically-pumped laser system, and show the ability to measure refractive index changes with a 3σ detection limit of 1.79 × 10(-6) RIU. The demonstrated approach is a promising path towards label-free optical biosensing with enhanced signal-to-noise ratios for challenging applications in small molecule drug discovery and pathogen sensing.

  20. Composite vector particles in external electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Zohreh; Detmold, William

    2016-01-01

    Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) studies of electromagnetic properties of hadrons and light nuclei, such as magnetic moments and polarizabilities, have proven successful with the use of background field methods. With an implementation of nonuniform background electromagnetic fields, properties such as charge radii and higher electromagnetic multipole moments (for states of higher spin) can additionally be obtained. This can be achieved by matching lattice QCD calculations to a corresponding low-energy effective theory that describes the static and quasistatic responses of hadrons and nuclei to weak external fields. With particular interest in the case of vector mesons and spin-1 nuclei such as the deuteron, we present an effective field theory of spin-1 particles coupled to external electromagnetic fields. To constrain the charge radius and the electric quadrupole moment of the composite spin-1 field, the single-particle Green's functions in a linearly varying electric field in space are obtained within the effective theory, providing explicit expressions that can be used to match directly onto lattice QCD correlation functions. The viability of an extraction of the charge radius and the electric quadrupole moment of the deuteron from the upcoming lattice QCD calculations of this nucleus is discussed.

  1. Porous photonic crystal external cavity laser biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinglan; Peh, Jessie; Hergenrother, Paul J.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2016-08-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and testing of a photonic crystal (PC) biosensor structure that incorporates a porous high refractive index TiO2 dielectric film that enables immobilization of capture proteins within an enhanced surface-area volume that spatially overlaps with the regions of resonant electromagnetic fields where biomolecular binding can produce the greatest shifts in photonic crystal resonant wavelength. Despite the nanoscale porosity of the sensor structure, the PC slab exhibits narrowband and high efficiency resonant reflection, enabling the structure to serve as a wavelength-tunable element of an external cavity laser. In the context of sensing small molecule interactions with much larger immobilized proteins, we demonstrate that the porous structure provides 3.7× larger biosensor signals than an equivalent nonporous structure, while the external cavity laser (ECL) detection method provides capability for sensing picometer-scale shifts in the PC resonant wavelength caused by small molecule binding. The porous ECL achieves a record high figure of merit for label-free optical biosensors.

  2. VAC® for external fixation of flail chest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Winge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A large anterior chest wall defect following tumor resection was reconstructed with a Gore- Tex® membrane and a combined musculocutaneous rectus femoris and tensor fasciae latae free flap. Subsequent paradoxical respiration impeded weaning from the ventilator. Appliance of Vacuum Assisted Closure® (VAC® resulted in immediate chest wall stability and a decrease in the patient’s need for respiratory support. Shortly thereafter, the VAC® was discontinued and the patient was discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU. This case report is the first to describe the successful use of VAC® as an adjuvant to a one-stage procedure for large thoracic wall reconstruction, allowing sufficient temporary external fixation to eliminate paradoxical respiration and plausibly shorten the stay in the ICU. No adverse effects on flap healing or haemodynamics were recorded. It is likely that external VAC® can improve thoracic stability and pulmonary function in a patient with flail chest and decrease the need for mechanical ventilation.

  3. A Perspective on External Field QED

    CERN Document Server

    Deckert, D -A

    2015-01-01

    In light of the conference Quantum Mathematical Physics held in Regensburg in 2014, we give our perspective on the external field problem in quantum electrodynamics (QED), i.e., QED without photons in which the sole interaction stems from an external, time-dependent, four-vector potential. Among others, this model was considered by Dirac, Schwinger, Feynman, and Dyson as a model to describe the phenomenon of electron-positron pair creation in regimes in which the interaction between electrons can be neglected and a mean field description of the photon degrees of freedom is valid (e.g., static field of heavy nuclei or lasers fields). Although it may appear as second easiest model to study, it already bares a severe divergence in its equations of motion preventing any straight-forward construction of the corresponding evolution operator. In informal computations of the vacuum polarization current this divergence leads to the need of the so-called charge renormalization. In an attempt to provide a bridge between...

  4. External Otitis: An Unusual Presentation in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peymaneh Alizadeh Taheri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute otitis externa (AOE is an infection of the external auditory canal, the auricle, and the outer surface of the tympanic membrane. Although AOE is one of the most common otologic conditions encountered in pediatric population, it is known to primarily affect children older than 2 years. We report a case of AOE caused by Staphylococcus aureus in a 23-day-old neonate. A 23-day-old female infant presented to our neonatology clinic with irritability and discharge from the right ear. There were yellow otorrhea, mild erythema, and edema of right external ear canal. There was no sign of otitis media on otoscopy. The results of laboratory tests were insignificant. The discharge culture grew colonies of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. After 48 hours of treatment with intravenous cloxacillin, significant improvement was observed. The present case highlights an unusual presentation of staphylococcal infection in a neonate. This is the first case of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus otitis externa in an immunocompetent newborn.

  5. Externalities and the Coase Theorem: A Diagrammatic Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halteman, James

    2005-01-01

    In intermediate microeconomic textbooks the reciprocal nature of externalities is presented using numerical examples of costs and benefits. This treatment of the Coase theorem obscures the fact that externality costs and benefits are best understood as being on a continuum where costs vary with the degree of intensity of the externality. When…

  6. External costs of photovoltaics. What is it based on?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wild-Scholten, M.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Alsema, E.A. [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2004-06-01

    The main aim of the European ExternE research projects was to develop a methodology to calculate the external costs caused by energy production and consumption. External costs are defined as the monetary quantification of the socio-environmental damage, expressed in eurocents per kWh. As such, it can provide a scientific basis for policy decisions and legislative proposals like subsidizing cleaner technologies and energy taxes to 'internalize' the external costs. The ExternE 2003 brochure gives the impression that electricity production from photovoltaics leads to a greater health damage than the electricity production from gas or nuclear power. However, the external cost figures for electricity production in the EU and in Germany are given without references, so it is not clear on which information it is based. This paper aims to retrieve the input data that was used for the calculation of the external costs of photovoltaic systems. Apparently, the two tables 'External cost figures for electricity production in the EU for existing technologies' and 'Quantified marginal external costs of electricity production in Germany' are based on different calculations. For example the sum of external costs for the different technologies given in the first table are not equal to the values presented in the second.

  7. Externalities as a Basis for Regulation: A Philosophical View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, R.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Externalities are an important concept in economic theories of market failure, aiming to justify state regulation of the economy. This paper explores the concept of externalities from a philosophical perspective. It criticizes the utilitarian nature of economic analyses of externalities, showing how

  8. 78 FR 47016 - Submission for Review: Request for External Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Request for External Review AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management... on a new information collection request (ICR) 3206-NEW, Request for External Review. As required by... March 11, 2013, 78 FR 15560, which outlined an external review process that would be available...

  9. Autism and Externalizing Behaviors: Buffering Effects of Parental Emotion Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Berg, Jessica L.; Zurawski, Megan E.; King, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between parental emotion coaching and externalizing behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with ASD often exhibit externalizing behaviors, particularly emotionally driven externalizing behaviors, at a higher rate than their typically developing peers. An…

  10. 21 CFR 870.1750 - External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External programmable pacemaker pulse generator... External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external programmable pacemaker pulse generators is a device that can be programmed to produce one or more pulses at...

  11. QED in external fields, a functional point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre, Jean

    2001-01-01

    A functional partial differential equation is set for the proper graphs generating functional of QED in external electromagnetic fields. This equation leads to the evolution of the proper graphs with the external field amplitude and the external field gauge dependence of the complete fermion propagator and vertex is derived non-perturbativally.

  12. External costs of electricity; Les couts externes de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabl, A. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, 75 (France); Spadaro, J.V. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria)

    2005-07-01

    This article presents a synthesis of the ExternE project (External costs of Energy) of the European community about the external costs of power generation. Pollution impacts are calculated using an 'impact pathways' analysis, i.e. an analysis of the emission - dispersion - dose-response function - cost evaluation chain. Results are presented for different fuel cycles (with several technological variants) with their confidence intervals. The environmental impact costs are particularly high for coal: for instance, in France, for coal-fired power plants it is of the same order as the electricity retail price. For natural gas, this cost is about a third of the one for coal. On the contrary, the environmental impact costs for nuclear and renewable energies are low, typically of few per cent of the electricity price. The main part of these costs corresponds to the sanitary impacts, in particular the untimely mortality. In order to avoid any controversy about the cost evaluation of mortality, the reduction of the expectation of life due to the different fuel cycles is also indicated and the risks linked with nuclear energy are presented using several comparisons. (J.S.)

  13. External effects related to biogas and wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    Energy produced by wind power and biogas is today more expensive than energy produced by fossil fuels. However, by including external costs related to the technologies, the renewable technologies are expected to result in social benefits compared to the conventional power technologies. The paper...... will focus on estimates of externalities related to wind and biogas energy supplies using the ExternE methodology developed in a major study launched by the European Comission. External costs are the costs imporsed on society that are not included in the market price (e.g. effects of air pollution on health...

  14. The avoided external costs of using wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markandya, A. [Harvard Inst. for International Development, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This article discusses the external costs of electricity generated by conventional fossil fuel sources, such as coal and nuclear power. It compares the costs of electricity generated with coal with that generated with wind. A measure of the benefits of wind energy is the difference between these two external costs. The methodology used for the estimation of the external costs, as well as the estimates of these costs, are taken from the EC ExternE study, financed by DGXII of the European Commission. The present author was a lead economist for that study. (author)

  15. Externally Dispersed Interferometry for Precision Radial Velocimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Erskine, D J; Edelstein, J; Lloyd, J; Herter, T; Feuerstein, W M; Muirhead, P; Wishnow, E

    2007-01-01

    Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI) is the series combination of a fixed-delay field-widened Michelson interferometer with a dispersive spectrograph. This combination boosts the spectrograph performance for both Doppler velocimetry and high resolution spectroscopy. The interferometer creates a periodic spectral comb that multiplies against the input spectrum to create moire fringes, which are recorded in combination with the regular spectrum. The moire pattern shifts in phase in response to a Doppler shift. Moire patterns are broader than the underlying spectral features and more easily survive spectrograph blurring and common distortions. Thus, the EDI technique allows lower resolution spectrographs having relaxed optical tolerances (and therefore higher throughput) to return high precision velocity measurements, which otherwise would be imprecise for the spectrograph alone.

  16. RMB:Depreciating Internationally while Appreciating Externally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贝多广; 朱晓莉

    2008-01-01

    RMB has been depreciating internally while appreciating externally since 2002. This new monetary phenomenon, has been strengthened in the context that US dollar depreciates internationally and that domestic economy is overwhelmed with excessive liquidities. Certainly the monetary phenomenon is the reflection of the actual economy: continued trade surplus, triggered robustly by the export-driven economy, is bringing a huge amount of exchange reserve which accelerates sequentially the expansion of domestic money supply. Furthermore, a refrained appreciation of RMB tends to deteriorate the domestic inflation, which is not simply a traditional concept of CPI but a broad inflation parameter including a variety of asset prices. It’s sure that the new phenomenon is becoming a new challenge to the macroeconomic equilibrium as well as the decision maker of monetary policy.

  17. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Kewisch, Jorg; Chang, Xiangyun

    2007-06-05

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  18. Treatment of acromegaly by external irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macleod, A.F.; Clarke, D.G.; Pambakian, H.; Lowy, C.; Sonksen, P.H.; Collins, C.D. (Saint Thomas' Hospital, London (UK))

    1989-03-01

    Despite hypophysectomy as the primary treatment in acromegaly, external radiotherapy maintains a role as a relatively slow but effective therapy for inadequately treated patients or those unsuitable for operation. Over the last 25 years the authors' regimen has differed from published series in that they give a larger dose per fraction, with fewer treatments. They have analysed the efficacy and side-effects of this regimen in 27 subjects with acromegaly. Growth hormone levels have fallen by, on average, 27% per year in the first five years, 83% of subjects achieving a basal growth hormone of <10mU/1. The acute and chronic side-effects of irradiation are discussed, including the relevance of estimates of biological potency, for example Time Dose Fraction (TDF). One patient suffered visual loss that was most likely to be secondary to the radiotherapy. Histological appearances of the pituitary fossa in five subjects previously treated with radiotherapy are reported. (author).

  19. Photonic water dynamically responsive to external stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Koki; Kim, Youn Soo; Ishida, Yasuhiro; Ebina, Yasuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi; Hikima, Takaaki; Aida, Takuzo

    2016-08-01

    Fluids that contain ordered nanostructures with periodic distances in the visible-wavelength range, anomalously exhibit structural colours that can be rapidly modulated by external stimuli. Indeed, some fish can dynamically change colour by modulating the periodic distance of crystalline guanine sheets cofacially oriented in their fluid cytoplasm. Here we report that a dilute aqueous colloidal dispersion of negatively charged titanate nanosheets exhibits structural colours. In this `photonic water', the nanosheets spontaneously adopt a cofacial geometry with an ultralong periodic distance of up to 675 nm due to a strong electrostatic repulsion. Consequently, the photonic water can even reflect near-infrared light up to 1,750 nm. The structural colour becomes more vivid in a magnetic flux that induces monodomain structural ordering of the colloidal dispersion. The reflective colour of the photonic water can be modulated over the entire visible region in response to appropriate physical or chemical stimuli.

  20. Identifying external influences on global precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvel, K.; Bonfils, C.

    2013-11-11

    Changes in global (ocean and land) precipitation are among the most important and least well-understood consequences of climate change. Increasing greenhouse gas concentrations are thought to affect the zonal-mean distribution of precipitation through two basic mechanisms. First, increasing temperatures will lead to an intensification of the hydrological cycle (“thermodynamic” changes). Second, changes in atmospheric circulation patterns will lead to poleward displacement of the storm tracks and subtropical dry zones and to a widening of the tropical belt (“dynamic” changes). We demonstrate that both these changes are occurring simultaneously in global precipitation, that this behavior cannot be explained by internal variability alone, and that external influences are responsible for the observed precipitation changes. Whereas existing model experiments are not of sufficient length to differentiate between natural and anthropogenic forcing terms at the 95% confidence level, we present evidence that the observed trends result from human activities.

  1. The Importance of Engine External's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Barry L.

    2006-01-01

    Engine external components include all the fluid carrying, electron carrying, and support devices that are needed to operate the propulsion system. These components are varied and include: pumps, valves, actuators, solenoids, sensors, switches, heat exchangers, electrical generators, electrical harnesses, tubes, ducts, clamps and brackets. The failure of any component to perform its intended function will result in a maintenance action, a dispatch delay, or an engine in flight shutdown. The life of each component, in addition to its basic functional design, is closely tied to its thermal and dynamic environment .Therefore, to reach a mature design life, the component's thermal and dynamic environment must be understood and controlled, which can only be accomplished by attention to design analysis and testing. The purpose of this paper is to review analysis and test techniques toward achieving good component health.

  2. On population resilience to external perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Roques, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    We study a spatially explicit harvesting model in periodic or bounded environments. The model is governed by a parabolic equation with a spatially dependent nonlinearity of Kolmogorov--Petrovsky--Piskunov type, and a negative external forcing term $-\\delta$. Using sub- and supersolution methods and the characterization of the first eigenvalue of some linear elliptic operators, we obtain existence and nonexistence results as well as results on the number of stationary solutions. We also characterize the asymptotic behavior of the evolution equation as a function of the forcing term amplitude. In particular, we define two critical values $\\delta^*$ and $\\delta_2$ such that, if $\\delta$ is smaller than $\\delta^*$, the population density converges to a "significant" state, which is everywhere above a certain small threshold, whereas if $\\delta$ is larger than $\\delta_2$, the population density converges to a "remnant" state, everywhere below this small threshold. Our results are shown to be useful for studying th...

  3. Social externalities, overlap and the poverty trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Chul; Loury, Glenn C

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies find that some social groups are stuck in poverty traps because of network effects. However, these studies do not carefully analyze how these groups overcome low human capital investment activities. Unlike previous studies, the model in this paper includes network externalities in both the human capital investment stage and the subsequent career stages. This implies that not only the current network quality, but also the expectations about future network quality affect the current investment decision. Consequently, the coordinated expectation among the group members can play a crucial role in the determination of the final state. We define "overlap" for some initial skill ranges, whereby the economic performance of a group can be improved simply by increasing expectations of a brighter future. We also define "poverty trap" for some ranges, wherein a disadvantaged group is constrained by its history, and we explore the egalitarian policies to mobilize the group out of the trap.

  4. The suitability of internal versus external successors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Royer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    of family business succession in order to understand when family successors are preferred because of their family-specific experiential knowledge. A case study analysis from the German-Danish border region explores how a family firm has used internal successors for the last 12 successions. We argue...... that in industries where tacit knowledge forms the basis for competitive advantage, the use of internal successors can help family firms excel after a transition of power has occurred. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed to enhance the long-term perspective for family businesses.......Understanding knowledge transfer in family firm succession is important for the survival of family firms. Previous research has begun to explore the suitability of internal versus external successor in family firms with regard to relevant knowledge types. This paper builds on the contingency model...

  5. Random matrix theory with an external source

    CERN Document Server

    Brézin, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    This is a first book to show that the theory of the Gaussian random matrix is essential to understand the universal correlations with random fluctuations and to demonstrate that it is useful to evaluate topological universal quantities. We consider Gaussian random matrix models in the presence of a deterministic matrix source. In such models the correlation functions are known exactly for an arbitrary source and for any size of the matrices. The freedom given by the external source allows for various tunings to different classes of universality. The main interest is to use this freedom to compute various topological invariants for surfaces such as the intersection numbers for curves drawn on a surface of given genus with marked points, Euler characteristics, and the Gromov–Witten invariants. A remarkable duality for the average of characteristic polynomials is essential for obtaining such topological invariants. The analysis is extended to nonorientable surfaces and to surfaces with boundaries.

  6. Some new external flavonoids from American ferns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenweber, E.

    1979-01-01

    American gymnogrammoid ferns have been analysed for the flavonoid aglycones present in frond exudates. They are predominantly methylated chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavones, and flavonols, occurring mostly as farinose deposit (''ceraceous indument''). This is the first report of external flavonoids on Pterozonium species; a chalcone has been identified. On Cheilanthes kaulfussii and Cheilanthes viscida traces of flavonoid aglycones are observed, dissolved in lipophilic exudate material. On Pellaea longimucronata a flavonol is found even on leaves which appear glaucous. 2',4',6'-Trihydroxychalcone is found for the second time in the plant kingdom on Adiantum sulphureum. Galangin-3,7-dimethylether is found as a new natural flavonol on Cheilanthes kaulfussii. In addition, samples of Pityrogramma chrysoconia and Pit. triangularis var. maxonii have been investigated. The results indicate chemotaxonomic implication of flavonoid patterns.

  7. Behaviour of ferrocholesterics under external magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Emil; Motoc, Cornelia

    2001-08-01

    The influence of an external magnetic field on the orientational behaviour of a ferrocholesteric with a positive magnetic anisotropy is investigated. Both the phenomena arising when the field was switched on or switched off are considered. It is found that the field needed for a ferrocholesteric-ferronematic transition BFC↑ is higher when compared to that obtained for the pure cholesteric ( BC↑). A similar result was obtained when estimating the critical field for the homeotropic ferronematic-ferrocholesteric (focal conic) transition, occurring when the magnetic field was decreased or switched off. We found that BFC↓> BC↓. These results are explained when considering that the magnetic moments of the magnetic powder are not oriented parallel to the liquid crystal molecular directors, therefore hindering their orientation under a magnetic field.

  8. Power outages, power externalities, and baby booms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlando, Alfredo

    2014-08-01

    Determining whether power outages have significant fertility effects is an important policy question in developing countries, where blackouts are common and modern forms of family planning are scarce. Using birth records from Zanzibar, this study shows that a month-long blackout in 2008 caused a significant increase in the number of births 8 to 10 months later. The increase was similar across villages that had electricity, regardless of the level of electrification; villages with no electricity connections saw no changes in birth numbers. The large fertility increase in communities with very low levels of electricity suggests that the outage affected the fertility of households not connected to the grid through some spillover effect. Whether the baby boom is likely to translate to a permanent increase in the population remains unclear, but this article highlights an important hidden consequence of power instability in developing countries. It also suggests that electricity imposes significant externality effects on rural populations that have little exposure to it.

