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Sample records for block southern india

  1. Garnet pyroxenite from Nilgiri Block, southern India: Vestiges of a Neoarchean volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Vinod O.; Kwon, Sanghoon; Santosh, M.; Sajeev, K.

    2018-06-01

    Southern peninsular India preserves records of Late Neoarchean-Early Paleoproterozoic continental building and cratonization. A transect from the Paleoarchean Dharwar Craton to the Neoarchean arc magmatic complex in the Nilgiri Block across the intervening Moyar Suture Zone reveals an arc-accretionary complex composed of banded iron formation (BIF), amphibolite, metatuff, garnet-kyanite schist, metagabbro, pyroxenite and charnockite. Here we investigate the petrology, geochronology and petrogenesis of the pyroxenite and garnet-clinopyroxenite. The pyroxenite is mainly composed of orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene with local domains/pockets enriched in a clinopyroxene-garnet assemblage. Thermobarometric calculations and phase equilibria modeling suggest that the orthopyroxene- and clinopyroxene-rich domains formed at 900-1000 °C, 1-1.2 GPa whereas the garnet- and clinopyroxene-rich domains record higher pressure of about 1.8-2 GPa at similar temperature conditions (900-1000 °C). Zircon U-Pb SHRIMP dating show weighted mean 207Pb-206Pb age of 2532 ± 22 Ma, with metamorphic overgrowth at 2520 ± 27 Ma and 2478 ± 27 Ma. We propose a tectonic model involving decoupling and break-off of the oceanic plate along the southern flanks of the Dharwar Craton, which initiated oceanic plate subduction. Slab melting eventually built the Nilgiri volcanic arc on top of the over-riding plate along the flanks of the Dharwar Craton. Our study supports an active plate tectonic regime at the end of the Archean Era, aiding in the growth of paleo-continents and their assembly into stable cratons.

  2. Composition and Redox Potential of High-Grade Fluids: An Example from the Nilgiri Block, Southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, V. O.; Harlov, D. E.; Kwon, S.

    2017-12-01

    Composition and redox potential of fluids present during high-grade metamorphism exert an enormous influence on mineral textures and their regional trends within metamorphic complexes. We examine silicate, oxide, and sulfide trends in the Nilgiri Block, southern India. This terrain formed through subduction-related arc magmatic processes in the Neoarchean (ca. 2500 Ma). The Nilgiri highlands are characterized by granulite-facies metagabbro in the north, a two-pyroxene granulite transition zone, and tonalitic-granodioritic charnockites in the central and southern part. Garnet-orthopyroxene and orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene thermometry and garnet-orthopyroxene-plagioclase-quartz barometric results indicate a regional trend both in temperature ( 650 to 800 °C) and in pressure (700 to 1100 MPa) from SW to NE across the Nilgiri highlands. Regional trends are also seen in the oxide-sulfide mineralogy. The main oxide assemblage in the charnockites is rutile-ilmenite, whereas in the two-pyroxene granulites and metagabbros, hemo-ilmenite-magnetite dominates. The key sulfide mineral in the charnockites is pyrrhotite, with minor chalcopyrite. In the two-pyroxene granulites and metagabbros, the principle sulfide assemblage is pyrite +/- minor pyrrhotite. This reveals a regional oxidation trend. The metagabbros and two-pyroxene granulites are highly oxidized compared to the charnockites. Their higher oxidation state is proposed to be the result of highly oxidizing agents (probably as SO2) in low H2O activity fluids (most likely concentrated NaCl brines) during granulite-facies metamorphism of the metagabbros and two-pyroxene granulites. These agents were considerably more reducing (possibly as H2S) during granulite-facies metamorphism of the charnockites. This study emphasizes the potential role of oxidizing and reducing, low H2O activity fluids during granulite-facies metamorphism.

  3. Prograde and retrograde growth of monazite in migmatites: An example from the Nagercoil Block, southern India

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    Tim E. Johnson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Data from a migmatised metapelite raft enclosed within charnockite provide quantitative constraints on the pressure–temperature–time (P–T–t evolution of the Nagercoil Block at the southernmost tip of peninsular India. An inferred peak metamorphic assemblage of garnet, K-feldspar, sillimanite, plagioclase, magnetite, ilmenite, spinel and melt is consistent with peak metamorphic pressures of 6–8 kbar and temperatures in excess of 900 °C. Subsequent growth of cordierite and biotite record high-temperature retrograde decompression to around 5 kbar and 800 °C. SHRIMP U–Pb dating of magmatic zircon cores suggests that the sedimentary protoliths were in part derived from felsic igneous rocks with Palaeoproterozoic crystallisation ages. New growth of metamorphic zircon on the rims of detrital grains constrains the onset of melt crystallisation, and the minimum age of the metamorphic peak, to around 560 Ma. The data suggest two stages of monazite growth. The first generation of REE-enriched monazite grew during partial melting along the prograde path at around 570 Ma via the incongruent breakdown of apatite. Relatively REE-depleted rims, which have a pronounced negative europium anomaly, grew during melt crystallisation along the retrograde path at around 535 Ma. Our data show the rocks remained at suprasolidus temperatures for at least 35 million years and probably much longer, supporting a long-lived high-grade metamorphic history. The metamorphic conditions, timing and duration of the implied clockwise P–T–t path are similar to that previously established for other regions in peninsular India during the Ediacaran to Cambrian assembly of that part of the Gondwanan supercontinent.

  4. Zircon U-Pb age, Lu-Hf isotope, mineral chemistry and geochemistry of Sundamalai peralkaline pluton from the Salem Block, southern India: Implications for Cryogenian adakite-like magmatism in an aborted-rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renjith, M. L.; Santosh, M.; Li, Tang; Satyanarayanan, M.; Korakoppa, M. M.; Tsunogae, T.; Subba Rao, D. V.; Kesav Krishna, A.; Nirmal Charan, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Sundamalai peralkaline pluton is one among the Cryogenian alkaline plutons occurring in the Dharmapuri Rift Zone (DRZ) of the Salem Block in the Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT) of India. Here we present zircon U-Pb age and Lu-Hf isotopic composition, mineral chemistry and geochemistry of the pluton to explore the petrogenesis and geodynamic implications. Systematic modal variation of orthoclase, Na-plagioclase, Ca-amphibole (ferro-edenite and hastingsite) and quartz developed quartz-monzonite and granite litho units in the Sundamalai pluton. Thermometry based on amphibole-plagioclase pair suggests that the pluton was emplaced and solidified at around 4.6 kbar pressure with crystallization of the major phases between 748 and 661 °C. Estimated saturation temperature of zircon (712-698 °C) is also well within this range. However, apatite saturation occurred at higher temperatures between 835 and 870 °C, in contrast with monazite saturation (718-613 °C) that continued up to the late stage of crystallization. Estimated oxygen fugacity values (log fO2: -14 to -17) indicate high oxidation state for the magma that stabilized titanite and magnetite. The magmatic zircons from Sundamalai pluton yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 832.6 ± 3.2 Ma. Geochemically, the Sundamalai rocks are high-K to shoshonitic, persodic (Na2O/K2O ratio > 1), silica-saturated (SiO2:65-72 wt.%), and peralkaline in composition (aluminum saturation index, ASI Sc(2-3 ppm), positive Sr anomaly and predominantly negative zircon εHf(t) values (-10.8 to -9.3 with an average of -10.2) and initial 176Hf/177Hf ratios (0.281947-0.282022) confirm a Paleoproterozoic crustal source. Based on the field and geochemical evidences, we propose that a previously metasomatized mafic lower-crustal source enriched in alkalis has undergone CO2-present partial melting as a result of asthenospheric upwelling beneath an aborted rifting along the DRZ generating the magma that crystallized the Sundamalai rocks

  5. Molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus in southern India

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    V. M. Vivek Srinivas,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize canine parvovirus circulating in Southern India by genetic analysis of VP2 capsid protein gene.Materials and Methods: In this study, 128 samples were collected from nine different locations covering five Southern Indian states (Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka . Out of 128 samples, 69 samples were found to be positive by PCR assay. Out of 69 positive samples, 36 were randomly selected and processed for virus isolation. Twenty viruses could be isolated successfully and 18 randomly selected isolate were subjected to VP2 gene sequence analysis along with 6 random clinical samples.Result: Seventeen isolates and 5 clinical samples were characterized as New CPV-2a (CPV2a with 297-Ser→Ala. But one isolate and one clinical sample had amino acids variations which were characteristics of New CPV-2b. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that one of the field isolates was found to be phylogenetically closely related to New CPV-2b strains of India; rest other sequences was found to share ancestral origins with New CPV-2a reference strains of Japan, China, Thailand and India.Conclusion: The present study revealed that the predominant CPV strain circulating in Southern India is New CPV-2a. There is also enough indication of New CPV-2b strain from different states of Southern India.

  6. Capparis Cleghornii Dunn, a species from Southern India (Capparaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Rolla S.; Raghavan, R. Sundara

    1964-01-01

    Among recent collections from the evergreen forests of Mysore State in southern India, material was found of Capparis cleghornii Dunn which had only been known from the original collection made by Cleghorn in 1846 and from a Stocks specimen from “Kanara”. Further scrutiny of fresh collections from

  7. Spatial variability of groundwater quality of Sabour block, Bhagalpur district (Bihar, India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, D. K.; Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Shit, Pravat Kumar; Kumar, S.; Mandal, Jajati; Padbhushan, Rajeev

    2017-07-01

    This paper examines the quality of groundwater of Sabour block, Bhagalpur district of Bihar state, which lies on the southern region of Indo-Gangetic plains in India. Fifty-nine samples from different sources of water in the block have been collected to determine its suitability for drinking and irrigational purposes. From the samples electrical conductivity (EC), pH and concentrations of Calcium (Ca2+), Magnesium (Mg2+), Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), carbonate ion (CO 3 2- ), Bicarbonate ion (HCO 3 - ), Chloride ion (Cl-), and Fluoride (F-) were determined. Surface maps of all the groundwater quality parameters have been prepared using radial basis function (RBF) method. RBF model was used to interpolate data points in a group of multi-dimensional space. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) is employed to scrutinize the best fit of the model to compare the obtained value. The mean value of pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, Cl-, and F- are found to be 7.26, 0.69, 38.98, 34.20, 16.92, 1.19, 0.02, and 0.28, respectively. Distribution of calcium concentration is increasing to the eastern part and K+ concentrations raise to the downstream area in the southwestern part. Low pH concentrations (less than 6.71) occur in eastern part of the block. Spatial variations of hardness in Sabour block portraying maximum concentration in the western part and maximum SAR (more than 4.23) were recorded in the southern part. These results are not exceeding for drinking and irrigation uses recommended by World Health Organization. Therefore, the majority of groundwater samples are found to be safe for drinking and irrigation management practices.

  8. Prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases from a rural area in Kerala, southern India.

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    Viswanathan, Krishnaveni; Rakesh, P S; Balakrishnan, Shibu; Shanavas, A; Dharman, Varun

    2018-01-01

    Chronic lung diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity in developing countries. A community based survey was undertaken with an objective to estimate the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases and to describe the profile of people with CRDs in the rural area Nilamel health block in Kollam district, Kerala, southern India. A household information sheet and a translated respiratory symptom questionnaire based on International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) bronchial symptoms questionnaire was administered to 12,556 people above 15 years, selected randomly from Nilamel health block. Prevalence of self reported asthma was 2.82% (95% CI 2.52-3.12) and that of chronic bronchitis was 6.19% (95% CI 5.76-6.62) while other CRDs which did not fit to either constitute 1.89%. Prevalence of asthma among males was 2.44% (95% CI 2.05-2.85) while that of females was 3.14% (95% CI 2.71-3.57). Chronic bronchitis prevalence was 6.73% and 5.67% among males and females respectively. Although India has devised a programme to combat cancer, diabetes, cardio vascular disease and stroke, none have been devised for chronic respiratory illness till date. Considering high prevalence and its contributions to morbidity and mortality, a comprehensive programme to tackle chronic respiratory diseases is needed. Copyright © 2017 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Plant utilization against digestive system disorder in Southern Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Prakash Roy; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Ningthoujam, Sanjoy Singh; Mitra, Abhijit; Nath, Deepa; Talukdar, Anupam Das

    2015-12-04

    Being one of the most common types of life threatening diseases in Southern Assam, India, the digestive system disorders (DSD) have gained much attention in recent decades. Traditional beliefs and inadequate income of mass population result in the use of alternative phytotherapies to treat the diseases. The present paper documents the medicinal knowledge and utilization of plants for treatment of digestive system disorders in Southern Assam, India by Disease Consensus Index (DCI). It also determines the most suitable plant species used to treat digestive system disorders in the study area. The study was based on ethnomedicinal field survey covering a period of 1 year from 2014-2015. The ethnomedicinal information was collected by using semi-structured questionnaires from different traditional Bengali people having knowledge on medicinal plants. Collected data were analyzed by calculating DCI. During the survey, 29 informants were interviewed and a total of 49 plants under 46 genera belonging to 33 families were listed. Data analysis revealed that Litsea glutinosa, Momordica charantia, Andrographis paniculata, Lawsonia inermis, Cleome viscosa, Psidium guajava, Ageratum conyzoides, Cuscuta reflexa, Cynodon dactylon and Carica papaya are the most prominent plants among the people of Southern Assam for treating DSD. This explorative survey emphasizes the need to preserve and document the traditional healing practices for managing DSD inviting for more imminent scientific research on the plants to determine their efficacy as well as safety. With the help of statistical analysis (DCI), we propose 10 priority plants for DSD in present work. Systematic pharmacological study with these plants may contribute significant result. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Future specialization interests among medical students in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba, S H; Binu, V S; Kotian, M S; Joseph, N; Mahamood, A B; Dixit, N; George, A; Kumar, P; Acharya, S; Reddy, P

    2012-01-01

    A consideration of the future specialization interests of undergraduate medical students might help to understand the needs of higher medical education and future manpower availability for healthcare. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 373 undergraduate students of a medical college in southern India using a self-administered questionnaire. Of the 373 students, 188 (50.4%) were men. Almost all of them (370 [99.2%]) wanted to pursue postgraduation. Of these, 267 (72.4%) wanted to pursue postgraduation in India. Overall, the first choice subject was surgery (120 [32.2%]) followed by internal medicine (85 [22.8%]) and paediatrics (43 [11.5%]). The third preference for men and women differed, with men choosing orthopaedics and women choosing obstetrics and gynaecology. The factors that influenced the choice of specialization were interest in the speciality (Likert scale score 4.7), job satisfaction (4.6), employment opportunities (4.0), job security (4) and high income potential (3.9). It was evident from the proportion of students desiring to do postgraduation and their choice of specialties that most of them will end up working at hospitals instead of at primary healthcare centres. The deficiencies of certain specialists such as ophthalmologists are likely to persist. This is a cause for concern as the majority of our population lives in rural areas and there is already a maldistribution of doctors. Copyright 2012, NMJI.

  11. Nuclear deterrence in Southern Asia: China,India and Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajain, Arpit

    2005-01-01

    Deterrence includes a mix of reassurance and accommodation, and should not focus exclusively on nuclear capabilities. It is premised on the notion that decision makers are rational individuals. The question of armed conflict, the risk of war and the issue of deterrence in Southern Asia are complicated by the fact that India has a nuclear adversarial relationship with Pakistan and China. Historically, this is an unprecedented situation where a triangular nuclear competition has been constructed, since it is geo-strategically different and more complicated than the bilateral nuclear rivalry that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Should India and Pakistan continue creeping along towards weaponisation and deployment, and China proceed with its nuclear modernisation plans, also partially resulting from the US's national missile defence programme, the three could easily enter into a triad that would be more competitive and conflictual in nature than cooperating with each other in the medium and long term. This book seeks to investigate the nuances of the oft-repeated mantra of credible minimum deterrent, study decision making in crisis and the drivers of various processes and structures in the domestic environment that influence the existence of the bomb in these countries. It seeks to explicate the prevailing attitudes towards issues of arms control, doctrines, strategy, weaponisation and deployment. The fundamental objective here is to highlight issues and prepare decision makers and policy elites in these countries

  12. Natural radionuclide concentration in Hassan District of Southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagadeesha, B.G.; Narayana, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The soil samples were collected from Hassan district of Southern India. The analysis was carried out using NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer. The 232 Th activity was found to vary from 20.4±1.3 Bq kg -1 to 136.3±3.3 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 56.9±2.0 Bq kg -1 and 226 Ra activity was found to vary from 22.5±1.4 Bq kg -1 to 90.6±3.4 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 41.4±2.1 Bq kg -1 . The activity of 40 K was ranged from 278.2±4.0 Bq kg -1 to 650.7±6.7 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 388.4±5.1 Bq kg -1 . Relatively higher levels of thorium were observed in soil. The radium equivalent activity and other radiological parameters were also determined. (author)

  13. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Northern and Southern Hemisphere Blocking Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atmospheric blocking is commonly referred to as the situation when the normal zonal flow is interrupted by strong and persistent meridional flow. The normal eastward...

  14. Blocked learning in development aid? Reporting success rather than failure in Andhra Pradesh, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saito, Moeko; Pasgaard, Maya

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to understand why development organizations tend to report project success rather than failure which blocks learning from project problems. Drawing on the case of a World Bank forestry project in Andhra Pradesh, India, the article analyses different interlinked sites of project...

  15. Reassessment of the Paleogene position of the Chortis block relative to southern Mexico: hierarchical ranking of data and features

    OpenAIRE

    Morán-Zenteno, Dante J.; Keppie, Duncan J.; Martiny, Barbara; González-Torres, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    The Paleogene location of the Chortis block relative to southern Mexico is presently a hotly debated topic, with various types and qualities of data brought to bear on the topic. There are currently three competing Cenozoic reconstructions: (i) the traditional model that places the Chortis block adjacent to southern Mexico, (ii) the near in situ model in which the Chortis block is located relatively near to its present position, and (iii) the Pacific model that places the Chortis block WSW of...

  16. Fluoride contamination in groundwater resources of Alleppey, southern India

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    Dhanya Raj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alleppey is one of the thickly populated coastal towns of the Kerala state in southern India. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water for the 240,991 people living in this region. The groundwater is being extracted from a multi-layer aquifer system of unconsolidated to semi-consolidated sedimentary formations, which range in age from Recent to Tertiary. The public water distribution system uses dug and tube wells. Though there were reports on fluoride contamination, this study reports for the first time excess fluoride and excess salinity in the drinking water of the region. The quality parameters, like Electrical Conductivity (EC ranges from 266 to 3900 μs/cm, the fluoride content ranges from 0.68 to 2.88 mg/L, and the chloride ranges between the 5.7 to 1253 mg/L. The main water types are Na-HCO3, Na-CO3 and Na-Cl. The aqueous concentrations of F− and CO32− show positive correlation whereas F− and Ca2+ show negative correlation. The source of fluoride in the groundwater could be from dissolution of fluorapatite, which is a common mineral in the Tertiary sediments of the area. Long residence time, sediment–groundwater interaction and facies changes (Ca-HCO3 to Na-HCO3 during groundwater flow regime are the major factors responsible for the high fluoride content in the groundwater of the area. High strontium content and high EC in some of the wells indicate saline water intrusion that could be due to the excess pumping from the deeper aquifers of the area. The water quality index computation has revealed that 62% of groundwater belongs to poor quality and is not suitable for domestic purposes as per BIS and WHO standards. Since the groundwater is the only source of drinking water in the area, proper treatment strategies and regulating the groundwater extraction are required as the quality deterioration poses serious threat to human health.

  17. Geochemical characteristics of Proterozoic granite magmatism from Southern Granulite Terrain, India: Implications for Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellappa, T.; Rao, J. Mallikharjuna

    2018-03-01

    Granitoid intrusions occur widely in the Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT) of India, particularly within the Cauvery Suture Zone (CSZ), which is considered as the trace of the Neoproterozoic Mozambique ocean closure. Here we present the petrological and geochemical features of 19 granite plutons across the three major tectonic blocks of the terrain. Our data show a wide variation in the compositions of these intrusions from alkali feldspathic syenite to granite. The whole rock geochemistry of these intrusions displays higher concentrations of SiO2, FeO*, K2O, Ba, Zr, Th, LREE and low MgO, Na2O, Ti, P, Nb, Y and HREE's. The granitoids are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous in nature revealing both I-type and A-type origin. In tectonic discrimination plots, the plutons dominantly show volcanic arc and syn-collisional as well as post-collisional affinity. Based on the available age data together with geochemical constrains, we demonstrate that the granitic magmatism in the centre and south of the terrain is mostly associated with the Neoproterozoic subduction-collision-accretion-orogeny, followed by extensional mechanism of Gondwana tectonics events. Similar widespread granitic activity has also been documented in the Arabian Nubian shield, Madagascar, Sri Lanka and Antarctica, providing similarities for the reconstruction of the crustal fragments of Gondwana supercontinent followed by Pan-African orogeny.

  18. First report of garnet corundum rocks from southern India: Implications for prograde high-pressure (eclogite-facies?) metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpo, Makoto; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.

    2006-02-01

    . Evidence for such high-pressure metamorphism followed by UHT conditions along a single clockwise exhumation path is the first report from southern India. The Namakkal area occurs within the central domain of the PCSS, which defines the probable collisional suture between the Archean craton in the north and the Proterozoic Madurai Block in the south. We propose that the rocks reported in this study testify to metamorphism at mantle depths (eclogite-facies) and their subsequent heating at extreme thermal conditions during collisional orogenic event and subsequent rapid exhumation associated with the final suturing of the Gondwana assembly in the late Pan-African. The high-pressure metamorphism and subsequent UHT event reported in this study have important bearing on the tectonic evolution of the continental deep crust in southern India.

  19. Born with low birth weight in rural Southern India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Nihal; Grunnet, Louise G; Poulsen, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is common in the Indian population and may represent an important predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the metabolic syndrome. Intensive metabolic examinations in ethnic LBW Asian Indians have been almost exclusively performed in immigrants living outside India....... Therefore, we aimed to study the metabolic impact of being born with LBW in a rural non-migrant Indian population....

  20. Mississippian reef development in the Cracoe Limestone Formation of the southern Askrigg Block, North Yorkshire, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Waters, C.N.; Haslam, R.B.; Cózar, P.; Somerville, I.D.; Millward, D.; Woods, M.

    2017-01-01

    The southern margin of the Askrigg Block around Cracoe, North Yorkshire, shows a transition from carbonate ramp to reef-rimmed shelf margin, which, based on new foraminiferal/algal data, is now constrained to have initiated during the late Asbian. A late Holkerian to early Asbian ramp facies that included small mudmounds developed in comparatively deeper waters, in a transition zone between the proximal ramp, mudmound-free carbonates of the Scaleber Quarry Limestone Member (Kilnsey Formation)...

  1. Seismic Evidence for Conjugate Slip and Block Rotation Within the San Andreas Fault System, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Craig; Seeber, Leonardo; Williams, Patrick; Sykes, Lynn R.

    1986-08-01

    The pattern of seismicity in southern California indicates that much of the activity is presently occurring on secondary structures, several of which are oriented nearly orthogonal to the strikes of the major through-going faults. Slip along these secondary transverse features is predominantly left-lateral and is consistent with the reactivation of conjugate faults by the current regional stress field. Near the intersection of the San Jacinto and San Andreas faults, however, these active left-lateral faults appear to define a set of small crustal blocks, which in conjunction with both normal and reverse faulting earthquakes, suggests contemporary clockwise rotation as a result of regional right-lateral shear. Other left-lateral faults representing additional rotating block systems are identified in adjacent areas from geologic and seismologic data. Many of these structures predate the modern San Andreas system and may control the pattern of strain accumulation in southern California. Geodetic and paleomagnetic evidence confirm that block rotation by strike-slip faulting is nearly ubiquitous, particularly in areas where shear is distributed, and that it accommodates both short-term elastic and long-term nonelastic strain. A rotating block model accounts for a number of structural styles characteristic of strike-slip deformation in California, including: variable slip rates and alternating transtensional and transpressional features observed along strike of major wrench faults; domains of evenly-spaced antithetic faults that terminate against major fault boundaries; continued development of bends in faults with large lateral displacements; anomalous focal mechanisms; and differential uplift in areas otherwise expected to experience extension and subsidence. Since block rotation requires a detachment surface at depth to permit rotational movement, low-angle structures like detachments, of either local or regional extent, may be involved in the contemporary strike

  2. Seasonal levels of radon and thoron in the dwellings along southern coastal Orissa, Eastern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulekha Rao, N.; Sengupta, D.

    2010-01-01

    Inhalation of radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn) are a major source of natural radiation exposure. Indoor radon-thoron study has been carried out in some dwellings of Ganjam district, southern coastal Orissa, India using LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. Seasonal variation of indoor radon and thoron shows high values in winter and low values in both summer and rainy. The inhalation dose lies in the range of 0-0.06 μSv h -1 and is not high from those found elsewhere in India.

  3. Seasonal levels of radon and thoron in the dwellings along southern coastal Orissa, Eastern India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulekha Rao, N [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Sengupta, D. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)], E-mail: dsgg@gg.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2010-01-15

    Inhalation of radon ({sup 222}Rn) and thoron ({sup 220}Rn) are a major source of natural radiation exposure. Indoor radon-thoron study has been carried out in some dwellings of Ganjam district, southern coastal Orissa, India using LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. Seasonal variation of indoor radon and thoron shows high values in winter and low values in both summer and rainy. The inhalation dose lies in the range of 0-0.06 {mu}Sv h{sup -1} and is not high from those found elsewhere in India.

  4. Bullying among trainee doctors in Southern India: A questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bairy K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Workplace bullying is an important and serious issue in a healthcare setting because of its potential impact on the welfare of care-providers as well as the consumers. Aims: To gauge the extent of bullying among the medical community in India; as a subsidiary objective, to assess the personality trait of the bullying victims. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional, anonymous, self-reported questionnaire survey was undertaken among a convenient sample of all the trainee doctors at a Government Medical College in Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire, in English with standard written explanation of bullying was used. Basic information like age, sex, job grade and the specialty in case of Postgraduates (PGs were also collected. Statistical Analysis: The results were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis and Chi-square test for comparison of frequencies. Results: A total of 174 doctors (115 PGs and 59 junior doctors, took part in the study with a cent percent response. Nearly half of the surveyed population reported being subjected to bullying. Nearly 54 (53% of the men and 35 (48% of women were subjected to bullying. Significant proportions ( P < 0.0001 of medical personnel and paramedical staff bullied the PGs and junior doctors, respectively. More than 85 (90% of bullying incidents went unreported. A significant ( P < 0.0001 percentage of PGs and junior doctors revealed a personality trait towards bully. Conclusions: Workplace bullying is common among trainee doctors and usually goes unreported.

  5. Correlates of Mental Depression Among Female Sex Workers in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sangram Kishor; Saggurti, Niranjan; Pachauri, Saroj; Prabhakar, Parimi

    2015-11-01

    Mental health is an integral part of overall health status but has been a largely neglected issue in the developing world especially among female sex workers (FSWs). This study examines the prevalence and correlates of major depression among FSWs in southern India. Major depression was assessed using Patient Health Questionnaire-2 depression scale data from a cross-sectional Behavioral Tracking Survey, 2010-2011 conducted among FSWs (n = 1986) in Andhra Pradesh, a state in southern India. Almost two-fifths of FSWs (39%) reported major depression. Multivariate logistic regression analysis shows a significant association between major depression and the following characteristics for FSWs: low autonomy, alcohol use, experience of violence, police arrest, inconsistent condom use with clients, mobility for sex work, and being HIV positive or not wanting to disclose HIV status. Research and advocacy efforts are needed to ensure that the mental health issues of marginalized groups are appropriately addressed in HIV prevention programs. © 2015 APJPH.

  6. Subclinical Hypothyroidism: A Prospective Observational Study from Southern India.

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    Sridhar, Mathrubootham; Mahadevan, Shriraam; Vishwanathan, Latha; Subbarayan, Anbezhil

    2018-03-15

    To assess the natural history and progression of subclinical hypothyroidism and to study factors which help predict evolution of subclinical hypothyroidism into overt hypothyroidism. Longitudinal study in 40 children (2-16 yrs) presenting with subclinical hypothyroidism in a tertiary care unit in Chennai, India. Patients showing evidence of overt hypothyroidism or thyroid stimulating hormone ≥15 mIU/mL during follow-up were started on thyroxine. Others were followed up with 3-monthly thyroid function tests up to one year. At the end of our study period 3 (7.5%) were overtly hypothyroid, 16 (40%) remained as subclinical hypothyroid, and 21 (52.5%) became euthyroid. Evidence of auto- immunity at baseline was a significant (Phypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism in children, with thyroid stimulating hormone upto 15 mIU/L and irrespective of thyroid autoimmunity, needs only periodic clinical and biochemical follow up. Thyroid autoimmunity may point to an increased probability of progression to overt hypothyroidism.

  7. Chromosomal aberrations in mobile phone users in Tamilnadu, southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandar, V.; Lakshman Kumar, B.; Suresh, K.; Sangeetha, R.; Manikantan, P.; Sasikala, K.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Radiofrequency (RF) waves have long been used for different types of information exchange via the airwaves-wireless Morse code, radio, television, and wireless telephony. Increasingly larger numbers of people rely on mobile telephone technology, and health concerns about the associated RF exposure have been raised, particularly because the mobile phone handset operates in close proximity to the human body, and also because large numbers of base station antennas are required to provide widespread availability of service to large populations. In the present study chromosomal damage investigations were carried out on the peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals using mobile phones, being exposed to MW frequency ranging from 800 to 2000 MHz. The aim of this study is to establish whether mobile phone use (n = 27) increases the frequency of chromosome aberrations (CA) in peripheral blood lymphocytes compared with controls (n = 27) in Tamilnadu, India. After signing a consent form, volunteers provided blood samples (5 ml) to establish cell cultures at 52 hrs. For CA analysis, 100 complete metaphase cells from each subject were evaluated. In the present study, in mobile phone users highly significant results were obtained when compared to control groups. These results highlight a correlation between mobile phone use (exposure to RFR) and genetic damage and require interim public health actions in the wake of widespread use of mobile telephony.

  8. Present-day kinematics of the Danakil block (southern Red Sea-Afar) constrained by GPS

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    Ladron de Guevara, R.; Jonsson, S.; Ruch, J.; Doubre, C.; Reilinger, R. E.; Ogubazghi, G.; Floyd, M.; Vasyura-Bathke, H.

    2017-12-01

    The rifting of the Arabian plate from the Nubian and Somalian plates is primarily accommodated by seismic and magmatic activity along two rift arms of the Afar triple junction (the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts). The spatial distribution of active deformation in the Afar region have been constrained with geodetic observations. However, the plate boundary configuration in which this deformation occurs is still not fully understood. South of 17°N, the Red Sea rift is composed of two parallel and overlapping rift branches separated by the Danakil block. The distribution of the extension across these two overlapping rifts, their potential connection through a transform fault zone and the counterclockwise rotation of the Danakil block have not yet been fully resolved. Here we analyze new GPS observations from the Danakil block, the Gulf of Zula area (Eritrea) and Afar (Ethiopia) together with previous geodetic survey data to better constrain the plate kinematics and active deformation of the region. The new data has been collected in 2016 and add up to 5 years to the existing geodetic observations (going back to 2000). Our improved GPS velocity field shows differences with previously modeled GPS velocities, suggesting that the rate and rotation of the Danakil block need to be updated. The new velocity field also shows that the plate-boundary strain is accommodated by broad deformation zones rather than across sharp boundaries between tectonic blocks. To better determine the spatial distribution of the strain, we first implement a rigid block model to constrain the overall regional plate kinematics and to isolate the plate-boundary deformation at the western boundary of the Danakil block. We then study whether the recent southern Red Sea rifting events have caused detectable changes in observed GPS velocities and if the observations can be used to constrain the scale of this offshore rift activity. Finally, we investigate different geometries of transform faults that

  9. Thinned crustal structure and tectonic boundary of the Nansha Block, southern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Miao; Wu, Shi-Guo; Zhang, Jian

    2016-12-01

    The southern South China Sea margin consists of the thinned crustal Nansha Block and a compressional collision zone. The Nansha Block's deep structure and tectonic evolution contains critical information about the South China Sea's rifting. Multiple geophysical data sets, including regional magnetic, gravity and reflection seismic data, reveal the deep structure and rifting processes. Curie point depth (CPD), estimated from magnetic anomalies using a windowed wavenumber-domain algorithm, enables us to image thermal structures. To derive a 3D Moho topography and crustal thickness model, we apply Oldenburg algorithm to the gravity anomaly, which was extracted from the observed free air gravity anomaly data after removing the gravity effect of density variations of sediments, and temperature and pressure variations of the lithospheric mantle. We found that the Moho depth (20 km) is shallower than the CPD (24 km) in the Northwest Borneo Trough, possibly caused by thinned crust, low heat flow and a low vertical geothermal gradient. The Nansha Block's northern boundary is a narrow continent-ocean transition zone constrained by magnetic anomalies, reflection seismic data, gravity anomalies and an interpretation of Moho depth (about 13 km). The block extends southward beneath a gravity-driven deformed sediment wedge caused by uplift on land after a collision, with a contribution from deep crustal flow. Its southwestern boundary is close to the Lupar Line defined by a significant negative reduction to the pole (RTP) of magnetic anomaly and short-length-scale variation in crustal thickness, increasing from 18 to 26 km.

  10. Re-Os dating of molybdenites from Southern India: implication for Pan-African metallogeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosh, M.; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Masuda, Akimasa

    1994-01-01

    Rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) dating of two molybdenite samples from the alkali granite and pegmatite of Ambalavayal in northern Kerala (S. India) yielded ages of 567 ±28 Ma and 566±77 Ma, respectively. These ages closely compare with the previously determined Rb-Sr whole rock age of 595±20 Ma Rb-Sr for granite, and K-Ar biotite age of 560±30 Ma for the pegmatite. Our study provides the first direct determination of the timing of ore mineralization associated with felsic magmatism in southern India, and reveals the fingerprints of a prominent Pan-African metallogenic event. This timing coincides with the formation of rare metal and gemstone-bearing pegmatites in different parts of southern India, Sri Lanka, Madagascar and East Antarctica. In most cases, the mineralizations are genetically related to felsic magmas emplaced along structural conduits, suggesting that the magmatism and metallogeny are related to deep-seated extension in the cratonized crustal segments of the Gondwana assembly. (author). 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. One feature of the activated southern Ordos block: the Ziwuling small earthquake cluster

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    Li Yuhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Small earthquakes (Ms > 2.0 have been recorded from 1970 to the present day and reveal a significant difference in seismicity between the stable Ordos block and its active surrounding area. The southern Ordos block is a conspicuous small earthquake belt clustered and isolated along the NNW direction and extends to the inner stable Ordos block; no active fault can match this small earthquake cluster. In this paper, we analyze the dynamic mechanism of this small earthquake cluster based on the GPS velocity field (from 1999 to 2007, which are mainly from Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC with respect to the north and south China blocks. The principal direction of strain rate field, the expansion ratefield, the maximum shear strain rate, and the rotation rate were constrained using the GPS velocity field. The results show that the velocity field, which is bounded by the small earthquake cluster from Tongchuan to Weinan, differs from the strain rate field, and the crustal deformation is left-lateral shear. This left-lateral shear belt not only spatially coincides with the Neo-tectonic belt in the Weihe Basin but also with the NNW small earthquake cluster (the Ziwuling small earthquake cluster. Based on these studies, we speculate that the NNW small earthquake cluster is caused by left-lateral shear slip, which is prone to strain accumulation. When the strain releases along the weak zone of structure, small earthquakes diffuse within its upper crust. The maximum principal compression strees direction changed from NE-SW to NEE-SWW, and the former reverse faults in the southwestern margin of the Ordos block became a left-lateral strike slip due to readjustment of the tectonic strees field after the middle Pleistocene. The NNW Neo-tectonic belt in the Weihe Basin, the different movement character of the inner Weihe Basin (which was demonstrated through GPS measurements and the small earthquake cluster belt reflect the activated

  12. Analogue modelling of microcontinent formation: a case study from the Danakil Block, southern Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Nicolas; Cruden, Alexander; Betts, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The kinematic evolution of the Danakil Block is well constrained but the processes responsible for the formation of an isolated continental segment around 13 Ma ago with an independent pole of rotation are still matter of debate. We performed three-dimensional analogue experiments of rotational continental extension containing a pre-existing linear weakness zones in the lithospheric mantle to investigate the formation of the Red Sea, including the Danakil Block. We imposed a rotational extensional boundary condition that simulates the progressive anticlockwise rotation of the Arabian Plate with respect to the Nubia Plate over the last 13-15 Ma and we simulated the presence of a narrow thermal anomaly related to the northward channelling of Afar plume by varying the viscosity of the model lithospheric mantle. The results from experiments containing a linear zone of weakness oriented at low angles with respect to the rift axis show that early stages of deformation are characterised by the development of two rift sub-parallel compartments that delimit an intra-rift block in the vicinity of the weak lithosphere boundary zone, which are analogous to the two rift branches that confine the Danakil Block in the southern Red Sea. The imposed rotational boundary condition creates a displacement gradient along the intra-rift block and prevents the nucleation of the early rift compartments to the north of the block, enhancing the formation of an independently rotating intra-rift segment. Comparison with geodetic data supports our modelling results, which are also in agreement with the "crank-arm" model of Sichler (1980. La biellette Danakile: un modèle pour l'évolution géodynamique de l'Afar. Bull. la Société Géologique Fr. 22, 925-933). Additional analogue models of i) orthogonal extension with an identical lithospheric mantle weakness and, ii) rotational extension with a homogeneous lithosphere (i.e., no lithospheric mantle weakness) show no evidence of developing

  13. Hunting or habitat? Drivers of waterbird abundance and community structure in agricultural wetlands of southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ramesh; Kumar, Ajith; Gopi Sundar, Kolla S; Bhalla, Ravinder Singh

    2017-09-01

    The relative impacts of hunting and habitat on waterbird community were studied in agricultural wetlands of southern India. We surveyed wetlands to document waterbird community, and interviewed hunters to document hunting intensity, targeted species, and the motivations for hunting. Our results show that hunting leads to drastic declines in waterbird diversity and numbers, and skew the community towards smaller species. Hunting intensity, water spread, and vegetation cover were the three most important determinants of waterbird abundance and community structure. Species richness, density of piscivorous species, and medium-sized species (31-65 cm) were most affected by hunting. Out of 53 species recorded, 47 were hunted, with a preference for larger birds. Although illegal, hunting has increased in recent years and is driven by market demand. This challenges the widely held belief that waterbird hunting in India is a low intensity, subsistence activity, and undermines the importance of agricultural wetlands in waterbird conservation.

  14. Ethnomedicinal plants used by Chorei tribes of Southern Assam, North Eastern India

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    Shuvasish Choudhury

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore and enumerate the medicinal plants used by the Chorei tribe residing in Sourthern Assam part of North Eastern India in the treatment of various ailments. Methods: Systematic and intensive field surveys were conducted in Chorei inhabited parts of Southern Assam part of North East India to collect information on medicinal plants used by them in treatment of various ailments. Data was collected through structured questionnaires and personal observations made during the field visit. Results: A total of 53 different medicinal plants were recorded along with their vernacular names, parts used and mode of utilization by the Chorei tribes. Each of the plants was categorized according to their use in treatment of particular disease. Conclusions: The present study revealed that the Chorei tribe is primarily dependent of medicinal plant for treatment of various ailments.

  15. Relationship between Community Collectivization and Financial Vulnerability of Female Sex Workers in Southern India.

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    Sangram Kishor Patel

    Full Text Available Studies exploring the linkages between financial vulnerabilities and community collectivization of female sex workers (FSWs are scarce in India despite having potential policy implications. To fill this gap in the literature, this study attempts to understand the financial vulnerabilities among FSWs and assess the relationship between community collectivization and financial vulnerabilities in southern India.Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, behavioral tracking survey (BTS-2014, conducted among FSWs (N = 2400 in Andhra Pradesh, a southern state of India under the Avahan-India AIDS initiative program. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated through multivariate logistic regression, to assess the independent relationships of the degree of community collectivization indicators with financial vulnerability indicators, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics.Most FSWs (87% reported having either one or more financial vulnerability and nearly one-fifth had a high financial vulnerability. The risk of facing financial vulnerability was significantly lower among FSWs with a high degree of perceived collective efficacy (15% vs 31%; AOR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.3-0.5 and collective agency (4% vs 21%; AOR: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.3 as compared to their respective counterparts, after controlling for their individual socio-demographic characteristics. FSWs with a high degree of collective efficacy are also less likely to report different components of financial vulnerability (e.g. income, saving, expenditure, and debt.This study finding suggests that community-led interventions such as improving collectivization are promising strategies to address financial vulnerabilities and a path to a sustainable reduction of HIV risk. This study calls for further evidence-based research and measurement of the effects of community-led approaches in addressing the financial vulnerabilities of the key population at risk for HIV.

  16. Relationship between Community Collectivization and Financial Vulnerability of Female Sex Workers in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sangram Kishor; Prabhakar, Parimi; Jain, Anrudh Kumar; Saggurti, Niranjan; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra

    2016-01-01

    Studies exploring the linkages between financial vulnerabilities and community collectivization of female sex workers (FSWs) are scarce in India despite having potential policy implications. To fill this gap in the literature, this study attempts to understand the financial vulnerabilities among FSWs and assess the relationship between community collectivization and financial vulnerabilities in southern India. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, behavioral tracking survey (BTS)-2014, conducted among FSWs (N = 2400) in Andhra Pradesh, a southern state of India under the Avahan-India AIDS initiative program. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated through multivariate logistic regression, to assess the independent relationships of the degree of community collectivization indicators with financial vulnerability indicators, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics. Most FSWs (87%) reported having either one or more financial vulnerability and nearly one-fifth had a high financial vulnerability. The risk of facing financial vulnerability was significantly lower among FSWs with a high degree of perceived collective efficacy (15% vs 31%; AOR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.3-0.5) and collective agency (4% vs 21%; AOR: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.3) as compared to their respective counterparts, after controlling for their individual socio-demographic characteristics. FSWs with a high degree of collective efficacy are also less likely to report different components of financial vulnerability (e.g. income, saving, expenditure, and debt). This study finding suggests that community-led interventions such as improving collectivization are promising strategies to address financial vulnerabilities and a path to a sustainable reduction of HIV risk. This study calls for further evidence-based research and measurement of the effects of community-led approaches in addressing the financial vulnerabilities of the key population at risk for HIV.

  17. Ethnomedicinal plants used by local inhabitants of Jakholi block, Rudraprayag district, western Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ankit; Nautiyal, Mohan C; Kunwar, Ripu M; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2017-08-24

    Ethnomedicinal knowledge of the Indian Himalayas is very interesting because of the wide range of medicinal plants used in traditional medical practice. However, there is a danger of knowledge being lost because the knowledge sharing is very limited and passed on orally. The present study is the first ethnomedicinal study in Jakholi area of Rudraprayag district of Northwestern India. The aim of present study was to identify traditional medicinal plants used by the inhabitants to treat different ailments and document the associated knowledge of these medicinal plants. An ethnomedicinal survey was carried out in 72 of 133 villages and alpine pastures of Jakholi block (800-4000 m asl). Door to door surveys and group discussions, applying semi-structured questionnaires were conducted with traditional healers and villagers in local language (Garhwali). Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) was computed to analyse collected ethnomedicinal data. A total of 78 species (Gymnosperms 3 species, Monocotyledons 12 and 63 Dicotyledons) belonging to 73 genera in 46 families were identified to treat 14 different ailments categories. Most dominant family is Asteraceae (5 species). In disease treated categories, Diseases of the skin (DE) have the highest proportion (29.55%) followed by Gastro- intestinal disorder (GA) (25.89%). The most life form of plants used was herb (56%) followed by tree (23%) while root was the most frequently used part of the plants and the traditional preparation was mainly applied in the form of paste (37%). The highest ICF value (0.99) was found for hair ailments (HA) followed ophthalmologic complaints (OP) and mental afflictions (MA) (0.98). The present study provides valuable information about traditional knowledge of medicinal plants of Jakholi Block in the Northwestern Himalaya, India. Local communities still possess large traditional knowledge of plants and their therapeutic uses and that the link of that traditional knowledge to modern research could be

  18. Measuring Poverty in Southern India: A Comparison of Socio-Economic Scales Evaluated against Childhood Stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattula, Deepthi; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Sarkar, Rajiv; Jiang, Victoria; S, Mahasampath Gowri; Henry, Ankita; Deosaran, Jordanna Devi; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) scales measure poverty, wealth and economic inequality in a population to guide appropriate economic and public health policies. Measurement of poverty and comparison of material deprivation across nations is a challenge. This study compared four SES scales which have been used locally and internationally and evaluated them against childhood stunting, used as an indicator of chronic deprivation, in urban southern India. A door-to-door survey collected information on socio-demographic indicators such as education, occupation, assets, income and living conditions in a semi-urban slum area in Vellore, Tamil Nadu in southern India. A total of 7925 households were categorized by four SES scales-Kuppuswamy scale, Below Poverty Line scale (BPL), the modified Kuppuswamy scale, and the multidimensional poverty index (MDPI) and the level of agreement compared between scales. Logistic regression was used to test the association of SES scales with stunting. The Kuppuswamy, BPL, MDPI and modified Kuppuswamy scales classified 7.1%, 1%, 5.5%, and 55.3% of families as low SES respectively, indicating conservative estimation of low SES by the BPL and MDPI scales in comparison with the modified Kuppuswamy scale, which had the highest sensitivity (89%). Children from low SES classified by all scales had higher odds of stunting, but the level of agreement between scales was very poor ranging from 1%-15%. There is great non-uniformity between existing SES scales and cautious interpretation of SES scales is needed in the context of social, cultural, and economic realities.

  19. Practice and perception of first aid among lay first responders in a southern district of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavisarji, Uthkarsh; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Girish, Rao Nagaraja

    2013-01-01

    Injuries rank among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and are steadily increasing in developing countries like India. However, it is often possible to minimize injury and crash consequences by providing effective pre-hospital services promptly. In most low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), transportation of road traffic victims, is usually provided by relatives, taxi drivers, truck drivers, police officers and other motorists who are often untrained. The current study was conducted to understand the current practice and perception of first aid among lay first responders in a rural southern district of India. The current cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in the southern district of Tumkur in India within three months from January to March 2011 and covered the population including all police, ambulance personnel, taxi drivers, bus and auto drivers, and primary and middle school teachers within the study area. Nearly 60% of the responders had witnessed more than two emergencies in the previous six months and 55% had actively participated in helping the injured person. The nature of the help was mainly by calling for an ambulance (41.5%), transporting the injured (19.7%) and consoling the victim (14.9%). Majority (78.1%) of the responders informed that they had run to the victim (42.4%) or had called for an ambulance. The predominant reason for not providing help was often the 'fear of legal complications' (30%) that would follow later. Significant number (81.4%) of respondents reported that they did not have adequate skills to manage an emergency and were willing to acquire knowledge and skills in first aid to help victims. Regular and periodical community-based first aid training programs for first care responders will help to provide care and improve outcomes for injured persons.

  20. Artesian water in the Malabar coastal plain of southern Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George C.; Ghosh, P.K.

    1964-01-01

    The present report is based on a geological and hydrological reconnaissance during 1954 of the Malabar Coastal Plain and adjacent island area of southern Kerala to evaluate the availability of ground water for coastal villages and municipalities and associated industries and the potentialities for future development. The work was done in cooperation with the Geological Survey of India and under the auspices of the U.S. Technical Cooperation Mission to India. The State of Kerala, which lies near the southern tip of India and along the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, contains a total area of 14,937 square miles. The eastern part of the state is s rugged mountainous highland which attains altitudes of more than 6,000 feet. This highland descends westward through piedmont upland to s narrow coastal plain, which reaches a maximum width of about 16 miles in the latitude of Shertalli. A tropical monsoon rain-forest climate prevails in most of Kerala, and annual rainfall ranges from 65 to 130 inches in the southern part of the coastal plain to as much a 200 inches in the highland. The highland and piedmont upland tracts of Kerala are underlain by Precambrian meamorphic and igneous rocks belonging in large parabola-the so-called Charnockite Series. Beneath ahe coastal plain are semiconsolidated asunconsolidated sedimentary deposits whose age ranges from Miocene to Recent. These deposits include sofa sandstone and clay shale containing some marl or limestone and sand, and clay and pea containing some gravel. The sofa sandstone, sand, and gravel beds constitute important aquifers a depths ranging from a few tens of feet to 400 feet or more below the land surface. The shallow ground war is under water-able or unconfined conditions, but the deeper aquifers contain water under artesian pressure. Near the coast, drilled wells tapping the deeper aquifers commonly flow with artesian heads as much as 10 to 12 feet above the land surface. The draft from existing wells in the

  1. Assessment of Fluoride Level in Groundwater and Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis in Didwana Block of Nagaur District, Central Rajasthan, India

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    M Arif

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, for the high concentration of fluoride in groundwater, people are at risk of dental fluorosis. The problem is common in various states of India. The condition in Rajasthan is worse where all districts have such a problem. Objective: To study the fluoride concentration in groundwater and prevalence of dental fluorosis in Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India. Methods: The fluoride concentration in water of 54 villages was measured electrochemically, using fluoride ion selective electrode. Dental fluorosis was assessed in 1136 people residing in study area by Dean's classification for dental fluorosis. Results: The fluoride concentration in groundwater in studied sites ranged from 0.5 to 8.5 mg/L. The concentration of fluoride was more than the maximum permissible limit set by WHO and Bureau of Indian Standards (1 mg/L in 48 groundwater sources. Of 1136 people studied, 788 (69.4%; 95% CI: 66.7%–72.1% had dental fluorosis—252 had mild and 74 had severe dental fluorosis. Conclusion: High level of fluoride in drinking water of Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India, causes dental fluorosis in most people in the region and is an important health problem that needs prompt attention.

  2. Paleomagnetism of Cretaceous Oceanic Red Beds (CORBs) from Gyangze, northern Tethys Himalaya: Evidence for Intra-oceanic Subduction System and Southern Paleolatitute Limit for the Lhasa Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaodong

    2016-04-01

    In the northern Tethys Himalaya, sporadically distributed Cretaceous oceanic red beds (CORBs, the Chuangde Formation) have been described. The sequence was interpreted to be firstly deposited in the outer continental shelf and upper slope, and later slumped into deep basin. Based on this model, and paleomagnetic data of shallow water deposits from the southern Tethys Himalaya, the CORBs were derived from the northern tip of the passive margin of the greater India. If so, the CORBs would provide more accurate record of the northern extent of the greater India, which is an important parameter for estimating the initial time of India-Asia continental collision and the amount of crustal shortening. The well studied and most accessible section is located in the Chuangde village, about 40km east from the Gyangze city. The formation is about 25m thick, ranging from 84 to 75Ma in age according to fossil records of planktonic foraminiferal species. The lower and upper parts are 2 and 5 meter thick marlstones, respectively, and the middle section is dominated by shale with a few layers of centimeter scale marlstones. Fifty cores were collected from the marlstones of the section, and for the purpose of fold test, 30 more cores were collected from the upper part of the formation from a second section located in the Pulong village, ~3km to the northeast of the Chuangde village. All samples were subject to stepwise thermal demagnetization. About 60% of the samples yielded interpretable demagnetization results. The bottom of the upper part of the formation show reversed high temperature component, and the rest of the upper part and the lower part show normal polarity. The Chuangde section data failed reversal test, because the normal polarity direction is likely not fully resolved from overprint component. However, the well resolved reversal direction from the Chuangde village and the normal direction from Pulong pass both reversal and fold tests. The mean paleomagnetic data

  3. Awareness of eye donation in an adult population of southern India. A pilot study.

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    Priyadarshini Brinda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine "awareness of eye donation" and corneal transplantation in an adult population of southern India. Methods: 507 participants chosen by systematic random sampling were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Participants were selected among patients attending two community outreach programmes at different sites, and from patients presenting directly to the hospital. Results: 257 participants (50.69% were aware of eye donations. The major source of awareness was publicity campaigns (n=105. Only 22 (4.34% participants were aware that eye donation had to be done within 6 hours of death. Four hundred and three (79.50% participants were not aware of corneal transplantation. Illiteracy and rural residence were more likely predictors of ignorance. Conclusion: Although multiple strategies are currently followed to increase awareness of eye donations and corneal transplants, more innovative strategies have to be developed, especially to target illiterate and rural populations.

  4. Evidence of late Palaeocene-early Eocene equatorial rain forest refugia in southern Western Ghats, India.

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    Prasad, V; Farooqui, A; Tripathi, S K M; Garg, R; Thakur, B

    2009-11-01

    Equatorial rain forests that maintain a balance between speciation and extinction are hot-spots for studies of biodiversity. Western Ghats in southern India have gained attention due to high tropical biodiversity and endemism in their southern most area. We attempted to track the affinities of the pollen fl ora of the endemic plants of Western Ghat area within the fossil palynoflora of late Palaeocene-early Eocene (approximately 55-50 Ma) sedimentary deposits of western and northeastern Indian region. The study shows striking similarity of extant pollen with twenty eight most common fossil pollen taxa of the early Palaeogene. Widespread occurrences of coal and lignite deposits during early Palaeogene provide evidence of existence of well diversified rain forest community and swampy vegetation in the coastal low lying areas all along the western and northeastern margins of the Indian subcontinent. Prevalence of excessive humid climate during this period has been seen as a result of equatorial positioning of Indian subcontinent, superimposed by a long term global warming phase (PETM and EECO) during the early Palaeogene. The study presents clear evidence that highly diversifi ed equatorial rain forest vegetation once widespread in the Indian subcontinent during early Palaeogene times, are now restricted in a small area as a refugia in the southernmost part of the Western Ghat area. High precipitation and shorter periods of dry months seem to have provided suitable environment to sustain lineages of ancient tropical vegetation in this area of Western Ghats in spite of dramatic climatic changes subsequent to the post India-Asia collision and during the Quaternary and Recent times.

  5. Burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition in a semi-urban slum in southern India

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    Sarkar Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India has seen rapid unorganized urbanization in the past few decades. However, the burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition in such populations is difficult to quantify. The morbidity experience of children living in semi-urban slums of a southern Indian city is described. Methods A total of 176 children were recruited pre-weaning from four geographically adjacent, semi-urban slums located in the western outskirts of Vellore, Tamil Nadu for a study on water safety and enteric infections and received either bottled or municipal drinking water based on their area of residence. Children were visited weekly at home and had anthropometry measured monthly until their second birthday. Results A total of 3932 episodes of illness were recorded during the follow-up period, resulting in an incidence of 12.5 illnesses/child-year, with more illness during infancy than in the second year of life. Respiratory, mostly upper respiratory infections, and gastrointestinal illnesses were most common. Approximately one-third of children were stunted at two years of age, and two-thirds had at least one episode of growth failure during the two years of follow up. No differences in morbidity were seen between children who received bottled and municipal water. Conclusions Our study found a high burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition among urban slum dwellers in southern India. Frequent illnesses may adversely impact children’s health and development, besides placing an additional burden on families who need to seek healthcare and find resources to manage illness.

  6. Measuring Poverty in Southern India: A Comparison of Socio-Economic Scales Evaluated against Childhood Stunting.

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    Deepthi Kattula

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic status (SES scales measure poverty, wealth and economic inequality in a population to guide appropriate economic and public health policies. Measurement of poverty and comparison of material deprivation across nations is a challenge. This study compared four SES scales which have been used locally and internationally and evaluated them against childhood stunting, used as an indicator of chronic deprivation, in urban southern India.A door-to-door survey collected information on socio-demographic indicators such as education, occupation, assets, income and living conditions in a semi-urban slum area in Vellore, Tamil Nadu in southern India. A total of 7925 households were categorized by four SES scales-Kuppuswamy scale, Below Poverty Line scale (BPL, the modified Kuppuswamy scale, and the multidimensional poverty index (MDPI and the level of agreement compared between scales. Logistic regression was used to test the association of SES scales with stunting.The Kuppuswamy, BPL, MDPI and modified Kuppuswamy scales classified 7.1%, 1%, 5.5%, and 55.3% of families as low SES respectively, indicating conservative estimation of low SES by the BPL and MDPI scales in comparison with the modified Kuppuswamy scale, which had the highest sensitivity (89%. Children from low SES classified by all scales had higher odds of stunting, but the level of agreement between scales was very poor ranging from 1%-15%.There is great non-uniformity between existing SES scales and cautious interpretation of SES scales is needed in the context of social, cultural, and economic realities.

  7. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Mammals of the Meghamalai landscape, southern Western Ghats, India - a review

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    S. Babu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reports on the concurrence of mammals in the Meghamalai landscape were collated from published literature and also the data obtained from a recent study spanning over 18 months (June 2011-December 2012. Sixty-three species belonging to 24 families occur in the landscape, which include 24 globally threatened (one Critically Endangered; seven Endangered; 11 Vulnerable and five Near Threatened species. Of the recorded species, four species are endemic to India and nine are endemic to the Western Ghats. The present study added five species, viz., Rusty-spotted Cat Prionailurus rubiginosus, Malabar Spiny Tree Mouse Platacanthomys lasiurus, Grizzled Giant Squirrel Ratufa macroura, Common Palm Civet Paradoxurus hermaphrodites and the Indian Grey Mongoose Herpestes edwardsii to the six decade old mammal list. But, 13 species reported by Hutton were not recorded during the study. Among them, occurrence of Malabar Civet Viverra civettina and Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus in southern India remains unresolved. During our study, anthropogenic pressures such as conversion of natural habitats, encroachment, hunting, cattle grazing and tourism were observed to affect the distribution of mammals in the landscape.

  8. Evaluation of Workload and its Impact on Satisfaction Among Pharmacy Academicians in Southern India.

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    Ahmad, Akram; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Srikanth, Akshaya B; Patel, Isha; Nagappa, Anantha Naik; Jamshed, Shazia Qasim

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of workload among pharmacy academicians working in public and private sector universities in India. The study also aimed to assess the satisfaction of academicians towards their workload. A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of 2 months among pharmacy academicians in Karnataka state of Southern India. Convenience sampling was used to select a sample and was contacted via email and/or social networking sites. Questionnaire designed by thorough review literature was used as a tool to collect data on workload (teaching, research, extracurricular services) and satisfaction. Of 214 participants, 95 returned the filled questionnaire giving the response rate of 44.39%. Private sector academicians had more load of teaching (p=0.046) and they appeared to be less involved in research activities (p=0.046) as compared to public sector academicians. More than half of the respondents (57.9%) were satisfied with their workload with Assistant Professors were least satisfied as compared to Professors (p=0.01). Overall, private sector academicians are more burdened by teaching load and also are less satisfied of their workload. Revision of private universities policies may aid in addressing this issue.

  9. Antimicrobials for the treatment of urinary tract infection in pregnancy: practices in southern India.

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    Mathai, Elizabeth; Thomas, Raja John; Chandy, Sujith; Mathai, Matthews; Bergstrom, Staffan

    2004-09-01

    Although urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnancy is a common medical problem, very little is known about the susceptibility patterns of bacteria causing UTI and the prescription practices for UTI in pregnancy in low-income countries. Studies were, therefore, carried out in southern India to document the susceptibility patterns and to compare these with prescription practices. Data on susceptibility patterns of bacteria isolated in significant counts from urine of pregnant women suspected to have urinary infection were collected. Prescribing patterns for these infections were ascertained using a questionnaire. About 90% of E. coli causing UTI is still susceptible to nitrofurantoin, a relatively inexpensive and safe drug. However, less than 25% of doctors used it for treatment of cystitis. Cephalosporins were most commonly used in hospital practice for the treatment of UTI. Amoxycillin was being used widely to treat UTI in pregnancy in spite of high prevalence of resistance. There were wide variations in the duration of therapy and use of prophylaxis. Our findings indicate an urgent need for proper guidelines, dissemination of information to practitioners and supervision of antimicrobial usage in low income countries like India. Irrational and unnecessary drug use can be expensive and harmful.

