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Sample records for block nicotinic acetylcholine

  1. Parazoanthoxanthin A blocks Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Klara Bulc; Araoz, Romulo; Sepcić, Kristina; Molgo, Jordi; Suput, Dusan

    2010-09-06

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are implicated in different nervous system-related disorders, and their modulation could improve existing therapy of these diseases. Parazoanthoxanthin A (ParaA) is a fluorescent pigment of the group of zoanthoxanthins. Since it is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, it may also bind to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). For this reason its effect on Torpedo nAChR (alpha1(2)betagammadelta) transplanted to Xenopus laevis oocytes was evaluated, using the voltage-clamp technique. ParaA dose-dependently reduced the acetylcholine-induced currents. This effect was fully reversible only at lower concentrations. ParaA also reduced the Hill coefficient and the time to peak current, indicating a channel blocking mode of action. On the other hand, the combined effect of ParaA and d-tubocurarine (d-TC) on acetylcholine-induced currents exhibited only partial additivity, assuming a competitive mode of action of ParaA on nAChR. These results indicate a dual mode of action of ParaA on the Torpedo AChR. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gold nanoparticle–choline complexes can block nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

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    Chur Chin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Chur Chin1, In Kyeom Kim2, Dong Yoon Lim3, Ki Suk Kim4, Hyang Ae Lee4, Eun Joo Kim41Department of Pediatrics, Fatima Hospital, Daegu, Korea; 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea; 3Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju, Korea; 4Korea Institute of Toxicology, Daejeon, KoreaAbstract: We identified a novel class of direct ion-channel blockers of ligand-gated ion channels called the gold nanoparticle–choline complex. Negatively charged gold nanoparticles (1.4 nm block ion pores by binding to the sulfur group of the cysteine loop of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, and currents evoked by acetylcholine (Ach can break these bonds. The current evoked by ACh in nAChRs was blocked directly in ion pores by the gold nanoparticle–choline complex. In adrenal-gland perfusion studies, the complex also blocked nAChRs by diminishing catecholamine release by about 75%. An in vivo study showed muscle relaxation in rats after injection of the complex. These results will foster the application of gold nanoparticles as a direct ion-channel blocker. Keywords: negatively charged gold nanoparticle, choline, gold–sulfur bond, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, direct ion-channel blocker

  3. The Dinoflagellate Toxin 20-Methyl Spirolide-G Potently Blocks Skeletal Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

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    Aurélie Couesnon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic imine toxin 20-methyl spirolide G (20-meSPX-G, produced by the toxigenic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii/Alexandrium peruvianum, has been previously reported to contaminate shellfish in various European coastal locations, as revealed by mouse toxicity bioassay. The aim of the present study was to determine its toxicological profile and its molecular target selectivity. 20-meSPX-G blocked nerve-evoked isometric contractions in isolated mouse neuromuscular preparations, while it had no action on contractions elicited by direct electrical stimulation, and reduced reversibly nerve-evoked compound muscle action potential amplitudes in anesthetized mice. Voltage-clamp recordings in Xenopus oocytes revealed that 20-meSPX-G potently inhibited currents evoked by ACh on Torpedo muscle-type and human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR, whereas lower potency was observed in human α4β2 nAChR. Competition-binding assays showed that 20-meSPX-G fully displaced [3H]epibatidine binding to HEK-293 cells expressing the human α3β2 (Ki = 0.040 nM, whereas a 90-fold lower affinity was detected in human α4β2 nAChR. The spirolide displaced [125I]α-bungarotoxin binding to Torpedo membranes (Ki = 0.028 nM and in HEK-293 cells expressing chick chimeric α7-5HT3 nAChR (Ki = 0.11 nM. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that 20-meSPX-G is a potent antagonist of nAChRs, and its subtype selectivity is discussed on the basis of molecular docking models.

  4. Docking to flexible nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Tommy; Bruun, Anne T; Balle, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Computational docking to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and other members of the Cys-loop receptor family is complicated by the flexibility of the so-called C-loop. As observed in the large number of published crystal structures of the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), a structural...

  5. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Sensory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherate, Raju

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine release in sensory neocortex contributes to higher-order sensory function, in part by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Molecular studies have revealed a bewildering array of nAChR subtypes and cellular actions; however, there is some consensus emerging about the major nAChR subtypes and their functions in…

  6. Prorocentrolide-A from Cultured Prorocentrum lima Dinoflagellates Collected in Japan Blocks Sub-Types of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

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    Muriel Amar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Prorocentrolides are members of the cyclic imine phycotoxins family. Their chemical structure includes a 26-membered carbo-macrocycle and a 28-membered macrocyclic lactone arranged around a hexahydroisoquinoline that incorporates the characteristic cyclic imine group. Six prorocentrolides are already known. However, their mode of action remains undetermined. The aim of the present work was to explore whether prorocentrolide-A acts on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, using competition-binding assays and electrophysiological techniques. Prorocentrolide-A displaced [125I]α-bungarotoxin binding to Torpedo membranes, expressing the muscle-type (α12β1γδ nAChR, and in HEK-293 cells, expressing the chimeric chick neuronal α7-5HT3 nAChR. Functional studies revealed that prorocentrolide-A had no agonist action on nAChRs, but inhibited ACh-induced currents in Xenopus oocytes that had incorporated the muscle-type α12β1γδ nAChR to their membranes, or that expressed the human α7 nAChR, as revealed by voltage-clamp recordings. Molecular docking calculations showed the absence of the characteristic hydrogen bond between the iminium group of prorocentrolide-A and the backbone carbonyl group of Trp147 in the receptor, explaining its weaker affinity as compared to all other cyclic imine toxins. In conclusion, this is the first study to show that prorocentrolide-A acts on both muscle and neuronal nAChRs, but with higher affinity on the muscle-type nAChR.

  7. Prorocentrolide-A from Cultured Prorocentrum lima Dinoflagellates Collected in Japan Blocks Sub-Types of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Muriel; Aráoz, Rómulo; Iorga, Bogdan I; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Servent, Denis; Molgó, Jordi

    2018-02-28

    Prorocentrolides are members of the cyclic imine phycotoxins family. Their chemical structure includes a 26-membered carbo-macrocycle and a 28-membered macrocyclic lactone arranged around a hexahydroisoquinoline that incorporates the characteristic cyclic imine group. Six prorocentrolides are already known. However, their mode of action remains undetermined. The aim of the present work was to explore whether prorocentrolide A acts on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), using competition-binding assays and electrophysiological techniques. Prorocentrolide-A displaced [ 125 I]α-bungarotoxin binding to Torpedo membranes, expressing the muscle-type (α1₂β1γδ) nAChR, and in HEK-293 cells, expressing the chimeric chick neuronal α7-5HT₃ nAChR. Functional studies revealed that prorocentrolide-A had no agonist action on nAChRs, but inhibited ACh-induced currents in Xenopus oocytes that had incorporated the muscle-type α1₂β1γδ nAChR to their membranes, or that expressed the human α7 nAChR, as revealed by voltage-clamp recordings. Molecular docking calculations showed the absence of the characteristic hydrogen bond between the iminium group of prorocentrolide-A and the backbone carbonyl group of Trp147 in the receptor, explaining its weaker affinity as compared to all other cyclic imine toxins. In conclusion, this is the first study to show that prorocentrolide-A acts on both muscle and neuronal nAChRs, but with higher affinity on the muscle-type nAChR.

  8. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2012-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a promising drug target for a number of diseases ranging from schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease to chronic pain and inflammatory diseases. Focusing on the central nervous system, we describe how endogenous and experimental compounds and prote......The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a promising drug target for a number of diseases ranging from schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease to chronic pain and inflammatory diseases. Focusing on the central nervous system, we describe how endogenous and experimental compounds...

  9. α-4 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphisms exhibit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Smoking behavior is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Nicotine is the major addictive substance in cigarettes. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are thought to play an important role in nicotine addiction of smokers. One of the genes, α-4 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ...

  10. Modulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by strychnine

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Colunga, Jesús; Miledi, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Strychnine, a potent and selective antagonist at glycine receptors, was found to inhibit muscle (α1β1γδ, α1β1γ, and α1β1δ) and neuronal (α2β2 and α2β4) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AcChoRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Strychnine alone (up to 500 μM) did not elicit membrane currents in oocytes expressing AcChoRs, but, when applied before, concomitantly, or during superfusion of acetylcholine (AcCho), it rapidly and reversibly inhibited the current elicited by AcCho (AcCho-current). Although in the three cases the AcCho-current was reduced to the same level, its recovery was slower when the oocytes were preincubated with strychnine. The amount of AcCho-current inhibition depended on the receptor subtype, and the order of blocking potency by strychnine was α1β1γδ > α2β4 > α2β2. With the three forms of drug application, the Hill coefficient was close to one, suggesting a single site for the receptor interaction with strychnine, and this interaction appears to be noncompetitive. The inhibitory effects on muscle AcChoRs were voltage-independent, and the apparent dissociation constant for AcCho was not appreciably changed by strychnine. In contrast, the inhibitory effects on neuronal AcChoRs were voltage-dependent, with an electrical distance of ≈0.35. We conclude that strychnine regulates reversibly and noncompetitively the embryonic type of muscle AcChoR and some forms of neuronal AcChoRs. In the former case, strychnine presumably inhibits allosterically the receptor by binding at an external domain whereas, in the latter case, it blocks the open receptor-channel complex. PMID:10097172

  11. Structural Studies of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahsavar, Azadeh; Gajhede, Michael; Kastrup, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are members of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel superfamily that play important roles in control of neurotransmitter release in the central and peripheral nervous system. These receptors are important therapeutic targets for development of drugs...

  12. Alcohol's actions on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

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    Davis, Tiffany J; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2006-01-01

    Although it has been known for many years that alcoholism and tobacco addiction often co-occur, relatively little information is available on the biological factors that regulate the co-use and abuse of nicotine and alcohol. In the brain, nicotine acts at several different types of receptors collectively known as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Alcohol also acts on at least some of these receptors, enhancing the function of some nAChR subtypes and inhibiting the activity of others. Chronic alcohol and nicotine administration also lead to changes in the numbers of nAChRs. Natural variations (i.e., polymorphisms) in the genes encoding different nAChR subunits may be associated with individual differences in the sensitivity to some of alcohol's and nicotine's effects. Finally, at least one subtype of nAChR may help protect cells against alcohol-induced neurotoxicity.

  13. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2012-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a promising drug target for a number of diseases ranging from schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease to chronic pain and inflammatory diseases. Focusing on the central nervous system, we describe how endogenous and experimental compounds and prote...... as an increasing pipeline of specific drug candidates, enabling a more subtle manipulation of α7 nAChR function, may facilitate α7 nAChR drug development efforts....

  14. Cholinergic modulation of dopamine pathways through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kloet, S.F.; Mansvelder, H.D.; de Vries, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine addiction is highly prevalent in current society and is often comorbid with other diseases. In the central nervous system, nicotine acts as an agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and its effects depend on location and receptor composition. Although nicotinic receptors are

  15. Acetylcholine excites neocortical pyramidal neurons via nicotinic receptors.

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    Hedrick, Tristan; Waters, Jack

    2015-04-01

    The neuromodulator acetylcholine (ACh) shapes neocortical function during sensory perception, motor control, arousal, attention, learning, and memory. Here we investigate the mechanisms by which ACh affects neocortical pyramidal neurons in adult mice. Stimulation of cholinergic axons activated muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors on pyramidal neurons in all cortical layers and in multiple cortical areas. Nicotinic receptor activation evoked short-latency, depolarizing postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in many pyramidal neurons. Nicotinic receptor-mediated PSPs promoted spiking of pyramidal neurons. The duration of the increase in spiking was membrane potential dependent, with nicotinic receptor activation triggering persistent spiking lasting many seconds in neurons close to threshold. Persistent spiking was blocked by intracellular BAPTA, indicating that nicotinic ACh receptor activation evoked persistent spiking via a long-lasting calcium-activated depolarizing current. We compared nicotinic PSPs in primary motor cortex (M1), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and visual cortex. The laminar pattern of nicotinic excitation was not uniform but was broadly similar across areas, with stronger modulation in deep than superficial layers. Superimposed on this broad pattern were local differences, with nicotinic PSPs being particularly large and common in layer 5 of M1 but not layer 5 of PFC or primary visual cortex (V1). Hence, in addition to modulating the excitability of pyramidal neurons in all layers via muscarinic receptors, synaptically released ACh preferentially increases the activity of deep-layer neocortical pyramidal neurons via nicotinic receptors, thereby adding laminar selectivity to the widespread enhancement of excitability mediated by muscarinic ACh receptors. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Expression and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in stem cells

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    Herman S. Cheung

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are prototypical ligand gated ion channels typically found in muscular and neuronal tissues. Functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, however, have also recently been identified on other cell types, including stem cells. Activation of these receptors by the binding of agonists like choline, acetylcholine, or nicotine has been implicated in many cellular changes. In regards to stem cell function, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation leads to changes in stem cell proliferation, migration and differentiation potential. In this review we summarize the expression and function of known nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different classes of stem cells including: pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, periodontal ligament derived stem cells, and neural progenitor cells and discuss the potential downstream effects of receptor activation on stem cell function.

  17. The Oncogenic Functions of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

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    Yue Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs are ion channels that are expressed in the cell membrane of all mammalian cells, including cancer cells. Recent findings suggest that nAChRs not only mediate nicotine addiction in the brain but also contribute to the development and progression of cancers directly induced by nicotine and its derived carcinogenic nitrosamines whereas deregulation of the nAChRs is observed in many cancers, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS indicate that SNPs nAChRs associate with risks of lung cancers and nicotine addiction. Emerging evidences suggest nAChRs are posited at the central regulatory loops of numerous cell growth and prosurvival signal pathways and also mediate the synthesis and release of stimulatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters induced by their agonists. Thus nAChRs mediated cell signaling plays an important role in stimulating the growth and angiogenic and neurogenic factors and mediating oncogenic signal transduction during cancer development in a cell type specific manner. In this review, we provide an integrated view of nAChRs signaling in cancer, heightening on the oncogenic properties of nAChRs that may be targeted for cancer treatment.

  18. Multiple inhibitory actions of lidocaine on Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptors transplanted to Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberola-Die, Armando; Martinez-Pinna, Juan; González-Ros, José Manuel; Ivorra, Isabel; Morales, Andrés

    2011-06-01

    Lidocaine is a local anaesthetic that blocks sodium channels, but also inhibits several ligand-gated ion-channels. The aim of this work was to unravel the mechanisms by which lidocaine blocks Torpedo nicotinic receptors transplanted to Xenopus oocytes. Acetylcholine-elicited currents were reversibly blocked by lidocaine, in a concentration dependent manner. At doses lower than the IC(50) , lidocaine blocked nicotinic receptors only at negative potentials, indicating an open-channel blockade; the binding site within the channel was at about 30% of the way through the electrical field across the membrane. In the presence of higher lidocaine doses, nicotinic receptors were blocked both at positive and negative potentials, acetylcholine dose-response curve shifted to the right and lidocaine pre-application, before its co-application with acetylcholine, enhanced the current inhibition, indicating all together that lidocaine also blocked resting receptors; besides, it increased the current decay rate. When lidocaine, at low doses, was co-applied with 2-(triethylammonio)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl) acetamide bromide, edrophonium or 1,5-bis(4-allyldimethylammoniumphenyl)pentan-3-one dibromide, which are quaternary-ammonium molecules that also blocked nicotinic receptors, there was an additive inhibitory effect, indicating that these molecules bound to different sites within the channel pore. These results prove that lidocaine blocks nicotinic receptors by several independent mechanisms and evidence the diverse and complex modulation of this receptor by structurally related molecules. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  19. Conotoxins Targeting Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: An Overview

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    Eline K. M. Lebbe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine snails of the genus Conus are a large family of predatory gastropods with an unparalleled molecular diversity of pharmacologically active compounds in their venom. Cone snail venom comprises of a rich and diverse cocktail of peptide toxins which act on a wide variety of ion channels such as voltage-gated sodium- (NaV, potassium- (KV, and calcium- (CaV channels as well as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs which are classified as ligand-gated ion channels. The mode of action of several conotoxins has been the subject of investigation, while for many others this remains unknown. This review aims to give an overview of the knowledge we have today on the molecular pharmacology of conotoxins specifically interacting with nAChRs along with the structure–function relationship data.