  9. Coupled external cavity photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhriyal, Anusha; Lu, Meng; Ge, Chun; Cunningham, Brian T

    2014-05-01

    We report a fundamentally new approach to enhance fluorescence in which surface adsorbed fluorophore-tagged biomolecules are excited on a photonic crystal surface that functions as a narrow bandwidth and tunable mirror of an external cavity laser. This scheme leads to ∼10× increase in the electromagnetic enhancement factor compared to ordinary photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence. In our experiments, the cavity automatically tunes its lasing wavelength to the resonance wavelength of the photonic crystal, ensuring optimal on-resonance coupling even in the presence of variable device parameters and variations in the density of surface-adsorbed capture molecules. We achieve ∼10(5) × improvement in the limit of detection of a fluorophore-tagged protein compared to its detection on an unpatterned glass substrate. The enhanced fluorescence signal and easy optical alignment make cavity-coupled photonic crystals a viable approach for further reducing detection limits of optically-excited light emitters that are used in biological assays.

  10. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni; Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2009-10-13

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  11. Optical complexity in external cavity semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondoni, Lamberto; Ariffin, M. R. K.; Varatharajoo, Renuganth; Mukherjee, Sayan; Palit, Sanjay K.; Banerjee, Santo

    2017-03-01

    In this article, the window based complexity and output modulation of a time delayed chaotic semiconductor laser (SL) model has been investigated. The window based optical complexity (OC), is measured by introducing the recurrence sample entropy (SampEn). The analysis has been done without and in the presence of external noise. The significant changes in the dynamics can be observed under induced noise with weak strength. It has also been found that there is a strong positive correlation between the output power and the complexity of the system with various sets of parameters. The laser intensity, as well as the OC can be increased with the incremental noise strength and the associated system parameters. Thus, optical complexity quantifies the system dynamics and its instabilities, since is strongly correlated with the laser outputs. This analysis can be applied to measure the laser instabilities and modulation of output power.

  12. The properties of external accretion discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pringle, J.E. (Space Telescope Science Inst., Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1991-02-15

    The properties of external accretion discs (discs with a central source of angular momentum) are explored both analytically and numerically. An illustrative example of the effect of a disc of material around a binary star on the stellar separation is considered. We consider a Greens-function-type solution in which an initial ring of matter is put in orbit around the central binary. We find that the solution splits temporally into three parts. First, the disc evolves as a standard accretion disc unaware of the inner boundary condition. Secondly, the disc interacts with the inner boundary and changes its character to become, thirdly, an outflowing disc which is propelled outwards by the source of angular momentum at the centre. (author).

  13. Stellar Tidal Streams in External Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Carlin, Jeffrey L; Martinez-Delgado, David; Gabany, R Jay

    2016-01-01

    To place the highly substructured stellar halos of the Milky Way and M31 in a larger context of hierarchical galaxy formation, it is necessary to understand the prevalence and properties of tidal substructure around external galaxies. This chapter details the current state of our observational knowledge of streams in galaxies in and beyond the Local Group, which are studied both in resolved stellar populations and in integrated light. Modeling of individual streams in extragalactic systems is hampered by our inability to obtain resolved stellar kinematics in the streams, though many streams contain alternate luminous kinematic tracers, such as globular clusters or planetary nebulae. We compare the observed structures to the predictions of models of galactic halo formation, which provide insight in the number and properties of streams expected around Milky Way like galaxies. More specifically, we discuss the inferences that can be made about stream progenitors based only on observed morphologies. We expand our...

  14. Externalization and Border-induced Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    This multidisciplinary Ph.D. dissertation engages with the timely and much debated topic of European border control. The first two chapters discuss several moral arguments claiming that border control facilitates solidarity and autonomy. These are assessed with reference to central debates in pol...... in-depth research of the privatization of border control through the cases of G4S, Finmeccanica and the EU’s EUROSUR system. The chapter links externalization of border control with European state-driven export markets and shows how states’ export credit agencies, the arms industry...... and the international banking sector all have overlapping interests in privatized border control. Chapter five identifies the multiple flows, technological, personnel, funds and data, maintaining Europe’s border infrastructure, As migrants are circulated between detention camps and countries, dumped in deserts...

  15. Magnetospheric ULF waves driven by external sources

    CERN Document Server

    Agapitov, Oleksiy

    2015-01-01

    The multi-spacecraft missions (Cluster and THEMIS) observations allowed to collect large data base for Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves properties, their localization, and sources. Mainly here we focused on these recent results. Studying of the source and characteristics of ULF waves can help in the understanding of the interaction and energy transport from solar wind to the magnetosphere. Here we present peculiarities of ULF waves generated by different solar wind phenomenon: surface magnetopause instability, magnetosphere cavity modes and solar wind dynamic pressure sudden impulses (SI) penetration into the magnetosphere. Permanent observations of ULF waves involve existence of the permanent source and, as the previous studies showed, the contributions to Pc4-Pc5 ULF wave power from the external sources are larger than the contribution from internal magnetosphere sources. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) can generate on the magnetosphere flanks classical ULF resonant waves with spatially localized ampl...

  16. External trabeculectomy with T-Flux implant.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jungkim, S

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of T-Flux implant in nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery. METHODS: This clinical interventional case series study included 35 eyes of 35 patients with medically uncontrolled primary open angle glaucoma. External trabeculectomy with T-Flux (ETTF) is a technique of nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery, in which after removing deep scleral tissue and un-roofing the canal of Schlemn (CS) the external trabecular tissue is peeled off to enhance the aqueous drainage without opening the anterior chamber. A non-absorbable T-Flux implant (IOL TECH Laboratories, France) was sutured in deep intrascleral space to keep it patent. Snellen\\'s best-corrected visual acuity, slit lamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure (IOP), gonioscopy, funduscopy, and optic disc assessment were performed preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 day, 1 week, and 1, 3 , 6, and 12 months. Visual field testing was performed preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. RESULTS: For three eyes, surgery was converted to standard trabeculectomy owing to the perforation of trabeculo-Descemet\\'s membrane and iris prolapse and excluded from the study. The results of the remaining 32 eyes were included in the study. Preoperative IOP (mean +\\/- SD) of 32.88 +\\/- 5.7 mmHg decreased to 15.44 +\\/- 1.6 mmHg after 12 months. Ten eyes (28.6%) had microhyphema that resolved spontaneously; 3 eyes (8.6%) had microperforation without iris prolapse so ETTF was proceeded routinely. The preoperative number of antiglaucoma medications per patient reduced from (mean +\\/- SD) 2.74 +\\/- 0.61 to 0.11 +\\/- 0.32 postoperatively at 12 months. Visual acuity and visual fields remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: ETTF appears to provide significant control of IOP and have low incidence of complications.

  17. External ventricular drains: Management and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajanandini Muralidharan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insertion of an External Ventricular Drain (EVD is arguably one of the most common and important lifesaving procedures in neurologic intensive care unit. Various forms of acute brain injury benefit from the continuous intracranial pressure (ICP monitoring and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF diversion provided by an EVD. After insertion, EVD monitoring, maintenance and troubleshooting essentially become a nursing responsibility. Methods: Articles pertaining to EVD placement, management, and complications were identified from PubMed electronic database. Results: Typically placed at the bedside by a neurosurgeon or neurointensivist using surface landmarks under emergent conditions, this procedure has the ability to drain blood and CSF to mitigate intracranial hypertension, continuously monitor intracranial pressure, and instill medications. Nursing should ensure proper zeroing, placement, sterility, and integrity of the EVD collecting system. ICP waveform analysis and close monitoring of CSF drainage are extremely important and can affect clinical outcomes of patients. In some institutions, nursing may also be responsible for CSF sampling and catheter irrigation. Conclusion: Maintenance, troubleshooting, and monitoring for EVD associated complications has essentially become a nursing responsibility. Accurate and accountable nursing care may have the ability to portend better outcomes in patients requiring CSF drainage.

  18. Holographic fermions in external magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Gubankova, E; Cubrovic, M; Schalm, K; Schijven, P; Zaanen, J

    2011-01-01

    We study the Fermi level structure of 2+1-dimensional strongly interacting electron systems in external magnetic field using the AdS/CFT correspondence. The gravity dual of a finite density fermion system is a Dirac field in the background of the dyonic AdS-Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. In the probe limit the magnetic system can be reduced to the non-magnetic one, with Landau-quantized momenta and rescaled thermodynamical variables. We find that at strong enough magnetic fields, the Fermi surface vanishes and the quasiparticle is lost either through a crossover to conformal regime or through a phase transition to an unstable Fermi surface. In the latter case, the vanishing Fermi velocity at the critical magnetic field triggers the non-Fermi liquid regime with unstable quasiparticles and a change in transport properties of the system. We associate it with a metal-"strange metal" phase transition. Next we compute compute the DC Hall and longitudinal conductivities using the gravity-dressed fermion propagators....

  19. Dense Molecular Cores Being Externally Heated

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Gwanjeong; Gopinathan, Maheswar; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Kim, Mi-Ryang

    2016-01-01

    We present results of our study on eight dense cores, previously classified as starless, using infrared (3-160 {\\micron}) imaging observations with \\textit{AKARI} telescope and molecular line (HCN and N$_2$H$^+$) mapping observations with \\textit{KVN} telescope. Combining our results with the archival IR to mm continuum data, we examined the starless nature of these eight cores. Two of the eight cores are found to harbor faint protostars having luminosity of $\\sim0.3-4.4$ L$_{\\odot}$. The other six cores are found to remain as starless and probably are in a dynamically transitional state. The temperature maps produced using multi-wavelength images show an enhancement of about 3-6 K towards the outer boundary of these cores, suggesting that they are most likely being heated externally by nearby stars and/or interstellar radiation fields. Large virial parameters and an over-dominance of red asymmetric line profiles over the cores may indicate that the cores are set into either an expansion or an oscillatory mot...

  20. App-assisted external ventricular drain insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhar, Behzad

    2016-09-01

    The freehand technique for insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is based on fixed anatomical landmarks and does not take individual variations into consideration. A patient-tailored approach based on augmented-reality techniques using devices such as smartphones can address this shortcoming. The Sina neurosurgical assist (Sina) is an Android mobile device application (app) that was designed and developed to be used as a simple intraoperative neurosurgical planning aid. It overlaps the patient's images from previously performed CT or MRI studies on the image seen through the device camera. The device is held by an assistant who aligns the images and provides information about the relative position of the target and EVD to the surgeon who is performing EVD insertion. This app can be used to provide guidance and continuous monitoring during EVD placement. The author describes the technique of Sina-assisted EVD insertion into the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle and reports on its clinical application in 5 cases as well as the results of ex vivo studies of ease of use and precision. The technique has potential for further development and use with other augmented-reality devices.

  1. External Beam Radiation in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Billan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC is surgery followed in some cases by adjuvant treatment, mostly with radioactive iodine (RAI. External beam radiotherapy (EBRT is less common and not a well-established treatment modality in DTC. The risk of recurrence depends on three major prognostic factors: extra-thyroid extension, patient’s age, and tumor with reduced iodine uptake. Increased risk for recurrence is a major factor in the decision whether to treat the patient with EBRT. Data about the use of EBRT in DTC are limited to small retrospective studies. Most series have demonstrated an increase in loco-regional control. The risk/benefit from giving EBRT requires careful patient selection. Different scoring systems have been proposed by different investigators and centers. The authors encourage clinicians treating DTC to become familiarized with those scoring systems and to use them in the management of different cases. The irradiated volume should include areas of risk for microscopic disease. Determining those areas in each case can be difficult and requires detailed knowledge of the surgery and pathological results, and also understanding of the disease-spreading pattern. Treatment with EBRT in DTC can be beneficial, and data support the use of EBRT in high-risk patients. Randomized controlled trials are needed for better confirmation of the role of EBRT.

  2. In vivo dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijnheer, Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam 1066 CX (Netherlands); Beddar, Sam [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Izewska, Joanna [Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna 1400 (Austria); Reft, Chester [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    In vivo dosimetry (IVD) is in use in external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to detect major errors, to assess clinically relevant differences between planned and delivered dose, to record dose received by individual patients, and to fulfill legal requirements. After discussing briefly the main characteristics of the most commonly applied IVD systems, the clinical experience of IVD during EBRT will be summarized. Advancement of the traditional aspects of in vivo dosimetry as well as the development of currently available and newly emerging noninterventional technologies are required for large-scale implementation of IVD in EBRT. These new technologies include the development of electronic portal imaging devices for 2D and 3D patient dosimetry during advanced treatment techniques, such as IMRT and VMAT, and the use of IVD in proton and ion radiotherapy by measuring the decay of radiation-induced radionuclides. In the final analysis, we will show in this Vision 20/20 paper that in addition to regulatory compliance and reimbursement issues, the rationale for in vivo measurements is to provide an accurate and independent verification of the overall treatment procedure. It will enable the identification of potential errors in dose calculation, data transfer, dose delivery, patient setup, and changes in patient anatomy. It is the authors' opinion that all treatments with curative intent should be verified through in vivo dose measurements in combination with pretreatment checks.

  3. The External Calibrator for Hydrogen Observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, Daniel C; Bowman, Judd; Neben, Abraham R; Stinnett, Benjamin; Turner, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Multiple instruments are pursuing constraints on dark energy, observing reionization and opening a window on the dark ages through the detection and characterization of the 21cm hydrogen line across the redshift spectrum, from nearby to z=25. These instruments, including CHIME in the sub-meter and HERA in the meter bands, are wide-field arrays with multiple-degree beams, typically operating in transit mode. Accurate knowledge of their primary beams is critical for separation of bright foregrounds from the desired cosmological signals, but difficult to achieve through astronomical observations alone. Previous beam calibration work has focused on model verification and does not address the need of 21cm experiments for routine beam mapping, to the horizon, of the as-built array. We describe the design and methodology of a drone-mounted calibrator, the External Calibrator for Hydrogen Observatories (ECHO), that aims to address this need. We report on a first set of trials to calibrate low-frequency dipoles and co...

  4. Outcome comparison between transcanalicular and external dacryocystorhinostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gunay; Uludag; Baris; Yeniad; Erdinc; Ceylan; Ayse; Yildiz-Tas; Lale; Kozer-Bilgin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the outcomes achieved with external dacryocystorhinostomy(EX-DCR) and transcanalicular dacryocystorhinostomy(TC-DCR) using a multidiode laser in patients with bilateral nasolacrimal duct obstruction(NLDO).METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on38 eyes of 19 patients with bilateral NLDO. Simultaneous bilateral surgery was performed on all patients. TC-DCR(Group 1) with a diode laser was used in the right eye,and EX-DCR(Group 2) was used in the left eye. All patients were placed under general anesthesia. Routine follow-ups were scheduled at 1wk; 1, 3, 6 and 12 mo postoperative intervals. Objective(lacrimal system irrigation) and subjective [tearing, irritation, pain,discharge and visual analogue scale(VAS) score]outcomes were evaluated.RESULTS: The overall objective success rate at 12 mo was 73.7%(14/19) in Group 1 and 89.5 %(17/19) in Group2. This difference was statistically significant. There were no significant between-group differences in the subjective results, such as tearing, pain and irritation.Only the discharge scores were found to be significantly higher in Group 1 compared to Group 2 at the 1y followup. The average VAS score was 6.8 in Group 1 and 8.7 in Group 2, with no statistically significant differences.CONCLUSION: Although TC-DCR allows surgeons to perform a minimally invasive and safe procedure, EX-DCR offers better objective and subjective outcomes than TC-DCR.

  5. Genetics Reasoning with Multiple External Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David F.

    2003-02-01

    This paper explores a case study of a class of Year 10 students (n=24) whose learning of genetics involved activities of BioLogica, a computer program that features multiple external representations (MERs). MERs can be verbal/textual, visual-graphical, or in other formats. Researchers claim that the functions of MERs in supporting student learning are to complement information or processes, to constrain the interpretation of abstract concepts, and to construct new viable conceptions. Over decades, research has shown that genetics remains linguistically and conceptually difficult for high school students. This case study using data from multiple sources enabled students'' development of genetics reasoning to be interpreted from an epistemological perspective. Pretest-posttest comparison after six weeks showed that most of the students (n=20) had improved their genetics reasoning but only for easier reasoning types. Findings indicated that the MERs in BioLogica contributed to students'' development of genetics reasoning by engendering their motivation and interest but only when students were mindful in their learning. Based on triangulation of data from multiple sources, MERs in BioLogica appeared to support learning largely by constraining students'' interpretation of phenomena of genetics.

  6. External quality control for embryology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Jose Antonio; Ruiz de Assín, Rafael; Gonzalvo, Maria Carmen; Clavero, Ana; Ramírez, Juan Pablo; Vergara, Francisco; Martínez, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Participation in external quality control (EQC) programmes is recommended by various scientific societies. Results from an EQC programme for embryology laboratories are presented. This 5-year programme consisted of the annual delivery of (i) materials to test toxicity and (ii) a DVD/CD-ROM with images of zygotes and embryos on days 2 and 3, on the basis of which the participants were asked to judge the embryo quality and to take a clinical decision. A high degree of agreement was considered achieved when over 75% of the laboratories produced similar classifications. With respect to the materials analysed, the specificity was 68% and the sensitivity was 83%. Concerning embryo classification, the proportion of embryos on which a high degree of agreement was achieved increased during this period from 35% to 55%. No improvement was observed in the degree of agreement on the clinical decision to be taken. Day-3 embryos produced a higher degree of agreement (58%) than did day-2 embryos (32%) (Pembryology laboratories.

  7. Efficacy of enhanced external counterpulsation: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Mani Adhikari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims Enhanced external counterpulsation therapy is a non-invasive, non-pharmacological outpatient treatment option for refractory angina pectoris. Our aim is to evaluate its efficacy in Nepalese refractory angina pectoris patients. Materials and methods It was single centre prospective study conducted from 2010 August to 2013 December. All thirty one (n=31 consecutive patients, referred for and received 35 hours of treatment were included in this study. The distance covered in six minute walk test before and after the treatment was recorded and compared. Patients were followed each with the questionnaires about their anginal symptoms before and after the treatment. Results In our study 19(61.3% were male and 12(38.7% female. The mean age was 65.7±9.3 years. Most patients had multi vessel disease. Twelve patients had previous history of revascularization. In 6 minute walk test there was significant difference in mean distance covered before and after the treatment. Most patients experienced decrease in the angina symptom. They had decreased in severity and frequency of angina, resulting in decreased use of sublingual nitrates. Conclusion EECP can be safe and effective treatment option for patients with RAP.

  8. External-Compression Supersonic Inlet Design Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, John W.

    2011-01-01

    A computer code named SUPIN has been developed to perform aerodynamic design and analysis of external-compression, supersonic inlets. The baseline set of inlets include axisymmetric pitot, two-dimensional single-duct, axisymmetric outward-turning, and two-dimensional bifurcated-duct inlets. The aerodynamic methods are based on low-fidelity analytical and numerical procedures. The geometric methods are based on planar geometry elements. SUPIN has three modes of operation: 1) generate the inlet geometry from a explicit set of geometry information, 2) size and design the inlet geometry and analyze the aerodynamic performance, and 3) compute the aerodynamic performance of a specified inlet geometry. The aerodynamic performance quantities includes inlet flow rates, total pressure recovery, and drag. The geometry output from SUPIN includes inlet dimensions, cross-sectional areas, coordinates of planar profiles, and surface grids suitable for input to grid generators for analysis by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The input data file for SUPIN and the output file from SUPIN are text (ASCII) files. The surface grid files are output as formatted Plot3D or stereolithography (STL) files. SUPIN executes in batch mode and is available as a Microsoft Windows executable and Fortran95 source code with a makefile for Linux.