  10. Ethnomedicinal assessment of Irula tribes of Walayar valley of Southern Western Ghats, India

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    Arjunan Venkatachalapathi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to explore the traditional knowledge of Irula tribal people who are practicing herbal medicine in Walayar valley, the Southern Western Ghats, India. A total number of 146 species of plants distributed in 122 genera belonging to 58 families were identified as commonly used ethnomedicinal plants by them. Interestingly, 26 new claims were also made in the present study. Through the data obtained from Irula tribal healers, the herbs were mostly used for medicine (40.4% followed by trees (26.7% and climbers (18.5%. In addition leaves were highly used for medicinal purposes, collected from 55 species (38% followed by multiple parts from 18 species (12%. Acorus calamus is the species of higher use value (1.80 assessed to be prescribed most commonly for the treatment of cough. High informant consensus factor (1.0 obtained for insecticidal uses and cooling agent indicates that the usage of Canarium strictum and Melia dubia, and Mimosa pudica and Sesamum indicum respectively for that purposes had obtained high degree of agreement among the healers in using these species for the respective purposes. The most commonly used method of preparation was decoction (63% followed by raw form (23%, paste (12% and powder (2%. Therefore, it is suggested to take-up pharmacological and phytochemical studies to evaluate the species to confirm the traditional knowledge of Irulas on medicinal plants. Keywords: Ethnobotanical surveys, Irula tribes, India

  11. Community and conservation reserves in southern India: status, challenges and opportunities

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    A. Kanagavel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Community Reserves and Conservation Reserves illustrate a community-based co-management model, a first of its kind within the protected area (PA network of India. Such reserves mark a shift towards an inclusive and decentralised approach within PAs in the country. Three such reserves in southern India: the Aghanashini Lion-tailed Macaque Conservation Reserve, Kadalundi-Vallikunnu Community Reserve and Thirupaddaimaradur Conservation Reserve, were selected to examine the reasons for their creation, management and stakeholder dynamics, with an aim to review their productivity and potential replicability. The study was carried out through semi-structured interviews with Forest Department officials, local community members and researchers working in the three reserves. Insufficient interaction between the stakeholders appeared to be a common issue in two reserves. The functioning of the reserves was also influenced, and in some cases negatively affected, by local politics. Financial stability was crucial in the functioning of reserves, as was consistency in interaction and appropriate monitoring of management plans. These elements are recommended for sustaining such reserves and creating community-based management systems for conservation, to support an inclusive approach to PA management.

  12. Productivity dynamics of Livestock in southern peninsular India: A Compound growth rate analysis

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    G. Kathiravan 1 and S. Selvam 2

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although India possesses the large volume of livestock, their productivity is abysmally low at global level. India, with its wide variation in geo-ecological parameters, elucidates a high variation in the productivity of its livestock, among regions. The compound growth rate of livestock productivity was worked out for the Southern Peninsular state of India, Tamil Nadu. The average productivity of milk in cross bred cows and buffaloes in Tamil Nadu was less than the national average, while the productivity desi cows was a bit a more. The annual compound growth rate of milk productivity among crossbred cows of Tamil Nadu was at meager 0.54 per cent during the period between 1998-1999 and 2006- 2007, whereas the productivity of milk in desi cows had improved from at an annual compound growth rate of 1.29 per cent. Notably, the milk productivity in buffaloes had declined at a rate of 0.29 per cent during the period under study. The annual compound growth of egg productivity in improved hens of Tamil Nadu was 20.87 per cent. The average annual productivity was 109.531 eggs, which improved from 70.623 in 1998-1999 to 197.084 in 2004-2005. Correspondingly, the productivity of desi hens also had a positive swing from the year 2003-2004 onwards. The results implied that the simulation of increased productivity, better farm financing and improved milk marketing could result in enhanced livestock production that would meet the future demands. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(2.000: 68-74

  13. STUDY ON NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN INDIA VARIATIONS OF HUMAN SKULL- A SECONDARY RESEARCH

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    Jameskutty Baby Jacob Kaithackal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Identity of a human being with regard to sex, race, age etc. can be revealed if the skull is suitably examined. The general concept of ethnic and geographic variations being reflected in the body as variations in size, shape, etc. can be checked for in the case of skeleton also. This article is formed out of a term paper study submitted by myself in 2016 to the Yenepoya University, Mangalore, Karnataka, as part of the postgraduate diploma course in Forensic Anthropology. The research was based on a question whether there is a significant difference between human skulls from North and South India. The aims/objectives were bi-fold: to analyse the difference in male and female skull from North Indian and South Indian regions from review of scholarly literature and to explore the possibility identification of individuals from cranial features unique to North and South India. MATERIALS AND METHODS The original articles available on this type of work were extensively reviewed to recognise any traits that differentiated the skulls with regard to their regional variation. RESULTS At the end of the scrutiny of such papers, a summary of the features that distinguished skulls as belonging to northern or southern parts of India was tried. The Indian cranial series, though varied widely in shape, the absence of any statistically significant difference between them made it unreliable to predict skull as male or female by morphometric estimation. The studies by different scholars did not propose for a uniform distinctiveness between north and south Indian skulls. CONCLUSION It was concluded that analysing a single specimen to be of a distinct geographic origin should be done more cautiously when compared to a setting of series analysis where variability might be there of course.

  14. Genetic diversity in the block 2 region of the merozoite surface protein-1 of Plasmodium falciparum in central India

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    Bharti Praveen K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria continues to be a significant health problem in India. Several of the intended Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate antigens are highly polymorphic. The genetic diversity of P. falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1 has been extensively studied from various parts of the world. However, limited data are available from India. The aim of the present study was a molecular characterization of block 2 region of MSP-1 gene from the tribal-dominated, forested region of Madhya Pradesh. Methods DNA sequencing analysis was carried out in 71 field isolates collected between July 2005 to November 2005 and in 98 field isolates collected from July 2009 to December 2009. Alleles identified by DNA sequencing were aligned with the strain 3D7 and polymorphism analysis was done by using Edit Sequence tool (DNASTAR. Results The malaria positivity was 26% in 2005, which rose to 29% in 2009 and P. falciparum prevalence was also increased from 72% in 2005 to 81% in 2009. The overall allelic prevalence was higher in K1 (51% followed by MAD20 (28% and RO33 (21% in 2005 while in 2009, RO33 was highest (40% followed by K1 (36% and MAD20 (24%. Conclusions The present study reports extensive genetic variations and dynamic evolution of block 2 region of MSP-1 in central India. Characterization of antigenic diversity in vaccine candidate antigens are valuable for future vaccine trials as well as understanding the population dynamics of P. falciparum parasites in this area.

  15. Composition, diversity and foraging guilds of avifauna in a suburban area of southern West Bengal, India

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    Mukhopadhyay Shiladitya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian communities are very good indicators of any ecosystem. Despite the alarming consequences of rapid urbanization, studies of avian diversity in the human-dominated landscapes of India are very few. Therefore, we studied the avian assemblage of Bongaon in southern West Bengal, India, a suburban area whose avifauna has thus far remained undocumented. Bird surveys were carried out from June 2015 to May 2016, following the fixed-radius (25 m point count method together with opportunistic observations. We recorded 119 avian species belonging to 53 families. Ardeidae was the most diverse avian family in the study area (RDi value = 5.882. Among the recorded avifauna, 89 species were resident, 26 species were winter visitors, three species were summer visitors, and one species was a passage migrant. Species richness of the resident and passage migrant species did not vary seasonally, while the winter and summer visitors displayed significant seasonal variation. In this suburban area, the species richness of feeding guilds varied significantly. Most birds were insectivorous (41.2%, followed by carnivorous (24.4%, omnivorous (18.5%, granivorous (7.6%, frugivorous (3.4%, nectarivorous (3.4% and herbivorous species (1.7%. Maximum species richness was recorded in November and minimum species richness in July. Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus and Alexandrine Parakeet Psittacula eupatria are two near-threatened species found in this region. Interestingly, six species having a globally declining trend are still very common in the study area. Long-term studies are required to monitor any change in the avian communities of this suburban landscape resulting from urbanization.

  16. Biomass, energy and economic and natural resource differentiation in rural southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagavan, M.R.; Giriappa, S.

    1995-01-01

    The rural economy in India is as yet only partially monetized and continues to retain its semi-subsistence character, while at the same time undergoing the process of becoming more monetized and market-orientated. A large field study was conducted in rural Karnataka, a state in southern India, which uncovers the relations between the energy situations of the rural social classes and their access to labour, land, cash and physical assets. Of equal significance are regional variations in ecology, rainfall and irrigation. The study's principal focus is the rural household, but it also includes some analysis of the energy dimensions in agricultural activities and small-scale rural services. Eight villages were covered by the survey, one in each district, carefully selected to reflect the geographic, climatic, biomass-resource and socio-economic features of Karnataka. In each village an average of 55 households were studied in depth, making up a total of 450 households. Clear and marked differentiations are uncovered between the rural social classes in various aspects of energy production, purchase, sale and consumption, as well as in labour and cash inputs into the energy flows. It is found that traditional forms of biomass are still the dominant type of energy for all rural strata, and that only the rural middle class can be said to have begun the transition towards modern fuels, although its consumption of modern fuels is still negligibly small in absolute terms. The study reveals that the rural middle class faces no energy crisis, while the 'intermediate' class of the small peasantry is just about managing to make ends meet in energy terms. In contrast to this, the rural wage labour class continues to remain in a state of energy crisis. (author)

  17. Natural History of Cryptosporidiosis in a Birth Cohort in Southern India.

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    Kattula, Deepthi; Jeyavelu, Nithya; Prabhakaran, Ashok D; Premkumar, Prasanna S; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Geetha, Jayanthi C; Lazarus, Robin P; Das, Princey; Nithyanandhan, Karthick; Gunasekaran, Chandrabose; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Sarkar, Rajiv; Wanke, Christine; Ajjampur, Sitara Swarna Rao; Babji, Sudhir; Naumova, Elena N; Ward, Honorine D; Kang, Gagandeep

    2017-02-01

    Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of moderate to severe childhood diarrhea in resource-poor settings. Understanding the natural history of cryptosporidiosis and the correlates of protection are essential to develop effective and sustainable approaches to disease control and prevention. Children (N = 497) were recruited at birth in semiurban slums in Vellore, India, and followed for 3 years with twice-weekly home visits. Stool samples were collected every 2 weeks and during diarrheal episodes were tested for Cryptosporidium species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum samples obtained every 6 months were evaluated for seroconversion, defined as a 4-fold increase in immunoglobulin G directed against Cryptosporidium gp15 and/or Cp23 antigens between consecutive sera. Of 410 children completing follow-up, 397 (97%) acquired cryptosporidiosis by 3 years of age. PCR identified 1053 episodes of cryptosporidiosis, with an overall incidence of 0.86 infections per child-year by stool and serology. The median age for the first infection was 9 (interquartile range, 4-17) months, indicating early exposure. Although infections were mainly asymptomatic (693 [66%]), Cryptosporidium was identified in 9.4% of diarrheal episodes. The proportion of reinfected children was high (81%) and there was clustering of asymptomatic and symptomatic infections (P < .0001 for both). Protection against infection increased with the order of infection but was only 69% after 4 infections. Cryptosporidium hominis (73.3%) was the predominant Cryptosporidium species, and there was no species-specific protection. There is a high burden of endemic cryptosporidiosis in southern India. Clustering of infection is suggestive of host susceptibility. Multiple reinfections conferred some protection against subsequent infection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  18. Prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease and its risk factors in a community-based population in southern India.

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    Wang, Hai-Yun; Leena, Kondarapassery Balakumaran; Plymoth, Amelie; Hergens, Maria-Pia; Yin, Li; Shenoy, Kotacherry Trivikrama; Ye, Weimin

    2016-03-15

    The prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) varies widely around the world. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of GERD in a general population of southern India. An interview-based observational study was carried out in southern India during 2010 and early 2011 using a GERD questionnaire (GerdQ). In total 1072 participants were enrolled using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Presence of GERD was defined as a score of ≥ 8. Logistic regression models were used to derive odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). The prevalence of GERD was 22.2 % (238/1072) in southern India, and was more common among older subjects and men. Overweight and obese subjects had a dose-dependent increased risk of GERD, compared to those with body mass index less than 25 (multivariate-adjusted OR = 1.4, 95 % CI 1.0-2.0; OR = 2.3, 95 % CI 1.3-4.1, respectively). People residing in urban community were more vulnerable to GERD than those in rural community (multivariate-adjusted OR = 1.8, 95 % CI 1.3-2.5). Similarly, those with a lower educational level appeared to have an increased risk of GERD. Further, those with a habit of pan masala chewing were more likely to develop GERD compared with those abstained from the habit (multivariate-adjusted OR = 2.0, 95 % CI 1.2-3.2). GERD is highly prevalent in southern India. Increasing age and BMI, an urban environment, lower educational level, and pan masala chewing appear to be risk factors of GERD symptoms for the studied population.

  19. Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotopic Characteristics of the Kaveri River Surface Waters, Southern Peninsular India

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    Achyuthan, Hema; Michelini, Marzia; Sengupta, Somasis D.; Kale, Vishwas S.; Stenni, Barbara; Flora, Onelio

    2010-12-01

    We present in this paper the spatial distribution of stable isotopic composition (δ 18 O and δD) of Kaveri River surface waters to understand how the evaporation and precipitation affect the isotopic signature and dynamics of surface river waters. In the southern peninsular India, Kaveri River is one of the longest tropical river. Our stable isotope data indicate that the upper Kaveri region is influenced strongly by the SW monsoon. There is a narrow range between the δ 18 O values found from the origin of the Kaveri River to its delta, and there is no significant orographic impact of the Western Ghats. A decreasing trend of d values is found along the course of the river. This is attributed to evaporation effects, which nevertheless are not very strong. This difference in deuterium excess due to evaporation is also an indication of the moisture recycling in the lower Kaveri area, which is primarily controlled by evaporation from the wetlands in the delta plain but also from the surface waters and as such from the rivers. (author)

  20. Food and foraging preferences of three pteropodid bats in southern India

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    M.R Sudhakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the food, foraging and flight height in three species of pteropodid bats, namely Cynopterus sphinx, Rousettus leschenaultii and Pteropus giganteus was conducted in Tirunelveli and Tuticorin districts of southern Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 37 species of plants were identified as potential food plants of the pteropodid bats. The preference for fruits by pteropodids varied according to the developmental stages of fruits namely, immature, unripe and ripe. There is a relationship between the foraging activities of bats and the moon phase. Bats exhibit a varied foraging pattern and flight height. A variation in the foraging flight height was observed in C. sphinx and R. leschenaultii. R. leschenaultii was observed to have a higher foraging echelon than that of the C. sphinx. In our study we found that the C. sphinx forages normally at canopy level (up to 3.5m, R. leschenaultii forages at upper canopy levels (up to 9m and P. giganteus at a height above the canopy area (>9m.

  1. Tree diversity in the tropical dry forest of Bannerghatta National Park in Eastern Ghats, Southern India

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    Gopalakrishna S. Puttakame

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree species inventories, particularly of poorly known dry deciduous forests, are needed to protect and restore forests in degraded landscapes. A study of forest stand structure, and species diversity and density of trees with girth at breast height (GBH ≥10 cm was conducted in four management zones of Bannerghatta National Park (BNP in the Eastern Ghats of Southern India. We identified 128 tree species belonging to 45 families in 7.9 hectares. However, 44 species were represented by ≤ 2 individuals. Mean diversity values per site for the dry forest of BNP were: tree composition (23.8 ±7.6, plant density (100.69 ± 40.02, species diversity (2.56 ± 0.44 and species richness (10.48 ± 4.05. Tree diversity was not significantly different (P>0.05 across the four management zones in the park. However, the number of tree species identified significantly (P<0.05 increased with increasing number of sampling sites, but majority of the species were captured. Similarly, there were significant variations (p<0.05 between tree diameter class distributions. Juveniles accounted for 87% of the tree population. The structure of the forest was not homogeneous, with sections ranging from poorly structured to highly stratified configurations. The study suggests that there was moderate tree diversity in the tropical dry thorn forest of Bannerghatta National Park, but the forest was relatively young.

  2. Impact of biogas interventions on forest biomass and regeneration in southern India

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    M. Agarwala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Programs to provide alternative energy sources such as biogas improve indoor air quality and potentially reduce pressure on forests from fuelwood collection. This study tests whether biogas intervention is associated with higher forest biomass and forest regeneration in degraded forests in Chikkaballapur district in Southern India. Using propensity score matching, we find that forest plots in proximity to villages with biogas interventions (treatment had greater forest biomass than comparable plots around villages without biogas (control. We also found significantly higher sapling abundance and diversity in treatment than control plots despite no significant difference in seedling abundances and diversity in treatment forests, suggesting that plants have a higher probability of reaching sapling stage. These results indicate the potential for alternative energy sources that reduce dependence on fuelwood to promote regeneration of degraded forests. However, forest regrowth is not uniform across treatments and is limited by soil nutrients and biased towards species that are light demanding, fire-resistant and can thrive in poor soil conditions.

  3. Biogas cook stoves for healthy and sustainable diets? A case study in Southern India

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    Tal Lee Anderman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternative cook stoves that replace solid fuels with cleaner energy sources, such as biogas, are gaining popularity in low-income settings across Asia, Africa and South America. Published research on these technologies focuses on their potential to reduce indoor air pollution and improve respiratory health. Effects on other cooking related aspects, such as diets and women’s time management, are less understood. In this study in southern India, we investigate if using biogas cook stoves alters household diets and women’s time management. We compare treatment households who are supplied with a biogas cook stove with comparison households who do not have access to these stoves, while controlling for several socio-economic factors. We find that diets of treatment households are more diverse than diets of comparison households. In addition, women from treatment households spend on average 40 minutes less cooking and 70 minutes less collecting firewood per day than women in comparison households. This study illustrates that alongside known benefits for respiratory health, using alternative cook stoves may benefit household diets and free up women’s time. To inform development investments and ensure these co-benefits, we argue that multiple dimensions of sustainability should be considered in evaluating the impact of alternative cook stoves.

  4. From intent to action: A case study for the expansion of tiger conservation from southern India

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    Sanjay Gubbi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To conserve a large, wide-ranging carnivore like the tiger, it is critical not only to maintain populations at key habitat sites, but also to enable the persistence of the species across much larger landscapes. To do this, it is important to establish well-linked habitat networks where sites for survival and reproduction of tigers are complemented by opportunities for dispersal and colonization. On the ground, expanding protection to areas with a potential for tiger recovery still remains the means of operationalizing the landscape approach. Yet, while the gazetting of protected areas is necessary to enable this, it is not sufficient. It is essential to benchmark and monitor the process by which establishment of protected areas must necessarily be followed by management changes that enable a recovery of tigers, their prey and their habitats. In this paper, we report a case study from the Cauvery and Malai Mahadeshwara Hills Wildlife Sanctuaries of southern India, where we document the infrastructural and institutional changes that ensued after an unprecedented expansion of protected areas in this landscape. Further, we establish ecological benchmarks of the abundance and distribution of tigers, the relative abundance of their prey, and the status of their habitats, against which the recovery of tigers in this area of vast conservation potential may be assessed over time.

  5. Occupational Heat Stress Impacts on Health and Productivity in a Steel Industry in Southern India.

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    Krishnamurthy, Manikandan; Ramalingam, Paramesh; Perumal, Kumaravel; Kamalakannan, Latha Perumal; Chinnadurai, Jeremiah; Shanmugam, Rekha; Srinivasan, Krishnan; Venugopal, Vidhya

    2017-03-01

    Workers laboring in steel industries in tropical settings with high ambient temperatures are subjected to thermally stressful environments that can create well-known risks of heat-related illnesses and limit workers' productivity. A cross-sectional study undertaken in a steel industry in a city nicknamed "Steel City" in Southern India assessed thermal stress by wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and level of dehydration from urine color and urine specific gravity. A structured questionnaire captured self-reported heat-related health symptoms of workers. Some 90% WBGT measurements were higher than recommended threshold limit values (27.2-41.7°C) for heavy and moderate workloads and radiational heat from processes were very high in blooming-mill/coke-oven (67.6°C globe temperature). Widespread heat-related health concerns were prevalent among workers, including excessive sweating, fatigue, and tiredness reported by 50% workers. Productivity loss was significantly reported high in workers with direct heat exposures compared to those with indirect heat exposures (χ 2  = 26.1258, degrees of freedom = 1, p  industries enhancing welfare facilities and designing control interventions, further physiological studies with a seasonal approach and interventional studies are needed to strengthen evidence for developing comprehensive policies to protect workers employed in high heat industries.

  6. The rapid cooling of the Nansha Block, southern South China Sea

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    Dong, M.; Zhang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Since the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic, the Nansha Block has experienced a series of tectonic process and separated from South China continent to the south. As an exotic micro-continental, Nansha Block has an obvious different lithospheric rheology property from surrounding region. The lithosphere and mantle dynamic and rheology are mainly controlled by temperature. Therefore, we calculated the 3D temperature field and geothermal gradient of Nansha Block's upper mantle by using the S-wave velocity structure from surface wave tomography. The results show that the depth where temperature of 1300° as the lithospheric thickness is in close correspondence with the top of the seismic low velocity zone. The temperature of the upper mantle in Nansha Block is significantly lower than that of surrounding. It implies that Nansha Block experienced a rapid cooling event. We propose that the rapid cooling can be partly attributed to three reasons: 1) Nansha Block is a relatively stable block with no interior geothermal activity. 2) No external heat source to provide energy. 3) Abnormal mantle convection under Nansha Block accelerated the cooling.

  7. Decentralizing Governance of Natural Resources in India: Lessons from the Case Study of Thanagazi Block, Alwar, Rajasthan, India - Comment

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    Maria Costanza Torri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous countries have undergone decentralisation reforms in the management of natural resources. However, the policies implemented are often not applied in ways compatible with the democratic potential with which decentralisation is conceived. The paper analyses the issue of decentralisation in resource management, in Thanagazi block, Alwar District, Rajasthan. In this paper I present a case of community initiated decentralisation carried out through village organisations. The aim is to contrast it with the state initiated decentralisation system carried out through the local administrative unit, the Gram Panchayat. Some conclusive remarks will be made on the importance of promoting more inclusive and democratic institutions which take into account the local needs and priorities regarding the management of natural resources and development interventions.

  8. Understanding care and feeding practices: building blocks for a sustainable intervention in India and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingam, Raghu; Gupta, Pallavi; Zafar, Shamsa; Hill, Zelee; Yousafzai, Aisha; Iyengar, Sharad; Sikander, Siham; Haq, Zaeem ul; Mehta, Shilpa; Skordis-Worrel, Jolene; Rahman, Atif; Kirkwood, Betty

    2014-01-01

    Undernutrition and inadequate stimulation both negatively influence child health and development and have a long-term impact on school attainment and income. This paper reports data from India and Pakistan looking at how families interact, play with, and feed children; their expectations of growth and development; and the perceived benefits, consequences, opportunities, and barriers of adopting recommended feeding and developmental behaviors. These data were collected as part of formative research for the Sustainable Program Incorporating Nutrition and Games (SPRING) trial. This trial aims to deliver an innovative, feasible, affordable, and sustainable intervention that can achieve delivery at a scale of known effective interventions that maximize child development, growth, and survival and improve maternal psychosocial well-being in rural India and Pakistan. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Serodiagnosis of tuberculosis in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus in Southern India: a latent class analysis.

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    Shalu Verma-Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a causative agent of chronic tuberculosis disease, is widespread among some animal species too. There is paucity of information on the distribution, prevalence and true disease status of tuberculosis in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus. The aim of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of serological tests to diagnose M. tuberculosis infection in captive elephants in southern India while simultaneously estimating sero-prevalence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Health assessment of 600 elephants was carried out and their sera screened with a commercially available rapid serum test. Trunk wash culture of select rapid serum test positive animals yielded no animal positive for M. tuberculosis isolation. Under Indian field conditions where the true disease status is unknown, we used a latent class model to estimate the diagnostic characteristics of an existing (rapid serum test and new (four in-house ELISA tests. One hundred and seventy nine sera were randomly selected for screening in the five tests. Diagnostic sensitivities of the four ELISAs were 91.3-97.6% (95% Credible Interval (CI: 74.8-99.9 and diagnostic specificity were 89.6-98.5% (95% CI: 79.4-99.9 based on the model we assumed. We estimate that 53.6% (95% CI: 44.6-62.8 of the samples tested were free from infection with M. tuberculosis and 15.9% (97.5% CI: 9.8 - to 24.0 tested positive on all five tests. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide evidence for high prevalence of asymptomatic M. tuberculosis infection in Asian elephants in a captive Indian setting. Further validation of these tests would be important in formulating area-specific effective surveillance and control measures.

  10. Fluoride in weathered rock aquifers of southern India: Managed Aquifer Recharge for mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindha, K; Jagadeshan, G; Kalpana, L; Elango, L

    2016-05-01

    Climatic condition, geology, and geochemical processes in an area play a major role on groundwater quality. Impact of these on the fluoride content of groundwater was studied in three regions-part of Nalgonda district in Telangana, Pambar River basin, and Vaniyar River basin in Tamil Nadu, southern India, which experience semi-arid climate and are predominantly made of Precambrian rocks. High concentration of fluoride in groundwater above 4 mg/l was recorded. Human exposure dose for fluoride through groundwater was higher in Nalgonda than the other areas. With evaporation and rainfall being one of the major contributors for high fluoride apart from the weathering of fluoride rich minerals from rocks, the effect of increase in groundwater level on fluoride concentration was studied. This study reveals that groundwater in shallow environment of all three regions shows dilution effect due to rainfall recharge. Suitable managed aquifer recharge (MAR) methods can be adopted to dilute the fluoride rich groundwater in such regions which is explained with two case studies. However, in deep groundwater, increase in fluoride concentration with increase in groundwater level due to leaching of fluoride rich salts from the unsaturated zone was observed. Occurrence of fluoride above 1.5 mg/l was more in areas with deeper groundwater environment. Hence, practicing MAR in these regions will increase the fluoride content in groundwater and so physical or chemical treatment has to be adopted. This study brought out the fact that MAR cannot be practiced in all regions for dilution of ions in groundwater and that it is essential to analyze the fluctuation in groundwater level and the fluoride content before suggesting it as a suitable solution. Also, this study emphasizes that long-term monitoring of these factors is an important criterion for choosing the recharge areas.

  11. Voluntary blood donation in a rural block of Vellore, South India: A knowledge, attitude and practice study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Kurup

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is a shortage of voluntary blood donors in developing countries which are, therefore, more dependent on replacement donors. Aim: To study the knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding voluntary blood donation in a rural block in Vellore, South India. Settings and Designs: A cross-sectional survey in randomly selected villages of a rural block in Vellore, South India. Materials and Methods: Knowledge, attitude, and practices were assessed using a pilot-tested, semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire on randomly chosen rural adults aged between 18 and 60 years. Results: Of the 104 individuals interviewed, 90% were aware of voluntary blood donation, the main source of this awareness being television. Nearly, two-thirds of the participants felt they would fall sick by donating blood and that women and manual laborers were not capable of blood donation. Among the interviewed, 70.3% were of the opinion that blood can purchased with money. Only 44% were willing to donate blood on a voluntary basis. Perceived weakness and a misconception on the apparent lack of blood were the major reasons for unwillingness to donate blood. There was a significant association between willingness to donate blood and educational status as well as occupation, with the less educated and manual laborers unwilling to donate blood on a voluntary basis (odds ratio [OR] = 3.758, confidence interval [CI] = 1.54–9.156; OR = 5.333, CI = 1.429–19.90, respectively. Conclusions: The study found that although awareness on voluntary blood donation among individuals in the rural community was widespread, hesitancy to donate blood in real life situation was high. Since voluntary unpaid donors are the best candidates for blood donation, community being the best available source, education, and motivation of the community should play a greater role in increasing voluntary blood donation.

  12. Nutritional status and intellectual development in children: A community-based study from rural Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Amita; Thomas, Leah; Stephen, Kezia; Marconi, Sam; Noel, J; Jacob, K S; Prasad, Jasmin

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of recent data on the relationship between nutritional status and intellectual development among children in India. To determine whether such a relationship exists, we studied children in a rural area of Tamil Nadu. We stratified villages in Kaniyambadi block, Tamil Nadu, and recruited consecutive children who satisfied the study criteria. We assessed nutritional status by measuring height and weight and recording chronological age, and calculated indices weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-forheight and their Z scores. We assessed intellectual development using the Indian adaptation of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale. We used a case-control framework to determine the relationship and logistic regression to adjust for common confounders. We recruited 114 children between the ages of 12 and 72 months. Z score means (weight-for-age -1.36; height-for-age -1.42; weight-for-height -0.78) were much less than 0 and indicate undernutrition. Z score standard deviations (weight-for-age 1.04; height-for-age 1.18; weightfor- height 1.06) were within the WHO recommended range for good quality of nutrition data suggesting reduced measurement errors and incorrect reporting of age. The frequency distributions of population Z scores suggest high undernutrition, wasting and medium stunting. A tenth of the population (9.6%) had values to suggest borderline/below average intelligence (social quotient social quotient. These relationships remained statistically significant after adjusting for sex and socioeconomic status using logistic regression. Chronic undernutrition, wasting and stunting and their association with lower intellectual development demand an urgent re-assessment of national food policies and programmes.

  13. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  14. Diversity, habitat preferences, and conservation of the primates of Southern Assam, India: The story of a primate paradise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Khairujjaman Mazumder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The southern part of Assam in India, a part of the Indo-Burma Biodiversity hotspot, harbors a myriad number of wild plant and animal species. Although there is only one protected area, the Barail Wildlife Sanctuary (Cachar district and a few reserve forests (RFs, there are as many as eight primates inhabiting the region – a diversity hardly found elsewhere. In addition to the protected area and RFs, tea gardens and secondary forests also serve as habitats for animals. The border areas of the region with the states of Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, and Tripura are among the most important abodes of these primates. Unfortunately, these primates are under constant threat from multiple sources. The present article provides an extensive survey of the available literature on the primates of southern Assam with reference to their distribution, habitat preferences, threats, and conservation. Additionally, data from field observations of the author are also presented.

  15. Health System Competency for Maternal Health Services in Balasore District and Jaleswar Block, Balasore, Odisha, India: An Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehury, Ranjit Kumar; Samal, Janmejaya

    2016-08-01

    A competent health system is of paramount importance in delivering the desired health services in a particular community. The broad objective of this study was to assess the health system competency for the maternal health services in Balasore District and Jaleswar block of Balasore district, Odisha, India. A mixed method approach was adopted in order to understand the health system competency for maternal health services in the study area. There was poor accessibility through road, poor electricity connection and piped water for the health care centers in the district. Even, existing Primary Health Centres (PHCs) lack ECG and X-Ray machines for proper diagnostic services which jeopardize the catering of health services. Community Health Centres (CHC) lack basic diagnostic and ambulance services making the tribal pockets inaccessible. The tribal dominated Jaleswar block shows poor performance in terms of total registered Antenatal Checkups (ANC) (only 77%). A gradual decrease in the rate of ANC, from first to fourthcheckup, was observed in the district. Lack of public health infrastructure in general and non-compliance to Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) in particular, affect the health of tribal women resulting in lack of interest in availing the institutional delivery services and other pertinent maternal health services.

  16. Is disability in leprosy still a burden? A cross-sectional study in a rural block in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Dinesh Kumar; Muthunarayanan, Logaraj

    2018-01-01

    Leprosy, a disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, is an important cause of preventable disability. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among leprosy-affected persons in a rural block in Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu, India in the year 2013. The sample included treatment completed leprosy affected persons ≥18 y of age. Persons with difficulty in cognition and those who were not willing to participate in the study were excluded. Subjects were also graded for any deformities of the body using World Health Organization (WHO) disability grading. The present study, carried out among 171 people affected with leprosy in a rural block, showed the lifetime prevalence of disability was 88.3% (95% confidence interval 83.4 to 93.1). The mean age of the study participants was 61.58±12.31 y with almost equal distribution of males (49.7%) and females (50.3%). WHO disability grading showed that 147 (86%) of the subjects were grade 2 (visible deformity) while only 4 (2.3%) were grade 1. It was found that education, occupation, income and duration since diagnosis had statistical significance with disability. Disability was observed more in males and the most common type of deformity was hand and foot deformity. Further studies are needed to assess those patients who completed treatment and recommends periodic neurological assessment of those in treatment.

  17. Crustal-scale tilting of the central Salton block, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Rebecca; Langenheim, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The southern San Andreas fault system (California, USA) provides an excellent natural laboratory for studying the controls on vertical crustal motions related to strike-slip deformation. Here we present geologic, geomorphic, and gravity data that provide evidence for active northeastward tilting of the Santa Rosa Mountains and southern Coachella Valley about a horizontal axis oriented parallel to the San Jacinto and San Andreas faults. The Santa Rosa fault, a strand of the San Jacinto fault zone, is a large southwest-dipping normal fault on the west flank of the Santa Rosa Mountains that displays well-developed triangular facets, narrow footwall canyons, and steep hanging-wall alluvial fans. Geologic and geomorphic data reveal ongoing footwall uplift in the southern Santa Rosa Mountains, and gravity data suggest total vertical separation of ∼5.0–6.5 km from the range crest to the base of the Clark Valley basin. The northeast side of the Santa Rosa Mountains has a gentler topographic gradient, large alluvial fans, no major active faults, and tilted inactive late Pleistocene fan surfaces that are deeply incised by modern upper fan channels. Sediments beneath the Coachella Valley thicken gradually northeast to a depth of ∼4–5 km at an abrupt boundary at the San Andreas fault. These features all record crustal-scale tilting to the northeast that likely started when the San Jacinto fault zone initiated ca. 1.2 Ma. Tilting appears to be driven by oblique shortening and loading across a northeast-dipping southern San Andreas fault, consistent with the results of a recent boundary-element modeling study.

  18. Eucalyptus water use greater than rainfall input - possible explanation from southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Calder

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological and silvicultural studies carried out in southern India on the effects of plantations of Eucalyptus and other fast growing exotic tree species have determined the impacts of these plantations on water resources, erosion, soil nutrient status and growth rates at sites of differing rainfall and soil depth in Karnataka. Whilst providing new information on these issues, the studies also raised two important questions: what was the explanation for the anomalous result that the water use of 3400 mm from Eucalyptus plantations at Hosakote over a three year period exceeded the rainfall of 2100 mm over the same period and why were growth rates of woodlots on most farmer's fields higher than those of plantations on land owned by the Karnataka Forest Department? The records of the soil moisture depletion patterns under these plantations from the day of planting provide the basis for the answers to both questions: i whilst roots are penetrating into deeper soil layers, they are able to extract from a reservoir of water additional to that available from the rainfall each year, ii farmer's land on which short rooted agricultural crops have been grown previously is likely to have a much higher soil water status than land previously under forest or scrub vegetation. These new studies have also established that the development of the drying front under the Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantations is very rapid, indicating average root extension rates in excess of 2.5 m per year, whilst those under Tectona grandis and Artocarpus heterophyllus advanced at approximately half the rate. These results have obvious implications for the long term sustainability of growth rates from these plantations and the recharge of groundwater. The authors believe that this study may be the first to report neutron probe soil moisture depletion observations, from the date of planting, beneath tree plantations in a dry climate. The extent to which the roots were able to

  19. Eucalyptus water use greater than rainfall input - possible explanation from southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, I. R.; Rosier, P. T. W.; Prasanna, K. T.; Parameswarappa, S.

    Hydrological and silvicultural studies carried out in southern India on the effects of plantations of Eucalyptus and other fast growing exotic tree species have determined the impacts of these plantations on water resources, erosion, soil nutrient status and growth rates at sites of differing rainfall and soil depth in Karnataka. Whilst providing new information on these issues, the studies also raised two important questions: what was the explanation for the anomalous result that the water use of 3400 mm from Eucalyptus plantations at Hosakote over a three year period exceeded the rainfall of 2100 mm over the same period and why were growth rates of woodlots on most farmer's fields higher than those of plantations on land owned by the Karnataka Forest Department? The records of the soil moisture depletion patterns under these plantations from the day of planting provide the basis for the answers to both questions: i) whilst roots are penetrating into deeper soil layers, they are able to extract from a reservoir of water additional to that available from the rainfall each year, ii) farmer's land on which short rooted agricultural crops have been grown previously is likely to have a much higher soil water status than land previously under forest or scrub vegetation. These new studies have also established that the development of the drying front under the Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantations is very rapid, indicating average root extension rates in excess of 2.5 m per year, whilst those under Tectona grandis and Artocarpus heterophyllus advanced at approximately half the rate. These results have obvious implications for the long term sustainability of growth rates from these plantations and the recharge of groundwater. The authors believe that this study may be the first to report neutron probe soil moisture depletion observations, from the date of planting, beneath tree plantations in a dry climate. The extent to which the roots were able to penetrate raises the

  20. Spatial and temporal estimation of runoff in a semi-arid microwatershed of Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejani, R; Rao, K V; Osman, M; Chary, G R; Pushpanjali; Reddy, K Sammi; Rao, Ch Srinivasa

    2015-08-01

    In a semi-arid microwatershed of Warangal district in Southern India, daily runoff was estimated spatially using Soil Conservation Service (SCS)-curve number (CN) method coupled with GIS. The groundwater status in this region is over-exploited, and precise estimation of runoff is very essential to plan interventions for this ungauged microwatershed. Rainfall is the most important factor governing runoff, and 75.8% of the daily rainfall and 92.1% of the rainy days which occurred were below 25 mm/day. The declines in rainfall and rainy days observed in recent years were 9.8 and 8.4%, respectively. The surface runoff estimated from crop land for a period of 57 years varied from 0 to 365 mm with a mean annual runoff of 103.7 mm or 14.1% of the mean annual rainfall. The mean annual runoff showed a significant reduction from 108.7 to 82.9 mm in recent years. The decadal variation of annual runoff from crop land over the years varied from 49.2 to 89.0% which showed the caution needed while planning watershed management works in this microwatershed. Among the four land use land cover conditions prevailing in the area, the higher runoff (20% of the mean annual rainfall) was observed from current fallow in clayey soil and lower runoff of 8.7% from crop land in loamy soil due to the increased canopy coverage. The drought years which occurred during recent years (1991-2007) in crop land have increased by 3.5%, normal years have increased by 15.6%, and the above normal years have decreased by 19.1%. This methodology can be adopted for estimating the runoff potential from similar ungauged watersheds with deficient data. It is concluded that in order to ensure long-term and sustainable groundwater utilization in the region, proper estimation of runoff and implementation of suitable water harvesting measures are the need of the hour.

  1. Accuracy of vision technicians in screening ocular pathology at rural vision centres of southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suram, Vasantha; Addepalli, Uday Kumar; Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Kovai, Vilas; Khanna, Rohit C

    2016-03-01

    There is paucity of data on the inter-observer agreement and diagnostic accuracy between a primary-care technician (vision technician) and an ophthalmologist. Hence, the current study was conducted to assess the accuracy of vision technicians, to screen potentially sight-threatening ocular conditions at rural vision centres of southern India and their agreement with an ophthalmologist. In July to August 2010, patients presenting to seven vision centres in Adilabad district (Andhra Pradesh) were selected and screened in a masked manner by seven vision technicians followed by an examination by a consultant ophthalmologist. Agreement was assessed between vision technicians and the ophthalmologist for screening of potential sight-threatening ocular conditions and decisions for referral. The ophthalmologist's findings were considered as the reference standard. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients were enrolled at seven vision centres with a mean age of 32.9 ± 21.8 years. Agreement for screening of ocular pathology was 0.82 (95 per cent CI, 0.8-0.83). There was excellent agreement for cataract (0.97; 95 per cent CI, 0.93-1), refractive error (0.98; 95 per cent CI, 0.96-1), corneal pathology (1.0; 95 per cent CI, 1.0-1.0) and other anterior segment pathology (0.95; 95 per cent CI, 0.9-1); the agreement was moderate to fair for detection of glaucoma suspects (0.43; 95 per cent CI, 0.28-0.60) and retinal pathology (0.39; 95 per cent CI, 0.14-0.63). Sensitivity for screening of anterior segment pathology was 94.6-100 per cent. There was a fair to moderate sensitivity for glaucoma suspect; 35.6 per cent (95 per cent CI, 21.9-51.2) and retinal pathology 26.3 per cent (95 per cent CI, 9.2-51.2). Specificity for screening of ocular pathology was 98.2 to 100 per cent. The kappa (κ) agreement for referral for any pathology was 0.82 (0.8-0.83) CONCLUSION: As there is good agreement between the vision technicians and the ophthalmologist for screening and referral of

  2. ECTOPIC CUSHING SYNDROME: A 10-YEAR EXPERIENCE FROM A TERTIARY CARE CENTER IN SOUTHERN INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyakumar, Samantha; Paul, Thomas Vizhalil; Asha, Hesargatta Shyamsunder; Gnanamuthu, Birla Roy; Paul, M J; Abraham, Deepak Thomas; Rajaratnam, Simon; Thomas, Nihal

    2017-08-01

    Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion is a less common cause of Cushing syndrome and is seen in 5 to 10% of cases with endogenous hypercortisolemia. We hereby describe our experience of patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome, who have been managed over the past 10 years at a tertiary care center in Southern India. The inpatient and outpatient records of patients from 2006 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical features, clinical history, biochemical values, imaging features, including radiologic findings and positron emission tomography scans, management, details of follow-up, and outcomes, were documented. We compared the biochemical findings in these patients with 20 consecutive patients with Cushing disease (Cushing syndrome of pituitary origin). A total of 21 patients were studied. The median age at presentation was 34 years (range, 19 to 55 years). Seven patients had thymic carcinoid, 7 had bronchial carcinoid, 3 had lung malignancies, 2 had medullary carcinoma thyroid, 1 patient had a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, and 1 patient had an occult source of ACTH. The most common clinical features at presentation were muscle weakness (95%), hyperpigmentation (90%), facial puffiness (76%), easy bruising (61%), edema (57%), and striae (52%). Extensive acne was seen in a large number of patients (43%). Only 3 patients (14%) had central obesity. The median 8 am cortisol was 55.5 μg/dL (range, 3.8 to 131 μg/dL), median 8 am ACTH was 207 pg/mL (range, 31.1 to 703 pg/mL), and the median 24-hour urinary free cortisol was 2,484 μg (range, 248 to 25,438 μg). Basal cortisol and ACTH, as well as midnight cortisol and ACTH level, were markedly higher in patients with ectopic Cushing syndrome as compared to patients with Cushing disease. Twelve of 21 patients had developed life-threatening infections by follow-up. Nine patients had undergone surgical intervention to address the primary tumor. However, only 1 patient exhibited a complete cure on

  3. Species and acoustic diversity of bats in a palaeotropical wet evergreen forest in southern India

    OpenAIRE

    Raghuram, H; Jain, M; Balakrishnan, R

    2014-01-01

    The Western Ghats of India is among the top 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world. About 43% of the reported 117 bat species in India are found in this region, but few quantitative studies of bat echolocation calls and diversity have been carried out here thus far. A quantitative study of bat diversity was therefore conducted using standard techniques, including mist-netting, acoustical and roost surveys in the wet evergreen forests of Kudremukh National Park in the Western Ghats of Karnataka...

  4. India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Interest has grown recently in the issues of third tier or emerging nuclear suppliers. These are states that could export nuclear equipment, services, or technology but are outside the export control framework of the London Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG). The concern is that they may conduct nuclear trade without adequate safeguards, thus weakening the nonproliferation regime or even contributing to nuclear proliferation. The volume of nuclear sales by emerging suppliers is still minuscule, and it is unclear how far their export practices will diverge from the NSG framework. This case study of Indian nuclear supplier capability and practice is an effort to discern the type of path India is likely to adopt. This paper examines four aspects of India's nuclear activity for clues to India's potential role as an emerging nuclear supplier: foreign transactions; nuclear decision making; policy norms; and nuclear industrial capabilities

  5. Paleomagnetic evidence for the continuity and independent movement of a distinct major crustal block in the southern Appalachians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellwood, B.B.

    1982-01-01

    The magnetization of 22 granitic and gneissic southern Appalachian rock units, with estimated cooling ages of 415--250 m.y., has been determined. Included are 842 samples from 114 sites within 19 granites (100 sites) and 3 gneisses (14 sites) located in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. Data for units which cooled to temperatures 0 C between 350--240 m.y., a period of apparently only slight North American plate motion, can be divided into two groups. A mean paleopole calculated for the first of these groups, group A (derived from six granites and gneisses 365--325 m.y. in age), located in the vicinity of Atlanta, Ga., is coincident with well-defined Lower Carboniferous North American paleopoles. Site paleolatitude is estimated to be approx.11 0 S. Group B granites (six units) range in age from 350--250 m.y., are located to the SE of an arc drawn from Columbia, S.C., through Athens, Ga., to Macon, Ga., are apparently anomalous, and lie in a crustal block >20,000 km 2 in size. A mean paleopole for this group, with corrections for maximum tilt estimates, exhibits good precision but has a paleosite latitude of approx.10 0 N. Without tilt correction the paleopole for group B still exhibits an anomalous paleosite latitude of approx.4 0 N. These data indicate that the group B block (Elberton-Sparta Crustal Block) lying to the SE has an apparent paleosite latitude corresponding to magnetization at a location to the north of the zone containing group A units

  6. Malaria outbreak in a non endemic tribal block of Balasore district, Orissa, India during summer season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, N; Marai, N; Dhal, K; Nayak, R N; Panigrahi, B K; Mallick, G; Ranjit, M; Kar, S K; Kerketta, A S

    2012-06-01

    A focal outbreak of malaria at Sialimal sub-centre of Balasore district of Orissa was reported during the month of March, 2010. Three villages of the above block were affected. Regional Medical Research Centre, Bhubaneswar has conducted an entomological survey and a central clinic simultaneously, with door to door household survey to identify the fever cases. Within a span of 18 days around 172 fever cases were reported with Slide Positivity Rate (SPR) of 24.4% and Pf % of 81%. The malaria epidemiological data of the sub-centre area for last three years indicates that the area is non endemic for malaria (API was 0.81). Entomological survey revealed the presence of three known vectors of malaria i.e. Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles annularis and Anopheles subpictus (local vector). Per Man Hour Density (PMHD) of these three species were 4.2, 2.8 and 10.8 respectively. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites were detected in two An. culicifacies, in one An. annularis and in one An. subpictus. Larval density of Anopheline mosquitoes per dip ranged between 12 to 20. The vectors were found to be resistant to DDT but susceptible to synthetic pyrethroid. With this finding necessary remedial measures were taken by the government to curtail the transmission.

  7. Dissociated reality vis-a-vis integrative planning of AYUSH in Maternal Health Program: A situational analysis in Jaleswar block of Balasore district of Odisha, India

    OpenAIRE

    Dehury, Ranjit Kumar; Chatterjee, Suhita Chopra

    2016-01-01

    Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions is one of the innovative components of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in the state of Odisha, India. In this study, an attempt was made to assess the potential of collocating AYUSH to improve maternal health services in tribal dominated Jaleswar block of the Balasore district. In addition, the study aimed at unearthing the underlying challenges and constraints in mainstreaming AYUSH and linking it with the Maternal...

  8. Quality of Life in Geriatric Population in a Community Development Block of Kishanganj, Bihar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somenath Ghosh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ageing universally affects individual, family, community and society with reduction in quality of life on chronologic, biological, social, and psychological dimensions. Aim and Objectives: The study was done to assess quality of life in physical, psychological, social and environmental domains among elderly population in relation to sociodemographic character. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among census population of 63 elderly individuals in Chanamana village, a community development block of Potia, Kishanganj, Bihar from 1st June –31st July 2014. By interview technique the quality of life was assessed using World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Mean score was computed and compared by Z -test and one-way ANOVA using SPSS software, version 19.0. Results: Among the study participants with alike gender distribution, majority (68.25% were in age group of 60-69 years, general caste (69.85%, joint family (84.12% and residing with their children (82.54%. Of them 47.62 percent were illiterates and 42.86 percent were still earning. The mean score in the distinct four domains had no significant difference in genders and age groups. Yet, residing with children and belonging to joint family were noted to be significantly improving the scores in all the four domains. Mean scores were also significantly superior in physical, psychological and environmental domains among persons who were married and had their own income. Conclusion: The study showed the quality of life within diverse domains among elderly population need to be addressed with certain socio-demographic factors (joint family, marital status, own earning and children accompanying the geriatric population.

  9. Assessment of groundwater quality from Bankura I and II Blocks, Bankura District, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, S. K.; Das, Shreya

    2017-10-01

    Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater has been conducted in Bankura I and II Blocks to analyze and determining groundwater quality in the area. Thirty-six groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. The constituents have the following ranges in the water: pH 6.4-8.6, electrical conductivity 80-1900 μS/cm, total hardness 30-730 mg/l, TDS 48-1001 mg/l, Ca2+ 4.2-222.6 mg/l, Na+ 2.33-103.33 mg/l, Mg2+ 1.56-115.36 mg/l, K+ 0.67-14 mg/l and Fe BDL-2.53 mg/l, {HCO}3^{ - } 48.8-1000.4 mg/l, Cl- 5.6-459.86 mg/l and {SO}4^{ = } BDL-99.03 mg/l. Results also show that bicarbonate ions ( {HCO}3^{ - } ) dominate the other anions (Cl- and {SO}4^{2 - } ). Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), total hardness (TH), and permeability index (PI) were calculated as derived parameters, to investigate the ionic toxicity. Concerned chemical parameters when plotted in the U.S. Salinity diagram indicate that waters are of C1-S1, C2-S1 and C3-S1 types, i.e., low salinity and low sodium which is good for irrigation. The values of Sodium Adsorption Ratio indicate that the groundwater of the area falls under the category of low sodium hazard. So, there is neither salinity nor toxicity problem of irrigation water, and hence the ground water can safely be used for long-term irrigation. The chemical parameters when plotted in Piper's trilinear diagram are found to concentrate in the central and west central part of the diamond-shaped field. Based on the analytical results, groundwater in the area is found to be generally fresh and hard to very hard. The abundance of the major ions is as follows: HCO3 > Cl > SO4 and Ca > Na > Mg > K > Fe. Results also show that bicarbonate ions ( {HCO}3^{ - } ) dominate the other anions (Cl- and {SO}4^{2 - } ). According to Gibbs diagrams samples fall in the rock dominance field and the chemical quality

  10. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Moolah, misfortune or spinsterhood? The plight of Slender Loris Loris lydekkerianus in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kanagavel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this communication, we document the local knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of slender lorises among the indigenous Kani community in the southern Western Ghats; document new records of Loris lydekkerianus lydekkerianus in the Agasthyamalai Hills; and discuss in detail a poorly known threat to these primates. Although not kept as pets due to their physical appearance, and belief that they would bring bad luck, the Kani community however captured slender lorises for wildlife photographers. Similar instances of loris abuse in various parts of south India were revealed upon analyzing photographs from a popular internet-based wildlife photography site. We recommend that strict guidelines be formulated for photographing lorises, and suggest that novel and ethical tourism initiatives be set up involving local communities to cater to wildlife photographers and tourists.

  11. Infection and acute respiratory distress syndrome during pregnancy: a case series of preventable maternal deaths from southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudeva, Akhila; Bhat, Rajeshwari G; Ramachandran, Amar; Kumar, Pratap

    2013-02-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is common among women admitted to obstetric intensive care units, and it contributes significantly, both directly and indirectly, to maternal deaths. We present a case series of ARDS in pregnant women caused by non-obstetric causes. The women were treated at a tertiary hospital in southern India. The striking features were delayed referral from the primary care unit and the lack of a primary diagnosis or treatment. Undiagnosed rheumatic heart disease, anemia, and malaria and H1N1 epidemics contributed to these cases of ARDS and maternal death. It is necessary to increase the awareness of evidence-based uniform protocols to tackle common medical complaints during pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Road kill of animals by highway traffic in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baskaran

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Highways passing through natural reserves have adverse impact on wild animals. We evaluated the road kill of vertebrate fauna by vehicular traffic on highways at Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, southern India. In a fortnight’s survey over 248km across three public roads and opportunistic sampling method, a minimum of 180 road kills belonging to 40 species of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals were recorded between December 1998 and March 1999. Amphibians were the most affected taxa (53% of road kills followed by reptiles (22%, mammals (18%; including a leopard (Panthera pardus and birds (7%. Amphibians and reptiles are slow to react to vehicles and this along with the drivers’ ignorance probably leads to higher mortality among these species. Road kills are significantly higher on highway stretches along rivers than those without water bodies nearby. We suggest the construction of flyovers, speed limits, speed breakers and signposts along the highways to reduce vehicle-caused wildlife mortalities.

  13. Examining the Determinants of Sexual Violence among Young, Married Women in Southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibber, Karuna S.; Krupp, Karl; Padian, Nancy; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of sexual violence is increasingly being studied in India. Yet the determinants of sexual violence, irrespective of physical violence, remain largely unexplored. Here the authors identify the determinants of sexual violence, and additionally, explore how the presence of physical violence modifies these determinants. A…

  14. Two additions to the flora of the Palni Hills, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Soosairaj

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hiptage parvifolia Wight & Arn. (Malpighiaceae and Kalanchoe olivacea Dalz. & Gibs. (Crassulaceae are collected and reported for the first time from the Palni hills of Western Ghats from Tamil Nadu, India. This paper provided a detailed taxonomic description, distribution, illustrations and photographs for their easy identification.

  15. Perception and prevalence of work-related health hazards among health care workers in public health facilities in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, Arasi; Anandh, Balasubramanian; Jayachandran, Palsamy; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Josephin, Diana; Yamini, Ravindran; Kalpana, Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Health care workers (HCWs) are exposed to occupational related health hazards. Measuring worker perception and the prevalence of these hazards can help facilitate better risk management for HCWs, as these workers are envisaged to be the first point of contact, especially in resource poor settings. To describe the perception of occupational health hazards and self-reported exposure prevalence among HCWs in Southern India. We used cross sectional design with stratified random sampling of HCWs from different levels of health facilities and categories in a randomly selected district in Southern India. Data on perception and exposure prevalence were collected using a structured interview schedule developed by occupational health experts and administered by trained investigators. A total of 482 HCWs participated. Thirty nine percent did not recognize work-related health hazards, but reported exposure to at least one hazard upon further probing. Among the 81·5% who reported exposure to biological hazard, 93·9% had direct skin contact with infectious materials. Among HCWs reporting needle stick injury, 70·5% had at least one in the previous three months. Ergonomic hazards included lifting heavy objects (42%) and standing for long hours (37%). Psychological hazards included negative feelings (20·3%) and verbal or physical abuse during work (20·5%). More than a third of HCWs failed to recognize work-related health hazards. Despite training in handling infectious materials, HCWs reported direct skin contact with infectious materials and needle stick injuries. RESULTS indicate the need for training oriented toward behavioral change and provision of occupational health services.

  16. Molecular characterization of Orientia tsutsugamushi serotypes causing scrub typhus outbreak in southern region of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, K; Kumar, E; Kalawat, Usha; Kumar, B Siddhartha; Chaudhury, A; Gopal, D V R Sai

    2016-10-01

    Scrub typhus is a vector-borne zoonotic infection caused by Orientiatsutsugamushi. Local epidemiology of the circulating serotypes of scrub typhus is not available from most parts of India. We conducted this study for the diagnosis of scrub typhus using IgM ELISA and to detect O. tsutsugamushi serotypes circulating in southern Andhra Pradesh, India. Samples were collected from patients clinically suspected to have scrub typhus and were subjected to IgM ELISA to measure IgM antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed targeting strain-specific regions in ELISA-positive samples. Of a total of 663 samples, 258 (38.91%) were found to be positive by IgM ELISA. Serotypes could be detected in 230 (34.69%) samples only. Only two serotypes, Karp and Kawasaki, were found in the serum samples, with the former being predominant. The dual infection of Karp and Kawasaki serotypes was found in seven patients. Other serotypes such as Gilliam, Kuroki and Kato were not detected in the samples. The nested PCR products proved useful in presumptively identifying the endemic O. tsutsugamushi serotypes. The present study could be significant in understanding scrub typhus epidemiology in this region.

  17. Terrestrial Macrofungal Diversity from the Tropical Dry Evergreen Biome of Southern India and Its Potential Role in Aerobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyamvada, Hema; Akila, M; Singh, Raj Kamal; Ravikrishna, R; Verma, R S; Philip, Ligy; Marathe, R R; Sahu, L K; Sudheer, K P; Gunthe, S S

    2017-01-01

    Macrofungi have long been investigated for various scientific purposes including their food and medicinal characteristics. Their role in aerobiology as a fraction of the primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs), however, has been poorly studied. In this study, we present a source of macrofungi with two different but interdependent objectives: (i) to characterize the macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome in southern India using advanced molecular techniques to enrich the database from this region, and (ii) to assess whether identified species of macrofungi are a potential source of atmospheric PBAPs. From the DNA analysis, we report the diversity of the terrestrial macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome robustly supported by the statistical analyses for diversity conclusions. A total of 113 macrofungal species belonging to 54 genera and 23 families were recorded, with Basidiomycota and Ascomycota constituting 96% and 4% of the species, respectively. The highest species richness was found in the family Agaricaceae (25.3%) followed by Polyporaceae (15.3%) and Marasmiaceae (10.8%). The difference in the distribution of commonly observed macrofungal families over this location was compared with other locations in India (Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, and West Bengal) using two statistical tests. The distributions of the terrestrial macrofungi were distinctly different in each ecosystem. We further attempted to demonstrate the potential role of terrestrial macrofungi as a source of PBAPs in ambient air. In our opinion, the findings from this ecosystem of India will enhance our understanding of the distribution, diversity, ecology, and biological prospects of terrestrial macrofungi as well as their potential to contribute to airborne fungal aerosols.

  18. Mobile Phone Usage and its Health Effects Among Adults in a Semi-Urban Area of Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalin, P; Abraham, Sherin Billy; Kanimozhy, K; Prasad, R Vishnu; Singh, Zile; Purty, Anil J

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, mobile phone usage has been increased dramatically which could affect the health of the people. India has the second largest number of mobile phone users. However there are only few studies conducted in India to assess its effects on health. To determine the prevalence and pattern of mobile phone usage and to assess the relationship between certain selected health problems and mobile phone usage among adults. Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Kottakuppam, a town panchayat in Villupuram district of Coastal Tamil Nadu, Southern India. It is a semi-urban area with a population of about 16,000. Majority of the residents are Muslim by religion and belong to different socio economic status. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. A total of 2121 study participants were interviewed by the pre-final medical students through house-to-house survey using a pretested structured questionnaire. The questionnaire included the variables such as socio demographic profile, mobile phone usage and pattern, selected health problems, perceived benefits and threats and blood pressure. Selected health problems included headache, earache, neck pain, tinnitus, painful fingers, restlessness, morning tiredness, tingling fingers, fatigue, eye symptoms, sleep disturbance and hypertension. Only 2054 were included for data analysis using SPSS 17 version. Proportions were calculated. Chi-square test was used to measure the p-value. The p-value phone usage was 70%. Calling facility (94.2%) was used more than the SMS (67.6%). Health problems like headache, earache, tinnitus, painful fingers and restlessness etc., were found to be positively associated with mobile phone usage. There was negative association between hypertension and mobile phone usage. The prevalence of mobile phone usage was high. There was significant association between selected health problems and mobile phone usage. In future, higher studies are required to confirm our

  19. Arsenic contamination of groundwater and its induced health effects in Shahpur block, Bhojpur district, Bihar state, India: risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Ahamed, Sad; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Pati, Shyamapada; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Shahpur block of Bhojpur district, Bihar state, India and its health effects such as dermal, neurological, obstetric effects, and cancer risk. The School of Environmental Studies (SOES) collected 4704 tube-well water samples from all 88 villages of Shahpur, which were analyzed for arsenic. We found 40.3 and 21.1 % of the tube-wells had arsenic above 10 and 50 μg/l, respectively, with maximum concentration of 1805 μg/l. The study shows that 75,000, 39,000, and 10,000 people could be exposed to arsenic-contaminated water greater than 10, 50, and 300 μg/l, respectively. Our medical team examined 1422 villagers from Shahpur and registered 161 (prevalence rate, 11.3 %) with arsenical skin lesions. Arsenical skin lesions were also observed in 29 children of 525 screened. We analyzed 579 biological samples (hair, nail, and urine) from Shahpur and found that 82, 89, and 91 % of hair, nail, and urine, respectively, had arsenic above the normal levels, indicating many people in the study area are sub-clinically affected. Arsenical neuropathy was observed in 48 % of 102 arsenicosis patients. The study also found that arsenic exposed women with severe skin lesions had adversely affected their pregnancies. The carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks were also estimated based on the generated data. Safe drinking water supply is urgently required to combat arsenic situation in affected villages of Shahpur.