  20. TC299423, a Novel Agonist for Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

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    Teagan R. Wall

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available (E-5-(Pyrimidin-5-yl-1,2,3,4,7,8-hexahydroazocine (TC299423 is a novel agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs. We examined its efficacy, affinity, and potency for α6β2∗ (α6β2-containing, α4β2∗, and α3β4∗ nAChRs, using [125I]-epibatidine binding, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, synaptosomal 86Rb+ efflux, [3H]-dopamine release, and [3H]-acetylcholine release. TC299423 displayed an EC50 of 30–60 nM for α6β2∗ nAChRs in patch-clamp recordings and [3H]-dopamine release assays. Its potency for α6β2∗ in these assays was 2.5-fold greater than that for α4β2∗, and much greater than that for α3β4∗-mediated [3H]-acetylcholine release. We observed no major off-target binding on 70 diverse molecular targets. TC299423 was bioavailable after intraperitoneal or oral administration. Locomotor assays, measured with gain-of-function, mutant α6 (α6L9′S nAChR mice, show that TC299423 elicits α6β2∗ nAChR-mediated responses at low doses. Conditioned place preference assays show that low-dose TC299423 also produces significant reward in α6L9′S mice, and modest reward in WT mice, through a mechanism that probably involves α6(non-α4β2∗ nAChRs. However, TC299423 did not suppress nicotine self-administration in rats, indicating that it did not block nicotine reinforcement in the dosage range that was tested. In a hot-plate test, TC299423 evoked antinociceptive responses in mice similar to those of nicotine. TC299423 and nicotine similarly inhibited mouse marble burying as a measure of anxiolytic effects. Taken together, our data suggest that TC299423 will be a useful small-molecule agonist for future in vitro and in vivo studies of nAChR function and physiology.

  1. Endogenous acetylcholine modulates impulsive action via alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rats.

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    Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; Ohmura, Yu; Izumi, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Taku; Yoshida, Takayuki; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2010-09-01

    Nicotine has been well established as an impulsive action-inducing agent, but it remains unknown whether endogenous acetylcholine affects impulsive action via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In the present study, the 3-choice serial reaction time task (3-CSRTT), a simple and valid assessment of impulsive action, was employed. Male Wistar/ST rats were trained to detect and respond to 1-s flashes of light presented in one of three holes until stable performance was achieved. Following training on the 3-CSRTT, rats received intracerebroventricular injections of the preferential alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DHbetaE; 0, 3, 10, and 30 microg) or the selective alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA; 0, 3, 10, and 30 microg) 5 min before test sessions. Injection of 10 microg of DHbetaE significantly suppressed premature responses, an index of impulsive-like action, without changing other behavioral parameters. On the other hand, MLA infusions failed to affect impulsive-like action at any dose. These results suggest that the central alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that enable a provoking effect of endogenous acetylcholine play a critical role in impulsive action. Substances that modulate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, especially the alpha4beta2 subtype, may be beneficial for the treatment of psychiatric disorders characterized by lack of inhibitory control. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2012-01-01

    of such compounds in vivo is highly dependent on α7 nAChR-interacting proteins, such as RIC-3 and lynx1, which modulate expression and function of the receptor. These regulatory proteins are often not expressed in in vitro models used to study α7 nAChR function, and it is not known to what extent they are involved......The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a promising drug target for a number of diseases ranging from schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease to chronic pain and inflammatory diseases. Focusing on the central nervous system, we describe how endogenous and experimental compounds...... and proteins regulate expression and function of the α7 nAChR. Drug development efforts have hitherto focused on direct manipulation of the α7 nAChR, but it is still not clear, whether agonism/antagonism or allosteric modulation is preferable as a potential drug therapy. In addition, the action...

  3. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2012-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a promising drug target for a number of diseases ranging from schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease to chronic pain and inflammatory diseases. Focusing on the central nervous system, we describe how endogenous and experimental compounds...... and proteins regulate expression and function of the α7 nAChR. Drug development efforts have hitherto focused on direct manipulation of the α7 nAChR, but it is still not clear, whether agonism/antagonism or allosteric modulation is preferable as a potential drug therapy. In addition, the action...... with these different types of compounds. Finally, we describe the special case of Aβ1-42 binding to the α7 nAChR, which may pose a unique challenge to drug development of α7 nAChR-specific ligands for Alzheimer's disease. Hopefully, a greater knowledge of the many factors influencing α7 nAChR function as well...

  4. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors control acetylcholine and noradrenaline release in the rodent habenulo-interpeduncular complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, F; Zlabinger, C; Orr-Urtreger, A; Ristl, R; Huck, S; Scholze, P

    2014-12-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nACh receptors) play a central role in the habenulo-interpeduncular system. We studied nicotine-induced release of NA and ACh in the habenula and interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). The habenula and IPN were loaded with [(3) H]-choline or [(3) H]-NA and placed in superfusion chambers. [(3) H]-ACh release was also stimulated using nicotinic agonists, electrical pulses and elevated [KCl]o in hippocampal and cortical slices from rats, wild-type mice and mice lacking α5, α7, β2, or β4 nACh receptor subunits. Finally, we analysed nACh receptor subtypes in the IPN using immunoprecipitation. Nicotine induced release of [(3) H]-ACh in the IPN of rats and mice. This release was calcium-dependent but not blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX); moreover, [(3) H]-ACh release was abolished in β4-knockout mice but was unaffected in β2- and α5-knockout mice. In contrast, nicotine-induced release of [(3) H]-NA in the IPN and habenula was blocked by TTX and reduced in both β2-knockout and β4-knockout mice, and dose-response curves were right-shifted in α5-knockout mice. Although electrical stimuli triggered the release of both transmitters, [(3) H]-ACh release required more pulses delivered at a higher frequency. Our results confirm previous findings that β4-containing nACh receptors are critical for [(3) H]-ACh release in the mouse IPN. Experiments using α5-knockout mice also revealed that unlike in the hippocampus, nicotine-induced [(3) H]-NA release in the habenulo-interpeduncular system is altered in this knockout model. As α5-containing nACh receptors play a key role in nicotine intake, our results add NA to the list of transmitters involved in this mechanism. © 2014 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Modal gating of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, Ridhima

    Many ion channels exhibit multiple patterns of kinetic activity in single-channel currents. This behavior is rare in WT mouse muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), where A2C↔A2O gating events are well-described by single exponentials. Also, single-channel open probability (PO) is essentially homogeneous at a given agonist concentration in the WT receptors. Here I report that perturbations of almost all the residues in loop C (alpha188-alpha199, at the agonist binding site) generate heterogeneity in PO ('modes'). Such unsettled activity was apparent with an alanine substitution at all positions in loop C (except alphaY190 and alphaY198) and with different side chain substitutions at alphaP197 for both adult- and fetal-type AChRs. I used single channel electrophysiology along with site-directed mutagenesis to study modal gating in AChRs consequent to mutations/deletions in loop C. The multiple patterns of kinetic activity arose from the difference in agonist affinity rather than in intrinsic AChR gating. Out of the four different agonists used to study the modal behavior, acetylcholine (ACh) showed a higher degree of kinetic heterogeneity compared to others. The time constant for switching between modes was long (~mins), suggesting that they arise from alternative, stable protein conformations. By studying AChRs having only 1 functional binding site, I attempted to find the source of the affinity difference, which was traced mainly to the alphadelta agonist site. Affinity at the neurotransmitter binding site is mainly determined by a core of five aromatic residues (alphaY93, alphaW149, alphaY190, alphaY198 and deltaW57). Phenylalanine substitutions at all aromatic residues except alphaY93 resulted in elimination of modes. Modes were also eliminated by alanine mutation at deltaW57 on the complementary side but not at other aromatics. Also, by substituting four gamma subunit residues into the delta subunit on the complementary beta sheet, I found that

  6. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Dependent Chorda Tympani Taste Nerve Responses to Nicotine, Ethanol and Acetylcholine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zuo Jun; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Qian, Jie; Baumgarten, Clive M.; DeSimone, John A.; Lyall, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine elicits bitter taste by activating TRPM5-dependent and TRPM5-independent but neuronal nAChR-dependent pathways. The nAChRs represent common targets at which acetylcholine, nicotine and ethanol functionally interact in the central nervous system. Here, we investigated if the nAChRs also represent a common pathway through which the bitter taste of nicotine, ethanol and acetylcholine is transduced. To this end, chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve responses were monitored in rats, wild-type mice and TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice following lingual stimulation with nicotine free base, ethanol, and acetylcholine, in the absence and presence of nAChR agonists and antagonists. The nAChR modulators: mecamylamine, dihydro-β-erythroidine, and CP-601932 (a partial agonist of the α3β4* nAChR), inhibited CT responses to nicotine, ethanol, and acetylcholine. CT responses to nicotine and ethanol were also inhibited by topical lingual application of 8-chlorophenylthio (CPT)-cAMP and loading taste cells with [Ca2+]i by topical lingual application of ionomycin + CaCl2. In contrast, CT responses to nicotine were enhanced when TRC [Ca2+]i was reduced by topical lingual application of BAPTA-AM. In patch-clamp experiments, only a subset of isolated rat fungiform taste cells exposed to nicotine responded with an increase in mecamylamine-sensitive inward currents. We conclude that nAChRs expressed in a subset of taste cells serve as common receptors for the detection of the TRPM5-independent bitter taste of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol. PMID:26039516

  7. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR Dependent Chorda Tympani Taste Nerve Responses to Nicotine, Ethanol and Acetylcholine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo Jun Ren

    Full Text Available Nicotine elicits bitter taste by activating TRPM5-dependent and TRPM5-independent but neuronal nAChR-dependent pathways. The nAChRs represent common targets at which acetylcholine, nicotine and ethanol functionally interact in the central nervous system. Here, we investigated if the nAChRs also represent a common pathway through which the bitter taste of nicotine, ethanol and acetylcholine is transduced. To this end, chorda tympani (CT taste nerve responses were monitored in rats, wild-type mice and TRPM5 knockout (KO mice following lingual stimulation with nicotine free base, ethanol, and acetylcholine, in the absence and presence of nAChR agonists and antagonists. The nAChR modulators: mecamylamine, dihydro-β-erythroidine, and CP-601932 (a partial agonist of the α3β4* nAChR, inhibited CT responses to nicotine, ethanol, and acetylcholine. CT responses to nicotine and ethanol were also inhibited by topical lingual application of 8-chlorophenylthio (CPT-cAMP and loading taste cells with [Ca2+]i by topical lingual application of ionomycin + CaCl2. In contrast, CT responses to nicotine were enhanced when TRC [Ca2+]i was reduced by topical lingual application of BAPTA-AM. In patch-clamp experiments, only a subset of isolated rat fungiform taste cells exposed to nicotine responded with an increase in mecamylamine-sensitive inward currents. We conclude that nAChRs expressed in a subset of taste cells serve as common receptors for the detection of the TRPM5-independent bitter taste of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol.

  8. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Dependent Chorda Tympani Taste Nerve Responses to Nicotine, Ethanol and Acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zuo Jun; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Qian, Jie; Baumgarten, Clive M; DeSimone, John A; Lyall, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine elicits bitter taste by activating TRPM5-dependent and TRPM5-independent but neuronal nAChR-dependent pathways. The nAChRs represent common targets at which acetylcholine, nicotine and ethanol functionally interact in the central nervous system. Here, we investigated if the nAChRs also represent a common pathway through which the bitter taste of nicotine, ethanol and acetylcholine is transduced. To this end, chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve responses were monitored in rats, wild-type mice and TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice following lingual stimulation with nicotine free base, ethanol, and acetylcholine, in the absence and presence of nAChR agonists and antagonists. The nAChR modulators: mecamylamine, dihydro-β-erythroidine, and CP-601932 (a partial agonist of the α3β4* nAChR), inhibited CT responses to nicotine, ethanol, and acetylcholine. CT responses to nicotine and ethanol were also inhibited by topical lingual application of 8-chlorophenylthio (CPT)-cAMP and loading taste cells with [Ca2+]i by topical lingual application of ionomycin + CaCl2. In contrast, CT responses to nicotine were enhanced when TRC [Ca2+]i was reduced by topical lingual application of BAPTA-AM. In patch-clamp experiments, only a subset of isolated rat fungiform taste cells exposed to nicotine responded with an increase in mecamylamine-sensitive inward currents. We conclude that nAChRs expressed in a subset of taste cells serve as common receptors for the detection of the TRPM5-independent bitter taste of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol.

  9. Tying up Nicotine: New Selective Competitive Antagonist of the Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ida Nymann; Crestey, François; Jensen, Anders A

    2015-01-01

    Conformational restriction of the pyrrolidine nitrogen in nicotine by the introduction of an ethylene bridge provided a potent and selective antagonist of the α4β2-subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Resolution by chiral SFC, pharmacological characterization of the two enantiomers...

  10. Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are involved in stress-induced potentiation of nicotine reward in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Parastoo; Rezayof, Ameneh; Sardari, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh, Zahra

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the possible role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1 regions), the medial prefrontal cortex or the basolateral amygdala in the effect of acute or sub-chronic stress on nicotine-induced conditioned place preference. Our results indicated that subcutaneous administration of nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) induced significant conditioned place preference. Exposure to acute or sub-chronic elevated platform stress potentiated the response of an ineffective dose of nicotine. Pre-conditioning intra-CA1 (0.5-4 µg/rat) or intra-medial prefrontal cortex (0.2-0.3 µg/rat) microinjection of mecamylamine (a non-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) reversed acute stress-induced potentiation of nicotine reward as measured in the conditioned place preference paradigm. By contrast, pre-conditioning intra-basolateral amygdala microinjection of mecamylamine (4 µg/rat) potentiated the effects of acute stress on nicotine reward. Our findings also showed that intra-CA1 or intra-medial prefrontal cortex, but not intra-basolateral amygdala, microinjection of mecamylamine (4 µg/rat) prevented the effect of sub-chronic stress on nicotine reward. These findings suggest that exposure to elevated platform stress potentiates the rewarding effect of nicotine which may be associated with the involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It seems that there is a different contribution of the basolateral amygdala, the medial prefrontal cortex or the CA1 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in stress-induced potentiation of nicotine-induced conditioned place preference.

  11. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Pathophysiology of Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Andreasen T., Jesper; Arvaniti, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been pursued for decades as potential molecular targets to treat cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to their positioning within regions of the brain critical in learning and memory, such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus...

  12. Insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs): Important amino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels which mediate fast cholinergic synaptic transmission in insect and vertebrate nervous systems. The great abundance of nAChRs within the insect central nervous system has led to the development of insecticides targeting these receptors, such as ...

  13. Potentiation of the actions of acetylcholine, epibatidine, and nicotine by methyllycaconitine at fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Welch, Kevin D; Cook, Daniel; Gardner, Dale R

    2011-07-15

    Methyllycaconitine (MLA) is a norditerpenoid alkaloid found in high abundance in toxic Delphinium (larkspur) species. It is a potent and selective antagonist of α(7)-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, but has not been well investigated for activity aside from receptor antagonism. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of MLA alone and in combination with acetylcholine, epibatidine, nicotine, and neostigmine for actions other than receptor antagonism in TE-671 cells expressing (α(1))(2)β(1)γδ nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Ligand activity was assessed through measurements of membrane potential changes in TE-671 cells using a fluorescent membrane potential-sensitive dye and normalized to the maximum response to epibatidine (10μM). MLA was ineffective in changing cell membrane potential in the absence of other receptor agonists. However at nanomolar concentrations, it acted as a co-agonist to potentiate TE-671 cell responses to acetylcholine, epibatidine, nicotine, and neostigmine. These results suggest that the poisoning of cattle by norditerpenoid alkaloids found in larkspur may be more complex than previously determined. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Comparison of [3H]nicotine and [3H]acetylcholine binding in mouse brain: regional distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sershen, H.; Reith, M.E.; Hashim, A.; Lajtha, A.