  9. Study on external beam radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seoung Yul; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Ji, Young Hoon; Lee, Dong Han; Lee, Dong Hoon; Choi, Mun Sik; Yoo, Dae Heon; Lee, Hyo Nam; Kim, Kyeoung Jung

    1999-04-01

    To develop the therapy technique which promote accuracy and convenience in external radiation therapy, to obtain the development of clinical treatment methods for the global competition. The contents of the R and D were 1. structure, process and outcome analysis in radiation therapy department. 2. Development of multimodality treatment in radiation therapy 3. Development of computation using networking techniques 4. Development of quality assurance (QA) system in radiation therapy 5. Development of radiotherapy tools 6. Development of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) tools. The results of the R and D were 1. completion of survey and analysis about Korea radiation therapy status 2. Performing QA analysis about ICR on cervix cancer 3. Trial of multicenter randomized study on lung cancers 4. Setting up inter-departmental LAN using MS NT server and Notes program 5. Development of ionization chamber and dose-rate meter for QA in linear accelerator 6. Development on optimized radiation distribution algorithm for multiple slice 7. Implementation on 3 dimensional volume surface algorithm and 8. Implementation on adaptor and cone for IORT.

  10. External threat and the definition of deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudedale, P; Smith-Cunnien, P; Parker, J; Inverarity, J

    1984-05-01

    Research ( Lauderdale , 1976; Schachter , 1951) suggests that an external threat to a group can lead to the rejection of deviant members of the group and alteration of group communication patterns and solidarity. This study sought to extend those findings, integrate them with concepts from Simmel 's (1917/1955) work on group conflict, and link them to key issues in the societal reaction approach to deviant behavior. We examined the effect of variation in level of threat, the relationship between deviant status and nonconformity to the central task norm, the role of high-status actors in deviance designation, the relationship between rejection and negative definition of the deviant, and the effects of rejection and negative definition on group solidarity. Hypotheses were tested in an experimental design involving three conditions (strong threat, weak threat, and no threat). The results suggest that (a) the level of threat is directly related to the extent of rejection and negative definition, (b) nonconformity to the central task norm is not systematically related to deviant status, (c) high-status actors are more involved in the rejection of the deviant, (d) sociometric rejection of the deviant is accompanied by negative definition in the strong-threat condition, and (e) the level of group solidarity is related to the extent of rejection and negative definition. Implications of these findings are discussed relative to the societal reaction approach to deviant behavior and analogous processes in other social groups.

  11. External costs of material recycling strategies for fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallberg, B. E-mail: bengt.hallberg@studsvik.se; Aquilonius, K.; Lechon, Y.; Cabal, H.; Saez, R.M.; Schneider, T.; Lepicard, S.; Ward, D.; Hamacher, T.; Korhonen, R

    2003-09-01

    This paper is based on studies performed within the framework of the project Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF3). Several fusion power plant designs (SEAFP Models 1-6) were compared focusing on part of the plant's life cycle: environmental impact of recycling the materials. Recycling was considered for materials replaced during normal operation, as well as materials from decommissioning of the plant. Environmental impact was assessed and expressed as external cost normalised with the total electrical energy output during plant operation. The methodology used for this study has been developed by the Commission of the European Union within the frame of the ExternE project. External costs for recycling, normalised with the energy production during plant operation, are very low compared with those for other energy sources. Results indicate that a high degree of recycling is preferable, at least when considering external costs, because external costs of manufacturing of new materials and disposal costs are higher.

  12. Assessment of the externalities of biomass energy for electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, P.; Leal, J.; Saez, R.M.

    1996-10-01

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turn in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO{sub 2}, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author)

  13. EXTERNAL MAGNETIC PULSE STRAIGHTENING – NEW TECHNOLOGY CAR BODY REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Gnatov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Innovative equipment of external contactless magnetic impulse straightening developed by the laboratory of Electromagnetic Technology of Kharkiv National Automobile and Highway University is presented in this paper. The effect of metal hyper-plasticity at magnetic impulse acting is described. Suggestions concerning practical testing of advanced technology of damaged car body panels by external contactless magnetic impulse straightening are presented. The processing route of external contactless magnetic impulse straightening process is specified.

  14. Negativity in the Extended Hubbard Model under External Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhen; NING Wen-Qiang

    2008-01-01

    We exactly calculate the negativity,a measurement of entanglement,in the two-site extended Hubbard model with external magnetic field.Its behaviour at different temperatures is presented.The negativity reduces with the increasing temperature or with the increasing uniform external magnetic field.It is also found that a non-uniform external magnetic field can be used to modulate or to increase the negativity.

  15. Review on studies for external cost of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Heung [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    External cost is cost imposed on a third party when producing or consuming a good or service. Since the 1990s, the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production have been studied. Costs are a very important factor in policy decision and the external cost is considered for cost comparison on electricity production. As for nuclear fuel cycle, a chosen technology will determine the external cost. However, there has been little research on this issue. For this study, methods for external cost on nuclear power production have been surveyed and analyzed to develop an approach for evaluating external cost on nuclear fuel cycles. Before the Fukushima accident, external cost research had focused on damage costs during normal operation of a fuel cycle. However, accident cost becomes a major concern after the accident. Various considerations for external cost including accident cost have been used to different studies, and different methods have been applied corresponding to the considerations. In this study, the results of the evaluation were compared and analyzed to identify methodological applicability to the external cost estimation with nuclear fuel cycles.

  16. External Monitoring and Dynamic Behavior in Mutual Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of external monitoring on the behavior in mutual funds. Specifically, we investigate how and why external monitoring can alleviate contracting inefficiency caused by information asymmetry between investors and the manager. It is shown that efficiency loss emerges when investors contract with the manager just relying on her investment return history. The establishment of external monitoring that provides investors more information about the manager’s ability can improve contracting efficiency, which converges to first-best as external monitoring strengthens. These results provide strong support for tightening supervision in mutual fund industry.

  17. Externality in the nonobese: effects of environmental responsiveness on weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, J; Slochower, J

    1976-03-01

    The study considered whether external responsiveness in normal weight people would predict changes in eating behavior and weight following major alteration of environmetnal food cues. Normal weight children were tested for externality on measures of eating, slide recall, and extremity of affective responsiveness during the first week of a summer camp, and were weighed biweekly thereafter. There was a significant correlation between externality and weight change, indicating that the more externally responsive the children were, the more weight they gained. The implications of this finding for theories about the development of obesity were considered.

  18. 21 CFR 890.3420 - External limb prosthetic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... total prosthesis. Examples of external limb prosthetic components include the following: Ankle, foot... shoulder joint components; and cable and prosthesis suction valves. (b) Classification. Class I...

  19. III. Biological effects of radiation from external and internal sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, R.S.

    1948-05-24

    This report focuses on the hemotological effects of total body irradiation from external and internal sources observed in patients treated for arthritis with radioactive phosphorus administered intravenously.

  20. Therapeutic options for external genital warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vender, Ronald; Bourcier, Marc; Bhatia, Neal; Lynde, Charles

    2013-12-01

    The primary goal of treatment for external genital warts (EGWs) is to eradicate visible lesions and address symptoms that may accompany them, but it does not address the underlying virus. Left untreated, warts may grow, remain the same, or spontaneously regress as a result of being cleared by the immune system. However, recurrence is common with or without treatment and may occur within 3 months of ending treatment in one-quarter to two-thirds of cases. Treatment options fall into two categories: provider or patient applied. Provider-based therapies include cryotherapy, trichloroacetic and bichloroacetic acid, electrocautery, surgical excision, and CO2 laser therapy. Patient-applied therapy choices include imiquimod and podophyllotoxin. Imiquimod 3.75% is a fairly new, patient-administered topical cream approved by Health Canada in 2011. Another recently approved patient-applied choice is sinecatechins, a green tea extract with immunomodulatory effects. Self-treatment options are attractive to patients because they offer privacy, convenience, and autonomy. In contrast, provider-administered therapies may boast increased precision (especially for areas that are hard to reach) and closer monitoring, which can be augmented by patient education and counseling. Available topical and surgical therapies vary widely in terms of cost, efficacy, adverse effects, dosage/frequency, and length of treatment. No one treatment is ideally suited to all patients or constitutes a gold standard. Treatment regimens must be tailored to each patient's needs and preferences. The health care provider's skills and experience will also factor into treatment decisions. In addition, the size, number, and location of lesions and whether the infection is new or recurrent will help guide the decision process toward the best treatment for a given patient.

  1. Southwick Osteotomy Stabilised with External Fixator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubor, Predrag; Mitkovic, Milorad; Grubor, Milan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Epiphysiolysis of the femoral head is the most common accident occurring towards the end of pre-puberty and puberty growth. Case report: The author describes the experience in the treatment of chronic epiphysiolysis in two patients treated by Southwick osteotomy. The site is accessed by way of a 15-cm long lateral skin incision and the trochanteric region is reached through the layers. The osteotomy angles prepared beforehand on a thin aluminium model are used to mark the Southwick osteotomy site on the anterior and lateral sides at the level of the lesser trochanter. Before performing the trochanteric osteotomy, two Mitković convergent pins type M20 are applied distally and proximally, above the planned osteotomy site. A tenotomy of the iliopsas muscle is performed, and then the previously marked bone triangle is redissected up to three quarters of the width of the femur. The distal part of the femur is rotated inwards, so that the patella is turned towards the ceiling. The osteotomised fragments of the femur are adapted, repositioned and fixated by installing an external fixator on the previously placed pins. Two more pins are placed, one proximally and one distally, with a view to adequately stabilising the femur. The patient was mobile from day two after the surgery. If, after the surgery, the lead surgeon realises that there is a requirement to make a correction of 5, 10 and 15 degrees of the valgus, varus, anteversion or retroversion deformity, the correction shall be performed without surgically opening the patient, using the fixator pins. Conclusion: After performing a Southwick osteotomy it is easier to adapt, reposition and fixate the osteotomised fragments of the femur using a fixator type M20. Adequate stability allows regaining mobility quickly, which in turn is the best prevention of chondrolysis of the hip. It is possible to make post-operative valgus, varus, anteversion and retroversion corrections of 5, 10 and 15 degrees

  2. Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Planar QED in External Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Cea, Paolo; Giudice, Pietro; Papa, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    We investigate planar quantum electrodynamics (QED) with two degenerate staggered fermions in an external magnetic field on the lattice. We argue that in external magnetic fields there is dynamical generation of mass for two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions in the weak-coupling region. We extrapolate our lattice results to the quantum Hall effect in graphene.

  3. External Dynamics Influencing Tattooing among College Students: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael; Tse, Luke; Foster, Janna; Angelini, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    The study utilized qualitative research methodology to assess external dynamics and their influences on tattooing practices among college students. Twenty-four undergraduates supplied in-depth interviews regarding the external variables related to college students' decisions to tattoo. The present research follows (Tse, Firmin, Angelini, &…

  4. Evolution of Externally Excited Convective Cells in Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugai, H.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Thomsen, Kenneth

    1983-01-01

    Convective cells are excited externally in a fully ionized magnetized plasma, and their space-time evolution is investigated by two-dimensional potential measurements. A positive cell is excited externally in the `scrape-off' layer of a plasma column produced by surface ionization. Its interaction...

  5. Multidisciplinary Health Services as External Agents of Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerholm, Peter; Hasle, Peter; Fortuin, Rick

    2000-01-01

    A discussion of the possibilities for professionals from the occupational health service to act as external agents of change in introducing preventive activities in enterprises.......A discussion of the possibilities for professionals from the occupational health service to act as external agents of change in introducing preventive activities in enterprises....

  6. Spontaneous External Endometriosis in a Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla)

    OpenAIRE

    Doré, Monique; Lagacé, Andre

    1985-01-01

    The present report describes a case of external endometriosis in a 28 year old female gorilla (Gorilla gorilla). Microscopical examination of a pelvic mass observed at necropsy revealed ovarian tissue together with uterine glands and stroma, fibrous tissue and many siderophages. Theories of pathogenesis of external endometriosis are briefly reviewed.

  7. EXTERNAL BODY FORCE IN FINITE DIFFERENCE LATTICE BOLTZMANN METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Sheng; LIU Zhao-hui; SHI Bao-chang; ZHENG Chu-guang

    2005-01-01

    A new finite difference lattice Boltzmann scheme is developed. Because of analyzing the influence of external body force roundly, the correct Navier-Stokes equations with the external body force are recovered, without any additional unphysical terms. And some numerical results are presented. The result which close agreement with analytical data shows the good performance of the model.

  8. Spectral control of diode lasers using external waveguide circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbeuving, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated spectral control of diode lasers using external waveguide circuits. The purpose of this work is to investigate such external control for providing a new class of diode lasers with technologically interesting properties, such as a narrow spectral bandwidth and spectrally tunable outpu

  9. Mothering, Fathering, and Externalizing Behavior in Toddler Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; van Aken, Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reported maternal and paternal support, psychological control, and spanking on externalizing behavior of toddler boys. Questionnaires were administered to both parents of 104 two-parent families with a 3-year-old son. Both maternal and paternal psychological control was related to boys' externalizing behavior.…

  10. Researching from within: External and Internal Ethical Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Alan; Arthur, Linet

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the superficial and deep ethical and moral dilemmas confronting "insider" researchers, which we term external and internal ethical engagement. External ethical engagement refers to the traditional, easily identifiable ethical issues that insider researchers attend to by submitting their application for ethical approval to…

  11. A Legal Institutional Perspective on the European External Action Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vooren, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a legal perspective on the new European External Action Service (EEAS), and positions this new body in the reshuffled institutional balance of EU external relations. Towards that end, the paper examines the EEAS’ legal nature as compared to that of Council, Commission, their...

  12. High Power Diode Lasers with External Feedback: Overview and Prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2012-01-01

    In summary, different external-cavity feedback techniques to improve the spatial beam quality and narrow the linewidth of the output beam from both BALs and TDLs are presented. Broad-area diode laser system with external-cavity feedback around 800 nm can produce several Watts of output power...

  13. Separation of the Magnetic Field into External and Internal Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Jia, X.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic field of a planet or a planetary moon contains contributions from a variety of sources in the environment of the body (external sources) and its interior (internal sources). This chapter describes different methods that have been developed for the separation of external and internal...... source contributions, and their application to selected planets and one of Jupiter’s moons, Ganymede....

  14. Unilateral external ophthalmoplegia in Miller Fisher syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severn Philip

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A description of the diagnostic features of Miller Fisher syndrome. Case presentation The clinical presentation, investigation, and subsequent progress of our patient with clinical unilateral external ophthalmoplegia. Conclusion Our case demonstrates the presentation of clinical unilateral external ophthalmoplegia as part of the full triad of Miller Fisher syndrome.

  15. External Representations for Data Distributions: In Search of Cognitive Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghana, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Data distributions can be represented using different external representations, such as histograms and boxplots. Although the role of external representations has been extensively studied in mathematics, this is less the case in statistics. This study helps to fill this gap by systematically varying the representation that accompanies a task…

  16. External efficiency of schools in pre-vocational secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, A. C.; Rekers-Mombarg, L. T. M.; Vreeburg, B. A. N. M.

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which students from a prevocational secondary school are placed in training programmes in senior secondary vocational education that match with their abilities can be estimated by an indicator called External Efficiency. However, estimating the external efficiency of secondary schools

  17. 77 FR 37879 - Cooperative Patent Classification External User Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Cooperative Patent Classification External User Day AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is hosting a Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) External User Day event at...

  18. 21 CFR 870.3600 - External pacemaker pulse generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External pacemaker pulse generator. 870.3600... pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external pacemaker pulse generator is a device that has a power supply and electronic circuits that produce a periodic electrical pulse to stimulate the...

  19. External Dynamics Influencing Tattooing among College Students: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael; Tse, Luke; Foster, Janna; Angelini, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    The study utilized qualitative research methodology to assess external dynamics and their influences on tattooing practices among college students. Twenty-four undergraduates supplied in-depth interviews regarding the external variables related to college students' decisions to tattoo. The present research follows (Tse, Firmin, Angelini, & Foster,…

  20. Vehicle Fuel-Efficiency Choices, Emission Externalities, and Urban Sprawl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinwon

    of excessive sprawl arising from emission externalities is the uses of larger and less-fuel efficient vehicles by suburban residents, which is different from that of congestion externalities. We also analyze the effect of the Corporate Average Fuel Efficiency (CAFE) regulation on the urban spatial structure....

  1. Instructions to Adopt an External Focus Enhance Muscular Endurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, David C.; Greig, Matt; Bullough, Jonathan; Hitchen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The influence of internal (movement focus) and external (outcome focus) attentional-focusing instructions on muscular endurance were investigated using three exercise protocols with experienced exercisers. Twenty-three participants completed a maximal repetition, assisted bench-press test on a Smith's machine. An external focus of attention…

  2. 21 CFR 878.3750 - External prosthesis adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External prosthesis adhesive. 878.3750 Section 878.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... adhesive. (a) Identification. An external prosthesis adhesive is a silicone-type adhesive intended to...

  3. Temperament profiles associated with internalizing and externalizing problems in preadolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Winter, Andrea F. de; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates how temperament factors are linked to internalizing and externalizing problems in a Dutch population sample of preadolescents (N = 2230). Internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist and the Youth Self-Report and temperament was evalu

  4. External doses from radioactive fallout. Dosimetry and levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woehni, T.

    1995-12-31

    The design, manufacture and calibration of a TL-based dosemeter for measurement of low level external photon radiation are presented. The dosemeter is based on CaF{sub 2} with 2 mm brass filter for energy compensation. It is able to resolve a 8% dose increase relative to natural background radiation. With this dosemeter external dose measurements were made in 6 villages in a heavily contaminated region in Russia (Chernobyl fallout), in order to assess external doses to the population. The results were analyzed in the light of additional existing information on radioactive deposition, social habits, decontamination measures and other influencing technical and physical factors. The observed dose values were lower than theoretical estimates of external doses based on published values for external dose levels relative to the level of contamination. 84 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Externalizing behaviors of Ukrainian children: The role of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlaka, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association of positive and negative parenting with child externalizing problems. Quantitative data were collected during face-to-face interviews with 320 parents of children 9-16 years of age (50% males) in 11 communities in Eastern, Southern, and Central Ukraine. The study estimated the relationship between parenting practices and child externalizing behaviors such as aggression, delinquency, and attention problems. Results revealed that positive parenting, child monitoring, and avoidance of corporal punishment were associated with fewer child externalizing symptoms. Results also indicated that child male gender and single parenting had significant and positive association with child externalizing behaviors. This study extends international psychosocial knowledge on children and families. These findings can be used to design programs and foster dialogs about the role of family and social environments in the development of externalizing disorder among researchers, representatives of governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and mass media that work with child abuse prevention in Ukraine.

  6. Radiology of external ear: indications, normal anatomy, and pathological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazón, M; Pont, E; Montesinos, P; Carreres-Polo, J; Más-Estellés, F

    2016-01-01

    The external ear is accessible to direct examination; the clinical history and otoscopy are sufficient to diagnose and treat most diseases of the external ear. We aim to describe the normal anatomy of the external ear, specify the indications for imaging tests, and review the clinical and radiological manifestations of the most common diseases affecting the external ear. We classify these diseases according to their origin into congenital, inflammatory, infectious, or traumatic disease or benign bone tumors or malignant tumors. Imaging does not play an important role in diseases of the external ear, but in certain clinical scenarios it can be crucial for reaching a concrete diagnosis and establishing the best treatment. Computed tomography is the first-choice technique for most diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging complements computed tomography and makes it possible to differentiate among different tissue types and to evaluate the extension of disease accurately.

  7. Calculation of freight externality costs for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaan Swarts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to quantify the marginal external costs associated with freight transport in South Africa. Six cost elements are included as externality cost items, namely, costs related to accidents, emissions, roadway land availability, policing, noise and congestion. Inputs in the calculations were a gravity-oriented freight flow model, a road transport cost model, actual transport costs for other modes, a warehousing cost survey, an inventory delay calculation and various national sources of information such as accident statistics and government budgets. Estimation techniques resulted in advances for externality cost measurement in South Africa. The quantification of the cost elements will be used to update the South African Freight Demand Model. The results show that the cost of transportation would have been 20% more if external factors were taken into account. The marginal rates of externalities can be used to develop scenarios based on alternative choices for South Africa's freight transport infrastructure configuration.