  20. Impact of sub-horizontal discontinuities and vertical heterogeneities on recharge processes in a weathered crystalline aquifer in southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Madeleine; Selles, Adrien; Bour, Olivier; Maréchal, Jean-Christophe; Crenner, Marion; Wajiduddin, Mohammed; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2017-04-01

    In the face of increasing demands for irrigated agriculture, many states in India are facing water scarcity issues, leading to severe groundwater depletion. Because perennial water resources in southern India consist mainly of crystalline aquifers, understanding how recharge takes place and the role of preferential flow zones in such heterogeneous media is of prime importance for successful and sustainable aquifer management. Here we investigate how vertical heterogeneities and highly transmissive sub-horizontal discontinuities may control groundwater flows and recharge dynamics. Recharge processes in the vadose zone were examined by analysing the propagation of an infiltration front and mass transfers resulting from the implementation of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) structure. Said structure was set up in the Experimental Hydrogeological Park in Telangana (Southern India), a well-equipped and continuously monitored site, which is periodically supplied with surface water deviated from the nearby Musi river, downstream of Hyderabad. An initial volume balance equation was applied to quantify the overall inputs from the MAR structure into the groundwater system, which was confirmed using a chloride mass balance approach. To understand how this incoming mass is then distributed within the aquifer, we monitored the evolution of water volumes in the tank, and the resulting lateral propagation front observed in the surrounding borehole network. Borehole logs of temperature and conductivity were regularly performed to identify preferential flow paths. As a result we observed that mass transfers take place in the way of preferential lateral flow through the most transmissive zones of the profile. These include the interface between the lower portion of the upper weathered horizon (the saprolite) and the upper part of the underlying fissured granite, as well as the first flowing fractures. This leads to a rapid lateral transfer of recharge, which allows quick

  1. Relationship between mobility, violence and major depression among female sex workers: a cross-sectional study in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sangram Kishor; Ganju, Deepika; Prabhakar, Parimi; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra

    2016-09-09

    The relationship between mobility, violence and mental health has largely been unexplored in developing countries. This study screens for signs of major depression, and assesses its association with mobility and violence among female sex workers (FSWs) in southern India. Data (N=2400) for this study were used from a cross-sectional Behavioral Tracking Survey (BTS-2014) conducted among FSWs from a southern state of India as part of the Avahan programme. Major depression of FSWs was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 depression scale. Descriptive statistics, frequency, bivariate, interaction effect and multivariate logistic regression techniques were used for the analysis. More than one-fourth of FSWs (29%) screened positive for major depression. The likelihood of screening positive for major depression was 6 times higher among FSWs who were both mobile for sex work outside their district of residence and had experienced any violence (combined association) during the past 1 year (62% vs 19%, adjusted OR 6.1, 95% CI 4.4 to 8.6) compared with those who reported neither. The individual association results show that FSWs who reported being mobile outside the district, and FSWs who were beaten or raped in the past 1 year, were 3 times more likely to screen positive for major depression. The findings indicate that violence and mobility are independently associated with major depression among FSWs. The combined association of mobility and violence poses a greater risk to the mental health of FSWs than their independent association. These results point to the need for creating an enabling environment for FSWs to enhance existing efforts to reduce the spread of HIV and mental health problems. The study highlights that HIV prevention efforts among FSWs in India require evidence-based research and integrated programme approaches to address mental health issues. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  2. New SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages of the metapelitic granulites from NW of Madurai, Southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, D.

    2010-01-01

    Zircon cathodoluminescent imaging and SHRIMP U-Pb dating were carried out for metapelitic rocks (sapphirine-hearing granulites and garnet-cordierite gneisses) from the NW of Madurai, Southern India. The cathodoluminescence images reveal the complex, inhomogeneous internal structure having irregular-shaped core and overgrowths. Zircon grains have obliterated oscillatory zoning. SHRIMP U-Pb chronological results yield ages of 550 ± 15 Ma and 530 ± 50 Ma as a time of metamorphic overprint, and the age of 2509 ± 12 Ma and 2509 ± 30 Ma corresponding to a timing of protolith formation for sapphirine-bearing granulites and garnet-cordierite gneisses respectively. Zircon ages reflect that continental crust in the NW of Madurai region resulted from the recycling of Archaean protolith of an igneous origin similar to the preserved crust in the southern part of Dharwar craton. The present SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages are in close agreement with earlier published Nd isotopic data which suggest an extended precrustal history of their protoliths. The abraded zircon grains indicate multiple recycling and repeated metamorphism that has ultimately resulted in present day continental crust exposed in Madurai region. These SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages from metapelitic UHT granulites are also significant to understanding the architecture of the SGT during the amalgamation of Gondwana in Neoproterozoic time. (author)

  3. Gastrointestinal parasitic infection in diverse species of domestic ruminants inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, S L; Jaroli, V J

    2013-10-01

    A total of 415 adult domesticated ruminants, 130 cattle (Bos taurus), 108 buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), 94 goats (Capra hircus) and 83 sheep (Ovis aries) inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern Rajasthan, India were investigated for evidence of gastrointestinal protozoan and helminthic infections. In southern Rajasthan humid ecosystem is predominant and has number of perennial freshwater bodies. Fresh faecal samples of these animals were examined microscopically by direct wet smear with saline and 1 % Lugol's iodine and formalin ether concentration. Of these 296 (71.32 %) were found to be infected with different species of gastrointestinal parasites. The highest (93.84 %) prevalence of these parasitic infections was found in cattle followed by goats (82.97 %), sheep (55.42 %) and buffaloes (46.29 %). Except cattle no other ruminants revealed protozoan infection. A total 8 species of gastrointestinal parasites were encountered. Among these parasites Fasciola hepatica was the commonest (15.18 %) followed by Haemonchus contortus (11.32 %), Ancylostoma duodenale (10.36 %), Trichuris trichiura (9.15 %), Amphistome species (7.95 %), Moniezia expansa (6.98 %), Strongyloides stercoralis (4.57 %) and Balantidium coli (3.37 %). The prevalence rate of these parasitic infections also varied seasonally. The highest prevalence rate was found in rainy season (84.21 %) followed by winter (73.9 %) and summer (52.8 %). The possible causes for variation in prevalence of parasitic infections are also discussed.

  4. An evaluation of major placer minerals along the Valinokkam - Tuticorin coast, southern Tamil Nadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Cherian, A.; Chandrasekar, N.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Gujar, A.R.

    scientific advancements. The recent liberalisations of economic measures by the government of India and the exemption of certain minerals from the purview of mineral act have greatly enhanced the market potential of natural resources. Many private... of its resistive nature to rutile conversion. If the ilmenite along the study area is susceptible to rutile conversion, this material can be exploited and put up for sale in the market in the form of synthetic rutile. The separation of ilmenite...

  5. Rediscovery of Berberis nilghiriensis Ahrendt (Berberidaceae from Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Ramachandran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The critically endangered Berberis nilghiriensis Ahrendt, endemic to the Nilgiri hills in South India is rediscovered after 140 years, with three extant populations of ca. 25 individuals in the Nilgiri hills. Taxonomic treatment along with threat status, ecology, and economic uses are provided and urgent conservation is suggested to prevent its local extinction as the species is exposed to continued anthropogenic disturbances.

  6. Linking the southern West Junggar terrane to the Yili Block: Insights from the oldest accretionary complexes in West Junggar, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Rong; Han, Bao-Fu; Guan, Shu-Wei; Liu, Bo; Wang, Zeng-Zhen

    2018-06-01

    West Junggar is known to tectonically correlate with East Kazakhstan; however, the tectonic link of the southern West Junggar terrane to adjacent regions still remains uncertain. Here, we examined the oldest accretionary complexes, thus constraining its tectonic evolution and link during the Early-Middle Paleozoic. They have contrasting lithologic, geochemical, and geochronological features and thus, provenances and tectonic settings. The Laba Unit was derived from the Late Ordovician-Early Devonian continental arc system (peaking at 450-420 Ma) with Precambrian substrate, which formed as early as the Early Devonian and metamorphosed during the Permian; however, the Kekeshayi Unit was accumulated in an intra-oceanic arc setting, and includes the pre-Late Silurian and Late Silurian subunits with or without Precambrian sources. Integrated with the regional data, the southern West Junggar terrane revealed a tectonic link to the northern Yili Block during the Late Silurian to Early Devonian, as suggested by the comparable Precambrian zircon age spectra between the southern West Junggar terrane and the micro-continents in the southern Kazakhstan Orocline, the proximal accumulation of the Laba Unit in the continental arc atop the Yili Block, and the sudden appearance of Precambrian zircons in the Kekeshayi Unit during the Late Silurian. This link rejects the proposals of the southern West Junggar terrane as an extension of the northern Kazakhstan Orocline and the Middle Paleozoic amalgamation of West Junggar. A new linking model is thus proposed, in which the southern West Junggar terrane first evolved individually, and then collided with the Yili Block to constitute the Kazakhstan continent during the Late Silurian. The independent and contrasting intra-oceanic and continental arcs also support the Paleozoic archipelago-type evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt.

  7. Clinico-epidemiological profile of malaria: Analysis from a primary health centre in Karnataka, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Kamath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria continues to be a major public health problem in India and worldwide. The present study was based on records from a primary health centre in Karnataka. Morbidity patterns and important features of malaria transmission specific to Udupi district were investigated. The incidence of malaria and various morbidity patterns during 2010 and 2011 were compared and analyzed. Factors such as rapid urbanization, increased construction activities and influx of migratory workers were highlighted as the leading causes for the advent of malaria in the area. Recommendations have been provided for implementation in the near future.

  8. Clinico-epidemiological profile of malaria: Analysis from a primary health centre in Karnataka, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Kamath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria continues to be a major public health problem in India and worldwide. The present study was based on records from a primary health centre in Karnataka. Morbidity patterns and important features of malaria transmission specific to Udupi district were investigated. The incidence of malaria and various morbidity patterns during 2010 and 2011 were compared and analyzed. Factors such as rapid urbanization, increased construction activities and influx of migratory workers were highlighted as the leading causes for the advent of malaria in the area. Recommendations have been provided for implementation in the near future.

  9. Cefotaximase and AmpC-producing Shigella flexneri in case of dysentery from southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Oommen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea and dysentery caused by Shigella spp. are major public health concerns. Emerging multidrug resistance (MDR in this pathogen further complicates this disease. Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs have been described in this pathogen, which significantly compromises the treatment options for shigellosis. The usual ESBLs seen are sulfhydryl variable (SHV-type; cefotaximases (CTX-M are very uncommonly detected. Here, we report a CTX-M type and AmpC-producing Shigella flexneri from a three-year-old boy residing in Central Kerala, South India.

  10. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    This discussion of India focuses on the following: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population with development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. India's government views the population problem in the country as extremely serious particularly in relation to the alleviation of poverty. It was the 1st country to introduce a family planning program at the national level. Development plans have consistently treated the population situation as a priority issue. A relatively comprehensive system of data collection for demographic purposes has existed in India for a long time. The 1st census was conducted in 1872. The government has continually worked to maintain the integration of population concerns within overall development planning. The government regards population growth as an impediment to development and views the slow growth in per capita income as being due largely to the rapid population increase which continues to outpace the increases in the gross national product. The government perceives the current rate of population growth as unsatisfactory because it is too high. Mortality levels have dropped considerably, but the government still considers the situation with regard to mortality as unacceptable. In 1980 the UN estimated the infant mortality rate was 128.9 infant deaths/1000 live births for the 1975-80 period. The total fertility rate, as estimated by the UN, is reported to have dropped from 6.3 births per woman in 1960 to 6.0 in 1970 and 5.0 in 1980. The government has continuously indicated concern with fertility levels, perceiving the situation as unsatisfactory because its

  11. The Origin of the Chinese Central Tianshan Block in the Southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from Detrital Zircon Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z.; Long, X.; Yuan, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Chinese Central Tianshan Block (CTB) is one of the oldest continental fragments in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Although it is vital for understanding the evolution of the CAOB, its origin has been poorly studied. The CTB was previously suggested to have been originated from the North China, the South China, the Tarim cratons or the East European Craton (Baltica). A total of 165 concordant U-Pb and Hf isotopic analyses of detrital zircon are obtained from three meta-sediments in the CTB, including one meta-sandstone from Xingxingxia formation and one meta-sandstone as well as one quartzite from Kawabulake formation. Detrital zircon grains from the Xingxingxia and Kawabulake formations are dominated by respective youngest age populations at 1002 Ma and 930-960 Ma, providing constraints on the maximum depositional ages for these two formations. Zircon grains from the meta-sediments have very similar age distributions, with two dominant peaks at 0.93-1.0 Ga and 1.0-1.6 Ga and a minor peak at 2.3-2.7 Ga. They have similar Hf isotopic signatures, suggesting that the meta-sediments in the CTB share similar sedimentary provenance. The early Neoproterozoic detrital zircon grains are mainly local-derived, whereas the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic grains are both autochthonous and allochthonous. The occurrence of these Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic zircon grains are coincident with the Nuna breakup and the Rodinia assembly. This suggests that the CTB might experience the tectonic switching of the Nuna to the Rodinia. The distinct Meso-Neoproterozoic age patterns and Hf isotopic compositions of these detrital grains from the CTB and the surrounding blocks indicate that the CTB was not located close to the North China, the South China or the Tarim cratons in Precambrian. Our new data suggest that the CTB was most likely once a part of the East European Craton before the Neoproterozoic. This study was supported by National Basic Research Program of China

  12. Non-codified traditional medicine practices from Belgaum Region in Southern India: present scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional medicine in India can be classified into codified (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy) and non-codified (folk medicine) systems. Both the systems contributing equally to the primary healthcare in India. The present study is aimed to understand the current scenario of medicinal practices of non-codified system of traditional medicine in Belgaum region, India. Methods The study has been conducted as a basic survey of identified non-codified traditional practitioners by convenience sampling with semi structured, open ended interviews and discussions. The learning process, disease diagnosis, treatment, remuneration, sharing of knowledge and socio-demographic data was collected, analysed and discussed. Results One hundred and forty traditional practitioners were identified and interviewed for the present study. These practitioners are locally known as “Vaidya”. The study revealed that the non-codified healthcare tradition is practiced mainly by elderly persons in the age group of 61 years and above (40%). 73% of the practitioners learnt the tradition from their forefathers, and 19% of practitioners developed their own practices through experimentation, reading and learning. 20% of the practitioners follow distinctive “Nadi Pariksha” (pulse examination) for disease diagnosis, while others follow bodily symptoms and complaints. 29% of the traditional practitioners do not charge anything, while 59% practitioners receive money as remuneration. Plant and animal materials are used as sources of medicines, with a variety of preparation methods. The preference ranking test revealed higher education and migration from villages are the main reasons for decreasing interest amongst the younger generation, while deforestation emerged as the main cause of medicinal plants depletion. Conclusion Patrilineal transfer of the knowledge to younger generation was observed in Belgaum region. The observed resemblance in disease diagnosis, plant collection and

  13. Support Networks among micro entrepreneurial women: comparison between Bangladesh, India and the Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Sato

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microcredit has been seen as a way of helping low-income people, primarily women, to survive, by giving them independence and the resources to create their own businesses. Low-income people have the support of social networks that allow their members to assist each other morally, economically and by sharing information. They also share experiences that make it easier to obtain the income needed for survival. Through their social networks and social capital the poor can use the tools provided by microcredits to improve their living conditions. This document compares the ways in which women in three countries associate, and use microcredits. The countries involved are India, Bangladesh and the South of Mexico.

  14. Assessment of sedimentation rate and hydrodynamics of Vembanad lagoon, Southern India, using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Noble; Joseph, T.B.; Hari Kumar, P.S.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are natural ecosystems that contribute to flood mitigation, fish and wildlife habitat protection and natural retention of pollutants and nutrients. Despite the importance, wetlands all over the world are undergoing severe degradation in the recent years, because of pollution and human interventions. Hydrology and water quality are the important factors controlling the ecological processes of wetlands and their understanding is essential for the wetlands restoration and management. Vembanad Lagoon, a major component of the Vembanad wetland system, is one of the largest coastal ecosystems in the southwestern part of India. Currently, it is facing numerous problems such as water quality deterioration due to ingression of saltwater, heavy metal contamination, weed infestation etc. and sedimentation due to large scale reclamation, intensive agriculture practices together with deforestation in its catchments. Hence, an isotope investigation was carried out to assess the sedimentation rate, pollution levels in sediments and hydrodynamics of Vembanad Lagoon

  15. Management practices followed for draught cattle in the southern part of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akila, Natarajan; Chander, Mahesh

    2010-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine the management practices followed by the farmers for draught cattle in Tamil Nadu state, India. Methods of procurement of animals, use of female animals, breeds preferred, housing, health, disposal of animals, feeding, shoeing, purchase of animal-drawn implements and their maintenance were all assessed with 210 farmers from seven districts across different agro-climatic zones in Tamil Nadu. The results revealed that 86 % of the respondents purchased the draught cattle from the livestock markets, most were bullocks but 20 small farmers and 5 medium farmers used female animals for ploughing. Among the indigenous breeds, Kangeyam (33 %) and Hallikar (30 %) breeds were the most popular for work. Most farmers (69 %) provided a mixed type of housing (provision of housing only during the night time and the rainy season) for their draught cattle. The major health problem reported by 63 % of respondents was pyrexia. Almost all farmers sold their animals at the age of 8-10 years. The feeding practices for draught cattle were poor especially with the small farmers. The cattle were fed with mainly paddy straw and rice bran. Oilcakes and cotton seeds were given to the animals which work throughout the year mainly for ploughing and carting. The draught cattle were first shod at around 2.5 years of age. The majority of the farmers (71 %) used the traditional animal-drawn implements made by local artisans, and the farmers were not aware of the new implements to reduce the drudgery of work cattle, designed by the Agricultural Machinery Research Centre and Agricultural Engineering Departments located in India.

  16. Isotopic signature of Pan-African rejuvenation in the Kerala Khondalite belt, southern India: implications for east Gondwana reassembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan Warrier, C.

    1997-01-01

    Sm-Nd isotope systematics on mineral separates from sillimanite-and cordierite-bearing metapelite (khondalite), and garnet-and biotite-bearing gneiss (leptynite) from the Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB), southern India, yielded mineral isochron ages (wr-feld-bio-gar) of 537±27 Ma (MSWD=0.9) and 534±26 Ma (MSWD=1.23) respectively. Rb-Sr systematics in the same samples gave wr-feld-bio mineral isochron ages of 437±9 Ma (MSWD=0.67) and 467±9 Ma (MSWD=0.76). These results provide the first mineral isochron ages for the regional metasedimentaries in the KKB. The ε (Nd T) values at 550 Ma for khondalite and leptynite are -22.7 and -21.8 respectively. These results demonstrate a complete rejuvenation of the crust during Pan-African times. Coeval alkaline plutons emplaced along fault-lineaments in this area suggest an extensional tectonic regime. Geochronologic correlations with the Lutzow-Holm bay complexes in east Antarctica, and the highland and southwestern complex of Sri Lanka show that a similar Pan-African tectono-thermal event manifested in all the east Gondwana crustal fragments. (author)

  17. On the Behaviour, abundance, habitat use and potential threats of the Gangetic Dolphin Platanista gangetica in southern West Bengal, India

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    Mahua Roy Chowdhury

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ganga River Dolphin Platanista gangetica Roxburgh, 1801 is a globally endangered cetacean found in the River system of Ganga, Brahmaputra and Meghna in Bangladesh and India.  A survey and research were conducted from 2012–2014 to explore the behaviour, abundance, habitat use and potential threats of the Dolphin in the lower, middle and upper stretches of the river Ganga and its tributaries in southern West Bengal.  The study recorded different types of surfacing patterns with respect to their age class as well as on diurnal activity pattern of the individual. The adults and sub-adults were found to have different types of surfacing during different hours of the day.  The morning and afternoon were observed to be feeding hours of the Dolphin.  Multiple potential threats were encountered during the present study such as destructive fishing gears, dumping of solid and municipal waste, industrial effluents, agricultural run-off, construction of water structures, water extraction and reduction of river depth attributed to siltation.  These factors contributed to the present study of the river dolphins in the Ganga, which are localised at certain pockets in good number.  

  18. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF Paracalyx scariosus (ROXB. ALI A WILD RELATIVE OF CAJANUS FROM SOUTHERN PENINSULAR INDIA

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    Kondragunta Sri Rama Murthy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Paracalyx scariosus (Roxb. Ali locally known as ";;adavi tellakandulu";; in Telugu, used as food by local tribes people in the Rollapenta forest, Kurnool district, Nallamalais of Andhra Pradesh of southern Peninsular India. The mature seed samples were analysed for proximate composition, total (true seed protein fractions, amino acid composition, fatty acids profile, mineral and antinutritional factors. They contained higher amount of crude protein, crude fat, ash and nitrogen free extractives constitute 20.56, 5.19, 5.12 and 56.25 % respectively of the seed weight. The calorific value of 100g dry matter of seed material was 1680.92 kJ DM. The essential amino acids, isoleucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine, were present in relatively large quantities.  The fatty acid profiles revealed that the seed lipids contained higher concentrations of palmitic and linoleic acids. The seeds are rich in sodium, phosphorus, calcium, zinc, manganese and iron. Anti-nutritional factors such as total free phenols, (5.56% tannins (2.78%, L -DOPA (0.63%, hydrogen cyanide (0.065% and phytic acid (0.85% are present in variable quantities. From the results these plant have a good potential as food crops in Andhra Pradesh.  This paper presents the chemical composition and nutritional potential of Paracalyx scariosus seeds with regard to its suitability as a regular component in human diet.

  19. Effectiveness of Membrane Filtration to Improve Drinking Water: A Quasi-Experimental Study from Rural Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Mark Rohit; Sarkar, Rajiv; Roy, Sheela; Jaffar, Shabbar; Mohan, Venkata Raghava; Kang, Gagandeep; Balraj, Vinohar

    2016-11-02

    Since point-of-use methods of water filtration have shown limited acceptance in Vellore, southern India, this study evaluated the effectiveness of decentralized membrane filtration 1) with safe storage, 2) without safe storage, versus 3) no intervention, consisting of central chlorination as per government guidelines, in improving the microbiological quality of drinking water and preventing childhood diarrhea. Periodic testing of water sources, pre-/postfiltration samples, and household water, and a biweekly follow up of children less than 2 years of age was done for 1 year. The membrane filters achieved a log reduction of 0.86 (0.69-1.06), 1.14 (0.99-1.30), and 0.79 (0.67-0.94) for total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli, respectively, in field conditions. A 24% (incidence rate ratio, IRR [95% confidence interval, CI] = 0.76 [0.51-1.13]; P = 0.178) reduction in diarrheal incidence in the intervention village with safe storage and a 14% (IRR [95% CI] = 1.14 [0.75-1.77]; P = 0.530) increase in incidence for the intervention village without safe storage versus no intervention village was observed, although not statistically significant. Microbiologically, the membrane filters decreased fecal contamination; however, provision of decentralized membrane-filtered water with or without safe storage was not protective against childhood diarrhea. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Evaluation of Bacillus spp. as dough starters for Adhirasam - A traditional rice based fermented food of Southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisha, Anvar Hussain Noorul; Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon Woo; Gandhi, Pandiyan Indira; Gopal, Nellaiappan Olaganathan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adhirasam is a cereal based, doughnut shaped, deep fried dessert consumed in the southern regions of India. The dough used to prepare adhirasam is fermented and contains rice flour and jaggery. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cultivable bacteria associated with this fermented dough and to identify a suitable starter culture for the production of quality adhirasam. In total, one hundred and seventy bacterial isolates were recovered from de Man Rogosa Sharp (MRS) agar, nutrient agar, lysogeny agar and tryptic soy agar media. Out of the 170 bacterial isolates, sixteen isolates were selected based on their ability to tolerate glucose and sucrose. All the bacterial isolates tolerated 15% glucose and 30% sucrose. Analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequences of the bacterial isolates showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria were members of the genus Bacillus. These strains were further used as starters and tested for their ability to ferment rice flour with jaggery to produce adhirasam dough. Organoleptic evaluation was carried out to choose the best starter strain. Adhirasam prepared from Bacillus subtilis isolates S4-P11, S2-G2-A1 and S1-G15, Bacillus tequilensis isolates S2-H16, S3-P9, S3-G10 and Bacillus siamensis isolate S2-G13 were highly acceptable to consumers. Adhirasam prepared using these starter cultures had superior product characteristics such as softness in texture, flavor and enhanced aroma and sweet taste. PMID:26691480

  1. Decadal changes in the land use/land cover and shoreline along the coastal districts of southern Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, A; Balaji, R

    2015-07-01

    The coastal zone along the districts of Surat, Navsari, and Valsad in southern Gujarat, India, is reported to be facing serious environmental challenges in the form of shoreline erosion, wetland loss, and man-made encroachments. This study assesses the decadal land use/ land cover (LULC) changes in these three districts for the years 1990, 2001, and 2014 using satellite datasets of Landsat TM, ETM, and OLI. The LULC changes are identified by using band ratios as a pre-classification step, followed by implementation of hybrid classification (a combination of supervised and unsupervised classification). An accuracy assessment is carried out for each dataset, and the overall accuracy ranges from 90 to 95%. It is observed that the spatial extents of aquaculture, urban built-up, and barren classes have appreciated over time, whereas the coverage of mudflats has depreciated due to rapid urbanization. The changes in the shoreline of these districts have also been analyzed for the same years, and significant changes are found in the form of shoreline erosion. The LULC maps prepared as well as the shoreline change analysis done for this study area will enable the local decision makers to adopt better land-use planning and shoreline protection measures, which will further aid in sustainable future developments in this region.

  2. Environmental radiation and potential ecological risk levels in the intertidal zone of southern region of Tamil Nadu coast (HBRAs), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punniyakotti, J; Ponnusamy, V

    2018-02-01

    Natural radioactivity content and heavy metal concentration in the intertidal zone sand samples from the southern region of Tamil Nadu coast, India, have been analyzed using gamma ray spectrometer and ICP-OES, respectively. From gamma spectral analysis, the average radioactivity contents of 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K in the intertidal zone sand samples are 12.13±4.21, 59.03±4.26, and 197.03±26.24Bq/kg, respectively. The average radioactivity content of 232 Th alone is higher than the world average value. From the heavy metal analysis, the average Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations are 3.1, 80.24, 82.84, 23.66, 91.67, and 137.07ppm, respectively. The average Cr and Ni concentrations are lower, whereas other four metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) concentrations are higher than world surface rock average values. From pollution assessment parameter values, the pollution level is "uncontaminated to moderately contaminated" in the study area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A three year retrospective study on the increasing trend in seroprevalence of dengue infection from southern Odisha, India

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    Sanghamitra Padhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In Odisha, several cases of dengue virus infection were detected for the first time in 2010, the importance of dengue as a serious mosquito-borne viral infection was felt only in 2011 with the reporting of many more positive cases. This retrospective three year study was done to find out the seroprevalence of dengue Ig m0 antibody and to know the predominant serotype of dengue virus among the patients suspected to have dengue virus infection in a tertiary care hospital in southern Odisha, India. Methods: Blood samples from clinically suspected dengue cases admitted in the Medicine and Paediatrics departments of a tertiary care hospital were collected. These were processed for detection of dengue specific IgM antibody, carried out by the ELISA method. Dengue IgM antibody positive serum samples were tested for serotypic identification. Results: o0 f the 5102 samples tested, 1074 (21.05 % were positive for dengue IgM. Maximum numbers of cases were found in 2012. Majority (47.86 % of cases were detected in the month of September. The most common affected age group was 11 to 20 yr. DENV1 and DENV2 were the detected serotypes. Interpretation & conclusions: Rapid increase in the dengue cases in 2012 became a public health concern as majority of cases were affecting the young adolescents. Most of the cases were reported in post-monsoon period indicating a need for acceleration of vector control programmes prior to arrival of monsoon.

  4. The soil moisture regimes beneath forest and an agricultural crop in southern India--Measurement and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, R.J.; Hall, R.L.; Swaminath, M.H.; Murthy, K.V.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental effects of plantations of fast growing tree species has been a subject of some controversy in recent years. Extensive soil moisture measurements were made at three sites in Karnataka, southern India. At each site measurements were made beneath a number of vegetation types. These included fast growing tree species (Eucalyptus, Casuarina and Leucaena), degraded natural forest and an agricultural crop (ragi). The measurements indicate that beneath mature forest the available soil water is exhausted towards the end of the dry season, usually by March. The soil only becomes completely wetted if the subsequent monsoon has above average rainfall; during the weak monsoon of 1989 the soil remained approximately 150 mm below field capacity. After the monsoon (and during breaks in the monsoon) soil moisture depletion is between three and five mm per day. This rate decreases as the soil drys out. All the mature forest types show a similar soil water regime. This contrasts strongly with that of the agricultural crop, which shows much smaller changes. A range of soil water accounting models was applied to these data. The most successful are those which use the Penman formulation to estimate the potential evaporation and include a two-layer soil water depletion model. The more general Penman-Monteith formulation was also tested

  5. Molecular evidence for the occurrence of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus on chayote (Sechium edule) in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendran, K; Mohankumar, S; Mohammed Faisal, P; Bagewadi, B; Karthikeyan, G

    2017-12-01

    During 2012-2014, mosaic disease on chayote in the farmers field of Kodaikanal region (high altitude zone) of Tamil Nadu was observed. The disease was characterized with severe mosaic, cupping and enation on leaves with reduced fruit size. Disease was found to causes an yield loss of more than 60% with the maximum disease incidence of 100% for the past 5 years consecutively. Preliminary serological and molecular screening indicated the association of begomovirus with the disease. Complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of DNA A revealed the identity of the virus as tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV). In recombination analysis study, the major parent was identified as ToLCNDV from Pakistan infecting tomato. Thus the present finding confirms expansion of new geographical region and host for ToLCNDV causing mosaic disease on chayote from Tamil Nadu. To our knowledge this is the first confirmed report for the occurrence of ToLCNDV on chayote in southern India.

  6. Spectrum of ocular firework injuries in children: A 5-year retrospective study during a festive season in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Deepa; Philip, Swetha Sara; Mittal, Rashmi; John, Sheeja Susan; Paul, Padma

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is a major cause of acquired monocular blindness in children. Firework injuries account for 20% of ocular trauma. The purpose of our study was to document the profile of ocular firework injuries in children during the festive season of Diwali and to determine the prevalence of unilateral blindness in them. A retrospective chart analysis of ocular firework injury in children during the festival of Diwali from 2009 to 2013, conducted in a tertiary care eye center in Tamil Nadu, Southern India. Children below 18 years of age with ocular firework injuries who presented to the emergency department for 3 consecutive days - the day of Diwali, 1 day before, and 1 day after Diwali - were included in this study. Eighty-four children presented with firework-related ocular injuries during the study period. Male to female ratio was 4:1 with mean age 9.48 ± 4 years. Forty-four percentage required hospitalization. The prevalence of unilateral blindness in children due to fireworks was found to be 8% (95% confidence interval - 2-13%). Vision 2020 gives high priority to avoidable blindness, especially in children. In our study, for every 12 children who presented with firecracker injury, one resulted in unilateral blindness. This is an avoidable cause of blindness. Awareness needs to be created, and changes in policy regarding sales and handling of firecrackers including mandatory use of protective eyewear should be considered.

  7. Spectrum of ocular firework injuries in children: A 5-year retrospective study during a festive season in Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa John

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ocular trauma is a major cause of acquired monocular blindness in children. Firework injuries account for 20% of ocular trauma. The purpose of our study was to document the profile of ocular firework injuries in children during the festive season of Diwali and to determine the prevalence of unilateral blindness in them. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart analysis of ocular firework injury in children during the festival of Diwali from 2009 to 2013, conducted in a tertiary care eye center in Tamil Nadu, Southern India. Children below 18 years of age with ocular firework injuries who presented to the emergency department for 3 consecutive days - the day of Diwali, 1 day before, and 1 day after Diwali - were included in this study. Results: Eighty-four children presented with firework-related ocular injuries during the study period. Male to female ratio was 4:1 with mean age 9.48 ± 4 years. Forty-four percentage required hospitalization. The prevalence of unilateral blindness in children due to fireworks was found to be 8% (95% confidence interval - 2-13%. Conclusion: Vision 2020 gives high priority to avoidable blindness, especially in children. In our study, for every 12 children who presented with firecracker injury, one resulted in unilateral blindness. This is an avoidable cause of blindness. Awareness needs to be created, and changes in policy regarding sales and handling of firecrackers including mandatory use of  protective eyewear should be considered.

  8. Unsafe Disposal of Child Faeces: A Community-based Study in a Rural Block in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti PS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives A clean India is the responsibility of all Indians. One of the objectives of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Initiative is to bring about behavioural changes regarding healthy sanitation practices. While large-scale programs in India have increased latrine coverage, they have to some extent failed to bring behavioural changes ensuring optimal latrine use, including the safe disposal of child faeces, which is a significant source of exposure to faecal pathogens. Hence, this study was done to explore child faeces disposal practices in rural West Bengal and to elicit the determinants of unhygienic faeces disposal. Methods Data collection was done using an interview method among the mothers of 502 under-5 children, following a pre-designed, semi-structured schedule during house-to-house visits in a set of villages in the Hooghly district of West Bengal. Results The prevalence of unsafe disposal of child faeces was 72.4%, and maternal education, per capita income, and water source were found to be significantly associated with unsafe child faeces disposal. Conclusions This study draws attention to the unsafe disposal of child faeces in this area of India and raises questions about the efficiency of sanitation campaigns in rural India that focus on expanding coverage rather than emphasizing behavioural changes, which are crucial to ensure the safe disposal of child faeces. Thus, it is urgently necessary to strengthen efforts focusing on behavioural changes regarding the safe disposal of child faeces in order to minimise adverse health outcomes.

  9. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 (block 2), glutamate-rich protein and sexual stage antigen Pfs25 from Chandigarh, North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Hargobinder; Sehgal, Rakesh; Goyal, Kapil; Makkar, Nikita; Yadav, Richa; Bharti, Praveen K; Singh, Neeru; Sarmah, Nilanju P; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K; Mahanta, Jagadish; Bansal, Devendra; Sultan, Ali A; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2017-12-01

    To elucidate the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum in residual transmission foci of northern India. Clinically suspected patients with malaria were screened for malaria infection by microscopy. 48 P. falciparum-infected patients were enrolled from tertiary care hospital in Chandigarh, India. Blood samples were collected from enrolled patients, genomic DNA extraction and nested PCR was performed for further species confirmation. Sanger sequencing was carried out using block 2 region of msp1, R2 region of glurp and pfs25-specific primers. Extensive diversity was found in msp1 alleles with predominantly RO33 alleles. Overall allelic prevalence was 55.8% for RO33, 39.5% for MAD20 and 4.7% for K1. Six variants were observed in MAD20, whereas no variant was found in RO33 and K1 alleles. A phylogenetic analysis of RO33 alleles indicated more similarity to South African isolates, whereas MAD20 alleles showed similarity with South-East Asian isolates. In glurp, extensive variation was observed with eleven different alleles based on the AAU repeats. However, pfs25 showed less diversity and was the most stable among the targeted genes. Our findings document the genetic diversity among circulating strains of P. falciparum in an area of India with low malaria transmission and could have implications for control strategies to reach the national goal of malaria elimination. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Odonata (Insecta diversity of Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, the southern Western Ghats, India

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    C.K. Adarsh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted at Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Idukki District, Kerala, the southern Western Ghats, to assess the diversity of odonates. We report 48 species of odonates, which include 31 species of Anisoptera (dragonflies and 17 species of Zygoptera (damselflies. Among the dragonflies, the family Libellulidae dominated with 25 species, while Coenagrionidae with seven species was the dominant family among the damselflies. The odonate diversity of Chinnar WS accounted for 31.16 % of the odonates in Kerala and 27.58% of the odonates of the Western Ghats. Chinnar also recorded two species of odonates that are endemic to the Western Ghats, which are, the Pied Reed Tail Protosticta gravelyi and the Travancore Bamboo Tail Esme mudiensis.

  11. How Does Sex Trafficking Increase the Risk of HIV Infection? An Observational Study From Southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Kathleen E.; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.; Silverman, Jay G.; Murray, Megan B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have documented the substantial risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection endured by sex-trafficked women, but it remains unclear how exposure to trafficking puts its victims at risk. We assessed whether the association between sex trafficking and HIV could be explained by self-reported forced prostitution or young age at entry into prostitution using cross-sectional data collected from 1,814 adult female sex workers in Karnataka, India, between August 2005 and August 2006. Marginal structural logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for HIV infection. Overall, 372 (21%) women met 1 or both criteria used to define sex trafficking: 278 (16%) began sex work before age 18 years, and 107 (5%) reported being forcibly prostituted. Thirteen (0.7%) met both criteria. Forcibly prostituted women were more likely to be HIV-infected than were women who joined the industry voluntarily, independent of age at entering prostitution (odds ratio = 2.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 4.90). Conversely, after adjustment for forced prostitution and other confounders, no association between age at entry into prostitution and HIV was observed. The association between forced prostitution and HIV infection became stronger in the presence of sexual violence (odds ratio = 11.13, 95% confidence interval: 2.41, 51.40). These findings indicate that forced prostitution coupled with sexual violence probably explains the association between sex trafficking and HIV. PMID:23324332

  12. VHF/UHF radar observations of tropical mesoscale convective systems over southern India

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    K. Kishore Kumar

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Several campaigns have been carried out to study the convective systems over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, a tropical station in India, using VHF and UHF radars. The height-time sections of several convective systems are investigated in detail to study reflectivity, turbulence and vertical velocity structure. Structure and dynamics of the convective systems are the main objectives of these campaigns. The observed systems are classified into single- and multi-cell systems. It has been observed that most of the convective systems at this latitude are multi-cellular in nature. Simultaneous VHF and UHF radar observations are used to classify the observed precipitating systems as convective, intermediary and stratiform regions. Composite height profiles of vertical velocities in these regions were obtained and the same were compared with the profiles obtained at other geographical locations. These composite profiles of vertical velocity in the convective regions have shown their peaks in the mid troposphere, indicating that the maximum latent heat is being released at those heights. These profiles are very important for numerical simulations of the convective systems, which vary significantly from one geographical location to the other.

    Keywords. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Mesoscale meteorology; Convective processes – Radio science (Remote sensing

  13. VHF/UHF radar observations of tropical mesoscale convective systems over southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kishore Kumar

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Several campaigns have been carried out to study the convective systems over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, a tropical station in India, using VHF and UHF radars. The height-time sections of several convective systems are investigated in detail to study reflectivity, turbulence and vertical velocity structure. Structure and dynamics of the convective systems are the main objectives of these campaigns. The observed systems are classified into single- and multi-cell systems. It has been observed that most of the convective systems at this latitude are multi-cellular in nature. Simultaneous VHF and UHF radar observations are used to classify the observed precipitating systems as convective, intermediary and stratiform regions. Composite height profiles of vertical velocities in these regions were obtained and the same were compared with the profiles obtained at other geographical locations. These composite profiles of vertical velocity in the convective regions have shown their peaks in the mid troposphere, indicating that the maximum latent heat is being released at those heights. These profiles are very important for numerical simulations of the convective systems, which vary significantly from one geographical location to the other. Keywords. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Mesoscale meteorology; Convective processes – Radio science (Remote sensing

  14. The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in patients visiting a dental school in Southern India

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    Mathew Anuna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in Manipal, Karnataka State, India. A total of 1190 subjects who visited the department of oral medicine and radiology for diagnosis of various oral complaints over a period of 3 months were interviewed and clinically examined for oral mucosal lesions. The result showed the presence of one or more mucosal lesions in (41.2% of the population. Fordyce′s condition was observed most frequently (6.55% followed by frictional keratosis (5.79%, fissured tongue (5.71%, leukoedema (3.78%, smoker′s palate (2.77%, recurrent aphthae, oral submucous fibrosis (2.01%, oral malignancies (1.76%, leukoplakia (1.59%, median rhomboid glossitis (1.50%, candidiasis (1.3%, lichen planus (1.20%, varices (1.17%, traumatic ulcer and oral hairy leukoplakia (1.008%, denture stomatitis, geographic tongue, betel chewer′s mucosa and irritational fibroma (0.84%, herpes labialis, angular cheilitis (0.58%, and mucocele (0.16%. Mucosal lesions like tobacco-related lesions (leukoplakia, smoker′s palate, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral malignancies were more prevalent among men than among women. Denture stomatitis, herpes labialis, and angular cheilitis occurred more frequently in the female population.

  15. Cervical cytological abnormalities and human papilloma virus infection in women infected with HIV in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunga, Suchitra; Andrews, Anusmitha; Ramapuram, John; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Kini, Hema; Unnikrishnan, B; Adhikari, Prabha; Singh, Prakhar; Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada; Bhat, Samatha; Kadam, Anagha; Shetty, Avinash K

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between CD4 count, human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia among HIV-infected women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 104 HIV-infected women attending an antiretroviral therapy clinic. They underwent Pap smear and cervical HPV DNA testing. The overall prevalence of HPV infection was 57.7%. HPV 16 was the commonest genotype found (38.5%); HPV 16 and 18 put together contributed to 73.3% of HPV infection; 27.5% of HIV-infected women had squamous cell abnormalities. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia was less likely among women with CD4 count > 500/mm 3 (12%) and in those without opportunistic infections (17.8%). The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was higher in women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or greater lesions (85.7%) as compared to women with normal cytology (52.1%). The high prevalence of HPV infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected women warrants the need for regular Pap smear screening in these women and routine HPV vaccination for adolescents to reduce the burden of cervical cancer in India. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Postnatal quality of life, depressive symptoms, and social support among women in southern India.

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    Bodhare, Trupti N; Sethi, Pruthwiraj; Bele, Samir D; Gayatri, Dasari; Vivekanand, Achanta

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of postnatal quality of life (QOL) has remained a poorly researched area in India. The present cross-sectional study assessed postnatal QOL, using the Mother Generated Index (MGI) and its associated risk factors, and was conducted during January-March 2013 among 274 mothers, 6-8 weeks postnatally. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to evaluate sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics and social support. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and QOL using the MGI. The vast majority (90.1 percent) of respondents in our study had a primary MGI score <5, those with significantly higher prevalence of physical problems and psychological distress. A total of 39.8 percent of respondents were screened as having other (not major) depressive symptoms and 4.7 percent as having major depressive symptoms. Multiple regression analysis revealed that age (β = 0.033, p = .018) and socioeconomic status (β = 0.156, p < .001) were significantly positively associated with QOL, while increased depressive symptom scores (β = -0.075, p < .001) were significantly negatively associated with QOL. A wide spectrum of QOL aspects were reported, including physical, emotional, social, and economic concerns by the mothers. Prevention, evaluation, and treatment of postnatal depressive symptoms and impaired QOL are warranted, taking into account the role of various biopsychosocial risk factors and specific concerns raised by the mothers.

  17. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Birds of Meghamalai Landscape, southern Western Ghats, India

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    S. Babu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Species composition of birds in the Meghamalai landscape with respect to threat status, foraging guild and biome-restricted assemblage were assessed based on data collected opportunistically during two research projects: first one spanned 36 months (2006-2009 the other for 18 months (June 2011-December 2012 and from literature published during mid 1940s. A total of 254 species belonging to 55 families and 18 orders were recorded, which include 11% (18 of 159 species of globally threatened birds reported from India, 88% (14 of 16 species of endemic birds of the Western Ghats and a higher proportion of biome-restricted species (56% of Indo-Malayan tropical dry zone and 80% of Indian Peninsula inhabited by tropical moist forest birds. Among the foraging guilds, insectivorous birds (51% dominated the bird composition followed by frugivores and carnivores. The present data shows that Meghamalai deserves to be recognized as an Important Bird Area of International Bird Conservation Network. This would enhance the conservation prospects of the landscape in a long run. The present study also highlights the importance of the area for conserving the birds of the Western Ghats.

  18. Lithospheric delamination in post-collisional setting: Evidence from intrusive magmatism from the North Qilian orogen to southern margin of the Alxa block, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqi; Zhang, Hongfei; Zhang, Shasha; Xiong, Ziliang; Luo, Biji; Yang, He; Pan, Fabin; Zhou, Xiaochun; Xu, Wangchun; Guo, Liang

    2017-09-01

    Post-collisional granitoids are widespread in the North Qilian and southern margin of the Alxa block and their petrogenesis can provide important insights into the lithospheric processes in a post-collisional setting. This paper carries out an integrated study of U-Pb zircon dating, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions for five early Paleozoic intrusive plutons from the North Qilian to southern margin of the Alxa block. The geochronological and geochemical results show that their magmatism can be divided into three periods with distinct geochemical features. The early-period intrusive rocks ( 440 Ma) include the Lianhuashan (LHS) and Mengjiadawan (MJDW) granodiorites. Both of them display high Sr/Y ratios (52-91), coupled with low Y and HREE contents, implying that they were derived from partial melting of thickened lower crust, with garnet in the residue. The middle-period intrusive rocks ( 430 Ma), including the MJDW quartz diorites and Yangqiandashan (YQDS) granodiorites, are high-K calc-alkaline with low Sr/Y values. The geochemical and isotopic data suggest that they are generated from partial melting of lower crust without garnet in the residue. The late-period intrusive rocks (414-422 Ma), represented by the Shengrongsi (SRS) and Xinkaigou (XKG) plutons, are A-type or alkali-feldspar granites. They are possibly derived from partial melting of felsic crustal material under lower pressure condition. Our data show decreasing magma crystallization ages from MJDW pluton in the north and LHS pluton in the south to the SRS and XKG plutons in the central part of the study area. We suggest that such spatial and temporal variations of magmatic suites were caused by lithospheric delamination after the collision between the Central Qilian and the Alxa block. A more plausible explanation is that the delamination propagated from the margin part of the thickened lithosphere to inward beneath the North Qilian and southern margin of the Alxa block.

  19. Bacteriological profile of neonatal sepsis in a secondary care hospital in rural Tamil Nadu, Southern India

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    Doniparthi Venkata Pavan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the world. The objective of the current study was to detect the common causative microorganisms of neonatal sepsis and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in a rural secondary hospital in Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: Neonates (0–28 days admitted to this newborn care unit from October 2013 to September 2015, with a diagnosis of probable sepsis were studied. All the enrolled babies had blood cultures taken and were followed up till final outcome, which was discharge or death, irrespective of culture result. Univariate analysis was performed for factors associated with culture positivity, generating odds ratios, and confidence intervals. Results: Among the 107 babies with a diagnosis of probable sepsis, 28 (26.2% had shown bacteria in culture. The majority (94.4% were of early-onset sepsis. The predominant organisms were Staphylococcus aureus (10/28 and Klebsiella (6/28. 100% of Gram-negative bacilli and 90% of Staphylococcus were resistant to Ampicillin. Gentamicin resistance among Gram-negative bacilli and Staphylococcus was 52.9% and 20%, respectively, while third-generation cephalosporin resistance was 31.2% and 20%, respectively. Among the neonates diagnosed as probable sepsis, idiopathic prematurity (P = 0.007 was found to have a statistically significant association with culture-positive sepsis. Conclusion: The culture positivity rate among the neonates with probable sepsis in the current study was 26%. An alarmingly high degree of antibiotic resistance observed calls for robust infection control practices and an urgent evaluation and development of individual and national antibiotic policies for neonatal sepsis.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of hypertension in a semi-rural population of Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mandeep; Kotwal, Atul; Mittal, Chetan; Babu, S Ram; Bharti, Sahul; Ram, C Venkata S

    2017-12-01

    While elevated blood pressure is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the prevalence of hypertension still remains unclear for most populations. A door-to-door survey was conducted using modified WHO STEPS questionnaire in a group of villages under the Thavanampalle Mandal of Chittoor District in the state of Andhra Pradesh of South India. Data were collated and analyzed for 16,636 individuals (62.3% females and 37.7% males) above 15 years of age. Overall, prevalence of hypertension (as per JNC-7 classification) was found to be 27.0% (95% CI, 26.3, 27.7) in the surveyed community with 56.7% of the total hypertensives being diagnosed for the first time during the survey. An additional 39.1% had their blood pressure readings in the prehypertensive range. Among the known Hypertensives on treatment only 46.2% had a blood pressure recording within acceptable limits, with 31.2% in the prehypertensive range and only 15.0% in the normal range. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) of the surveyed population showed a continuous linear increase with age, but diastolic blood pressure (DBP) peaked and started reducing in early fifth decade in males. Male gender, increasing age, higher body mass index (BMI), increased waist-hip ratio, increased body weight, family history of hypertension, death of spouse, and diabetes were found to be positively correlated with hypertension. Risk factors of alcohol intake, use of ground nut/palm oil, and family history of diabetes lost their independent predictive ability for hypertension on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The level of physical activity was also not found to be a significant predictor of hypertension in the study population.

  1. Subsurface profiling of granite pluton using microtremor method: southern Aravalli, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Aditya U.; Sant, Dhananjay A.; Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Rangarajan, Govindan; Limaye, Manoj A.; Mukherjee, Soumyajit; Charola, Mitesh J.; Bhatt, Meghnath N.; Mistry, Sagar P.

    2018-01-01

    We report, using the microtremor method, a subsurface granitic pluton underneath the Narukot Dome and in its western extension along a WNW profile, in proximity of eastern fringe of Cambay Rift, India. The dome and its extension is a part of the Champaner Group of rocks belonging to the Mesoproterozoic Aravalli Supergroup. The present finding elucidates development of an asymmetric double plunge along Narukot Dome. Microtremor measurements at 32 sites were carried out along the axial trace (N95°) of the dome. Fourier amplitude spectral studies were applied to obtain the ratio between the horizontal and vertical components of persisting Rayleigh waves as local ambient noise. Fundamental resonant frequencies with amplitude ≥1-sigma for each site are considered to distinguish rheological boundary. Two distinct rheological boundaries are identified based on frequency ranges determined in the terrain: (1) 0.2219-10.364 Hz recorded at 31 stations identified as the Champaner metasediment and granite boundary, and (2) 10.902-27.1119 Hz recorded at 22 stations identified as the phyllite and quartzite boundary. The proposed equation describing frequency-depth relationship between granite and overlaying regolith matches with those already published in the literature. The morphology of granite pluton highlights the rootless character of Champaner Group showing sharp discordance with granitic pluton. The findings of manifestation of pluton at a shallower depth imply a steep easterly plunge within the Champaner metasediments, whereas signature of pluton at a deeper level implies a gentle westerly plunge. The present method enables to assess how granite emplacement influences the surface structure.

  2. Analysis of Small ruminant market system in different agro-climatic zones of Southern India

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    D Ramesh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the marketing system of small ruminants in three different agro-climatic zones of Karnataka in India. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select 60 small ruminant farmers from three viz. Bijapur (Arid zone, Gulbarga (Semi-arid zone and Udupi (Coastal zone district of Karnataka state. A structured questionnaire which had earlier been subject to face validity and has a reliability coefficient of 0.87 was used to collect data from the samples respondents. Data was analysed using statistical package for social science (SPSS.The results of the study revealed that marketing of small ruminants is haphazard in the study areas. Majority of the respondents (85% sold their animal when they needed cash for home consumption followed by to pay off loan (28.3% was the main reason to sell their animals. Important marketing channels were relatives and friends, local markets and village collectors. Farmers gave different reasons for selling their animals through different channels. Majority of the farmers used relatives and friends as one of the marketing channels. Most of farmers also felt that there was a difference in the price offered by village collectors and the price they were getting in the livestock markets. And a few of them were of the opinion that village collectors were not reliable in marketing. Price of the animals was establishing based on the body confirmation of the animal. Study also revealed that injured animals fetch less value than the healthy animals. [Vet. World 2012; 5(5.000: 288-293

  3. Bacteriological profile of neonatal sepsis in a secondary care hospital in rural Tamil Nadu, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan Kumar, Doniparthi Venkata; Mohan, Jesinth; Rakesh, P S; Prasad, Jasmine; Joseph, Lenikumar

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the world. The objective of the current study was to detect the common causative microorganisms of neonatal sepsis and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in a rural secondary hospital in Tamil Nadu, India. Neonates (0-28 days) admitted to this newborn care unit from October 2013 to September 2015, with a diagnosis of probable sepsis were studied. All the enrolled babies had blood cultures taken and were followed up till final outcome, which was discharge or death, irrespective of culture result. Univariate analysis was performed for factors associated with culture positivity, generating odds ratios, and confidence intervals. Among the 107 babies with a diagnosis of probable sepsis, 28 (26.2%) had shown bacteria in culture. The majority (94.4%) were of early-onset sepsis. The predominant organisms were Staphylococcus aureus (10/28) and Klebsiella (6/28). 100% of Gram-negative bacilli and 90% of Staphylococcus were resistant to Ampicillin. Gentamicin resistance among Gram-negative bacilli and Staphylococcus was 52.9% and 20%, respectively, while third-generation cephalosporin resistance was 31.2% and 20%, respectively. Among the neonates diagnosed as probable sepsis, idiopathic prematurity ( P = 0.007) was found to have a statistically significant association with culture-positive sepsis. The culture positivity rate among the neonates with probable sepsis in the current study was 26%. An alarmingly high degree of antibiotic resistance observed calls for robust infection control practices and an urgent evaluation and development of individual and national antibiotic policies for neonatal sepsis.

  4. Prevalence and clinical profile of metabolic syndrome among type 1 diabetes mellitus patients in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billow, Amy; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Ngai, Michelle; Amutha, Anandakumar; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Jebarani, Saravanan; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Michael, Edwin; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2015-07-01

    To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus(T1DM) and to look at prevalence of diabetes complications in T1DM with and without MetS. We studied 451 T1DM patients attending a tertiary diabetes centre in Chennai, South India. T1DM was diagnosed based on absence of beta cell reserve and requirement of insulin from the time of diagnosis. Data on clinical and biochemical characteristics as well as complications details to study the prevalence were also extracted from electronic records. T1DM patients were divided into those with and without MetS[diagnosed according to the harmonizing the metabolic syndrome criteria(IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO)]. The overall prevalence of MetS among T1DM was 22.2%(100/451). Patients with MetS were older, had longer diabetes duration, acanthosis nigricans, and increased serum cholesterol. In the unadjusted logistic regression analysis, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy were associated with MetS. However after adjustment for age, gender, diabetes duration, HbA1C and BMI significant association was seen only between MetS and retinopathy [odds ratio (OR) 2.82, 95% CI 1.18-6.74, p = 0.020] and nephropathy [OR 4.92, 95% CI 2.59-9.33, p < 0.001]. Prevalence of MetS is high among Asian Indian T1DM patients, and its presence is associated with increased risk of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of maternal risk factors on the incidence of low birth weight neonates in southern India

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    : U.N.Reddy, VamshiPriya, SwathiChacham, SanaSalimKhan, J Narsing Rao, Mohd Nasir mohiuddin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is recommended as one of the twelve global indicators for monitoring the health of the community and is an important determinant of adverse perinatal and neonatal events. LBW infant carries five times higher risk of dying in the neonatal period and three times more in infancy. Aims and Objectives: To estimate the incidence of LBW and impact of various maternal and biosocial factors on the incidence of LBW neonates in the study population. Material and methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in Princess Esra hospital, a tertiary care hospital in south India, over a period of six months. All consecutive LBW (single ton neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit were enrolled, while those born of multiple gestation and those with major congenital malformations were excluded. Results: A total of 300 neonates were included in the present study out of which 150 were LBW and 150 weighed ≥2500 gm. Higher maternal weight (>60kgs had low incidence of LBW neonates (p value-0.03. Illiterate women had a remarkably higher incidence of LBW babies (p value-0.001. In primigravida incidence of LBW was 61.2%. Higher incidence of LBW was seen in mothers with oligo hydramnio’s. Conclusions: This study showed that maternal age, weight, literacy level and parity have a significant influence on the incidence of LBW. Incidence of LBW neonate in the study was 50%. Risk of having LBW neonates was higher in primigravida. There was a significant association between LBW with oligo hydramnio’s and female gender.

  6. Crustal tomographic imaging and geodynamic implications toward south of Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT), India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Laxmidhar

    2011-09-01

    The crustal structure toward southern part of SGT is poorly defined leaving an opportunity to understand the tectonic and geodynamic evolution of this high-grade granulite terrain surrounded by major shear and tectonically disturbed zones like Achankovil Shear Zone (AKSZ) and Palghat Cauvery Shear Zone (PCSZ). To develop a geologically plausible crustal tectonic model depicting major structural elements, a comprehensive tomographic image was derived using deep-seismic-sounding data corroborated by Bouguer gravity modeling, coincident-reflection-seismic, heat-flow and available geological/geochronological informations along the N-S trending Vattalkundu-Kanyakumari geotransect. The final tectonic model represents large compositional changes of subsurface rocks accompanied by velocity heterogeneities with crustal thinning (44-36 km) and Moho upwarping from north to south. This study also reveals and successfully imaged anomalous zone of exhumation near AKSZ having transpression of exhumed rocks at mid-to-lower crustal level (20-30 km) with significant underplating and mantle upwelling forming a complex metamorphic province. The presence of shear zones with high-grade charnockite massifs in the upper-crust exposed in several places reveal large scale exhumation of granulites during the Pan-African rifting (~ 550 Ma) and provide important insights of plume-continental lithosphere interaction with reconstruction of the Gondwanaland.

  7. Impact of Dams on Riparian Frog Communities in the Southern Western Ghats, India

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    Rohit Naniwadekar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Western Ghats is a global biodiversity hotspot and home to diverse and unique assemblages of amphibians. Several rivers originate from these mountains and hydropower is being tapped from them. The impacts of hydrological regulation of riparian ecosystems to wildlife and its habitat are poorly documented, and in particular the fate of frog populations is unknown. We examined the effects of dams on riparian frog communities in the Thamirabarani catchment in southern Western Ghats. We used nocturnal visual encounter surveys constrained for time, to document the species richness of frogs below and above the dam, and also at control sites in the same catchment. While we did not find differences in species richness below and above the dams, the frog community composition was significantly altered as a likely consequence of altered flow regime. The frog species compositions in control sites were similar to above-dam sites. Below-dam sites had a distinctly different species composition. Select endemic frog species appeared to be adversely impacted due to the dams. Below-dam sites had a greater proportion of generalist and widely distributed species. Dams in the Western Ghats appeared to adversely impact population of endemic species, particularly those belonging to the genus Nyctibatrachus that shows specialization for intact streams.