    1985-01-01

    In a continuing study of nicotine binding sites, the authors determined the relative amount of nicotine binding and acetylcholine binding in various brain regions of C57/BL and of DBA mice. Although midbrain showed the highest and cerebellum the lowest binding for both [ 3 H]nicotine and [ 3 H]acetylcholine, the ratio of nicotine to acetylcholine binding showed a three-fold regional variation. Acetylcholine inhibition of [ 3 H]nicotine binding indicated that a portion of nicotine binding was not inhibited by acetylcholine. These results indicate important differences between the binding of (+/-)-[ 3 H]nicotine and that of [ 3 H]acetylcholine

  15. Acetylcholine elongates neuronal growth cone filopodia via activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lei Ray; Estes, Stephen; Artinian, Liana; Rehder, Vincent

    2013-07-01

    In addition to acting as a classical neurotransmitter in synaptic transmission, acetylcholine (ACh) has been shown to play a role in axonal growth and growth cone guidance. What is not well understood is how ACh acts on growth cones to affect growth cone filopodia, structures known to be important for neuronal pathfinding. We addressed this question using an identified neuron (B5) from the buccal ganglion of the pond snail Helisoma trivolvis in cell culture. ACh treatment caused pronounced filopodial elongation within minutes, an effect that required calcium influx and resulted in the elevation of the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca]i ). Whole-cell patch clamp recordings showed that ACh caused a reduction in input resistance, a depolarization of the membrane potential, and an increase in firing frequency in B5 neurons. These effects were mediated via the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), as the nAChR agonist dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) mimicked the effects of ACh on filopodial elongation, [Ca]i elevation, and changes in electrical activity. Moreover, the nAChR antagonist tubucurarine blocked all DMPP-induced effects. Lastly, ACh acted locally at the growth cone, because growth cones that were physically isolated from their parent neuron responded to ACh by filopodial elongation with a similar time course as growth cones that remained connected to their parent neuron. Our data revealed a critical role for ACh as a modulator of growth cone filopodial dynamics. ACh signaling was mediated via nAChRs and resulted in Ca influx, which, in turn, caused filopodial elongation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Role of nicotinic receptors and acetylcholine in mucous cell metaplasia, hyperplasia and airway mucus formation in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundavarapu, Sravanthi; Wilder, Julie A.; Mishra, Neerad C.; Rir-sima-ah, Jules; Langley, Raymond J.; Singh, Shashi P.; Saeed, Ali Imran; Jaramillo, Richard J.; Gott, Katherine M.; Peña-Philippides, Juan Carlos; Harrod, Kevin S.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Buch, Shilpa; Sopori, Mohan L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Airway mucus hypersecretion is a key pathophysiological feature in number of lung diseases. Cigarette smoke/nicotine and allergens are strong stimulators of airway mucus; however, the mechanism of mucus modulation is unclear. Objectives Characterize the pathway by which cigarette smoke/nicotine regulates airway mucus and identify agents that decrease airway mucus. Methods IL-13 and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAARs) are implicated in airway mucus. We examined the role of IL-13 and GABAARs in nicotine-induced mucus formation in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) and A549 cells, and secondhand cigarette smoke and/or ovalbumin-induced mucus formation in vivo. Results Nicotine promotes mucus formation in NHBE cells; however, the nicotine-induced mucus formation is independent of IL-13 but sensitive to the GABAAR antagonist picrotoxin (PIC). Airway epithelial cells express α7/α9/α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and specific inhibition or knockdown of α7- but not α9/α10-nAChRs abrogates mucus formation in response to nicotine and IL-13. Moreover, addition of acetylcholine or inhibition of its degradation increases mucus in NHBE cells. Nicotinic but not muscarinic receptor antagonists block allergen or nicotine/cigarette smoke-induced airway mucus formation in NHBE cells and/or in mouse airways. Conclusions Nicotine-induced airway mucus formation is independent of IL-13 and α7-nAChRs are critical in airway mucous cell metaplasia/hyperplasia and mucus production in response to various pro-mucoid agents, including IL-13. In the absence of nicotine, acetylcholine may be the biological ligand for α7-nAChRs to trigger airway mucus formation. α7-nAChRs are downstream of IL-13 but upstream of GABAARα2 in the MUC5AC pathway. Acetylcholine and α-7-nAChRs may serve as therapeutic targets to control airway mucus. PMID:22578901

  17. Molecular recognition of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine by an acetylcholine binding protein reveals determinants of binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jeppe A; Balle, Thomas; Gajhede, Michael; Ahring, Philip K; Kastrup, Jette S

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive studies on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and homologues, details of acetylcholine binding are not completely resolved. Here, we report the crystal structure of acetylcholine bound to the receptor homologue acetylcholine binding protein from Lymnaea stagnalis. This is the first structure of acetylcholine in a binding pocket containing all five aromatic residues conserved in all mammalian nAChRs. The ligand-protein interactions are characterized by contacts to the aromatic box formed primarily by residues on the principal side of the intersubunit binding interface (residues Tyr89, Trp143 and Tyr185). Besides these interactions on the principal side, we observe a cation-π interaction between acetylcholine and Trp53 on the complementary side and a water-mediated hydrogen bond from acetylcholine to backbone atoms of Leu102 and Met114, both of importance for anchoring acetylcholine to the complementary side. To further study the role of Trp53, we mutated the corresponding tryptophan in the two different acetylcholine-binding interfaces of the widespread α4β2 nAChR, i.e. the interfaces α4(+)β2(-) and α4(+)α4(-). Mutation to alanine (W82A on the β2 subunit or W88A on the α4 subunit) significantly altered the response to acetylcholine measured by oocyte voltage-clamp electrophysiology in both interfaces. This shows that the conserved tryptophan residue is important for the effects of ACh at α4β2 nAChRs, as also indicated by the crystal structure. The results add important details to the understanding of how this neurotransmitter exerts its action and improves the foundation for rational drug design targeting these receptors.

  18. Interaction of alpha-conotoxin ImII and its analogs with nicotinic receptors and acetylcholine-binding proteins: additional binding sites on Torpedo receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasheverov, I.E.; Zhmak, M.N.; Fish, A.; Rucktooa, P.; Khruschov, A.Y.; Osipov, A.V.; Ziganshin, R.H.; D'Hoedt, D.; Bertrand, D.; Sixma, T.K.; Smit, A.B.; Tsetlin, V.I.

    2009-01-01

    α-Conotoxins interact with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBPs) at the sites for agonists/competitive antagonists. α-Conotoxins blocking muscle-type or α7 nAChRs compete with α-bungarotoxin. However, α-conotoxin ImII, a close homolog of the α7

  19. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are sensors for ethanol in lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D; Roser-Page, Susanne; Guidot, David M; Roman, Jesse

    2013-06-01

    Chronic ethanol (EtOH) abuse in humans is known to independently increase the incidence of and mortality due to acute lung injury in at-risk individuals. However, the mechanisms by which EtOH affects lung cells remain incompletely elucidated. In earlier work, we reported that EtOH increased the expression in lung fibroblasts of fibronectin, a matrix glycoprotein implicated in lung injury and repair. This effect was blocked by α-bungarotoxin, a neurotoxin that binds certain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) thereby implicating nAChRs in this process. Here, we examine the identity of these receptors. Mouse lung fibroblasts were stimulated with EtOH (60 mM) or acetylcholine (100 to 500 μM) and evaluated for the expression of fibronectin and nAChRs. Inhibitors to nAChRs or the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) were used to assess changes in fibronectin expression. Animals exposed to EtOH for up to 6 weeks were used to evaluate the expression of nAChRs in vivo. First, in EtOH-treated fibroblasts, we observed increased expression of α4 and α9 nAChR subunits. Second, we found that acetylcholine, a natural ligand for nAChRs, mimicked the effects of EtOH. Dihydro-β-erythroidin hydrobromide, a competitive inhibitor of α4 nAChR, blocked the increase in fibronectin expression and cell proliferation. Furthermore, EtOH-induced fibronectin expression was inhibited in cells silenced for α4 nAChR. However, EtOH-treated cells showed increased α-bungarotoxin binding suggesting that α4 nAChR mediates the effects of EtOH via a ligand-independent pathway. Knowing there are several important cysteine residues near the ligand-binding site of α4 nAChRs, we tested the antioxidant NAC and found that it too blocked the induction of fibronectin expression by EtOH. Also, fibroblasts exposed to oxidant stress showed increased fibronectin expression that was blocked with α-bungarotoxin. Finally, we showed increased expression of α4 nAChRs in the lung tissue of mice and

  20. Influence of melatonin on the development of functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in cultured chick retinal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F.S. Sampaio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of melatonin on the developmental pattern of functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors was investigated in embryonic 8-day-old chick retinal cells in culture. The functional response to acetylcholine was measured in cultured retina cells by microphysiometry. The maximal functional response to acetylcholine increased 2.7 times between the 4th and 5th day in vitro (DIV4, DIV5, while the Bmax value for [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin was reduced. Despite the presence of alpha8-like immunoreactivity at DIV4, functional responses mediated by alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors were observed only at DIV5. Mecamylamine (100 µM was essentially without effect at DIV4 and DIV5, while dihydro-ß-erythroidine (10-100 µM blocked the response to acetylcholine (3.0 nM-2.0 µM only at DIV4, with no effect at DIV5. Inhibition of melatonin receptors with the antagonist luzindole, or melatonin synthesis by stimulation of D4 dopamine receptors blocked the appearance of the alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive response at DIV5. Therefore, alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive receptors were expressed in retinal cells as early as at DIV4, but they reacted to acetylcholine only after DIV5. The development of an alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive response is dependent on the production of melatonin by the retinal culture. Melatonin, which is produced in a tonic manner by this culture, and is a key hormone in the temporal organization of vertebrates, also potentiates responses mediated by alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive receptors in rat vas deferens and cerebellum. This common pattern of action on different cell models that express alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive receptors probably reflects a more general mechanism of regulation of these receptors.

  1. Action of nereistoxin on recombinant neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond Delpech, Valérie; Ihara, Makoto; Coddou, Claudio; Matsuda, Kazuhiko; Sattelle, David B

    2003-11-01

    Nereistoxin (NTX), a natural neurotoxin from the salivary glands of the marine annelid worm Lumbriconereis heteropoda, is highly toxic to insects. Its synthetic analogue, Cartap, was the first commercial insecticide based on a natural product. We have used voltage-clamp electrophysiology to compare the actions of NTX on recombinant nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nicotinic AChRs) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes following nuclear injection of cDNAs. The recombinant nicotinic AChRs investigated were chicken alpha7, chicken alpha4beta2 and the Drosophila melanogaster/chicken hybrid receptors SAD/beta2 and ALS/beta2. No agonist action of NTX (0.1-100 microM) was observed on chicken alpha7, chicken alpha4beta2 and the Drosophila/chicken hybrid nicotinic AChRs. Currents elicited by ACh were reduced in amplitude by NTX in a dose-dependent manner. The toxin was slightly more potent on recombinant Drosophila/vertebrate hybrid receptors than on vertebrate homomeric (alpha7) or heteromeric (alpha4beta2) nicotinic AChRs. Block by NTX of the chicken alpha7, chicken alpha4beta2 and the SAD/beta2 and ALS/beta2 Drosophila/chicken hybrid receptors is in all cases non-competitive. Thus, the site of action on nicotinic AChRs of NTX, to which the insecticide Cartap is metabolised in insects, differs from that of the major nicotinic AChR-active insecticide, imidacloprid.

  2. Functional interaction between Lypd6 and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Maria; Jensen, Majbrit M; Soni, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) affect multiple physiological functions in the brain and their functions are modulated by regulatory proteins of the Lynx family. Here, we report for the first time a direct interaction of the Lynx protein LY6/PLAUR domain-containing 6 (Lypd6) with nACh......Rs in human brain extracts, identifying Lypd6 as a novel regulator of nAChR function. Using protein cross-linking and affinity purification from human temporal cortical extracts, we demonstrate that Lypd6 is a synaptically enriched membrane-bound protein that binds to multiple nAChR subtypes in the human...... brain. Additionally, soluble recombinant Lypd6 protein attenuates nicotine-induced hippocampal inward currents in rat brain slices and decreases nicotine-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in PC12 cells, suggesting that binding of Lypd6 is sufficient to inhibit nACh...

  3. Agonist activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors via an allosteric transmembrane site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, JasKiran K.; Savolainen, Mari; Young, Gareth T.; Zwart, Ruud; Sher, Emanuele; Millar, Neil S.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, such as acetylcholine, act at an extracellular “orthosteric” binding site located at the interface between two adjacent subunits. Here, we present evidence of potent activation of α7 nAChRs via an allosteric transmembrane site. Previous studies have identified a series of nAChR-positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that lack agonist activity but are able to potentiate responses to orthosteric agonists, such as acetylcholine. It has been shown, for example, that TQS acts as a conventional α7 nAChR PAM. In contrast, we have found that a compound with close chemical similarity to TQS (4BP-TQS) is a potent allosteric agonist of α7 nAChRs. Whereas the α7 nAChR antagonist metyllycaconitine acts competitively with conventional nicotinic agonists, metyllycaconitine is a noncompetitive antagonist of 4BP-TQS. Mutation of an amino acid (M253L), located in a transmembrane cavity that has been proposed as being the binding site for PAMs, completely blocks agonist activation by 4BP-TQS. In contrast, this mutation had no significant effect on agonist activation by acetylcholine. Conversely, mutation of an amino acid located within the known orthosteric binding site (W148F) has a profound effect on agonist potency of acetylcholine (resulting in a shift of ∼200-fold in the acetylcholine dose-response curve), but had little effect on the agonist dose-response curve for 4BP-TQS. Computer docking studies with an α7 homology model provides evidence that both TQS and 4BP-TQS bind within an intrasubunit transmembrane cavity. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that agonist activation of nAChRs can occur via an allosteric transmembrane site. PMID:21436053

  4. Human and rodent bronchial epithelial cells express functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, A D; Pereira, E F; Karachunski, P I; Horton, R M; Navaneetham, D; Macklin, K; Cortes, W S; Albuquerque, E X; Conti-Fine, B M

    1998-11-01

    We demonstrated previously that human skin keratinocytes express acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) sensitive to acetylcholine and nicotine, which regulate cell adhesion and motility. We demonstrate here that human and rodent bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) express AChRs similar to those expressed by keratinocytes and by some neurons. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that the BEC AChRs are functional, and they are activated by acetylcholine and nicotine. They are blocked by kappa-bungarotoxin, a specific antagonist of the AChR isotypes expressed by neurons in ganglia. Their ion-gating properties are consistent with those of AChR isotypes expressed in ganglia, formed by alpha3, alpha5, and beta2 or beta4 subunits. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization experiments demonstrated the presence in BECs of mRNA transcripts for all those AChR subunits, both in cell cultures and in tissue sections, whereas we could not detect transcripts for the alpha2, alpha4, alpha6, and beta3 AChR subunits. The expression of alpha3 and alpha5 proteins in BEC in vivo was verified by the binding of subunit-specific antibodies to sections of trachea. Mecamylamine and kappa-bungarotoxin, which are cholinergic antagonists able to block the ganglionic alpha3 AChRs, caused a reversible change of the cell shape of cultured, confluent human BECs. This resulted in a reduction of the area covered by the cell and in cell/cell detachment. The presence of AChRs sensitive to nicotine on the lining of the airways raises the possibility that the high concentrations of nicotine resulting from tobacco smoking will cause an abnormal activation, a desensitization, or both of the bronchial AChRs. This may mediate or facilitate some of the toxic effects of cigarette smoking in the respiratory system.

  5. Optochemical control of genetically engineered neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochitsky, Ivan; Banghart, Matthew R.; Mourot, Alexandre; Yao, Jennifer Z.; Gaub, Benjamin; Kramer, Richard H.; Trauner, Dirk

    2012-02-01

    Advances in synthetic chemistry, structural biology, molecular modelling and molecular cloning have enabled the systematic functional manipulation of transmembrane proteins. By combining genetically manipulated proteins with light-sensitive ligands, innately ‘blind’ neurobiological receptors can be converted into photoreceptors, which allows them to be photoregulated with high spatiotemporal precision. Here, we present the optochemical control of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with photoswitchable tethered agonists and antagonists. Using structure-based design, we produced heteromeric α3β4 and α4β2 nAChRs that can be activated or inhibited with deep-violet light, but respond normally to acetylcholine in the dark. The generation of these engineered receptors should facilitate investigation of the physiological and pathological functions of neuronal nAChRs and open a general pathway to photosensitizing pentameric ligand-gated ion channels.