  8. External Tank Program - Legacy of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilet, Jeffery C.; Diecidue-Conners, Dawn; Worden, Michelle; Guillot, Michelle; Welzyn, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The largest single element of Space Shuttle is the External Tank (ET), which serves as the structural backbone of the vehicle during ascent and provides liquid propellants to the Orbiter s three Main Engines. The ET absorbs most of the seven million pounds of thrust exerted by the Solid Rocket Boosters and Main Engines. The design evolved through several block changes, reducing weight each time. Because the tank flies to orbital velocity with the Space Shuttle Orbiter, minimization of weight is mandatory, to maximize payload performance. The initial configuration, the standard weight tank, weighed 76,000 pounds and was an aluminum 2219 structure. The light weight tank weighed 66,000 pounds and flew 86 missions. The super light weight tank weighed 58,500 pounds and was primarily an aluminum-lithium structure. The final configuration and low weight enabled system level performance sufficient for assembly of the International Space Station in a high inclination orbit, vital for international cooperation. Another significant challenge was the minimization of ice formation on the cryogenic tanks. This was essential due to the system configuration and the choice of ceramic thermal protection system materials on the Orbiter. Ice would have been a major debris hazard. Spray on foam insulation materials served multiple functions including thermal insulation, conditioning of cryogenic propellants, and thermal protection for the tank structure during ascent and entry. The tank is large, and unique manufacturing facilities, tooling, and handling, and transportation operations were developed. Weld processes and tooling evolved with the design as it matured through several block changes. Non Destructive Evaluation methods were used to assure integrity of welds and thermal protection system materials. The aluminum-lithium alloy was used near the end of the program and weld processes and weld repair techniques had to be refined. Development and implementation of friction stir

  9. 项八针配合头部阿是穴留针治疗颈源性头痛临床研究%ClinicalStudy of Nape Eight Needles plus Cephalic Ashi Point Needle Retention for Treatment of Cervicogenic Headache

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗建昌; 郎伯旭

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical efficacy of nape eight needles plus cephalic ashi point acupuncture in treating cervicogenic headache.MethodA randomized controlled trial was carried out. Eighty-nine patients with cervicogenic headache were randomly allocated to two groups, the treatment group of 45 cases and the control group of 44 cases. Nape eight points [bilateral Fengchi(GB20), Fengfu(GV16), Dazhui(GV14) and “nape Sihuaxue”] and cephalic ashi points were selected inthe treatment group and Huatuo jiaji(Ex-B2) points at the affected cervical vertebrae and points Tianzhu(BL10), Fengchi, Yuzhen(BL9), Lieque(LU7), Taichong(LR3)and Zulinqi(GB41), in the control group. Every group was treated three times a week for two weeks. A follow-up was performed at one month after the completion of treatment. Headache was scored using the VAS, and continuous headache time, headache frequency and range of motion (ROM) of cervical spine were scored before treatment, at the end ofone week’s treatment, at the completion of treatment and at one month after the completion of treatment. The therapeutic effect at the completion of treatment and the follow-up was evaluated according to criteria for assessing the therapeutic effect.ResultAt the completion of treatment and the follow-up, the headache score and the range of motion of cervical spine score were lower in the treatment group than in the control group (P<0.05). In the treatment group, the total efficacy rate was 91.1% at the completion of treatment and 86.7% at the follow-up; the short-term and the long-term therapeutic effects were superior to those in the control group (P<0.05). After one week of treatment, the total efficacy rate was 57.8%, which was higher than 11.4% in thecontrol group (P<0.05).ConclusionTreatment with nape eight needles plus cephalic ashi point needle retention has a marked improving effect on headache symptoms and range of motion of cervical spine in cervicogenic headache. Its short-term and

  10. EXTERNAL DEBTS SUSTAINABILITY, IMF POLICIES EFFECT AND TURKEY SAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik A EL K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available It is generally recognized that developing countries need substantial amounts of net transfer of resources at early stages of development in order to close their savings and foreign exchange gaps. External3 borrowing is a core element in nearly all developing countries’ development strategies. Foreign loans can be used to finance public spending aimed at increasing growth, development, and security. Debt sustainability and holding the debt burden at a reasonable level are the two main cornerstones of achieving macroeconomic stability. Solvency is derived from the intertemporal budget constraint which shows sustainability of current policies. Generally, when the expected value of the future resources devoted to debt service equals the current debt stock, solvency condition is satisfied. Developing countries\\' debt is external debt incurred by Third World countries, generally in quantities beyond that country\\'s ability to repay. Unpayable debt is a term used to describe external debt where the interest on the debt exceeds the amount that the country produces, thus preventing the debt ever being repaid. IMF’ policies through to the World Economy have been changed in the globalization processes. Those policies have been applied in different countries When Turkish economy is taken into consideration it is seen that; it has high debt stocks, the need of external debt continues to increase and the external debt indicators give rise to the anxieties about the issue of external debt sustainability. This paper responds to take forward on external debt-related vulnerabilities and balance sheet risks.

  11. COOPERATION AND COORDINATION BETWEEN INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL AUDITING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA DUMITRESCU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Between external and internal auditors it is necessary to be a good cooperation and coordination; both professionals have to be involved in building a good working relationship. Objectives of the external and internal auditors are different from the company point of view, but in the achievement of the specific goals, there are interactions and work cooperation. If the internal auditors work together with the external auditors the results will be an increasing of the quality and the effectiveness of the organization`s systems and activities. If the external auditors work together with the internal auditors will result a decreasing of the amount of the testing they do, and as consequences’ a reducing of the fees. Because there are many benefits of the cooperation between external and internal auditing it is important to find out how could be coordinated these two professional activities. This study has the purpose to examine the most important provisions that promote such kind of cooperation and work like necessary tools for coordination and to identify the Romanian`s internal and external auditors perceptions regarding that cooperation and coordination. The objective of the study is to identify the nature of the relationship between the internal audit function and the organizations’ external auditors regarding their interactions and their cooperation.

  12. Estimating Externalities of Natural Gas Fuel Cycles, Report 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes methods for estimating the external costs (and possibly benefits) to human health and the environment that result from natural gas fuel cycles. Although the concept of externalities is far from simple or precise, it generally refers to effects on individuals' well being, that result from a production or market activity in which the individuals do not participate, or are not fully compensated. In the past two years, the methodological approach that this report describes has quickly become a worldwide standard for estimating externalities of fuel cycles. The approach is generally applicable to any fuel cycle in which a resource, such as coal, hydro, or biomass, is used to generate electric power. This particular report focuses on the production activities, pollution, and impacts when natural gas is used to generate electric power. In the 1990s, natural gas technologies have become, in many countries, the least expensive to build and operate. The scope of this report is on how to estimate the value of externalities--where value is defined as individuals' willingness to pay for beneficial effects, or to avoid undesirable ones. This report is about the methodologies to estimate these externalities, not about how to internalize them through regulations or other public policies. Notwithstanding this limit in scope, consideration of externalities can not be done without considering regulatory, insurance, and other considerations because these institutional factors affect whether costs (and benefits) are in fact external, or whether they are already somehow internalized within the electric power market. Although this report considers such factors to some extent, much analysis yet remains to assess the extent to which estimated costs are indeed external. This report is one of a series of reports on estimating the externalities of fuel cycles. The other reports are on the coal, oil, biomass, hydro, and nuclear fuel cycles, and on general

  13. External urethral sphincter pressure measurement: an accurate method for the diagnosis of detrusor external sphincter dyssynergia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H Suzuki Bellucci

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combined pelvic floor electromyography (EMG and videocystourethrography (VCUG during urodynamic investigation are the most acceptable and widely agreed methods for diagnosing detrusor external sphincter dyssynergia (DESD. Theoretically, external urethral sphincter pressure (EUSP measurement would provide enough information for the diagnosis of DESD and could simplify the urodynamic investigation replacing combined pelvic floor EMG and VCUG. Thus, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of EUSP measurement for DESD. PATIENTS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; METHODS: A consecutive series of 72 patients (36 women, 36 men with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction able to void spontaneously was prospectively evaluated at a single university spinal cord injury center. Diagnosis of DESD using EUSP measurement (index test versus combined pelvic floor EMG and VCUG (reference standard was assessed according to the recommendations of the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Initiative. RESULTS: Using EUSP measurement (index test and combined pelvic floor EMG and VCUR (reference standard, DESD was diagnosed in 10 (14% and in 41 (57% patients, respectively. More than half of the patients presented discordant diagnosis between the index test and the reference standard. Among 41 patients with DESD diagnosed by combined pelvic floor EMG and VCUR, EUSP measurement identified only 6 patients. EUSP measurement had a sensitivity of 15% (95% CI 5%-25%, specificity of 87% (95% CI 76%-98%, positive predictive value of 60% (95% CI 30%-90%, and negative predictive value of 56% (95% CI 44%-68% for the diagnosis of DESD. CONCLUSIONS: For diagnosis of DESD, EUSP measurement is inaccurate and cannot replace combined pelvic floor EMG and VCUR.

  14. External iliac artery dissection secondary to endofibrosis in a cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Thomas D; Revesz, Elizabeth; Podbielski, Francis J; Blecha, Matthew J

    2010-07-01

    Endofibrosis of the external iliac artery is an uncommon disease affecting primarily young, otherwise healthy, endurance athletes. Thigh pain during maximal exercise with quick resolution postexercise is characteristic of the so-called cyclist's iliac syndrome. We report an unusual case in which the typical endofibrotic plaque was accompanied by dissection of the external iliac artery. The patient was treated surgically with excision of the affected artery segment and placement of an interposition graft. This case highlights an unusual finding in association with external iliac artery endofibrosis and provides an opportunity to briefly review the literature on the subject.

  15. Optimal condition of memristance enhancement circuit using external voltage source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroya Tanaka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Memristor provides nonlinear response in the current-voltage characteristic and the memristance is modulated using an external voltage source. We point out by solving nonlinear equations that an optimal condition of the external voltage source exists for maximizing the memristance in such modulation scheme. We introduce a linear function to describe the nonlinear time response and derive an important design guideline; a constant ratio of the frequency to the amplitude of the external voltage source maximizes the memristance. The analysis completely accounts for the memristance behavior.

  16. Racing to define pharmaceutical R&D external innovation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liangsu; Plump, Andrew; Ringel, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The pharmaceutical industry continues to face fundamental challenges because of issues with research and development (R&D) productivity and rising customer expectations. To lower R&D costs, move beyond me-too therapies, and create more transformative portfolios, pharmaceutical companies are actively capitalizing on external innovation through precompetitive collaboration with academia, cultivation of biotech start-ups, and proactive licensing and acquisitions. Here, we review the varying innovation strategies used by pharmaceutical companies, compare and contrast these models, and identify the trends in external innovation. We also discuss factors that influence these external innovation models and propose a preliminary set of metrics that could be used as leading indicators of success.

  17. Equatorial Rossby Solitary Wave Under the External Forcing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Zun-Tao; LIU Shi-Kuo; LIU Shi-Da

    2005-01-01

    A simple shallow-water model with influence of external forcing on a β-plane is applied to investigate the nonlinear equatorial Rossby waves in a shear flow. By the perturbation method, the extended variable-coefficient KdV equation under an external forcing is derived for large amplitude equatorial Rossby wave in a shear flow. And then various periodic-like structures for these equatorial Rossby waves are obtained with the help of Jacobi elliptic functions.It is shown that the external forcing plays an important role in various periodic-like structures.

  18. The current density in quantum electrodynamics in external potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlemmer, Jan, E-mail: jan.schlemmer@univie.ac.at [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Wien, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Wien (Austria); Zahn, Jochen, E-mail: jochen.zahn@itp.uni-leipzig.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Brüderstr. 16, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    We review different definitions of the current density for quantized fermions in the presence of an external electromagnetic field. Several deficiencies in the popular prescription due to Schwinger and the mode sum formula for static external potentials are pointed out. We argue that Dirac’s method, which is the analog of the Hadamard point-splitting employed in quantum field theory in curved space–times, is conceptually the most satisfactory. As a concrete example, we discuss vacuum polarization and the stress–energy tensor for massless fermions in 1+1 dimension. Also a general formula for the vacuum polarization in static external potentials in 3+1 dimensions is derived.

  19. Effects of interaural level differences on the externalization of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catic, Jasmina; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten;

    2012-01-01

    differences (ILDs) and interaural time differences (ITDs). In rooms, the sound reaching the two ears is further modified by reverberant energy, which leads to increased fluctuations in short-term ILDs and ITDs. In the present study, the effect of ILD fluctuations on the externalization of sound...... fluctuations in the ILDs were compressed, while the ITDs were preserved. This manipulation reduced the perceived degree of externalization mainly for broadband and highpass filtered speech. In the case of lowpass filtered speech, the compression of ILD fluctuations did not affect externalization. Overall...

  20. External Service Providers to the National Security Technology Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-02-28

    This report documents the identification and assessment of external service providers to the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant to Arrowhead Center, New Mexico State University. This report contains 1) a summary of the services to be provided by NSTI; 2) organizational descriptions of external service providers; and 3) a comparison of NSTI services and services offered by external providers.

  1. Problems with plastered external heat insulation. Probleme mit verputzter Aussenwaermedaemmung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epple, H.; Foglia, A.; Preisig, H.; Pfefferkorn, J.

    1984-01-01

    Concerning execution, maintenance and service life, walls with plastered external heat insulation constitute an economic method. Owing to experience gained with plastered external heat insulation, it is possible today to provide reliable information on requirements made on ground material and operational execution. The author intends to contribute to a prevention of defects by giving concise examples. A survey on different types of external heat insulation is followed by a treatment of the problem areas of roof-edge connection, base end under ground, modernization of old buildings and cracks in plaster. Principal statements are made concerning steam diffusion, planning, materials and execution.

  2. Comparison of binaural microphones for externalization of sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cubick, Jens; Sánchez Rodríguez, C.; Song, Wookeun

    2015-01-01

    or with microphones placed inside the ear canals of a person. In this study, binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs) were measured with several commercially available binaural microphones, both placed inside the listeners’ ears (individual BRIR) and on a head and torso simulator (generic BRIR). The degree...... of externalization of speech and noise stimuli was tested in a listening experiment with a multi-stimulus test. No influence was found for the stimulus signal, but the externalization scores were found to be lower for 0◦ incidence. With all microphones, relatively high externalization scores were achieved...

  3. EDITORIAL: Colloidal dispersions in external fields Colloidal dispersions in external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwen, Hartmut

    2012-11-01

    Colloidal dispersions have long been proven as pivotal model systems for equilibrium phase transition such as crystallization, melting and liquid-gas phase transition. The last decades have revealed that this is also true for nonequilibrium phenomena. In fact, the fascinating possibility to track the individual trajectories of colloidal particles has greatly advanced our understanding of collective behaviour in classical many-body systems and has helped to reveal the underlying physical principles of glass transition, crystal nucleation, and interfacial dynamics (to name just a few typical nonequilibrium effects). External fields can be used to bring colloids out of equilibrium in a controlled way. Different kinds of external fields can be applied to colloidal dispersions, namely shear flow, electric, magnetic and laser-optical fields, and confinement. Typical research areas can be sketched with the by now traditional complexity diagram (figure 1). The complexity of the colloidal system itself as embodied in statistical degrees of freedom is shown on the x-axis while the complexity of the problem posed, namely bulk, an inhomogeneity in equilibrium, steady state nonequilibrium and full time-dependent nonequilibrium are shown on the y-axis. The different external fields which can be imposed are indicated by the different hatched areas. figure1 Figure 1. Diagram of complexity for colloidal dispersions in external fields: while the x-axis shows the complexity of the system, the y-axis shows the complexity of the problem. Regions which can be accessed by different kinds of external fields are indicated. The arrows indicate recent research directions. Active particles are also indicated with a special complexity of internal degrees of freedom [1]. This collection of papers reflects the scientific programme of the International Conference on Colloidal Dispersions in External Fields III (CODEF III) which took place in Bonn-Bad Godesberg from 20-23 March 2012. This was the

  4. Electricity generation and environmental externalities: Case studies, September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-28

    Electricity constitutes a critical input in sustaining the Nation`s economic growth and development and the well-being of its inhabitants. However, there are byproducts of electricity production that have an undesirable effect on the environment. Most of these are emissions introduced by the combustion of fossil fuels, which accounts for nearly 70 percent of the total electricity generated in the United States. The environmental impacts (or damages) caused by these emissions are labeled environmental ``externalities.`` Included in the generic term ``externality`` are benefits or costs resulting as an unintended byproduct of an economic activity that accrue to someone other than the parties involved in the activity. This report provides an overview of the economic foundation of externalities, the Federal and State regulatory approaches, and case studies of the impacts of the externality policies adopted by three States.

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Methanol (Noncancer) (Revised External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is seeking additional public comment and external peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of methanol (noncancer). Teleconference Details: The public may participate in th...

  6. External knowledge search and use in new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, T.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    With rapidly shifting technological frontiers, innovative organizations cannot rely solely on internally generated knowledge and technologies anymore. Therefore, externally developed knowledge and technologies are getting more and more important in the development of new products. Not surprisingly,

  7. 48 CFR 231.205-70 - External restructuring costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 231.205-70 External restructuring costs. (a) Scope. This... official is the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics) or the Principal...

  8. Design of a Typical Offshore Transportation System for External Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shittu, A. A

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The external corrosion assessment of a typical offshore transportation system has been presented. Cathodic protection design was carried out for the pipeline and it was found that a bracelet square weld on anode of L = 195, G =101.6 , Thickness = 70, M = 149.75 , ∅ = 1.2235, N = 128 and s = 300was found to be satisfactory in providing secondary/ backup protection for the 48inchespipeline in the external environment provided. The external anticorrosion coating selected is the Three layer polyethylene (3LPE coating based on the dimensions of the pipeline and the design temperature of 80℃. The 3LPE external corrosioncoating will comprise of an inner layer fusion bond epoxy, a middle layer: adhesive and an outer layer: High density polyethylene (HDPE base with additives.

  9. Outcome of complex tibial plateau fractures treated with external fixator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil H Mankar

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: We believe that minimally invasive treatment by percutaneous techniques and external fixation is a fairly reasonable treatment alternative, if near anatomical reduction of joint surface can be confirmed on fluoroscopy.

  10. Interpreting debris from satellite disruption in external galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnston, KV; Sackett, PD; Bullock, JS

    2001-01-01

    We examine the detectability and interpretation of debris trails caused by satellite disruption in external galaxies using semianalytic approximations for the dependence of streamer length, width, and surface brightness on satellite and primary galaxy characteristics. The semianalytic method is test

  11. On the Structure of Quantum Gauge Theories with External Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Falkenberg, S; Lavrov, P M; Moshin, P

    1998-01-01

    We consider generating functionals of Green's functions with external fields in the framework of BV and BLT quantization schemes for general gauge theories. The corresponding Ward identities are obtained, and the gauge dependence is studied.

  12. Buckling of elliptical rings under uniform external pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Y.

    1991-04-03

    A thin, elastic elliptical ring is subjected to uniform external pressure. The lowest critical pressure is computed and presented for various ratio of the major axis to the minor axis of the elliptical ring. It is found that the critical pressure for an elliptical ring is higher than that for the circular ring whose diameter is equal to the major axis of the elliptical ring. It can be shown that under the same external pressure, the axial force developed in the elliptical ring is less than that developed in the corresponding circular ring. Thus, a higher pressure is required to buckle the elliptical rings. Therefore, by changing the shape of the ring from circular to elliptical, the capability of the ring to sustain the external pressure can be increased substantially. The results of this study can be useful in the design of elliptical reinforcing rings and thin-walled tubes subjected to external pressure.

  13. EXTERNAL EVALUATION OF LEARNING AS A GUARANTEE OF QUALITY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Arribas Estebaranz

    2014-12-01

    Almost all countries and all reports use contemplated, in varying degrees, the always-complementary external evaluation by the teachers-as an essential guarantee of educational quality at different levels of detail curriculum evaluation.