  8. Geochemistry of Calcretes (Calcic Palaeosols and Hardpan), Coimbatore, Southern India: Formation and Paleoenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achyuthan, Hema; Shankar, Navin; Braida, Martina; Ahmed, S. Masood

    2010-12-01

    This paper deals with the late Quaternary calcic nodules formed within vertisols in the foot-hill regions, and hardpan calcretes (greater than 200 ka) formed over the Precambrian substrate that occur as duricrust horizons in the plains around Coimbatore region, Tamil Nadu, India. The bulk chemistry of calcic nodules and the hardpan calcretes show very little variability in CaO, SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and Fe 2 O 3 content. The trend of trace metal content in calcic nodules and in the hardpan calcrete is Mn>Zn>Ni>Cr>Pb>Co>Cu and Zn>Mn>Ni>Co>Pb>Cu>Cr respectively. PAAS- normalised REE data of the calcretes (calcic nodules and the hardpan) demonstrate a positive Eu anomaly. This could be attributed to feldspar, apatite mineral alteration and soil digenetic processes, differential weathering leaving behind plagioclase phenocrysts and apatite grains which are enriched in Eu. The stable isotope values of the calcic nodules do not exhibit a wide range (δ 18 O -3.39 to -5.84 per mille and δ 13 C -3.01 to -6.64 per mille), compared to the hardpan calcretes (δ 18 O -2.91 to -12.98 per mille ) and δ 13 C (-0.05 to -7.4 per mille). The palaeoenvironment during the formation of the calcretes nodules was dominated by the C 4 plants with sparse vegetation cover and that the parent material/bedrock supported a thin veneer of soil column as present day. Calcic nodule accumulations in the soils has resulted from differential weathering and chemical histories within the soil profiles while the hardpan calcretes formed by complex pedogenic and chemical - groundwater processes in arid - semi arid conditions over a long geological period. During the late MIS3 to the LGM period the south west monsoon was weak with mean annual rainfall (MAR) between 300- 500 mm/yr., the sea level was low and the rainfall at the time of carbonate formation would have remained damp enough to allow silicate weathering of the soil sediments. (author)

  9. Case studies on heat stress related perceptions in different industrial sectors in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ramalingam, Ayyappan; Dasu, Venkatesan; Stephen, Jeremiah Chinnadurai; Sivaperumal, Mohan Raj; Kumarasamy, Deepan; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Santu; Sambandam, Sankar

    2010-11-29

    Linkages between thermal loads and its physiological consequences have been widely studied in non-tropical developed country settings. In many developing countries like India, despite the widespread recognition of the problem, limited attempts have been made to estimate health impacts related to occupational heat stress and fewer yet to link heat stress with potential productivity losses. This is reflected in the ubiquity of workplaces with limited or no controls to reduce exposures. As a prelude to understanding the feasibility of alternative interventions in different industrial sectors, we present case studies from 10 different industrial units in Tamil Nadu, Chennai, which describe perceptions of occupational heat stress among the workers and supervisors/management.Units were selected from among those who had previously requested an assessment of workplace heat stress exposure at select locations as part of routine industrial hygiene services provided by the investigators. Since the earlier measurements were performed in response to a management request, all units were revisited to generate a simple job and process profile using checklists in order to understand the overall heat exposure situation in the concerned unit. This was followed by a simple questionnaire administration to a small subsample of employees to evaluate the perceptions of workers and supervisors/management. Finally, we retrieved available quantitative data from previous measurements of heat stress at these units to correlate prevalence of exposures with respective perceptions.Results indicate that the existing level of controls may not be sufficient for managing work-related heat stress in any of the sectors studied, with wide variations in perceived risks. There was a noticeable disconnect between worker's perceptions and their ability to secure workplace improvements related to heat stress from the management. Wider availability of engineering and administrative controls in the industries

  10. Case studies on heat stress related perceptions in different industrial sectors in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Balakrishnan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Linkages between thermal loads and its physiological consequences have been widely studied in non-tropical developed country settings. In many developing countries like India, despite the widespread recognition of the problem, limited attempts have been made to estimate health impacts related to occupational heat stress and fewer yet to link heat stress with potential productivity losses. This is reflected in the ubiquity of workplaces with limited or no controls to reduce exposures. As a prelude to understanding the feasibility of alternative interventions in different industrial sectors, we present case studies from 10 different industrial units in Tamil Nadu, Chennai, which describe perceptions of occupational heat stress among the workers and supervisors/management.Units were selected from among those who had previously requested an assessment of workplace heat stress exposure at select locations as part of routine industrial hygiene services provided by the investigators. Since the earlier measurements were performed in response to a management request, all units were revisited to generate a simple job and process profile using checklists in order to understand the overall heat exposure situation in the concerned unit. This was followed by a simple questionnaire administration to a small subsample of employees to evaluate the perceptions of workers and supervisors/management. Finally, we retrieved available quantitative data from previous measurements of heat stress at these units to correlate prevalence of exposures with respective perceptions.Results indicate that the existing level of controls may not be sufficient for managing work-related heat stress in any of the sectors studied, with wide variations in perceived risks. There was a noticeable disconnect between worker's perceptions and their ability to secure workplace improvements related to heat stress from the management. Wider availability of engineering and administrative

  11. Epidemiology and patterns of care for invasive breast carcinoma at a community hospital in Southern India

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    Venkata Phanindra

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer incidence in India is on rise. We report epidemiological, clinical and survival patterns of breast cancer patients from community perspective. Methods All breast cancer patients treated at this hospital from July 2000 to July 2005 were included. All had cytological or histological confirmation of breast cancer. TNM guidelines for staging and Immunohistochemistry to assess the receptor status were used. Either lumpectomy with axillary lymph node dissection or Modified radical mastectomy (MRM was done for operable breast cancer, followed by 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with FAC or CMF regimens to patients with pT >1 cm or lymph node positive or estrogen receptor negative and radiotherapy to patients after breast conservation surgery, pT size > 5 cm, 4 or more positive nodes and stage IIIB disease. Patients with positive Estrogen receptor or Progesterone receptor were advised Tamoxifene 20 mg per day for 3 years. Descriptive analysis was performed. Independent T test and Chi-square test were used. Overall survival time was computed by Kaplan – Meier method. Results Of 1488 cancer patients, 122 (8.2% had breast cancer. Of 122 patients, 96.7% had invasive breast carcinoma and 3.3% had sarcoma. 94% came from the rural and semi urban areas. Premenopausal women were 27%. The median age was 50 years. Stage I-6.8%, II-45.8%, III-22%, IV-6.8%, Bilateral breast cancer – 2.5%. The mean pT size was 3.9 cm. ER and PR were positive in 31.6% and 28.1% respectively. MRM was done in 93.8%, while 6.3% patients underwent breast conservation surgery. The mean of the lymph nodes dissected were 3. CMF and FAC regimens were used in 48.8% and 51.2% of patients respectively. FAC group were younger than the CMF group (43.6 yr vs. 54 yrs, P = 0.000. Toxicities were more in FAC than CMF group, alopecia (100% vs. 26.2%, grade2 or more emesis (31.8% vs. 9.2%, grade2 or more fatigue (40.9% vs.19%, anemia (43.1% vs. 16.6%. Median

  12. North-East monsoon rainfall extremes over the southern peninsular India and their association with El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prem; Gnanaseelan, C.; Chowdary, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between extreme north-east (NE) monsoon rainfall (NEMR) over the Indian peninsula region and El Niño forcing. This turns out to be a critical science issue especially after the 2015 Chennai flood. The puzzle being while most El Niños favour good NE monsoon, some don't. In fact some El Niño years witnessed deficit NE monsoon. Therefore two different cases (or classes) of El Niños are considered for analysis based on standardized NEMR index and Niño 3.4 index with case-1 being both Niño-3.4 and NEMR indices greater than +1 and case-2 being Niño-3.4 index greater than +1 and NEMR index less than -1. Composite analysis suggests that SST anomalies in the central and eastern Pacific are strong in both cases but large differences are noted in the spatial distribution of SST over the Indo-western Pacific region. This questions our understanding of NEMR as mirror image of El Niño conditions in the Pacific. It is noted that the favourable excess NEMR in case-1 is due to anomalous moisture transport from Bay of Bengal and equatorial Indian Ocean to southern peninsular India. Strong SST gradient between warm western Indian Ocean (and Bay of Bengal) and cool western Pacific induced strong easterly wind anomalies during NE monsoon season favour moisture transport towards the core NE monsoon region. Further anomalous moisture convergence and convection over the core NE monsoon region supported positive rainfall anomalies in case-1. While in case-2, weak SST gradients over the Indo-western Pacific and absence of local low level convergence over NE monsoon region are mainly responsible for deficit rainfall. The ocean dynamics in the Indian Ocean displayed large differences during case-1 and case-2, suggesting the key role of Rossby wave dynamics in the Indian Ocean on NE monsoon extremes. Apart from the large scale circulation differences the number of cyclonic systems land fall for case-1 and case-2 have also contributed for

  13. Prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke among higher secondary school students in Ernakulam District, Kerala, Southern India

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    P S Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association between secondhand smoke and health outcomes, such as frequent respiratory infections, ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, asthma, and stroke, has long been established. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of secondhand smoking exposure among higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district, Kerala, Southern India. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was administered to all students from four randomly selected higher secondary schools in Ernakulam district. Descriptive statistics was done using frequencies and percentages. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done for factors associated with household exposure to tobacco smoke generating odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results: A total of 629 students participated in the study. The prevalence of ever smokers was 11.9% and of current smokers was 5.2%. Among the study participants, 23.2% were exposed to secondhand smoking from a family member and 18.8% from friends. Lower educational status of father was associated with the household exposure to secondhand smoke (adjusted OR 4.51 [95% CI 1.66–12.22]. More than half of the study participants (56.3% reported that they were exposed to cigarette smoke in past 1 week in a public place and 10.2% in closed public places. Nearly one-third of the students reported that they have seen somebody smoking inside school campus in the past 30 days. Conclusion: Exposure to secondhand smoke at home, schools, and public places was higher among the late adolescent higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district. The findings underscore the urgent need for increased efforts to implement the strategies to reduce secondhand smoke exposure among adolescents.

  14. Prevalence of Exposure to Secondhand Smoke among Higher Secondary School Students in Ernakulam District, Kerala, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh, P S; Lalu, Jishnu Satheesh; Leelamoni, K

    2017-01-01

    The association between secondhand smoke and health outcomes, such as frequent respiratory infections, ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, asthma, and stroke, has long been established. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of secondhand smoking exposure among higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district, Kerala, Southern India. A structured questionnaire was administered to all students from four randomly selected higher secondary schools in Ernakulam district. Descriptive statistics was done using frequencies and percentages. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done for factors associated with household exposure to tobacco smoke generating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 629 students participated in the study. The prevalence of ever smokers was 11.9% and of current smokers was 5.2%. Among the study participants, 23.2% were exposed to secondhand smoking from a family member and 18.8% from friends. Lower educational status of father was associated with the household exposure to secondhand smoke (adjusted OR 4.51 [95% CI 1.66-12.22]). More than half of the study participants (56.3%) reported that they were exposed to cigarette smoke in past 1 week in a public place and 10.2% in closed public places. Nearly one-third of the students reported that they have seen somebody smoking inside school campus in the past 30 days. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home, schools, and public places was higher among the late adolescent higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district. The findings underscore the urgent need for increased efforts to implement the strategies to reduce secondhand smoke exposure among adolescents.

  15. Faecal microbiota composition in vegetarians: comparison with omnivores in a cohort of young women in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeerdoss, Jayakanthan; Devi, R Shobana; Mary, R Regina; Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan S

    2012-09-28

    The effect of vegetarian diets on faecal microbiota has been explored largely through culture-based techniques. The present study compared the faecal microbiota of vegetarian and omnivorous young women in southern India. Faecal samples were obtained from thirty-two lacto-vegetarian and twenty-four omnivorous young adult women from a similar social and economic background. Macronutrient intake and anthropometric data were collected. Faecal microbiota of interest was quantified by real-time PCR with SYBR Green using primers targeting 16S rRNA genes of groups, including: Clostridium coccoides group (Clostridium cluster XIVa), Roseburia spp.-Eubacterium rectale, Bacteroides--Prevotella group, Bifidobacterium genus, Lactobacillus group, Clostridium leptum group (Clostridium cluster IV), Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Ruminococcus productus--C. coccoides, Butyrivibrio, Enterococcus species and Enterobacteriaceae. The groups were matched for age, socio-economic score and anthropometric indices. Intake of energy, complex carbohydrates and Ca were significantly higher in the omnivorous group. The faecal microbiota of the omnivorous group was enriched with Clostridium cluster XIVa bacteria, specifically Roseburia-E. rectale. The relative proportions of other microbial communities were similar in both groups. The butyryl-CoA CoA-transferase gene, associated with microbial butyrate production, was present in greater amounts in the faeces of omnivores, and the levels were highly correlated with Clostridium cluster XIVa and Roseburia-E. rectale abundance and to a lesser extent with Clostridium leptum and F. prausnitzii abundance and with crude fibre intake. Omnivores had an increased relative abundance of Clostridium cluster XIVa bacteria and butyryl-CoA CoA-transferase gene compared with vegetarians, but we were unable to identify the components of the diet responsible for this difference.

  16. Timing of the Cenozoic basins of Southern Mexico and its relationship with the Pacific truncation process: Subduction erosion or detachment of the Chortís block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Romo, Gilberto; Mendoza-Rosales, Claudia Cristina; Campos-Madrigal, Emiliano; Hernández-Marmolejo, Yoalli Bianii; de la Rosa-Mora, Orestes Antonio; de la Torre-González, Alam Israel; Bonifacio-Serralde, Carlos; López-García, Nallely; Nápoles-Valenzuela, Juan Ivan

    2018-04-01

    In the central sector of the Sierra Madre del Sur in Southern Mexico, between approximately 36 and 16 Ma ago and in the west to east direction, a diachronic process of the formation of ∼north-south trending fault-bounded basins occurred. No tectono-sedimentary event in the period between 25 and 20 Ma is recognized in the study region. A period during which subduction erosion truncated the continental crust of southern Mexico has been proposed. The chronology, geometry and style of the formation of the Eocene Miocene fault-bounded basins are more congruent with crustal truncation by the detachment of the Chortís block, thus bringing into question the crustal truncation hypothesis of the Southern Mexico margin. Between Taxco and Tehuacán, using seven new Laser Ablation- Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb ages in magmatic zircons, we refine the stratigraphy of the Tepenene, Tehuitzingo, Atzumba and Tepelmeme basins. The analyzed basins present similar tectono-sedimentary evolutions as follows: Stage 1, depocenter formation and filling by clastic rocks accumulated as alluvial fans and Stage 2, lacustrine sedimentation characterized by calcareous and/or evaporite beds. Based on our results, we propose the following hypothesis: in Southern Mexico, during Eocene-Miocene times, the diachronic formation of fault-bounded basins with general north-south trend occurred within the framework of the convergence between the plates of North and South America, and once the Chortís block had slipped towards the east, the basins formed in the cortical crust were recently left behind. On the other hand, the beginning of the basins' formation process related to left strike slip faults during Eocene-Oligocene times can be associated with the thermomechanical maturation cortical process that caused the brittle/ductile transition level in the continental crust to shallow.

  17. Environmental pollution control through geo - botanical means - a case study of Manikpur block, Korba coalfield, M.P., India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikarwar, S.S.; Guha, S.; Singh, K.N. [Vikram Univ., Ujjain (India). School of Studies in Geology

    1999-09-01

    In the present paper, an environmental analysis of Manikpur area, Korba coalfield, Bilaspur, M.P., India is undertaken. The area lies in the Geological Survey of India Toposheet no. 64J/11 Latitude 82 42'54''-82 45'10'' North; Longitude 22 18'46''-22 19'46'' East. The paper deals with pollution and its control measures through the natural plants found in the vicinity of the coalmines, namely Mangifera indica, Eucalyptus spp., Cassia siamea, Delbergia sissoo, etc. The plants control the Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), Nitrous Oxides (NOx), Sulphur Oxides (SOx) of the mines and mining site. Therefore, plantation in the mining site should be encouraged. (orig.)

  18. Mineralogical sources of groundwater fluoride in Archaen bedrock/regolith aquifers: Mass balances from southern India and north-central Sri Lanka

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    B.M. Hallett

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: An estimate of weathering duration for the in situ regolith in Andhra Pradesh, 250–380 Ka, is close to a previous estimate for southern India. Partial or total destruction of the primary F-bearing bedrock minerals and consistent depletion of F in the remnant minerals result in a much reduced total F content in the regolith. Leaching experiments and field relationships, however, indicate a greater potential for F mobilisation to groundwater from the regolith than the bedrock. Schemes for managed aquifer recharge should beware the risk of mobilising additional F to groundwater.

  19. Do pregnant women know about danger signs of pregnancy and childbirth? – A study of the level of knowledge and its associated factors from a tertiary care hospital in Southern India

    OpenAIRE

    R Nithya; Gowri Dorairajan; Palanivel Chinnakali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Awareness about danger signs during pregnancy is essential for a woman to seek prompt care. This can avert long-term morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed to find the level of knowledge and its related factors about danger signs of pregnancy and childbirth among pregnant women attending a tertiary care hospital in southern India. Patients and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of pregnant women attending a tertiary care hospital in South India. Systematic rando...

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for myopia and other refractive errors in an adult population in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sanil; Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Ravindran, Ravilla D; Maraini, Giovanni; Camparini, Monica; Chakravarthy, Usha; Ravilla, Thulasiraj D; Hutchings, Andrew; Fletcher, Astrid E

    2018-05-01

    To investigate prevalence and risk factors for myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism in southern India. Randomly sampled villages were enumerated to identify people aged ≥40 years. Participants were interviewed for socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and attended a hospital-based ophthalmic examination including visual acuity measurement and objective and subjective measurement of refractive status. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent (SE) worse than -0.75 dioptres (D), hyperopia as SE ≥+1D and astigmatism as cylinder <-0.5. The age-standardised prevalences of myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism were 35.6% (95% CI: 34.7-36.6), 17.0% (95% CI: 16.3-17.8) and 32.6 (29.3-36.1), respectively. Of those with myopia (n = 1490), 70% had advanced cataract. Of these, 79% had presenting visual acuity (VA) less than 6/18 and after best correction, 44% of these improved to 6/12 or better and 27% remained with VA less than 6/18. In multivariable analyses (excluding patients with advanced cataract), increasing nuclear opacity score, current tobacco use, and increasing height were associated with higher odds of myopia. Higher levels of education were associated with increased odds of myopia in younger people and decreased odds in older people. Increasing time outdoors was associated with myopia only in older people. Increasing age and female gender were associated with hyperopia, and nuclear opacity score, increasing time outdoors, rural residence and current tobacco use with lower odds of hyperopia. After controlling for myopia, factors associated with higher odds of astigmatism were age, rural residence, and increasing nuclear opacity score and increasing education with lower odds. In contrast to high-income settings and in agreement with studies from low-income settings, we found a rise in myopia with increasing age reflecting the high prevalence of advanced cataract. © 2018 The Authors. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of

  1. Mixed method approach for determining factors associated with late presentation to HIV/AIDS care in southern India

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    U N Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early diagnosis and treatment of human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV is not only beneficial for the people living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS (PLHA but for the public and society as well. The study was aimed to identify the factors associated with late presentation to HIV/AIDS care. Materials and Methods: A facility-based unmatched case-control (1:1 study along with in-depth qualitative assessment was conducted at an ART Plus center at a district hospital, Udupi, southern India. A sample of 320 HIV patients (160 cases and 160 controls was selected randomly between February and July 2014. Information regarding the patients were collected using an interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire. The qualitative component was assessed by in-depth interviews of 4 health professionals and 12 HIV-positive patients who were late for HIV care. The quantitative data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 15.0. The technique of thematic analysis was adopted for the analysis of qualitative data. Results: HIV-positive individuals who lived with families [odds ratio (OR = 5.11], the patients having non-AIDS comorbidities [OR= 2.19, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.09-4.40], the patients who perceived fear of losing family [OR = 5.00, 95% CI: 2.17-11.49], the patients who perceived fear that their status will be ruined in the community [OR= 2.00, 95% CI: 1.01-3.97], the patients who perceived fear of side effects of ART medications [OR = 4.3, 95% CI: 2.65-11.33], the patients who perceived fear of losing confidentiality [OR = 4.94, 95% CI: 2.54-9.59], the patients those who lack information available on government services [OR = 4.12, 95% CI: 2.127-8.005], and the patients who consumed alcohol [OR= 3.52, 95% CI: 1.83-6.77] were found to be independently associated with the late presentation to HIV/AIDS care after adjusting for all known confounders in a multivariable analysis. The

  2. Investigating Strain Transfer Along the Southern San Andreas Fault: A Geomorphic and Geodetic Study of Block Rotation in the Eastern Transverse Ranges, Joshua Tree National Park, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guns, K. A.; Bennett, R. A.; Blisniuk, K.

    2017-12-01

    To better evaluate the distribution and transfer of strain and slip along the Southern San Andreas Fault (SSAF) zone in the northern Coachella valley in southern California, we integrate geological and geodetic observations to test whether strain is being transferred away from the SSAF system towards the Eastern California Shear Zone through microblock rotation of the Eastern Transverse Ranges (ETR). The faults of the ETR consist of five east-west trending left lateral strike slip faults that have measured cumulative offsets of up to 20 km and as low as 1 km. Present kinematic and block models present a variety of slip rate estimates, from as low as zero to as high as 7 mm/yr, suggesting a gap in our understanding of what role these faults play in the larger system. To determine whether present-day block rotation along these faults is contributing to strain transfer in the region, we are applying 10Be surface exposure dating methods to observed offset channel and alluvial fan deposits in order to estimate fault slip rates along two faults in the ETR. We present observations of offset geomorphic landforms using field mapping and LiDAR data at three sites along the Blue Cut Fault and one site along the Smoke Tree Wash Fault in Joshua Tree National Park which indicate recent Quaternary fault activity. Initial results of site mapping and clast count analyses reveal at least three stages of offset, including potential Holocene offsets, for one site along the Blue Cut Fault, while preliminary 10Be geochronology is in progress. This geologic slip rate data, combined with our new geodetic surface velocity field derived from updated campaign-based GPS measurements within Joshua Tree National Park will allow us to construct a suite of elastic fault block models to elucidate rates of strain transfer away from the SSAF and how that strain transfer may be affecting the length of the interseismic period along the SSAF.

  3. Detrital zircon and igneous protolith ages of high-grade metamorphic rocks in the Highland and Wanni Complexes, Sri Lanka: Their geochronological correlation with southern India and East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Ippei; Osanai, Yasuhito; Nakano, Nobuhiko; Adachi, Tatsuro; Fitzsimons, Ian C. W.

    2018-05-01

    additional detritus derived from early to middle Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks. The relic zircon core ages in the HC are comparable with those of the Trivandrum Block and Nagercoil Block of southern India. In contrast, those ages in the WC match the Achankovil Shear Zone and Southern Madurai Block of southern India. These comparisons are also supported by Th/U ratios of detrital zircon cores from paragneisses (Th/U ratios of >0.10 for the former and not only >0.10 but also ≤0.10 for the latter). Comparisons with the Lützow-Holm Complex of East Antarctica indicate that the geochronological characteristics of the HC and WC broadly match those of the Skallen Group, and the Ongul and Okuiwa Groups, respectively.

  4. Multilevel Analysis of the Predictors of HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women Enrolled in Annual HIV Sentinel Surveillance in Four States in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamattoor, Usha; Thomas, Tinku; Banandur, Pradeep; Rajaram, S; Duchesne, Thierry; Abdous, Belkacem; Washington, Reynold; Ramesh, B M; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic across districts of south India is reflected in HIV positivity among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees. Along with individual factors, contextual factors also need consideration for effective HIV interventions. Thus, identifying district and individual level factors that influence ANC HIV positivity assumes importance to intervene effectively. Data on HIV sentinel surveillance among the ANC population were obtained from the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) between years 2004 and 2007. Data from serial cross-sectional studies among female sex workers (FSWs) conducted during this time period in 24 districts were used to generate district level variables corresponding to parameters concerning this high risk population. Other district level data were obtained from various official/governmental agencies. Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify individual and district level factors associated with ANC-HIV positivity. The average ANC-HIV prevalence from 2004 to 2007 in the 24 integrated biological and behavioural assessments (IBBA) districts ranged from 0.25 to 3.25%. HIV positivity was significantly higher among ANC women with age ≥ 25 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR):1.49; 95% confidence interval (95%CI):1.27 to 1.76] compared to those with ageIlliteracy of the woman, higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and early marriage were associated with HIV positivity among pregnant women in southern India. In addition to targeted HIV preventive interventions among FSWs, studying and changing the behavior of FSW clients and addressing structural drivers of the epidemic might indirectly help reduce HIV infection among women in southern India.

  5. Lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Lower Carboniferous (Mississippian) carbonates of the southern Askrigg Block, North Yorkshire, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Waters, C.N.; Cozar, P.; Somerville, I.D.; Haslam, R.B.; Millward, D.; Woods, M.

    2017-01-01

    A rationalized lithostratigraphy for the Great Scar Limestone Group of the southeast Askrigg Block is established. The basal Chapel House Limestone Formation, assessed from boreholes, comprises shallow-marine to supratidal carbonates that thin rapidly northwards across the Craven Fault System, onlapping a palaeotopographical high of Lower Palaeozoic strata. The formation is of late Arundian age in the Silverdale Borehole, its northernmost development. The overlying Kilnsey Formation represent...

  6. Processes controlling silicon isotopic fractionation in a forested tropical watershed: Mule Hole Critical Zone Observatory (Southern India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riotte, Jean; Meunier, Jean-Dominique; Zambardi, Thomas; Audry, Stéphane; Barboni, Doris; Anupama, Krishnamurthy; Prasad, Srinivasan; Chmeleff, Jérôme; Poitrasson, Franck; Sekhar, Muddu; Braun, Jean-Jacques

    2018-05-01

    Assessing the dynamics of the silica cycle in the critical zone remains challenging, particularly within the soil, where multiple processes are involved. To improve our understanding of this cycle in the Tropics, and more specifically the role played by vegetation, we combined elemental Si mass balance with the δ30Si signatures of the compartments involved in the water-plant-rock interactions of a tropical forested watershed, Mule Hole (Southern India). To accomplish this, we analysed (1) the δ30Si values of present-day litter phytoliths from tree leaves and grass, as well as soil amorphous silica (ASi); (2) the Si isotope fractionation induced by phytolith dissolution; (3) the silicon mass balance inferred from isotopes at the soil-plant scale; and (4) the consistency between water sources and the δ30Si signatures in the ephemeral stream. The δ30Si values of present-day litter phytoliths and soil ASi vary within a narrow range of 1.10-1.40‰ for all samples, but two deep vertisol samples which likely trapped phytoliths from different vegetation growing under more humid conditions, as indicated by pollen analysis. A homogeneous signature of litter is a minimum condition for using δ30Si as a proxy for the litter/phytolith source of Si. However, litter-ash dissolution experiments demonstrate that the incipient dissolution of phytoliths fractionates Si isotopes, with the preferential dissolution of 28Si over 30Si yielding δ30Si values as low as -1.41‰. Values close to the whole-sample signatures, i.e., above 1‰, were recovered in the solution after a few hours of water-ash interaction. At the soil-plant scale, the average δ30Si value of soil-infiltrating solutions is slightly lighter than the average phytolith signature, which suggests phytoliths as the source of soil dissolved Si. The isotopic budget of dissolved Si within the soil layer, which was obtained based on previous elemental fluxes, is imbalanced. Equilibrating the isotopic budget would imply

  7. Cryogenian alkaline magmatism in the Southern Granulite Terrane, India: Petrology, geochemistry, zircon U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosh, M.; Yang, Qiong-Yan; Ram Mohan, M.; Tsunogae, T.; Shaji, E.; Satyanarayanan, M.

    2014-11-01

    The Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT) in India preserves the records of the formation and recycling of continental crust from Mesoarchean through Paleoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic and Cambrian, involving multiple subduction-accretion-collision associated with major orogenic cycles. A chain of unmetamorphosed and undeformed alkaline magmatic intrusions occurs along the northern margin of the SGT aligned along paleo-suture zones. Here we investigate two representative plutons from this suite, the Angadimogar syenite (AM) and the Peralimala alkali granite (PM) through field, petrological, geochemical, zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf studies. Magma mixing and mingling textures and mineral assemblages typical of alkaline rocks are displayed by these plutons. The whole-rock major and trace element data characterize their alkaline nature. In trace element discrimination diagrams, the AM rocks straddle between the VAG (volcanic-arc granites) and WPG (within plate granites) fields with most of the samples confined to the VAG field, whereas the PM rocks are essentially confined to the WPG field. The diversity in some of the geochemical features between the two plutons is interpreted to be the reflection of source heterogeneities. Most zircon grains from the AM and PM plutons display oscillatory zoning typical of magmatic crystallization although some grains, particularly those from the PM pluton, show core-rim structures with dark patchy zoned cores surrounded by irregular thin rims resulting from fluid alteration. The weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of the magmatic zircons from three samples of the AM syenite are in the range of 781.8 ± 3.8 Ma to 798 ± 3.6 Ma and those from two samples of the PM alkali granite yield ages of 797.5 ± 3.7 Ma and 799 ± 6.2 Ma. A mafic magmatic enclave from the AM pluton shows weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 795 ± 3.3 Ma. The AM and PM plutons also carry rare xeneocrystic zircons which define upper intercept concordia ages of 3293 ± 13 Ma and 2530

  8. Evaluation of Janani-Sishu Suraksha Karyakram in a Community Development Block of Bankura District, West Bengal, India: A Mixed Methods Approach

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    Satabdi Mitra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Government of India launched Janani-Sishu Suraksha Karyakram (JSSK for cost-free care during pregnancy and infancy. Objectives: To assess awareness and utilization of JSSK services, estimate expenditures incurred to avail care and find out influencing factors for implementing JSSK. Methodology: A cross-sectional evaluation study using mixed methods was conducted during April-September 2015 in Gangajalghati block of Bankura district, West Bengal. From its thirty subcentres (lots, 120 mothers and pseudo-cohort of 120 infants were selected using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling. Beneficiary mothers and caregivers of infants were interviewed through house-to-house visits using semi-structured questionnaire. ANMs and ASHAs were selected by simple random sampling and involved in Focus Group Discussion. In-depth interview was conducted for Block Medical Officer of Health, Deputy CMOH-III of Bankura and Medical Superintendent cum Vice-Principal of BankuraSammilani Medical College and Hospital to explore factors of utilization. Result: Only 13.3% and 3.3% lots were acceptable for awareness and 16.7% and 13.3% for utilization for mothers and infants respectively. Overall coverage was 9.2% and 7.5% for awareness and 20.5% & 10.75% in utilization for services, while Out of Pocket Expenditure was estimated to be INR 690, 651 and 250, 545 (median, IQR for mothers and infants respectively. Indirect costs were INR 540, 618 and 300, 460. Inadequate fund flow, manpower shortage, unavailability of referral transport timely, and poor prescribing for hospital supply medicines undermine the credibility of JSSK. Conclusion: Improved IEC and supervision, adequate fund and timely transport availability would forward this flagship programme of the Government.

  9. Dissociated reality vis-a-vis integrative planning of AYUSH in Maternal Health Program: A situational analysis in Jaleswar block of Balasore district of Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehury, Ranjit Kumar; Chatterjee, Suhita Chopra

    2016-01-01

    Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions is one of the innovative components of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in the state of Odisha, India. In this study, an attempt was made to assess the potential of collocating AYUSH to improve maternal health services in tribal dominated Jaleswar block of the Balasore district. In addition, the study aimed at unearthing the underlying challenges and constraints in mainstreaming AYUSH and linking it with the Maternal Health Program. Review of the policy documents and guidelines, both central and state government, was made to assess the implementation of AYUSH in Odisha. Primary data were collected through interviews with AYUSH doctors, district and block level health administrators, and tribal women. The study revealed the inadequacy of basic amenities, infrastructure, drugs, and consumables in the health centers for integrating AYUSH in the delivery of maternal health services. Analysis of the job chart and work pattern of AYUSH doctors showed underutilization of their specialized knowledge to treat patients. Lack of continued medical education, standard operating procedures for treatment and spatial marginalization made suboptimal utilization of AYUSH services. This is unfortunate given the fact that such regions are economically underdeveloped and already have a distinct orientation toward indigenous health systems. AYUSH, on account of its holistic approach and proven cost-effectiveness, could be a viable option for improving maternal health in the region. The study concluded that although there is huge scope for integrating AYUSH in Maternal Health Program under the ongoing NRHM, the full potential is yet to be exploited. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Status of groundwater arsenic contamination in all 17 blocks of Nadia district in the state of West Bengal, India: A 23-year study report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mondal, Debapriya; Das, Bhaskar; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Ahamed, Sad; Hossain, M. Amir; Samal, Alok Chandra; Saha, Kshitish Chandra; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2014-10-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted in Nadia, one of the nine arsenic (As) affected districts in West Bengal, India to determine the extent and severity of groundwater As contamination and its health effects in particular, dermatological effects and neurological complications. We collected 28,947 hand tube-well water samples from all 17 blocks of Nadia district and analyzed for As by the flow injection-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HG-AAS). We found 51.4% and 17.3% of the tube-wells had As above 10 and 50 μg/L, respectively and observed that groundwater of all 17 blocks contained As above 50 μg/L with maximum observed level of 3200 μg/L. We estimated that about 2.1 million and 0.6 million people could be drinking As contaminated water above 10 and 50 μg/L, respectively, while 0.048 million could be at risk of drinking As-contaminated water above 300 μg/L, the concentration predicted to cause overt arsenical skin lesions. We screened 15,153 villagers from 50 villages and registered 1077 with arsenical skin lesions resulting in a prevalence rate of 7.1%. Analyzing 2671 biological samples (hair, nail and urine), from people with and without arsenical skin symptoms we found 95% of the samples had As above the normal level, indicating many people in Nadia district are sub-clinically affected. Arsenical neuropathy was observed in 33% of 255 arsenicosis patients with 28.2% prevalence for predominant sensory neuropathy and 4.7% for sensorimotor. As groundwater is still the main source of drinking water, targeting low-As aquifers and switching tube-well from unsafe to nearby safe sources are two visible options to obtain safe drinking water.

  11. Ice in the Tropics: the Export of ‘Crystal Blocks of Yankee Coldness’ to India and Brazil

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    Marc W. Herold

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Boston natural ice trade thrived during 1830-70 based upon Frederic Tudor’s idea of combining two useless products – natural winter ice in New England ponds and sawdust from Maine’s lumber mills. Tudor ice was exported extensively to the tropics from the West Indies to Brazil and the East Indies as well as to southern ports of the United States. In tropical ice ports, imported natural ice was a luxury product, e.g., serving to chill claret wines (Calcutta, champagne (Havana and Manaus, and mint juleps (New Orleans and Savannah and used in luxury hotels or at banquets. In the temperate United States, natural ice was employed to preserve foods (cold storage and to cool water (Americans’ peculiar love of ice water. In both temperate and tropical regions natural ice found some use for medicinal purposes (to calm fevers. With the invention of a new technology to manufacture artificial ice as part of the Industrial Revolution, the natural ice export trade dwindled as import substituting industrialization proceeded in the tropics. By the turn of the twentieth century, ice factories had been established in half a dozen Brazilian port cities. All that remained of the once extensive global trade in natural ice was a sailing ship which docked in Rio Janeiro at Christmas time laden with ice and apples from New England.

  12. Assessment of cold-chain maintenance in vaccine carriers during Pulse Polio National Immunization Day in a rural block of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhare, Abhijit P; Bali, Surya; Pawar, Radhakishan B; Lokhande, Ganesh S

    2014-01-01

    India was certified polio free on 27 March 2014. Supplementary immunization activities, in the form of national immunization days, is one of the core strategies for eradication, where oral polio vaccine is administered to children aged under 5 years throughout the country. Oral polio vaccine is heat sensitive and requires maintenance of a stringent cold chain. Therefore, vaccine carriers with ice packs are used in the Pulse Polio Immunization (PPI) programme. This study assessed whether the cold chain is maintained during National Immunization Day in Beed district. A cross-sectional study was conducted at six randomly selected booths, one each from six primary health centres in Georai block of Beed district in Maharashtra. Electronic data loggers, configured to measure half-hourly temperatures, were kept in vaccine carriers throughout the day of PPI. The vaccine carrier temperature was below 8 °C at all six booths; minimum temperature recorded was -9.5 °C, while the maximum was 4.5 °C. The vaccine vial monitor did not reach discard point in any booth. A vaccine carrier with four ice packs very effectively maintains the cold chain required for oral polio vaccine.

  13. Trace element geochemistry and mineralogy of coal from Samaleswari open cast coal block (S-OCB), Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Debasree; Chatterjee, Debashis; Chakravarty, Sanchita; Mazumder, Madhurina

    2018-04-01

    Coal samples of Samaleswari open cast coal block (S-OCB) are high ash (Aad, mean value 35.43%) and low sulphur content (St, on dry basis, mean value 0.91% analysis. The work is further supported by the use of chemical fractionation experiment that reveals the multi mode of occurrence of several environmentally concern and interested trace elements (Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn). Among the analysed trace elements Co, Mn and Zn have major silicate association along with significant carbonate/oxide/monosulfide association. Whereas As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Ni have dominant pyritic association with notable silicate and carbonate/oxide/monosulfide association. The rest three elements (Sb, Be, Cr) have principally organic association with minor silicate and carbonate/oxide/monosulfide association. The stratigraphic variation of organo-mineral matrix content and detrital-authigenic mineral ratio are primarily related to coal rank. Geochemical character of coal also reflects a light towards proper utilisation of S-OCB coal from technical and environmental view point.

  14. A tomographic image of upper crustal structure using P and S wave seismic refraction data in the southern granulite terrain (SGT), India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendra Prasad, B.; Behera, Laxmidhar; Rao, P. Koteswara

    2006-07-01

    We present a 2-D tomographic P and S wave velocity (Vp and Vs) image with Vp/Vs ratios along N-S trending 220 km long deep seismic profile acquired in 2005, which traverses across major shear and tectonically disturbed zones in southern granulite terrain (SGT), India. The 2-D velocity model constrained down to maximum 8 km depth shows velocity anomalies (>0.2 km/s) beneath major shear zones with good spatial resolution (>0.05 km/s). The presence of high Vp (6.3-6.5 km/s), Vs (3.5-3.8 km/s), Vp/Vs (>1.75) and Poisson's ratio (0.25-0.29) indicate significant compositional changes of rocks at shallow depths (0.5 to 8 km) reveal rapid crustal exhumation of mid to lower crustal rocks. This crustal exhumation could be responsible due to Pan-African tectonothermal activity during Neoproterozoic period.

  15. Interaction with the MAPT H1H1 Genotype Increases Dementia Risk in APOE ε4 Carriers in a Population of Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairani, P S; Aswathy, P M; Gopala, Srinivas; Verghese, Joe; Mathuranath, P S

    2016-01-01

    This study delineates the role of the interaction of apolipoprotein E (APOE) and MAPT alleles in contributing to disease risks of dementia in a southern Indian population. A sample of 419 patients comprising Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 156), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 87), frontotemporal dementia (FTD; n = 127), vascular dementia (VD; n = 37), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB; n = 12) was analysed in comparison with a control group (n = 138). APOE genotyping and MAPT haplotyping were performed on all study subjects. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that variability on the APOE locus influenced the relative risk of dementia in the study population. The APOE ε4 allele increased the disease risk most significantly for AD (OR = 3.468, p India when compared to other dementia groups, while the transcriptional differences between MAPT haplotypes have a limited role in Indian dementia patients. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. A new species of freshwater crab of the genus Oziotelphusa Müller, 1887 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae) from Tamil Nadu, southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Smrithy; Kumar, Appukuttannair Biju; Ng, Peter K L

    2017-12-10

    A new species of gecarcinucid freshwater crab of the genus Oziotelphusa Müller, 1887, is described from stationary or slow-flowing bodies of water in Keeriparai near Nagercoil, in the state of Tamil Nadu in southern India. Oziotelphusa ravi, new species, is distinguished from its congeners by several distinct characters: the median tooth of the posterior margin of epistome forms a distinct bilobed tip in frontal view, the male pleonal somite 6 is narrowly trapezoidal and slightly wider than long with the lateral margins concave, the terminal segment of the male first gonopod is distinctly bent laterally (along the longitudinal axis) at an angle of about 45°, and the proximal part of the outer margin of the subterminal segment of the male first gonopod has a prominent deep concavity.

  17. Assessing the impact of a school-based safe water intervention on household adoption of point-of-use water treatment practices in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew C; Clasen, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    We assessed a pilot project by UNICEF and Hindustan Unilever Limited to improve the quality of drinking water for children in schools through adoption of improved drinking water practices among households in southern India. The intervention consisted of providing classrooms of 200 schools a commercial water purifier, and providing basic hygiene and water treatment information to students, parents, and teachers. We found no evidence that the intervention was effective in improving awareness or uptake of effective water treatment practices at home. A similar proportion of household members in the intervention and control groups boiled their water (P = 0.60), used a ceramic filtration system (P = 0.33), and used a cloth filter (P = 0.89). One year after the launch of the campaign, household ownership of the commercial purifier promoted at schools was higher in the intervention group (26%) than the control group (19%), but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.53).

  18. An NGO-Implemented Community-Clinic Health Worker Approach to Providing Long-Term Care for Hypertension in a Remote Region of Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Sujatha; Ravi, Prema S; Wu, Yichen Ethel; Shanabogue, Sharan; Ashok, Sangeetha; Agnew, Kaylan; Fang, Margaret C; Khanna, Raman A; Dandu, Madhavi; Harrison, James D

    2017-12-28

    Poor blood pressure control results in tremendous morbidity and mortality in India where the leading cause of death among adults is from coronary heart disease. Despite having little formal education, community health workers (CHWs) are integral to successful public health interventions in India and other low- and middle-income countries that have a shortage of trained health professionals. Training CHWs to screen for and manage chronic hypertension, with support from trained clinicians, offers an excellent opportunity for effecting systemwide change in hypertension-related burden of disease. In this article, we describe the development of a program that trained CHWs between 2014 and 2015 in the tribal region of the Sittilingi Valley in southern India, to identify hypertensive patients in the community, refer them for diagnosis and initial management in a physician-staffed clinic, and provide them with sustained lifestyle interventions and medications over multiple visits. We found that after 2 years, the CHWs had screened 7,176 people over age 18 for hypertension, 1,184 (16.5%) of whom were screened as hypertensive. Of the 1,184 patients screened as hypertensive, 898 (75.8%) had achieved blood pressure control, defined as a systolic blood pressure less than 140 and a diastolic blood pressure less than 90 sustained over 3 consecutive visits. While all of the 24 trained CHWs reported confidence in checking blood pressure with a manual blood pressure cuff, 4 of the 24 CHWs reported occasional difficulty documenting blood pressure values because they were unable to write numbers properly. They compensated by asking other CHWs or members of their community to help with documentation. Our experience and findings suggest that a CHW blood pressure screening system linked to a central clinic can be a promising avenue for improving hypertension control rates in low- and middle-income countries. © Sankaran et al.

  19. Three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate groundwater flow in the lower Palar River basin, southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, M.; Elango, L.

    A three-dimensional mathematical model to simulate regional groundwater flow was used in the lower Palar River basin, in southern India. The study area is characterised by heavy ion of groundwater for agricultural, industrial and drinking water supplies. There are three major pumping stations on the riverbed apart from a number of wells distributed over the area. The model simulates groundwater flow over an area of about 392 km2 with 70 rows, 40 columns, and two layers. The model simulated a transient-state condition for the period 1991-2001. The model was calibrated for steady- and transient-state conditions. There was a reasonable match between the computed and observed heads. The transient model was run until the year 2010 to forecast groundwater flow under various scenarios of overpumping and less recharge. Based on the modelling results, it is shown that the aquifer system is stable at the present rate of pumping, excepting for a few locations along the coast where the groundwater head drops from 0.4 to 1.81 m below sea level during the dry seasons. Further, there was a decline in the groundwater head by 0.9 to 2.4 m below sea level in the eastern part of the area when the aquifer system was subjected to an additional groundwater withdrawal of 2 million gallons per day (MGD) at a major pumping station. Les modèles mathématiques en trois dimensions de l'écoulement souterrain régional sont très utiles pour la gestion des ressources en eau souterraine, car ils permettent une évaluation des composantes des processus hydrologiques et fournissent une description physique de l'écoulement de l'eau dans un aquifère. Une telle modélisation a été entreprise sur une partie du bassin inférieur de la rivière Palar, dans le sud de l'Inde. La zone d'étude est caractérisée par des prélèvements importants d'eau souterraine pour l'agriculture, l'industrie et l'eau potable. Il existe trois grandes stations de pompage sur la rivière en plus d'un certain nombre

  20. Water borne epidemic of gastroenteritis in Ghallour sub-centre of Jawalamukhi block, Kangra District, Himachal Pradesh, India

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    Surender Nikhil Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: On August 31, 2014, eighty cases of the gastroenteritis were reported in Ghallour sub-center area. We investigated the outbreak to identify the source, propose control, and preventive measures. Materials and Methods: We defined a case as occurrence of three or more watery stools with or without vomiting, w.e.f January 27, till February 2, 2014 in residents of Ghallour sub-center area of Jawalamukhi block. We hypothesized it as a water borne outbreak. We determined age and sex specific attack rate. We collected information about personal history on age, sex, residence, and date of onset of symptom from case patient and established line list. We collected nine stool samples/rectal swabs from the cases; three pre and four post chlorination water samples and sent them for microbiological testing. We mapped water supply pipelines of the area and reviewed the water chlorination record. Results: We identified 390 cases in 16 villages under the sub center. The overall attack rate was 8% with a range of 1.3% to 36%. The cases patients were reported from all age groups and both the genders with the youngest student; 1-year old to the oldest one as 88 years. Two-third of the cases reported vomiting with some complaining of pain abdomen. Villages like Jathman, Khattni, Rajol Patta, Kohara has 100% case patients of loose motions while villages like Dhroli, (100%, Sasan (63% and Ghallour (50%, etc., have combined symptoms of loose motions and vomiting. No fatality was reported. Escherichia coli was detected in the samples from water samples. Records of chlorination were not properly maintained. Conclusion / Recommendation: The outbreak was associated due to contamination of water at the source in Jolly Khad. Regular treatment of the water needs to be done right at the source before being lifted.

  1. Multilevel Analysis of the Predictors of HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women Enrolled in Annual HIV Sentinel Surveillance in Four States in Southern India.

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    Usha Thamattoor

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic across districts of south India is reflected in HIV positivity among antenatal clinic (ANC attendees. Along with individual factors, contextual factors also need consideration for effective HIV interventions. Thus, identifying district and individual level factors that influence ANC HIV positivity assumes importance to intervene effectively.Data on HIV sentinel surveillance among the ANC population were obtained from the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO between years 2004 and 2007. Data from serial cross-sectional studies among female sex workers (FSWs conducted during this time period in 24 districts were used to generate district level variables corresponding to parameters concerning this high risk population. Other district level data were obtained from various official/governmental agencies. Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify individual and district level factors associated with ANC-HIV positivity.The average ANC-HIV prevalence from 2004 to 2007 in the 24 integrated biological and behavioural assessments (IBBA districts ranged from 0.25 to 3.25%. HIV positivity was significantly higher among ANC women with age ≥ 25 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR:1.49; 95% confidence interval (95%CI:1.27 to 1.76] compared to those with age<25 years; illiterate (AOR:1.62; 95%CI:1.03 to 2.54 compared to literate; employed in agriculture (AOR:1.34; 95%CI:1.11 to 1.62 or with occupations like driver/helper/industry/factory workers/hotel staff (AOR:1.59; 95%CI:1.26 to 2.01 compared to unemployed. District level HIV prevalence among FSWs (AOR:1.03; 95%CI:1.0 to 1.05 and percentage women marrying under 18 years were significantly associated with ANC-HIV positivity (AOR:1.02; 95%CI:1.00 to 1.04.Illiteracy of the woman, higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and early marriage were associated with HIV positivity among pregnant women in southern India. In addition to targeted HIV preventive interventions among

  2. 207Pb-206Pb zircon ages of eastern and western Dharwar craton, southern India : Evidence for contemporaneous Archaean crust

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    Maibam, B.; Goswami, J. N.; Srinivasan, R.

    2009-04-01

    Dharwar craton is one of the major Archaean crustal blocks in the Indian subcontinent. The craton is comprised of two blocks, western and eastern. The western domain is underlain by orthogneisses and granodiorites (ca. 2.9-3.3 Ga) collectively termed as Peninsular Gneiss [e.g., 1] interspersed with older tracts of metasedimentary and metamorphosed igneous suites (Sargur Group and Dharwar Group; [2]). The eastern part of the craton is dominated by Late Archaean (2.50-2.75 Ga) granitoids and their gneissic equivalents. They are interspersed with schist belts (also of Sargur Group and Dharwar Group), which are lithologically similar to the Dharwar Supergroup in the western block, but are in different metamorphic dress. Here we report 207Pb-206Pb age of zircons separated from the metasedimentary and gneissic samples from the two blocks to constrain the evolution of the Dharwar craton during the early Archaean. Detrital zircons of the metasedimentary rocks from both the blocks show a wide range of overlapping ages between ~2.9 to >3.5 Ga. Zircon ages of the orthogneisses from the two blocks showed that most of the analysed grains of the eastern Dharwar block are found to be of the age as old as the western Dharwar gneisses. Imprints of younger events could be discerned from the presence of overgrowths in zircons from the studied samples throughout the craton. Our data suggest that crust forming cycles in the two blocks of the Dharwar craton occurred contemporaneously during the Archaean. References [1] Beckinsale, R.D., Drury, S.A., Holt, R.W. (1980) Nature 283, 469-470. [2] Swami Nath J., Ramakrishnan M., Viswanatha M.N. (1976) Rec. Geol. Surv. Ind., 107, 149-175.

  3. Evaluating Generic Pantropical Allometric Models for the Estimation of Above-Ground Biomass in the Teak Plantations of Southern Western Ghats, India

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    S. Sandeep

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of suitable tree biomass allometric equations is crucial for making precise and non- destructive estimation of carbon storage and biomass energy values. The aim of this research was to evaluate the accuracy of the most commonly used pantropical allometric models and site-specific models to estimate the above-ground biomass (AGB in different aged teak plantations of Southern Western Ghats of India. For this purpose, the AGB data measured for 70 trees with diameter >10 cm from different aged teak plantations in Kerala part of Southern Western Ghats following destructive procedure was used. The results show that site specific models based on a single predictor variable diameter at breast height (dbh, though simple, may grossly increase the uncertainty across sites. Hence, a generic model encompassing dbh, height and wood specific gravity with sufficient calibration taking into account different forest types is advised for the tropical forest systems. The study also suggests that the commonly used pantropical models should be evaluated for different ecosystems prior to their application at national or regional scales.

  4. mHealth and the management of chronic conditions in rural areas: a note of caution from southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Papreen; Kannuri, Nanda Kishore; Mikkilineni, Sitamma; Murthy, G V S; Phillimore, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This article examines challenges facing implementation of likely mHealth programmes in rural India. Based on fieldwork in Andhra Pradesh in 2014, and taking as exemplars two chronic medical 'conditions' - type 2 diabetes and depression - we look at ways in which people in one rural area currently access medical treatment; we also explore how adults there currently use mobile phones in daily life, to gauge the realistic likelihood of uptake for possible mHealth initiatives. We identify the very different pathways to care for these two medical conditions, and we highlight the importance to the rural population of healthcare outside the formal health system provided by those known as registered medical practitioners (RMP), who despite their title are neither registered nor trained. We also show how limited is the use currently made of very basic mobile phones by the majority of the older adult population in this rural context. Not only may this inhibit mHealth potential in the near future; just as importantly, our data suggest how difficult it may be to identify a clinical partner for patients or their carers for any mHealth application designed to assist the management of chronic ill-health in rural India. Finally, we examine how the promotion of patient 'self-management' may not be as readily translated to a country like India as proponents of mHealth might assume.

  5. Critical Analysis of Forest Degradation in the Southern Eastern Ghats of India: Comparison of Satellite Imagery and Soil Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Andimuthu; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy; Jayakumar, Shanmuganathan; Dhanya, Praveen; Geetha, Rajadurai

    2016-01-01

    India has one of the largest assemblages of tropical biodiversity, with its unique floristic composition of endemic species. However, current forest cover assessment is performed via satellite-based forest surveys, which have many limitations. The present study, which was performed in the Eastern Ghats, analysed the satellite-based inventory provided by forest surveys and inferred from the results that this process no longer provides adequate information for quantifying forest degradation in an empirical manner. The study analysed 21 soil properties and generated a forest soil quality index of the Eastern Ghats, using principal component analysis. Using matrix modules and geospatial technology, we compared the forest degradation status calculated from satellite-based forest surveys with the degradation status calculated from the forest soil quality index. The Forest Survey of India classified about 1.8% of the Eastern Ghats’ total area as degraded forests and the remainder (98.2%) as open, dense, and very dense forests, whereas the soil quality index results found that about 42.4% of the total area is degraded, with the remainder (57.6%) being non-degraded. Our ground truth verification analyses indicate that the forest soil quality index along with the forest cover density data from the Forest Survey of India are ideal tools for evaluating forest degradation. PMID:26812397

  6. Critical Analysis of Forest Degradation in the Southern Eastern Ghats of India: Comparison of Satellite Imagery and Soil Quality Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Andimuthu; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy; Jayakumar, Shanmuganathan; Dhanya, Praveen; Geetha, Rajadurai

    2016-01-01

    India has one of the largest assemblages of tropical biodiversity, with its unique floristic composition of endemic species. However, current forest cover assessment is performed via satellite-based forest surveys, which have many limitations. The present study, which was performed in the Eastern Ghats, analysed the satellite-based inventory provided by forest surveys and inferred from the results that this process no longer provides adequate information for quantifying forest degradation in an empirical manner. The study analysed 21 soil properties and generated a forest soil quality index of the Eastern Ghats, using principal component analysis. Using matrix modules and geospatial technology, we compared the forest degradation status calculated from satellite-based forest surveys with the degradation status calculated from the forest soil quality index. The Forest Survey of India classified about 1.8% of the Eastern Ghats' total area as degraded forests and the remainder (98.2%) as open, dense, and very dense forests, whereas the soil quality index results found that about 42.4% of the total area is degraded, with the remainder (57.6%) being non-degraded. Our ground truth verification analyses indicate that the forest soil quality index along with the forest cover density data from the Forest Survey of India are ideal tools for evaluating forest degradation.

  7. Seasonal abundance and activity of pill millipedes ( Arthrosphaera magna) in mixed plantation and semi-evergreen forest of southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwini, Krishna M.; Sridhar, Kandikere R.

    2006-01-01

    Seasonal occurrence and activity of endemic pill millipedes ( Arthrosphaera magna) were examined in organically managed mixed plantation and semi-evergreen forest reserve in southwest India between November 1996 and September 1998. Abundance and biomass of millipedes were highest in both habitats during monsoon season. Soil moisture, conductivity, organic carbon, phosphate, potassium, calcium and magnesium were higher in plantation than in forest. Millipede abundance and biomass were about 12 and 7 times higher in plantation than in forest, respectively ( P 0.05). Millipede abundance and biomass were positively correlated with rainfall ( P = 0.01). Besides rainfall, millipedes in plantation were positively correlated with soil moisture as well as temperature ( P = 0.001). Among the associated fauna with pill millipedes, earthworms rank first followed by soil bugs in both habitats. Since pill millipedes are sensitive to narrow ecological changes, the organic farming strategies followed in mixed plantation and commonly practiced in South India seem not deleterious for the endangered pill millipedes Arthrosphaera and reduce the risk of local extinctions.

  8. Some aspects of the ecology of the Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica (Erxleben, 1777 in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India and their conservation implications

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    N. Baskaran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica, an endemic species to India, is widely distributed from the evergreen to moist and dry deciduous forests of Western and Eastern Ghats and the central Indian hills. We studied its population distribution, activity, feeding, ranging and nesting behaviour across three major habitats in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India, during 1998-2000 to manage the species effectively. Extensive survey of the three major habitats—tropical moist, dry deciduous and dry thorn—in the sanctuary shows that its distribution is continuous in moist and dry deciduous forests with good canopy contiguity and patchy along riverine areas in dry thorn and dry deciduous forests with sparse trees and broken canopy. Density estimates using 55 direct sightings from 199 km line transects show a mean of 2.9 (plus or minus 0.313 squirrels/km2. Daylight activity and feeding patterns assessed through 24,098 minutes of focal sampling reveal that animals feed and rest equal amounts of time. The diet constitutes seeds, bark, petioles, leaves and fruits from 25 plants, with Tectona grandis as the principal food source (41%. Its home range size varied from 0.8-1.7 ha with a mean of 1.3ha. Nesting characteristics assessed through 83 nests surveyed along 54km transects showed that the squirrel uses 15 of the 33 tree species found, with higher preference to Schleichera oleosa and Mangifera indica. Nest trees are significantly larger in height, gbh and canopy contiguity than nearest non-nest trees, which are attributed to better protection and escape from predators. Maintenance of diverse natural habitats and reduction in anthropogenic pressure are measures suggested for the conservation of giant squirrel populations in the study area.

  9. Can a primary remanence be retrieved from partially remagnetized Eocence volcanic rocks in the Nanmulin Basin (southern Tibet) to date the India-Asia collision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wentao; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Lippert, Peter C.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Guo, Zhaojie; Waldrip, Ross; Li, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiaoran; Liu, Dongdong; Kapp, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Paleomagnetic dating of the India-Asia collision hinges on determining the Paleogene latitude of the Lhasa terrane (southern Tibet). Reported latitudes range from 5°N to 30°N, however, leading to contrasting paleogeographic interpretations. Here we report new data from the Eocene Linzizong volcanic rocks in the Nanmulin Basin, which previously yielded data suggesting a low paleolatitude ( 10°N). New zircon U-Pb dates indicate an age of 52 Ma. Negative fold tests, however, demonstrate that the isolated characteristic remanent magnetizations, with notably varying inclinations, are not primary. Rock magnetic analyses, end-member modeling of isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition curves, and petrographic observations are consistent with variable degrees of posttilting remagnetization due to low-temperature alteration of primary magmatic titanomagnetite and the formation of secondary pigmentary hematite that unblock simultaneously. Previously reported paleomagnetic data from the Nanmulin Basin implying low paleolatitude should thus not be used to estimate the time and latitude of the India-Asia collision. We show that the paleomagnetic inclinations vary linearly with the contribution of secondary hematite to saturation isothermal remanent magnetization. We tentatively propose a new method to recover a primary remanence with inclination of 38.1° (35.7°, 40.5°) (95% significance) and a secondary remanence with inclination of 42.9° (41.5°,44.4°) (95% significance). The paleolatitude defined by the modeled primary remanence—21°N (19.8°N, 23.1°N)—is consistent with the regional compilation of published results from pristine volcanic rocks and sedimentary rocks of the upper Linzizong Group corrected for inclination shallowing. The start of the Tibetan Himalaya-Asia collision was situated at 20°N and took place by 50 Ma.