  6. Effects of antihistamines on the function of human α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Bassem; Khanian, Seyedeh Soha; Ashoor, Abrar; Prytkova, Tatiana; Ghattas, Mohammad A; Atatreh, Noor; Nurulain, Syed M; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Howarth, Frank Christopher; Oz, Murat

    2015-01-05

    Effects of the histamine H₁ receptor (H1R) antagonists (antihistamines), promethazine (PMZ), orphenadrine (ORP), chlorpheniramine (CLP), pyrilamine (PYR), diphenhydramine (DPH), citerizine (CTZ), and triprolidine (TRP) on the functional properties of the cloned α7 subunit of the human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes were investigated. Antihistamines inhibited the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the order PYR>CLP>TRP>PMZ>ORP≥DPH≥CTZ. Among the antihistamines, PYR showed the highest reversible inhibition of acetylcholine (100 µM)-induced responses with IC₅₀ of 6.2 µM. PYR-induced inhibition was independent of the membrane potential and could not be reversed by increasing the concentration of acetylcholine. Specific binding of [¹²⁵I] α-bungarotoxin, a selective antagonist for α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, was not changed in the presence of PYR suggesting a non-competitive inhibition of nicotinic receptors. In line with functional experiments, docking studies indicated that PYR can potentially bind allosterically with the α7 transmembrane domain. Our results indicate that the H₂-H₄ receptor antagonists tested in this study (10 µM) showed negligible inhibition of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. On the other hand, H₁ receptor antagonists inhibited the function of human α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, with varying potencies. These results emphasize the importance of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor for future pharmacological/toxicological profiling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholinesterase, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of human gingival and esophageal epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, V T; Hall, L L; Gallacher, G; Ndoye, A; Jolkovsky, D L; Webber, R J; Buchli, R; Grando, S A

    2000-04-01

    A non-neuronal cholinergic system that includes neuronal-like nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) has recently been described in epithelial cells that line the skin and the upper respiratory tract. Since the use of nicotine-containing products is associated with morbidity in the upper digestive tract, and since nicotine may alter cellular functions directly via nAChRs, we sought to identify and characterize a non-neuronal cholinergic system in the gingival and esophageal epithelia. mRNA transcripts for alpha3, alpha5, alpha7, and beta2 nAChR subunits, choline acetyltransferase, and the asymmetric and globular forms of acetylcholinesterase were amplified from gingival keratinocytes (KC) by means of polymerase chain-reactions. These proteins were visualized in the gingival and esophageal epithelia by means of specific antibodies. Variations in distribution and intensity of immunostaining were found, indicating that the repertoire of cholinergic enzymes and receptors expressed by the cells changes during epithelial maturation, and that an upward concentration gradient of free acetylcholine exists. Blocking of the nAChRs with mecamylamine resulted in reversible loss of cell-to-cell adhesion, and shrinking and rounding of cultured gingival KC. Activation of the receptors with acetylcholine or carbachol caused stretching and peripheral ruffling of the cytoplasmic aprons, and formation of new intercellular contacts. These results demonstrate that both the keratinizing epithelium of attached gingiva and the non-keratinizing epithelium lining the upper two-thirds of the esophageal mucosa possess a non-neuronal cholinergic system. The nAChRs expressed by these epithelia are coupled to regulation of cell adhesion and motility, and may provide a target for the deleterious effects of nicotine.

  8. The anthelmintic levamisole is an allosteric modulator of human neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levandoski, Mark M; Piket, Barbara; Chang, Jane

    2003-06-13

    L-[-]-2,3,5,6-Tetrahydro-6-phenylimidazo[2,1b]-thiazole hydrochloride (levamisole) is an anthelmintic that targets the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of parasitic nematodes. We report here the effects of levamisole on human neuronal alpha 3 beta 2 and alpha 3 beta 4 nicotinic receptors, heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes and studied with the voltage clamp method. Applied alone, levamisole was a very weak partial agonist for the two subunit combinations. When co-applied with acetylcholine, micromolar concentrations of levamisole potentiated responses, while millimolar concentrations inhibited them; these effects were complex functions of both acetylcholine and levamisole concentrations. The differences in the levamisole effects on the two receptor combinations suggest that the effects are mediated by the beta subunit. Several combinations of agonist and anthelmintic gave the dual potentiation/inhibition behavior, suggesting that the modulatory effects are general. Levamisole inhibition showed macroscopic characteristics of open channel block. Several results led us to conclude that levamisole potentiation occurs through noncompetitive binding to the receptor. We propose pseudo-site binding for noncompetitive potentiation by levamisole.

  9. In vivo interactions between α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α: Implication for nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Asti; Bagdas, Deniz; Muldoon, Pretal P; Lichtman, Aron H; Carroll, F Ivy; Greenwald, Mark; Miles, Michael F; Damaj, M Imad

    2017-05-15

    Chronic tobacco use dramatically increases health burdens and financial costs. Limitations of current smoking cessation therapies indicate the need for improved molecular targets. The main addictive component of tobacco, nicotine, exerts its dependency effects via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Activation of the homomeric α7 nAChR reduces nicotine's rewarding properties in conditioned place preference (CPP) test and i.v. self-administration models, but the mechanism underlying these effects is unknown. Recently, the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type-α (PPARα) has been implicated as a downstream signaling target of the α7 nAChR in ventral tegmental area dopamine cells. The present study investigated PPARα as a possible mediator of the effect of α7 nAChR activation in nicotine dependence. Our results demonstrate the PPARα antagonist GW6471 blocks actions of the α7 nAChR agonist PNU282987 on nicotine reward in an unbiased CPP test in male ICR adult mice. These findings suggests that α7 nAChR activation attenuates nicotine CPP in a PPARα-dependent manner. To evaluate PPARα activation in nicotine dependence we used the selective and potent PPARα agonist, WY-14643 and the clinically used PPARα activator, fenofibrate, in nicotine CPP and we observed attenuation of nicotine preference, but fenofibrate was less potent. We also studied PPARα in nicotine dependence by evaluating its activation in nicotine withdrawal. WY-14643 reversed nicotine withdrawal signs whereas fenofibrate had modest efficacy. This suggests that PPARα plays a role in nicotine reward and withdrawal and that further studies are warranted to elucidate its function in mediating the effects of α7 nAChRs in nicotine dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors mediate donepezil-induced oligodendrocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Osamu; Arai, Masaaki; Dateki, Minori; Ogata, Toru; Uchida, Ryuji; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Takishima, Kunio

    2015-12-01

    Oligodendrocytes are the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Failure of myelin development and oligodendrocyte loss results in serious human disorders, including multiple sclerosis. Here, we show that donepezil, an acetlycholinesterase inhibitor developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, can stimulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation of neural stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells without affecting proliferation or cell viability. Transcripts for essential myelin-associated genes, such as PLP, MAG, MBP, CNPase, and MOG, in addition to transcription factors that regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination, were rapidly increased after treatment with donepezil. Furthermore, luciferase assays confirmed that both MAG and MBP promoters display increased activity upon donepezil-induced oligodendrocytes differentiation, suggesting that donepezil increases myelin gene expression mainly through enhanced transcription. We also found that the increase in the number of oligodendrocytes observed following donepezil treatment was significantly inhibited by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist mecamylamine, but not by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist scopolamine. Moreover, donepezil-induced myelin-related gene expression was suppressed by mecamylamine at both the mRNA and protein level. These results suggest that donepezil stimulates oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin-related gene expression via nAChRs in neural stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. We show that donepezil, a drug for the treatment of Alzheimer disease, can stimulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Transcripts for essential myelin-associated genes, such as PLP, MAG, MBP, CNPase and MOG in addition to transcripton factors that regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination were rapidly increased after treatment with donepezil

  11. Melatonin modulation of presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors located on short noradrenergic neurons of the rat vas deferens: a pharmacological characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zago W.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin, the pineal hormone produced during the dark phase of the light-dark cycle, modulates neuronal acetylcholine receptors located presynaptically on nerve terminals of the rat vas deferens. Recently we showed the presence of high affinity nicotine-binding sites during the light phase, and low and high affinity binding sites during the dark phase. The appearance of the low affinity binding sites was due to the nocturnal melatonin surge and could be mimicked by exposure to melatonin in vitro. The aim of the present research was to identify the receptor subtypes responsible for the functional response during the light and the dark phase. The rank order of potency of agonists was dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP = cytisine > nicotine > carbachol and DMPP = nicotine = cytisine > carbachol, during the light and dark phase, respectively, due to an increase in apparent affinity for nicotine. Mecamylamine similarly blocked the DMPP response during the light and the dark phase, while the response to nicotine was more efficiently blocked during the light phase. In contrast, methyllycaconitine inhibited the nicotine-induced response only at 21:00 h. Since a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs have low affinity for nicotine in binding assays, we suggest that a mixed population composed of a3ß4 - plus a7-bearing nAChR subtypes is present at night. This plasticity in receptor subtypes is probably driven by melatonin since nicotine-induced contraction in organs from animals sacrificed at 15:00 h and incubated with melatonin (100 pg/ml, 4 h is not totally blocked by mecamylamine. Thus melatonin, by acting directly on the short adrenergic neurons that innervate the rat vas deferens, induces the appearance of the low affinity binding site, probably an a7 nAChR subtype.

  12. Nicotine induces fibrogenic changes in human liver via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on hepatic stellate cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Junpei; Morgan, Maelle; McKee, Chad; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Lin, ChingI [University College London, Centre for Hepatology, Royal Free Hospital, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Roskams, Tania [Department of Morphology and Molecular Pathology, University of Leuven (Belgium); Oben, Jude A., E-mail: j.oben@ucl.ac.uk [University College London, Centre for Hepatology, Royal Free Hospital, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cigarette smoke may induce liver fibrosis via nicotine receptors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine induces proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine activates hepatic fibrogenic pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine receptor antagonists attenuate HSC proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotinic receptor antagonists may have utility as novel anti-fibrotic agents. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Cigarette smoke (CS) may cause liver fibrosis but possible involved mechanisms are unclear. Among the many chemicals in CS is nicotine - which affects cells through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We studied the effects of nicotine, and involved pathways, on human primary hepatic stellate cells (hHSCs), the principal fibrogenic cells in the liver. We then determined possible disease relevance by assaying nAChR in liver samples from human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods: hHSC were isolated from healthy human livers and nAChR expression analyzed - RT-PCR and Western blotting. Nicotine induction of hHSC proliferation, upregulation of collagen1-{alpha}2 and the pro-fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) was determined along with involved intracellular signaling pathways. nAChR mRNA expression was finally analyzed in whole liver biopsies obtained from patients diagnosed with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Results: hHSCs express muscle type ({alpha}1, {beta}1, delta and epsilon) and neuronal type ({alpha}3, {alpha}6, {alpha}7, {beta}2 and {beta}4) nAChR subunits at the mRNA level. Among these subunits, {alpha}3, {alpha}7, {beta}1 and {epsilon} were predominantly expressed as confirmed by Western blotting. Nicotine induced hHSC proliferation was attenuated by mecamylamine (p < 0.05). Additionally, collagen1-{alpha}2 and TGF-{beta}1 mRNA expression were significantly upregulated by nicotine and inhibited by

  13. Nicotine induces fibrogenic changes in human liver via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on hepatic stellate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeda, Junpei; Morgan, Maelle; McKee, Chad; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Lin, ChingI; Roskams, Tania; Oben, Jude A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cigarette smoke may induce liver fibrosis via nicotine receptors. ► Nicotine induces proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). ► Nicotine activates hepatic fibrogenic pathways. ► Nicotine receptor antagonists attenuate HSC proliferation. ► Nicotinic receptor antagonists may have utility as novel anti-fibrotic agents. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Cigarette smoke (CS) may cause liver fibrosis but possible involved mechanisms are unclear. Among the many chemicals in CS is nicotine – which affects cells through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We studied the effects of nicotine, and involved pathways, on human primary hepatic stellate cells (hHSCs), the principal fibrogenic cells in the liver. We then determined possible disease relevance by assaying nAChR in liver samples from human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods: hHSC were isolated from healthy human livers and nAChR expression analyzed – RT-PCR and Western blotting. Nicotine induction of hHSC proliferation, upregulation of collagen1-α2 and the pro-fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) was determined along with involved intracellular signaling pathways. nAChR mRNA expression was finally analyzed in whole liver biopsies obtained from patients diagnosed with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Results: hHSCs express muscle type (α1, β1, delta and epsilon) and neuronal type (α3, α6, α7, β2 and β4) nAChR subunits at the mRNA level. Among these subunits, α3, α7, β1 and ε were predominantly expressed as confirmed by Western blotting. Nicotine induced hHSC proliferation was attenuated by mecamylamine (p < 0.05). Additionally, collagen1-α2 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression were significantly upregulated by nicotine and inhibited by mecamylamine. α1 and α3-nAChR mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in NASH fibrosis compared to normal livers. Conclusion: Nicotine at levels in smokers’ blood is pro-fibrogenic, through

  14. Phospholipase C activity affinity purifies with the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labriola, Jonathan M; daCosta, Corrie J B; Wang, Shuzhi; Figeys, Daniel; Smith, Jeffrey C; Sturgeon, R Michel; Baenziger, John E

    2010-04-02

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors mediate fast synaptic transmission by fluxing ions across the membrane in response to neurotransmitter binding. We show here that during affinity purification of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo, phosphatidic acid, but not other anionic or zwitterionic phospholipids, is hydrolyzed to diacylglycerol. The phospholipase C activity elutes with the acetylcholine receptor and is inhibited by a lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase inhibitor, sodium vanadate, but not a phosphatidate phosphohydrolase inhibitor, N-ethylmaleimide. Further, the hydrolysis product of phosphatidic acid, diacylglycerol, enhances the functional capabilities of the acetylcholine receptor in the presence of anionic lipids. We conclude that a phospholipase C activity, which appears to be specific for phosphatidic acid, is associated with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. The acetylcholine receptor may directly or indirectly influence lipid metabolism in a manner that enhances its own function.

  15. Nicotine signals through muscle-type and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in both human bronchial epithelial cells and airway fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luketich James D

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-neuronal cells, including those derived from lung, are reported to express nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR. We examined nAChR subunit expression in short-term cultures of human airway cells derived from a series of never smokers, ex-smokers, and active smokers. Methods and Results At the mRNA level, human bronchial epithelial (HBE cells and airway fibroblasts expressed a range of nAChR subunits. In multiple cultures of both cell types, mRNA was detected for subunits that constitute functional muscle-type and neuronal-type pentomeric receptors. Two immortalized cell lines derived from HBE cells also expressed muscle-type and neuronal-type nAChR subunits. Airway fibroblasts expressed mRNA for three muscle-type subunits (α1, δ, and ε significantly more often than HBE cells. Immunoblotting of HBE cell and airway fibroblast extracts confirmed that mRNA for many nAChR subunits is translated into detectable levels of protein, and evidence of glycosylation of nAChRs was observed. Some minor differences in nAChR expression were found based on smoking status in fibroblasts or HBE cells. Nicotine triggered calcium influx in the immortalized HBE cell line BEAS2B, which was blocked by α-bungarotoxin and to a lesser extent by hexamethonium. Activation of PKC and MAPK p38, but not MAPK p42/44, was observed in BEAS2B cells exposed to nicotine. In contrast, nicotine could activate p42/44 in airway fibroblasts within five minutes of exposure. Conclusions These results suggest that muscle-type and neuronal-type nAChRs are functional in airway fibroblasts and HBE cells, that prior tobacco exposure does not appear to be an important variable in nAChR expression, and that distinct signaling pathways are observed in response to nicotine.