  14. Is external memory memory? Biological memory and extended mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelian, Kourken

    2012-09-01

    Clark and Chalmers (1998) claim that an external resource satisfying the following criteria counts as a memory: (1) the agent has constant access to the resource; (2) the information in the resource is directly available; (3) retrieved information is automatically endorsed; (4) information is stored as a consequence of past endorsement. Research on forgetting and metamemory shows that most of these criteria are not satisfied by biological memory, so they are inadequate. More psychologically realistic criteria generate a similar classification of standard putative external memories, but the criteria still do not capture the function of memory. An adequate account of memory function, compatible with its evolution and its roles in prospection and imagination, suggests that external memory performs a function not performed by biological memory systems. External memory is thus not memory. This has implications for: extended mind theorizing, ecological validity of memory research, the causal theory of memory.

  15. Estimating Externalities of Coal Fuel Cycles, Report 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-09-01

    The agreement between the US DOE and the EC established the specific objectives of the study: (a) to develop a methodological framework that uses existing data and models to quantify the external costs and benefits of energy; (b) to demonstrate the application of the framework to estimate the externalities of the coal, biomass, oil, natural gas, hydro, nuclear, photovoltaic, and wind fuel cycles (by agreement with the EC, the US addressed the first six of these); and (c) to identify major gaps in the availability of information to quantify impacts, damages, benefits, and externalities of fuel cycles; and to suggest priorities for future research. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities, and a better method for estimating them.

  16. Innovation types at smes and external influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Walicka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulating innovation is one of the pressing policy challenges facing many countries in the world today. The paper analyses the external factors that Polish entrepreneurs find most detrimental to their innovative activity. A sample of 199 small and medium size enterprises (SMEs in Poland were subjected to a survey. The data collected revealed the innovation types of SMEs in Poland and external financial factors influencing innovation the most. The results show external factors such as legal regulations, access to external financing, bureaucracy of institutions, financial government support, the tax system, time necessary to comply with regulations, and crisis and instability are very important for SMEs. According to the results, process and marketing innovations are applied more frequently than product and organisational innovations. Finally, the results indicate that entrepreneurs indicate that lack of government support and weakness of tax incentives is an important barrier to the innovation process.

  17. LFP – A Logical Framework with External Predicates

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The LFP Framework is an extension of the Harper-Honsell- Plotkin's Edinburgh Logical Framework LF with external pred- icates. This is accomplished by defining lock type constructors, which are a sort of ⋄-modality constructors, releasing their ar- gument under the condition that a possibly external predicate is satisfied on an appropriate typed judgement. Lock types are de- fined using the standard pattern of constructive type theory, i.e. via introduction, elimination...

  18. CT findings of the osteoma of the external auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ha Young; Song, Chang Joon; Yoon, Chung Dae; Park, Mi Hyun; Shin, Byung Seok [Chungnam National University, School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    We wanted to report the CT image findings of the osteoma of the external auditory canal. Temporal bone CT scanning was performed on eight patients (4 males and 4 females aged between 8 and 41 years) with pathologically proven osteoma of the external auditory canal after operation, and the findings of the CT scanning were retrospectively reviewed. Not only did we analyze the size, shape, distribution and location of the osteomas, we also analyzed the relationship between the lesion and the tympanosqumaous or tympanomastoid suture line, and the changes seen on the CT scan images for the patients who were able to undergo follow-up. All the lesions of the osteoma of the external auditory canal were unilateral, solitary, pedunculated bony masses. In five patients, the osteomas occurred on the left side and for the other three patients, the osteomas occurred on the right side. The average size of the osteoma was 0.6 cm with the smallest being 0.5 cm and the largest being 1.2 cm. Each of the lesions was located at the osteochondral junction in the terminal part of the osseous external ear canal. The stalk of the osteoma of the external auditory canal was found to have occurred in the anteroinferior wall in five cases (63%), in the anterosuperior wall (the tympanosqumaous suture line) in two cases (25%), and in the anterior wall in one case. The osteoma of the external auditory canal was a compact form in five cases and it was a cancellous form in three cases. One case of the cancellous form was changed into a compact form 35 months later due to the advanced ossification. Osteoma of the external auditory canal developed in a unilateral and solitary fashion. The characteristic image findings show that it is attached to the external auditory canal by its stalk. Unlike our common knowledge about its occurrence, osteoma mostly occurred in the tympanic wall, and this is regardless of the tympanosquamous or tympanomastoid suture line.

  19. The Domestic Origins of Sudan's External Debt Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Rahman Ahmed Abdel Rahman

    1995-01-01

    Domestic factors played a significant role in Sudan's external debt crisis which emerged in the early 1980's. Personal rule and related political survival considerations undermined on-going economic adjustment programmes and prompted heavy external borrowing. Borrowing from abroad went unchecked because of the absence of an effective debt management system. It was also fuelled by economic corruption and the decline of cotton, Sudan's principal export crop. The absence of an effective debt man...

  20. EXTERNAL FACTORS FOR THE MONETARY POLICY TRANSMISSION MECHANISM

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Horatiu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews and analyzes the effects that external (or exogenous) factors, defined as economic factors that cannot be controlled or influenced by the central bank, have on monetary policy and the monetary policy transmission mechanism. Adopting a theoretical research position, we aim at identifying the main external factors to monetary policy and discuss the ways in which these factors alter the economic environment and implicitly the monetary policy transmission mechanism. This is don...

  1. Melanoacanthoma of external ear: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Patnayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoacanthoma is a rare lesion. Melanoacanthoma of external ear is still rarer . We present two cases of melanoacanthoma of external ear in adults which presented as pigmented growths and clinically were suspected as malignant lesions. Histopathology was diagnostic as it demonstrated the characteristic elevated lesion with abundant melanin pigment. No recurrence of the lesion was reported after four years of initial diagnosis. These cases have been presented because of their uncommon location, highlighting the differential diagnoses.

  2. Capacity Expansion in Markets with Intertemporal Consumption Externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Kitamura

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes market capacity expansion in the presence of intertemporal consumption externalities such as consumer learning, networks, or bandwagon effects. The externality leads to an endogenous shift of market demand that responds to past market capacity. Whereas market capacity grows in waves, its magnitude depends on the degree of market concentration. The competitive environment contributes to S-shaped time patterns of market capacity expansion that is slow from the social viewpoi...

  3. Assessment of environmental external effects in the production of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleisner, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    A project in Denmark has been carried out with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The energy production technologies that will be reported in this paper are wind power and a conventional coal fired plant. In the project...... the environmental damages for the energy production technologies are compared, and externalities in the production of energy using renewable energy and fossil fuels are identified, estimated and monetized....

  4. Experimental demonstration of illusion optics with ``external cloaking'' effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Guochang; Li, Fang; Fang, Guangyou

    2011-08-01

    A metamaterial "illusion optics" with "complementary medium" and "restoring medium" is designed by using inductor-capacitor (L-C) network medium. The unprecedented effects of "external cloaking" and "transforming one object to appear as another" are demonstrated experimentally. We also demonstrate that the non-resonant nature of the L-C network decreases the sensitivity of the "external cloaking" effect to the variation of the frequency and results in an acceptable bandwidth of the whole device.

  5. Endoscopic versus external approach dacryocystorhinostomy: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinki Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR consists of creating a lacrimal drainage pathway to the nasal cavity to restore permanent drainage of previously obstructed excreting system. Aim: To compare the result and advantages of both endonasal endoscopic and external DCR regarding the patency rate, patient compliance and complications. Study Design: Prospective non-randomized comparative study. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted for 16 months duration in a teaching hospital with 50 cases of endoscopic and 30 cases of external DCR with a follow-up of minimum 6 months. Data regarding surgical outcome and complications were analysed and compared using χ2 test. Results: Total 72 patients were included in the study with six having bilateral involvement, out of which 20 were male and 52 were female. The mean age for endoscopic and external DCR was 33.6 years and 46.0 years, respectively. Right eye (63.8% was involved more commonly than left eye (36.2%. Epiphora was the commonest presenting symptom (63.7%. Mean duration of surgery was much lengthier in external (mean 119.6 minutes than endoscopic (mean 49.0 minutes DCR. Bleeding was the most common immediate postoperative complication seen in 33.3% and 10.0% of external and endoscopic DCR cases, respectively. Primary surgical success rate was 90% and 96.7% for endoscopic and external DCR, respectively ( P = 0.046. Among the endoscopic DCR group, four patients underwent revision surgery giving a total successful surgical outcome of 98% at third month of follow-up. However, at 6 month of follow-up, success rate was 92% for endoscopic DCR and 93.3% for external DCR. The difference was not statistically significant ( P = 0.609. Conclusion: Intranasal endoscopic DCR is a simple, minimally invasive, day care procedure and had comparable result with conventional external DCR.

  6. External priors for the next generation of CMB experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzotti, Alessandro [Chicago U., KICP; Dodelson, Scott [Chicago U., KICP; Park, Youngsoo [Arizona U.

    2015-12-08

    Planned cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments can dramatically improve what we know about neutrino physics, inflation, and dark energy. The low level of noise, together with improved angular resolution, will increase the signal to noise of the CMB polarized signal as well as the reconstructed lensing potential of high redshift large scale structure. Projected constraints on cosmological parameters are extremely tight, but these can be improved even further with information from external experiments. Here, we examine quantitatively the extent to which external priors can lead to improvement in projected constraints from a CMB-Stage IV (S4) experiment on neutrino and dark energy properties. We find that CMB S4 constraints on neutrino mass could be strongly enhanced by external constraints on the cold dark matter density $\\Omega_{c}h^{2}$ and the Hubble constant $H_{0}$. If polarization on the largest scales ($\\ell<50$) will not be measured, an external prior on the primordial amplitude $A_{s}$ or the optical depth $\\tau$ will also be important. A CMB constraint on the number of relativistic degrees of freedom, $N_{\\rm eff}$, will benefit from an external prior on the spectral index $n_{s}$ and the baryon energy density $\\Omega_{b}h^{2}$. Finally, an external prior on $H_{0}$ will help constrain the dark energy equation of state ($w$).

  7. [The current views of the treatment of diffuse external otitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, O V; Shadrin, G B

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of the local application of triderm for the treatment of diffuse external otitis. The study included 68 patients presenting with bacterial and fungal diffuse external otitis. The treatment in the form of local empiric therapy was continued till the results of microbiological treatment became apparent. The beneficial outcome achieved in 91.2% of the patients was clinically manifest as the regression of the inflammatory process in the external auditory meatus. No complications, such as ototoxic events, either local or systemic allergic reactions, were documented. The authors substantiate the possibility of the application of the medication under consideration for the treatment of diffuse external otitis based on the knowledge of the mechanism of the actin of its constituent components, viz. betamethasone, dipropionate, gentamicin sulfate, and clotrimazole, taking into account the occurrence of the most common causative agents of diffuse external otitis. It is concluded that triderm is a safe medication for the local application and, probably, for the initial empiric therapy of diffuse external otitis to be continued till the results of the microbiological treatment become apparent.

  8. Penetrating trauma to the external genitalia in Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, S; Beekley, A; Morey, A; Soderdahl, D

    2009-01-01

    This report details the incidence and description of trauma to the external genitalia experienced during Operation Iraqi Freedom at a United States Army Combat Support Hospital, and demonstrates that acceptable rates of testicular salvage are possible in the combat setting. The operating room logs and the Joint Theater Trauma Registry were used to conduct a retrospective review of the patients who sustained genitourinary (GU) injuries at an US Army Combat Support Hospital (CSH) in Iraq from 27 February 2007 to 14 August 2007. Of the 3595 battle trauma injuries seen at the CSH during the time period, 168 (4.7%) had one or more GU injuries for a total of 172 GU injuries. Of these patients, 115 (68%) with GU injuries had one or more injuries to the external genitalia for a total of 119 external GU injuries. Penetrating trauma to the penis and scrotum accounted for 59 of the injuries. In total, 43 testicles were injured in 34 patients (9 had bilateral injuries). In total, 32 testes were repaired primarily and 11 were removed. Injuries to the external genitalia continue to account for the vast majority of GU trauma in a combat setting. Of patients who presented with penetrating testicular trauma, there was a 74.4% salvage rate, which is higher than previous reports of combat external genitalia injuries. Treatment of penetrating trauma to the external genitalia in a combat setting requires attention to tissue preservation while coordinating associated surgical procedures.

  9. A STUDY OF CONGENITAL MALFORMATIONS OF THE EXTERNAL EAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubi Saikia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Congenital external ear malformations like Microtia, Anotia, Preauricular skin tags, etc. cause severe psychological problems in children. If accompanied with atresia of the external auditory canal and the middle ear; hearing loss, developmental delays are also associated with such malformations. AIM The aim of the present study is to evaluate the commonly occurring congenital external ear defects in this part of India. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was undertaken in patients attending the Plastic Surgery OPD at Assam Medical College Hospital and Smile Train Centre at Srishti Hospitals and Research Centre at Dibrugarh, Assam, from July 2013 to July 2016. We did an analysis of 25 patients with visibly noticeable external ear deformities and recorded the findings as per proforma and took photographs. RESULTS Among the 25 cases, 9 (36% were males and 16 (64% were females. The most common congenital anomaly that we found was microtia 7 (28%. Of these, 1 (4% was isolated microtia and 6 (24% were associated with hemifacial microsomia. The second common finding was preauricular skin tags 5 (20%. 3 of the microtia cases also presented with external auditory canal atresia and hearing loss. CONCLUSION Congenital anomalies of the external ear can seriously change a child’s personality. Proper diagnosis and treatment of such cases will definitely reduce the possible psychological, physical and financial problems of the patient and family as most of them are surgically correctable.

  10. TURBULENCE,VORTEX AND EXTERNAL EXPLOSION INDUCED BY VENTING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜孝海; 范宝春; 叶经方

    2004-01-01

    The process of explosion venting to air in a cylindrical vent vessel connected to a duct, filling with a stoichiometric methane-oxygen gas mixture, was simulated numerically by using a colocated grid SIMPLE scheme based on k-epsilon turbulent model and Eddydissipation combustion model. The characteristics of the combustible cloud, flame and pressure distribution in the external flow field during venting were analyzed in terms of the predicted results. The results show that the external explosion is generated due to violent turbulent combustion in the high pressure region within the external combustible cloud ignited by a jet flame. And the turbulence and vortex in the external flow field were also discussed in detail. After the jet flame penetrating into the external combustible cloud, the turbulent intensity is greater in the regions with greater average kinetic energy gradient, rather than in the flame front; and the vortex in the external flow field is generated primarily due to the baroclinic effect, which is greater in the regions where the pressure and density gradients are nearly perpendicular.

  11. Implications of environmental externalities assessments for solar thermal powerplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A. D.; Baechler, M. C.

    1991-03-01

    Externalities are those impacts of one activity on other activities that are not priced in the marketplace. An externality is said to exist when two conditions hold: (1) the utility or operations of one economic agent, A, include nonmonetary variables whose values are chosen by another economic agent, B, without regard to the effects on A, and (2) B does not pay A compensation equal to the incremental costs inflicted on A. Electricity generation involves a wide range of potential and actual environmental impacts. Legislative, permitting, and regulatory requirements directly or indirectly control certain environmental impacts, implicitly causing them to become internalized in the cost of electricity generation. Electricity generation, however, often produces residual environmental impacts that meet the definition of an externality. Mechanisms have been developed by several states to include the costs associated with externalities in the cost-effectiveness analyses of new powerplants. This paper examines these costs for solar thermal plants and applies two states' scoring methodologies to estimate how including externalities would affect the levelized costs of power from a solar plant in the Pacific Northwest. It concludes that including externalities in the economics can reduce the difference between the levelized cost of a coal and solar plant by between 0.74 and 2.42 cents/kWh.

  12. External priors for the next generation of CMB experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzotti, Alessandro; Dodelson, Scott; Park, Youngsoo

    2016-03-01

    Planned cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments can dramatically improve what we know about neutrino physics, inflation, and dark energy. The low level of noise, together with improved angular resolution, will increase the signal to noise of the CMB polarized signal as well as the reconstructed lensing potential of high redshift large scale structure. Projected constraints on cosmological parameters are extremely tight, but these can be improved even further with information from external experiments. Here, we examine quantitatively the extent to which external priors can lead to improvement in projected constraints from a CMB-Stage IV (S4) experiment on neutrino and dark energy properties. We find that CMB S4 constraints on neutrino mass could be strongly enhanced by external constraints on the cold dark matter density $\\Omega_{c}h^{2}$ and the Hubble constant $H_{0}$. If polarization on the largest scales ($\\ell<50$) will not be measured, an external prior on the primordial amplitude $A_{s}$ or the optical depth $\\tau$ will also be important. A CMB constraint on the number of relativistic degrees of freedom, $N_{\\rm eff}$, will benefit from an external prior on the spectral index $n_{s}$ and the baryon energy density $\\Omega_{b}h^{2}$. Finally, an external prior on $H_{0}$ will help constrain the dark energy equation of state ($w$).

  13. Influence of external potentials on heterogeneous diffusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakevičius, Rytis; Ruseckas, Julius

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we consider heterogeneous diffusion processes with the power-law dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the position and investigate the influence of external forces on the resulting anomalous diffusion. The heterogeneous diffusion processes can yield subdiffusion as well as superdiffusion, depending on the behavior of the diffusion coefficient. We assume that not only the diffusion coefficient but also the external force has a power-law dependence on the position. We obtain analytic expressions for the transition probability in two cases: when the power-law exponent in the external force is equal to 2 η -1 , where 2 η is the power-law exponent in the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the position, and when the external force has a linear dependence on the position. We found that the power-law exponent in the dependence of the mean square displacement on time does not depend on the external force; this force changes only the anomalous diffusion coefficient. In addition, the external force having the power-law exponent different from 2 η -1 limits the time interval where the anomalous diffusion occurs. We expect that the results obtained in this paper may be relevant for a more complete understanding of anomalous diffusion processes.

  14. Externalizing and internalizing subtypes of posttraumatic psychopathology and anger expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Diane T; Joseph, Jeremy S; Tharp, Andra T; C'de Baca, Janet; Torres-Sena, Lorraine M; Qualls, Clifford; Miller, Mark W

    2014-02-01

    Subtypes of posttraumatic psychopathology were replicated and extended in 254 female veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cluster analyses on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and Personality Psychopathology Five scales (Harkness, McNulty, & Ben-Porath, ) yielded internalizing and externalizing psychopathology dimensions, with a third low psychopathology group (simple PTSD). Externalizers were higher than the internalizers and the simple PTSD groups on the antisocial, substance, and aggression scales; internalizers were higher on depression and anxiety scales. Further validation included an independent measure of psychopathology to examine anger (Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, [BDHI]; Buss & Durkee, ). Externalizers were higher on extreme behavioral anger scales (assault and verbal hostility); and externalizers and internalizers were higher than the simple PTSD subjects on other anger scales. Positive correlations between the BDHI scales and the PTSD symptom of "irritability and anger outbursts" were found across scales in the total sample (range: r = .19-.36), on the assault scale in externalizers (r = .59), and the verbal hostility scale in both internalizers (r = .30) and simple PTSD (r = .37) groups, suggesting the broad utility of the symptom in the diagnosis. The results demonstrate the generalizability of the internalizing/externalizing typology to the female veteran population and highlight clinically relevant distinctions in anger expression within PTSD.

  15. Verrucous Carcinoma in External Auditory Canal – A Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zillur Rahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Verrucous carcinoma is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is of low grade malignancy and rarely present with distant metastasis. Oral cavity is the commonest site of this tumour, other sites are larynx, oesophagus and genitalia. Verrucous carcinoma in external auditory canal is extremely rare. This is the presentation of a 45 years old woman who came to the ENT & Head Neck Surgery department of Delta medical college, Dhaka, Bangladesh with discharging left ear and impairment of hearing on the same side for 7 years. Otoscopic examination showed a mass occupying almost whole of the external auditory canal and the overlying skin was thickened, papillary and blackish. Cytology from external auditory canal scrap showed hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis. External auditory canal bone was found eroded at some parts. Excision of the mass was done under microscope. Split thickness skin grafting was done in external auditory canal. The mass was diagnosed as verrucous carcinoma on histopathological examination. Afterwards she was given radiotherapy. Six months follow up showed no recurrence and healthy epithelialization of external auditory canal.