  10. Mortality records (1979–2011 shed light on threats to Asian Elephants Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Elephantidae in Nilgiris, southern India

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    Priya Davidar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We compiled records of 291 elephant deaths over a 33-year period (1979–2011 from the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve and the reserved forests of Nilgiri North and South divisions of southern India from the databases of the Tamil Nadu Forest Department, the Wildlife Protection Society of India and the Nilgiri Wildlife and Environment Association.  We tested the null hypothesis that the causes of elephant deaths would not differ with time, by gender and with level of protection.  We classified records by gender and age: adults (≥15 years, sub adults (5–15 years, juveniles (>1–<5 and calves (≤ 1. We organised records over 3-decade periods. The database consisted of 209 adults (≥15 years, 27 sub adults (5–15 years, 33 juveniles (>1–<5 and 22 calves (≤ 1. MTR had the maximum records (148 followed by NND (138 and NSD (4.  The median age of death was 20 years for adult males and 30 years for adult females.  Mean survival time for adult males was 22.45 years, and 31.84 for females.  Poaching was responsible for the majority of deaths (40%, particularly of male elephants (82%, and unknown causes (31% for the majority of female deaths (66%.  Human-caused deaths, which included poaching and some accidents, averaged 72% between 1979 and 2000 and decreased to 22% during 2001–2011. Deaths due to unknown causes and diseases increased from 28% in 1979-1989 to 69% in 2001–2011.  Relative to estimated population size, deaths attributed to poaching was higher in NND (47% than in MTR (34%.  The causes of death differed by region. In conclusion, the elephant population in the Nilgiris is at risk and needs stringent protection; the mortality database should be systematised; forensic capabilities upgraded, and detection of carcasses improved.  

  11. Association between treatment for gonorrhoea and chlamydia and lower condom use in a cross-sectional study of female sex workers in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre-Dugal, Marianne; Bradley, Janet; Rajaram, Subramanian Potty; Lowndes, Catherine M; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Washington, Reynold; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James; Alary, Michel

    2016-05-18

    To assess whether having received grey packets containing treatment for gonorrhoea and chlamydia was associated with condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in 5 districts of southern India covered by the Avahan programme where both periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) and syndromic management were used to control these sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among FSWs. Cross-sectional study of FSWs recruited in the field in 5 districts of southern India (Bangalore, Belgaum, Bellary, Guntur and Mumbai) in 2006-2007. 1378 self-identified FSWs out of 1442 were approached to participate in the study (participation rate: 95.6%). The only exclusion criterion was to be aged <18 years. Consistent condom use (CCU) with new or occasional clients, and with the most recent repeat client as assessed using a questionnaire administered through face-to-face interviews. Using the Poisson regression to model the association between the number of grey packets received in the past 3-12 months and reported CCU, adjusting for factors associated with condom use and other potential confounders in our data, CCU was lowest among FSWs who had received ≥3 grey packets in the past 3-12 months with their new or occasional clients (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR): 0.70, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.84, p<0.001) and with the most recent repeat client (APR 0.63, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.78, p<0.001). Tests for trends showed that CCU with both types of clients decreased with the number of grey packets received (p<0.001). Since we could not distinguish grey packets used for PPT from those given for syndromic management, these results could be either due to a perception of protection conferred by PPT or by the fact that inconsistent condom users are more at risk for STIs. Further research on the potential disinhibiting effect of PPT is warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Constraining the India-Asia collision by retrieving the paleolatitude from partially remagnetized Paleogene volcanics in the Nanmulin Basin (southern Tibet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wentao; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Lippert, Peter; Dekkers, Mark; Guo, Zhaojie; Li, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiaoran

    2014-05-01

    Determining paleolatitudes of the Lhasa terrane (southern Tibet) using paleomagnetic inclinations is key to constraining the paleogeography and timing of the collision between India and Asia. However, paleolatitude estimates vary widely from 5°N to 30°N due to unrecognized rock magnetic biases such as inclination shallowing in sedimentary rocks or poor averaging of secular variation in volcanic rocks. Here, we investigated Paleogene volcanics of the Linzizong Group from southern Tibet in the Nanmulin Basin that had previously yielded low paleomagnetic inclinations ca. 10°N. Using proper paleomagnetic sampling and measurement protocols we observe similar shallow inclinations. However, sampled sections with different bedding attitudes yield a negative fold test indicating that the isolated remanent magnetizations do not have a primary origin. Detailed rock magnetic analysis, end-member modeling, and petrographic investigation reveal that most of the section has been variably remagnetized due to low-temperature alteration of magmatic titanomagnetite and formation of secondary hematite, which occurred after tilting of the strata. We show that the observed paleomagnetic inclinations vary according to a linear trend with the degree of remagnetization. Accordingly, we can estimate that the primary pre-tilting thermoremanent magnetization has an inclination of 38.1° ([35.7°, 40.5°] within 95% confidence limit), corresponding to a paleolatitude of 21.4° ([19.8°, 23.1°] within 95% confidence limit). This is consistent with results from pristine volcanic units and inclination-shallowing corrected sediments of the upper Linzizong Group ~200 km to the east [Dupont-Nivet et al., Geophysical Journal International, 182, 1189-1198; Huang et al., Geophysical Journal International, 194, 1390-1411]. Our results demonstrate that previously reported low paleolatitudes of the Lhasa terrane can be an artifact of unrecognized remagnetization. Furthermore, we show that original

  13. Women living with AIDS in rural Southern India: Perspectives on mental health and lay health care worker support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Neha; Nyamathi, Adeline M.; Sinha, Sanjeev; Carpenter, Catherine; Satyanarayana, Veena; Ramakrishna, Padma; Ekstrand, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In this study, focus groups were conducted with 16 rural Women Living with AIDS (WLA) from Andhra Pradesh, India who had previously participated in a clinical trial wherein 68 WLA were randomized into either an Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) – Life (AL) intervention or a Usual Care program. Findings are discussed in terms of: a) mental health issues, b) perceived stressors, c) individual resources for coping with mental health issues, and d) role of Asha support in coping with mental health issues. These findings highlight the salience of mental health issues in the lives of WLA and the role played by Asha in addressing some of these issues. The discussion section makes a case for increased emphasis on mental health care in future community-based interventions for this population. PMID:29056879

  14. What can transaction costs tell us about governance in the delivery of large scale HIV prevention programmes in southern India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinness, Lorna

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to understand the transaction costs implications of two different governance modes for large scale contracting of HIV prevention services to non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in 2 states in India as part of the National AIDS Control Programme between 2001 and 2003. Interviews at purposively selected case study NGOs, contracting agencies and key informants as well as document review were used to compile qualitative data and make comparisons between the states on five themes theoretically proposed to shape transaction costs: institutional environment, informational problems, opportunism, scale of activity and asset specificity (the degree to which investments made specifically for the contract have value elsewhere). The State AIDS Control Society (SACS) in state Y used a management agency to manage the NGO contracts whereas the SACS in state X contracted directly with the NGOs. A high level of uncertainty, endemic corruption and weak information systems served to weaken the contractual relationships in both states. The management agency in state Y enabled the development of a strong NGO network, greater transparency and control over corrupt practises than the contract model in state X. State X’s contractual process was further weakened by inadequate human resources. The application of the transaction cost framework to contracting out public services to NGOs identified the key costs associated with the governance of HIV prevention services through NGO contracts in India. A more successful form of relational contract evolved within the network of the contract management agency and the NGOs. This led to improved flows of information and perceived quality, and limited corrupt practises. It is unlikely that the SACS on its own, with broader responsibilities and limited autonomy can achieve the same ends. The management agency approach therefore appears to be both transaction cost reducing and better able to cope with the large scale of these

  15. What can transaction costs tell us about governance in the delivery of large scale HIV prevention programmes in southern India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinness, Lorna

    2011-06-01

    This paper aims to understand the transaction costs implications of two different governance modes for large scale contracting of HIV prevention services to non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in 2 states in India as part of the National AIDS Control Programme between 2001 and 2003. Interviews at purposively selected case study NGOs, contracting agencies and key informants as well as document review were used to compile qualitative data and make comparisons between the states on five themes theoretically proposed to shape transaction costs: institutional environment, informational problems, opportunism, scale of activity and asset specificity (the degree to which investments made specifically for the contract have value elsewhere). The State AIDS Control Society (SACS) in state Y used a management agency to manage the NGO contracts whereas the SACS in state X contracted directly with the NGOs. A high level of uncertainty, endemic corruption and weak information systems served to weaken the contractual relationships in both states. The management agency in state Y enabled the development of a strong NGO network, greater transparency and control over corrupt practises than the contract model in state X. State X's contractual process was further weakened by inadequate human resources. The application of the transaction cost framework to contracting out public services to NGOs identified the key costs associated with the governance of HIV prevention services through NGO contracts in India. A more successful form of relational contract evolved within the network of the contract management agency and the NGOs. This led to improved flows of information and perceived quality, and limited corrupt practises. It is unlikely that the SACS on its own, with broader responsibilities and limited autonomy can achieve the same ends. The management agency approach therefore appears to be both transaction cost reducing and better able to cope with the large scale of these

  16. Pornography, Sexual Enhancement Products, and Sexual Risk of Female Sex Workers and their Clients in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Janet; Rajaram, Subramanian Potty; Isac, Shajy; Gurav, Kaveri; Ramesh, B M; Gowda, Chandrashekhar; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Despite their large numbers, and important role in the HIV epidemic in India, male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are a difficult to reach population and little is known about their sexual behaviors. Using data from an integrated behavioral and biological assessment of 684 clients in Bangalore in 2012, we examined factors associated with their reports of having sex with three or more different female sex workers in the last month, and anal sex with sex workers. We included sociodemographic and sexual behavior factors and, for the first time in client studies in India, included data on the use of pornography and sexual enhancement products (SEPs) such as pills, oils, and sprays, in our multivariable analyses of client risk. Seventy-eight percent of clients had seen pornographic material and 8% reported ever having used SEPs. The profiles of men practicing the two risk behaviors examined were quite different. Travel in the past year, drunkenness in the past month, young age at first commercial sex, non-use of condoms at last sex, and finding sex workers in public places (but not use of pornography and SEPs) were independently associated with multiple partnering. Sex with a man or transsexual, being a white collar worker, seeking out FSWs at home, pornography and SEP use, and condom use at last FSW sex, were all independently associated with anal sex with an FSW. More research is needed to better understand the links between pornography and SEPs, and HIV risk behaviors, and HIV prevention programs need to be cognizant of the importance of ensuring that condom use is adequately promoted and supported in the context of anal sex in female sex worker-client interactions.

  17. Sickness Absenteeism, Morbidity and Workplace Injuries among Iron and Steel workers – A Cross Sectional Study from Karnataka, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe study of illnesses causing absence of workers from workin industries is a practical method to study the health statusof industrial workers and to identify occupational healthhazards. The iron and steel industries are particularlyhazardous places of work. Published data from India onhealth status of iron and steel workers is limited, thereforethis study was undertaken to investigate the sicknessabsenteeism, morbidity and workplace injuries among thispopulation.MethodWorkers were selected using stratified random sampling. Astructured pre-tested interview schedule was used tocollect the data. A p value of < 0.05 was considered forstatistical significance.ResultsFrom a total of 2525 workers, 353 (mean age 55.1 yrs, male69.4% participated in the study. The overall proportion ofsickness absenteeism was 66.9% (95% CI: 0.62 – 0.71.Overall 16.4 days were lost per worker per year (male = 16.5& female = 16.2 due to sickness absence. A blue collarworker lost 21.5 days compared to 11.9 days by a whitecollar worker (p < 0.01. Among workers, health ailmentsrelated to the musculoskeletal system (31.4%,gastrointestinal system (25.8%, hypertension (24.4%,respiratory system (18.1% and other minor ailments(19.3% were found to be high.ConclusionSickness absenteeism is significantly higher among iron andsteel workers when compared to other occupations in India.Blue collar workers and shift workers loose higher numberof days due to sickness absence, and they face problemsrelated to musculoskeletal system, gastrointestinal systemand hypertension in higher proportions compared to theircounterparts. Women experienced hypertension as thecommon health problem and higher proportions of injuriesoutside the work environment.

  18. Diversity and community structure of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae associated with semi-urban fragmented agricultural land in the Malabar coast in southern India

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    K.S. Venugopal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the diversity and community structure of dung beetles associated with semiurban agricultural land in the Malabar coast of southern India revealed that urbanization has led to decreased diversity compared to regional forests, and has affected the community status of dung beetles. However, contrary to expectations, species richness was observed to be equivalent to rural agricultural fields in the region. Low abundance of prominent agricultural habitat species indicates that the study area has changed as a result of habitat modification/urbanization, and the prevailing conditions are not ideal for the establishment of the most common species in agriculture belts. Prominence of two less common species, Tiniocellus spinipes and Caccobius vulcanus, indicates these generalist urban adaptable (synanthropic species have become increasingly widespread and locally abundant. The low abundance of tunnelers and rollers is attributed to fragmentation of the urban agricultural belt, low mammalian diversity and dung availability, and the hard nature of the laterite soil in the Malabar coast region.

  19. Root canal configuration of human permanent mandibular first molars of an indo-dravidian population based in Southern India: An In vitro study

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    J V Karunakaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to analyze root canal configuration of human permanent mandibular first molars of an indo-Dravidian population based in southern India. Materials and Methods: A total of 1147 mandibular first permanent molars were collected, cleansed, and stored. The number of roots was recorded, access preparations made, pattern of orifices recorded after pulpal floor debridement, dye injected into the canals using apical negative pressure and subjected to a clearing technique. They were then analyzed using a stereo microscope and the canal configurations recorded (Vertucci. The number of roots, the pattern of orifices and canal configuration were recorded. Results: The pattern of orifices was triangular (87.9%, rectangular (8.5%, C-shaped (3.0%, and two orifice pattern (0.6%. About 95.6% of teeth had two roots, and 4.4% had three roots. The most common canal system configuration in mesial root was Vertucci type IV (52.3%, followed by type II (35%. Root canal configuration of the distal root revealed type I configuration in 62.7%, followed by types II (14.5% and IV (12.4%. The distolingual root had a type I configuration. Conclusion: Awareness of canal configuration, adequate clinical skills, use of specialized techniques of diagnosis, debridement and obturation will pave the way for successful treatment outcomes.

  20. Integrated approach for demarcating subsurface pollution and saline water intrusion zones in SIPCOT area: a case study from Cuddalore in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, S; Sonkamble, S; Krishnakumar, K; Mondal, N C

    2012-08-01

    This paper deals with a systematic hydrogeological, geophysical, and hydrochemical investigations carried out in SIPCOT area in Southern India to demarcate groundwater pollution and saline intrusion through Uppanar River, which flows parallel to sea coast with high salinity (average TDS 28, 870 mg/l) due to back waters as well as discharge of industrial and domestic effluents. Hydrogeological and geophysical investigations comprising topographic survey, self-potential, multi-electrode resistivity imaging, and water quality monitoring were found the extent of saline water intrusion in the south and pockets of subsurface pollution in the north of the study area. Since the area is beset with highly permeable unconfined quaternary alluvium forming potential aquifer at shallow depth, long-term excessive pumping and influence of the River have led to lowering of the water table and degradation of water quality through increased salinity there by generating reversal of hydraulic gradient in the south. The improper management of industrial wastes and left over chemicals by closed industries has led surface and subsurface pollution in the north of the study area.

  1. Root Canal Configuration of Human Permanent Mandibular First Molars of an Indo-Dravidian Population Based in Southern India: An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, J V; Samuel, Leo Sujith; Rishal, Yousef; Joseph, M Derick; Suresh, K Rahul; Varghese, Sam T

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to analyze root canal configuration of human permanent mandibular first molars of an indo-Dravidian population based in southern India. A total of 1147 mandibular first permanent molars were collected, cleansed, and stored. The number of roots was recorded, access preparations made, pattern of orifices recorded after pulpal floor debridement, dye injected into the canals using apical negative pressure and subjected to a clearing technique. They were then analyzed using a stereo microscope and the canal configurations recorded (Vertucci). The number of roots, the pattern of orifices and canal configuration were recorded. The pattern of orifices was triangular (87.9%), rectangular (8.5%), C-shaped (3.0%), and two orifice pattern (0.6%). About 95.6% of teeth had two roots, and 4.4% had three roots. The most common canal system configuration in mesial root was Vertucci type IV (52.3%), followed by type II (35%). Root canal configuration of the distal root revealed type I configuration in 62.7%, followed by types II (14.5%) and IV (12.4%). The distolingual root had a type I configuration. Awareness of canal configuration, adequate clinical skills, use of specialized techniques of diagnosis, debridement and obturation will pave the way for successful treatment outcomes.

  2. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Frugivory and seed dispersal by the Asian Elephant Elephas maximus in the tropical forests of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baskaran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal plays a potential role in plant species demographic processes. Elephants are important seed-dispersing agents. We studied frugivory and seed dispersal by Asian Elephants in the tropical deciduous and thorn forests of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, southern India. We determined fruit consumption based on the presence of seeds and fruit remnants in elephant dung piles. In total, we identified seeds of eight plant species belonging to seven families in 16% out of 455 dung piles examined between 1991 and 2004. Coinciding with a peak fruiting season in the study area, seeds and other fruit parts appeared in the dung piles significantly more frequently during the dry season than in the wet seasons (southwest and northeast monsoons. Owing to differences in fruit species abundance in different habitats, there was more evidence of fruit consumption in the dry thorn than in the dry and moist deciduous forests. This corresponds with insufficient grass availability in thorn forests during the dry season and an increase in browse consumption as a supplementary diet. Seeds of Tamarindus indica and Acacia intsia were found in elephant dung more frequently than other species. Seed and fruit remnants were found in almost an equal number of dung piles of both bulls and herds.

  3. Zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions of neoarchaean granitoids from Karimnagar, Eastern Dharwar craton, Southern India: LA-ICPMS results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, E.V.S.S.K.; Vijaya Kumar, T.; Sreenivas, B.; Khadke, Namrata; Vijaya Gopal, B.; Bhaskar Rao, Y.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Archaean Dharwar and Bastar cratons of Peninsular India are separated by the NE-SW trending Godavari Graben. This zone is involved in recurrent rifting. It is generally believed that earlier phase of rifting dates back to Mesoproterozoic and the younger phase is related to the deposition of Permo-carboniferous coal-bearing sediments. A belt of high-grade rocks (∼ 150 x 45 km) - the Karimnagar granulite terrane (KGT) along the southern flank of the graben. The KGT comprises high-grade lithologies such as orthopyroxene-bearing quarto-feldspathic gneiss, amphibolite-granulite facies supracrustal belts that include metamorphosed quartz-arenites, pelites, carbonates, iron formation and mafic rocks as well as several zones of migmatite and younger granitoid intrusives. The study presented new LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb age data for five granitoid (charnockite and granite) samples (KRN-90-24, KRN-90-30, KRN-13-02, KRN-13-03 and KRN-13-05; a closer constraint of the age crystallization of protoliths and high-grade metamorphism of felsic granulites and orthogneisses from the KGT. Hf isotopic compositions were also obtained for selected zircons from two samples (KRN-90-24 and KRN-90-30) using New Wave UP-213 Laser Ablation system coupled to Nu Plasma HR MC-ICPMS to constraint the nature of the felsic protoliths of the charnockite and granite gneisses in the KGT

  4. Inclination shallowing in Eocene Linzizong sedimentary rocks from Southern Tibet: correction, possible causes and implications for reconstructing the India-Asia collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wentao; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Lippert, Peter C.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Hallot, Erwan

    2013-09-01

    A systematic bias towards low palaeomagnetic inclination recorded in clastic sediments, that is, inclination shallowing, has been recognized and studied for decades. Identification, understanding and correction of this inclination shallowing are critical for palaeogeographic reconstructions, particularly those used in climate models and to date collisional events in convergent orogenic systems, such as those surrounding the Neotethys. Here we report palaeomagnetic inclinations from the sedimentary Eocene upper Linzizong Group of Southern Tibet that are ˜20° lower than conformable underlying volcanic units. At face value, the palaeomagnetic results from these sedimentary rocks suggest the southern margin of Asia was located ˜10°N, which is inconsistent with recent reviews of the palaeolatitude of Southern Tibet. We apply two different correction methods to estimate the magnitude of inclination shallowing independently from the volcanics. The mean inclination is corrected from 20.5° to 40.0° within 95 per cent confidence limits between 33.1° and 49.5° by the elongation/inclination (E/I) correction method; an anisotropy-based inclination correction method steepens the mean inclination to 41.3 ± 3.3° after a curve fitting- determined particle anisotropy of 1.39 is applied. These corrected inclinations are statistically indistinguishable from the well-determined 40.3 ± 4.5º mean inclination of the underlying volcanic rocks that provides an independent check on the validity of these correction methods. Our results show that inclination shallowing in sedimentary rocks can be corrected. Careful inspection of stratigraphic variations of rock magnetic properties and remanence anisotropy suggests shallowing was caused mainly by a combination of syn- and post-depositional processes such as particle imbrication and sedimentary compaction that vary in importance throughout the section. Palaeolatitudes calculated from palaeomagnetic directions from Eocene sedimentary

  5. Identification of saline water intrusion in part of Cauvery deltaic region, Tamil Nadu, Southern India: using GIS and VES methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanachandrasamy, G.; Ramkumar, T.; Venkatramanan, S.; Chung, S. Y.; Vasudevan, S.

    2016-06-01

    We use electrical resistivity data arrayed in a 2715 km2 region with 30 locations to identify the saline water intrusion zone in part of Cauvery deltaic region, offshore Eastern India. From this dataset we are able to derive information on groundwater quality, thickness of aquifer zone, structural and stratigraphic conditions relevant to groundwater conditions, and permeability of aquifer systems. A total of 30 vertical electrode soundings (VES) were carried out by Schlumberger electrode arrangement to indicate complete lithology of this region using curve matching techniques. The electrical soundings exhibited that H and HK type curves were suitable for 16 shallow locations, and QH, KQ, K, KH, QQ, and HA curves were fit for other location. Low resistivity values suggested that saline water intrusion occurred in this region. According to final GIS map, most of the region was severely affected by seawater intrusion due to the use of over-exploitation of groundwater.The deteriorated groundwater resources in this coastal region should raise environmental and health concerns.

  6. Community Mobilisation and Empowerment Interventions as Part of HIV Prevention for Female Sex Workers in Southern India: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassall, Anna; Chandrashekar, Sudhashree; Pickles, Michael; Beattie, Tara S.; Shetty, Govindraj; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Boily, Marie-Claude; Vickerman, Peter; Bradley, Janet; Alary, Michel; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background Most HIV prevention for female sex workers (FSWs) focuses on individual behaviour change involving peer educators, condom promotion and the provision of sexual health services. However, there is a growing recognition of the need to address broader societal, contextual and structural factors contributing to FSW risk behaviour. We assess the cost-effectiveness of adding community mobilisation (CM) and empowerment interventions (eg. community mobilisation, community involvement in programme management and services, violence reduction, and addressing legal policies and police practices), to core HIV prevention services delivered as part of Avahan in two districts (Bellary and Belgaum) of Karnataka state, Southern India. Methods An ingredients approach was used to estimate economic costs in US$ 2011 from an HIV programme perspective of CM and empowerment interventions over a seven year period (2004–2011). Incremental impact, in terms of HIV infections averted, was estimated using a two-stage process. An ‘exposure analysis’ explored whether exposure to CM was associated with FSW’s empowerment, risk behaviours and HIV/STI prevalence. Pathway analyses were then used to estimate the extent to which behaviour change may be attributable to CM and to inform a dynamic HIV transmission model. Findings The incremental costs of CM and empowerment were US$ 307,711 in Belgaum and US$ 592,903 in Bellary over seven years (2004–2011). Over a 7-year period (2004–2011) the mean (standard deviation, sd.) number of HIV infections averted through CM and empowerment is estimated to be 1257 (308) in Belgaum and 2775 (1260) in Bellary. This translates in a mean (sd.) incremental cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted of US$ 14.12 (3.68) in Belgaum and US$ 13.48 (6.80) for Bellary - well below the World Health Organisation recommended willingness to pay threshold for India. When savings from ART are taken into account, investments in CM and empowerment are

  7. Assessing intake of spices by pattern of spice use, frequency of consumption and portion size of spices consumed from routinely prepared dishes in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siruguri, Vasanthi; Bhat, Ramesh V

    2015-01-11

    Measurement of dietary intake of spices is gaining significance because of recognition of their health promoting benefits as well as its use for risk assessment of contaminant exposures. Estimating intake of spices at the individual level, presents several challenges since various spices are used as an integrated part of a prepared food and consumed in amounts much smaller than other dietary components. The objective of the present study is to assess intake of spices at the household and individual level on the basis of pattern of spice use and portion size of spice consumed from routinely prepared dishes in Hyderabad city in Southern India. The study was conducted in 100 households in urban areas of Hyderabad city in India with the help of a spice intake questionnaire that was prepared to collect information on the pattern of spice use, frequency, and quantity of spice consumption of 17 spices routinely used in Indian cuisine. The quantity of spice intake was assessed by measuring portion size of spice consumed from the quantity of i) spices added in routinely prepared dishes and ii) the prepared dish consumed by an individual. Based on the type of dish prepared and frequency of preparing the dishes, 11 out of 17 spices were found to be consumed by more than 50% of the households. Maximum number of spices was consumed at weekly frequencies. Red chillies and turmeric were the most frequently consumed spices by 100% of the households. The mean total intake of spices was observed to be higher through dishes consumed daily (10.4 g/portion) than from those consumed at weekly or monthly frequencies. Highest portion size intake was observed for chillies (mean 3.0 g; range 0.05-20.2 g) and lowest for nutmeg (mean 0.14 g; range 0.02-0.64 g) and mace (mean 0.21 g; range: 0.02-0.6 g). The study suggested that assessment of intake of spices varies with frequency of use of spices and type of dish consumed. Portion size estimations of spices consumed and the frequency of

  8. Community mobilisation and empowerment interventions as part of HIV prevention for female sex workers in Southern India: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassall, Anna; Chandrashekar, Sudhashree; Pickles, Michael; Beattie, Tara S; Shetty, Govindraj; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Boily, Marie-Claude; Vickerman, Peter; Bradley, Janet; Alary, Michel; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Most HIV prevention for female sex workers (FSWs) focuses on individual behaviour change involving peer educators, condom promotion and the provision of sexual health services. However, there is a growing recognition of the need to address broader societal, contextual and structural factors contributing to FSW risk behaviour. We assess the cost-effectiveness of adding community mobilisation (CM) and empowerment interventions (eg. community mobilisation, community involvement in programme management and services, violence reduction, and addressing legal policies and police practices), to core HIV prevention services delivered as part of Avahan in two districts (Bellary and Belgaum) of Karnataka state, Southern India. An ingredients approach was used to estimate economic costs in US$ 2011 from an HIV programme perspective of CM and empowerment interventions over a seven year period (2004-2011). Incremental impact, in terms of HIV infections averted, was estimated using a two-stage process. An 'exposure analysis' explored whether exposure to CM was associated with FSW's empowerment, risk behaviours and HIV/STI prevalence. Pathway analyses were then used to estimate the extent to which behaviour change may be attributable to CM and to inform a dynamic HIV transmission model. The incremental costs of CM and empowerment were US$ 307,711 in Belgaum and US$ 592,903 in Bellary over seven years (2004-2011). Over a 7-year period (2004-2011) the mean (standard deviation, sd.) number of HIV infections averted through CM and empowerment is estimated to be 1257 (308) in Belgaum and 2775 (1260) in Bellary. This translates in a mean (sd.) incremental cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted of US$ 14.12 (3.68) in Belgaum and US$ 13.48 (6.80) for Bellary--well below the World Health Organisation recommended willingness to pay threshold for India. When savings from ART are taken into account, investments in CM and empowerment are cost saving. Our findings suggest that CM

  9. New paleomagnetic results on ˜ ˜2367 Ma Dharwar giant dyke swarm, Dharwar craton, southern India: implications for Paleoproterozoic continental reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, N. Ramesh; Venkateshwarlu, M.; Shankar, Ravi; Nagaraju, E.; Parashuramulu, V.

    2018-02-01

    Here we report new paleomagnetic results and precise paleopole position of the extensional study on ˜ 2367 Ma mafic giant radiating dyke swarm in the Dharwar craton, southern India. We have sampled 29 sites on 12 dykes from NE-SW Karimnagar-Hyderabad dykes and Dhone-Gooty sector dykes, eastern Dharwar craton to provide unambiguous paleomagnetism evidence on the spectacular radiating dyke swarm and thereby strengthening the presence of single magmatic event at ˜ 2367 Ma. A total of 158 samples were subjected to detailed alternating field and thermal demagnetization techniques and the results are presented here along with previously reported data on the same dyke swarm. The remanent magnetic directions are showing two components, viz., seven sites representing four dykes show component (A) with mean declination of 94{{}°} and mean inclination of - 70{{}°} (k=87, α_{95}=10{{}°}) and corresponding paleopole at 16{{}°}N, 41{{}°}E (dp=15{{}°} and dm=17{{}°}) and 22 sites representing 8 dykes yielded a component (B) with mean declination of 41{{}°} and mean inclination of - 21{{}°} (k=41, α_{95}=9{{}°}) with a paleopole at 41{{}°}N, 200{{}°}E (dp=5{{}°} and dm=10{{}°}). Component (A) results are similar to the previously reported directions from the ˜ 2367 Ma dyke swarm, which have been confirmed fairly reliably to be of primary origin. The component (B) directions appear to be strongly overprinted by the 2080 Ma event. The grand mean for the primary component (A) combined with earlier reported studies gives mean declination of 97{{}°} and mean inclination of - 79{{}°} (k=55, α_{95}=3{{}°}) with a paleopole at 15{{}°}N, 57{{}°}E (dp=5{{}°}, dm=6{{}°}). Paleogeographical position for the Dharwar craton at ˜ 2367 Ma suggests that there may be a chance to possible spatial link between Dharwar dykes of Dharwar craton (India), Widgemooltha and Erayinia dykes of Yilgarn craton (Australia), Sebanga Poort Dykes of Zimbabwe craton (Africa) and Karelian

  10. Nerve Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Nerve Blocks A nerve block is an injection to ... the limitations of Nerve Block? What is a Nerve Block? A nerve block is an anesthetic and/ ...

  11. Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational use in the Southern Tiruchirappalli district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, S.; Ramkumar, K.; Chandrasekar, N.; Magesh, N. S.; Kaliraj, S.

    2017-03-01

    A total of 20 groundwater samples were collected from both dug and bore wells of southern Tiruchirappalli district and analyzed for various hydrogeochemical parameters. The analyzed physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, carbonate, sulfate, chloride, nitrate, and fluoride are used to characterize the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational uses. The results of the chemical analysis indicates that the groundwater in the study area is slightly alkaline and mainly contains Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ cations as well as HCO3 2-, Cl-, SO4 2-and NO3 - anions. The total dissolved solids mainly depend on the concentration of major ions such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, Cl, and SO4. Based on TDS, 55 % of the samples are suitable for drinking and rest of the samples are unsuitable for drinking. The total hardness indicates that majority of the groundwater samples are found within the permissible limit of WHO. The dominant hydrochemical facies for groundwater are Ca-Mg-Cl, Ca-HCO3, and Ca-Cl type. The USSL graphical geochemical representation of groundwater quality suggests that majority of the water samples belongs to high medium salinity with low alkali hazards. The Gibb's plot indicates that the groundwater chemistry of the study area is mainly controlled by evaporation and rock-water interaction. Spearman's correlation and factor analysis were used to distinguish the statistical relation between different ions and contamination source in the study area.

  12. Regional gravity and magnetic surveys along southern margin of Indravati basin, Central India - a guide to unconformity related uranium mineralisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, I.; Ramesh Babu, V.; Chaturvedi, A.K.; Sreenivas, R.; Chari, M.N.; Dash, J.K.; Roy, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Geophysical methods play vital role at various stages in mineral exploration programme particularly in case of buried deposits. The unconformity related uranium deposits owing to their concealed nature are explored by geophysical methods as an indirect tool. Regional ground gravity and magnetic surveys have been conducted to decipher the basin configuration, presence of fault/ fractures and basic activity. These structural features may form favorable criteria for mineralisation. Qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the gravity and magnetic data along the southern margin of Mesoproterozoic Indravati basin has been correlated with ground follow up geological investigation. There exists a good correlation between interpreted faults, fracture zones and mafic activity from the magnetic and gravity surveys with available borehole data in the area. Further, 2D models generated from magnetic data have paved the way for planning boreholes and thereby reorienting the sub-surface exploration programme. Evidence of alteration and fracturing intercepted from the borehole correlates well with the low gravity and magnetic. Hence, gravity and magnetic surveys can be effectively utilized in delineating basement configuration and to estimate sediment thickness besides deciphering post sedimentary fault/fractures which are favorable factors for unconformity related uranium mineralisation. (author)

  13. Development of experimental approach to examine U occurrence continuity over the extended area reconnoitory boreholes: Lostoin Block, West Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukreti, B M; Kumar, Pramod; Sharma, G K

    2015-10-01

    Exploratory drilling was undertaken in the Lostoin block, West Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya based on the geological extension to the major uranium deposit in the basin. Gamma ray logging of drilled boreholes shows considerable subsurface mineralization in the block. However, environmental and exploration related challenges such as climatic, logistic, limited core drilling and poor core recovery etc. in the block severely restricted the study of uranium exploration related index parameters for the block with a high degree confidence. The present study examines these exploration related challenges and develops an integrated approach using representative sampling of reconnoitory boreholes in the block. Experimental findings validate a similar geochemically coherent nature of radio elements (K, Ra and Th) in the Lostoin block uranium hosting environment with respect to the known block of Mahadek basin and uranium enrichment is confirmed by the lower U to Th correlation index (0.268) of hosting environment. A mineralized zone investigation in the block shows parent (refers to the actual parent uranium concentration at a location and not a secondary concentration such as the daughter elements which produce the signal from a total gamma ray measurement) favoring uranium mineralization. The confidence parameters generated under the present study have implications for the assessment of the inferred category of uranium ore in the block and setting up a road map for the systematic exploration of large uranium potential occurring over extended areas in the basin amid prevailing environmental and exploratory impediments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Zircon and ilmenite from the beach placers of southern coast of Tamil Nadu, east coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angusamy, N.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Loveson, V.J.

    2004-01-01

    Zircons were studied from the two different zones of enrichment of placer deposits namely, Kanyakumari-Kuttankuli (KK) and Kallar-Vaippar (VP) along the southern coast of Tamil Nadu. The average heavy mineral contents were 67 wt % for KK and 64 wt % in VP region. The heavy mineral assemblage of the two zones were akin to each other. However, monazite was present in the KK region. In KK, zircons were rounded (44.5 - 63.2 %), overgrown (4.1-16 %), and euhedral (9-4.9 %) while in VP, they are largely broken (47.8-59.6 %), rounded (22.2-38.9 %), and euhedral (7.3-8.1 %). Mean length and breadth of zircons of KK and VP ranged from 0.22-0.26 mm and 0.07-0.13 mm and, 0.06 - 0.16 mm and 0.07-0.11 mm, respectively. Zircons of VP are more fine-grained and well-rounded than KK. The northerly currents, in the Gulf of Mannar, must have transported and deposited the heavy minerals due to the inflection of coastline, and downwarped basinal structure. REE pattern of zircons exhibit Eu and Ce anomalies which could be explained only in terms of crystallochemical factors and the bulk compositional differences of the melt. In the study area, abundance of rounded zircons, length/breadth (L/B) ratios, reduced major axis (RMA) angles, indicated that the source rock for zircons must have been primarily of charnockites. The distribution, composition and REE content of zircons compare well with that of other countries where it is currently under exploitation. (author)

  15. Outcome of Prevention of Parent-to-Child Transmission of HIV in an Urban Population in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenivasan, Subramani; Vaitheeswaran, Natarajan; Seetha, Viswanathan; Anbalagan, Selvaraj; Karunaianantham, Ramesh; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the outcomes of Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT) of HIV program in an urban Southern Indian setting. Observational study. Anti-retroviral Therapy (ART) Centers/ Integrated Counseling and Testing Centers (ICTC) at four government Obstetrics Institutes in an urban area. 100 HIV-positive pregnant women and their infants delivered in the study centers. Triple drug ART to HIV-positive pregnant women was started for maternal indications only. Rest of the pregnant women were given single dose Nevirapine (200 mg) at the onset of labor. All infants were given single dose Nevirapine (2 mg/kg) prophylaxis, according to National AIDS Control Organization guidelines. Mothers were counseled regarding breastfeeding and artificial feeding, and the choice was left to them. Whole blood HIV 1 DNA PCR was done for all infants at 6 weeks of life. A second PCR was done at 6 months or 6 weeks after stopping breastfeeds. PCR-positive infants were started on ART, and were followed-up till18 months of life. Four infants were PCR-positive for HIV. All of them were breastfed. They were born to mothers of HIV stage 1 or 2 who were not on ART as CD4 counts were >350 cells/mm3. Among the mothers in Stage 3 or 4 or CD4 count ART, none of the infants was HIV-positive. The cumulative HIV-free survival at 18 months was 94%. Parent-to-child transmission rate in HIV was low with the currently used strategies. Triple drug ART to mother reduces mother-to-child transmission despite advanced maternal stage or low CD4 counts.

  16. LAND USE/LAND COVER CHANGES IN SEMI-ARID MOUNTAIN LANDSCAPE IN SOUTHERN INDIA: A GEOINFORMATICS BASED MARKOV CHAIN APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Rahaman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays land use/ land cover in mountain landscape is in critical condition; it leads to high risky and uncertain environments. These areas are facing multiple stresses including degradation of land resources; vagaries of climate and depletion of water resources continuously affect land use practices and livelihoods. To understand the Land use/Land cover (Lu/Lc changes in a semi-arid mountain landscape, Kallar watershed of Bhavani basin, in southern India has been chosen. Most of the hilly part in the study area covers with forest, plantation, orchards and vegetables and which are highly affected by severe soil erosion, landslide, frequent rainfall failures and associated drought. The foothill regions are mainly utilized for agriculture practices; due to water scarcity and meagre income, the productive agriculture lands are converted into settlement plots and wasteland. Hence, land use/land cover change deduction; a stochastic processed based method is indispensable for future prediction. For identification of land use/land cover, and vegetation changes, Landsat TM, ETM (1995, 2005 and IRS P6- LISS IV (2015 images were used. Through CAMarkov chain analysis, Lu/Lc changes in past three decades (1995, 2005, and 2015 were identified and projected for (2020 and 2025; Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI were used to find the vegetation changes. The result shows that, maximum changes occur in the plantation and slight changes found in forest cover in the hilly terrain. In foothill areas, agriculture lands were decreased while wastelands and settlement plots were increased. The outcome of the results helps to farmer and policy makers to draw optimal lands use planning and better management strategies for sustainable development of natural resources.

  17. Assessment of diversity among populations of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. Ex. Kurtz. from Southern Western Ghats of India, based on chemical profiling, horticultural traits and RAPD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vadakkemuriyil Divya; Raj, Rajan Pillai Dinesh; Panneerselvam, Rajaram; Gopi, Ragupathi

    2014-01-01

    Genetic, morphological and chemical variations of ten natural populations of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. Ex. Kurtz. from Southern Western Ghats of India were assessed using RAPD markers reserpine content and morphological traits. An estimate of genetic diversity and differentiation between genotypes of breeding germplasm is of key importance for its improvement. Populations were collected from different geographical regions. Data obtained through three different methods were compared and the correlation among them was estimated. Statistical analysis showed significant differences for all horticultural characteristics among the accessions suggesting that selection for relevant characteristics could be possible. Variation in the content of Reserpine ranges from 0.192 g/100 g (population from Tusharagiri) to 1.312 g/100 g (population from Aryankavu). A high diversity within population and high genetic differentiation among them based on RAPDs were revealed caused both by habitat fragmentation of the low size of most populations and the low level of gene flow among them. The UPGMA dendrogram and PCA analysis based on reserpine content yielded higher separation among populations indicated specific adaptation of populations into clusters each of them including populations closed to their geographical origin. Genetic, chemical and morphological data were correlated based on Mantel test. Given the high differentiation among populations conservation strategies should take into account genetic diversity and chemical variation levels in relation to bioclimatic and geographic location of populations. Our results also indicate that RAPD approach along with horticultural analysis seemed to be best suited for assessing with high accuracy the genetic relationships among distinct R. serpentina accessions. © 2013.

  18. An assessment of human-elephant conflict and associated ecological and demographic factors in Nilambur, Western Ghats of Kerala, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Rohini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Elephant conservation carries cost in the form of human-elephant conflict and affects the wellbeing of people living near ecologically important areas.  Conflicts impart serious challenges towards the survival of Asian Elephants, which are categorized as Endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.  Issues of wildlife conservation are least addressed in areas with less restricted categories of protection.  Hence an attempt was made to evaluate the intensity of elephant conflict and factors associated with its occurrence in villages with forest fringes of North and South Forest Divisions of Nilambur, Kerala, southern India.  It was hypothesized that variables such as number of houses, area of village, livestock population, forest frontage, and presence of water source along the forest boundary abutting the village to be the underlying correlates of conflict.  Field studies were conducted fortnightly from June 2014 to May 2015, by visiting farms and households of 17 selected forest fringe villages.  Observational methods, questionnaire surveys and secondary data collection were employed for this purpose.  A total of 277 incidents of crop depredation, 12 incidents of property damage, three human injuries, and one human death due to conflict were recorded during this period.  Crop raiding was highest during post monsoon season and it was low during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons.  Multiple linear regression results suggest that forest frontage and livestock population were significant predictors of conflict incidence.  Information regarding the prime causes of conflict will be helpful for planning strategies for the establishment of appropriate mitigation methods.  The present study serves as baseline information which will be helpful for formulating prospective management plans.

  19. Ancient geographical gaps and paleo-climate shape the phylogeography of an endemic bird in the sky islands of southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, V V; Sinha, Anindya; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2010-10-13

    Sky islands, formed by the highest reaches of mountain tracts physically isolated from one another, represent one of the biodiversity-rich regions of the world. Comparative studies of geographically isolated populations on such islands can provide valuable insights into the biogeography and evolution of species on these islands. The Western Ghats mountains of southern India form a sky island system, where the relationship between the island structure and the evolution of its species remains virtually unknown despite a few population genetic studies. We investigated how ancient geographic gaps and glacial cycles have partitioned genetic variation in modern populations of a threatened endemic bird, the White-bellied Shortwing Brachypteryx major, across the montane Shola forests on these islands and also inferred its evolutionary history. We used bayesian and maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic and population-genetic analyses on data from three mitochondrial markers and one nuclear marker (totally 2594 bp) obtained from 33 White-bellied Shortwing individuals across five islands. Genetic differentiation between populations of the species correlated with the locations of deep valleys in the Western Ghats but not with geographical distance between these populations. All populations revealed demographic histories consistent with population founding and expansion during the Last Glacial Maximum. Given the level of genetic differentiation north and south of the Palghat Gap, we suggest that these populations be considered two different taxonomic species. Our results show that the physiography and paleo-climate of this region historically resulted in multiple glacial refugia that may have subsequently driven the evolutionary history and current population structure of this bird. The first avian genetic study from this biodiversity hotspot, our results provide insights into processes that may have impacted the speciation and evolution of the endemic fauna of this region.

  20. On the rebound: soil organic carbon stocks can bounce back to near forest levels when agroforests replace agriculture in southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombegowda, H. C.; van Straaten, O.; Köhler, M.; Hölscher, D.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical agroforestry has an enormous potential to sequester carbon while simultaneously producing agricultural yields and tree products. The amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestered is influenced by the type of the agroforestry system established, the soil and climatic conditions, and management. In this regional-scale study, we utilized a chronosequence approach to investigate how SOC stocks changed when the original forests are converted to agriculture, and then subsequently to four different agroforestry systems (AFSs): home garden, coffee, coconut and mango. In total we established 224 plots in 56 plot clusters across 4 climate zones in southern India. Each plot cluster consisted of four plots: a natural forest reference, an agriculture reference and two of the same AFS types of two ages (30-60 years and > 60 years). The conversion of forest to agriculture resulted in a large loss the original SOC stock (50-61 %) in the top meter of soil depending on the climate zone. The establishment of home garden and coffee AFSs on agriculture land caused SOC stocks to rebound to near forest levels, while in mango and coconut AFSs the SOC stock increased only slightly above the agriculture SOC stock. The most important variable regulating SOC stocks and its changes was tree basal area, possibly indicative of organic matter inputs. Furthermore, climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation, and soil variables such as clay fraction and soil pH were likewise all important regulators of SOC and SOC stock changes. Lastly, we found a strong correlation between tree species diversity in home garden and coffee AFSs and SOC stocks, highlighting possibilities to increase carbon stocks by proper tree species assemblies.

  1. Ancient geographical gaps and paleo-climate shape the phylogeography of an endemic bird in the sky islands of southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Robin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sky islands, formed by the highest reaches of mountain tracts physically isolated from one another, represent one of the biodiversity-rich regions of the world. Comparative studies of geographically isolated populations on such islands can provide valuable insights into the biogeography and evolution of species on these islands. The Western Ghats mountains of southern India form a sky island system, where the relationship between the island structure and the evolution of its species remains virtually unknown despite a few population genetic studies.We investigated how ancient geographic gaps and glacial cycles have partitioned genetic variation in modern populations of a threatened endemic bird, the White-bellied Shortwing Brachypteryx major, across the montane Shola forests on these islands and also inferred its evolutionary history. We used bayesian and maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic and population-genetic analyses on data from three mitochondrial markers and one nuclear marker (totally 2594 bp obtained from 33 White-bellied Shortwing individuals across five islands. Genetic differentiation between populations of the species correlated with the locations of deep valleys in the Western Ghats but not with geographical distance between these populations. All populations revealed demographic histories consistent with population founding and expansion during the Last Glacial Maximum. Given the level of genetic differentiation north and south of the Palghat Gap, we suggest that these populations be considered two different taxonomic species.Our results show that the physiography and paleo-climate of this region historically resulted in multiple glacial refugia that may have subsequently driven the evolutionary history and current population structure of this bird. The first avian genetic study from this biodiversity hotspot, our results provide insights into processes that may have impacted the speciation and evolution of the endemic fauna of

  2. Relationship between exposure to the Avahan intervention and levels of reported condom use among men who have sex with men in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kate M; Foss, Anna M; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Washington, Reynold; Isac, Shajy; Prudden, Holly J; Deering, Kathleen N; Blanchard, James F; Moses, Stephen; Lowndes, Catherine M; Boily, Marie-Claude; Alary, Michel; Vickerman, Peter

    2014-12-04

    The Avahan intervention promotes consistent (100%) condom use amongst men who have sex with men in southern India. We assessed how condom use varies with intervention exposure for men who have sex with men in Bangalore. Self-reported condom use and intervention exposure data were derived from a cross-sectional survey. Consistent condom use and condom use at last sex act with all, main, and casual male sex partners were assessed. Binary and continuous variables reflecting intervention exposure (including contact(s) with intervention staff, receiving condoms and seeing condom demonstrations) were used. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to assess the relationship between condom use with each type of partner and each exposure variable independently, controlling for socio-demographic and behavioural factors associated with condom use or intervention exposure. Condom use with all partners was higher among those who had ever been contacted by, received condoms from, or seen a condom demonstration by intervention staff (adjusted odds ratio >2, p condom use with all types of partner increased with the number of condom demonstrations seen in the last month (adjusted odds ratio = 2.1 per demonstration, p condom use at last sex act with a casual (but not main) partner increased with the number of condoms received from the intervention (adjusted odds ratio = 1.4 per condom, p = 0.04). Direct contact with Avahan program staff is associated with increased reported condom use among men who have sex with men in Bangalore. Reported consistent condom use and condom use at last sex act are associated with contacts involving demonstrations of correct condom use, and with receiving condoms, respectively.

  3. Land Use/land Cover Changes in Semi-Arid Mountain Landscape in Southern India: a Geoinformatics Based Markov Chain Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, S. A.; Aruchamy, S.; Balasubramani, K.; Jegankumar, R.

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays land use/ land cover in mountain landscape is in critical condition; it leads to high risky and uncertain environments. These areas are facing multiple stresses including degradation of land resources; vagaries of climate and depletion of water resources continuously affect land use practices and livelihoods. To understand the Land use/Land cover (Lu/Lc) changes in a semi-arid mountain landscape, Kallar watershed of Bhavani basin, in southern India has been chosen. Most of the hilly part in the study area covers with forest, plantation, orchards and vegetables and which are highly affected by severe soil erosion, landslide, frequent rainfall failures and associated drought. The foothill regions are mainly utilized for agriculture practices; due to water scarcity and meagre income, the productive agriculture lands are converted into settlement plots and wasteland. Hence, land use/land cover change deduction; a stochastic processed based method is indispensable for future prediction. For identification of land use/land cover, and vegetation changes, Landsat TM, ETM (1995, 2005) and IRS P6- LISS IV (2015) images were used. Through CAMarkov chain analysis, Lu/Lc changes in past three decades (1995, 2005, and 2015) were identified and projected for (2020 and 2025); Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were used to find the vegetation changes. The result shows that, maximum changes occur in the plantation and slight changes found in forest cover in the hilly terrain. In foothill areas, agriculture lands were decreased while wastelands and settlement plots were increased. The outcome of the results helps to farmer and policy makers to draw optimal lands use planning and better management strategies for sustainable development of natural resources.

  4. Paleomagnetism and geochronological studies on a 450 km long 2216 Ma dyke from the Dharwar craton, southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, E.; Parashuramulu, V.; Kumar, Anil; Srinivas Sarma, D.

    2018-01-01

    Paleomagnetic and geochronological studies were carried out on a ∼ 450 km long (from 17 sites) N-S striking Paleoproterozoic dyke swarm exposed along a natural crustal cross section of about 10 km (increasing from North to South) in the Dharwar Craton, to study the characteristics of paleomagnetism and geochronology in vertical dimension. U-Pb/Pb-Pb dating on baddeleyite gives a crystallisation age of 2216.0 ± 0.9 Ma for long dyke AKLD. Paleomagnetic data from this well dated ∼ 2216 Ma dyke swarm in Dharwar Craton are of excellent quality. High coercivity and high blocking temperature components are carried by single domain magnetite and show dual polarity remanence directions. Combined normal and reverse polarity remanences on AKLD and other N-S dykes define the most reliable paleomagnetic pole for ∼ 2216 Ma at latitude 36°S and longitude 312°E (A95 = 7°). Though paleomagnetic data is unavailable on other N-S dykes below the Cuddapah basin, high precision geochronology suggest that they are of similar age within errors. Though there is a variation in the crustal depth of Dharwar craton from north to south, consistent Pb-Pb/U-Pb baddeleyite geochronology and paleomagnetic studies along the AKLD established its continuity and preservation along its entire strike length. The virtual geomagnetic poles of these sites confirm a stable remanence and are almost identical to the previously reported paleomagnetic pole and also supported by positive reversal test. Positive paleomagnetic reversal test on these dykes signify that the remanent magnetization is primary and formed during initial cooling of the intrusions. Updated apparent polar wander path of Dharwar craton indicates relatively low drift rate during 2.21-2.08 Ga interval. Magnetogranulometry and SEM studies show that remanent magnetization in this dyke was carried by single domain magnetite residing within silicate minerals.

  5. Superimposed extension and shortening in the southern Salinas Basin and La Panza Range, California: A guide to Neogene deformation in the Salinian block of the central California Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; McPhee, Darcy K.; McDougall, Kristin; Hourigan, Jeremy K.

    2013-01-01

    We synthesized data from geologic maps, wells, seismic-reflection profiles, potential-field interpretations, and low-temperature thermochronology to refine our understanding of late Cenozoic extension and shortening in the Salinian block of the central California Coast Ranges. Data from the La Panza Range and southern Salinas Basin document early to middle Miocene extension, followed by Pliocene and younger shortening after a period of little deformation in the late Miocene. Extension took place on high-angle normal faults that accommodated ∼2% strain at the scale of the ∼50-km-wide Salinian block (oriented perpendicular to the San Andreas fault). Shortening was accommodated by new reverse faults, reactivation of older normal faults, and strike-slip faulting that resulted in a map-view change in the width of the Salinian block. The overall magnitude of shortening was ∼10% strain, roughly 4–5 times greater than the amount of extension. The timing and magnitude of deformation in our study area are comparable to that documented in other Salinian block basins, and we suggest that the entire block deformed in a similar manner over a similar time span. The timing and relative magnitude of extension and shortening may be understood in the context of central Coast Range tectonic boundary conditions linked to rotation of the western Transverse Ranges at the south end of the Salinian block. Older models for Coast Range shortening based on balanced fault-bend fold-style cross sections are a poor approximation of Salinian block deformation, and may lead to mechanically improbable fault geometries that overestimate the amount of shortening.

  6. NEW LATE JURASSIC PALEOMAGNETIC RESULTS FROM SHARILYN FORMATION, SOUTHERN MONGOLIA, AMURIA BLOCK, AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE MONGOL–OKHOTSK SUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Ren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Amuria block occupies the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt between the Siberia craton and the North China block (NCB and bears important information to understand the evolution of the MongolOkhotsk suture and the amalgamation of East Asia. However, the paleomagnetic database of Amuria remains very poor.

  7. Impacts of land-use and soil properties on groundwater quality in the hard rock aquifer of an irrigated catchment: the Berambadi (Southern India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvaneshwari, Sriramulu; Riotte, Jean; Ruiz, Laurent; Sekhar, Muddu; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Duprey, Jean Louis; Audry, Stephane; Braun, Jean Jacques; Mohan Kumar, Mandalagiri S.

    2017-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture has large impacts on groundwater resources, both in terms of quantity and quality: when combined with intensive chemical fertilizer application, it can lead to progressive groundwater salinization. Mapping the spatial heterogeneity of groundwater quality is not only essential for assessing the impacts of different types of agricultural systems but also for identifying hotspots of water quality degradation that are posing a risk to human and ecosystem health. In peninsular India the development of minor irrigation led to high density of borewells which constitute an ideal situation for studying the heterogeneity of groundwater quality. The annual groundwater abstraction reaches 400 km3, which leads to depletion of the resource and degradation of water quality. In the agricultural Berambadi catchment (84km2, Southern India, part of the environmental observatory BVET/ Kabini CZO) the groundwater table level and chemistry are monitored in 200 tube wells. We recently demonstrated that in this watershed, irrigation history and groundwater depletion can lead to hot spots of NO3 concentration in groundwater, up to 360 ppm (Buvaneshwari et al., 2017). Here we focus on the respective roles of evapotranspiration, groundwater recycling and chemical fertilizer application on chlorine concentration [Cl] in groundwater. Groundwater [Cl] in Berambadi spans over two orders of magnitude with hotspots up to 380 ppm. Increase in groundwater [Cl] results from evapotranspiration and recycling, that concentrates the rain Cl inputs ("Natural [Cl]") and/or from KCl fertilization ("Anthropogenic [Cl]"). To quantify the origin of Cl in each tube well, we used a novel method based on (1) a reference element, sodium, originating only from atmosphere and Na-plagioclase weathering and (2) data from a nearby pristine site, the Mule Hole forested watershed (Riotte et al., 2014). In the forested watershed, the ranges of Cl concentration and Na/Cl molar ratio are 9-23 ppm and 2

  8. UTILITY OF THE DECAF SCORE IN PREDICTING IN HOSPITAL OUTCOME IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE EXACERBATION OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF SOUTHERN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Chethan Kumar A. N

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease being an all too common cause for hospital admissions Worldwide poses a logistical stress for the treating physicians and hospital administration with regards to morbidity and mortality rates. Identifying upon admission those at higher risk of dying in-hospital could be useful for triaging patients to the appropriate level of care, determining the aggressiveness of therapies and timing safe discharges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utilisation of the DECAF score in predicting in hospital outcome in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Southern India. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients admitted with COPD exacerbations in K.R. Hospital, Mysore Medical College And Research Institute, Mysuru in between the May 2017 and July 2017 were taken has study subjects. A total of 80 patients were taken into the study. The duration of hospital stay, ICU admission and deaths were noted. DECAF score is applied to all study subjects and the severity of AECOPD is graded at the time of admission. The data collected and complied were then analysed for the correlation between score and subsequent management and overall outcome. RESULTS Total of 80 patients were recruited in the study. Mean age for male was 66.47, female was 70.86. Length of hospital stay was more in patients with decaf score more than 3 (average hospital stay 10 days. Patients with DECAF score of 2, 70.4% required inhalations oxygen, remaining 29.6% were managed with only bronchodilators whereas patients with DECAF score of 5 (max score in our study group there was a 100% initiation of assisted ventilation 33.3% received NIV ventilation while 66.6% required endotracheal intubation with ventilator support. In present study, 85 percent patients were survived. Total 6 patients (7.5% had died, belonging to high risk DECAF group (score 3 to 6

  9. Brittle deformation in Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT): A study of pseudotachylyte bearing fractures along Gangavalli Shear Zone (GSZ), Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    mohan Behera, Bhuban; Thirukumaran, Venugopal; Biswal, Tapas kumar

    2016-04-01

    High grade metamorphism and intense deformation have given a well recognition to the Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT) in India. TTG-Charnockite and basic granulites constitute the dominant lithoassociation of the area. Dunite-peridotite-anorthosite-shonkinite and syenites are the intrusives. TTG-charnockite-basic granulite have undergone F1 (isoclinal recumbent), F2 (NE-SW) and F3 (NW-SE) folds producing several interference pattern. E-W trending Neoarchean and Palaeoproterozoic Salem-Attur Shear Zone exhibits a low angle ductile thrust as well as some foot print of late stage brittle deformation near Gangavalli area of Tamil Nadu. The thrust causes exhumation of basic granulites to upper crust. Thrusting along the decollement has retrograded the granulite into amphibolite rock. Subsequently, deformation pattern of Gangavalli area has distinctly marked by numerous vertical to sub-vertical fractures mostly dominating along 0-15 and 270-300 degree within charnockite hills that creates a maximum stress (σ1) along NNW and minimum stress (σ3) along ENE. However, emplacement of pseudotachylyte vein along N-S dominating fracture indicates a post deformational seismic event. Extensive fractures produce anastomose vein with varying thickness from few millimeters to 10 centimeters on the outcrop. ICP-AES study results an isochemical composition of pseudotachylyte vein that derived from the host charnockitic rock where it occurs. But still some noticeable variation in FeO-MgO and Na2O-CaO are obtained from different parts within the single vein showing heterogeneity melt. Electron probe micro analysis of thin sections reveals the existence of melt immiscibility during its solidification. Under dry melting condition, albitic rich melts are considered to be the most favorable composition for microlites (e.g. sheaf and acicular micro crystal) re-crystallization. Especially, acicular microlites preserved tachylite texture that suggest its formation before the final coagulation

  10. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    phosed under medium-high pressure (6–10kbar;. Harris et al ..... material has been thrust into deeper levels of the crust or ..... variation range of the particular charnockite mas- sif can be .... Andersen D J, Lindsley D H and Davidson P M 1993.

  11. Stratigraphy of amethyst geode-bearing lavas and fault-block structures of the Entre Rios mining district, Paraná volcanic province, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÉO A. HARTMANN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Entre Rios mining district produces a large volume of amethyst geodes in underground mines and is part of the world class deposits in the Paraná volcanic province of South America. Two producing basalt flows are numbered 4 and 5 in the lava stratigraphy. A total of seven basalt flows and one rhyodacite flow are present in the district. At the base of the stratigraphy, beginning at the Chapecó river bed, two basalt flows are Esmeralda, low-Ti type. The third flow in the sequence is a rhyodacite, Chapecó type, Guarapuava subtype. Above the rhyodacite flow, four basalt flows are Pitanga, high-Ti type including the two mineralized flows; only the topmost basalt in the stratigraphy is a Paranapanema, intermediate-Ti type. Each individual flow is uniquely identified from its geochemical and gamma-spectrometric properties. The study of several sections in the district allowed for the identification of a fault-block structure. Blocks are elongated NW and the block on the west side of the fault was downthrown. This important structural characterization of the mining district will have significant consequences in the search for new amethyst geode deposits and in the understanding of the evolution of the Paraná volcanic province.