  16. Pathogenesis of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Role of Nicotine and Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-Zhuang Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation, proteolysis, smooth muscle cell apoptosis, and angiogenesis have been implicated in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs, although the well-defined initiating mechanism is not fully understood. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs such as MMP-2 and -9 and other proteinases degrading elastin and extracellular matrix are the critical pathogenesis of AAAs. Among the risk factors of AAAs, cigarette smoking is an irrefutable one. Cigarette smoke is practically involved in various aspects of the AAA pathogenesis. Nicotine, a major alkaloid in tobacco leaves and a primary component in cigarette smoke, can stimulate the MMPs expression by vascular SMCs, endothelial cells, and inflammatory cells in vascular wall and induce angiogenesis in the aneurysmal tissues. However, for the inflammatory and apoptotic processes in the pathogenesis of AAAs, nicotine seems to be moving in just the opposite direction. Additionally, the effects of nicotine are probably dose dependent or associated with the exposure duration and may be partly exerted by its receptors—nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs. In this paper, we will mainly discuss the pathogenesis of AAAs involving inflammation, proteolysis, smooth muscle cell apoptosis and angiogenesis, and the roles of nicotine and nAChRs.

  17. Fluorescent agonists for the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Florian; Mourot, Alexandre; Araoz, Romulo; Kotzyba-Hibert, Florence; Molgó, Jordi; Bamberg, Ernst; Goeldner, Maurice

    2008-05-05

    We have synthesized a series of fluorescent acylcholine derivatives carrying different linkers that vary in length and structure and connect the acylcholine unit to the environment-sensitive fluorophores 7-(diethylamino)coumarin-3-carbonyl (DEAC) or N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-yl) (NBD). The pharmacological properties of the fluorescent analogues were investigated on heterologously expressed nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo californica and on oocytes transplanted with nAChR-rich Torpedo marmorata membranes. Agonist action strongly depends on the length and the structure of the linker. One particular analogue, DEAC-Gly-C6-choline, showed partial agonist behavior with about half of the maximum response of acetylcholine, which is at least 20 times higher than those observed with previously described fluorescent dansyl- and NBD-acylcholine analogues. Binding of DEAC-Gly-C6-choline to Torpedo nAChR induces a strong enhancement of fluorescence intensity. Association and displacement kinetic experiments revealed dissociation constants of 0.5 nM for the alphadelta-binding site and 15.0 nM for the alphagamma-binding site. Both the pharmacological and the spectroscopic properties of this agonist show great promise for characterizing the allosteric mechanism behind the function of the Torpedo nAChR, as well as for drug-screening studies.

  18. Caenorhabditis elegans nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are required for nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emiliano; Chatzigeorgiou, Marios; Husson, Steven J; Steuer-Costa, Wagner; Gottschalk, Alexander; Schafer, William R; Treinin, Millet

    2014-03-01

    Polymodal nociceptors sense and integrate information on injurious mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli. Chemical signals either activate nociceptors or modulate their responses to other stimuli. One chemical known to activate or modulate responses of nociceptors is acetylcholine (ACh). Across evolution nociceptors express subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) family, a family of ACh-gated ion channels. The roles of ACh and nAChRs in nociceptor function are, however, poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans polymodal nociceptors, PVD, express nAChR subunits on their sensory arbor. Here we show that mutations reducing ACh synthesis and mutations in nAChR subunits lead to defects in PVD function and morphology. A likely cause for these defects is a reduction in cytosolic calcium measured in ACh and nAChR mutants. Indeed, overexpression of a calcium pump in PVD mimics defects in PVD function and morphology found in nAChR mutants. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a central role for nAChRs and ACh in nociceptor function and suggest that calcium permeating via nAChRs facilitates activity of several signaling pathways within this neuron. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Caenorhabditis elegans nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are required for nociception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emiliano; Chatzigeorgiou, Marios; Husson, Steven J.; Steuer-Costa, Wagner; Gottschalk, Alexander; Schafer, William R.; Treinin, Millet

    2014-01-01

    Polymodal nociceptors sense and integrate information on injurious mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli. Chemical signals either activate nociceptors or modulate their responses to other stimuli. One chemical known to activate or modulate responses of nociceptors is acetylcholine (ACh). Across evolution nociceptors express subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) family, a family of ACh-gated ion channels. The roles of ACh and nAChRs in nociceptor function are, however, poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans polymodal nociceptors, PVD, express nAChR subunits on their sensory arbor. Here we show that mutations reducing ACh synthesis and mutations in nAChR subunits lead to defects in PVD function and morphology. A likely cause for these defects is a reduction in cytosolic calcium measured in ACh and nAChR mutants. Indeed, overexpression of a calcium pump in PVD mimics defects in PVD function and morphology found in nAChR mutants. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a central role for nAChRs and ACh in nociceptor function and suggest that calcium permeating via nAChRs facilitates activity of several signaling pathways within this neuron. PMID:24518198

  20. Visualization of cholinoceptive neurons in the rat neocortex : colocalization of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, E.A. van der; Streefland, C.; Strosberg, A.D.; Schröder, H.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    The present investigation analyzes the cellular distribution of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat neocortex, by use of monoclonal antibodies raised against purified receptor proteins. The degree of colocalization of both types of receptors was determined by way of

  1. Galantamine, an Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor and Positive Allosteric Modulator of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors, Attenuates Nicotine Taking and Seeking in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Thomas J; Rupprecht, Laura E; Hayes, Matthew R; Blendy, Julie A; Schmidt, Heath D

    2012-01-01

    Current smoking cessation pharmacotherapies have limited efficacy in preventing relapse and maintaining abstinence during withdrawal. Galantamine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that also acts as a positive allosteric modulator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Galantamine has recently been shown to reverse nicotine withdrawal-induced cognitive impairments in mice, which suggests that galantamine may function to prevent relapse in human smokers. However, there are no studies examining whether galantamine administration modulates nicotine self-administration and/or reinstatement of nicotine seeking in rodents. The present experiments were designed to determine the effects of galantamine administration on nicotine taking and reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior, an animal model of relapse. Moreover, the effects of galantamine on sucrose-maintained responding and sucrose seeking were also examined to determine whether galantamine's effects generalized to other reinforced behaviors. An inverted U-shaped dose-response curve was obtained when animals self-administered different unit doses of nicotine with the highest responding for 0.03 mg/kg per infusion of nicotine. Acute galantamine administration (5.0 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated nicotine self-administration when animals were maintained on either a fixed-ratio 5 (FR5) or progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. Galantamine administration also attenuated the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior. No significant effects of galantamine on sucrose self-administration or sucrose reinstatement were noted. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors have also been shown to produce nausea and vomiting in humans. However, at doses required to attenuate nicotine self-administration, no effects of galantamine on nausea/malaise as measured by pica were noted. These results indicate that increased extracellular acetylcholine levels and/or nicotinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation is sufficient to attenuate

  2. Evaluation of PET Radioligands for the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenbaechler, R.; Westera, G.; Nan-Horng Lin

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A-186253.1, a compound made by Abbott laboratories, was labelled with carbon-11 and evaluated as a PET ligand for the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). The compound was labelled with C-11 by methylation with 11C-MeI of the desmethyl precursor A-183828.1. The affinity of A-186253.1 for the α4β2 and the α7 subtype of the nAChR was determined in displacement studies. PET-studies were performed in rats and pigs Inhibitory constants (K i ) versus cytsine were 461 ± 99 pM for A-186253.1 and versus α-Bungarotoxin >100 μM. which means a very high selectivity for the α4β2-receptor (>227,000). Highest uptake of [ 11 C]-A-186253.1 was observed in the thalamus where an increase in radiotracer uptake was seen until 45 min p.i.. Thereafter, the radiotracer concentration remained constant until the end of the scan indicating slow washout of [ 11 C]-A-186253.1. Application of cold A-186253.1 (0.5 mg/kg) 40 min p.i. resulted in a decrease in radiotracer concentration in the thalamus and the cortex indicating displacement of [ 11 C]-A-186253.1. Blockade studies with cytisine (0.5 mg/kg), a selective ligand for the α4β2 nicotinic receptor, showed just a slight reduction of the radioligand uptake in the thalamus and in the cortex whereas the blockade with cold A-186253.1 (1 mg/kg) resulted in a 50 % reduction. These results suggest, that 50 % of the [ 11 C]-A-186253.1 in the brain corresponds to specifically bound radioligand, but not to the α4β2 subtype of the nicotinic receptor. (author)

  3. Quinuclidine compounds differently act as agonists of Kenyon cell nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and induced distinct effect on insect ganglionic depolarizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Swale, Daniel; Leray, Xavier; Benzidane, Yassine; Lebreton, Jacques; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R; Thany, Steeve H

    2013-12-01

    We have recently demonstrated that a new quinuclidine benzamide compound named LMA10203 acted as an agonist of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Its specific pharmacological profile on cockroach dorsal unpaired median neurons (DUM) helped to identify alpha-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR2 receptors. In the present study, we tested its effect on cockroach Kenyon cells. We found that it induced an inward current demonstrating that it bounds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on Kenyon cells. Interestingly, LMA10203-induced currents were completely blocked by the nicotinic antagonist α-bungarotoxin. We suggested that LMA10203 effect occurred through the activation of α-bungarotoxin-sensitive receptors and did not involve α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR2, previously identified in DUM neurons. In addition, we have synthesized two new compounds, LMA10210 and LMA10211, and compared their effects on Kenyon cells. These compounds were members of the 3-quinuclidinyl benzamide or benzoate families. Interestingly, 1 mM LMA10210 was not able to induce an inward current on Kenyon cells compared to LMA10211. Similarly, we did not find any significant effect of LMA10210 on cockroach ganglionic depolarization, whereas these three compounds were able to induce an effect on the central nervous system of the third instar M. domestica larvae. Our data suggested that these three compounds could bind to distinct cockroach nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

  4. Conformationally restrained carbamoylcholine homologues. Synthesis, pharmacology at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and biostructural considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Fuente Revenga, M; Balle, Thomas; Jensen, Anders A.

    2015-01-01

    Exploration of small selective ligands for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) based on acetylcholine (ACh) has led to the development of potent agonists with clear preference for the α4β2 nAChR, the most prevalent nAChR subtype in the central nervous system. In this work we present th...

  5. Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: Neuroplastic Changes underlying Alcohol and Nicotine Addictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Anne Feduccia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Addictive drugs can activate systems involved in normal reward-related learning, creating long-lasting memories of the drug’s reinforcing effects and the environmental cues surrounding the experience. These memories significantly contribute to the maintenance of compulsive drug use as well as cue-induced relapse which can occur even after long periods of abstinence. Synaptic plasticity is thought to be a prominent molecular mechanism underlying drug-induced learning and memories. Ethanol and nicotine are both widely abused drugs that share a common molecular target in the brain, the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs. The nAChRs are ligand-gated ion channels that are vastly distributed throughout the brain and play a key role in synaptic neurotransmission. In this review, we will delineate the role of nAChRs in the development of ethanol and nicotine addiction. We will characterize both ethanol and nicotine’s effects on nAChR-mediated synaptic transmission and plasticity in several key brain areas that are important for addiction. Finally, we will discuss some of the behavioral outcomes of drug-induced synaptic plasticity in animal models. An understanding of the molecular and cellular changes that occur following administration of ethanol and nicotine will lead to better therapeutic strategies.

  6. Nicotine facilitates nicotinic acetylcholine receptor targeting to mitochondria but makes them less susceptible to selective ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenska, Kateryna; Lykhmus, Olena; Gergalova, Galyna; Chernyshov, Volodymyr; Arias, Hugo R; Komisarenko, Sergiy; Skok, Maryna

    2017-08-24

    Several nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes are expressed in mitochondria to regulate the internal pathway of apoptosis in ion channel-independent manner. However, the mechanisms of nAChR activation in mitochondria and targeting to mitochondria are still unknown. Nicotine has been shown to favor nAChR pentamer assembly, folding, and maturation on the way of biosynthesis. The idea of the present work was to determine whether nicotine affects the content, glycosylation, and function of mitochondrial nAChRs. Experiments were performed in isolated liver mitochondria from mice, that either consumed or not nicotine with the drinking water (200μL/L) for 7days. Mitochondria detergent lysates were studied by sandwich or lectin ELISA for the presence and carbohydrate composition of different nAChR subunits. Intact mitochondria were examined by flow cytometry for the binding of fluorescently labeled α-cobratoxin and were tested in functional assay of cytochrome c release under the effect of either Ca 2+ or wortmannin in the presence or absence of nAChR-selective ligands, including PNU-282987 (1nM), dihydro-β-erythroidine (DhβE, 1μM), PNU-120596 (0.3, 3, or 10μM) and desformylflustrabromine hydrochloride (dFBr, 0.001, 0.3, or 1μM). It was found that nicotine consumption increased the ratio of mitochondrial vs non-mitochondrial nAChRs in the liver, enhanced fucosylation of mitochondrial nAChRs, but prevented the binding of α-cobratoxin and the cytochrome c release-attenuating effects of nAChR-specific agonists, antagonists, or positive allosteric modulators. It is concluded that nicotine consumption in vivo favors nAChR glycosylation and trafficking to mitochondria but makes them less susceptible to the effects of specific ligands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Acetylcholine promotes binding of α-conotoxin MII at α3 β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambasivarao, Somisetti V; Roberts, Jessica; Bharadwaj, Vivek S; Slingsby, Jason G; Rohleder, Conrad; Mallory, Chris; Groome, James R; McDougal, Owen M; Maupin, C Mark

    2014-02-10

    α-Conotoxin MII (α-CTxMII) is a 16-residue peptide with the sequence GCCSNPVCHLEHSNLC, containing Cys2-Cys8 and Cys3-Cys16 disulfide bonds. This peptide, isolated from the venom of the marine cone snail Conus magus, is a potent and selective antagonist of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). To evaluate the impact of channel-ligand interactions on ligand-binding affinity, homology models of the heteropentameric α3β2-nAChR were constructed. The models were created in MODELLER with the aid of experimentally characterized structures of the Torpedo marmorata-nAChR (Tm-nAChR, PDB ID: 2BG9) and the Aplysia californica-acetylcholine binding protein (Ac-AChBP, PDB ID: 2BR8) as templates for the α3- and β2-subunit isoforms derived from rat neuronal nAChR primary amino acid sequences. Molecular docking calculations were performed with AutoDock to evaluate interactions of the heteropentameric nAChR homology models with the ligands acetylcholine (ACh) and α-CTxMII. The nAChR homology models described here bind ACh with binding energies commensurate with those of previously reported systems, and identify critical interactions that facilitate both ACh and α-CTxMII ligand binding. The docking calculations revealed an increased binding affinity of the α3β2-nAChR for α-CTxMII with ACh bound to the receptor, and this was confirmed through two-electrode voltage clamp experiments on oocytes from Xenopus laevis. These findings provide insights into the inhibition and mechanism of electrostatically driven antagonist properties of the α-CTxMIIs on nAChRs. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Expression and Susceptibility to Cholinergic Immunomodulation in Human Monocytes of Smoking Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zanden, Esmerij P.; Hilbers, Francisca W.; Verseijden, Caroline; van den Wijngaard, Rene M.; Skynner, Mike; Lee, Kevin; Ulloa, Luis; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; de Jonge, Wouter J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Smoking is generally accepted as a factor that affects the disease course in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Whether these effects can be contributed to the immunomodulatory effects of nicotine via nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activation is unclear. As previous data

  9. Selective alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists worsen disease in experimental colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, Susanne A.; Verstege, Marleen I.; van der Zanden, Esmerij P.; Deeks, Nigel; Bulmer, David C.; Skynner, Michael; Lee, Kevin; te Velde, Anje A.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; de Jonge, Wouter J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In various models vagus nerve activation has been shown to ameliorate intestinal inflammation, via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed on immune cells. As the alpha7 nAChR has been put forward to mediate this effect, we studied the effect of nicotine and two

  10. a2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Influence Hippocampus-Dependent Learning and Memory in Adolescent Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfipour, Shahrdad; Mojica, Celina; Nakauchi, Sakura; Lipovsek, Marcela; Silverstein, Sarah; Cushman, Jesse; Tirtorahardjo, James; Poulos, Andrew; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Sumikawa, Katumi; Fanselow, Michael S.; Boulter, Jim

    2017-01-01

    The absence of a2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in oriens lacunosum moleculare (OLM) GABAergic interneurons ablate the facilitation of nicotine-induced hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation and impair memory. The current study delineated whether genetic mutations of a2* nAChRs ("Chrna2"[superscript L9'S/L9'S] and…

  11. Layer-specific modulation of the prefrontal cortex by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorthuis, R.B.; Bloem, B.; Schak, B.; Wester, J.; de Kock, C.P.J.; Mansvelder, H.D.