  16. Estimating Externalities of Hydro Fuel Cycles, Report 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-12-01

    There are three major objectives of this hydropower study: (1) to implement the methodological concepts that were developed in the background document (ORNL/RFF 1992) as a means of estimating the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles and, by so doing, to demonstrate their application to the hydroelectric fuel cycle (different fuel cycles have unique characteristics that need to be addressed in different ways); (2) to develop, given the time and resources, the best range of estimates of externalities associated with hydroelectric projects, using two benchmark projects at two reference sites in the US; and (3) to assess the state of the information that is available to support the estimation of externalities associated with the hydroelectric fuel cycle and, by so doing, to assist in identifying gaps in knowledge and in setting future research agendas. The main consideration in defining these objectives was a desire to have more information about externalities and a better method for estimating them. As set forth in the agreement between the US and the EC, the study is explicitly and intentionally not directed at any one audience. This study is about a methodology for estimating externalities. It is not about how to use estimates of externalities in a particular policy context.

  17. External iliac vein thrombosis in an athletic cyclist with a history of external iliac artery endofibrosis and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kelly M; Skeik, Nedaa; Shepherd, Roger F; Wennberg, Paul W

    2011-11-01

    External iliac artery endofibrosis describes an intimal subendothelial fibrosis leading to wall thickening and stenosis that has been described in high-performance athletes. There are anatomical, mechanical, and probably metabolic factors that may contribute to this pathology. Ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement with exercise testing, duplex ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) angiogram, and ultimately arteriography help to make the diagnosis. Management can be conservative, but most cases require surgical intervention. External iliac vein stenosis and thrombosis in cyclists has rarely been described in the literature. We report a case of extensive left lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT) including the external iliac vein diagnosed in a 57-year-old athletic cyclist with a history of external iliac artery thrombosis.

  18. EXTERNAL FACTORS FOR THE MONETARY POLICY TRANSMISSION MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Horatiu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews and analyzes the effects that external (or exogenous factors, defined as economic factors that cannot be controlled or influenced by the central bank, have on monetary policy and the monetary policy transmission mechanism. Adopting a theoretical research position, we aim at identifying the main external factors to monetary policy and discuss the ways in which these factors alter the economic environment and implicitly the monetary policy transmission mechanism. This is done by changing the way in which monetary transmission channels work and deliver monetary policy decisions throughout the economy, with the final goal of producing central bank desired outcomes with regard to economic variables like inflation, employment, or the production level. We will begin this article with a brief introduction on the topic of monetary policy, the monetary policy transmission mechanism and the potential external factors that may influence the monetary policy and the functioning of its transmission mechanism. The main external factors are identified as linked to fiscal policy, commodity prices, financial market volatility or other globalization related processes. After this introduction, we will proceed with the analysis of the nature and influences of each of the above mentioned external factors on monetary policy and its transmission, indentifying the potential ways in which they can change the structure and internal processes of the transmission channels. As we will see in the study and highlight in our conclusion, the external factors cause decisive changes in the way monetary policy is transmitted, and thus will strongly influence the decisions that central banks take in order to alter key economic variables. The profound understanding of how these non-central bank controlled factors influence the monetary policy transmission mechanism is a key requirement for central banks, as only by being able to predict, recognize and evaluate the

  19. Biomechanical analysis of fracture fixation with external fixator in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the different ways of measuring the main axial strain during treatment with an external fixator and to find the suitable compression loaded by the external fixator at an early stage.Methods: Eighteen healthy big-ear rabbits were randomly divided into two groups according to different measuring methods: Group A and Group B. In Group A,a strain gauge was affixed to the external tibial cortex with 502 glue, and in Group B, a bone cement-coated strain gauge was installed on the internal tibial cortex. Groups A and B were divided into two subgroups A1, A2 and B1,B2, respectively, according to the pressure of half of and the same as the body weight. A Z-shaped left mid-shaft tibial osteotomy was performed and fixed by an external fixator. Results: The scaler curves of Group A changed dramatically during the early stage. The trendlines of the internal and external cortex went consistently after reaching the stable stage while the latter strain value was higher than the former. The time for Group B reaching the stable stage was short, but its absolute strain value was less than that of Group A. Before they were pressed to the stable stage, the declined speed of Subgroup A1 was more slowly than that of Subgroup A2 while the results of Subgroups B1 and B2 were same. Group A had an ascending trend after it declined while Group B didn't have. After they reached the stable stage, both Subgroups A1 and A2 had a declining trend while Subgroup A2 was more quickly than Subgroup Al, Subgroup B1 was kept at a definite level while Subgroup B2 fluctuated.Conclusions: The axial strain under external fixator can be measured by bone cement coated-strain gauge in vivo. The data may suggest that half of the body weight load was suitable for external fixator.

  20. Does PGA external stenting reduce compliance mismatch in venous grafts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Liang-jian

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autogenous vein grafting is widely used in regular bypassing procedures. Due to its mismatch with the host artery in both mechanical property and geometry, the graft often over expands under high arterial blood pressure and forms a step-depth where eddy flow develops, thus causing restenosis, fibrous graft wall, etc. External stents, such as sheaths being used to cuff the graft, have been introduced to eliminate these mismatches and increase the patency. Although histological and immunochemical studies have shown some positive effects of the external stent, the mechanical mismatch under the protection of an external stent remains poorly analyzed. Methods In this study, the jugular veins taken from hypercholesterolemic rabbits were transplanted into the carotid arteries, and non-woven polyglycolic acid (PGA fabric was used to fabricate the external stents to study the effect of the biodegradable external stent. Eight weeks after the operation, the grafts were harvested to perform mechanical tests and histological examinations. An arc tangent function was suggested to describe the relationship between pressure and cross-sectional area to analyse the compliance of the graft. Results The results from the mechanical tests indicated that grafts either with or without external stents displayed large compliance in the low-pressure range and were almost inextensible in the high-pressure range. This was very different from the behavior of the arteries or veins in vivo. The data from histological tests showed that, with external stents, collagen fibers were more compact, whilst those in the graft without protection were looser and thicker. No elastic fiber was found in either kind of grafts. Furthermore, grafts without protection were over-expanded which resulted in much bigger cross-sectional areas. Conclusion The PGA external extent contributes little to the reduction of the mechanical mismatch between the graft and its host artery

  1. Assessment of environmental external effects in power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, H.; Morthorst, P.E.; Schleisner, L. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Meyer, N.I.; Nielsen, P.S.; Nielsen, V. [The Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report summarises some of the results achieved in a project carried out in Denmark in 1994 concerning externalities. The main objective was to identify, quantify and - if possible - monetize the external effects in the production of energy, especially in relation to renewable technologies. The report compares environmental externalities in the production of energy using renewable and non-renewable energy sources, respectively. The comparison is demonstrated on two specific case studies. The first case is the production of electricity based on wind power plants compared to the production of electricity based on a coal-fired conventional plant. In the second case heat/power generation by means of a combined heat and power plant based on biomass-generated gas is compared to that of a combined heat and power plant fuelled by natural gas. In the report the individual externalities from the different ways of producing energy are identified, the stress caused by the effect is assessed, and finally the monetary value of the damage is estimated. The method is applied to the local as well as the regional and global externalities. (au) 8 tabs., 7 ills., 4 refs.

  2. Environmental external effects for wind power and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Morthorst, P.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Dept.

    1995-12-31

    This article summarises some of the results achieved in a project carried out in Denmark with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The project has especially handled renewable energy versus energy based on fossil fuels. The project has been a collaboration between the Technical University of Denmark and Riso National Laboratory. The research institutions have considered different energy production technologies in the project. The energy production technologies that have been considered by Risoe National Laboratory and will be reported and compared in this article are the following: (1) Wind power, (2) A coal-fired condensing plant. In the project the environmental damages are thus compared, and externalities in the production of energy using renewable energy and fossil fuels are identified, estimated and monetized. The following result applies in general to the applied technologies. Only the environmental externalities have been assessed in the project. Social and economical externalities, e.g. related to changes in employment or depletion of resources, are not included in the project. The cost concept is based on marginal damage cost, in principle taking as starting point the level of pollution that exists today. The methodology, which has been used in order to find and monetize the environmental externalities, consists of the different processes like Identification, quantification, Dose-response and Valuation

  3. Dental hygiene student experiences in external placements in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jane A; Hayes, Melanie J; Wallace, Linda

    2012-05-01

    While placements in external locations are being increasingly used in dental education globally, few studies have explored the student learning experience at such placements. The purpose of this study was to investigate student experiences while on external placement in a baccalaureate dental hygiene program. A self-reporting questionnaire was distributed to final-year dental hygiene students (n=77) at the University of Newcastle, Australia, in 2010. The questionnaire included questions regarding the type of placement, experiences offered, supervision, resources available, and lasting impressions. Responding students were generally positive about their external placement experience and indicated that the majority of facilities provided them with the opportunity to provide direct patient care and perform clinical tasks typical of a practicing hygienist. However, there was a statistically significant difference in their opinions about discipline-focused and community placements. Students indicated that their external placement experience provided opportunities to learn more about time and patient management, including hands-on experience with specific clinical tasks. Ongoing evaluations are necessary to ensure that external placements meet both student needs and intended learning outcomes within dental hygiene programs.

  4. Gender inequalities in external cause mortality in Brazil, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erly Catarina de Moura

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate mortality rate by external causes in Brazil.Methods: Mortality national 2010's data corrected by underreport and adjusted by direct method were evaluated by sex according to age, region of residence, race/skin color, education and conjugal situation.Results: The standardized mortality coefficient of external causes is higher among men (178 per thousand inhabitants than among women (24 per thousand inhabitants, being higher among young men (20 to 29 years old in all regions and decreasing with aging. The mortality rate reaches almost nine times higher among men comparably to women, being higher in North and Northeast regions. The death incidence by external causes is higher among men (36.4% than among women (10.9%, meaning 170% more risk for men. The risk is also higher among the youngest: 6.00 for men and 7.36 for women. The main kind of death by external causes among men is aggressions, followed by transport accidents, the opposite of women.Conclusions: Besides sex, age is the more important predictive factor of precocious death by external causes, pointing the need of many and various sectors in order to construct new identities of non violence.

  5. Preschool children with externalizing behaviors: experience of fathers and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B L; Heller, T L

    1996-08-01

    Childhood behavior disorders are related to family stress and maladjustment. Little is known, however, about the adjustment of families with preschool-aged children at risk for subsequent behavior disorders. Moreover, fathers' perceptions of child problem behavior and their reactions to it generally have been neglected. Subjects were mothers and fathers of 52 preschool-aged children assigned to one of three groups: control, moderate externalizing, and high externalizing. Higher child externalizing behavior was associated with greater negative family impact, lowered parenting sense of efficacy, and child-rearing practices that were more authoritarian and less authoritative. Mothers and fathers did not differ in actual perceived level of child behavior problems, although both believed that mothers saw more problems. Child Group x Parent interactions indicated that mothers experienced increased stress and a need for help with moderate as well as high child externalizing behaviors, whereas fathers were not elevated on these measures unless the child's externalizing behaviors were high. Implications of these findings for early family intervention are considered.

  6. EXTERNAL FIXATOR IN THE MANAGEMENT OF UNSTABLE PELVIC FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi prasad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Universally, high- energy trauma is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the younger age group. Usually pelvic fractures are caused by high energy trauma. Hence it affects not only the musculoskeletal system, but also the soft tissues and viscera contained in the pelvis leading to increased mortality and morbidity. Management of such patients remains a challenge to the trauma surgeon, even in the most sophisticated trauma centers. The aim of our study is to evaluate the role of external fixation in the management of pelvic fractures, both as a resuscitative measure and definitive treatment of unstable pelvic fractures (Type B & Type C. In our study, all patients underwent stabilization with external fixator and the mortality rate was zero with additional internal fixation with reconstruction plating being done in three patients. The primary advantage of external fixation in pelvic injury is to maintain the reduction by which it produces a tamponade effect and results in reduction in haemorrhage, and helps transportation of the patient. External stabilization for unstable pelvic fractures with external fixator is an established treatment procedure and we in our study confirm the usefulness of the procedure in an emergency situation and can be continued effectively as a definitive management for type B & C Pelvic injuries

  7. Scanning the business external environment for information: evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kourteli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper examines the business external environment scanning theory for information in the context of Greece. Method. A questionnaire was developed to explore the relationships between general and task business environment, perceived uncertainty, scanning strategy, and sources of information with respect to type of environment, size and industry.The research was based on a sample of 144 private organizations operating in North Greece. Analysis. Data collected were analysed using SPSS. The statistical procedures of chi-squared homogeneity test, ANOVA, Duncan's test of homogeneity of means, and related samples t-test were followed for testing the hypotheses developed. Results. The results show that perceived uncertainty of the general and task business external environment factors depend on the type of the environment, size of organization, and industry where the organizations operate; organizations adapt their scanning strategy to the complexity of the environment; personal sources of information seem to be more important than impersonal sources; external sources of information are equally important with internal sources; and higher levels of environmental uncertainty are associated with higher levels of scanning the various sources. Conclusion. Business external environment scanning of information is influenced by the characteristics of the organizations themselves and by the characteristics of the external environment within which the organizations operate. The study contributes to both environmental scanning theory and has important messages for practitioners.

  8. Shear behavior of concrete beams externally prestressed with Parafil ropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Ghallab

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although extensive work has been carried out investigating the use of external prestressing system for flexural strengthening, a few studies regarding the shear behavior of externally prestressed beams can be found. Five beams, four of them were externally strengthened using Parafil rope, were loaded up to failure to investigate the effect of shear span/depth ratio, external prestressing force and concrete strength on their shear behavior. Test results showed that the shear span to depth ratio has a significant effect on both the shear strength and failure mode of the strengthened beams and the presence of external prestressing force increased the ultimate load of the tested beams by about 75%. Equations proposed by different codes for both the conventional reinforced concrete beams and for ordinary prestressed beams were used to evaluate the obtained experimental results. In general, codes equations showed a high level of conservatism in predicting the shear strength of the beams. Also, using the full strength rather than half of the concrete shear strength in the Egyptian code PC-method improves the accuracy of the calculated ultimate shear strength.

  9. Direct determination of external radiation dose in human blood

    CERN Document Server

    Tanir, AG; Sahiner, E; Bolukdemir, MH; Koc, K; Meric, N; Keles, SK; Kucuk, O

    2014-01-01

    In this study it was shown that it is possible to determine radiation doses from external beam therapy both directly and retrospectively from a human blood sample. To the best of our knowledge no other studies exist on the direct measurement of doses received by a person from external beam therapy. Optically stimulated luminescence counts from a healthy blood sample exposed to an external radiation source were measured. Blood aliquots were given 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, 100 and 200Gy beta doses and their decay and dose-response curves were plotted. While the luminescence intensities were found to be relatively low for the doses smaller than 10Gy, they were measured considerably higher for doses greater than 10Gy. The dose received by the blood aliquots was determined by interpolating the luminescence counts of 10Gy to the dose-response curve. This study has important ramifications for healthcare, medicine and radiation protection

  10. Massless Boundary Sine-Gordon Model Coupled to External Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kogetsu, H

    2005-01-01

    We investigate a generalization of the massless boundary sine-Gordon model with conformal invariance, which has been used to describe an array of D-branes (or rolling tachyon). We consider a similar action whose couplings are replaced with external fields depending on the boundary coordinate. Even in the presence of the external fields, this model is still solvable, though it does not maintain the whole conformal symmetry. We obtain, to all orders in perturbation theory in terms of the external fields, a simpler expression of the boundary state and the disc partition function. As a by-product, we fix the relation between the bare couplings and the renormalized couplings which has been appeared in papers on tachyon lump and rolling tachyon.

  11. The Interstellar Medium in External Galaxies: Summaries of contributed papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbach, David J. (Editor); Thronson, Harley A., Jr. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The Second Wyoming Conference entitled, The Interstellar Medium in External Galaxies, was held on July 3 to 7, 1989, to discuss the current understanding of the interstellar medium in external galaxies and to analyze the basic physical processes underlying interstellar phenomena. The papers covered a broad range of research on the gas and dust in external galaxies and focused on such topics as the distribution and morphology of the atomic, molecular, and dust components; the dynamics of the gas and the role of the magnetic field in the dynamics; elemental abundances and gas depletions in the atomic and ionized components; cooling flows; star formation; the correlation of the nonthermal radio continuum with the cool component of the interstellar medium; the origin and effect of hot galactic halos; the absorption line systems seen in distant quasars; and the effect of galactic collisions.

  12. Decadal period external magnetic field variations determined via eigenanalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shore, R. M.; Whaler, K. A.; Macmillan, S.;

    2016-01-01

    We perform a reanalysis of hourly mean magnetic data from ground-based observatories spanning 1997-2009 inclusive, in order to isolate (after removal of core and crustal field estimates) the spatiotemporal morphology of the external fields important to mantle induction, on (long) periods of months......-the form of the decomposition is controlled by the data. We apply a spherical harmonic analysis to the EOF outputs in a joint inversion for internal and external coefficients. The results justify our assumption that the EOF procedure responds primarily to the long-period external inducing field...... contributions. Though we cannot determine uniquely the contributory source regions of these inducing fields, we find that they have distinct temporal characteristics which enable some inference of sources. An identified annual-period pattern appears to stem from a north-south seasonal motion of the background...

  13. Collaborative innovation: Internal and external involvement in new product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timenes Laugen, Bjørge; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2011-01-01

    Industry and academia alike are increasingly becoming aware of the fact that innovation does not take place in isolated cells or functions within the firm. During the last the years the term open innovation has emphasized the importance of internal and external collaboration in order to increase...... the competitiveness of companies. Although the idea of involving internal and external actors in the new product development (NPD) process is not new, the knowledge about the benefits and pitfalls is still limited. This paper aims to contribute to refining the concept of open innovation, by investigating how...... strategic priorities influence the degree of external and internal involvement in the NPD process, moderated by contextual factors. Results based on analyses of 584 companies from the International Manufacturing Strategy Survey (IMSS) 2005 indicate that suppliers are heavily involved in the NPD process...

  14. Tuning plasmonic cloaks with an external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Kort-Kamp, W J M; Pinheiro, F A; Farina, C

    2013-01-01

    We propose a mechanism to actively tune the operation of plasmonic cloaks with an external magnetic field by investigating electromagnetic scattering by a dielectric cylinder coated with a magneto-optical shell. In the long wavelength limit we show that the presence of an external magnetic field may drastically reduce the scattering cross-section at all observation angles. We demonstrate that the application of external magnetic fields can modify the operation wavelength without the need of changing material and/or geometrical parameters. We also show that applied magnetic fields can reversibly switch on and off the cloak operation. These results, which could be achieved for existing magneto-optical materials, are shown to be robust to material losses, so that they may pave the way for developing actively tunable, versatile plasmonic cloaks.

  15. Externality and locus of control in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbitsky, J R; White, D R

    1981-03-01

    Fifty-nine obese and normal-weight children, aged 8-12 years were compared on two dimensions of "externality," previously examined in obese adults. Significant sex difference indicated that boys generally ate more than girls and held more internal locus of control expectancies. However, obese and normal-weight children were not differentiated by their performance on either a food-related or three nonfood-related measures of external-cue responsiveness, nor by their locus of control expectancies. Furthermore, the various measures were neither strongly nor consistently intercorrelated, providing little support for the notion of a single underlying dimension of "externality." The contribution of physiological, sensory, cognitive-motivational, and sociocultural parameters to the regulation of eating behavior was discussed.

  16. Obesity, externality, and susceptibility to social influence: an integrated analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C P; Olmsted, M P; Polivy, J

    1983-10-01

    A pilot study indicated that overweight subjects are more likely to order a particular dessert in a restaurant when the waitress provides an appetizing description of that dessert and encourages the diner to order it; subjects who were not overweight were much less affected by the waitress's behavior. This effect may be interpreted in terms of the greater "externality' of overweight persons (i.e., their greater reactivity to salient food cues); alternatively, it may be seen as evidence for greater compliance by deviant (overweight) individuals. The present study examined these alternatives by separating the perceptual-cues component of the waitress's behavior from the social-influence component in a replication of the pilot study. The results indicated that both the externality and compliance interpretations were tenable. The authors suggest that these two mechanisms may be seen as facets of a more general concern on the part of overweight people to secure behavioral guidance from the external environment, physical or social.