  12. Birth and demise of a Middle Jurassic isolated shallow-marine carbonate platform on a tilted fault block: Example from the Southern Iberian continental palaeomargin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V.; Ruiz-Ortiz, P. A.; Molina, J. M.

    2012-08-01

    Subbetic Middle Jurassic oolitic limestones of the Jabalcuz Formation crop out in San Cristóbal hill, near Jaén city (Andalucía, Spain), between hemipelagic limestone and marl successions. The Jabalcuz limestones range in facies from calcareous breccias and micritic limestones to white cross-bedded oolitic limestones. Recent erosion has exhumed a Jurassic isolated shallow-water carbonate platform on the San Cristóbal hill. This shallow platform developed on a tilted fault block. An almost continuous, laterally extensive outcrop reveals tectono-sedimentary features distinctive of block-tilting in the different margins of the fault block. The studied sections represent various palaeogeographic positions in the ancient shallow-water carbonate platform and basin transition. This exceptional outcrop allows to decipher the triggering mechanisms of the birth, evolution, and drowning of this Jurassic isolated shallow-water carbonate platform. Two shallowing-upward depositional sequences separated by flooding surfaces can be distinguished on two different sides of the fault block. In the southeastern part of the outcrop, proximal sections grade vertically from distal talus fault breccias, with bivalve and serpulid buildup intercalations, to white cross-bedded oolitic limestones defining the lowermost depositional sequence. Upwards, overlying a flooding surface, the second sequence with oolitic limestones prograding over micritic deposits is recorded. In the southwest, oolitic, peloidal, and more distal micritic facies alternate, with notable southeastern progradation of oolitic facies in the upper part of the section, which represents the upper depositional sequence. The top of this second depositional sequence is another flooding surface recorded by the sedimentation of marls with radiolarians from the overlying formation. In the northwestern outcrops, the two depositional sequences are also almost completely preserved and can be differentiated. A 100 m

  13. Snowball Vs. House-to-House Technique for Measuring Annual Incidence of Kala-azar in the Higher Endemic Blocks of Bihar, India: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Niyamat A; Rabidas, Vidya N; Sinha, Sanjay K; Verma, Rakesh B; Pandey, Krishna; Singh, Vijay P; Ranjan, Alok; Topno, Roshan K; Lal, Chandra S; Kumar, Vijay; Sahoo, Ganesh C; Sridhar, Srikantaih; Pandey, Arvind; Das, Pradeep

    2016-09-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis, commonly known as kala-azar, is widely prevalent in Bihar. The National Kala-azar Control Program has applied house-to-house survey approach several times for estimating Kala-azar incidence in the past. However, this approach includes huge logistics and operational cost, as occurrence of kala-azar is clustered in nature. The present study aims to compare efficiency, cost and feasibility of snowball sampling approach to house-to-house survey approach in capturing kala-azar cases in two endemic districts of Bihar, India. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in two highly endemic Primary Health Centre (PHC) areas, each from two endemic districts of Bihar, India. Snowball technique (used to locate potential subjects with help of key informants where subjects are hard to locate) and house-to-house survey technique were applied to detect all the new cases of Kala-azar during a defined reference period of one year i.e. June, 2010 to May, 2011. The study covered a total of 105,035 households with 537,153 populations. Out of total 561 cases and 17 deaths probably due to kala-azar, identified by the study, snowball sampling approach captured only 221 cases and 13 deaths, whereas 489 cases and 17 deaths were detected by house-to-house survey approach. Higher value of McNemar's χ² statistics (64; phouse-to-house survey approach than snowball sampling and relative difference (>1) indicates that most of the kala-azar cases missed by snowball sampling were captured by house-to-house approach with 13% of omission. Snowball sampling was not found sensitive enough as it captured only about 50% of VL cases. However, it captured about 77% of the deaths probably due to kala-azar and was found more cost-effective than house-to-house approach. Standardization of snowball approach with improved procedure, training and logistics may enhance the sensitivity of snowball sampling and its application in national Kala-azar elimination programme as cost

  14. Impact of Magmatism on the Geodynamic Evolution of Southern Georgia on the Example of the Lesser Caucasus Artvin-Bolnisi Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadradze, Nino; Adamia, Shota; Zakariadze, Guram; Beridze, Tamara; Khutsishvili, Sophio

    2017-04-01

    The Georgian region occupies the central part of the collisional zone between the Eurasian and Africa-Arabian continents and is actually a collage of lithospheric fragments of the Tethyan Ocean and its northern and southern continental margins. Magmatic evolution is an important event in the formation and development of the geological structure of Southern Georgia, where several reliably dated volcanogenic and volcanogenic-sedimentary formations are established. The region represents a modern analogue of continental collision zone, where subduction-related volcanic activity lasted from Paleozoic to the end of Paleogene. After the period of dormancy in the Early-Middle Miocene starting from the Late Miocene and as far as the end of the Pleistocene, primarily subaerial volcanic eruptions followed by formation of volcanic highlands and plateaus occurred in the reigon. The Upper Miocene to Holocene volcanic rocks are related to the transverse Van-Transcaucasian uplift and belong to post-collisional calc- alkaline basalt-andesite-dacite-rhyolite series. A system of island arc and intra-arc rift basins (Artvin-Bolnisi and Achara-Trialeti) have been interpreted as characteristic of the pre-collisional stage of the region development, while syn- post-collisional geodynamic events have been attributed to intracontinental stage. Outcrops of the postcollisional magmatic rocks are exposed along the boundaries of the major tectonic units of the region. The Artvin-Bolnisi unit forms the northwestern part of the Lesser Caucasus and represents an island arc domain of so called the Somkheto-Karabakh Island Arc or Baiburt-Garabagh-Kapan belt. It was formed mainly during the Jurassic-Eocene time interval on the southern margin of the Eurasian plate by nort-dipping subduction of the Neotethys Ocean and subsequent collision to the Anatolia-Iranian continental plate. The Artvin-Bolnisi unit, including the Bolnisi district, was developing as a relatively uplifted island arc-type unit

  15. Multibeam bathymetric survey of the Ipala Submarine Canyon, Jalisco, Mexico (20°N): The southern boundary of the Banderas Forearc Block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urías Espinosa, J.; Bandy, W. L.; Mortera Gutiérrez, C. A.; Núñez Cornú, Fco. J.; Mitchell, N. C.

    2016-03-01

    The Middle America Trench bends sharply northward at 20°N. This, along with the close proximity of the Rivera-North America Euler pole to the northern end of this trench, sharply increases the obliquity of subduction at 20°N. By analogy with other subduction zones with similar sharply changing obliquity, significant trench parallel extension is expected to exist in the forearc region near the bend. To evaluate this possibility, multibeam bathymetric, seafloor backscatter and sub-bottom seismic reflection data were collected in this area during the MORTIC08 campaign of the B.O. El Puma. These data image in detail a large submarine canyon (the Ipala Canyon) extending from the coast at 20°05‧N to the Middle America Trench at 19°50‧N. This canyon is 114 km long and is fed by sediments originating from two, possibly three, small rivers: the Ipala, Tecolotlán and Maria Garza. This canyon deeply incises (up to 600 m) the entire continental slope and at least the outer part of the shelf. Within the canyon, we observe meanders and narrow channels produced by turbidity flows indicating that the canyon is active. In the marginal areas of the canyon slumps, rills, and uplifts suggest that mass movements and fluid flow have had a major impact on the seafloor morphology. The seafloor bathymetry, backscatter images and sub-bottom reflection profiles evidence the tectonic processes occurring in this area. Of particular interest, the canyon is deflected by almost 90° at three locations, the deflections all having a similar azimuth of between 125° and 130°. Given the prominence and geometry of this canyon, along with its tectonic setting, we propose that the presence of the canyon is related to extension produced by the sharp change in the plate convergence. If so, the canyon may lie along the southeast boundary of a major forearc block (the Banderas Forearc Block).

  16. Obstacles in the Utilisation of Maternal Health Care Services in Murarai-II C.D. Block, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alokananda Ghosh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Improving maternal health was one of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs and now it is one of the targets of 17 point Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs. The utilisation of Maternal Health Care Services (MHCSs is a complex phenomenon and it is influenced by several factors, like-health care seeking behaviour of the cohorts belonging to different socio-economic and cultural background, distance of the facility centres, type and conditions of the roads including undulating surface, transportation cost, type and availability of transportation mode along with the factors related to the accountability and surveillances of the health care services. Therefore, clear understanding and discussion is needed to draw an association between MHCSs and its influential factors. The objectives of the study are to estimate the impact of accessibility on the underserved status of MHCSs and on the utilisation of MHCSs through paucity index. In addition, the study aims to evaluate the causal relationships between underserved situation and obstacle score with the paucity index of MHCS utilisation. The empirical observation unfolds that the provision and utilisation of MHCSs are strongly dependent on accessibility and distance. The situation is aggravating for proper delivery of services, which is responsible for the increasing obstacle score and paucity index, especially in remote sub- centres of Murarai-II C.D. Block of Birbhum District.

  17. MARINE BOTTOM COMMUNITIES OF BLOCK ISLAND WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sea has long been an integral part of Block Island's natural history, beginning when the rising sea surrounded the high spot on a Pleistocene terminal moraine that became Block Island. The southern New England continental shelf, which lies around Block Island, and the Great S...

  18. Epidural block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000484.htm Epidural block - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An epidural block is a numbing medicine given by injection (shot) ...

  19. Petrology and geochemistry of charnockites (felsic ortho-granulites) from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, Southern India: Evidence for intra-crustal melting, magmatic differentiation and episodic crustal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra Kumar, G. R.; Sreejith, C.

    2016-10-01

    The Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) of the southern India encompasses volumetrically significant magmatic components. Among these, orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites, popularly known as charnockites in Indian context, constitute an important lithology. In contrast to the well-known phenomena of arrested charnockitization, the geochemical characteristics and petrogenesis of these ortho-granulite suites remain poorly studied, leaving geodynamic models envisaged for the KKB highly conjectural. In this paper, we try to bridge this gap with detailed results on orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites spread over the entire KKB and propose a new petrogenetic and crustal evolution model. Based on geochemical characteristics, the orthopyroxene-bearing, felsic ortho-granulites (charnockites sensu lato) of KKB are classified into (1) tonalitic (TC), (2) granitic (GC), and (3) augen (AC) suites. Members of the TC follow sodic (characterized by decreasing CaO/Na2O), whereas those of the GC and AC follow calc-alkaline trends of differentiation. Geochemical patterns of the TC resemble those of the Archaean tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suites, with slightly magnesian character (average Mg# = 33), moderate LREE (average LaN = 154), low HREE (average YbN = 6) and Y (1-53 ppm; average 11 ppm). The TC is also characterized by positive to slightly negative europium anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.7 to 1.67). The GC and AC suites, on the other hand, resemble post-Archaean arc-related granites. The GC displays ferroan nature (average Mg# = 22), low to moderate degrees of REE fractionation (average [La/Yb]N = 34.84), high contents of Y (5-128 ppm; average 68), and low Sr/Y (1-98) ratios. Significant negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.18-0.91; average 0.50) and low Sr (65-690 ppm) are also noted in the GC. Similar chemical characteristics are shown by the AC, with ferroan nature (average Mg# = 21), low to moderate degrees of REE fractionation (average [La/Yb]N = 26), high

  20. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  1. New record of Helopeltis bradyi Waterhouse and Pachypeltis maesarum Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Miridae on tea Camellia sinensis L.O. (Kuntze in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodakkadan SRIKUMAR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Helopeltis theivora commonly called as tea mosquito bug (TMB is considered as important pest of tea in South India. Extensive survey in tea plantations of Anamallais, recorded H. bradyi and Pachypeltis maesarum (Hemiptera: Miridae causing considerable damage and were registered for the first time on tea. Their occurrence was seen in association with H. theivora. There was considerable variation among these species in size of the circular rings formed by rostral piercing, indicating that these three species can be easily demarcated based on the observation of feeding punctures even in field condition. As the dosage and recommendations of insecticides against TMB in tea in south India was pertaining only to H. theivora the addition of H. bradyi and P. maesarum will improve the future pest management strategies.

  2. A note on the taxonomy, field status and threats to three endemic species of Syzygium (Myrtaceae from the southern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramasubbu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomy, field status and threats of three endemic species of Syzygium,  Syzygium densiflorum Wall. ex Wight & Arn., Syzygium myhendrae (Bedd. ex Brandis Gamble and Syzygium travancoricum Gamble of the southern Western Ghats were discussed.

  3. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic purposes - a case study in Suri I and II blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shreya; Nag, S. K.

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of the hydrochemical characteristics of water and aquifer hydraulic properties is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. It is not only the basic need for human existence but also a vital input for all development activities. The present hydro-geochemical study of groundwater samples from the Suri I and II blocks of Birbhum district, West Bengal (23.76 ∘-23.99 ∘N; 87.42 ∘-87.64 ∘E) was carried out to assess their suitability for agricultural, domestic and drinking purposes. For this study, samples were collected from 26 locations during the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sessions spanning over 2012 and 2013. Groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3, SO4 and F were determined. Various water quality indices like SAR, SSP, PI, RSC, MAR and KR have been calculated for each water sample to identify the irrigational suitability standard. According to most of these parameters, the groundwater has been found to be well to moderately suitable for irrigation. In the post-monsoon session exceptionally high RSC values for around 80% samples indicate an alkaline hazard to the soil. The ion balance histogram for post-monsoon indicates undesirable ion balance values according to fresh water standards whereas in pre-monsoon, the samples show good ion balance in water. For determination of the drinking suitability standard of groundwater, three parameters have been considered - total hardness (TH), Piper's trilinear diagram and water quality index study. Groundwater of the present study area has been found to be moderately-hard to hard during both sampling sessions and hence poses no health risk which could arise due to excess consumption of calcium or magnesium. Hydrogeochemical facies in the form of Piper's trilinear diagram plot

  4. Knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning methods among the rural females of Bagbahara block Mahasamund district in Chhattishgarh State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jawed Quereishi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background If many women in Chhattisgarh are not using family planning, it is not due to a lack of knowledge. Knowledge of contraception is nearly universal; 98 percent of currently married women know at least one modern family planning method. Women are most familiar with female sterilization (97 percent, followed by male sterilization (86 percent, the pill (68 percent, the condom (55 percent, and the IUD (40 percent. About two out of every five women (43 percent have knowledge of at least one traditional method. Yet only 45 percent of married women in Chhattisgarh are currently using some method of contraception, about the same as in Madhya Pradesh (44 percent but less than the national average (48 percent. Contraceptive prevalence in Chhattisgarh is considerably higher in urban areas (59 percent than in rural areas (42 percent. Objectives To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning methods, and factors that could affect their use, among the rural females of reproductive age group (15-49 years. Methods A total of 326 females of reproductive age group (15-49years from the rural areas of Bagbahara block of Mahasamund district in Chhattisgarh state were selected randomly and interviewed with the help of semi-structured interview schedule, which consists of demographic data, questions related to knowledge, attitude and practice of different contraceptive methods and factors affecting the use of these methods. Results Most of the respondents (79% were aware of at least one contraceptive method. The most common source of information on contraception was Health staffs (46%, followed by ASHA (Mitanin workers (42.5%, media (7.5% and relatives/friends (4%. Knowledge of non-contraceptive benefits of family planning methods was claimed by only 19% of the respondents, while knowledge about various adverse effects was reported by 32% of the respondents. About 62% of respondents showed favourable attitude towards family planning methods

  5. Continental crust melting induced by subduction initiation of the South Tianshan Ocean: Insight from the Latest Devonian granitic magmatism in the southern Yili Block, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zihe; Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao; Wan, Bo; Wang, Yannan; Wang, Xiangsong; Xia, Xiaoping

    2018-03-01

    The Tianshan belt of the southwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt was generated by Paleozoic multi-stage subduction and final closure of several extinct oceans, including the South Tianshan Ocean between the Kazakhstan-Yili and Tarim blocks. However, the subduction initiation and polarity of the South Tianshan Ocean remain issues of highly debated. This study presents new zircon U-Pb ages, geochemical compositions and Sr-Nd isotopes, as well as zircon Hf isotopic data of the Latest Devonian to Early Carboniferous granitic rocks in the Wusun Mountain of the Yili Paleozoic convergent margin, which, together with the spatial-temporal distributions of regional magmatic rocks, are applied to elucidate their petrogenesis and tectonic linkage to the northward subduction initiation of the South Tianshan Ocean. Our zircon U-Pb dating results reveal that these granites were emplaced at the time interval of 362.0 ± 1.2-360.3 ± 1.9 Ma, suggesting a marked partial melting event of the continental crust in the Latest Devonian to Early Carboniferous. These granites, based on their mineral compositions and textures, can be categorized as monzogranites and K-feldspar granites. Geochemically, both monzogranites and K-feldspar granites have characters of I-type granites with high K2O contents (4.64-4.83 wt.%), and the K-feldspar granites are highly fractionated I-type granites, while the monzogranites have features of unfractionated I-type granites. Whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopic modeling results suggest that ca. 20-40% mantle-derived magmas may be involved in magma mixing with continental crust partial melts to generate the parental magmas of the granites. The mantle-derived basaltic magmas was inferred not only to be a major component of magma mixture but also as an important heat source to fuse the continental crust in an extensional setting, which is evidenced by the high zircon saturation temperatures (713-727 °C and 760-782 °C) of the studied granites. The Latest Devonian to

  6. Exposure to pornographic videos and its effect on HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    Research on pornography and its association with HIV-related sexual behaviours is limited in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of viewing pornographic videos and examine its associations with HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in India. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007-08 across 21 districts in four states of India. Respondents included 11,219 male migrants aged 18 years or older, who had migrated to at least two places in the past two years for work. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to examine the association between viewing pornography and HIV-related sexual risk behaviours. Two-fifths (40%) of the migrants had viewed pornographic videos in one month prior to the survey. Migrants aged 25-29 years, literate, unmarried and away from native village for more than five years were more likely to view pornography than their counterparts. Migrants who viewed pornographic videos were more likely to engage in paid (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-4.8) and unpaid sex (AOR: 4.2, 95% CI: 3.7-4.7), report inconsistent condom use in paid sex (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.0) and experience STI-like symptoms (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5-1.8) than their counterparts. The findings regarding migrants' exposure to pornography and its linkage with high HIV risk behaviour suggest that the HIV prevention programmes for migrants need to be more innovative to communicate on the negative-effects of viewing pornography. More importantly, programmes need to find alternative ways to engage migrants in infotainment activities during their leisure time in an effort to reduce their exposure to pornographic videos as well as risky sexual behaviours.

  7. Exposure to pornographic videos and its effect on HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidhubhusan Mahapatra

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Research on pornography and its association with HIV-related sexual behaviours is limited in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of viewing pornographic videos and examine its associations with HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in India. METHODS: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007-08 across 21 districts in four states of India. Respondents included 11,219 male migrants aged 18 years or older, who had migrated to at least two places in the past two years for work. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to examine the association between viewing pornography and HIV-related sexual risk behaviours. RESULTS: Two-fifths (40% of the migrants had viewed pornographic videos in one month prior to the survey. Migrants aged 25-29 years, literate, unmarried and away from native village for more than five years were more likely to view pornography than their counterparts. Migrants who viewed pornographic videos were more likely to engage in paid (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-4.8 and unpaid sex (AOR: 4.2, 95% CI: 3.7-4.7, report inconsistent condom use in paid sex (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.0 and experience STI-like symptoms (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5-1.8 than their counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: The findings regarding migrants' exposure to pornography and its linkage with high HIV risk behaviour suggest that the HIV prevention programmes for migrants need to be more innovative to communicate on the negative-effects of viewing pornography. More importantly, programmes need to find alternative ways to engage migrants in infotainment activities during their leisure time in an effort to reduce their exposure to pornographic videos as well as risky sexual behaviours.

  8. History of Nuclear India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  9. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series : Parasitoids (Hymenoptera of xylophagous beetles (Coleoptera attacking dead wood in southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India, with descriptions of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Sureshan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An account is given of four species of Hymenoptera parasitoids probably of the wood boring beetle Clytocera chinospila Gahan (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae from Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, southern Western Ghats, Kerala. Two new hymenopteran species, Eurytoma chinnarensis (Eurytomidae and Foenatopus idukkiensis (Stephanidae are described. Solenura ania Walker (Pteromalidae is reported for the first time from Kerala and Western Ghats with a new host record, and Doryctus sp. (Braconidae is reported here.

  10. Managed aquifer recharge by a check dam to improve the quality of fluoride-rich groundwater: a case study from southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowrisankar, G; Jagadeshan, G; Elango, L

    2017-04-01

    In many regions around the globe, including India, degradation in the quality of groundwater is of great concern. The objective of this investigation is to determine the effect of recharge from a check dam on quality of groundwater in a region of Krishnagiri District of Tamil Nadu State, India. For this study, water samples from 15 wells were periodically obtained and analysed for major ions and fluoride concentrations. The amount of major ions present in groundwater was compared with the drinking water guideline values of the Bureau of Indian Standards. With respect to the sodium and fluoride concentrations, 38% of groundwater samples collected was not suitable for direct use as drinking water. Suitability of water for agricultural use was determined considering the electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption ratio, sodium percentage, permeability index, Wilcox and United States Salinity Laboratory diagrams. The influence of freshwater recharge from the dam is evident as the groundwater in wells nearer to the check dam was suitable for both irrigation and domestic purposes. However, the groundwater away from the dam had a high ionic composition. This study demonstrated that in other fluoride-affected areas, the concentration can be reduced by dilution with the construction of check dams as a measure of managed aquifer recharge.

  11. Do pregnant women know about danger signs of pregnancy and childbirth? – A study of the level of knowledge and its associated factors from a tertiary care hospital in Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nithya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Awareness about danger signs during pregnancy is essential for a woman to seek prompt care. This can avert long-term morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed to find the level of knowledge and its related factors about danger signs of pregnancy and childbirth among pregnant women attending a tertiary care hospital in southern India. Patients and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of pregnant women attending a tertiary care hospital in South India. Systematic random sampling of every 10th woman exiting the antenatal clinic was done. Results: We studied 382 pregnant women. Of them, 188 (49.2% [95% confidence interval (CI: 44%–54%], 104 (27.2% [95% CI: 23%–32%], and 81 (21.2% [95% CI: 17%–26%] women had sufficient knowledge about danger signs during pregnancy, labor, and childbirth, respectively. On multivariable analysis, lack of exposure to formal awareness raising health counseling classes was the only factor found to be significantly associated with a lack of knowledge about danger signs of pregnancy (adjusted prevalence ratio, 95% CI: 1.8 [1.2–2.7] and after childbirth (1.4 [1.1–1.7]. Lower education level was significantly associated with a lack of knowledge about danger signs of labor (1.2 [1.1–1.4]. Conclusion: We found that lack of exposure to formal awareness raising health counseling classes is a modifiable risk factor to improve knowledge about danger signs. We recommend structured mandatory health awareness sessions addressing the danger signs of pregnancy and child health to all pregnant women.

  12. Uniaxial backfill block compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinen, V.

    2012-05-01

    The main parts of the project were: to make a literature survey of the previous uniaxial compaction experiments; do uniaxial compaction tests in laboratory scale; and do industrial scale production tests. Object of the project was to sort out the different factors affecting the quality assurance chain of the backfill block uniaxial production and solve a material sticking to mould problem which appeared during manufacturing the blocks of bentonite and cruched rock mixture. The effect of mineralogical and chemical composition on the long term functionality of the backfill was excluded from the project. However, the used smectite-rich clays have been tested for mineralogical consistency. These tests were done in B and Tech OY according their SOPs. The objective of the Laboratory scale tests was to find right material- and compaction parameters for the industrial scale tests. Direct comparison between the laboratory scale tests and industrial scale tests is not possible because the mould geometry and compaction speed has a big influence for the compaction process. For this reason the selected material parameters were also affected by the previous compaction experiments. The industrial scale tests were done in summer of 2010 in southern Sweden. Blocks were done with uniaxial compaction. A 40 tons of the mixture of bentonite and crushed rock blocks and almost 50 tons of Friedland-clay blocks were compacted. (orig.)

  13. U-Pb and Lu-Hf systematics of zircons from Sargur metasediments, Dharwar Craton, Southern India: new insights on the provenance and crustal evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maibam, Bidyananda; Gerdes, Axel; Srinivasan, R.; Goswami, J.N.

    2017-01-01

    A study of U-Pb and Lu-Hf-Yb isotope data in zircons from metamorphosed psammopelite and quartzite from the type area of Archaean Sargur Group, Dharwar Craton, India is carried out. Two age populations are observed: an older population with concordant U-Pb ages between 2.7 and 2.8 Ga, and a younger population with ages in the 2.4 - 2.6 Ga age range. The εHf values of 0 to + 2.0 for the older zircon population suggest that they were derived from juvenile crust formed at 2.7- 2.8 Ga. Sub-chondritic εHf values for the younger population indicate metamorphism and/or crustal reworking at ∼2.5 Ga. Meta-sedimentary enclaves in the Sargur type area are therefore part of the gneiss-supracrustal complex of different antiquities and may not have an independent stratigraphic status. (author)

  14. Community Collectivization and Consistent Condom Use Among Female Sex Workers in Southern India: Evidence from Two Rounds of Behavioral Tracking Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejella, Shanti; Patel, Sangram Kishor; Saggurti, Niranjan; Prabhakar, Parimi

    2016-04-01

    Community collectivization is an integral part of condom use and HIV risk reduction interventions among key population. This study assesses community collectivization among female sex workers (FSWs), and explores its relationship with sex workers' consistent condom use (CCU) with different partners considering the interaction effect of time and collectivization. Data were drawn from two rounds of cross-sectional surveys collected during 2010 (N1 = 1986) and 2012 (N2 = 1973) among FSWs in Andhra Pradesh, India. Results of the multiple logistic regression analysis show that, CCU with regular and occasional clients increased over the inter-survey period among FSWs with a high collective efficacy (AOR 2.9 and 6.1) and collective agency (AOR 14.4 and 19.0) respectively. The association of high levels of collectivization with CCU and self-efficacy for condom use are central to improve the usefulness and sustainability of HIV prevention programs worldwide.

  15. Spotted in the News: Using Media Reports to Examine Leopard Distribution, Depredation, and Management Practices outside Protected Areas in Southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Athreya

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence of large carnivore presence outside protected areas, globally. Although this spells conservation success through population recoveries, it makes carnivore persistence in human-use landscapes tenuous. The widespread distribution of leopards in certain regions of India typifies this problem. We obtained information on leopard-human interactions at a regional scale in Karnataka State, India, based on systematic surveys of local media reports. We applied an innovative occupancy modelling approach to map their distribution patterns and identify hotspots of livestock/human depredation. We also evaluated management responses like removals of 'problem' leopards through capture and translocations. Leopards occupied around 84,000 km2 or 47% of the State's geographic area, outside designated national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. Their presence was facilitated by extent of vegetative cover- including irrigated croplands, rocky escarpments, and prey base in the form of feral and free-ranging dogs. Higher probabilities of livestock/human attacks by leopards were associated with similar ecological features as well as with capture/removals of leopards. Of the 56 cases of leopard removals reported, 91% did not involve human attacks, but followed livestock predation or only leopard sightings. The lack of knowledge on leopard ecology in human-use areas has resulted in unscientific interventions, which could aggravate the problem rather than mitigating it. Our results establish the presence of resident, breeding leopards in human-use areas. We therefore propose a shift in management focus, from current reactive practices like removal and translocation of leopards, to proactive measures that ensure safety of human lives and livelihoods.

  16. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: An overview of Asian Elephants in the Western Ghats, southern India: implications for the conservation of Western Ghats ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baskaran

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Western Ghats region is a global biodiversity hotspot and the source of all the major rivers of peninsular India. The conservation of this region is important for the biodiversity it harbours, and for ecological functions that include climate stability, erosion control, clean water and air, which are essential to safeguard economic growth, social stability and quality of life for the people of peninsular India. Possessing a unique diversity in topography, climate, vegetation, faunal communities, endemism and human communities, the Western Ghats is also known for its spectacular assemblage of larger mammals, including 25% of the global population of Asian Elephants. There are four major landscapes in the Western Ghats: (1 Uttara Kannada, (2 Brahmagiri-Nilgiris, (3 Anamalai-Nelliyampathy-High Range, and (4 Periyar-Agasthyamalai, spread across 30,000km2, harbouring a minimum 10,000 elephants in six different populations with signs of an increasing trend in some populations. The second landscape (Brahmagiri-Nilgiris with over 50% of the Ghats elephant population, along with its contiguity to the Eastern Ghats elephant landscape, forms the single largest global population of Asian Elephants. However, major threats to the long-term conservation of the elephant include further fragmentation of habitat, continued poaching of bulls for ivory, and escalation in human-elephant conflicts resulting in public antagonism toward the species. The goals of management should thus be to: (1 consolidate habitats and preserve corridors to avoid further fragmentation; (2 take steps through integrated land use planning at the landscape level to reduce human-elephant conflicts; and (3 build up a demographically and genetically viable elephant population by protecting the tusked males from ivory poaching. Being a wide-ranging umbrella species, ensuring the long-term conservation of Asian Elephants in the Ghats implies protecting its biodiversity and ecological

  17. India Emerging

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Traditionally, India has had an extremely poor collection of direct taxes, not least due to ...... Economic Impact of Mobile in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Pakistan, Serbia, ...... in India owes its origin to Gandhian principles, philosophy and practices.

  18. Cervical plexus block for thyroidectomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    RESEARCH. Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia & Analgesia - November 2003 ... Cervical plexus block has also been found useful for thy- .... lar, transverse cervical and supraclavicular nerves. ... administration of midazolam and pentazocine as required. ... find out if there were postoperative complications specific to.

  19. Pre-Hypertension among Young Adults (20-30 Years in Coastal Villages of Udupi District in Southern India: An Alarming Scenario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kini

    Full Text Available According to Joint National Committee-7 (JNC-7 guidelines, a systolic blood pressure (SBP of 120 to 139 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 80 to 89 mm Hg is considered as pre-hypertension. Existing evidence suggest that the cardiovascular morbidities are increasing among pre-hypertensive individuals compared to normal.To assess the magnitude and factors associated with pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years in coastal villages of Udupi Taluk (an area of land with a city or town that serves as its administrative centre and usually a number of villages, Udupi District, Karnataka state, India.Community based cross sectional study.6 (out of total 14 coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India.1,152 young adults (age group: 20-30 years selected by stratified random sampling in 6 coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India.A semi structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the details on socio-demographic variables, dietary habits, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of hypertension and stress levels. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded according to standard protocols. Serum cholesterol was measured in a sub sample of the study population. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify the independent correlates of pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years.Prevalence, Odds ratio (OR and adjusted (adj OR for pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years.The prevalence of pre-hypertension in the study population was 45.2% (95%CI: 42.4-48. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age group of 25-30 years (adj OR: 4.25, 95% CI: 2.99-6.05, white collared (adj OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.08-4.85 and skilled occupation (adj OR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.64-6.42, students (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.22-4.95, using refined cooking oil (adj OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.29-0.95, extra salt in meals (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.52-3.99, salty food

  20. Pre-Hypertension among Young Adults (20-30 Years) in Coastal Villages of Udupi District in Southern India: An Alarming Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kini, Sanjay; Kamath, Veena G; Kulkarni, Muralidhar M; Kamath, Asha; Shivalli, Siddharudha

    2016-01-01

    According to Joint National Committee-7 (JNC-7) guidelines, a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 120 to 139 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 80 to 89 mm Hg is considered as pre-hypertension. Existing evidence suggest that the cardiovascular morbidities are increasing among pre-hypertensive individuals compared to normal. To assess the magnitude and factors associated with pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years) in coastal villages of Udupi Taluk (an area of land with a city or town that serves as its administrative centre and usually a number of villages), Udupi District, Karnataka state, India. Community based cross sectional study. 6 (out of total 14) coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India. 1,152 young adults (age group: 20-30 years) selected by stratified random sampling in 6 coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India. A semi structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the details on socio-demographic variables, dietary habits, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of hypertension and stress levels. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded according to standard protocols. Serum cholesterol was measured in a sub sample of the study population. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify the independent correlates of pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years). Prevalence, Odds ratio (OR) and adjusted (adj) OR for pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years). The prevalence of pre-hypertension in the study population was 45.2% (95%CI: 42.4-48). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age group of 25-30 years (adj OR: 4.25, 95% CI: 2.99-6.05), white collared (adj OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.08-4.85) and skilled occupation (adj OR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.64-6.42), students (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.22-4.95), using refined cooking oil (adj OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.29-0.95), extra salt in meals (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.52-3.99), salty

  1. Detection block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezak, A.

    1987-01-01

    A diagram is given of a detection block used for monitoring burnup of nuclear reactor fuel. A shielding block is an important part of the detection block. It stabilizes the fuel assembly in the fixing hole in front of a collimator where a suitable gamma beam is defined for gamma spectrometry determination of fuel burnup. The detector case and a neutron source case are placed on opposite sides of the fixing hole. For neutron measurement for which the water in the tank is used as a moderator, the neutron detector-fuel assembly configuration is selected such that neutrons from spontaneous fission and neutrons induced with the neutron source can both be measured. The patented design of the detection block permits longitudinal travel and rotation of the fuel assembly to any position, and thus more reliable determination of nuclear fuel burnup. (E.S.). 1 fig

  2. Greening the Grid: Integrating 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid - A Detailed Look at the Southern Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-27

    The higher-spatial-resolution model of 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. II - Regional Study' (the Regional Study), which better represents the impact of congestion on least-cost scheduling and dispatch, provides a deeper understanding of the relationship among renewable energy (RE) location, transmission, and system flexibility with regard to RE integration, compared to 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. I - National Study.' The Regional Study validates the relative value of mitigation strategies demonstrated in the National Study - namely, coordinated operations among states reduce production costs, and reducing coal minimum generation levels reduces RE curtailment. Significantly, the Regional Study also highlights a potential barrier to realizing the value of these mitigation strategies: when locations of RE development are planned independently of state-level transmission, intrastate congestion can result in undesirable levels of RE curtailment. Therefore a key objective of this study is to illustrate to state-level power system planners and operators, in particular, how a higher-resolution model, inclusive of intrastate granularity, can be used as a planning tool for two primary purposes: to better anticipate, understand, and mitigate system constraints that could affect RE integration; and to provide a modeling framework that can be used as part of future transmission studies and planning efforts. The Regional Study is not intended to predict precisely how RE will affect state-level operations. There is considerable uncertainty regarding the locations of the RE development, as well as how contract terms can affect access to the inherent physical flexibility of the system. But the scenarios analyzed identify the types of issues that can arise under various RE and transmission

  3. Evaluation of genetic damage in tobacco and arsenic exposed population of Southern Assam, India using buccal cytome assay and comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Prasenjit; Mukherjee, Anita; Giri, Sarbani

    2016-02-01

    Ground water is the principal source of drinking water in Assam. Ground water contamination of arsenic in drinking water is a great concern for human health and considered as a human carcinogen. The present cytogenetic biomonitoring study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxic effects associated with people of southern Assam consuming arsenic contaminated water and chewing tobacco. Employing the buccal cytome assay, exfoliated cells were analyzed in 138 individuals of age range 22-42 years and divided into four groups. Group I (n=54) are participants residing in localities where ground water contains arsenic concentration below the permissible limit (comet assay, percent of tail DNA gradually increases among the groups and has statistical significance. Spearman correlation revealed strong positive correlation between the arsenic exposed peoples and the binucleated cells (r=0.4763; Pcomet assay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of annual intake of thorium from animal origin food consumed by population residing in monazite rich area of southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyapriya, R.S.; Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai; Prabhath, R.K.; Rao, D.D.; Acharya, R.

    2017-01-01

    Thorium ( 232 Th) concentration was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in animal origin food groups widely consumed by population residing in monazite rich area of Tamil Nadu, India. The annual intake was evaluated based on market basket study method for female and male population for different age groups. Annual committed effective dose due to 232 Th intake from the ingestion was evaluated for different age groups of individuals, using the ICRP ingestion dose coefficients and annual consumption rate obtained from National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB). Annual intake values of 232 Th for adult members of the population were obtained from food items as, fish from 0.2 to 0.8; flesh food (meat, beef and chicken), from 0.03 to 0.12; and milk from 0.2 to 0.3 Bq year -1 . The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotope in these food groups was 0.2 µSv year -1 for male adult population. (author)

  5. 16 year climatology of cirrus clouds over a tropical station in southern India using ground and space-based lidar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, A. K.; Gadhavi, H. S.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Raghunath, K.; Rao, S. V. B.; Jayaraman, A.

    2015-06-01

    16 year (1998-2013) climatology of cirrus clouds and their macrophysical (base height, top height and geometrical thickness) and optical properties (cloud optical thickness) observed using a ground-based lidar over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), India, is presented. The climatology obtained from the ground-based lidar is compared with the climatology obtained from seven and half years (June 2006-December 2013) of Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observations. A very good agreement is found between the two climatologies in spite of their opposite viewing geometries and difference in sampling frequencies. Nearly 50-55% of cirrus clouds were found to possess geometrical thickness less than 2 km. Ground-based lidar is found to detect more number of sub-visible clouds than CALIOP which has implications for global warming studies as sub-visible cirrus clouds have significant positive radiative forcing. Cirrus clouds with mid-cloud temperatures between -50 to -70 °C have a mean geometrical thickness greater than 2 km in contrast to the earlier reported value of 1.7 km. Trend analyses reveal a statistically significant increase in the altitude of sub-visible cirrus clouds which is consistent with the recent climate model simulations. Also, the fraction of sub-visible cirrus cloud is found to be increasing during the last sixteen years (1998 to 2013) which has implications to the temperature and water vapour budget in the tropical tropopause layer.

  6. "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb in medicinal plants in the region of Karnataka, Southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrashekara, K.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb were estimated in some selected medicinal plants and soil samples of coastal Karnataka in India. The mean activity concentrations of "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb varied in the range of 4.7–42.9 Bq kg"−"1 (dry weight) and 36.1–124 Bq kg"−"1 (dry weight) in the soil samples, and 3.3–63.7 Bq kg"−"1 (dry weight) and 12.0–406 Bq kg"−"1 (dry weight), in the medicinal plant samples, respectively. The plants, Ocimum sanctum L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng had significantly higher activity concentrations of "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb than other species sampled. In spite of disequilibrium between them, these two radionuclides were well correlated in both soil and medicinal plants. - Highlights: • "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb concentrations in medicinal plants were estimated. • Concentrations are higher in leaves than in rhizome or bark. • "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb were in disequilibrium, but correlated very well. • Study helps to form database of radionuclides in medicinal plants.

  7. Physiological stress responses in wild Asian elephants Elephas maximus in a human-dominated landscape in the Western Ghats, southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakrishnan, Sreedhar; Kumar, Mavatur Ananda; Umapathy, G; Kumar, Vinod; Sinha, Anindya

    2018-05-16

    Increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, especially in the tropical regions of the world, have restricted several large mammalian species such as the Asian elephant to fragmented habitats within human-dominated landscapes. In this study, we assessed the effects of an anthropogenic landscape and its associated conflict with humans on the physiological stress responses displayed by Asian elephants in the Anamalai Hills of the Western Ghats mountains in south India. We have quantified faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations in focal individual elephants within and across herds, inhabiting both anthropogenic and natural habitats, and evaluated their physiological responses to different socio-ecological situations between November 2013 and April 2014. Physiological stress responses varied significantly among the tested elephant age- and sex categories but not across different types of social organisation. Adults generally showed higher FGM concentrations, even in the absence of stressors, than did any other age category. Males also appeared to have higher stress responses than did females. Although there was no significant variation in mean stress levels between elephants on the plateau in the absence of human interactions and those in adjacent, relatively undisturbed forest habitats, FGM concentrations increased significantly for adult and subadult individuals as well as for calves following drives, during which elephants were driven off aggressively by people. Our study emphasises the general importance of understanding individual variation in physiology and behaviour within a population of a seriously threatened mammalian species, the Asian elephant, and specifically highlights the need for long-term monitoring of the stress physiology and behavioural responses of individual elephants across both human-dominated and natural landscapes. Such studies would not only provide comprehensive insights into the adaptive biology of elephants in changing

  8. Long-term trend analysis and climatology of tropical cirrus clouds using 16 years of lidar data set over Southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, A. K.; Gadhavi, H. S.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Raghunath, K.; Rao, S. V. B.; Jayaraman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Sixteen-year (1998-2013) climatology of cirrus clouds and their macrophysical (base height, top height and geometrical thickness) and optical properties (cloud optical thickness) observed using a ground-based lidar over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), India, is presented. The climatology obtained from the ground-based lidar is compared with the climatology obtained from 7 and a half years (June 2006-December 2013) of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observations. A very good agreement is found between the two climatologies in spite of their opposite viewing geometries and the differences in sampling frequencies. Nearly 50-55 % of cirrus clouds were found to possess geometrical thickness less than 2 km. Ground-based lidar is found to detect a higher number of sub-visible clouds than CALIOP which has implications for global warming studies as sub-visible cirrus clouds have significant positive radiative forcing. Cirrus clouds with mid-cloud temperatures between -50 to -70 °C have a mean geometrical thickness greater than 2 km in contrast to the earlier reported value of 1.7 km. Trend analyses reveal a statistically significant increase in the altitude of sub-visible cirrus clouds which is consistent with the recent climate model simulations. The mid-cloud altitude of sub-visible cirrus clouds is found to be increasing at the rate of 41 ± 21 m year-1. Statistically significant decrease in optical thickness of sub-visible and thick cirrus clouds is observed. Also, the fraction of sub-visible cirrus cloud is found to have increased by 9 % in the last 16 years (1998 to 2013). This increase is mainly compensated by a 7 % decrease in thin cirrus cloud fraction. This has implications for the temperature and water vapour budget in the tropical tropopause layer.

  9. Prevalence of Oral, Skin, and Oral and Skin Lesions of Lichen Planus in Patients Visiting a Dental School in Southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omal, PM; Jacob, Vimal; Prathap, Akhilesh; Thomas, Nebu George

    2012-01-01

    Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a mucocutaneous disease that is relatively common among adult population. LP can present as skin and oral lesions. This study highlights the prevalence of oral, skin, and oral and skin lesions of LP. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral, skin, and oral and skin lesions of LP from a population of patients attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiodiagnosis, Pushpagiri College of Dental Sciences, Tiruvalla, Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of oral, skin, and oral and skin lesions of LP. This is a ongoing prospective study with results of 2 years being reported. LP was diagnosed on the basis of clinical presentation and histopathological analysis of mucosal and skin biopsy done for all patients suspected of having LP. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences) software version 14. To test the statistical significance, chi-square test was used. Results: Out of 18,306 patients screened, 8,040 were males and 10,266 females. LP was seen in 118 cases (0.64%). Increased prevalence of LP was observed in middle age adults (40–60 years age group) with lowest age of 12 years and highest age of 65 years. No statistically significant differences were observed between the genders in skin LP group (P=0.12) and in oral and skin LP groups (P=0.06); however, a strong female predilection was seen in oral LP group (P=0.000036). The prevalence of cutaneous LP in oral LP patients was 0.06%. Conclusion: This study showed an increased prevalence of oral LP than skin LP, and oral and skin LP with a female predominance. PMID:22615505

  10. Contrasting isotopic mantle sources for proterozoic lamproites and kimberlites from the Cuddapah basin and eastern Dharwar craton: implication for proterozoic mantle heterogeneity beneath southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalapathi Rao, N.V.; Gibson, S.A.; Pyle, D.M.; Dickin, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    Kimberlites intruding the Precambrian basement towards the western margin of the Cuddapah basin near Anantapur (1090 Ma) and Mahbubnagar (1360 Ma) in Andhra Pradesh have initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr between 0.70205 to 0.70734 and σNd between +0.5 to +4.68. Mesoproterozoic lamproites (1380 Ma) from the Cuddapah basin (Chelima and Zangamarajupalle) and its NE margin (Ramannapeta) have initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr between 0.70520 and 0.7390 and εNd from -6.43 to -8.29. Combined Sr- and Nd- isotopic ratios suggest that lamproites were derived from enriched sources which have time-averaged higher Rb/Sr and lower Sm/Nd ratios than the Bulk Earth whereas kimberlites were derived from depleted source with lower Rb/Sr and higher Sm/Nd ratios. Calculated T DM model ages suggest that the lamproite source enrichment (∼2 Ga) preceded that of kimberlites (∼1.37 Ga). Our work demonstrates the existence of isotopically contrasting upper mantle sources for southern Indian kimberlites and lamproites and provides evidence for a lateral, isotopically heterogeneous mantle beneath the Cuddapah basin and eastern Dharwar craton. The significance of our results in the context of diamond exploration is also highlighted. (author)

  11. Biomass yielding potential of naturally regenerated Prosopis juliflora tree stands at three varied ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathi, K; Chandrasekaran, S

    2016-05-01

    Fuel energy demand is of great concern in recent times due to the depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biomass serves as widely available primary renewable energy source. Hence, a study was performed to assess the above-ground biomass yielding capability of fuel wood tree Prosopis juliflora in three varied ecosystems viz., coastal, fallow land and riparian ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu. The results showed that the biomass production potential and above-ground net primary productivity of P. juliflora depend on the age of the tree stands and the nature of ecosystem. A higher biomass yield was observed for P. juliflora trees with 5 to 10 years old when compared to less than 5 years of their age. Among the three ecosystems, the maximum biomass production was recorded in riparian ecosystem. The stands with less than 5-year-old P. juliflora trees gave 1.40 t/ha, and 5- to 10-year-old tree stands produced 27.69 t/ha in riparian ecosystem. Above-ground net primary productivity of both the age groups was high in fallow land ecosystem. In riparian ecosystem, the wood showed high density and low sulphur content than the other two ecosystems. Hence, P. juliflora biomass can serve as an environmentally and economically feasible fuel as well as their utilization proffers an effective means to control its invasiveness.

  12. No longer diseases of the wealthy: prevalence and health-seeking for self-reported chronic conditions among urban poor in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojani, Upendra; Beerenahalli, Thriveni S; Devadasan, Roopa; Munegowda, C M; Devadasan, Narayanan; Criel, Bart; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2013-08-13

    The burden of chronic conditions is high in low- and middle-income countries and poses a significant challenge to already weak healthcare delivery systems in these countries. Studies investigating chronic conditions among the urban poor remain few and focused on specific chronic conditions rather than providing overall profile of chronic conditions in a given community, which is critical for planning and managing services within local health systems. We aimed to assess the prevalence and health- seeking behaviour for self-reported chronic conditions in a poor neighbourhood of a metropolitan city in India. We conducted a house-to-house survey covering 9299 households (44514 individuals) using a structured questionnaire. We relied on self-report by respondents to assess presence of any chronic conditions, including diabetes and hypertension. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse the prevalence and health-seeking behaviour for self-reported chronic conditions in general as well as for diabetes and hypertension in particular. The predictor variables included age, sex, income, religion, household poverty status, presence of comorbid chronic conditions, and tiers in the local health care system. Overall, the prevalence of self-reported chronic conditions was 13.8% (95% CI = 13.4, 14.2) among adults, with hypertension (10%) and diabetes (6.4%) being the most commonly reported conditions. Older people and women were more likely to report chronic conditions. We found reversal of socioeconomic gradient with people living below the poverty line at significantly greater odds of reporting chronic conditions than people living above the poverty line (OR = 3, 95% CI = 1.5, 5.8). Private healthcare providers managed over 80% of patients. A majority of patients were managed at the clinic/health centre level (42.9%), followed by the referral hospital (38.9%) and the super-specialty hospital (18.2%) level. An increase in income was positively associated with the use

  13. Effect of prenatal exposure to maternal cortisol and psychological distress on infant development in Bengaluru, southern India: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Anita; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana; Babu, Giridhara R; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo

    2017-07-17

    The mental health status of a pregnant woman and its consequent impact on foetal well being is not given much importance compared to the risk imposed by obstetric complications and medical conditions. Maternal psychological distress is a major public health problem and needs timely detection and intervention to prevent any adverse pregnancy outcome. There is ample evidence from literature that justifies the association of prenatal maternal mental stress and elevated cortisol with delayed infant motor and cognitive development; evidence from India being rather limited. The study aim is to prospectively assess the association of maternal psychological distress and cortisol level with motor and cognitive development of the infant. A sample of 2612 eligible pregnant women who have been registered for antenatal care at selected public sector hospitals in Bengaluru will be recruited after obtaining written informed consent. They will be assessed for the presence of maternal psychological distress in the form of depression and anxiety using appropriate scales and saliva samples will be collected for cortisol estimation during early, mid and late pregnancy. Follow up visits after delivery will be done on day 10, 3 months, 8 months and 12 months. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development [BSID] (Third edition) will be used to measure both motor and mental milestones in terms of Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI). Logistic regression model will be used to determine the association between the exposure variables and outcomes which will be reported as Odd's Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Our study findings could add to the growing evidence that maternal psychological distress during pregnancy adversely influences growth and development in the offspring and subsequent development of the child. While maternal anxiety and depression can be measured by using self reporting instruments, estimation of maternal

  14. India and the nuclear test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.

    1998-01-01

    India has sought a nuclear-test ban for the last 42 years bur is now unable to sign the Comprehensive Test ban Treaty (CTBT) when it is in its final form and moved to block its transmittal from the Conference on Disarmament to the UN General assembly. The negotiating mandate for the CTBT required it to effectively contribute to the process of disarmament. It is towards this end that India proposed amendments. Nuclear disarmament is fundamental for India's strategic and security interests. The only viable solution to India's security concerns related to nuclear weapons is in pursuing total elimination of nuclear weapons from national arsenals

  15. Textile Arts of India, Curriculum Project. Fulbright Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1995 (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Barbara

    This interdisciplinary unit focuses on five techniques found in the textile arts of India: tie-dye, embroidery, applique, block printing, and weaving. The unit is designed for students in third through sixth grades but could be adapted to other levels. This unit could be incorporated with a study of India's land, history, and geography. The…

  16. Emergence of carbapenem non-susceptible multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains of clonal complexes 103(B) and 92(B) harboring OXA-type carbapenemases and metallo-β-lactamases in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranathan, Rajagopalan; Vasanth, Vaidyanathan; Vasanth, Thamodharan; Shabareesh, Pidathala Raghavendra Venkata; Shashikala, P; Devi, Chandrakesan Sheela; Kalaivani, Ramakrishnan; Asir, Johny; Sudhakar, Pagal; Prashanth, K

    2015-05-01

    The molecular epidemiology and carbapenem resistance mechanisms of clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii obtained from a south Indian tertiary care hospital were investigated by repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence PCR (REP-PCR) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Analysis of resistant determinants was achieved by PCR screening for the presence of genes encoding OXA-carbapenemases, metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) and efflux pumps. REP-PCR generated around eight clusters of high heterogeneity; of these, two major clusters (I and V) appeared to be clonal in origin. Analysis of representative isolates from different clusters by MLST revealed that most of the isolates belonged to sequence type 103 of CC103(B) . Second most prevalent ST belonged to clonal complex (CC) 92(B) which is also referred to as international clone II. Most of the isolates were multi-drug resistant, being susceptible only to polymyxin-B and newer quinolones. Class D β-lactamases such as blaOXA-51-like (100%), blaOXA-23-like (56.8%) and blaOXA-24-like (14.8%) were found to be predominant, followed by a class B β-lactamase, namely blaIMP-1 (40.7%); none of the isolates had blaOXA-58 like, blaNDM-1 or blaSIM-1 . Genes of efflux-pump adeABC were predominant, most of isolates being biofilm producers that were PCR-positive for autoinducer synthase gene (>94%). Carbapenem non-susceptible isolates were highly diverse and present throughout the hospital irrespective of type of ward or intensive care unit. Although previous reports have documented diverse resistant mechanisms in A. baumannii, production of MBL and OXA-type of carbapenamases were found to be the predominant mechanism(s) of carbapenem resistance identified in strains isolated from Southern India. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Nutrient composition and physicochemical characteristics in the destination sites of migratory water birds: a case study at the selected locations of seashores and lakes in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Augustine

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity in aquatic systems are indirectly controlled by their nutrient dynamics. The abundance of phytoplanktons and zooplanktons depends on the availability of nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates and silicates since these are the building blocks for their further growth. The phytoplanktons act as prey for the next higher trophic level including various fishes and other small organisms. One of the factors that enchant the migratory birds at some particular locations is the availability of the species of organisms that they prey on. In this paper a preliminary analysis is done to explore the nutrient dynamics of selected tropical aquatic systems in order to correlate the arrival of migratory birds at those locations. Water samples are collected from coastal region of Aleppey, Purakkad and Koonthankulam Bird Sancturay. The latter two sites are the important destination of many migratory water birds including Pallus Gull, Heuglins Gull, Bar-headed goose, Comb Duck and Spot Billed Pelican. The samples are analyzed chemically to trace the nutrient compositions and the related chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, conductivity, primary productivity, chloride, salinity, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand. Remarkable differences are observed mainly in the composition of phosphate, organic matter content and salinity. Finally, an attempt has been done to correlate the biodiversity of these locations with the chemical parameters and the prevailing nutrient compositions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9943 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1 2014: 68-77

  18. Soft sediment deformation associated with the East Patna Fault south of the Ganga River, northern India: Influence of the Himalayan tectonics on the southern Ganga plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Aditya K.; Pati, Pitambar; Sharma, Vijay

    2017-08-01

    The geomorphic, tectonic and seismic aspects of the Ganga plain have been studied by several workers in the recent decades. However, the northern part of this tectonically active plain has been the prime focus in most of the studies. The region to the south of the Ganga River requires necessary attention, especially, regarding the seismic activities. The region lying immediately south of the Outer Himalayas (i.e. the Ganga plain) responds to the stress regime of the Himalayan Frontal Thrust Zone by movement along the existing basement faults (extending from the Indian Peninsula) and creating new surface faults within the sediment cover as well. As a result, several earthquakes have been recorded along these basement faults, such as the great earthquakes of 1934 and 1988 associated with the East Patna Fault. Large zones of ground failure and liquefaction in north Bihar (close to the Himalayan front), have been recorded associated with these earthquakes. The present study reports the soft sediment deformation structures from the south Bihar associated with the prehistoric earthquakes near the East Patna Fault for the first time. The seismites have been observed in the riverine sand bed of the Dardha River close to the East Patna Fault. Several types of liquefaction-induced deformation structures such as pillar and pocket structure, thixotropic wedge, liquefaction cusps and other water escape structures have been identified. The location of the observed seismites within the deformed zone of the East Patna Fault clearly indicates their formation due to activities along this fault. However, the distance of the liquefaction site from the recorded epicenters suggests its dissociation with the recorded earthquakes so far and hence possibly relates to any prehistoric seismic event. The occurrence of the earthquakes of a magnitude capable of forming liquefaction structure in the southern Ganga plain indicates the transfer of stress regime far from the Himalayan front into

  19. Aerosol Optical Depth Over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Liji Mary; Ravishankara, A. R.; Kodros, John K.; Venkataraman, Chandra; Sadavarte, Pankaj; Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Chaliyakunnel, Sreelekha; Millet, Dylan B.

    2018-04-01

    Tropospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD) over India was simulated by Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS)-Chem, a global 3-D chemical-transport model, using SMOG (Speciated Multi-pOllutant Generator from Indian Institute of Technology Bombay) and GEOS-Chem (GC) (current inventories used in the GEOS-Chem model) inventories for 2012. The simulated AODs were 80% (SMOG) and 60% (GC) of those measured by the satellites (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer). There is no strong seasonal variation in AOD over India. The peak AOD values are observed/simulated during summer. The simulated AOD using SMOG inventory has particulate black and organic carbon AOD higher by a factor 5 and 3, respectively, compared to GC inventory. The model underpredicted coarse-mode AOD but agreed for fine-mode AOD with Aerosol Robotic Network data. It captured dust only over Western India, which is a desert, and not elsewhere, probably due to inaccurate dust transport and/or noninclusion of other dust sources. The calculated AOD, after dust correction, showed the general features in its observed spatial variation. Highest AOD values were observed over the Indo-Gangetic Plain followed by Central and Southern India with lowest values in Northern India. Transport of aerosols from Indo-Gangetic Plain and Central India into Eastern India, where emissions are low, is significant. The major contributors to total AOD over India are inorganic aerosol (41-64%), organic carbon (14-26%), and dust (7-32%). AOD over most regions of India is a factor of 5 or higher than over the United States.

  20. India: When cities expand too rapidly | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-13

    May 13, 2016 ... ... based in Bangalore, a city of four million people located in southern India. ... access to water, which is drawn from the Arkavathy River Basin. ... Protecting access to water from urban sprawl, climate change in South Asia.