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholine signaling through nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is crucial for attention. Nicotinic AChRs are expressed on glutamatergic inputs to layer V (LV) cells and on LV interneurons and LVI pyramidal neurons. Whether PFC layers are activated by nAChRs to a similar

  12. Peptides from puff adder Bitis arietans venom, novel inhibitors of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulfius, Catherine A; Spirova, Ekaterina N; Serebryakova, Marina V; Shelukhina, Irina V; Kudryavtsev, Denis S; Kryukova, Elena V; Starkov, Vladislav G; Kopylova, Nina V; Zhmak, Maxim N; Ivanov, Igor A; Kudryashova, Ksenia S; Andreeva, Tatyana V; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2016-10-01

    Phospholipase A 2 (named bitanarin) possessing capability to block nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) was isolated earlier (Vulfius et al., 2011) from puff adder Bitis arietans venom. Further studies indicated that low molecular weight fractions of puff adder venom inhibit nAChRs as well. In this paper, we report on isolation from this venom and characterization of three novel peptides called baptides 1, 2 and 3 that reversibly block nAChRs. To isolate the peptides, the venom of B. arietans was fractionated by gel-filtration and reversed phase chromatography. The amino acid sequences of peptides were established by de novo sequencing using MALDI mass spectrometry. Baptide 1 comprised 7, baptides 2 and 3-10 amino acid residues, the latter being acetylated at the N-terminus. This is the first indication for the presence of such post-translational modification in snake venom proteins. None of the peptides contain cysteine residues. For biological activity studies the peptides were prepared by solid phase peptide synthesis. Baptide 3 and 2 blocked acetylcholine-elicited currents in isolated Lymnaea stagnalis neurons with IC 50 of about 50 μM and 250 μM, respectively. In addition baptide 2 blocked acetylcholine-induced currents in muscle nAChR heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes with IC 50 of about 3 μM. The peptides did not compete with radioactive α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and α7 nAChRs at concentration up to 200 μM that suggests non-competitive mode of inhibition. Calcium imaging studies on α7 and muscle nAChRs heterologously expressed in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells showed that on α7 receptor baptide 2 inhibited acetylcholine-induced increasing intracellular calcium concentration with IC 50 of 20.6 ± 3.93 μM. On both α7 and muscle nAChRs the suppression of maximal response to acetylcholine by about 50% was observed at baptide 2 concentration of 25 μM, the value being close to IC 50 on α7 nAChR. These data are

  13. Plant toxins that affect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Welch, Kevin D; Panter, Kip E; Lee, Stephen T

    2013-08-19

    Plants produce a wide variety of chemical compounds termed secondary metabolites that are not involved in basic metabolism, photosynthesis, or reproduction. These compounds are used as flavors, fragrances, insecticides, dyes, hallucinogens, nutritional supplements, poisons, and pharmaceutical agents. However, in some cases these secondary metabolites found in poisonous plants perturb biological systems. Ingestion of toxins from poisonous plants by grazing livestock often results in large economic losses to the livestock industry. The chemical structures of these compounds are diverse and range from simple, low molecular weight toxins such as oxalate in halogeton to the highly complex norditerpene alkaloids in larkspurs. While the negative effects of plant toxins on people and the impact of plant toxins on livestock producers have been widely publicized, the diversity of these toxins and their potential as new pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of diseases in people and animals has also received widespread interest. Scientists are actively screening plants from all regions of the world for bioactivity and potential pharmaceuticals for the treatment or prevention of many diseases. In this review, we focus the discussion to those plant toxins extensively studied at the USDA Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory that affect the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors including species of Delphinium (Larkspurs), Lupinus (Lupines), Conium (poison hemlock), and Nicotiana (tobaccos).

  14. Menthol binding and inhibition of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoor, Abrar; Nordman, Jacob C; Veltri, Daniel; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Al Kury, Lina; Shuba, Yaroslav; Mahgoub, Mohamed; Howarth, Frank C; Sadek, Bassem; Shehu, Amarda; Kabbani, Nadine; Oz, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Menthol is a common compound in pharmaceutical and commercial products and a popular additive to cigarettes. The molecular targets of menthol remain poorly defined. In this study we show an effect of menthol on the α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor function. Using a two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, menthol was found to reversibly inhibit α7-nACh receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Inhibition by menthol was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve endogenous Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channels, since menthol inhibition remained unchanged by intracellular injection of the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA and perfusion with Ca(2+)-free bathing solution containing Ba(2+). Furthermore, increasing ACh concentrations did not reverse menthol inhibition and the specific binding of [(125)I] α-bungarotoxin was not attenuated by menthol. Studies of α7- nACh receptors endogenously expressed in neural cells demonstrate that menthol attenuates α7 mediated Ca(2+) transients in the cell body and neurite. In conclusion, our results suggest that menthol inhibits α7-nACh receptors in a noncompetitive manner.

  15. Cocaine Inhibition of Nicotinic Acetylcholine ReceptorsInfluences Dopamine Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eAcevedo-Rodriguez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs potently regulate dopamine (DA release in the striatum and alter cocaine’s ability to reinforce behaviors. Since cocaine is a weak nAChR inhibitor, we hypothesized that cocaine may alter DA release by inhibiting the nAChRs in DA terminals in the striatum and thus contribute to cocaine's reinforcing properties primarily associated with the inhibition of DA transporters. We found that biologically relevant concentrations of cocaine can mildly inhibit nAChR-mediated currents in midbrain DA neurons and consequently alter DA release in the dorsal and ventral striatum. At very high concentrations, cocaine also inhibits voltage-gated Na channels in DA neurons. Furthermore, our results show that partial inhibition of nAChRs by cocaine reduces evoked DA release. This diminution of DA release via nAChR inhibition more strongly influences release evoked at low or tonic stimulation frequencies than at higher (phasic stimulation frequencies, particularly in the dorsolateral striatum. This cocaine-induced shift favoring phasic DA release may contribute to the enhanced saliency and motivational value of cocaine-associated memories and behaviors.

  16. Menthol binding and inhibition of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Ashoor

    Full Text Available Menthol is a common compound in pharmaceutical and commercial products and a popular additive to cigarettes. The molecular targets of menthol remain poorly defined. In this study we show an effect of menthol on the α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh receptor function. Using a two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, menthol was found to reversibly inhibit α7-nACh receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Inhibition by menthol was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve endogenous Ca(2+-dependent Cl(- channels, since menthol inhibition remained unchanged by intracellular injection of the Ca(2+ chelator BAPTA and perfusion with Ca(2+-free bathing solution containing Ba(2+. Furthermore, increasing ACh concentrations did not reverse menthol inhibition and the specific binding of [(125I] α-bungarotoxin was not attenuated by menthol. Studies of α7- nACh receptors endogenously expressed in neural cells demonstrate that menthol attenuates α7 mediated Ca(2+ transients in the cell body and neurite. In conclusion, our results suggest that menthol inhibits α7-nACh receptors in a noncompetitive manner.

  17. Nicotine at clinically relevant concentrations affects atrial inward rectifier potassium current sensitive to acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bébarová, Markéta; Matejovič, Peter; Švecová, Olga; Kula, Roman; Šimurdová, Milena; Šimurda, Jiří

    2017-05-01

    Nicotine abuse is associated with variety of diseases including arrhythmias, most often atrial fibrillation (AF). Altered inward rectifier potassium currents including acetylcholine-sensitive current I K(Ach) are known to be related to AF pathogenesis. Since relevant data are missing, we aimed to investigate I K(Ach) changes at clinically relevant concentrations of nicotine. Experiments were performed by the whole cell patch clamp technique at 23 ± 1 °C on isolated rat atrial myocytes. Nicotine was applied at following concentrations: 4, 40 and 400 nM; ethanol at 20 mM (∼0.09%). Nicotine at 40 and 400 nM significantly activated constitutively active component of I K(Ach) with the maximum effect at 40 nM (an increase by ∼100%); similar effect was observed at -110 and -50 mV. Changes at 4 nM nicotine were negligible on average. Coapplication of 40 nM nicotine and 20 mM ethanol (which is also known to activate this current) did not show cumulative effect. In the case of acetylcholine-induced component of I K(Ach) , a dual effect of nicotine and its correlation with the current magnitude in control were apparent: the current was increased by nicotine in the cells showing small current in control and vice versa. The effect of 40 and 400 nM nicotine on acetylcholine-induced component of I K(Ach) was significantly different at -110 and -50 mV. We conclude that nicotine at clinically relevant concentrations significantly increased constitutively active component of I K(Ach) and showed a dual effect on its acetylcholine-induced component, similarly as ethanol. Synchronous application of nicotine and ethanol did not cause additive effect.

  18. Nicotinic binding in rat brain: autoradiographic comparison of [3H]acetylcholine, [3H]nicotine, and [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, P.B.; Schwartz, R.D.; Paul, S.M.; Pert, C.B.; Pert, A.

    1985-01-01

    Three radioligands have been commonly used to label putative nicotinic cholinoceptors in the mammalian central nervous system: the agonists [ 3 H]nicotine and [ 3 H]acetylcholine ([ 3 H]ACh--in the presence of atropine to block muscarinic receptors), and the snake venom extract, [ 125 I]-alpha-bungarotoxin([ 125 I]BTX), which acts as a nicotinic antagonist at the neuromuscular junction. Binding studies employing brain homogenates indicate that the regional distributions of both [ 3 H]nicotine and [ 3 H]ACh differ from that of [ 125 I]BTX. The possible relationship between brain sites bound by [ 3 H]nicotine and [ 3 H]ACh has not been examined directly. The authors have used the technique of autoradiography to produce detailed maps of [ 3 H]nicotine, [ 3 H]ACh, and [ 125 I]BTX labeling; near-adjacent tissue sections were compared at many levels of the rat brain. The maps of high affinity agonist labeling are strikingly concordant, with highest densities in the interpeduncular nucleus, most thalamic nuclei, superior colliculus, medial habenula, presubiculum, cerebral cortex (layers I and III/IV), and the substantia nigra pars compacta/ventral tegmental area. The pattern of [ 125 I]BTX binding is strikingly different, the only notable overlap with agonist binding being the cerebral cortex (layer I) and superior colliculus. [ 125 I]BTX binding is also dense in the inferior colliculus, cerebral cortex (layer VI), hypothalamus, and hippocampus, but is virtually absent in thalamus. Various lines of evidence suggest that the high affinity agonist-binding sites in brain correspond to nicotinic cholinergic receptors similar to those found at autonomic ganglia; BTX-binding sites may also serve as receptors for nicotine and are possibly related to neuromuscular nicotinic cholinoceptors

  19. Structural Studies of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: Using Acetylcholine-Binding Protein as a Structural Surrogate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavar, Azadeh; Gajhede, Michael; Kastrup, Jette S; Balle, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are members of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel superfamily that play important roles in the control of neurotransmitter release in the central and peripheral nervous system. These receptors are important therapeutic targets for the development of drugs against a number of mental health disorders and for marketed smoking cessation aids. Unfortunately, drug discovery has been hampered by difficulties in obtaining sufficiently selective compounds. Together with functional complexity of the receptors, this has made it difficult to obtain drugs with sufficiently high-target to off-target affinity ratios. The recent and ongoing progress in structural studies holds promise to help understand structure-function relationships of nAChR drugs at the atomic level. This will undoubtedly lead to the design of more efficient drugs with fewer side effects. As a high-resolution structure of a nAChR is yet to be determined, structural studies are to a large extent based on acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBPs) that despite low overall sequence identity display a high degree of conservation of overall structure and amino acids at the ligand-binding site. Further, AChBPs reproduce relative binding affinities of ligands at nAChRs. Over the past decade, AChBPs have been used extensively as models for nAChRs and have aided the understanding of drug receptor interactions at nAChRs significantly. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  20. Alternative splicing in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits from Locusta migratoria and its influence on acetylcholine potencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixi; Liu, Yang; Bao, Haibo; Sun, Huahua; Liu, Zewen

    2017-01-18

    Due to the great abundance within insect central nervous system (CNS), nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play key roles in insect CNS, which makes it to be the targets of several classes of insecticides, such as neonicotinoids. Insect nAChRs are pentameric complexes consisting of five subunits, and a dozen subunits in one insect species can theoretically comprise diverse nAChRs. The alternative splicing in insect nAChR subunits may increase the diversity of insect nAChRs. In the oriental migratory locust (Locusta migratoria manilensis Meyen), a model insect species with agricultural importance, the alternative splicing was found in six α subunits among nine α and two β subunits, such as missing conserved residues in Loop D from Locα1, Locα6 and Locα9, a 34-residue insertion in Locα8 cytoplasmic loop, and truncated transcripts for Locα4, Locα7 and Locα9. Hybrid nAChRs were successfully constructed in Xenopus oocytes through co-expression with rat β2 and one α subunit from L. migratoria, which included Locα1, Locα2, Locα3, Locα4, Locα5, Locα8 and Locα9. Influences of alternative splicing in Locα1, Locα8 and Locα9 on acetylcholine potency were tested on hybrid nAChRs. The alternative splicing in Locα1 and Locα9 could increase acetylcholine sensitivities on recombinant receptors, while the splicing in Locα8 showed significant influences on the current amplitudes of oocytes. The results revealed that the alternative splicing at or close to the ligand-binding sites, as well as at cytoplasmic regions away from the ligand-binding sites, in insect nAChR subunits would change the agonist potencies on the receptors, which consequently increased nAChR diversity in functional and pharmacological properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pancreatic and snake venom presynaptically active phospholipases A2 inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulfius, Catherine A; Kasheverov, Igor E; Kryukova, Elena V; Spirova, Ekaterina N; Shelukhina, Irina V; Starkov, Vladislav G; Andreeva, Tatyana V; Faure, Grazyna; Zouridakis, Marios; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2017-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes found throughout the animal kingdom. They hydrolyze phospholipids in the sn-2 position producing lysophospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids, agents that can damage membranes. PLA2s from snake venoms have numerous toxic effects, not all of which can be explained by phospholipid hydrolysis, and each enzyme has a specific effect. We have earlier demonstrated the capability of several snake venom PLA2s with different enzymatic, cytotoxic, anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties, to decrease acetylcholine-induced currents in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons, and to compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acetylcholine binding protein. Since nAChRs are implicated in postsynaptic and presynaptic activities, in this work we probe those PLA2s known to have strong presynaptic effects, namely β-bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus and crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus. We also wished to explore whether mammalian PLA2s interact with nAChRs, and have examined non-toxic PLA2 from porcine pancreas. It was found that porcine pancreatic PLA2 and presynaptic β-bungarotoxin blocked currents mediated by nAChRs in Lymnaea neurons with IC50s of 2.5 and 4.8 μM, respectively. Crotoxin competed with radioactive α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and human α7 nAChRs and to the acetylcholine binding protein. Pancreatic PLA2 interacted similarly with these targets; moreover, it inhibited radioactive α-bungarotoxin binding to the water-soluble extracellular domain of human α9 nAChR, and blocked acetylcholine induced currents in human α9α10 nAChRs heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. These and our earlier results show that all snake PLA2s, including presynaptically active crotoxin and β-bungarotoxin, as well as mammalian pancreatic PLA2, interact with nAChRs. The data obtained suggest that this interaction may be a general property of all PLA2s, which should be proved by

  2. Pancreatic and snake venom presynaptically active phospholipases A2 inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Vulfius