  17. Synchronization of chaotic VCSELs by external chaotic signal parameter modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Shenghai Zhang; Xingzhong Qian; Yanbin Wang

    2009-01-01

    Synchronization of chaotic vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) is achieved by external chaotic signal modulation successfully.Simulation indicates that we can get chaos synchronization if the intensity of external chaotic signal is large enough.First of all,we use direct current modulation to achieve the chaos of VCSELs,and determine the laser's chaotic state by analyzing time series of the output and the corresponding power spectrum.And then we achieve synchronization of the two chaotic systems by external chaotic signal parameter modulation.We also find that the larger the modulation intensity is,the easier it is to achieve synchronization for chaotic VCSELs.This approach can also be applied to systems with a number of modulated lasers.

  18. Dynamic ultrasound of the external snapping hip syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Sun; Song, Baek Yong; Paik, Sang Hyun; Lee, Tae Gyu; Yoon, Yong Kyu [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Moon [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Deagu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    Snapping hip syndrome has been described as a hip pain accompanied by an audible snapping during motion of the hip or while walking. The variable causes of its external, internal, and intra-articular origins have been described. The most common extemal snapping hip has been associated with a thickened posterior border of the iliotibial band or of the anterior border of the gluteus maximus muscle slipping over the greater trochanter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamic ultrasound findings of external snapping hip syndrome with review of the literature. We studied 5 patients (7 cases) with external snapping hip and pain over the greater trochanter during walking or hip motion (3 males and 2 females, age range, 14-32 years; mean, 19 years). Two patients reported bilateral snapping hips.

  19. Numerical analysis of rainfall effects in external overburden dump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radhakanta Koner⇑; Debashish Chakravarty

    2016-01-01

    The effect of slope angle for external overburden dump in response to average and heavy rainfall has been analyzed using a two dimensional finite difference method of transient water flow through unsaturated–saturated soil. The external dump stability is evaluated for five geomaterial types on the basis of globally accepted safety factor analysis technique, based on shear strength reduction approach using finite differ-ence method. The results obtained from the finite difference method of analysis indicate that the external dump with more than 30? slope angle is greatly influenced by the rainfall under the studied conditions for geomaterial 3, 4 and 5, whereas dumps with geomaterial 1 and 2 remain safe. The analysis shows that major slope failure is out of preview for the studied rainfall conditions.

  20. Fractal characterization of internally and externally generated conscious experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Molina, A J; Iglesias-Parro, S

    2014-06-01

    Although there is an extensive literature on the study of the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) this is a subject that is far from being considered over. In this paper we present a novel experimental paradigm, based on binocular rivalry, to study internally and externally generated conscious experiences. We called this procedure bimodal rivalry. In addition, and assuming the non-linear nature of the EEG signals, we propose the use of fractal dimension to characterize the complexity of the EEG signal associated with each percept. Analysis of the data showed a significant difference in complexity between the internally generated and externally generated percepts. Moreover, EEG complexity was dissimilar for externally generated auditory and visual percepts. These results support fractal dimension analyses as a new tool to characterize conscious perception.

  1. Silicon reflectors for external cavity lasers based on ring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Xia; Jin, Hao; Yu, Hui; Yang, Jianyi; Jiang, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    We propose and experimentally investigate types of silicon ring reflectors on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) platform. These reflectors are used for realizing the silicon hybrid external cavity lasers. A suspended edge coupler is used to connect the reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) chip and the reflectors. The properties of the reflectors and the hybrid external cavity lasers with these reflectors are illustrated. The experimental results show that all of those reflectors have a high reflectivity and the highest reflectivity can up to be 95%. The lowest insertion loss can be as low as 0.4 dB. The output power of the hybrid external cavity lasers with these reflectors can reach mW magnitude and the highest output power is 6.1 mW. Over 30 dB side mode suppression ratio is obtained.

  2. Internal and external motivation to respond without sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonis, Suzanne C; Plant, E Ashby; Devine, Patricia G

    2005-09-01

    Based on Plant and Devine's (1998) measures of Internal and External Motivation to Respond Without Prejudice toward Blacks, new scales were developed to assess Internal and External Motivation to Respond Without Sexism (IMS-S and EMS-S, respectively). The scales possess good psychometric properties. Providing evidence of convergent and discriminant validity, the IMS-S was strongly related to measures of sexism yet unrelated to measures of social evaluation. The EMS-S was modestly related to both sexism and social evaluative concerns. Providing evidence of predictive validity, participants who were either internally or externally motivated to respond without sexism rated sexist jokes more negatively in a situation discouraging sexism compared to participants low in both sources of motivation. However, only high IMS-S participants rated the jokes negatively whether the situation encouraged or discouraged sexism and whether their response was public or private. Implications for understanding the similarities and differences between sexism and racism are discussed.

  3. The dual role of external corporate venturing in technological exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ying; van de Vrande, Vareska; Vanhaverbeke, Wim

    2009-01-01

    ("exploration from partners" or "EFP"). There has been little insight on how external corporate venturing may affect the exploratory learning beyond the venturing partnerships ("exploration beyond partners" or "EBP"). We claim that prior venturing relations have a dual role: First, the innovation firm can learn...... from knowledge embedded in its partners. Second, it can also learn from through its partners about knowledge developed by other firms or organizations with whom the innovating firm had no external venturing relations before. In this paper, we are interested how external corporate venturing partnerships......Innovating firms can not only explore new technologies from its innovation partners, but also explore new technologies from the organizations to which the innovating firm has had no prior relationships. Prior studies have mostly focused on a firm's exploratory learning from its venturing partners...

  4. Reconstruction of Internal and External Exposures of Fukushima Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahane, Keiichi

    2016-09-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, the internal and external exposures of the residents have been very important issues and concerns. Fukushima prefectural government and Fukushima medical university have been performing the Fukushima Health Management Survey, and the external exposures of the residents have been estimated in the survey by using NIRS external dose estimation system. The doses of 66.3% residents were >1 mSv, and 94.8 % were >2 mSv. For estimating internal exposures of the residents, thyroid measurements, whole body counter measurements and simulation have been applied. These three approach estimations showed that the 90 percentile of thyroid equivalent doses were 10-30 mSv for 1-year-old baby and were 10-20 mSv or less for adults.

  5. Effect of externally generated turbulence on wave boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kozakiewicz, A.

    2003-01-01

    This experimental study deals with the effect of externally generated turbulence on the oscillatory boundary layer to simulate the turbulence in the wave boundary layer under broken waves in the swash zone. The subject has been investigated experimentally in a U-shaped, oscillating water tunnel...... with a smooth bottom. Turbulence was generated ´externally´ as the flow in the oscillator was passed through a series of grids, that extended from the cover of the water tunnel to about mid-depth. Two different types of grid porosities were used. Direct measurements of the bed shear stress and velocity...... results. The mean and turbulence quantities in the outer flow region are increased substantially with the introduction of the grids. It is shown that the externally generated turbulence is able to penetrate the bed boundary layer, resulting in an increase in the bed shear stress, and therefore...

  6. EU External Relations Law and the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vooren, Bart

    in actual policy substance. To examine the latter issue this thesis then moves beyond the realm of legal inquiry, and employs content analysis to investigate the extent to which the ENP is substantively coherent between the different norms, actors and instruments this policy encompasses.......Coherence is a powerful rhetorical device that is prevalent throughout decades of EU external relations discourse and practice. There is intuitiveness to coherence, an implied sense of ‘good fit’ between the different elements of an all-encompassing system. Yet, any attempt to concretize coherence......-historical context of political Union, this thesis first argues why coherence is an issue at all in EU external relations, and why law is integral to attaining the ever-enigmatic single voice of the European Union. Subsequently, the text examines the role of EU external relations law in attaining a coherent...

  7. Diffusion Based Modeling of Human Brain Response to External Stimuli

    CERN Document Server

    Namazi, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    Human brain response is the overall ability of the brain in analyzing internal and external stimuli in the form of transferred energy to the mind/brain phase-space and thus, making the proper decisions. During the last decade scientists discovered about this phenomenon and proposed some models based on computational, biological, or neuropsychological methods. Despite some advances in studies related to this area of the brain research there was less effort which have been done on the mathematical modeling of the human brain response to external stimuli. This research is devoted to the modeling of human EEG signal, as an alert state of overall human brain activity monitoring, due to receiving external stimuli, based on fractional diffusion equation. The results of this modeling show very good agreement with the real human EEG signal and thus, this model can be used as a strong representative of the human brain activity.

  8. Servitization in China via an External Service Partner Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja, Jawwad; Frandsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has predominately focused on the servitization strategies of Western manufacturers in advanced economies, neglecting the potential in those which are emerging, such as China. This paper explores the role of the external service partner network of a European manufacturer providing...... services in China in order to develop a better understanding of the challenges. An in-depth multiple case study approach was taken to examine the parent company, its subsidiary in China and the related service partner network. Data collection involved all three actors and took place in Denmark and China....... The findings suggest that motivation, opportunity and ability (MOA) need not only be mutually reinforcing for the organization attempting to move towards services but also congruent within the external service partner network. Furthermore, the findings suggest that an external service partner may not be able...

  9. Soil carbon mineralization following biochar addition associated with external nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudong Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has been attracting increasing attention for its potentials of C sequestration and soil amendment. This study aimed to understand the effects of combining biochar with additional external N on soil C mineralization. A typical red soil (Plinthudults was treated with two biochars made from two types of plantation-tree trunks (soil-biochar treatments, and was also treated with external N (soil-biochar-N treatments. All treatments were incubated for 42 d. The CO2-C released from the treatments was detected periodically. After the incubation, soil properties such as pH, microbial biomass C (MBC, and microbial biomass N (MBN were measured. The addition of biochar with external N increased the soil pH (4.31-4.33 compared to the soil treated with external N only (4.21. This was not observed in the comparison of soil-biochar treatments (4.75-4.80 to soil only (4.74. Biochar additions (whether or not they were associated with external N increased soil MBC and MBN, but decreased CO2-C value per unit total C (added biochar C + soil C according to the model fitting. The total CO2-C released in soil-biochar treatments were enhanced compared to soil only (i.e., 3.15 vs. 2.57 mg and 3.23 vs. 2.45 mg, which was attributed to the labile C fractions in the biochars and through soil microorganism enhancement. However, there were few changes in soil C mineralization in soil-biochar-N treatments. Additionally, the potentially available C per unit total C in soil-biochar-N treatments was lower than that observed in the soil-biochar treatments. Therefore, we believe in the short term, that C mineralization in the soil can be enhanced by biochar addition, but not by adding external N concomitantly.

  10. Prevention of Thumb Web Space Contracture With Multiplanar External Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Carl M; Iorio, Matthew L

    2016-09-01

    Thumb web space contracture following hand trauma can be disabling with numerous reconstructive procedures existing to correct the resultant deformity. Following marked soft tissue injury to the hand we utilized the Stryker Hoffmann II Micro External Fixator System to link the first and second metacarpals by a multiplanar system using 1.6 or 2.0 mm self-drilling half-pins and 3 mm carbon fiber connecting rods. This facilitated placement of the thumb in maximal palmar abduction as well as allowed adjustment of thumb position throughout the postoperative period. This technique was performed on 5 patients. Two patients were treated with a first web space external fixator for table saw injuries to the radial aspect of the hand. An additional 2 patients were treated with a first web space external fixator following metacarpophalangeal joint capsular release in the setting of thermal burns. A fifth patient underwent second ray amputation, trapeziectomy and trapezoidectomy for squamous cell carcinoma with subsequent stabilization with the external fixator. The external fixator was left in place until soft tissues were healed (average 5.5 wk). The patients were allowed to mobilize their hand in as much as the external fixator allowed, and no device-associated complications were noted. Thumb web space was preserved with passive and supple thumb circumduction and web space abduction/adduction in all patients at an average follow-up of 5 months. The average Quick Dash Score was 35±5 and the average Modern Activity Subjective Survey of 2007 was 30±8.

  11. Quantitative bone and 67Ga scintigraphy in the differentiation of necrotizing external otitis from severe external otitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uri, N.; Gips, S.; Front, A.; Meyer, S.W.; Hardoff, R. (Department of Otolaryngology, Lady Davis Carmel Hospital, Haifa (Israel))

    1991-06-01

    Qualitative technetium Tc 99m bone scintigraphy using phosphate compounds and gallium 67 scintigraphy were described as a helpful means in diagnosing necrotizing external otitis (NEO). They were, however, claimed to be nonspecific. Quantitative Tc 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy and gallium 67 scintigraphy were performed in eight patients with NEO and in 20 patients with severe external otitis, in order to prove usefulness of scintigraphy in the diagnosis of NEO. Ratios of lesion to nonlesion for bone scintigraphy were 1.67 {plus minus} 0.16 in patients with NEO and 1.08 {plus minus} 0.09 in patients with severe external otitis, and for gallium 67 scintigraphy they were 1.35 {plus minus} 0.24 in NEO patients and 1.05 {plus minus} 0.03 in patients with severe external otitis. There was no difference in uptake between diabetic patients with severe external otitis and nondiabetic patients. The scintigraphic studies were also evaluated using a qualitative scoring method (scores 0 to +4), according to the intensity of the radiopharmaceutical uptake. This method was found to be inferior in the diagnosis of NEO compared with the quantitative method. We conclude that lesion-to-nonlesion ratios greater than 1.5 and 1.3 on bone and gallium 67 scintigraphy, respectively, are indicative of NEO. Quantitative bone scintigraphy, which is quicker to perform, may be used as a single imaging modality for the diagnosis of NEO.

  12. Cephalic malformations in Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. Acrocephalosyndactyly type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C A; Christiansen, R L

    1976-11-01

    Specific anomalies of the skull in eight family members affected with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome were documented by cephalometric analysis of standardized skull radiographs. The most severe deviations included reduced length and abnormal position of the posterior cranial base, low position of the sella turcica, reduced mandibular ramus length, steep mandibular plane angle, and, in adults, reduced facial depth. A feature of the syndrome may be the absence or reduced size of cranial sinuses.

  13. Cephalic morphology in the Cavall Pirinenc Català breed

    OpenAIRE

    Pere-Miquel Parés i Casanova

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-five metric parameters were taken on 19 skulls belonging to adult Cavall Pirinenc Català horse breed and were subjected to a Principal Component Analysis. Parameters related with neurocranium width, ventral lengths and those related with ocular orbit are poorly discriminants. On the other hand, parameters related with viscerocranium are strongly discriminant. Our study strengths the importance in using parameters linked to viscerocranium, and frontal length, in equine racial studies on...

  14. Interfacing external quantum devices to a universal quantum computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagana, Antonio A; Lohe, Max A; von Smekal, Lorenz

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme to use external quantum devices using the universal quantum computer previously constructed. We thereby show how the universal quantum computer can utilize networked quantum information resources to carry out local computations. Such information may come from specialized quantum devices or even from remote universal quantum computers. We show how to accomplish this by devising universal quantum computer programs that implement well known oracle based quantum algorithms, namely the Deutsch, Deutsch-Jozsa, and the Grover algorithms using external black-box quantum oracle devices. In the process, we demonstrate a method to map existing quantum algorithms onto the universal quantum computer.

  15. Interfacing external quantum devices to a universal quantum computer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A Lagana

    Full Text Available We present a scheme to use external quantum devices using the universal quantum computer previously constructed. We thereby show how the universal quantum computer can utilize networked quantum information resources to carry out local computations. Such information may come from specialized quantum devices or even from remote universal quantum computers. We show how to accomplish this by devising universal quantum computer programs that implement well known oracle based quantum algorithms, namely the Deutsch, Deutsch-Jozsa, and the Grover algorithms using external black-box quantum oracle devices. In the process, we demonstrate a method to map existing quantum algorithms onto the universal quantum computer.

  16. External-Memory Network Analysis Algorithms for Naturally Sparse Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Goodrich, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a number of network-analysis algorithms in the external-memory model. We focus on methods for large naturally sparse graphs, that is, n-vertex graphs that have O(n) edges and are structured so that this sparsity property holds for any subgraph of such a graph. We give efficient external-memory algorithms for the following problems for such graphs: - Finding an approximate d-degeneracy ordering; - Finding a cycle of length exactly c; - Enumerating all maximal cliques. Such problems are of interest, for example, in the analysis of social networks, where they are used to study network cohesion.

  17. Assessment of Environmental External Effects in Power Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Henrik Jacob; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner

    1996-01-01

    to the production of electricity based on a coal fired conventional plant. In the second case heat/power generation by means of a combined heat and power plant based on biomass-generated gas is compared to that of a combined heat and power plant fuelled by natural gas.In the report the individual externalities from...... technologies. The report compares environmental externalities in the production of energy using renewable and non-renewable energy sources, respectively. The comparison is demonstrated on two specific case studies. The first case is the production of electricity based on wind power plants compared...

  18. The Role of External Environment in Upper Echelons Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamak, Sibel; Nielsen, Sabina; Escribá-Esteve, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Upper echelons research has largely focused on the antecedents and consequences of top management teams (TMTs) from the team and firm levels of analysis. This paper reviews empirical research on TMTs with a specific emphasis on the role of the external environment. Applying institutional...... and industrial organization theories, a cross-level conceptual model outlining the direct, mediating, and moderating effects of the external environment on upper echelons is developed. This review distinguishes between industry and institutional levels of analysis and three types of environmental characteristics...

  19. External and internal radiation therapy: Past and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the modern world. Treatment modalities comprise radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. Radiation therapy can be performed by using external or internal radiation therapy. However, each method has its unique properties which undertakes special role in cancer treatment, this question is brought up that: For cancer treatment, whether external radiation therapy is more efficient or internal radiation therapy one? To answer this question, we need to consider principles and structure of individual methods. In this review, principles and application of each method are considered and finally these two methods are compared with each other.

  20. Influence of external source location in the reactivity calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Adilson Costa da; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Martinez, Aquilino Senra, E-mail: asilva@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: Aquilino@lmp.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    We used the neutron diffusion equation with external neutron sources, in cartesian geometry and the two groups of energy, to verify the influence of external neutron source locations in the reactivity calculation. For this, a coarse mesh finite difference method was developed for the adjoint flux calculation and simplifies reactivity calculation in PWR type reactor, which uses the output of the nodal expansion method. The results were obtained for different locations on the two-dimensional plane, as well as for different types of fuel elements in the reactor core. (author)

  1. Response of lower genital tract flora to external pelvic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A.N.; Martens, M.; LaPread, Y.; Faro, S. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Endocervical and vaginal cultures were obtained every week from patients undergoing external pelvic irradiation for gynecologic malignancy. Gram-positive aerobes accounted for 52 to 56% of isolates, gram-negative aerobes accounted for 15 to 16%, and anaerobes accounted for 29 to 32% of all isolates prior to therapy. No significant changes occurred during or after completion of radiation for the group. In individual patients, however, over 50% of organisms found on initial culture were no longer present on completion of external therapy.

  2. The Domestic Origins of Sudan's External Debt Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Rahman Ahmed Abdel Rahman

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Domestic factors played a significant role in Sudan's external debt crisis which emerged in the early 1980's. Personal rule and related political survival considerations undermined on-going economic adjustment programmes and prompted heavy external borrowing. Borrowing from abroad went unchecked because of the absence of an effective debt management system. It was also fuelled by economic corruption and the decline of cotton, Sudan's principal export crop. The absence of an effective debt management mechanism and economic corruption were a product of the lack of political and fiscal accountability in the context of personal rule.