  1. India's population in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visaria, L; Visaria, P

    1995-10-01

    This demographic profile of India addresses fertility, family planning, and economic issues. India is described as a country shifting from economic policies of self-reliance to active involvement in international trade. Wealth has increased, particularly at higher educational levels, yet 25% still live below the official poverty line and almost 66% of Indian women are illiterate. The government program in family planning, which was instituted during the early 1950s, did not change the rate of natural increase, which remained stable at 2.2% over the past 30 years. 1993 marked the first time the growth rate decline to under 2%. The growth rate in 1995 was 1.9%. The total population is expected double in 36 years. Only Nigeria, Pakistan, and Bangladesh had a higher growth rate and higher fertility in 1995. India is geographically diverse (with the northern Himalayan mountain zone, the central alluvial plains, the western desert region, and the southern peninsula with forest, mountains, and plains). There are regional differences in the fertility rates, which range from replacement level in Kerala and Goa to 5.5 children in Uttar Pradesh. Fertility is expected to decline throughout India due to the slower pace of childbearing among women over the age of 35 years, the increase in contraceptive use, and increases in marriage age. Increased educational levels in India and its state variations are related to lower fertility. Literacy campaigns are considered to be effective means of increasing the educational levels of women. Urbanization is not expected to markedly affect fertility levels. Urban population, which is concentrated in a few large cities, remains a small proportion of total population. Greater shifts are evident in the transition from agriculture to other wage labor. Fertility is expected to decline as women's share of labor force activity increases. The major determinant of fertility decline in India is use of family planning, which has improved in access

  2. Case-Mix, Care Processes, and Outcomes in Medically-Ill Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilation in a Low-Resource Setting from Southern India: A Prospective Clinical Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Balasubramanian; Kadhiravan, Tamilarasu; Deepanjali, Surendran; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a resource intensive organ support treatment, and historical studies from low-resource settings had reported a high mortality. We aimed to study the outcomes in patients receiving mechanical ventilation in a contemporary low-resource setting. We prospectively studied the characteristics and outcomes (disease-related, mechanical ventilation-related, and process of care-related) in 237 adults mechanically ventilated for a medical illness at a teaching hospital in southern India during February 2011 to August 2012. Vital status of patients discharged from hospital was ascertained on Day 90 or later. Mean age of the patients was 40 ± 17 years; 140 (51%) were men. Poisoning and envenomation accounted for 98 (41%) of 237 admissions. In total, 87 (37%) patients died in-hospital; 16 (7%) died after discharge; 115 (49%) were alive at 90-day assessment; and 19 (8%) were lost to follow-up. Weaning was attempted in 171 (72%) patients; most patients (78 of 99 [79%]) failing the first attempt could be weaned off. Prolonged mechanical ventilation was required in 20 (8%) patients. Adherence to head-end elevation and deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis were 164 (69%) and 147 (62%) respectively. Risk of nosocomial infections particularly ventilator-associated pneumonia was high (57.2 per 1,000 ventilator-days). Higher APACHE II score quartiles (adjusted HR [95% CI] quartile 2, 2.65 [1.19-5.89]; quartile 3, 2.98 [1.24-7.15]; quartile 4, 5.78 [2.45-13.60]), and new-onset organ failure (2.98 [1.94-4.56]) were independently associated with the risk of death. Patients with poisoning had higher risk of reintubation (43% vs. 20%; P = 0.001) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (75% vs. 53%; P = 0.001). But, their mortality was significantly lower compared to the rest (24% vs. 44%; P = 0.002). The case-mix considerably differs from other settings. Mortality in this low-resource setting is similar to high-resource settings. But, further improvements in care processes

  3. Tolerance of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) to dichlorvos (76% EC) an insecticide used for fly control in the tsunami-hit coastal villages of southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P; Gunasekaran, K; Boopathidoss, P S

    2008-02-01

    The Directorate of Public Health (DPH), Tamil Nadu, in southern India employed spraying of dichlorvos (76% EC) for quick elimination of fly concentrations in the tsunami-hit coastal villages at the concentration of 304g (a.i.)/10,000m(2). However, nuisance of house flies remained high particularly in temporary shelters and centralized relief kitchens. Susceptibility of house fly, Musca domestica to dichlorvos was determined in the laboratory to provide information for an effective management of this pest. Various concentrations of dichlorvos (76% EC) viz., 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8microg (a.i.) per fly, were tested using topical application against F(1) progenies of house flies collected 12 months after insecticide applications from different habitats in the tsunami-hit coastal villages. Fly mortality was recorded at 24h post treatment. Parallel controls were maintained for comparison. Mortality of the house flies varied between 17.5% and 100% and increased with an increase in dosage of the insecticide. Mortality was >80% at 0.6 and 0.8microg (a.i.) per fly. The LD(50) of dichlorvos tested against flies collected from different villages varied from 0.218microg (a.i.) to 0.235microg (a.i.) per fly and the LD(90) varied from 0.574microg (a.i.) to 0.639microg (a.i.) per fly. House flies collected from a rural village, Thirukanur that had never been exposed for insecticide treatment in the past one decade, when tested, the mortality varied between 92.5% and 100% and increased with concentration of dichlorvos. Mortality was >90% from 0.2microg (a.i.) per fly and the LD(50) was 0.0399microg (a.i.)/fly, while the LD(90) was 0.1604microg (a.i.)/fly. The LD(90) values of the flies collected from the tsunami-hit villages were 3.5-3.9 times higher than that of the flies collected from Thirukanur. Fly abundance remained high in tsunami-hit villages with no marked reduction, suggesting that the flies had developed tolerance to dichlorvos. It is suggested that for an effective

  4. Case-Mix, Care Processes, and Outcomes in Medically-Ill Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilation in a Low-Resource Setting from Southern India: A Prospective Clinical Case Series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Karthikeyan

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation is a resource intensive organ support treatment, and historical studies from low-resource settings had reported a high mortality. We aimed to study the outcomes in patients receiving mechanical ventilation in a contemporary low-resource setting.We prospectively studied the characteristics and outcomes (disease-related, mechanical ventilation-related, and process of care-related in 237 adults mechanically ventilated for a medical illness at a teaching hospital in southern India during February 2011 to August 2012. Vital status of patients discharged from hospital was ascertained on Day 90 or later.Mean age of the patients was 40 ± 17 years; 140 (51% were men. Poisoning and envenomation accounted for 98 (41% of 237 admissions. In total, 87 (37% patients died in-hospital; 16 (7% died after discharge; 115 (49% were alive at 90-day assessment; and 19 (8% were lost to follow-up. Weaning was attempted in 171 (72% patients; most patients (78 of 99 [79%] failing the first attempt could be weaned off. Prolonged mechanical ventilation was required in 20 (8% patients. Adherence to head-end elevation and deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis were 164 (69% and 147 (62% respectively. Risk of nosocomial infections particularly ventilator-associated pneumonia was high (57.2 per 1,000 ventilator-days. Higher APACHE II score quartiles (adjusted HR [95% CI] quartile 2, 2.65 [1.19-5.89]; quartile 3, 2.98 [1.24-7.15]; quartile 4, 5.78 [2.45-13.60], and new-onset organ failure (2.98 [1.94-4.56] were independently associated with the risk of death. Patients with poisoning had higher risk of reintubation (43% vs. 20%; P = 0.001 and ventilator-associated pneumonia (75% vs. 53%; P = 0.001. But, their mortality was significantly lower compared to the rest (24% vs. 44%; P = 0.002.The case-mix considerably differs from other settings. Mortality in this low-resource setting is similar to high-resource settings. But, further improvements in care processes

  5. The South India Precambrian crust and shallow lithospheric mantle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Regional geothermal-barometry in the granulite facies terrane of South India; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 73. 221–244. Raith M, Karmakar S and Brown M 1997 Ultra high temparature metamorphism and multi-stage decom- pressional of saphirrine granulite from the Palni-. Hill ranges, southern India; J. Metamorph. Geol. 15.

  6. Translating India

    CERN Document Server

    Kothari, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The cultural universe of urban, English-speaking middle class in India shows signs of growing inclusiveness as far as English is concerned. This phenomenon manifests itself in increasing forms of bilingualism (combination of English and one Indian language) in everyday forms of speech - advertisement jingles, bilingual movies, signboards, and of course conversations. It is also evident in the startling prominence of Indian Writing in English and somewhat less visibly, but steadily rising, activity of English translation from Indian languages. Since the eighties this has led to a frenetic activity around English translation in India's academic and literary circles. Kothari makes this very current phenomenon her chief concern in Translating India.   The study covers aspects such as the production, reception and marketability of English translation. Through an unusually multi-disciplinary approach, this study situates English translation in India amidst local and global debates on translation, representation an...

  7. An efficient, block-by-block algorithm for inverting a block tridiagonal, nearly block Toeplitz matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Matthew G; Hill, Judith C

    2012-01-01

    We present an algorithm for computing any block of the inverse of a block tridiagonal, nearly block Toeplitz matrix (defined as a block tridiagonal matrix with a small number of deviations from the purely block Toeplitz structure). By exploiting both the block tridiagonal and the nearly block Toeplitz structures, this method scales independently of the total number of blocks in the matrix and linearly with the number of deviations. Numerical studies demonstrate this scaling and the advantages of our method over alternatives.

  8. Analysis of Block OMP using Block RIP

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun; Li, Gang; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Xiqin

    2011-01-01

    Orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) is a canonical greedy algorithm for sparse signal reconstruction. When the signal of interest is block sparse, i.e., it has nonzero coefficients occurring in clusters, the block version of OMP algorithm (i.e., Block OMP) outperforms the conventional OMP. In this paper, we demonstrate that a new notion of block restricted isometry property (Block RIP), which is less stringent than standard restricted isometry property (RIP), can be used for a very straightforw...

  9. The use of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane blocks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia ... The placebo group received sham blocks with normal saline, post induction of anaesthesia. ... Secondary outcomes were adequacy of pain relief, as assessed by pain scores at 0, ...

  10. India Emerging

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-12-13

    Dec 13, 2017 ... It is telling that in a famous paper authored by the Nobel Prize winner, Robert ..... Examples are the steam engine, railroad, electricity, electronics, the ...... According to Gartner's Senior Research Analyst 'India's domestic IT services .... in new areas such as engineering services and product development.

  11. India Emerging

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Here Veena Jha surveys the history of philanthropic giving in India going back to the ...... claim that ICTs produced benefits go beyond those pertaining to investors and owners. ...... Anti-migration policies include restricted access to public services by below poverty ...... Which medicines and vaccinations are not available?

  12. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  13. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.

  14. Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.

  15. Dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride concentration as a reflection of fluoride exposure and its impact on IQ level and BMI of children of Laxmisagar, Simlapal Block of Bankura District, W.B., India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kousik; Mondal, Naba Kumar

    2016-04-01

    There has been growing public concern about intellectual performance of children at high levels of fluoride exposure. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Simlapal Block of Bankura District, West Bengal, to find out the relationship between fluoride (F) exposure as exposure dose (ED) with dental fluorosis (DF), urinary fluoride concentration (UF), intelligence quotient (IQ) and body mass index (BMI). Fifty groundwater samples were collected from the target area. One hundred forty-nine children belonging to age group 6 to 18 years were considered for this study. Experimental results reveal that mean F(-) concentration of that area is 2.11 mg/L (±SD 1.64). On the basis of F concentration in groundwater and water consumption pattern, ED was calculated to explore the impact of F(-) on DF, UF, IQ, and BMI. Paired t test results suggest that exposure rate of F does not show any significant differences ( severe > mild > very mild > questionable > normal conditions. The highest UF concentration was recorded as 17 mg/L, but the status of DF in the affected children was recorded as moderate. The results also reveal that ED has a positive correlation with DF (r = 0.299, P fluoride toxicity.

  16. Poly(ferrocenylsilane)-block-Polylactide Block Copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, M.; van Zanten, Thomas S.; Hempenius, Mark A.; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Feijen, Jan; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2007-01-01

    A PFS/PLA block copolymer was studied to probe the effect of strong surface interactions on pattern formation in PFS block copolymer thin films. Successful synthesis of PFS-b-PLA was demonstrated. Thin films of these polymers show phase separation to form PFS microdomains in a PLA matrix, and

  17. Surface circulation over the shelf off the east coast of India during the south west monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Sastry, J.S.

    upwelling in the southern regions off the East Coast of India. Vertical temperature and salinity structures north of Visakhapatnam show a predominant estuarine character and upwelling is not evident. In the northern regions, the flow is directed south...

  18. Application of radiometric core data in developing correlation index for insitu gamma log and disequilibrium status across exploratory boreholes: a case study in Wahkut Block of West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukreti, B.M.; Kumar, Pramod

    2011-01-01

    With the objective to affirm apparent Uranium ore zone grade/thickness with good confidence for non-coring and coring boreholes with poor core recovery, a systematic study in the mineralised coring boreholes between insitu measured gamma ray log and laboratory measured core assay has been carried out, in the sedimentary environment of Wahkut block, West Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya. This also helps in quantifying correlation index and U disequilibrium status across the drilled boreholes and to convert apparent eU 3 O 8 grade to ore reserve (U 3 O 8 ). Study area consist of 2 sq km having 33 coring and 39 non coring boreholes with cumulative drilled depth of about 11,000 mts. On this available database, grade thickness continuity of uranium ore zone, in coring boreholes was evaluated with the criteria of minimal ore zone thickness of 1.0 mts at 100 ppm eU 3 O 8 cut-off grade. The same criteria were also extended to the core assay of drilled core. A population of 19 such simultaneous qualifying zone (borehole log and core assay) meeting the set criteria from 17 coring boreholes (average core recovery > 90%) was drawn. Study results gave grade thickness continuity index of 0.93 between radiometric core assay and borehole log with moderately strong relationship. Disequilibrium status of apparent eU 3 O 8 grade in the borehole was examined using chemically checked U 3 O 8 (β/γ) (Having high degree uranium data confidence 91%) and Ra (e) plot, after getting complete core samples radiometric and spectral gamma analysed for 14 such boreholes. Equilibrium status on this population indicates, disequilibrium in favour of parent (0.90-1.78 range) having log normal distribution and skewed to the higher side of mean 1.37 disequilibrium factor. (author)

  19. FDI Climate in India

    OpenAIRE

    Khandelwal, Varun

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since 1991, after the external payment crisis in India, there has been liberalization of various policies by the Government of India. Due to this there has been rapid surge of FDI inflows in India. The current investment climate has attracted many foreign investors to India in various sectors. India is considered as one of the favorable destination of FDI. However the country also suffers from few weaknesses and constraints in terms of policy and regulatory framework, which rest...

  20. Block That Pain!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Block That Pain! Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... contrast, most pain relievers used for surgical procedures block activity in all types of neurons. This can ...

  1. Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known cause. Causes can include: Left bundle branch block Heart attacks (myocardial infarction) Thickened, stiffened or weakened ... myocarditis) High blood pressure (hypertension) Right bundle branch block A heart abnormality that's present at birth (congenital) — ...

  2. Specters of Waste in India's "Silicon Valley": The Underside of Bangalore's Hi-Tech Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanareddy, Rajyashree

    2011-01-01

    The southern Indian city of Bangalore is extolled as India's "Silicon Valley," emerging over the past decade as a premier site for capital flows into India's Information Technology (IT) sector. In the dominant narrative of globalization Bangalore is lauded as an aspiring "global city" that attracts sizeable quantities of…

  3. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-01

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  4. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mian, Zia [Program on Science and Global Security, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey (United States)

    2014-05-09

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  5. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mian, Zia

    2014-01-01

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future

  6. India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1. The site at Singara near the town of Masinagudi (Lat. 11.5◦N, Long. 76.6◦E) under the Nilgiri Mountains in the southern peninsular shield in South India, is adjacent to a hydel project PUSHEP (Pykara ultimate stage hydroelectric project). The vertical overburden is around 1.3 km. All-around cover of more than 1 km exists, ...

  7. Is the Gop rift oceanic? A reevaluation of the Seychelles-India conjugate margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huixin; Werner, Philippe; Geoffroy, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Gop Rift axis. We propose that the conspicuous buoyant central part of the Gop Rift is likely associated with a continental C-Block as described in a recent paper on conjugated VPMs8, at least in the southern part of the Gop Rift. The crust below the Laxmi basin is probably transitional continental i.e. strongly intruded. West of India and west of the Laxmi Ridge, the transition to the Carlsberg Basin occurs along a clearly-expressed transform fault, not through an extended and thinned continental margin. We reinterpret the whole system based on those observations and propositions, giving some explanations on controversial magnetic anomalies based on similar observations from the southern Atlantic Ocean. 1: Collier et al., 2008. Age of the Seychelles-India break-up. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 2: Minshull et al., 2008. The relationship between riftingand magmatism in the northeastern Arabian Sea. Nature Geoscience. 3 : Armitage et al., 2010. The importance of rift history for volcanic margin. Nature. 4 : Krishna et al., 2006. Nature of the crust in the Laxmi Basin (14 degrees-20 degrees N), western continental margin of India. Tectonics. 5 : Misra et al., 2015. Repeat ridge jumps and microcontinent separation: insights from NE Arabian Sea. Marine and Petroleum Geology. 6 : Biswas, 1982. Rift basins in the western margin of India and their hydrocarbon prospects. Bull. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. 7 : Chatterjee et al., 2013. The longest voyage: Tectonic, magmatic, and paleoclimatic evolution of the Indian plate during its northward flight from Gondwana to Asia. Gondwana Research. 8 : Geoffroy et al., 2015. Volcanic passive margins: anotherway to break up continents. Scientific Reports.

  8. Generalized Block Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... shows that no readily available tests with a well-defined substantial eccentricity have been performed. This paper presents theoretical and experimental work leading towards generalized block failure capacity methods. Simple combination of normal force, shear force and moment stress distributions along...... yield lines around the block leads to simple interaction formulas similar to other interaction formulas in the codes....

  9. Electrical imaging of deep crustal features of Kutch, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, R. S.; Nagarajan, Nandini; Sarma, S. V. S.

    2008-03-01

    A regional Magnetotelluric (MT) study, was carried out with 55 MT soundings, distributed along five traverses, across the Kutch Mainland Unit (KMU), on the west coast of India, a region characterized by a series of successive uplifts and intervening depressions in the form of half graben, bounded by master faults. We obtain the deeper electrical structure of the crust beneath Kutch, from 2-D modelling of MT data along the 5 traverses, in order to evaluate the geo-electrical signatures, if any, of the known primary tectonic structures in this region. The results show that the deeper electrical structure in the Kutch region presents a mosaic of high resistive crustal blocks separated by deep-rooted conductive features. Two such crustal conductive features spatially correlate with the known tectonic features, viz., the Kutch Mainland Fault (KMF), and the Katrol Hill Fault (KHF). An impressive feature of the geo-electrical sections is an additional, well-defined conductive feature, running between Jakhau and Mundra, located at the southern end of each of the five MT traverses and interpreted to be the electrical signature of yet another hidden fault at the southern margin of the KMU. This new feature is named as Jakhau-Mundra Fault (JMF). It is inferred that the presence of JMF together with the Kathiawar Fault (NKF), further south, located at the northern boundary of the Saurashtra Horst, would enhance the possibility of occurrence of a thick sedimentary column in the Gulf of Kutch. The region between the newly delineated fault (JMF) and the Kathiawar fault (NKF) could thus be significant for Hydrocarbon Exploration.

  10. Role of Neyveli Lignite in the energy map of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasaraghavan, S

    1984-08-01

    The Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC), a government undertaking, has played an important role in power generation in the southern region of India by contributing about 35% of the energy consumed in Tamil Nadu for over two decades. Performance at the Neyveli Thermal Power Station demonstrates that it is more advantageous to make additions to thermal generating capacity at Neyvili using lignite. Exploration and development of the mines can support this expansion and make the southern region a nucleus for industrial development. 2 tables.

  11. Groundwater potential zonation by Remote Sensing and GIS techniques and its relation to the Groundwater level in the Coastal part of the Arani and Koratalai River Basin, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Suganthi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is being pumped extensively from the coastal part of the Arani and Koratalai River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India for irrigation and water supply to the city of Chennai. The objective of this study is to delineate the groundwater potential zones of this area using Remote Sensing (RS and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques. Weighted overlay analysis was used to demarcate the ground- water potential zones. Various thematic layers such as geology, geomorphology, soil, lineament density, drainage density, rainfall and landuse maps were prepared. The geological map was prepared using a Geological Survey of India (GSI district resource map. Indian Remote Sensing System Linear Imaging Self-scanning Sensor III (IRS-1D LISS III satellite imagery was used to prepare the geomorphology, soil, lineament density, drainage density, and landuse maps. The final groundwater potential map was prepared by assigning appropriate weightage to different thematic maps and adding them to the final groundwater potential map. The derived groundwater potential map was overlaid with the groundwater level and location of well fields for validation. The map prepared will help in systematic and proper development of groundwater resources in this area to meet the growing water requirements of the city of Chennai.  Resumen Aguas subterráneas se bombean en gran cantidad desde la parte costera en las cuencas de los ríos Arani, en Tamil Nadu, India, para el riego y el aprovisionamiento de agua a la ciudad de Chennai. El objetivo de este estudio es delinear las zonas potenciales de aguas subterráneas en esta área a través de sistemas de Teledeteción (RS y de Información Geográfica (GIS. Se hizo un análisis sobrepuesto compensado para demarcar las zonas con posibilidad de tener aguas subterráneas. Se prepararon mapas de uso de la tierra con varios elementos temáticos como geología, geomorfología, terreno, densidad de lineamiento, densi- dad de drenaje y

  12. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  13. 31 CFR 595.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked...

  14. New early Eocene vertebrate assemblage from western India reveals a mixed fauna of European and Gondwana affinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ypresian Cambay Shale Formation at Vastan and Mangrol lignite mines in Gujarat, western India, has yielded a rich vertebrate fauna with numerous taxa of European affinities. Here we report a new, approximately contemporary vertebrate assemblage from two fossiliferous layers in the nearby mine of Tadkeshwar. These layers have yielded a similar mammal fauna with the co-occurrence of the perissodactyl-like cambaytheriid Cambaytherium thewissi, the adapoid primates Marcgodinotius indicus and cf. Asiadapis cambayensis, and the hyaenodontid Indohyaenodon raoi. The presence of these species in both Vastan and Tadkeshwar mines and at different levels suggests that the deposits between the two major lignite seams represent a single land mammal age. Apart from the aforementioned species there is a new, smaller species of Cambaytherium, and a new genus and species of esthonychid tillodont. This fauna also contains the first large early Eocene vertebrates from India, including an unidentified Coryphodon-like pantodont, a dyrosaurid crocodyliform and a new giant madtsoiid snake. Among the Tadkeshwar vertebrates several taxa are of Gondwana affinities, such as Pelomedusoides turtles, dyrosaurids, and large madtsoiids, attesting that the early Eocene was a crucial period in India during which Laurasian taxa of European affinities co-existed with relict taxa from Gondwana before the India-Asia collision. Our results suggest that terrestrial faunas could have dispersed to or from Europe during episodes of contact between the Indian subcontinent and different island blocks along the northern margin of the Neotethys, such as the Kohistan–Ladakh island-arc system. Gondwana taxa might represent remnants of ghost lineages shared with Madagascar, which reached the Indian subcontinent during the late Cretaceous; alternatively they might have come from North Africa and passed along the southern margin of the Neotethys to reach the Indian subcontinent. These

  15. Block Cipher Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miolane, Charlotte Vikkelsø

    ensurethat no attack violatesthe securitybounds specifiedbygeneric attack namely exhaustivekey search and table lookup attacks. This thesis contains a general introduction to cryptography with focus on block ciphers and important block cipher designs, in particular the Advanced Encryption Standard(AES...... on small scale variants of AES. In the final part of the thesis we present a new block cipher proposal Present and examine its security against algebraic and differential cryptanalysis in particular....

  16. India's Unfinished Telecom Tasks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India's Telecom Story is now well known · Indian Operators become an enviable force · At the same time · India Amongst the Leaders · Unfinished Tasks as Operators · LightGSM ON: Innovation for Rural Area from Midas · Broadband Access Options for India · Broadband driven by DSL: still too slow · Is Wireless the answer?

  17. India | Page 115 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In that time, a project to bring the Information Age to villagers in southern India has won awards and given 50 000 "information shop" users in a dozen communities high-speed wireless telephone and Internet access. It has also helped improve more traditional Indian communication methods, such as community newspapers ...

  18. India | Page 116 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In that time, a project to bring the Information Age to villagers in southern India has won awards and given 50 000 "information shop" users in a dozen communities high-speed wireless telephone and Internet access. It has also helped improve more traditional Indian communication methods, such as community newspapers ...

  19. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix.

  20. Designers Block 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Artiklen indleder med: ved siden aaf Londons etablerede designmesse '100% Design', er der vokset et undergrundsmiljø af designudstillinger op. Det dominerende og mest kendte initiativ er Designers Block, der i år udstillede to steder i byen. Designers Block er et mere uformelt udstillingsforum...

  1. Southern blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T

    2001-05-01

    Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in

  2. A study on agricultural drought vulnerability at disaggregated level in a highly irrigated and intensely cropped state of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, C S; Yadav, Manoj; Mohammed Ahamed, J; Laxman, B; Prawasi, R; Sesha Sai, M V R; Hooda, R S

    2015-03-01

    Drought is an important global hazard, challenging the sustainable agriculture and food security of nations. Measuring agricultural drought vulnerability is a prerequisite for targeting interventions to improve and sustain the agricultural performance of both irrigated and rain-fed agriculture. In this study, crop-generic agricultural drought vulnerability status is empirically measured through a composite index approach. The study area is Haryana state, India, a prime agriculture state of the country, characterised with low rainfall, high irrigation support and stable cropping pattern. By analysing the multiyear rainfall and crop condition data of kharif crop season (June-October) derived from satellite data and soil water holding capacity and groundwater quality, nine contributing indicators were generated for 120 blocks (sub-district administrative units). Composite indices for exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity components were generated after assigning variance-based weightages to the respective input indicators. Agricultural Drought Vulnerability Index (ADVI) was developed through a linear combination of the three component indices. ADVI-based vulnerability categorisation revealed that 51 blocks are with vulnerable to very highly vulnerable status. These blocks are located in the southern and western parts of the state, where groundwater quality is saline and water holding capacity of soils is less. The ADVI map has effectively captured the spatial pattern of agricultural drought vulnerability in the state. Districts with large number of vulnerable blocks showed considerably larger variability of de-trended crop yields. Correlation analysis reveals that crop condition variability, groundwater quality and soil factors are closely associated with ADVI. The vulnerability index is useful to prioritise the blocks for implementation of long-term drought management plans. There is scope for improving the methodology by adding/fine-tuning the indicators and

  3. Predictability of blocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, E.; Ruti, P.; Tibaldi, S.; D'Andrea, F.

    1994-01-01

    Tibaldi and Molteni (1990, hereafter referred to as TM) had previously investigated operational blocking predictability by the ECMWF model and the possible relationships between model systematic error and blocking in the winter season of the Northern Hemisphere, using seven years of ECMWF operational archives of analyses and day 1 to 10 forecasts. They showed that fewer blocking episodes than in the real atmosphere were generally simulated by the model, and that this deficiency increased with increasing forecast time. As a consequence of this, a major contribution to the systematic error in the winter season was shown to derive from the inability of the model to properly forecast blocking. In this study, the analysis performed in TM for the first seven winter seasons of the ECMWF operational model is extended to the subsequent five winters, during which model development, reflecting both resolution increases and parametrisation modifications, continued unabated. In addition the objective blocking index developed by TM has been applied to the observed data to study the natural low frequency variability of blocking. The ability to simulate blocking of some climate models has also been tested

  4. Tick Talk: Block Tick Bites and Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this issue Tick Talk Block Tick Bites and Lyme Disease En español Send us your comments When warm ... mainly in the mid-Atlantic and southern states. Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness. It’s ...

  5. Public-Private Partnership in Health Care: A Comparative Cross-sectional Study of Perceived Quality of Care Among Parents of Children Admitted in Two Government District-hospitals, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliga, B Shantaram; Ravikiran, S R; Rao, Suchetha S; Coutinho, Anitha; Jain, Animesh

    2016-02-01

    Perceived better quality of care draws lower socio-economic classes of Indians to more expensive private setups, leading to poverty illness poverty cycle. Urgent measures need to be taken to improve perceived quality of public hospitals. The present study compares the difference in perceived quality of care among parents of children admitted at two government district hospitals. A cross-sectional, comparative, questionnaire based study was conducted between February 2011 and February 2012 at Government medical college hospitals of two district headquarters in South-India: one with private-public-partnership (PPP-model); another directly operated by government - Public Hospital-model (PH-model). A total of 461 inpatients from the PH model hospital and 580 from the PPP model hospital were eligible. Patients who left against advice (LAMA) (n=44 in PH and 19 in PPP) and expired (n=25 in PH and 59 in PPP) were excluded. Fourteen incomplete forms from PH and 10 from PPP model hospital were also excluded. Responders rated perception on a 1-5 scale in each domain: accessibility of health-facility, time spent waiting, manner and quality of physician, manner and quality of nurse, manner and quality of supporting staff, perception of equipment, explanation of treatment details and general comfort. The responders also rated overall satisfaction on a 1-10 scale. In the 1-5 scale, rating≥4 in each domain was considered good. Rating≥8 in 1-10 scale was considered satisfaction. Responders from PPP-model hospital were significantly more satisfied than those from PH-model {n=529 (91.2%) vs. n=148 (32.1%) p<0.001}. This was true even when controlled for age-group, sex, maternal education, family-type, days of hospital-stay and socioeconomic class {O.R.(CI) =23.58 (16.13-34.48); p<0.001} by binary logistic regression model. In the PPP-model hospital the time spent waiting for treatment {4.28(2.07-8.82), p<.001} and manner of support staff {3.64(1.02-12.99), p=0.04} significantly

  6. 31 CFR 594.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and...

  7. RX for Writer's Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Gail E.; Camp, Donna J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes four prewriting techniques that elementary and middle grade students can use to gather and organize ideas for writing, and by so doing, cure writer's block. Techniques discussed are: (1) brainstorming; (2) clustering; (3) freewriting; and (4) cubing.

  8. Block copolymer battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  9. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  10. Nuclear India. Vol. II. [India's nuclear policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, J P

    1974-01-01

    The book contains 186 documents on India's nuclear policy covering a period from November 1948 to May 1974. It thus forms a comprehensive documentary account of India's nuclear policy. They include: texts of India's agreements for cooperation on the peaceful uses of atomic energy with the USA and Canada, the summary conclusions of India's atomic energy program for the decade 1970-80, the resolutions and amendments moved by India, the communications sent and the statements made by Indian representatives in various international forums--the conference of the IAEA statute, the Annual General Conference of the IAEA and its committees and the Board of Governors, the UN General Assembly and its First Committee, the conference of the Committee on Disarmaments etc. It also contains texts or extracts from the papers presented, statements made, and addresses and talks delivered by H. J. Bhabha, V. A. Sarabhai, H. N. Sethna and other eminent scientists at the international conferences on the peaceful uses of atomic energy, IAEA discussions on PNE, etc. Policy statements by India's Prime Ministers Nehru, Shastri and (Mrs.) Gandhi, and Foreign Ministers Chagla and Swaran Singh, made from time to time in the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha--the two houses of the Indian parliaments--are also included. The sources of these documents are listed at the end. (MCB)

  11. Exploring atmospheric blocking with GPS radio occultation observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Brunner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric blocking has been closely investigated in recent years due to its impact on weather and climate, such as heat waves, droughts, and flooding. We use, for the first time, satellite-based observations from Global Positioning System (GPS radio occultation (RO and explore their ability to resolve blocking in order to potentially open up new avenues complementing models and reanalyses. RO delivers globally available and vertically highly resolved profiles of atmospheric variables such as temperature and geopotential height (GPH. Applying a standard blocking detection algorithm, we find that RO data robustly capture blocking as demonstrated for two well-known blocking events over Russia in summer 2010 and over Greenland in late winter 2013. During blocking episodes, vertically resolved GPH gradients show a distinct anomalous behavior compared to climatological conditions up to 300 hPa and sometimes even further up into the tropopause. The accompanying increase in GPH of up to 300 m in the upper troposphere yields a pronounced tropopause height increase. Corresponding temperatures rise up to 10 K in the middle and lower troposphere. These results demonstrate the feasibility and potential of RO to detect and resolve blocking and in particular to explore the vertical structure of the atmosphere during blocking episodes. This new observation-based view is available globally at the same quality so that blocking in the Southern Hemisphere can also be studied with the same reliability as in the Northern Hemisphere.

  12. Impression block with orientator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brilin, V I; Ulyanova, O S

    2015-01-01

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object

  13. Integral-fuel blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, C.; Simpkin, S.D.

    1975-01-01

    A prismatic moderator block is described which has fuel-containing channels and coolant channels disposed parallel to each other and to edge faces of the block. The coolant channels are arranged in rows on an equilateral triangular lattice pattern and the fuel-containing channels are disposed in a regular lattice pattern with one fuel-containing channel between and equidistant from each of the coolant channels in each group of three mutually adjacent coolant channels. The edge faces of the block are parallel to the rows of coolant channels and the channels nearest to each edge face are disposed in two rows parallel thereto, with one of the rows containing only coolant channels and the other row containing only fuel-containing channels. (Official Gazette)

  14. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included...... in the Copenhagen City Heart Study examined in 1976-2003 free from previous myocardial infarction (MI), chronic heart failure, and left bundle branch block through registry linkage until 2009 for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. The prevalence of RBBB/IRBBB was higher in men (1.4%/4.7% in men vs. 0.......5%/2.3% in women, P block was associated with significantly...

  15. ["Habitual" left branch block alternating with 2 "disguised" bracnch block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, S; Jullien, G; Mathieu, P; Mostefa, S; Gérard, R

    1976-10-01

    Two cases of alternating left bundle branch block and "masquerading block" (with left bundle branch morphology in the stnadard leads and right bundle branch block morphology in the precordial leads) were studied by serial tracings and his bundle electrocardiography. In case 1 "the masquerading" block was associated with a first degree AV block related to a prolongation of HV interval. This case is to our knowledge the first cas of alternating bundle branch block in which his bundle activity was recorded in man. In case 2, the patient had atrial fibrilation and His bundle recordings were performed while differents degrees of left bundle branch block were present: The mechanism of the alternation and the concept of "masquerading" block are discussed. It is suggested that this type of block represents a right bundle branch block associated with severe lesions of the "left system".

  16. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Danli Wang; Yang Zhang; Shengyong Chen

    2013-01-01

    This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transfer...

  17. The Myths of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Frederick A.

    1988-01-01

    Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…

  18. African Journals Online: India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: India. Home > African Journals Online: India. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...

  19. HEALTH SCENARIO IN INDIA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. HEALTH SCENARIO IN INDIA. Health Doctor / Hospital Infant expenditure 1000 beds / 1000 mortality / % GDP 1000. India 0.8 0.47 0.8 71. World 2.6 1.5 3.3 54. Developed 6.1 2.8 7.2 6 Countries.

  20. Hydropower development in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Praveen [Govt. of India, New Delhi (India). Ministry of New and Renewable Energy], E-mail: psaxena_98@yahoo.com; Kumar, Arun [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand (India). Alternate Hydro Energy Centre], E-mail: aheciitr@gmail.com

    2011-04-15

    India is posed for large deployment of hydropower in present conducive policy and investment environment. Growing energy demand and concern for carbon emission is making hydropower development more favorable. The Government of India is ensuring a good performance of the new SHP stations by linking the incentives to the SHP developers with the performance of the station. (author)

  1. AREVA in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    India is the sixth largest energy consumer in the world and its demand is rising rapidly. To support its economic growth, estimated to be 8% on average over the last three years and to ensure access to electricity for all, the country foresees massive investments in its power sector over the next five years. India is therefore an essential market for the AREVA Group, where its Transmission and Distribution division plays a leading role on the strategic grid modernization market. This document presents: 1 - the economic situation in India: Key figures, Growth, India's growing need for electricity, India's energy sources and policy: current mix, driving role of the State, the financial reorganization of the SEBs, the 'Mega-Power' projects, the electricity act, the rural electrification program, the Investments. 2 - Civil nuclear energy: a strong potential for development; 3 - India's transmission and distribution network: the power challenge of the transmission network, the efficiency challenge of the distribution network. 4 - AREVA T and D in India: AREVA T and D profile, Areva's presence in India, market share, T and D customers and flagship projects

  2. ADULT EDUCATION IN INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STYLER, W.E.

    AGAINST A BACKGROUND OF MASS ILLITERACY, POOR PAY AND STATUS OF TEACHERS, AND AN ALIEN EDUCATION PATTERN, THE STATE GOVERNMENTS OF INDIA HAVE PROVIDED SOCIAL EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP AS WELL AS LITERACY. INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP METHODS HAVE BEEN USED, VIDYAPEETHS (RESIDENTIAL COLLEGES) AND EDUCATIONAL CENTERS HAVE BEEN SET UP, AND ALL INDIA RADIO…

  3. Nuclear policy for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    Changes in India's nuclear policy from time to time are discussed. Though firmly wedded to the principle of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, India did not sign in 1965 the NPT as it discriminated between nuclear weapons powers and non-nuclear weapon powers as regards the safeguards. India wanted to keep open the option of conducting peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs). In May 1974, India did conduct a PNE which, however, resulted into the stoppage of Canadian aid for India's nuclear power programme and created difficulties in obtaining enriched uranium for the Tarapur Atomic Power Station from the U.S.. The new Indian Government formed after the March 1977 general electtions has endorsed the earlier government's policy of opposing manufacture of nuclear weapons and has gone a step further by declearing 'If it (PNE) not necessary it should never be done'. (M.G.B.)

  4. Linoleum Block Printing Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetelat, Frank J.

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses practical considerations of teaching linoleum block printing in the elementary grades (tool use, materials, motivation) and outlines a sequence of design concepts in this area for the primary, intermediate and junior high grades. A short list of books and audiovisual aids is appended. (SJL)

  5. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  6. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In

  7. The first record of the genus Tanaostigma (Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmatidae) in the Old World, with the description of a new species from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Joshi, Sunil

    2016-11-15

    Tanaostigma Howard (Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmatidae) is recorded for the first time in the fauna of the Old World, with T. indica Gupta sp. n.  described and illustrated from southern India, reared from Millettia (=Pongamia) pinnata (Fabaceae).

  8. Dominance of sterilization and alternative choices of contraception in India: An appraisal of the socioeconomic impact

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, I.; Dias, J. G.; Padmadas, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    WOS:000330510000069 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) Background: The recent decline in fertility in India has been unprecedented especially in southern India, where fertility is almost exclusively controlled by means of permanent contraceptive methods, mainly female sterilization, which constitutes about two-thirds of overall contraceptive use. Many Indian women undergo sterilization at relatively young ages as a consequence of early marriage and childbearing in short birth intervals. This re...

  9. The make up of crystalline bedrock - crystalline body and blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, M.; Huber, A.

    1986-01-01

    Statements of a geological nature can be made on the basis of investigations of the bedrock exposed in southern Black Forest and these can, in the form of prognoses, be applied to the crystalline Basement of northern Switzerland. Such statements relate to the average proportions of the main lithological groups at the bedrock surface and the surface area of the granite body. Some of the prognoses can be compared and checked with the results from the deep drilling programme in northern Switzerland. Further, analogical interferences from the situation in the southern Black Forest allow predictions to be made on the anticipated block structure of the crystalline Basement. (author)

  10. India's future: it's about jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey N. Keim; Beth Anne Wilson

    2007-01-01

    Projections of sustained strong growth in India depend importantly on the utilization of the huge increase in India's working-age population projected over the next two decades. To date, however, India's economic growth has been concentrated in high-skill and capital-intensive sectors, and has not generated strong employment growth. In this paper, we highlight the tension between India's performance in output and employment, describe the characteristics of India's demographic dividend, and di...

  11. Abdominal wall blocks in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Jens; Gögenür, Ismail; Bendtsen, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    been introduced with success. Future research should also investigate the effect of specific abdominal wall blocks on neuroendocrine and inflammatory stress response after surgery.  Summary USG abdominal wall blocks in adults are commonplace techniques today. Most abdominal wall blocks are assigned......Purpose of review Abdominal wall blocks in adults have evolved much during the last decade; that is, particularly with the introduction of ultrasound-guided (USG) blocks. This review highlights recent advances of block techniques within this field and proposes directions for future research.......  Recent findings Ultrasound guidance is now considered the golden standard for abdominal wall blocks in adults, even though some landmark-based blocks are still being investigated. The efficiency of USG transversus abdominis plane blocks in relation to many surgical procedures involving the abdominal wall...

  12. SNUPPS power block engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C A [Bechtel Power Corp., San Francisco, Calif. (USA)

    1975-11-01

    The Standard Power Block is based on a modular concept and consists of the following: turbine building, auxiliary building, fuel building, control building, radwaste building, diesel generators building, and outside storage tanks and transformers. Each power block unit includes a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor and has a thermal power rating of 3425 MW(t). The corresponding General Electric turbine generator net electrical output is 1188 MW(e). This standardization approach results in not only a reduction in the costs of engineering, licensing, procurement, and project planning, but should also result in additional savings by the application of experience gained in the construction of the first unit to the following units and early input of construction data to design.

  13. Dharmic projects, imperial reservoirs, and new temples of India: An historical perspective on dams in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As international attention continues to focus on large dam projects across Asia, it is worth noting that conflicts over the politics of and environmental changes caused by dams in India are not new. Population dislocation, siltation, disease, floods caused by catastrophic dam failure, raised water tables, high costs and low returns-all of these concerns, and others, can be discussed in the context of reservoir projects ten, one hundred, or even one thousand years old. In this paper, I identify some of the major issues in the political ecology of contemporary dam projects and show how these same issues have played out in southern India over the last thousand years, suggesting that historical attention to the cultural and political context of reservoir construction might help us to understand some aspects of contemporary conflicts.

  14. Clinical trials in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Rituparna; M, Raghavendra

    2007-07-01

    The concept of outsourcing for the development and global studies on new drugs has become widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry due to its cost and uncertainty. India is going to be the most preferred location for contract pharma research and development due to its huge treatment naïve population, human resources, technical skills, adoption/amendment/implementation of rules/laws by regulatory authorities, and changing economic environment. But still 'miles to go' to fulfill the pre-requisites to ensure India's success. In spite of all the pitfalls, the country is ambitious and optimist to attract multinational pharmaceutical companies to conduct their clinical trials in India.

  15. Change Around the Block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Joey

    2017-04-01

    Proponents of a block grant or per-capita cap trumpet them as vehicles for the federal government to give the states a capped amount of funding for Medicaid that legislatures would effectively distribute how they see fit. Questions abound as to what capped Medicaid funding would look like, and what effect it would have on the current Medicaid-eligible population, covered services, and physician payments.

  16. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  17. Spiders of Kerala Agricultural University Campus, Thrissur, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Adarsh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 86 species of spiders belonging to 56 genera of 20 families have been recorded from the Kerala Agricultural University (KAU campus, Thrissur, Kerala, southern India.  This represents 5.1% of the total spiders’ species and 33.33% of the total families of spiders recorded in India.  The dominant spider family at KAU campus is Araneidae with 18 species of nine genera. Salticidae is represented by 14 species of 13 genera.  Out of 252 endemic spiders of India, 16 have been reported from KAU campus.  Guild structure analysis shows spiders belonging to seven types of feeding guilds present in KAU campus.  Orb-web builders are the dominant feeding guild accounting for 34%, followed by stalkers (22%, ground runners (20%, ambushers (8%, scattered line weavers (8%, foliage runners (7% and sheet-web builders (1%. 

  18. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danli Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transferred to computer by microcomputers and then translated into semantic information. The system applies wireless and infrared technologies and provides user with feedbacks on both screen and programming blocks. Preliminary user studies using observation and user interview methods are shown for E-Block's prototype. The test results prove that E-Block is attractive to children and easy to learn and use. The project also highlights potential advantages of using single chip microcomputer (SCM technology to develop tangible programming tools for children.

  19. Relative Contribution of Monsoon Precipitation and Pumping to Changes in Groundwater Storage in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asoka, Akarsh; Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Mishra, Vimal

    2017-01-01

    The depletion of groundwater resources threatens food and water security in India. However, the relative influence of groundwater pumping and climate variability on groundwater availability and storage remains unclear. Here we show from analyses of satellite and local well data spanning the past decade that long-term changes in monsoon precipitation are driving groundwater storage variability in most parts of India either directly by changing recharge or indirectly by changing abstraction. We find that groundwater storage has declined in northern India at the rate of 2 cm/yr and increased by 1 to 2 cm/yr in southern India between 2002 and 2013. We find that a large fraction of the total variability in groundwater storage in north-central and southern India can be explained by changes in precipitation. Groundwater storage variability in northwestern India can be explained predominantly by variability in abstraction for irrigation, which is in turn influenced by changes in precipitation. Declining precipitation in northern India is linked to Indian Ocean warming, suggesting a previously unrecognized teleconnection between ocean temperatures and groundwater storage.

  20. Block and sub-block boundary strengthening in lath martensite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, C.; Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Vaes, R.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2016-01-01

    Well-defined uniaxial micro-tensile tests were performed on lath martensite single block specimens and multi-block specimens with different number of block boundaries parallel to the loading direction. Detailed slip trace analyses consistently revealed that in the {110}<111> slip system with the

  1. Clustering of GPS velocities in the Mojave Block, southeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, James C.; Simpson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    We find subdivisions within the Mojave Block using cluster analysis to identify groupings in the velocities observed at GPS stations there. The clusters are represented on a fault map by symbols located at the positions of the GPS stations, each symbol representing the cluster to which the velocity of that GPS station belongs. Fault systems that separate the clusters are readily identified on such a map. The most significant representation as judged by the gap test involves 4 clusters within the Mojave Block. The fault systems bounding the clusters from east to west are 1) the faults defining the eastern boundary of the Northeast Mojave Domain extended southward to connect to the Hector Mine rupture, 2) the Calico-Paradise fault system, 3) the Landers-Blackwater fault system, and 4) the Helendale-Lockhart fault system. This division of the Mojave Block is very similar to that proposed by Meade and Hager. However, no cluster boundary coincides with the Garlock Fault, the northern boundary of the Mojave Block. Rather, the clusters appear to continue without interruption from the Mojave Block north into the southern Walker Lane Belt, similar to the continuity across the Garlock Fault of the shear zone along the Blackwater-Little Lake fault system observed by Peltzer et al. Mapped traces of individual faults in the Mojave Block terminate within the block and do not continue across the Garlock Fault [Dokka and Travis, ].

  2. Rapid growth within India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Indian government has published (in Hydrocarbon Vision 2025) its ideas for a long term strategy for its oil industry which is currently growing at an unprecedented rate. Increasing domestic production and investment in oil exploration and production overseas figure strongly in the plan. At present, India has a refining surplus but with an annual growth of 8-10%, this will disappear in the next 2-3 years. The report recommends that India should maintain 90% self-sufficiency in refining. The report sees development of the domestic oil industry as globally competitive and helping safeguard India's assets. The capability of India's refineries, current upgrading, the newer refineries and plans for new projects are all mentioned

  3. India's nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    India made an early commitment to being as self-sufficient as possible in nuclear energy and has largely achieved that goal. The country operates eight nuclear reactors with a total capacity of 1,304 MWe, and it remains committed to an aggressive growth plan for its nuclear industry, with six reactors currently under construction, and as many as twelve more planned. India also operates several heavy water production facilities, fabrication facilities, reprocessing works, and uranium mines and mills. Due to India's decision not to sign the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the country has had to develop nearly all of its nuclear industry and infrastructure domestically. Overall, India's nuclear power program is self-contained and well integrated, with plans to expand to provide up to ten percent of the country's electrical generating capacity

  4. Energy India 'dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cygler, C.

    2007-01-01

    India has an economic growth between 8 to 10 % by year. To become a great country of the twenty first century and to stop poverty it is necessary to keep this growth but the growth of India is dependant of its ability to supply electric power necessary to increase the industrial production. The country has to multiply by four its energy production. The electric production comes from thermal power plants for 65%, 26% from hydroelectric power plants, 6% from renewable energy sources and 3% from nuclear energy. Between solar energy ( India has three hundred solar days by years) and nuclear energy using thorium that can be increased India has to choose an energy policy to answer its energy demand and independence need. (N.C.)

  5. IDRC in India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    challenges facing India. The Centre's past support ... are tackling some pressing problems in wireless ... policymakers improve workers' earnings and working ... since 1974. Many of the telecentre managers that IDRC helps to train are women.

  6. Women Scientists in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    participate in large numbers not just in learning ... earlier reports and give a summary of the situation .... noting best practices and recommendations that ..... service. This certainly has helped women working in organizations. In fact India has ...

  7. PRESENT STATUS IN INDIA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. PRESENT STATUS IN INDIA. FIXED LINES – 36 MILLION. MOBILE CONNECTIONS – 14 MILLION. TELEDENSITY APPROXIMATELY 5. INTERNET CONNECTIONS – 5 MILLION. INTERNET USERS NEARLY – 25 MILLION.

  8. IDRC in India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    India has experienced impressive economic growth over the ... and those still living in poverty is widening. ... IDRC supports research to improve women's security, access to justice, and economic ... viction rates for offenders remain low. This.

  9. India : the new China?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanavaty, K. [Reliance Industries Ltd., Mumbai (India). Cracker and Polymer Div.

    2006-07-01

    India is emerging as a strong force in the global economy. The population of China is 1.2 times that of India, and its gross domestic product is 2.5 times that of India. However, analyses of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) indicate that if India continues its rate of growth, its' consumption and production will reach China's current levels in less than 15 years. This represents a significant investment opportunity in basic industry, particularly since a growing middle class will ensure a boom in consumer products consumption. This presentation compared India and China, in terms of economic approaches and challenges for India. Implications for the petrochemical industry were also discussed with reference to Reliance Industries Ltd. and its full integration in the value chain with petroleum refining. Reliance Industries Ltd. claims that India's captive utilities and labour productivity provide the company with conversion costs that are among the lowest in the industry. In terms of agriculture, India is one of the largest producers of agricultural commodities in the world and is well supported by varying agro-climates and fertile land. This presentation also included an agro-commodities yield comparison for rice, wheat and cereal. The Indian manufacturing industry is also competitive, focusing on cutting cost, increasing productivity and innovation. It was noted that although China has the advantage of a well established infrastructure on a global and domestic scale as well as job opportunities and quick policy implementation, it has lax labour laws, poor pollution laws and a challenging banking system. In contrast, India has the entrepreneurial advantage as well as global scale information technology, a globally competitive manufacturing industry, an independent regulatory framework and world class capital markets and banking system. India's challenge lies in its lack of a world-class infrastructure, complicated tax structure and slow

  10. Late Permian to Triassic intraplate orogeny of the southern Tianshan and adjacent regions, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ju

    2014-01-01

    Based on previous studies and recent geochronogical data, we suggest that the final collision between the Tarim Craton and the North Asian continent occurred during the late Carboniferous. Therefore, the Permian was a period of intracontinental environment in the southern Tianshan and adjacent regions. We propose that an earlier, small-scale intraplate orogenic stage occurred in late Permian to Triassic time, which was the first intraplate process in the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions. The later large-scale and well-known Neogene to Quaternary intraplate orogeny was induced by the collision between the India subcontinent and the Eurasian plate. The paper presents a new evolutionary model for the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions, which includes seven stages: (I late Ordovician–early Silurian opening of the South Tianshan Ocean; (II middle Silurian–middle Devonian subduction of the South Tianshan Ocean beneath an active margin of the North Asian continent; (III late Devonian–late Carboniferous closure of the South Tianshan Ocean and collision between the Kazakhstan-Yili and Tarim continental blocks; (IV early Permian post-collisional magmatism and rifting; (V late Permian–Triassic the first intraplate orogeny; (VI Jurassic–Palaeogene tectonic stagnation and (VII Neocene–Quaternary intraplate orogeny.

  11. Gestational surrogacy in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rozée , Virginie; Unisa , Sayeed; De La Rochebrochard , Elise

    2016-01-01

    International audience; While gestational surrogacy is illegal in France, it is authorized in other countries, such as India. Drawing upon a study of Indian surrogates, Indian and foreign intended parents pursuing surro­gacy, as well as physicians, lawyers and Indian clinic and agency managers, Virginie Rozée, Sayeed Unisa and Elise de La Rochebrochard describe how surrogacy services are organized in India and examine the expectations and rationales of the protagonists.

  12. India's Downstream Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This study provides a holistic examination of pricing and investment dynamics in India's downstream petroleum sector. It analyses the current pricing practices, highlights the tremendous fiscal cost of current pricing and regulatory arrangements, and examines the sectoral investment dynamics. It also looks at potential paths towards market-based reform along which the Indian government may move, while at the same time protecting energy market access for India's large poor population.

  13. Habitat Blocks and Wildlife Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Habitat blocks are areas of contiguous forest and other natural habitats that are unfragmented by roads, development, or agriculture. Vermonts habitat blocks are...

  14. Atrioventricular block, ECG tracing (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an abnormal rhythm (arrhythmia) called an atrioventricular (AV) block. P waves show that the top of the ... wave (and heart contraction), there is an atrioventricular block, and a very slow pulse (bradycardia).

  15. India's nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Raju G.C.; Gupta, Amit

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear weapons and ballistic missile tests conducted by India and Pakistan in the late 1990s substantially altered the security environment, both in the region and globally. Examining the complexities, and dynamics of this new strategic context, this timely and significant book examines the claim of many Indian strategists that stability in the region is better served under conditions of declared-rather than covertly developed-nuclear weapons. Bringing together original essays by a diverse group of scholars, this volume discusses a number of important issues such as: the political considerations that caused India and Pakistan to go nuclear; the type of nuclear doctrine that is likely to emerge and its implications for the safety of nuclear weapons, the potential for an arms race in the region, and the likelihood of war; the political and economic consequences for India after Pokhran-II and the impact of economic sanctions; the technological ramifications of the nuclear program on India's defence science scenario; the impact of these tests on the future of India's relationship with the United States, the main bulwark against nuclear weapons proliferation, also, the changed role that India sees for itself in international fora; the possible arms control measures that might succeed in stabilizing the South Asian nuclear rivalry. This insightful, comprehensive and topical volume is a must-read for all those in the fields of political science, international relations, strategic affairs, conflict/peace studies, economics, and policy studies

  16. Pediatric Electrophysiology in India: A Sub-speciality Come of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiology started in India in the early 70's with the earliest published diagnostic His bundle studies coming from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences by Bhatia ML et al and the GB Pant Hospital by Khalilullah et al . That era was remarkable with the first indigenously made temporary pacemaker being used to treat complete heart block as early as in 1970

  17. Fermion-scalar conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliesiu, Luca [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kos, Filip [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Simmons-Duffin, David [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Yacoby, Ran [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-04-13

    We compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermion-fermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called ‘seed blocks’ in three dimensions. Conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  18. A Southern African positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, D.T.; Haerting, M.; Teemane, M.R.B.; Mills, S.; Nortier, F.M.; Van der Walt, T.N.

    1997-01-01

    The first stage of a state of the art positron beam, being constructed at the University of Cape Town, is currently being brought into operation. This is the first positron beam on the African continent, as well as being the first positron beam dedicated to solid and surface studies in the southern hemisphere. The project also contains a high proportion of local development, including the encapsulated 22 Na positron source developed by our collaboration. Novel features in the design include a purely magnetic in-line deflector, working in the solenoidal guiding field, to eliminate unmoderated positrons and block the direct line of sight to the source. A combined magnetic projector and single pole probe forming lens is being implemented in the second phase of construction to achieve a spot size of 10 μm without remoderation

  19. Powder wastes confinement block and manufacturing process of this block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagot, L.; Brunel, G.

    1996-01-01

    This invention concerns a powder wastes containment block and a manufacturing process of this block. In this block, the waste powder is encapsulated in a thermo hardening polymer as for example an epoxy resin, the encapsulated resin being spread into cement. This block can contain between 45 and 55% in mass of wastes, between 18 and 36% in mass of polymer and between 14 and 32% in mass of cement. Such a containment block can be used for the radioactive wastes storage. (O.M.). 4 refs

  20. India-Australia energy cooperation: the road ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Rahul

    2010-01-01

    Energy ties between India and Australia are centuries old and can be traced back to the days of East India Company of the British-Indian era. From the first commercial export in the form of a shipment of coal to India from Australia in 1797, energy cooperation has come a long way. For instance, apart from making unswerving attempts to get Australian yellowcake, attempts have been made by India to ensure greater supply of coal and natural gas. Both the countries are also trying to find ways and means to work jointly on increasing the production of geo-thermal and solar energy as also to enhance clean-energy technology cooperation among other things. Energy forms the core of a nation's national security as a country's economy is fuelled by energy resources and India is no exception in this respect. It holds a prime position as the Indian economy has been growing at a rate of six to seven per cent in the past few years. There is no denying that India has come a long way since independence in the energy sector. However greater levels of consumption, both industrial and domestic have led to a stage where the supply of energy falls short of the demand. The main focus of the government of late has been on capacity-building of the economy. Energy-intensive projects such as infrastructure development are the top priorities of the government; something which had been neglected in most parts of independent India. And this is where the importance of Australia for India lies, given its abundant energy resources. Indian companies are interested in investing in coal mining and oil and gas exploration in Australia. The five action plans that were signed in November 2008 with the Ministries of Power, Coal, Petroleum and Natural Gas, Mines, and New and Renewable Energy are the buildings blocks to build on and to take forward the bilateral engagement in the energy sector

  1. 2367 Ma Dharwar giant dyke swarm, Dharwar craton, southern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    44

    Torsvik T H and Smethurst M A 1999 Plate Tectonic modeling: Virtual Reality with GMAP;. 406. Computer & Geosciences 25 395-402. 407. Valet J P, Besse J, Kumar A, Vadakke-Chanat S, and Philippe E 2014 The intensity of the. 408 geomagnetic field from 2.4 Ga old Indian dykes; Geochemis, Geophys, Geosys. 15 doi.

  2. Coastal erosion assessment along the southern Tamilnadu coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Cherian, A.; Chandrasekar, N.; Gujar, A.R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    . Anthropogenic threats are the consequence of rapid urbanization, population growth, tourism activities, harbor development, industrialization, over-exploitation of natural resources, waste accumulation and environmental pollution. On the other hand, natural...

  3. Self-harm and self-poisoning in southern India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Anuradha; Sandal Sejbaek, Camilla; Suganthy, Pearline

    2009-01-01

    over a period of 2 years. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The overall suicide rate was 71.4 per 100 000 population; the highest burden was among men. Most people died through hanging (81, 54%) and self-poisoning (46, 31%). Of the 46 who died from self-poisoning, 78.3% had taken pesticides and 19.7% had eaten...... poisonous plants. Eighty per cent of the self-poisoning cases obtained the poisonous substance in or in close proximity to the home, highlighting the importance of safe storage in the domestic environment. Of the 110 fatal and non-fatal self-poisoning cases, 87 (57.5%) were taken for treatment; 50 (57.......4%) went to government hospitals and 37 (42.5%) to private facilities. This indicates the importance of including the private sector in the efforts to improve case management. Furthermore, the fact that 31 (67%) of the self-poisoning patients, who eventually died, were alive after 4 h provides an incentive...

  4. Microbial cultures in open globe injuries in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arvind; Srinivasan, Renuka; Kaliaperumal, Subashini; Setia, Sajita

    2007-07-01

    To determine the risk factors leading to positive intraocular culture in patients with open globe injury. A prospective interventional study involving 110 eyes of 110 patients of more than 15 years of age, presenting with open globe injury, was undertaken. Emergency repair of the injured globe was done. Prolapsed intraocular tissue or aqueous humour was sent for microbial work up before repair. In endophthalmitis cases intravitreal antibiotics were given according to the antimicrobial sensitivity. Chi-square and logistic regression analysis were used to determine the risk factors. Fifty-six patients showed microbial contamination. Bacteria were cultured in 42 patients and fungi in 14 patients. Nineteen patients developed endophthalmitis, of which 18 patients showed microbial growth initially. In univariate analysis, initial visual acuity (8 mm, P 72 h, P 8 mm, P = 0.013) were associated with increased risk of positive microbial culture. Six patients had intraocular foreign body but were culture negative. Age, gender, site of injury and presence of cataract did not significantly affect the culture positivity. Microbial contamination is a risk factor for the development for endophthalmitis. Despite the high frequency of microbial contamination, it develops only in few cases. Systemic antibiotics, virulence of the organism and host factors play a role in the manifestation of endophthalmitis. Prophylaxis with intraocular antibiotics should be strongly considered in cases with poor vision at presentation, larger corneoscleral laceration, delayed surgical intervention and uveal tissue or vitreous prolapse.

  5. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language…

  6. Isotope heating block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenk, E.

    1976-01-01

    A suggestion is made not to lead the separated nuclear 'waste' from spent nuclear fuel elements directly to end storage, but to make use of the heat produced from the remaining radiation, e.g. for seawater desalination. According to the invention, the activated fission products are to be processed, e.g. by calcination or vitrification, so that one can handle them. They should then be arranged in layers alternately with plate-shaped heat conducting pipes to form a homogeneous block; the heat absorbed by the thermal plates should be further passed on to evaporators or heat exchangers. (UWI) [de

  7. Blocking the Hawking radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autzen, M.; Kouvaris, C.

    2014-01-01

    grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics, i.e., accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how...... the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star....

  8. A standard graphite block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivkovic, M; Zdravkovic, Z; Sotic, O [Department of Reactor Physics and Dynamics, Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1966-04-15

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 {+-}3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm{sup 3}; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb.

  9. A standard graphite block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivkovic, M.; Zdravkovic, Z.; Sotic, O.

    1966-04-01

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 ±3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm 3 ; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb

  10. The wild tapered block bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    In this paper, a new resampling procedure, called the wild tapered block bootstrap, is introduced as a means of calculating standard errors of estimators and constructing confidence regions for parameters based on dependent heterogeneous data. The method consists in tapering each overlapping block...... of the series first, the applying the standard wild bootstrap for independent and heteroscedastic distrbuted observations to overlapping tapered blocks in an appropriate way. Its perserves the favorable bias and mean squared error properties of the tapered block bootstrap, which is the state-of-the-art block......-order asymptotic validity of the tapered block bootstrap as well as the wild tapered block bootstrap approximation to the actual distribution of the sample mean is also established when data are assumed to satisfy a near epoch dependent condition. The consistency of the bootstrap variance estimator for the sample...