    Full Text Available Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s are enzymes found throughout the animal kingdom. They hydrolyze phospholipids in the sn-2 position producing lysophospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids, agents that can damage membranes. PLA2s from snake venoms have numerous toxic effects, not all of which can be explained by phospholipid hydrolysis, and each enzyme has a specific effect. We have earlier demonstrated the capability of several snake venom PLA2s with different enzymatic, cytotoxic, anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties, to decrease acetylcholine-induced currents in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons, and to compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs and acetylcholine binding protein. Since nAChRs are implicated in postsynaptic and presynaptic activities, in this work we probe those PLA2s known to have strong presynaptic effects, namely β-bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus and crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus. We also wished to explore whether mammalian PLA2s interact with nAChRs, and have examined non-toxic PLA2 from porcine pancreas. It was found that porcine pancreatic PLA2 and presynaptic β-bungarotoxin blocked currents mediated by nAChRs in Lymnaea neurons with IC50s of 2.5 and 4.8 μM, respectively. Crotoxin competed with radioactive α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and human α7 nAChRs and to the acetylcholine binding protein. Pancreatic PLA2 interacted similarly with these targets; moreover, it inhibited radioactive α-bungarotoxin binding to the water-soluble extracellular domain of human α9 nAChR, and blocked acetylcholine induced currents in human α9α10 nAChRs heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. These and our earlier results show that all snake PLA2s, including presynaptically active crotoxin and β-bungarotoxin, as well as mammalian pancreatic PLA2, interact with nAChRs. The data obtained suggest that this interaction may be a general property of all PLA2s, which

  3. Mechanics of channel gating of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR is a key molecule involved in the propagation of signals in the central nervous system and peripheral synapses. Although numerous computational and experimental studies have been performed on this receptor, the structural dynamics of the receptor underlying the gating mechanism is still unclear. To address the mechanical fundamentals of nAChR gating, both conventional molecular dynamics (CMD and steered rotation molecular dynamics (SRMD simulations have been conducted on the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM structure of nAChR embedded in a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC bilayer and water molecules. A 30-ns CMD simulation revealed a collective motion amongst C-loops, M1, and M2 helices. The inward movement of C-loops accompanying the shrinking of acetylcholine (ACh binding pockets induced an inward and upward motion of the outer beta-sheet composed of beta9 and beta10 strands, which in turn causes M1 and M2 to undergo anticlockwise motions around the pore axis. Rotational motion of the entire receptor around the pore axis and twisting motions among extracellular (EC, transmembrane (TM, and intracellular MA domains were also detected by the CMD simulation. Moreover, M2 helices undergo a local twisting motion synthesized by their bending vibration and rotation. The hinge of either twisting motion or bending vibration is located at the middle of M2, possibly the gate of the receptor. A complementary twisting-to-open motion throughout the receptor was detected by a normal mode analysis (NMA. To mimic the pulsive action of ACh binding, nonequilibrium MD simulations were performed by using the SRMD method developed in one of our laboratories. The result confirmed all the motions derived from the CMD simulation and NMA. In addition, the SRMD simulation indicated that the channel may undergo an open-close (O C motion. The present MD simulations explore the structural dynamics of the receptor under its

  4. A Multi-Route Model of Nicotine-Cotinine Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Brain Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding in Humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Housand, Conrad; Smith, Jordan N.; Hinderliter, Paul M.; Gunawan, Rudy; Timchalk, Charles

    2013-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics of nicotine, the pharmacologically active alkaloid in tobacco responsible for addiction, are well characterized in humans. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of nicotine pharmacokinetics, brain dosimetry and brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) occupancy. A Bayesian framework was applied to optimize model parameters against multiple human data sets. The resulting model was consistent with both calibration and test data sets, but in general underestimated variability. A pharmacodynamic model relating nicotine levels to increases in heart rate as a proxy for the pharmacological effects of nicotine accurately described the nicotine related changes in heart rate and the development and decay of tolerance to nicotine. The PBPK model was utilized to quantitatively capture the combined impact of variation in physiological and metabolic parameters, nicotine availability and smoking compensation on the change in number of cigarettes smoked and toxicant exposure in a population of 10,000 people presented with a reduced toxicant (50%), reduced nicotine (50%) cigarette Across the population, toxicant exposure is reduced in some but not all smokers. Reductions are not in proportion to reductions in toxicant yields, largely due to partial compensation in response to reduced nicotine yields. This framework can be used as a key element of a dosimetry-driven risk assessment strategy for cigarette smoke constituents.

  5. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitors derived from snake and snail venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutertre, Sébastien; Nicke, Annette; Tsetlin, Victor I

    2017-12-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) represents the prototype of ligand-gated ion channels. It is vital for neuromuscular transmission and an important regulator of neurotransmission. A variety of toxic compounds derived from diverse species target this receptor and have been of elemental importance in basic and applied research. They enabled milestone discoveries in pharmacology and biochemistry ranging from the original formulation of the receptor concept, the first isolation and structural analysis of a receptor protein (the nAChR) to the identification, localization, and differentiation of its diverse subtypes and their validation as a target for therapeutic intervention. Among the venom-derived compounds, α-neurotoxins and α-conotoxins provide the largest families and still represent indispensable pharmacological tools. Application of modified α-neurotoxins provided substantial structural and functional details of the nAChR long before high resolution structures were available. α-bungarotoxin represents not only a standard pharmacological tool and label in nAChR research but also for unrelated proteins tagged with a minimal α-bungarotoxin binding motif. A major advantage of α-conotoxins is their smaller size, as well as superior selectivity for diverse nAChR subtypes that allows their development into ligands with optimized pharmacological and chemical properties and potentially novel drugs. In the following, these two groups of nAChR antagonists will be described focusing on their respective roles in the structural and functional characterization of nAChRs and their development into research tools. In addition, we provide a comparative overview of the diverse α-conotoxin selectivities that can serve as a practical guide for both structure activity studies and subtype classification. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Venom-derived Peptides as Pharmacological Tools.' Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in rhesus monkey retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji; McGlinn, Alice M; Fernandes, Alcides; Milam, Ann H; Strang, Christianne E; Andison, Margot E; Lindstrom, Jon M; Keyser, Kent T; Stone, Richard A

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect and establish the cellular localizations of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in Rhesus monkey retina. Retinas were dissected from the eyes of monkeys killed after unrelated experiments. RNA was extracted and analyzed by RT-PCR, using primers designed against human sequences of alpha3-alpha7, alpha9, and beta2-beta4 nAChR subunits. The RT-PCR products were separated by gel electrophoresis and sequenced. Frozen sections of postmortem fixed monkey eyes were immunolabeled with well-characterized and specific monoclonal antibodies against the alpha3, alpha4, alpha6, alpha7, beta2, or beta4 nAChR subunits and visualized with fluorescence labeling. Products of the predicted size for the alpha3-alpha7, alpha9, and beta2-beta4 nAChR subunits were detected by RT-PCR in Rhesus monkey retina. Homology between transcripts from monkey retina and human nucleotide sequences ranged from 93 to 99%. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that neurons in various cell layers of monkey retina expressed alpha3, alpha4, alpha7, or beta2 nAChR subunits and cells with the morphology of microglia were immunoreactive for the alpha6 or beta4 nAChR subunits. nAChR subunits are expressed in the monkey retina and localize to diverse retinal neurons as well as putative microglia. Besides mediating visual processing, retinal nAChRs may influence refractive development and ocular pathologies such as neovascularization.

  7. Covalent attachment of antagonists to the a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: synthesis and reactivity of substituted maleimides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrus, Joseph I; Halliday, Jill I; Kanizaj, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The 3-methylmaleimide congeners of the natural product methyllycaconitine (MLA) and an analogue covalently attach to functional cysteine mutants of the a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR).......The 3-methylmaleimide congeners of the natural product methyllycaconitine (MLA) and an analogue covalently attach to functional cysteine mutants of the a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)....

  8. Contrasting actions of philanthotoxin-343 and philanthotoxin-(12) on human muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Tim J; Mellor, Ian R; Tikhonov, Denis B

    2003-01-01

    Whole-cell recordings and outside-out patch recordings from TE671 cells were made to investigate antagonism of human muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) by the philanthotoxins, PhTX-343 and PhTX-(12). When coapplied with acetylcholine (ACh), PhTX-343 caused activation......, 10 microM PhTX-343 significantly reduced the mean open time of channel openings evoked by 1 microM ACh from 4.42 +/- 0.44 to 1.58 +/- 0.10 ms with a minor increase (1.26-fold) in mean closed time. These data indicate that PhTX-343 predominantly blocks the open channel gated by ACh. In contrast, Ph......TX-(12) caused potent (IC50 = 0.77 microM at-100 mV), activation-dependent, noncompetitive inhibition of ACh-induced whole-cell currents that was only weakly voltage-dependent and suggestive of desensitization enhancement. It caused only a small decrease (7.5%) in the mean open time of channel openings...

  9. An Accessory Agonist Binding Site Promotes Activation of α4β2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Sriram, Aarati; Jin, Zhuang; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Kenny, Paul J; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-05-29

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4, β2, and sometimes other subunits (α4β2* nAChRs) regulate addictive and other behavioral effects of nicotine. These nAChRs exist in several stoichiometries, typically with two high affinity acetylcholine (ACh) binding sites at the interface of α4 and β2 subunits and a fifth accessory subunit. A third low affinity ACh binding site is formed when this accessory subunit is α4 but not if it is β2. Agonists selective for the accessory ACh site, such as 3-[3-(3-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]benzonitrile (NS9283), cannot alone activate a nAChR but can facilitate more efficient activation in combination with agonists at the canonical α4β2 sites. We therefore suggest categorizing agonists according to their site selectivity. NS9283 binds to the accessory ACh binding site; thus it is termed an accessory site-selective agonist. We expressed (α4β2)2 concatamers in Xenopus oocytes with free accessory subunits to obtain defined nAChR stoichiometries and α4/accessory subunit interfaces. We show that α2, α3, α4, and α6 accessory subunits can form binding sites for ACh and NS9283 at interfaces with α4 subunits, but β2 and β4 accessory subunits cannot. To permit selective blockage of the accessory site, α4 threonine 126 located on the minus side of α4 that contributes to the accessory site, but not the α4β2 sites, was mutated to cysteine. Alkylation of this cysteine with a thioreactive reagent blocked activity of ACh and NS9283 at the accessory site. Accessory agonist binding sites are promising drug targets. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Nicotine acts on growth plate chondrocytes to delay skeletal growth through the alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuo Kawakita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking adversely affects endochondral ossification during the course of skeletal growth. Among a plethora of cigarette chemicals, nicotine is one of the primary candidate compounds responsible for the cause of smoking-induced delayed skeletal growth. However, the possible mechanism of delayed skeletal growth caused by nicotine remains unclarified. In the last decade, localization of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR, a specific receptor of nicotine, has been widely detected in non-excitable cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that nicotine affect growth plate chondrocytes directly and specifically through nAChR to delay skeletal growth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the effect of nicotine on human growth plate chondrocytes, a major component of endochondral ossification. The chondrocytes were derived from extra human fingers. Nicotine inhibited matrix synthesis and hypertrophic differentiation in human growth plate chondrocytes in suspension culture in a concentration-dependent manner. Both human and murine growth plate chondrocytes expressed alpha7 nAChR, which constitutes functional homopentameric receptors. Methyllycaconitine (MLA, a specific antagonist of alpha7 nAChR, reversed the inhibition of matrix synthesis and functional calcium signal by nicotine in human growth plate chondrocytes in vitro. To study the effect of nicotine on growth plate in vivo, ovulation-controlled pregnant alpha7 nAChR +/- mice were given drinking water with or without nicotine during pregnancy, and skeletal growth of their fetuses was observed. Maternal nicotine exposure resulted in delayed skeletal growth of alpha7 nAChR +/+ fetuses but not in alpha7 nAChR -/- fetuses, implying that skeletal growth retardation by nicotine is specifically mediated via fetal alpha7 nAChR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that nicotine, from cigarette smoking, acts directly on growth plate chondrocytes to decrease

  11. Allosteric modulation of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by HEPES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, Maegan M; Huang, Yanzhou; Schulte, Marvin K

    2014-06-05

    A number of new positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been reported that enhance responses of neuronal alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes to orthosteric ligands. PAMs represent promising new leads for the development of therapeutic agents for disorders involving alterations in nicotinic neurotransmission including Autism, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. During our recent studies of alpha4beta2 PAMs, we identified a novel effect of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES). The effects of HEPES were evaluated in a phosphate buffered recording solution using two-electrode voltage clamp techniques and alpha4beta2 and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine induced responses of high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors were potentiated 190% by co-exposure to HEPES. Responses were inhibited at higher concentrations (bell-shaped concentration/response curve). Coincidentally, at concentrations of HEPES typically used in oocyte recording (5-10mM), the potentiating effects of HEPES are matched by its inhibitory effects, thus producing no net effect. Mutagenesis results suggest HEPES potentiates the high-sensitivity stoichiometry of the alpha4beta2 receptors through action at the beta2+/beta2- interface and is dependent on residue beta2D218. HEPES did not potentiate low-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors and did not produce any observable effect on acetylcholine induced responses on alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Allosteric modulation of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by HEPES✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, Maegan M; Huang, Yanzhou; Schulte, Marvin K

    2013-01-01

    A number of new positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been reported that enhance responses of neuronal alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes to orthosteric ligands. PAMs represent promising new leads for the development of therapeutic agents for disorders involving alterations in nicotinic neurotransmission including Autism, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. During our recent studies of alpha4beta2 PAMs, we identified a novel effect of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES). The effects of HEPES were evaluated in a phosphate buffered recording solution using two-electrode voltage clamp techniques and alpha4beta2 and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine induced responses of high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors were potentiated 190% by co-exposure to HEPES. Responses were inhibited at higher concentrations (bell-shaped concentration/response curve). Coincidentally, at concentrations of HEPES typically used in oocyte recording (5–10 mM), the potentiating effects of HEPES are matched by its inhibitory effects, thus producing no net effect. Mutagenesis results suggest HEPES potentiates the high-sensitivity stoichiometry of the alpha4beta2 receptors through action at the beta2+/beta2− interface and is dependent on residue beta2D218. HEPES did not potentiate low-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors and did not produce any observable effect on acetylcholine induced responses on alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. PMID:22732654

  13. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: subunit structure, functional binding sites, and ion transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raftery, M.A.; Dunn, S.M.J.; Conti-Tronconi, B.M.; Middlemas, D.S.; Crawford, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The structure of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor has been highly conserved during animal evolution, and in all the species and tissues studied so far, including mammals, it is a pseudosymmetric, pentameric complex of related subunits with very similar physical properties. All subunits of these nicotinic receptors were derived from a common ancestral gene, probably by way of gene duplications occurring very early in animal evolution. 45 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of DHβE analogs as neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Tue H.; Jensen, Anders A.; Lund, Mads Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) is a member of the Erythrina family of alkaloids and a potent competitive antagonist of the α4β2-subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Guided by an X-ray structure of DHβE in complex with an ACh binding protein, we detail the design, synthesis...

  15. Effect of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are ligand-gated cation channels found throughout the body, and serve to mediate diverse physiological functions. Muscle-type nAChR located in the motor endplate region of muscle fibers play an integral role in muscle contraction and thus motor function. The...

  16. INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON NEURONAL NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON NEURONAL NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS. A.S. Bale*; P.J. Bushnell; C.A. Meacham; T.J. Shafer Neurotoxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA Toluene (TOL...

  17. Functional aspects of dexamethasone upregulated nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in C2C12 myotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maestrone, E; Lagostena, L; Henning, RH; DenHertog, A; Nobile, M

    1995-01-01

    Three days of treatment with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (1 nM-mu M) induced a concentration-dependent up-regulation of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in C2C12 mouse myotubes (EC(50)=10+/-7.3 nM), as assessed by [H-3]alpha-BuTx binding. The maximum increase in binding amounted

  18. Probing for and Quantifying Agonist Hydrogen Bonds in α6β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Michael R; Lester, Henry A; Dougherty, Dennis A

    2017-04-04

    Designing subtype-selective agonists for neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors is a challenging and significant goal aided by intricate knowledge of each subtype's binding patterns. We previously reported that in α6β2 receptors, acetylcholine makes a functional cation-π interaction with Trp149, but nicotine and TC299423 do not, suggesting a distinctive binding site. This work explores hydrogen binding at the backbone carbonyl associated with α6β2 Trp149. Substituting residue i + 1, Thr150, with its α-hydroxy analogue (Tah) attenuates the carbonyl's hydrogen bond accepting ability. At α6(T150Tah)β2, nicotine shows a 24-fold loss of function, TC299423 shows a modest loss, and acetylcholine shows no effect. Nicotine was further analyzed via a double-mutant cycle analysis utilizing N'-methylnicotinium, which indicated a hydrogen bond in α6β2 with a ΔΔG of 2.6 kcal/mol. Thus, even though nicotine does not make the conserved cation-π interaction with Trp149, it still makes a functional hydrogen bond to its associated backbone carbonyl.