  3. [Research on automatic external defibrillator based on DSP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jun; Ding, Jingyan; Zhang, Wei; Hong, Wenxue

    2012-10-01

    Electrical defibrillation is the most effective way to treat the ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF). An automatic external defibrillator based on DSP is introduced in this paper. The whole design consists of the signal collection module, the microprocessor controlingl module, the display module, the defibrillation module and the automatic recognition algorithm for VF and non VF, etc. This automatic external defibrillator has achieved goals such as ECG signal real-time acquisition, ECG wave synchronous display, data delivering to U disk and automatic defibrillate when shockable rhythm appears, etc.

  4. THE PROBLEM OF AN EXTERNAL CIRCULAR CRACK UNDER ASYMMETRIC LOADINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王银邦

    2001-01-01

    Using the boundary integral equation method, the problem of an external circular crack in a three-dimensional infinite elastic body under asymmetric loadings is investigated. The two- dimensional singular boundary integral equations of the problem were reduced to a system of Abel integral equations by means of Fourier series and hypergeometric functions. The exact solutions of stress intensity factors are obtained for the problem of an external circular crack under asymmetric loadings, which are even more universal than the results obtained by the use of Hankel transform method. The results demonstrate that the boundary integral equation method has great potential as a new analytic method.

  5. External fixation in early treatment of unstable pelvic fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU San-bao; XU Hong; GUO Heng-bing; SUN Tong; WANG Chang-jun

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with pelvic fractures are often treated in hospitals without the capacity to implement an open reduction internal fixation (ORIF).This often leads to pelvic malunion in patients with unstable pelvic fracture,shock or even death due to uncontrollable pelvic hemorrhage and unstable hemodynamics.This study explored the role of early external fixation (within 7 days) for patients with unstable pelvic fractures.Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on 32 patients with unstable pelvic fractures treated with early external fixation from January 2005 to January 2010 (file type B:18 cases; C:14 cases).The study comprised 28 males and 4 females,with a mean age of (32±8) years (range,21-56 years).Of these patients,22 were treated with emergency pelvic external fixation and 10 were treated with external fixation within 1-7 days.Fifteen cases suffered traumatic hemorrhagic shock.A statistical analysis was conducted to compare fluid infusion and blood transfusion volumes within the first 24 hours of these shock patients with another cohort of patients treated without early external fixation from January 1993 to January 1998.Results The average follow-up was (34.7±14.6) months (range,6-66 months).Six to eight weeks after external fixation,patients could walk with crutches; by 12 weeks,external fixation was removed and all fractures had healed.Seven patients presented with sequelae,including 3 patients with long-term lumbosacral pain,3 patients with erectile dysfunction and 1 patient with Morel-Lavallee lesion and other complications.The 15 shock patients in this study (2005-2010 group) required significantly lower volumes of fluid infusion and blood transfusion (Pfluid=0.000;Ptransfusion=0.000) as compared to the 1993-1998 cohort.Conclusions The early application of external fixation in unstable pelvic fracture patients positively affects hemodynamic stability,with outstanding efficacy as a final fixation option for unstable pelvic fractures.

  6. External-stimuli responsive systems for cancer theranostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Yao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The upsurge of novel nanomaterials and nanotechnologies has inspired the researchers who are striving for designing safer and more efficient drug delivery systems for cancer therapy. Stimuli responsive nanomaterial offered an alternative to design controllable drug delivery system on account of its spatiotemporally controllable properties. Additionally, external stimuli (light, magnetic field and ultrasound could develop into theranostic applications for personalized medicine use because of their unique characteristics. In this review, we give a brief overview about the significant progresses and challenges of certain external-stimuli responsive systems that have been extensively investigated in drug delivery and theranostics within the last few years.

  7. CHALLENGES OF EXTERNAL FINANCIAL AUDIT AGAINST THE MANAGERIAL FRAUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA UNGUREANU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is no longer a new topic, but is in a constant controversy. This paper aims to establish the importance of external financial audit in improving corporate governance, a premise for survival, continuation and development of entities in the current economic climate. The core element of the study concerns theactive participation that external financial audit must manifest in a governance system to avoid mismanagement and its consequences, especially fraud. For this purpose is performed a synthesis of the current state of knowledge through theoretical and conceptual approach in terms of motivational, of the agency and stakeholders theories, based on specialized literature.

  8. Suárez on the Lower External Senses

    OpenAIRE

    Heider, D.

    2016-01-01

    In the paper the author presents a survey of Francisco Suárez's theory of the lower external senses. The author proceeds in three main stages. In the first, he explains in what sense the external senses of smell, taste and touch can be called 'lower' as compared to the senses of sight and hearing. Second, he deals with the issue of the nature and kinds of the proper sensible objects of smell, how they affect the medium, the sense organ, and the question of the organ of olfaction. Third, the s...

  9. The destabilizing effect of external damping: Singular utter boundary for the Pfluger column with vanishing external dissipation

    CERN Document Server

    Tommasini, Mirko; Misseroni, Diego; Bigoni, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Elastic structures loaded by nonconservative positional forces are prone to instabilities induced by dissipation: it is well-known in fact that internal viscous damping destabilizes the marginally stable Ziegler's pendulum and Pfluger column (of which the Beck's column is a special case), two structures loaded by a tangential follower force. The result is the so-called 'destabilization paradox', where the critical force for flutter instability decreases by an order of magnitude when the coefficient of internal damping becomes infinitesimally small. Until now external damping, such as that related to air drag, is believed to provide only a stabilizing effect, as one would intuitively expect. Contrary to this belief, it will be shown that the effect of external damping is qualitatively the same as the effect of internal damping, yielding a pronounced destabilization paradox. Previous results relative to destabilization by external damping of the Ziegler's and Pfluger's elastic structures are corrected in a defi...

  10. External Factors Are Only one Element Contributing to Inflation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪红驹; 张晓晶

    2008-01-01

    Our paper first fully examines the stylized facts of the translation of global liquidity into other economic phenomena, transmission of international commodity prices into other forms, the contractionary effects of renminbi appreciation, and the factor price distortion enhanced by external shocks. It then uses the extension of Phillips curve and VAR model to test the impacts of external shocks on domestic inflation. The regression results indicate that: in the short run, world food price is the main reason for domestic inflation; the influence of world oil prices on inflation will take effect in the median and long term; renminbi appreciation is contractionary through a relatively long time; world interest rates have a certain impact on domestic prices; and the translation of global liquidity has no significant effects on domestic prices thanks to the central bank’s offset efforts. In sum, GDP growth is still the root cause of inflation and the external shocks are just one contributing factor. Therefore, the following policies would be vital to curbing inflation: maintaining a moderate rather than excessive growth rate, adjusting the distorted factor price to control investment demand, and increasing the flexibility of the exchange rate regime and making the independent monetary policy the first line of defense against external shocks.

  11. Understanding researchers' openness to external parties influencing academic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olmos-Penuela, Julia; Benneworth, Paul; Castro-Martínez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Ambiguity surrounding the effect of external engagement on academic research has raised questions about what motivates researchers to collaborate with third parties. This paper contributes to this debate by progressing beyond the idea that researchers engage with society simply because of direct ben

  12. Understanding resarchers' openness to external parties influencing academic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olmos Peñuela, Julia; Benneworth, Paul; Castro-Martínez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Ambiguity surrounding the effect of external engagement on academic research has raised questions about what motivates researchers to collaborate with third parties. This paper contributes to this debate by progressing beyond the idea that researchers engage with society simply because of direct ben

  13. Dynamic State Space Partitioning for External Memory Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evangelista, Sami; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2009-01-01

    We describe a dynamic partitioning scheme usable by model checking techniques that divide the state space into partitions, such as most external memory and distributed model checking algorithms. The goal of the scheme is to reduce the number of transitions that link states belonging to different...

  14. Dumbbell-shaped neurofibroma over the external ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Shirol

    2015-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever case to be reported of a dumbbell-shaped neurofibroma over the external ear and only the fourth case of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 to be associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

  15. Influence of furnishing on indoor airflow near external walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of indoor environments in buildings are usually performed assuming uniform distribution of temperature and humidity of the indoor air, such as it would be in an idealised unfurnished room. The flow patterns near external walls may however be very different from the undisturbed airflow...

  16. Nonlinear vibration of a hemispherical dome under external water pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, C. T. F.; McLennan, A.; Little, A. P. F.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the behaviour of a hemi-spherical dome when vibrated under external water pressure, using the commercial computer package ANSYS 11.0. In order to achieve this aim, the dome was modelled and vibrated in air and then in water, before finally being vibrated under external water pressure. The results collected during each of the analyses were compared to the previous studies, and this demonstrated that ANSYS was a suitable program and produced accurate results for this type of analysis, together with excellent graphical displays. The analysis under external water pressure, clearly demonstrated that as external water pressure was increased, the resonant frequencies decreased and a type of dynamic buckling became likely; because the static buckling eigenmode was similar to the vibration eigenmode. ANSYS compared favourably with the in-house software, but had the advantage that it produced graphical displays. This also led to the identification of previously undetected meridional modes of vibration; which were not detected with the in-house software.

  17. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  18. Reconciling Organisational Culture and External Quality Assurance in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Dhaya

    2013-01-01

    Organisational culture and external quality assurance have both been presented as significant drivers of effectiveness, efficiency and excellence in higher education institutions. However, these assumptions have not been critically examined given the philosophical, conceptual and methodological contestations surrounding both constructs. A…

  19. The posterior parietal cortex remaps touch into external space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azañón, Elena; Longo, Matthew R; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-07-27

    Localizing tactile events in external space is required for essential functions such as orienting, haptic exploration, and goal-directed action in peripersonal space. In order to map somatosensory input into a spatiotopic representation, information about skin location must be integrated with proprioceptive information about body posture. We investigated the neural bases of this tactile remapping mechanism in humans by disrupting neural activity in the putative human homolog of the monkey ventral intraparietal area (hVIP), within the right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC), which is thought to house external spatial representations. Participants judged the elevation of touches on their (unseen) forearm relative to touches on their face. Arm posture was passively changed along the vertical axis, so that elevation judgments required the use of an external reference frame. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the rPPC significantly impaired performance compared to a control site (vertex). Crucially, proprioceptive judgments of arm elevation or tactile localization on the skin remained unaffected by rPPC TMS. This selective disruption of tactile remapping suggests a distinct computational process dissociable from pure proprioceptive and somatosensory localization. Furthermore, this finding highlights the causal role of human PPC, putatively VIP, in remapping touch into external space.

  20. On the Roles of External Knowledge Representations in Assessment Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Behrens, John T.; Bennett, Randy E.; Demark, Sarah F.; Frezzo, Dennis C.; Levy, Roy; Robinson, Daniel H.; Rutstein, Daisy Wise; Shute, Valerie J.; Stanley, Ken; Winters, Fielding I.

    2010-01-01

    People use external knowledge representations (KRs) to identify, depict, transform, store, share, and archive information. Learning how to work with KRs is central to be-coming proficient in virtually every discipline. As such, KRs play central roles in curriculum, instruction, and assessment. We describe five key roles of KRs in assessment: (1)…

  1. Mindfulness training for adolescents with externalizing disorders and their parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bögels, S.M.; Hoogstad, B.; van Dun, L.; de Schutter, S.E.R.; Restifo, K.

    2008-01-01

    Mindfulness training was evaluated as a new treatment for attention and impulsivity problems in adolescents with a variety of different externalizing disorders: attention deficithyperactivity disorder, oppositional-defiant and/or conduct disorder, and autism spectrum disorder if characterized by ext

  2. Environmental Externalities Related to Power Production Technologies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    of the Danish part of the project is to implement the framework for externality evaluation, for three different power plants located in Denmark. The paper will focus on the assessment of the impacts of the whole fuel cycles for wind, natural gas and biogas. Priority areas for environmental impact assessment...

  3. Changing external conditions require high levels of entrepreneurship in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.B.

    2004-01-01

    Society including markets and policies rapidly changes. Farmers or agricultural entrepreneurs need to become more flexible and develop strategies to pro-actively adapt their farm, product portfolio, networks, partnerships, knowledge systems, personal skills and competences to the changing external c

  4. Holographic gratings in photorefractive polymers without external electric field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukhtarev, N.; Lyuksyutov, S.; Buchhave, Preben;

    1997-01-01

    Using anomalous large diffusion we report a recording of reflection type gratings in a PVK-based photorefractive polymer without any external electric field. The diffraction efficiency of the gratings was measured to be 7%. An efficient modulation of beams during two-beam coupling up to 12...

  5. Endovascular exclusion of a large external iliac vein aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Mina; Hernandez, Diego

    2013-07-01

    Iliac vein aneurysms are uncommon, and there is no consensus on optimal treatment. We present a case of venous exclusion using an endovascular approach. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a large external iliac vein aneurysm treated endovascularly. We have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach with satisfactory 1-year follow-up.

  6. The geographic extent of venture capital externalities on innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolympiris, C.; Kalaitzandonakes, N.

    2013-01-01

    A stream of literature has demonstrated that venture capital generates externalities that enhance the knowledge base of a given region and accordingly assist firms in high-technology industries to improve their innovative performance. What has gone largely unexamined in this literature is the geogra

  7. 76 FR 74777 - National Marine Protected Areas Center External Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ..., information resources, coordination and policy development. An external review of the MPA Center is needed to... feedback, including public comment on the program's approach to balancing competing priorities. All... of MPAs? Are resources (human and financial) allocated appropriately to effectively address the...

  8. Mothering, fathering, and externalizing behavior in toddler boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; Aken, van Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; Aken, van Marcel A.G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reported maternal and paternal support, psychological control, and spanking on externalizing behavior of toddler boys. Questionnaires were administered to both parents of 104 two-parent families with a 3-year-old son. Both maternal and paternal psychological contro

  9. Corporal Punishment and Youth Externalizing Behavior in Santiago, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Julie; Han, Yoonsun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Corporal punishment is still widely practiced around the globe, despite the large body of child development research that substantiates its short- and long-term consequences. Within this context, this paper examined the relationship between parental use of corporal punishment and youth externalizing behavior with a Chilean sample to…

  10. A multiple sampling ionization chamber for the External Target Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. H.; Tang, S. W.; Ma, P.; Lu, C. G.; Yang, H. R.; Wang, S. T.; Yu, Y. H.; Yue, K.; Fang, F.; Yan, D.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, Z. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z. Y.; Duan, L. M.; Sun, B. H.

    2015-09-01

    A multiple sampling ionization chamber used as a particle identification device for high energy heavy ions has been developed for the External Target Facility. The performance of this detector was tested with a 239Pu α source and RI beams. A Z resolution (FWHM) of 0.4-0.6 was achieved for nuclear fragments of 18O at 400 AMeV.

  11. Book Review: EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Butler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This latest textbook contributing to the field of EU external relations law is unique in that it is the first such book in the post-Treaty of Lisbon environment to take a wide-angled look on as many aspects of the growing area as it continues to develop within the legal parameters as set by the Treaties, and it is suitably placed to become the core text for teaching this expanding EU policy field. In their book, EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Van Vooren and Wessel seek to fill the gap in up-to-date literature from a legal standpoint in the field of external relations of the EU, with a book that is suitable for delivery as a core textbook for students of all levels. Their analysis covering fifteen long chapters offers the reader a comprehensive insight into the world of EU external relations law, and allows for a thoroughly better understanding of all the encapsulated issues that are at play.

  12. Patient satisfaction related to rigid external distraction osteogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eggermont, Bas; Jansma, J.; Bierman, M. W. J.; Stegenga, B.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate satisfaction with treatment among cleft lip and palate patients who underwent maxillary advancement using a rigid external distraction (RED) device. Nine patients (four boys, five girls), mean age 17.7 years (SD 4.0), were included in the study. Outcome measures

  13. Microwave parametric amplifiers using externally pumped Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O. H.; Mygind, Jesper; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1978-01-01

    Externally pumped parametric amplifiers are discussed. Theory and experiments on the singly degenerate parametric amplifier based on a Josephson junction are presented. Advantages and limitations of the singly degenerate and doubly degenerate parametric amplifiers are discussed. Some plans and pr...... and proposals for future research are presented....

  14. External Cooling Coupled to Reduced Extremity Pressure Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetz, Lawrence H.

    2011-01-01

    Although suited astronauts are currently cooled with a Liquid Cooled Ventilation Garment (LCVG), which can remove up to 85 percent of body heat, their effectiveness is limited because cooling must penetrate layers of skin, muscle, fat, bone, and tissue to reach the bloodstream, where its effect is prominent. Vasoconstriction further reduces the effectiveness by limiting arterial flow when exposed to cold (the frostbite response), resulting in a time constant on the order of 20 minutes from application to maximum effect. This delay can be crucial in severe exposure to hypo- or hyper-thermic conditions, compromising homeostasis. The purpose of this innovation is to provide a lightweight, effective means of delivering heat or cold from an external source directly to the bloodstream. The effectiveness of this ECCREP (External Cooling Coupled to Reduced Extremity Pressure) device is based on not having to penetrate layers of skin, muscle, fat, and tissue, thereby avoiding the thermal lag associated with their mass and heat capacity. This is accomplished by means of an outer boot operating at a slightly reduced pressure than the rest of the body, combined with an inner boot cooled or heated by an external source via water or chemicals. Heat transfer from the external source to the foot takes place by means of circulating water or flexible heat pipes.

  15. Low input voltage converter/regulator minimizes external disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Low-input voltage converter/regulator constructed in a coaxial configuration minimizes external magnetic field disturbance, suppresses radio noise interference, and provides excellent heat transfer from power transistors. It converts the output of fuel and solar cells, thermionic diodes, thermoelectric generators, and electrochemical batteries to a 28 V dc output.

  16. Thermal Reservoir coupled to External Field and Quantum Dissipation

    CERN Document Server

    Patriarca, M; Patriarca, Fabrizio Illuminati & Marco

    1992-01-01

    In the framework of the Caldeira-Leggett model of dissipative quantum mechanics, we investigate the effects of the interaction of the thermal reservoir with an external field. In particular, we discuss how the interaction modifies the conservative dynamics of the central particle, and the mechanism of dissipation. We briefly comment on possible observable consequencies.

  17. THEORETICAL MODEL OF VIBRATING OBJECT TRANSMITTING NOISE TOWARDS EXTERNAL SOUND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚志远

    2002-01-01

    On the basic theory of modal method, the coupling relation between the vibration of objects and external sound was analyzed, the theoretical model solving the vibration and noise was provided, the corresponding calculation formula was given. The calculating results show out that this calculation formula is correct.

  18. Dynamical theory of active cellular response to external stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Rumi; Safran, Samuel A

    2008-09-01

    We present a comprehensive, theoretical treatment of the orientational response to external stress of active, contractile cells embedded in a gel-like elastic medium. The theory includes both the forces that arise from the deformation of the matrix as well as forces due to the internal regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions of the cell. We calculate the time-dependent response of both the magnitude and the direction of the elastic dipole that characterizes the active forces exerted by the cell, for various situations. For static or quasistatic external stress, cells orient parallel to the stress while for high frequency dynamic external stress, cells orient nearly perpendicular. Both numerical and analytical calculations of these effects are presented. In addition we predict the relaxation time for the cellular response for both slowly and rapidly varying external stresses; several characteristic scaling regimes for the relaxation time as a function of applied frequency are predicted. We also treat the case of cells for which the regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions is controlled by strain (instead of stress) and show that the predicted dependence of the cellular orientation on the Poisson ratio of the matrix can differentiate strain vs stress regulation of cellular response.

  19. External hydrocephalus in primary hypomagnesaemia: a new finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasker, B; Raghupathy, P; Nair, T M; Ahmed, S R; deSilva, V; Bhuyan, B C; Al Khusaiby, S M

    1999-12-01

    This paper reports a new finding in two siblings with primary hypomagnesaemia as a result of renal magnesium wasting, namely, rapidly increasing head size. External hydrocephalus and brain shrinkage in primary hypomagnesaemia seen on computed tomography of the brain with reversibility after magnesium treatment has not been reported previously.

  20. Age-Related Changes in Children's Use of External Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazo, Philip David; Sommerville, Jessica A.; Nichols, Shana

    1999-01-01

    Three experiments explored 3- and 4-year olds' use of external representations. Results indicated that 4-year olds outperformed 3-year olds on self-recognition task; children performed better with photographs than drawings; a delay had no effect. Results suggested that assessments of self and other understanding may reflect children's ability to…