  11. An Overview of Uranium Exploration Strategy in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaki, A., E-mail: director.amd@gov.in [Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, Hyderabad (India)

    2014-05-15

    Uranium exploration in India dates back from 1949 and the first mineralized area was located in the early 1950s in Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ), eastern India. Since then, a number of potential and promising uranium provinces have been established in India. The potential uranium provinces include SSZ, Dongargarh, Aravalli, Siwalik belt, Mahadek basin, south-western and northern parts of Cuddapah basin, North Delhi Fold Belt, Bhima and Kaladgi basins. The promising uranium provinces are Proterozoic Chhattisgarh, Indravati, Gwalior, Vindhyan, Shillong basins, Gondwana basins of Central India and semi-arid regions of western Rajasthan. With the establishment of large tonnage-high grade Lower-middle Proterozoic unconformity deposits in Canada and Australia, there was a paradigm shift in the exploration strategy towards the Proterozoic basins of India. The discovery of unconformity related uranium mineralisation in the northern part of Proterozoic Cuddapah basin in southern India in 1991 and discovery of few deposits in the province has opened the avenues for finding of similar deposits in Cuddapah and other 13 Proterozoic basins in India. As a sequel, Proterozoic Bhima basin in southern India has been recognized as a potential target for uranium mineralization, where a low tonnage medium grade deposit has been established and mine development works are in progress. Sustained exploration efforts in other Proterozoic basins have yielded success in a few basins such as Deshnur area in Kaladgi Basin of southern India. Considerable uranium resources have been established in Proterozoic Cuddapah and Bhima basins. Apart from northern parts of Cuddapah and Bhima basins, areas in the southwestern part of Cuddapah basin for stratabound type, where a mine is under construction; Proterozoic Kaladgi basin for vein type; Cretaceous Mahadek basin for sandstone type and the North Delhi Fold belt for vein type of mineralization have been prioritized as potential areas for exploration

  12. European temperature responses to blocking and ridge regional patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Pedro M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Barriopedro, David; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Santos, João A.

    2018-01-01

    southern Europe. We conclude that there has been some misusage of the traditional blocking definition in the attribution of extreme events.

  13. Economic analysis of swamp rice production in Ebonyi Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the paper is to analyze the determinants and profitability of the output of swamp rice farmers in Ebonyi southern Agricultural zone of Ebonyi State. Primary data were obtained through the use of structured questionnaires. A total of eighty (80) swamp rice farmers were randomly selected from the different blocks ...

  14. Cretaceous sedimentology of the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan, India

    OpenAIRE

    Beaumont, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    The Barmer Basin, western India, is a well-known and prospected petroleum system. However, the Lower Cretaceous Ghaggar-Hakra Formation has not been recognised as basin fill and not documented prior to this study. The formation outcrops in rotational fault blocks at the Sarnoo Hills and surrounding areas, on the eastern Barmer Basin margin. The thesis here describes and analyses the nature and evolution of the formation at both outcrop and within the subsurface, producing facies and depositio...

  15. Gender disparity in late-life cognitive functioning in India: findings from the longitudinal aging study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinkook; Shih, Regina; Feeney, Kevin; Langa, Kenneth M

    2014-07-01

    To examine gender disparities in cognitive functioning in India and the extent to which education explains this disparity in later life. This study uses baseline interviews of a prospective cohort study of 1,451 community-residing adults 45 years of age or older in four geographically diverse states of India (Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, Rajasthan). Data collected during home visits includes cognitive performance tests, and rich sociodemographic, health, and psychosocial variables. The cognitive performance tests include episodic memory, numeracy, and a modified version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. We find gender disparity in cognitive function in India, and this disparity is greater in the north than the south. We also find that gender disparities in educational attainment, health, and social and economic activity explain the female cognitive disadvantage in later life. We report significant gender disparities in cognitive functioning among older Indian adults, which differ from gender disparities in cognition encountered in developed countries. Our models controlling for education, health status, and social and economic activity explain the disparity in southern India but not the region-specific disparity in the northern India. North Indian women may face additional sources of stress associated with discrimination against women that contribute to persistent disadvantages in cognitive functioning at older ages. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. India's nuclear spin-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Ravi.

    1974-01-01

    After examining world-wide reactions of the foreign governments and news media to the India's peaceful nuclear experiment (PNE) in the Rajasthan Desert on 18 May 1974, development of nuclear technology in India is assessed and its economic advantages are described. Implications of the Non-Proliferation Treaty are explained. Psychological impact of India's PNE on India's neighbours and superpowers and associated political problems in context of proliferation of nuclear weapons are discussed in detail. (M.G.B.)

  17. Technical vocational education in India

    OpenAIRE

    溝上, 智恵子

    1999-01-01

    In India, several efforts have been made for the development of skilled manpower during the last twenty years since the launch of formal technical vocational education at school. A huge education infrastructure has developed in India. However, 45~50 percent of the population of India is still illiterate. To solve the mismatch between education and employment, a revolution in education is really needed. Additionally, there is a need for a system of National Vocational Qualifications in India a...

  18. Fiscal Discipline in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhita SUCHARITA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study broadly attempts to analyze the role of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act in restoring fiscal balance in India. It analyses the need for fiscal rules and constraints in India. The study aims at finding out the major factor behind rising fiscal imbalance in India and to examine whether there is an electoral motive towards high fiscal deficit to GDP ratio or not. It also analyzes the effectiveness of various measures undertaken at the central and state level to inculcate fiscal discipline in the fiscal management. The study also makes an attempt to do a critical in depth reviews of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act and make an attempt at examining effectiveness and suitability of FRBM Act through a quantitative analysis. It also makes an attempt to suggest improvements in the fiscal monitoring mechanism in India. We employ Ordinary Least Square (OLS method to examine the impact of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act on fiscal deficit in India using the data for the period 1980-81 to 2008-09. The regression results indicates that FRBM Act does not have a significant effect on the Gross Fiscal Deficit (GFD to GDP ratio where as GDP (at factor cost growth rate has a significant negative effect on the GFD to GDP ratio.

  19. Venereology in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinder Mohan Thappa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Venereology-the study of venereal diseases or more recently, the sexually transmitted infections (STI includes a variety of pathogens namely viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa for which the common factor is the mode of transmission and acquisition: Sexual relations between human beings. Medical and other historians have often suggested that well-known diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid and lymphogranuloma venereum have existed since earliest times. However, it is difficult to identify modern disease entities based on written historical record. Studying the origin of STIs helps us to learn the political, economic and moral conditions that led to the disease. Effective management of STI rests on three pillars of diagnosis, prevention and treatment. For most of past 50 years in India, the diagnostic pillar has been the least well-supported. Until well into present century, diagnosis of STI in India was clinical. Treatment of STIs in India followed the methods used in England. Of course in the 19th century, in many parts of the world, only a few had access to modern methods of treatment; in India, there was extensive use of Ayurvedic treatment with traditional medicines. This article thus gives just an overview and evolution of venereology in India with regard to venereal diseases (now more often known as STIs/disease, control measures, academic, association and journal development and finally future perspective.

  20. Photovoltaic building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanberg, Peter Jesper; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2014-01-01

    efficiency of about 15% for commercial Silicon solar cells there is still much to gain. DTU Danchip provides research facilities, equipment and expertise for the building blocks that comprises fabricating the efficient solar cell. In order to get more of the sun light into the device we provide thin film......Photovoltaics (PV), better known as solar cells, are now a common day sight on many rooftops in Denmark.The installed capacity of PV systems worldwide is growing exponentially1 and is the third most importantrenewable energy source today. The cost of PV is decreasing fast with ~10%/year but to make...... it directcompetitive with fossil energy sources a further reduction is needed. By increasing the efficiency of the solar cells one gain an advantage through the whole chain of cost. So that per produced Watt of power less material is spent, installation costs are lower, less area is used etc. With an average...

  1. Celiac ganglia block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinci, Devrim; Akhan, Okan

    2005-01-01

    Pain occurs frequently in patients with advanced cancers. Tumors originating from upper abdominal viscera such as pancreas, stomach, duodenum, proximal small bowel, liver and biliary tract and from compressing enlarged lymph nodes can cause severe abdominal pain, which do not respond satisfactorily to medical treatment or radiotherapy. Percutaneous celiac ganglia block (CGB) can be performed with high success and low complication rates under imaging guidance to obtain pain relief in patients with upper abdominal malignancies. A significant relationship between pain relief and degree of tumoral celiac ganglia invasion according to CT features was described in the literature. Performing the procedure in the early grades of celiac ganglia invasion on CT can increase the effectiveness of the CGB, which is contrary to World Health Organization criteria stating that CGB must be performed in patients with advanced stage cancer. CGB may also be effectively performed in patients with chronic pancreatitis for pain palliation

  2. Atomic Basic Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  3. Meta-analysis of classical swine fever prevalence in pigs in India: A 5-year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S. S.; Suresh, K. P.; Saha, S.; Prajapati, A.; Hemadri, D.; Roy, P.

    2018-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the overall prevalence of classical swine fever (CSF) in pigs in India, through a systematic review and meta-analysis of published data. Materials and Methods: Consortium for e-Resources in Agriculture, India, Google Scholar, PubMed, annual reports of All India Coordinated Research Project on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance, and All India Animal Disease database of NIVEDI (NADRES) were used for searching and retrieval of CSF prevalence data (seroprevalence, virus antigen, and virus nucleic acid detection) in India using a search strategy combining keywords and related database-specific subject terms from January 2011 to December 2015 in English only. Results: A total of 22 data reports containing 6,158 samples size from 18 states of India were used for the quantitative synthesis, and overall 37% (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.24, 0.51) CSF prevalence in India was estimated. The data were classified into 4 different geographical zones of the country: 20% (95% CI=0.05, 0.55), 31% (95% CI=0.18, 0.47), 55% (95% CI=0.32, 0.76), and 34% (95% CI=0.14, 0.62). CSF prevalence was estimated in northern, eastern, western, and southern regions, respectively. Conclusion: This study indicates that overall prevalence of CSF in India is much lower than individual published reports. PMID:29657420

  4. Some Blocks from Heliopolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Nageh Omar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available These group of Architectural Fragments have been discovered during Excavations at Souq el – Khamees Site at the end of Mostorod Street in el – Matarya Area by the Supreme Council of Antiquities Mission Season 2003 and none published before . The Site of Excavations is Situated about 500 metres to the west Obelisk of the King Senusert I According to the inscriptions on the block (pl.1.a,fig.1 represents the coronation name of the king Senusret III, the fifth king of the twelfth dynasty within the cartouche .Through This recent discover and his Sphinx statue we Suggest that the king Senusret III built a shrine or Temple at Heliopols which was possibly a part of the great Temple of the universal God of Heliopolis . For block dating to the king Akhenaten and many monuments are discovered in Heliopolis at the same period emphasized that the king Akhenaten built temple for the god Aten in Heliopolis and through Studies about the king Akhenaten, we suggest that the king Akhenaten take his new principles from Heliopolis . The king Ramesses II mentioned from stela which discovered at Manshyt el- Sader, in the second horizontal line that he erected oblesk and some statues at the great Temple in Heliopolis , this recent Discover about Statue of the king Ramesses II emphasized site of excavations perhaps a shrine or open court from temple of the king Ramesses II at the great Temple in Heliopolis For nbt – htpt, we could show that the goddess Hathor take a forward position in Heliopolis and become the Lady of Hetepet in Heliopolis since Eighteenth dynasty at least

  5. Renewable Energy Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Shrish; Kidwai, Naimur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    The issue of renewable energy sources that have great potential to give solutions to the longstanding energy problems of India has been considered. It has been stated that renewable energy sources are an important part of India's plan to increase energy security and provide new generation with ample job opportunities. India's plans to move towards…

  6. Government Policies with respect to an Information Technology Cluster in Bangalore, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe southern states in India have developed a strong reputation as a source of software development services, with Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka, having the strongest reputation of all. This article focuses on the following issue: what determines the competitiveness of an

  7. Does early childbearing and a sterilization-focused family planning programme in India fuel population growth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, Zoe; Padmadas, Sabu S.; Hutter, Inge; McEachran, Juliet; Brown, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent stagnation in the reduction of infant mortality in India can arguably be attributed to early child bearing practices and the lack of progress in lengthening birth intervals. Meanwhile, family planning efforts have been particularly successful in the southern states such as Andhra Pradesh,

  8. Preliminary investigations on transient erosion at Kalpakkam Beach, east coast of India during June 1990

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumar, V.; Vethamony, P.; Swamy, G.N.

    Rapid erosion experienced at the southern end of Kalpakkam beach, east coast of India during June, 1990 with relatively calm sea conditions is found to be related to an imbalance caused by the unusual run-off through Palar River due to an unseasonal...

  9. The Resin and Carder bees of south India (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae: Anthidiini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the Anthidiini of southern India. A study focused on the state of Karnataka found a hitherto unknown diversity of thirteen species. Though the number of species is not large, the generic diversity is noteworthy (eight genera represented): Anthidiellum (2 species), Anthidium (2 ...

  10. Is India the Exception?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.

    India is still the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement in its ranking in international sport events a similar impact of extraordinary growth rates is seemingly totally absent in the case of India....... Is India an exception? Several econometric studies have shown that income per capita is a significant variable explaining elite sport results such as results in the Olympic Games. From this stylized fact follows the hypothesis that 'above/below average' growth rates lead to relative improvements...... between growth in GNP per capita and growth in medal points (no. 1: five points, no. 2: three points, no.3: two points) in Olympic Summer Games. The findings show no correlation and in a few calculations a very weak correlation. Among the countries behaving in accordance with the hypothesis in the most...

  11. Nuclear power in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    India has now nine years of experience with her in nuclear power generation. The system has been acclaimed on various grounds by the authority concerned with its organization in the country. The present paper intends to examine critically the claim for economic superiority of the nuclear power over the thermal power which is asserted often by the spokesmen for the former. Information about the cost of nuclear power that is available to researchers in India is very meagre. Whatever appears in official publications is hardly adequate for working out reasonable estimates for scrutiny. One is therefore left to depend on the public statements made by dignitaries from time to time to form an idea about the economics of nuclear power. Due to gaps in information we are constrained to rely on the foreign literature and make careful guesses about possible costs applicable to India

  12. Ecosystem degradation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental and ecosystem studies have assumed greater relevance in the last decade of the twentieth century than even before. The urban settlements are becoming over-crowded and industries are increasingly polluting the air, water and sound in our larger metropolises. Degradation of different types of ecosystem are discussed in this book, Ecosystem Degradation in India. The book has been divided into seven chapters: Introduction, Coastal and Delta Ecosystem, River Basin Ecosystem, Mountain Ecosystem, Forest Ecosystem, Urban Ecosystem and the last chapter deals with the Environmental Problems and Planning. In the introduction the environmental and ecosystem degradation problems in India is highlighted as a whole while in other chapters mostly case studies by experts who know their respective terrain very intimately are included. The case study papers cover most part of India and deal with local problems, stretching from east coast to west coast and from Kashmir to Kanyakumari. (author)

  13. From Hair in India to Hair India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance.

  14. Fertilizing Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Broadfoot; A. F. Ike

    1967-01-01

    If present trends continue, fertilizing may soon be economically feasible in southern hardwood stands. Demands for the wood are rising, and the acreage alloted for growing it is steadily shrinking. To supply anticipated requests for information, the U. S. Forest Service has established tree nutrition studies at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville,...

  15. Southern Gothic Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2017-01-01

    Provides an outline of Southern Gothic Literature, offers an argument about its history and shape, and discusses the scholarly literature surrounding Southern Gothic. Oxford Research Encyclopedia is an online peer-reviewed encyclopedia for researchers, teachers, and students interested in all...... facets of the study of literature...

  16. Is India the Exception?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.

    2013-01-01

    in international sport events a similar impact of extraordinary growth rates has been almost totally absent in the case of India. Is India an exception? Several econometric studies have shown that income per capita is a significant variable explaining elite sport results such as results in the Olympic Games. From...... in the sports of the Olympic Summer Games. The findings show only a very weak correlation, if any at all. However, a detailed analysis of country evidence shows interesting trends and details. The paper concludes with tentative explanations for the findings including the contradictory country evidence....

  17. PV opportunities in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jack L.; Ullal, Harin S.

    1996-01-01

    The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed.

  18. Energies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Based on information gathered during a mission in India, and also from reports and local newspapers and magazines, the author gives an overview of the energy issue in India: population, energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, electricity consumption, economic activities and life conditions, biomass production, potential for solar energy production, hydraulic energy production and operators, situation regarding coal, oil and natural gas as primary energies, situation of the nuclear industry and sector (international agreements and cooperation, reactor fleet, research centres). A table indicates the level and percentage of the different produced and imported consumed primary and final energies

  19. India's African Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    was addressed. This kicked off a quest among donor agencies, think tanks and researchers alike to identify and establish the doings of these ‘emerging’ donors. To date, however, China has received most attention while the doings of other donors like India, Brazil and South Africa have remained virtually......The exceptionally fast growth of big economies like China and India has resulted in a new-found interest in the economic and political consequences of this growth for the developed economies. Recently, traditional donors’ concern that ‘emerging’ donors were re-emerging on the development scene...

  20. Urology in ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakti Das

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland.

  1. India's energy needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, N. B.

    1980-03-15

    Only a small portion (15%) of India's commerical energy requirements is imported, but this import accounts for nearly 75% of total imports. Noncommercial energy (firewood, agricultural waste, cow dung) will still have an important role in the future. The major thrust of India's energy policy should be to ensure that energy will not be a constraint to economic growth, and to increase the per capita energy consumption. In the future, hydroelectric and nuclear power will become increasingly important. Solar energy will also be utilized. (DLC)

  2. A new large trapdoor spider species of the genus Heligmomerus Simon 1892 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Idiopidae from Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh V. Sanap

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of trapdoor spider, Heligmomerus maximus sp. nov. is described from southern Western Ghats of Kerala state, India. The new species differs from known species of the genus from India and Sri Lanka in possessing a band of thorn-like spinules on coxa IV. Moreover it is the largest species of the genus with adult females reaching a length up to 32 mm and the burrows are shallow compared with other species of the genus.

  3. Common blocks for ASQS(12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Milazzo

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available An ASQS(v is a particular Steiner system featuring a set of v vertices and two separate families of blocks, B and G, whose elements have a respective cardinality of 4 and 6. It has the property that any three vertices of X belong either to a B-block or to a G-block. The parameter cb is the number of common blocks in two separate ASQSs, both defined on the same set of vertices X . In this paper it is shown that cb ≤ 29 for any pair of ASQSs(12.

  4. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  5. Adductor Canal Block versus Femoral Nerve Block and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia Therese; Nielsen, Zbigniew Jerzy Koscielniak; Henningsen, Lene Marianne

    2013-01-01

    : The authors hypothesized that the adductor canal block (ACB), a predominant sensory blockade, reduces quadriceps strength compared with placebo (primary endpoint, area under the curve, 0.5-6 h), but less than the femoral nerve block (FNB; secondary endpoint). Other secondary endpoints were...

  6. The block transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradish, G.J. III; Reid, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    The central instrumentation control and data acquisition (CICADA) computer system is comprised of a functionally distributed hierarchical network of thirteen (13) 32-bit mini-computers that are the heart of the control, monitoring, data collection and data analysis for the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR). The CICADA system was designed with the goal of providing complete control, monitoring, and data acquisition for TFTR, which includes the acquisition and storage of 20M points of data within a five-minute shot cycle. It was realized early in the system design that in order to meet this goal an ancillary system would have to be provided to supplement the subsystem CAMAC systems that, due to the relatively slow throughput of the serial highways and the overhead of relaying data to the central facilities within a star network, would not provide the necessary throughput. The authors discuss how the block transfer system provided a means of moving data directly from the CAMAC crate to the application running on the central facility computers

  7. of Manipur, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is the first record of perissodactyl footprints from the Lower Oligocene of India and the first evidence of mammals in the. Barail Group of the age. Remarkable is the occurrence in a marginal marine setting, whereas other known perissodactyl footprints from the Eocene–Oligocene in particular from North America, Europe.

  8. Reisverslag India 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuijsen, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    Verslag van een bezoek in mei 2009 aan India als onderdeel van een delegatie van KPN. In een week werden bezoeken gebracht aan 7 IT leveranciers van KPN, 3 universiteiten en waren er gesprekken met diverse andere partijen. Daarbij zijn de steden Mumbai, Pune, Bangalore en Chennai aangedaan. Dit

  9. Healthcare biotechnology in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, L M

    2005-01-01

    Biotechnology in India has made great progress in the development of infrastructure, manpower, research and development and manufacturing of biological reagents, biodiagnostics, biotherapeutics, therapeutic and, prophylactic vaccines and biodevices. Many of these indigenous biological reagents, biodiagnostics, therapeutic and prophylactic vaccines and biodevices have been commercialized. Commercially when biotechnology revenue has reached $25 billions in the U.S. alone in 2000 excluding the revenues of biotech companies that were acquired by pharmaceutical companies, India has yet to register a measurable success. The conservative nature and craze of the Indian Industry for marketing imported biotechnology products, lack of Government support, almost non-existing national healthcare system and lack of trained managers for marketing biological and new products seem to be the important factors responsible for poor economic development of biotechnology in India. With the liberalization of Indian economy, more and more imported biotechnology products will enter into the Indian market. The conditions of internal development of biotechnology are not likely to improve in the near future and it is destined to grow only very slowly. Even today biotechnology in India may be called to be in its infancy.

  10. Pursuing Mathematics in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    2012-09-07

    Sep 7, 2012 ... of public–private partnership in research and education in India. The Institute receives major private funding, side by side with substantial .... We are writing this to say that students who fail to do well in Mathematics Olympiad have no reason to get disheartened and to think that they are not good enough to ...

  11. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health

  12. Women's Work in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, D. Radha; Ravindran, M.

    1983-01-01

    The proportion of women in paid employment in India is very low, and working women tend to be concentrated in low-wage, low-status, unskilled jobs, especially in agriculture. Even for the few women working in the modern sector, discrimination is pervasive, and change seems unlikely to occur soon. (IS)

  13. Natural gas in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Thierry; Todoc, Jessie L.

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Country background; Overview of the energy sector; Natural gas supply; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas demand; Outlook-government policy reform and industry development, and Appendices on Global and regional energy and gas trends; Overview of India's investment policy, incentives and regulation; The ENRON Dabhol power project. (Author)

  14. Healthcare biotechnology in India

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, L. M.

    2005-01-01

    Biotechnology in India has made great progress in the development of infrastructure, manpower, research and development and manufacturing of biological reagents, biodiagnostics, biotherapeutics, therapeutic and, prophylactic vaccines and biodevices. Many of these indigenous biological reagents, biodiagnostics, therapeutic and prophylactic vaccines and biodevices have been commercialized. Commercially when biotechnology revenue has reached $25 billions in the U.S. alone in 2000 excluding the r...

  15. Cotton trends in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Cotton trends in India. A crop of significant economic importance, valued at over Rs. 15000 Crs. Provides income to 60 million people. Crucial raw material for Rs 83000 Crores textile industry out of which Rs 45754 crores is exports. Approx. 20 Million acres of cotton provides ...

  16. Muslim education in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pietkiewicz-Pareek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Madrasa education is a very important part of the History of Muslim education and Islamic studies in India. As many as 25 per cent of Muslim children in the 6-14 year age group have either never attended school or have dropped out, so madrasa school is the only choice for them.

  17. AIDS in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreedhar, J

    1995-01-01

    A major HIV epidemic is underway in India, home to 900 million people and the world's second largest population. The director-general of the Indian Council of Medical Research expects India by the year 2000 to be the country with the largest number of HIV infections, with some experts predicting 5 million people to be infected with HIV in India by the year 2000. Others predict 30-55 million to be infected. Although HIV is increasingly spreading to typically low-risk group populations, it is the female sex workers and their clients, long distance truck drivers, men who have sex with men, blood transfusion donors and recipients, and IV drug users throughout the country who are both the reservoirs of HIV and vectors of transmission to the general population. For example, 52% of sex workers in Bombay in 1994 were found to be infected with HIV. Studies indicate that India's long-distance truck drivers average 200 sexual encounters per year; at any given time, 70% of them have STDs. Preliminary surveys estimate that almost 33% are infected with HIV. HIV seroprevalence among truckers in Madras requesting HIV testing because they have STDs increased from almost 60% in 1993 to 91% in 1995. Moreover, the illegal status of homosexuality in India has created an underground culture in which HIV and STDs are rampant; one 1995 study in the Sangli district of Maharashtra found 50% of men who have sex with men to be infected with HIV. Half of India's blood for transfusion is drawn from commercial donors. A Bombay study, however, found 86% of such donors screened in 1992 to be HIV-seropositive and not all blood banks comply with mandatory screening laws. As widespread HIV infection evolves into a multitude of AIDS cases, India's health care system and economy will be heavily taxed, and the number of tuberculosis (TB) cases greatly increased. More than half the population carries the TB bacillus. The government by 1992 had drafted a national prevention and control plan and formed the

  18. Palaeomagnetism of the Palaeoproterozoic Boonadgin Dyke Suite, Yilgarn Craton: Possible connection with India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Li, Z. X.; Pisarevsky, S.; Kirscher, U.; Mitchell, R.; Stark, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    A palaeomagnetic study was carried out on the newly identified 1.9 Ga Boonadgin dyke swarm in the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Ten dykes revealed a high-temperature characteristic remanent magnetisation (ChRM) with dual polarities, directing either SW shallow downward (4 sites) or NE shallow upward (6 sites). Our results reveal that the Yilgarn Craton was at an equatorial palaeolatitude at 1.9 Ga. Meanwhile, a paleopole from the ca. 1.9 Ga Dharwar dykes of South India, supported by a positive baked-contact test, puts India at a similar paleolatitude. The Boonadgin dyke swarm can be interpreted to represent an arm of a radiating dyke swarm that shared the same plume centre with coeval mafic dykes in the Dharwar and Bastar cratons of southern India. We therefore propose that the Western Australia Craton (WAC, consisting of the the Yilgarn and Pilbara cratons) and South India were connected at ca. 1.89 Ga.

  19. Female feticide in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  20. OPAL Various Lead Glass Blocks

    CERN Multimedia

    These lead glass blocks were part of a CERN detector called OPAL (one of the four experiments at the LEP particle detector). OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies in the electromagnetic calorimeter. This detector measured the energy deposited when electrons and photons were slowed down and stopped.

  1. Writing Blocks and Tacit Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, Robert

    1993-01-01

    A review of the literature on writing block looks at two kinds: inability to write in a timely, fluent fashion, and reluctance by academicians to assist others in writing. Obstacles to fluent writing are outlined, four historical trends in treating blocks are discussed, and implications are examined. (MSE)

  2. Block storage subsystem performance analysis

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    You feel that your service is slow because of the storage subsystem? But there are too many abstraction layers between your software and the raw block device for you to debug all this pile... Let's dive on the platters and check out how the block storage sees your I/Os! We can even figure out what those patterns are meaning.

  3. Region 9 Census Block 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geography:The TIGER Line Files are feature classes and related database files (.) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (MAF/TIGER) Database (MTDB). The MTDB represents a seamless national file with no overlaps or gaps between parts, however, each TIGER Line File is designed to stand alone as an independent data set, or they can be combined to cover the entire nation. Census Blocks are statistical areas bounded on all sides by visible features, such as streets, roads, streams, and railroad tracks, and/or by non visible boundaries such as city, town, township, and county limits, and short line-of-sight extensions of streets and roads. Census blocks are relatively small in area; for example, a block in a city bounded by streets. However, census blocks in remote areas are often large and irregular and may even be many square miles in area. A common misunderstanding is that data users think census blocks are used geographically to build all other census geographic areas, rather all other census geographic areas are updated and then used as the primary constraints, along with roads and water features, to delineate the tabulation blocks. As a result, all 2010 Census blocks nest within every other 2010 Census geographic area, so that Census Bureau statistical data can be tabulated at the block level and aggregated up t

  4. A global perspective on atmospheric blocking using GPS radio occultation – one decade of observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Brunner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric blocking represents a weather pattern where a stationary high-pressure system weakens or reverses the climatological westerly flow at mid-latitudes for up to several weeks. It is closely connected to strong anomalies in key atmospheric variables such as geopotential height, temperature, and humidity. Here we provide, for the first time, a comprehensive, global perspective on atmospheric blocking and related impacts by using an observation-based data set from Global Positioning System (GPS radio occultation (RO from 2006 to 2016. The main blocking regions in both hemispheres and seasonal variations are found to be represented well in RO data. The effect of blocking on vertically resolved temperature and humidity anomalies in the troposphere and lower stratosphere is investigated for blocking regions in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, respectively. We find a statistically significant correlation of blocking with positive temperature anomalies, exceeding 3 K in the troposphere, and a reversal above the tropopause with negative temperature anomalies below −3 K in the lower stratosphere. Specific humidity is positively correlated with temperature throughout the troposphere with larger anomalies revealed in the Southern Hemisphere. At the eastern and equatorward side of the investigated blocking regions, a band of tropospheric cold anomalies reveals advection of cold air by anticyclonic motion around blocking highs, which is less distinct in the Southern Hemisphere due to stronger zonal flow. We find GPS RO to be a promising new data set for blocking research that gives insight into the vertical atmospheric structure, especially in light of the expected increase in data coverage that future missions will provide.

  5. Low grade uranium deposits of India - a bane or boon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    Uranium resources of the world is estimated to be 5.5 million tonnes and the proven resources in India forms 3% of the world resources. The biggest uranium deposit is the Olympic dam deposit in Australia, which contains nearly one million tonnes of 0.04% U 3 O 8 , while the highest grade of nearly 20% is established in the McArthur river deposit, Canada. Another very high grade deposit, the Cigar lake deposit, is established in Canada with an average grade of nearly 18%. Most of the uranium deposits established in India so far falls under the category of low grade. These low grade uranium deposits are distributed mainly in Singhbhum Shear Zone, eastern India; in parts of Chhattisgarh; Southern parts of Meghalaya; Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh; in parts of Karnataka and Aravalli- and Delhi Supergroups, Rajasthan and Haryana. These deposits are mainly hydrothermal vein type, stratabound type and unconformity related. The Singhbhum Shear Zone, Jharkhand hosts a seventeen low grade uranium deposits, aggregating about 30% of Indian uranium resources. The uranium mineralisation hosted by Vempalle dolostone extends over 160 km belt along southwestern margin of Cuddapah Basin in Andhra Pradesh and accounts 23% of the Indian resources. Though the dolostone hosted Tummalapalle uranium deposit was established in the early nineties, because of techno-economic constraints, the deposit remained dormant. As a consequence of the development of an innovative pressure alkali beneficiation process, the deposit became economically viable and a mine and mill are being constructed here. Recent exploration inputs are leading to prove a number of low grade uranium deposits in the extension areas of Tummalapalle. Nearly 10 blocks have been identified within a 30 km belt which are being actively explored and a large uranium deposit has already been proved in this province. The deposit at Tummalapalle and adjoining areas is likely to become the second biggest deposit in the world. The

  6. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  7. University of Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The focus of the University of Southern California (USC) Children''s Environmental Health Center is to develop a better understanding of how host susceptibility and...

  8. Southern African Business Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Southern African Business Review is a refereed and accredited scientific journal of the College of Economic and Management Sciences of the .... The effects of extended water supply disruptions on the operations of SMEs · EMAIL FREE ...

  9. Southern African Business Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Shakespeare in Southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal actively seeks to publish articles investigating the impact of Shakespeare in other parts of the world, such as India, the United States, South East Asia and South America. Other websites ... Interview: Introducing Sonny – the story of “The Robben Island Bible” · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ...

  11. Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    India, particularly among vulnerable women and children. The research ... This approach will improve the quality of life for farmers, and is part of a long-term solution to rural poverty in India. ... Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India.

  12. India dokfilmide paremik jõuab taaralinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Tartus täna algavatest India dokumentaalfilmide päevadest, mida korraldavad Maailmafilmi festival, Eesti Rahva Muuseum ja organisatsioon Films For Freedom India. Lisatud nimekiri "India dokfilmi päevad"

  13. WATER: EMERGING CHALLENGE FOR INDIA'S BRIGHTEST A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. N. Narasimhan

    2009-08-25

    Aug 25, 2009 ... of science, technology, and management will lead the way. • Justifiably so. Alumni of ... INDIA'S WATER CRISIS. • Water availability in India is ... developments stress India's already stressed water systems. • Economy drives ...

  14. [History of acupuncture in India].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xinghua

    India and China are both featured with ancient civilization. During the communication between the two countries, the communication from Indian culture, especially Buddhism, to China was predominant, while communication from Chinese culture to India was rare. So it was with medical communication until the end of 1950s when acupuncture was introduced to India. In this article, the medical communication between India and China as well as the introduction of acupuncture to India were discussed, and the resulting phenomenon was analyzed. The introduction of acupuncture to India proved personnel exchange was not necessary to acupuncture communication, and several invisible factors, such as language, religion and culture tradition might be the reasons for foreign nations to accept acupuncture. Therefore, these factors should be valued in the future international communication of acupuncture.

  15. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  16. Harmony of spinning conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Sobko, Evgeny [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Nordita, Stockholm (Sweden); Isachenkov, Mikhail [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovoth (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics

    2016-12-07

    Conformal blocks for correlation functions of tensor operators play an increasingly important role for the conformal bootstrap programme. We develop a universal approach to such spinning blocks through the harmonic analysis of certain bundles over a coset of the conformal group. The resulting Casimir equations are given by a matrix version of the Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian that describes the scattering of interacting spinning particles in a 1-dimensional external potential. The approach is illustrated in several examples including fermionic seed blocks in 3D CFT where they take a very simple form.

  17. Harmony of spinning conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomerus, Volker [DESY Hamburg, Theory Group,Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Sobko, Evgeny [Nordita and Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Isachenkov, Mikhail [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 7610001 (Israel)

    2017-03-15

    Conformal blocks for correlation functions of tensor operators play an increasingly important role for the conformal bootstrap programme. We develop a universal approach to such spinning blocks through the harmonic analysis of certain bundles over a coset of the conformal group. The resulting Casimir equations are given by a matrix version of the Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian that describes the scattering of interacting spinning particles in a 1-dimensional external potential. The approach is illustrated in several examples including fermionic seed blocks in 3D CFT where they take a very simple form.

  18. Uranium occurrences and exploration experience in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, A.

    2010-01-01

    As per the Indian Government laws, minerals containing uranium are classified as strategic and uranium exploration and mining is an exclusive subject of the Central Government. Exploration for atomic minerals began in India in the year 1949 and, over a period of sixty years, India has created a large pool of uranium scientists and, at present, more than 500 scientists are employed by the Government of India for exploration of atomic minerals in India. In line with other countries, India's efforts in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s were focused in the exploration for vein-type mineralization and succeeded in the discovery in three provinces, viz. Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ), Jharkhand; Umra, Rajasthan and Lesser Himalayas of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh. Of these, the SSZ has emerged as a major uranium province with 17 low-grade, low- to medium-tonnage deposits. Presently, the only uranium producing mines are situated in this province. Simultaneously, many uranium occurrences and deposits of QPC, vein and metasomatite types, essentially of low grade, low tonnage, were located all over the country. In the early eighties, the Cretaceous Mahadek basin in the northeastern state of Meghalaya was recognized as a potential province for sandstone-type uranium mineralization and, within a span of fifteen years, five low- to medium-grade, low-tonnage deposits were established. The 180-km long belt of Cretaceous fluviatile felspathic sandstones along the southern fringe of Shillong plateau below a moderate cover of tertiary sediments holds potential for more resources. Ground and airborne geophysical techniques are being looked at to provide vital clues on depositional controls for future sub-surface exploration. In the mean time, a major uranium province in the southern part of Proterozoic Cuddapah basin was discovered, where uranium mineralization is hosted in dolomitic limestone. The mineralization is stratabound and occurs intermittently over a strike length of nearly 160 km

  19. Exploring Emerging India - Eight Essays

    OpenAIRE

    Müller-Brandeck-Bocquet, Gisela; Gieg, Philipp; Lowinger, Timo; Gsänger, Matthias; Becker, Michael; Kundu, Amitabh; Valerian, Rodrigues; S, Shaji; Schömbucher-Kusterer, Elisabeth; Biswas, Aparajita

    2015-01-01

    India's economic rise since the 1990s has been followed by a more prominent global role for the country. Despite economic setbacks in recent years and huge domestic challenges like poverty, caste issues, and gender inequality, India today is almost universally characterised as an “emerging power”. At the same time, the country continues to show an enormous diversity. Thus, exploring emerging India can surely not be confined to economic analysis only. Instead, it is vital to take current devel...

  20. Hemovigilance Program-India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Bisht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A centralized hemovigilance program to assure patient safety and to promote public health has been launched for the first time in India on Dec 10, 2012 in 60 medical colleges in the first phase along with a well-structured program for monitoring adverse reactions associated with blood transfusion and blood product administration. National Institute of Biologicals (NIB will be the National Coordinating Centre for Hemovigilance. This program will be implemented under overall ambit of Pharmacovigilance Program of India (PvPI, which is being coordinated by Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC. All medical colleges of the country will be enrolled in this program by the year 2016 in order to have a National Centre of Excellence for Hemovigilance at NIB, which will act as a global knowledge platform.

  1. Fighting corrosion in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopalan, K S; Rangaswamy, N S

    1979-03-01

    A survey covers the cost of corrosion in India; methods of preventing corrosion in industrial plants; some case histories, including the prevention of corrosion in pipes through which fuels are pumped to storage and the stress-corrosion cracking of evaporators in fertilizer plants; estimates of the increase in demand in 1979-89 for anticorrosion products and processes developed by the Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CECRI) at Karaikudi, India; industries that may face corrosion problems requiring assistance from CECRI, including the light and heavy engineering structural, and transport industries and the chemical industry; and some areas identified for major efforts, including the establishment of a Corrosion Advisory Board with regional centers and the expansion of the Tropical Corrosion Testing Station at Mandapam Camp, Tamil Nadu.

  2. Oil in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diab, E.; Raimbault, C. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1995-12-01

    India is a country that is rich in energy resources. Concerning oil, proven reserves are already abundant, but there are some who think that a very large potential remains to be discovered, since the country is one of the least thoroughly explored in the world. The recent opening up of energy industries to private and foreign capital should speed up the development of exploration, refining and petrochemicals. However, even if numerous projects were to be approved by the Government, actually carrying them out does not always ensure because of conditions that are not always judged to be attractive by potential investors. Despite all this, there are some who think that India will be a power equal to if not greater than China and one that is already upholding the comparison with the Southeast Asian dragons. (authors). 8 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Evaluation of pedestrian mid-block road crossing behaviour using artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Raghuram Kadali

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians usually cross the road at mid-block locations in India because of the ease and convenience to reach their destination as compared to intersection locations. It is important to evaluate the pedestrian gap acceptance behavior at mid-block locations because of inadequate vehicular gaps under mixed traffic condition, which translates into the pedestrian road crossing behavior. The present study examines the pedestrian gap acceptance behaviour by employing an artificial neural network (ANN model for understanding the decision making process of pedestrians, i.e., acceptance or rejection of vehicular gaps at a mid-block location. From the results it has been found that the pedestrian rolling gap, frequency of attempt, vehicular gap size, pedestrian speed change condition and vehicle speed have major role in pedestrian gap acceptance. These results can lead to a better design of pedestrian crossing facilities where adequate gaps are not available in vehicular flow at mid-block crosswalk locations.

  4. Biogas energy in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulik, T K

    1982-01-01

    A socio-economic study of India's biogas energy program, a response to the oil crisis of the 1970's, reviews the impact of promoting large-scale community biogas plants as a way to reach the lowest income groups. A case study draws on the experiences of the community plant in Gujarat village, and explores the program's secondary benefits and impacts on life styles. 15 references, 5 figures, 37 tables. (DCK)

  5. Medical tourism in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vijay; Das, Poonam

    2012-06-01

    The term 'medical tourism' is under debate because health care is a serious business and rarely do patients combine the two. India is uniquely placed by virtue of its skilled manpower, common language, diverse medical conditions that doctors deal with, the volume of patients, and a large nonresident Indian population overseas. Medical tourism requires dedicated services to alleviate the anxiety of foreign patients. These include translation, currency conversion, travel, visa, posttreatment care system,and accommodation of patient relatives during and after treatment.

  6. OUTSOURCING TO INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sancheti, Mayur

    2007-01-01

    Topic selected by me for dissertation is of outsourcing to India. Outsourcing is generally done from countries like United Kingdom and United States. I have discussed each and every aspect which is related to Outsourcing in detail. Outsourcing is gaining more and more attention because it enables organizations to cut the cost and improve efficiency of work which results in to overall increase in profitability and competitiveness of the organization. I tried to cove what is Outsourcing, w...

  7. Military Strategy Of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Zaitsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the evolution of military strategy of the Republic of India and key factors that influences its development. New Delhi keeps an eye on the balance of power in South Asia to create favorable conditions for its economic and social development, yet the remaining threats and new challenges still undermine the security and stability in India. The ambitions of China aspiring to power in Asia-Pacific region, combined with its immense military build-up and territorial disputes, cause disturbance in New Delhi. The remaining tensions between India and Pakistan also cause often border skirmishes and medium-scale conflicts. Close relations between China and Pakistan, labeled as “all-weather friendship”, are a source of major concern for India. The fact that both Beijing and Islamabad wield nuclear weapons means that without effective mechanisms of nuclear deterrence any military conflict may turn into a full-scale nuclear war. Terrorist activities and insurgency in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir and in the North-Eastern regions of the country, along with maritime piracy and illicit drug trafficking contribute to the complicated nature of the challenges to the Indian security. Indian military strategy is considered as a combination of the army doctrine, maritime doctrine and nuclear doctrine. The Indian political and military leadership wants to meet the challenges of changing geopolitical environment and thus continuously adapts its strategy. However, there is still a gap between theory and practice: Indian armed forces lack the capacity to implement the declared goals because of bulky bureaucratic system, outdated military equipment and insufficient level of command and control. The government needs to mobilize political will and administrative resources to upgrade its defense sector to counter its security threats and challenges.

  8. India's misconceived family plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, J L

    1991-01-01

    India's goal of reducing the national birth rate by 50% by the year 2000 is destined to failure in the absence of attention to poverty, social inequality, and women's subordination--the factors that serve to perpetuate high fertility. There is a need to shift the emphasis of the population control effort from the obligation of individual women to curtail childbearing to the provision of the resources required for poor women to meet their basic needs. Female children are less likely to be educated or taken for medical care than their male counterparts and receive a lower proportion of the family's food supply. This discrimination stems, in large part, from parents' view that daughters will not be able to remunerate their families in later life for such investments. The myth of female nonproductivity that leads to the biased allocation of family resources overlooks the contribution of adult women's unpaid domestic labor and household production. Although government statistics state that women comprise 46% of India's agricultural labor force (and up to 90% of rural women participate in this sector on some basis), women have been excluded systematically from agricultural development schemes such as irrigation projects, credit, and mechanization. In the field of family planning, the Government's virtually exclusive focus on sterilization has excluded younger women who are not ready to terminate childbearing but would like methods such as condoms, diaphragms, IUDs, and oral contraceptives to space births. More general maternal-child health services are out of reach of the majority of poor rural women due to long distances that must be travelled to clinics India's birth rate could be reduced by 25% by 2000 just by filling the demand for quality voluntary family planning services. Without a sustained political commitment to improve the status of women in India, however, such gains will not be sustainable.

  9. Energy planning in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venu, S.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented of India's planning for energy requirements in coal, oil, gas and nuclear power and in the fields of solar energy and the extension of forest areas to provide firewood. Coal and natural gas supplies will be increased to reduce oil demand. There will be an accelerated programme of development of bio-gas, an exploration of solar energy potential and extensive afforestation to provide additional energy sources. (author)

  10. Energy for rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, Frauke; Benders, Rene M.J.; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be. We use the Regional Energy Model (REM) to develop scenarios for rural electrification for the period 2005-2030 and to assess the effects on greenhouse gas emissions, primary energy use and costs. We compare the business-as-usual scenario (BAU) with different electrification scenarios based on electricity from renewable energy, diesel and the grid. Our results indicate that diesel systems tend to have the highest CO 2 emissions, followed by grid systems. Rural electrification with primarily renewable energy-based end-uses could save up to 99% of total CO 2 emissions and 35% of primary energy use in 2030 compared to BAU. Our research indicates that electrification with decentralised diesel systems is likely to be the most expensive option. Rural electrification with renewable energy tends to be the most cost-effective option when end-uses are predominantly based on renewable energy, but turns out to be more costly than grid extensions when electric end-use devices are predominantly used. This research therefore elaborates whether renewable energy is a viable option for rural electrification and climate change mitigation in rural India and gives policy recommendations.

  11. Medicine in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Malcolm M.

    1978-01-01

    A three-month sabbatical allowed a superficial overview of Indian medical history and practice. As in Western nations, cost is a major determinant of health care delivery in India; poverty and fiscal shortages, however, deny care to many. The education of Indian physicians is similar to that in Western nations and a high level of clinical competence is seen. However, physician compensation is woefully low by Western standards. India possesses its own indigenous medical systems, purported to be the oldest in the world and predating Hippocrates by several millenia. Most Indians are cared for by native practitioners whose medical techniques are intricately related to the Hindu and Islamic religions. Many of their herbal medicines have been assimilated into contemporary Western practice. Diseases unknown to us except by textbooks are commonly seen and effectively treated. On the other hand, Western diseases such as coronary arteriosclerosis are not uncommon in a land of massive overpopulation and malnutrition. The humbling aspect of this experience is the realization that medical practice dating back several millenia can be made more modern and carried out competently by contemporary physicians. A Western physician working in India finds an unparalleled variety of disease in a totally different medical-religious environment allowing him to reorganize his priorities and to rediscover himself in the world within which he lives. PMID:716392

  12. Medicine in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, M M

    1978-10-01

    A three-month sabbatical allowed a superficial overview of Indian medical history and practice. As in Western nations, cost is a major determinant of health care delivery in India; poverty and fiscal shortages, however, deny care to many. The education of Indian physicians is similar to that in Western nations and a high level of clinical competence is seen. However, physician compensation is woefully low by Western standards. India possesses its own indigenous medical systems, purported to be the oldest in the world and predating Hippocrates by several millenia. Most Indians are cared for by native practitioners whose medical techniques are intricately related to the Hindu and Islamic religions. Many of their herbal medicines have been assimilated into contemporary Western practice. Diseases unknown to us except by textbooks are commonly seen and effectively treated. On the other hand, Western diseases such as coronary arteriosclerosis are not uncommon in a land of massive overpopulation and malnutrition. The humbling aspect of this experience is the realization that medical practice dating back several millenia can be made more modern and carried out competently by contemporary physicians. A Western physician working in India finds an unparalleled variety of disease in a totally different medical-religious environment allowing him to reorganize his priorities and to rediscover himself in the world within which he lives.

  13. India's draft nuclear doctrine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, A.

    2000-01-01

    India's draft nuclear doctrine and its nuclear and missile testing are a response to recent international, regional and domestic developments. Nehru's policy of nuclear disarmament, non-discriminatory international arrangements and unilateral restraint has been overturned in favour of self-reliant security and negotiated nuclear restraints. The draft nuclear doctrine is aimed at transparency and formalization of existing capacities. It is anchored in the United Nations Charter, based on the legitimacy of self-defence and espouses minimum nuclear deterrence. After the launching of Pokhran II, the debate in India has been settled on weaponization and deployment. The doctrine is not country-specific with respect to threat perceptions, but the author posits that the long-term focus is on China and the short-term on Pakistan. The doctrine emphasizes civilian command and control. India's decision to test incurred diplomatic and other economic costs, but afforded new opportunities for the country to assert itself militarily and politically in Asia and in the world. There were no diplomatic costs in issuing the draft nuclear doctrine, but the author estimates the economic costs of a full-blown (triad) Indian nuclear deterrent. (author)

  14. Rolling block mazes are PSPACE-complete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, K.; Buchin, M.

    2012-01-01

    In a rolling block maze, one or more blocks lie on a rectangular board with square cells. In most mazes, the blocks have size k × m × n where k, m, n are integers that determine the size of the block in terms of units of the size of the board cells. The task of a rolling block maze is to roll a

  15. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  16. Recursion Relations for Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Penedones, João; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-09-12

    In the context of conformal field theories in general space-time dimension, we find all the possible singularities of the conformal blocks as functions of the scaling dimension $\\Delta$ of the exchanged operator. In particular, we argue, using representation theory of parabolic Verma modules, that in odd spacetime dimension the singularities are only simple poles. We discuss how to use this information to write recursion relations that determine the conformal blocks. We first recover the recursion relation introduced in 1307.6856 for conformal blocks of external scalar operators. We then generalize this recursion relation for the conformal blocks associated to the four point function of three scalar and one vector operator. Finally we specialize to the case in which the vector operator is a conserved current.

  17. Defying gravity using Jenga™ blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yin-Soo; Yap, Kueh-Chin

    2007-11-01

    This paper describes how Jenga™ blocks can be used to demonstrate the physics of an overhanging tower that appears to defy gravity. We also propose ideas for how this demonstration can be adapted for the A-level physics curriculum.

  18. Ultrasound-Guided real-time pterygopalatine block for analgesia in an oral cancer patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishkarsh Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancers are one of the most common cancers in India. These patients have pain during the course of the disease. Various drugs including opioid and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug have been used to manage pain. However, these are associated with side effects such as constipation and vomiting. An early interventional block may decrease the requirement for analgesics and improve the overall quality of life. We describe a case of oral carcinoma successfully managed with ultrasound-guided pterygopalatine block.

  19. Risking Aggression: Reply to Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Borer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his paper, “Is There an ‘Anomalous’ Section of the Laffer Curve?”, Walter Block describes some situations in which it appears that a libertarian should violate the non-aggression principle. To rectify this, Block proposes a different perspective on libertarianism which he calls punishment theory. This paper argues that no new theory is needed, as the non-aggression principle can be used to resolve theapparent conundrums.

  20. Risking Aggression: Reply to Block

    OpenAIRE

    Kris Borer

    2010-01-01

    In his paper, “Is There an ‘Anomalous’ Section of the Laffer Curve?”, Walter Block describes some situations in which it appears that a libertarian should violate the non-aggression principle. To rectify this, Block proposes a different perspective on libertarianism which he calls punishment theory. This paper argues that no new theory is needed, as the non-aggression principle can be used to resolve theapparent conundrums.

  1. A Novel Tetrathiafulvalene Building Block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jan Oskar; Takimiya, Kazuo; Thorup, Niels

    1999-01-01

    Efficient synthesis of a novel tetrathiafulvalene building block. 2,3-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-6,7-bis(thiocyanato-methyl)tetrathiafulv alene (7) useful for stepwise and asymmetrical bis-function-alization is reported.......Efficient synthesis of a novel tetrathiafulvalene building block. 2,3-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-6,7-bis(thiocyanato-methyl)tetrathiafulv alene (7) useful for stepwise and asymmetrical bis-function-alization is reported....

  2. Role of Social Mobilization (Network) in Polio Eradication in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Anisur Rahman; Singh, Prem; Trivedi, Geetali

    2016-08-07

    In 2009, India contributed to over half the global cases of poliomyelitis. Many believed that India would be the last country to be polio free. India proved them wrong and was certified polio free in 2014. In January 2016, India celebrated 5 years of being polio free. One of the major reasons behind the interruption of polio transmission in the Polio endemic states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar was the deployment of Social Mobilization Network (SMNet). A three tiered structure, the 7300 strong SMNet is now the gold standard in public health communication. It mobilizes communities by spearheading civil society participation; and works at district, block and community levels. The SMNet's social mobilization has evolved into an accelerated approach for achieving results with principles of mobilization at its core. The SMNet targets resistance to polio immunization through a multipronged approach by using local religious leaders, community influencers, interpersonal communication, counseling, mothers meetings, announcements from religious institutions and rallies. The success of the SMNet has been its ability to identify and convert resistant families into advocates for polio immunization. Deeply respected in the community, the SMNet mobilizers (98 percent of whom are women) are themselves models for gender empowerment. The SMNet model shows how mobilization techniques can be harnessed for short term and long term goals and can be replicated in other health programs to achieve the same results as were achieved for Polio.

  3. Comparative study between ultrasound guided TAP block and paravertebral block in upper abdominal surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqaya M Elsayed Goda

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that ultrasound guided transverses abdominis plane block and thoracic paravertebral block were safe and effective anesthetic technique for upper abdominal surgery with longer and potent postoperative analgesia in thoracic paravertebral block than transverses abdominis block.

  4. Hydrocarbon prospects of the western continental slope of India as indicatEd. by surficial enrichment of organic carbon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.; Mascarenhas, A.; PrakashBabu, C.

    The sediments from the continental mid-slope (150-1500 m depth) of the western margin are highly enriched in organic carbon (upto 16%) occurring as a long and wide band off Bombay to southern tip of India. Organic carbon is essentially of marine...

  5. CDM Country Guide for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on India

  6. India's Trade in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  7. The Hanze-India Connection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuijsen, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Hanze India connection. Presentatie gehouden op 09-06-2010. Bestaat uit foto's. Op uitnodiging van KPN, sponsor van het lectoraat New Business & ICT, bezocht Hugo Velthuijsen een aantal steden in India. Het doel was om ter plekke een beeld te krijgen van de mogelijkheden van IT en Business

  8. Worldwide WANO biennial in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrubelova, A.

    2010-01-01

    At the turn of January and February 2010, there was an annual general conference of the World Association of Nuclear Operators - WANO held in Delhi, India. One of the representatives, participating on behalf of Slovenske elektrarne, was also Mr. Robert Guns, a former Director of Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant. After his return from India, he was approached by Anna Vrubelova. (author)

  9. A Tale of Two Indias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The latest battle between India's increasingly successful haves and left-behind have-nots is playing out in the country's educational system. India's Supreme Court recently upheld a stay against a quota system for low-caste and historically oppressed Indians, who are officially called Other Backward Classes. The decision could halt quotas for…

  10. India hiilgav viletsus / Andrei Hvostov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hvostov, Andrei, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    Hiinat nimetatakse maailma töökojaks, Indiat aga bürooks (back office), võrdlus põhineb India IT-firmade edul - kõik tegevused, mida saab teha arvutite abil, kipuvad kolima Indiasse. Tulevikuriik India on hädas keskaegsete tavadega

  11. A woman ecologist in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    in India. Priya Davidar. 28. As one of the first women to become a professor of eco- ogy in India, I ... gender as being of any significance to research involving fieldwork. This gave ... indifference. Looking back, I can see that having support from estab- ... Smithsonian Institution and Harvard University, among others, and had ...

  12. The Danish East India Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2005-01-01

    The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...

  13. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  14. Adult Education in India & Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nikhil Ranjan

    A survey is made of various aspects of adult education in India since 1947, together with comparative accounts of the origin, development, and notable features of adult education in Denmark, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Needs and objectives in India, largely in the eradication of illiteracy, are set forth, and pertinent…

  15. Initial drug resistance in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Initial drug resistance in India. There is gradual increase in primary MDR all over India : Pondi= Pondicherry 1985; Bangalore =1986; Jaipur = 1991; Jaipur =2000. Overall the MDR is less than 3% (TRC studies).

  16. India, Genomic diversity & Disease susceptibility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. India, Genomic diversity & Disease susceptibility · India, a paradise for Genetic Studies · Involved in earlier stages of Immune response protecting us from Diseases, Responsible for kidney and other transplant rejections Inherited from our parents · PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7.

  17. India-U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kronstadt, K. A

    2006-01-01

    The end of the Cold War freed India-U.S. relations from the constraints of global bipolarity, but interactions continued for a decade to be affected by the burden of history, most notably the longstanding India-Pakistan rivalry and nuclear...

  18. Diagnosis and treatment outcome of mycotic keratitis at a tertiary eye care center in eastern india

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rautaraya Bibhudutta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycotic keratitis is an important cause of corneal blindness world over including India. Geographical location and climate are known to influence the profile of fungal diseases. While there are several reports on mycotic keratitis from southern India, comprehensive clinico-microbiological reports from eastern India are few. The reported prevalence of mycotic keratitis are 36.7%,36.3%,25.6%,7.3% in southern, western, north- eastern and northern India respectively. This study reports the epidemiological characteristics, microbiological diagnosis and treatment outcome of mycotic keratitis at a tertiary eye care center in eastern India. Methods A retrospective review of medical and microbiology records was done for all patients with laboratory proven fungal keratitis. Results Between July 2006 and December 2009, 997 patients were clinically diagnosed as microbial keratitis. While no organisms were found in 25.4% (253/997 corneal samples, 23.4% (233/997 were bacterial, 26.4% (264/997 were fungal (45 cases mixed with bacteria, 1.4% (14/997 were Acanthamoeba with or without bacteria and 23.4% (233/997 were microsporidial with or without bacteria. Two hundred fifteen of 264 (81.4%, 215/264 samples grew fungus in culture while 49 corneal scrapings were positive for fungal elements only in direct microscopy. Clinical diagnosis of fungal keratitis was made in 186 of 264 (70.5% cases. The microscopic detection of fungal elements was achieved by 10% potassium hydroxide with 0.1% calcoflour white stain in 94.8%(238/251 cases. Aspergillus species (27.9%, 60/215 and Fusarium species (23.2%, 50/215 were the major fungal isolates. Concomitant bacterial infection was seen in 45 (17.1%, 45/264 cases of mycotic keratitis. Clinical outcome of healed scar was achieved in 94 (35.6%, 94/264 cases. Fifty two patients (19.7%, 52/264 required therapeutic PK, 9 (3.4%, 9/264 went for evisceration, 18.9% (50/264 received glue application with bandage

  19. Various semiclassical limits of torus conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkalaev, Konstantin [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky ave. 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of General and Applied Physics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Institutskiy per. 7, Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Geiko, Roman [Mathematics Department, National Research University Higher School of Economics,Usacheva str. 6, Moscow, 119048 (Russian Federation); Rappoport, Vladimir [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky ave. 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of Quantum Physics, Institute for Information Transmission Problems,Bolshoy Karetny per. 19, Moscow, 127994 (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-12

    We study four types of one-point torus blocks arising in the large central charge regime. There are the global block, the light block, the heavy-light block, and the linearized classical block, according to different regimes of conformal dimensions. It is shown that the blocks are not independent being connected to each other by various links. We find that the global, light, and heavy-light blocks correspond to three different contractions of the Virasoro algebra. Also, we formulate the c-recursive representation of the one-point torus blocks which is relevant in the semiclassical approximation.

  20. Human development, poverty, health & nutrition situation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, G M; Laxmaiah, A

    2008-08-01

    Human development index (HDI) is extensively used to measure the standard of living of a country. India made a study progress in the HDI value. Extreme poverty is concentrated in rural areas of northern States while income growth has been dynamic in southern States and urban areas. This study was undertaken to assess the trends in HDI, human poverty index (HPI) and incidence of poverty among Indian states, the socio-economic, health, and diet and nutritional indicators which determine the HDI, changes in protein and calorie adequacy status of rural population, and also trends in malnutrition among children in India. The variations in socio-economic, demographic and dietary indicators by grades of HDI were studied. The trends in poverty and nutrition were also studied. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis were done to analyse data. While India's HDI value has improved over a time; our rank did not improve much compared to other developing countries. Human poverty has not reduced considerably as per the HPI values. The undernutrition among preschool children is still a major public health problem in India. The incidence of poverty at different levels of calorie requirement has not reduced in both rural and urban areas. The time trends in nutritional status of pre-school children showed that, even though, there is an improvement in stunting over the years, the trend in wasting and underweight has not improved much. Proper nutrition and health awareness are important to tackle the health hazards of developmental transition. Despite several national nutrition programmes in operation, we could not make a significant dent in the area of health and nutrition. The changing dietary practices of the urban population, especially the middle class, are of concern. Further studies are needed to measure the human development and poverty situation of different sections of the population in India using an index, which includes both income indicators and non income