  19. Release of acetylcholine from murine embryonic stem cells: effect of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors and blockade of organic cation transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessler, Ignaz; Michel-Schmidt, Rosmarie; Dohle, Eva; Kirkpatrick, Charles James

    2012-11-27

    The non-neuronal cholinergic system is widely expressed in nature. The present experiments were performed to characterize the non-neuronal cholinergic system in murine embryonic stem cells (CGR8 cell line). CGR8 cells were cultured in gelatinized flasks with Glasgow's buffered minimal essential medium (Gibco, Germany). Acetylcholine was measured by HPLC combined with bioreactor and electrochemical detection. CGR8 cells contained 1.08±0.12 pmol acetylcholine/10(6) cells (n=7) which was reduced to 0.50±0.06 pmol/10(6) cells (n=6; pacetylcholine into the incubation medium was demonstrated, when cholinesterase activity was blocked by 10 μM physostigmine, with 97±13, 180±15 and 216±14 pmol being released from 65×10(6) cells after incubation periods of 2, 4 and 6h, respectively. The cumulative release corresponds to a fractional release rate of 2%/min. Blockade of nicotine or muscarine receptors did not significantly modulate the release of acetylcholine which was substantially reduced by 300 μM quinine (inhibitor of organic cation transporters). This inhibition showed considerable fading over the incubation period, indicating additional release mechanisms activated upon inhibition of organic cation transporters. Murine embryonic stem cells contain and release significant amounts of acetylcholine. The high fractional release rate and the compensation for blocked organic cation transporters indicate that non-neuronal acetylcholine may play a functional role in the homeostasis of murine embryonic stem cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of galantamine on the human α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and spontaneous cholinergic synaptic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texidó, Laura; Ros, Esteve; Martín-Satué, Mireia; López, Susana; Aleu, Jordi; Marsal, Jordi; Solsona, Carles

    2005-01-01

    Various types of anticholinesterasic agents have been used to improve the daily activities of Alzheimer's disease patients. It was recently demonstrated that Galantamine, described as a molecule with anticholinesterasic properties, is also an allosteric enhancer of human α4β2 neuronal nicotinic receptor activity. We explored its effect on the human α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Galantamine, at a concentration of 0.1 μM, increased the amplitude of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced ion currents in the human α7 nAChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes, but caused inhibition at higher concentrations. The maximum effect of galantamine, an increase of 22% in the amplitude of ACh-induced currents, was observed at a concentration of 250 μM Ach. The same enhancing effect was obtained in oocytes transplanted with Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) isolated from the electric organ, but in this case the optimal concentration of galantamine was 1 μM. In this case, the maximum effect of galantamine, an increase of 35% in the amplitude of ACh-induced currents, occurred at a concentration of 50 μM ACh. Galantamine affects not only the activity of post-synaptic receptors but also the activity of nerve terminals. At a concentration of 1 μM, quantal spontaneous events, recorded in a cholinergic synapse, increased their amplitude, an effect which was independent of the anticholinesterasic activity associated with this compound. The anticholinesterasic effect was recorded in preparations treated with a galantamine concentration of 10 μM. In conclusion, our results show that galantamine enhances human α7 neuronal nicotinic ACh receptor activity. It also enhances muscular AChRs and the size of spontaneous cholinergic synaptic events. However, only a very narrow range of galantamine concentrations can be used for enhancing effects. PMID:15834443

  1. Molecular Determinants of α3β4 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Inhibition by Triterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Sanung; Kim, Yoon Suh; Lee, Sung Bae; Noh, Shinhwa; Yeom, Hye Duck; Bae, Hyunsu; Lee, Jun-Ho

    2018-01-01

    In a previous work, we reported the regulatory role of the triterpenoids on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 3 A receptors activity in Xenopus laevis oocytes (Eur. J. Pharmacol., 615, 2009, Lee et al.). In the present report, we studied the modulation of triterpenoids on the activity of the human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor type α3β4. Two-electrode voltage clamp experiments were used to test acetylcholine mediated inward current (I ACh ). Treatment with triterpenoids (dehydroeburicoic acid, 6α-hydroxypolyporenic acid C and pachymic acid) inhibited I ACh in a concentration dependent and reversible manner. The IC 50 values for pachymic acid, dehydroeburicoic acid, and 6α-hydroxypolyporenic acid C were 14.9, 37.7, and 20.9 µM, respectively. The inhibitory regulation of I ACh by each triterpenoid showed in a non-competitive manner on the activity of α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These results show that triterpenoids (pachymic acid, dehydroeburicoic acid, 6α-hydroxypolyporenic acid C) can be used as agents to modulate the activity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor type α3β4. Furthermore, molecular docking studies of 6α-hydroxypolyporenic acid C on α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in silico showed that this molecule interacted predominantly with residues at cavities in the α3 subunit and β4 subunit. This docking assays indicated four potential binding sites for this ligand in the extracellular region at sensor domain of α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In point mutagenesis of those whose alanine substitution, 6α-hydroxypolyporenic acid C potency decreased on W25A of α3 subunit or N109A of β4 subunit in both mutants. The double mutation of W25A of α3 subunit and N109A of β4 subunit was significantly attenuated inhibitory effects by 6α-hydroxypolyporenic acid C. All taken together, this study revealed that molecular basis of α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by triterpenoids and provides a novel potent interaction

  2. Ikarisoside A inhibits acetylcholine-induced catecholamine secretion and synthesis by suppressing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-ion channels in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojia; Toyohira, Yumiko; Horisita, Takafumi; Satoh, Noriaki; Takahashi, Keita; Zhang, Han; Iinuma, Munekazu; Yoshinaga, Yukari; Ueno, Susumu; Tsutsui, Masato; Sata, Takeyoshi; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki

    2015-12-01

    Ikarisoside A is a natural flavonol glycoside derived from plants of the genus Epimedium, which have been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine as tonics, antirheumatics, and aphrodisiacs. Here, we report the effects of ikarisoside A and three other flavonol glycosides on catecholamine secretion and synthesis in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells. We found that ikarisoside A (1-100 μM), but not icariin, epimedin C, or epimedoside A, concentration-dependently inhibited the secretion of catecholamines induced by acetylcholine, a physiological secretagogue and agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Ikarisoside A had little effect on catecholamine secretion induced by veratridine and 56 mM K(+). Ikarisoside A (1-100 μM) also inhibited (22)Na(+) influx and (45)Ca(2+) influx induced by acetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner similar to that of catecholamine secretion. In Xenopus oocytes expressing α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, ikarisoside A (0.1-100 μM) directly inhibited the current evoked by acetylcholine. It also suppressed (14)C-catecholamine synthesis and tyrosine hydroxylase activity induced by acetylcholine at 1-100 μM and 10-100 μM, respectively. The present findings suggest that ikarisoside A inhibits acetylcholine-induced catecholamine secretion and synthesis by suppression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-ion channels in bovine adrenal medullary cells.

  3. Chronic exposure to nicotine enhances insulin sensitivity through α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-STAT3 pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Ying Xu

    Full Text Available This study was to investigate the effect of nicotine on insulin sensitivity and explore the underlying mechanisms. Treatment of Sprague-Dawley rats with nicotine (3 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks reduced 43% body weight gain and 65% blood insulin level, but had no effect on blood glucose level. Both insulin tolerance test and glucose tolerance test demonstrated that nicotine treatment enhanced insulin sensitivity. Pretreatment of rats with hexamethonium (20 mg/kg/day to antagonize peripheral nicotinic receptors except for α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR had no effect on the insulin sensitizing effect of nicotine. However, the insulin sensitizing effect but not the bodyweight reducing effect of nicotine was abrogated in α7-nAChR knockout mice. Further, chronic treatment with PNU-282987 (0.53 mg/kg/day, a selective α7-nAChR agonist, significantly enhanced insulin sensitivity without apparently modifying bodyweight not only in normal mice but also in AMP-activated kinase-α2 knockout mice, an animal model of insulin resistance with no sign of inflammation. Moreover, PNU-282987 treatment enhanced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and liver in normal mice. PNU-282987 treatment also increased glucose uptake by 25% in C2C12 myotubes and this effect was total abrogated by STAT3 inhibitor, S3I-201. All together, these findings demonstrated that nicotine enhanced insulin sensitivity in animals with or without insulin resistance, at least in part via stimulating α7-nAChR-STAT3 pathway independent of inflammation. Our results contribute not only to the understanding of the pharmacological effects of nicotine, but also to the identifying of new therapeutic targets against insulin resistance.

  4. Role of nicotinic receptors and acetylcholine in mucous cell metaplasia, hyperplasia, and airway mucus formation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundavarapu, Sravanthi; Wilder, Julie A; Mishra, Neerad C; Rir-Sima-Ah, Jules; Langley, Raymond J; Singh, Shashi P; Saeed, Ali Imran; Jaramillo, Richard J; Gott, Katherine M; Peña-Philippides, Juan Carlos; Harrod, Kevin S; McIntosh, J Michael; Buch, Shilpa; Sopori, Mohan L

    2012-09-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion is a key pathophysiologic feature in a number of lung diseases. Cigarette smoke/nicotine and allergens are strong stimulators of airway mucus; however, the mechanism of mucus modulation is unclear. We sought to characterize the pathway by which cigarette smoke/nicotine regulates airway mucus and identify agents that decrease airway mucus. IL-13 and γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA(A)Rs) are implicated in airway mucus. We examined the role of IL-13 and GABA(A)Rs in nicotine-induced mucus formation in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) and A549 cells and secondhand cigarette smoke-induced, ovalbumin-induced, or both mucus formation in vivo. Nicotine promotes mucus formation in NHBE cells; however, the nicotine-induced mucus formation is independent of IL-13 but sensitive to the GABA(A)R antagonist picrotoxin. Airway epithelial cells express α7-, α9-, and α10-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and specific inhibition or knockdown of α7- but not α9/α10-nAChRs abrogates mucus formation in response to nicotine and IL-13. Moreover, addition of acetylcholine or inhibition of its degradation increases mucus in NHBE cells. Nicotinic but not muscarinic receptor antagonists block allergen- or nicotine/cigarette smoke-induced airway mucus formation in NHBE cells, murine airways, or both. Nicotine-induced airway mucus formation is independent of IL-13, and α7-nAChRs are critical in airway mucous cell metaplasia/hyperplasia and mucus production in response to various promucoid agents, including IL-13. In the absence of nicotine, acetylcholine might be the biological ligand for α7-nAChRs to trigger airway mucus formation. α7-nAChRs are downstream of IL-13 but upstream of GABA(A)Rα2 in the MUC5AC pathway. Acetylcholine and α7-nAChRs might serve as therapeutic targets to control airway mucus. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Blockade of central nicotine acetylcholine receptor signaling attenuate ghrelin-induced food intake in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, S L; Hrabovszky, E; Hansson, C; Jerlhag, E; Alvarez-Crespo, M; Skibicka, K P; Molnar, C S; Liposits, Z; Engel, J A; Egecioglu, E

    2010-12-29

    Here we sought to determine whether ghrelin's central effects on food intake can be interrupted by nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) blockade. Ghrelin regulates mesolimbic dopamine neurons projecting from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens, partly via cholinergic VTA afferents originating in the laterodorsal tegmental area (LDTg). Given that these cholinergic projections to the VTA have been implicated in natural as well as drug-induced reinforcement, we sought to investigate the role of cholinergic signaling in ghrelin-induced food intake as well as fasting-induced food intake, for which endogenous ghrelin has been implicated. We found that i.p. treatment with the non-selective centrally active nAChR antagonist, mecamylamine decreased fasting-induced food intake in both mice and rats. Moreover, central administration of mecamylamine decreased fasting-induced food intake in rats. I.c.v. ghrelin-induced food intake was suppressed by mecamylamine i.p. but not by hexamethonium i.p., a peripheral nAChR antagonist. Furthermore, mecamylamine i.p. blocked food intake following ghrelin injection into the VTA. Expression of the ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1A, was found to co-localize with choline acetyltransferase, a marker of cholinergic neurons, in the LDTg. Finally, mecamylamine treatment i.p. decreased the ability of palatable food to condition a place preference. These data suggest that ghrelin-induced food intake is partly mediated via nAChRs and that nicotinic blockade decreases the rewarding properties of food. Copyright © 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nicotine Elevated Intracellular Ca2+ in Rat Airway Smooth Muscle Cells via Activating and Up-Regulating α7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Jiang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by airway remodeling with airway smooth muscle (ASM hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Since tobacco use is the key risk factor for the development of COPD and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i plays a major role in both cell proliferation and differentiation, we hypothesized that nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR activation plays a role in the elevation of [Ca2+]i in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs. Methods: We examined the expression of nAChR and characterized the functions of α7-nAChR in ASMCs. Results: RT-PCR analysis showed that α2-7, β2, and β3-nAChR subunits are expressed in rat ASMCs, with α7 being one of the most abundantly expressed subtypes. Chronic nicotine exposure increased α7-nAChR mRNA and protein expression, and elevated resting [Ca2+]i in cultured rat ASMCs. Acute application of nicotine evoked a rapid increase in [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner, and the response was significantly enhanced in ASMCs cultured with 1 µM nicotine for 48 hours. Nicotine-induced Ca2+ response was reversibly blocked by the α7-nAChR nicotinic antagonists, methyllycaconitine and α-bungarotoxin. Small interfering RNA suppression of α7-nAChR also substantially blunted the Ca2+ responses induced by nicotine. Conclusion: These observations suggest that nicotine elevates [Ca2+]i in ASMCs through α7-nAChR-mediated signals pathways, and highlight the possibility that α7-nAChR can be considered as a potential target for the treatment of airway remodeling.that nicotine elevates [Ca2+]i in ASMCs through α7-nAChR-mediated signals pathways, and highlight the possibility that α7-nAChR can be considered as a potential target for the treatment of airway remodeling.

  7. A role for α4(non-α6)* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soll, Lindsey G; Grady, Sharon R; Salminen, Outi; Marks, Michael J; Tapper, Andrew R

    2013-10-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing either the α4 and/or α6 subunit are robustly expressed in dopaminergic nerve terminals in dorsal striatum where they are hypothesized to modulate dopamine (DA) release via acetylcholine (ACh) stimulation from cholinergic interneurons. However, pharmacological blockade of nAChRs or genetic deletion of individual nAChR subunits, including α4 and α6, in mice, yields little effect on motor behavior. Based on the putative role of nAChRs containing the α4 subunit in modulation of DA in dorsal striatum, we hypothesized that mice expressing a single point mutation in the α4 nAChR subunit, Leu9'Ala, that renders nAChRs hypersensitive to agonist, would exhibit exaggerated differences in motor behavior compared to WT mice. To gain insight into these differences, we challenged WT and Leu9'Ala mice with the α4β2 nAChR antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE). Interestingly, in Leu9'Ala mice, DHβE elicited a robust, reversible motor impairment characterized by hypolocomotion, akinesia, catalepsy, clasping, and tremor; whereas the antagonist had little effect in WT mice at all doses tested. Pre-injection of nicotine (0.1 mg/kg) blocked DHβE-induced motor impairment in Leu9'Ala mice confirming that the phenotype was mediated by antagonism of nAChRs. In addition, SKF82958 (1 mg/kg) and amphetamine (5 mg/kg) prevented the motor phenotype. DHβE significantly activated more neurons within striatum and substantia nigra pars reticulata in Leu9'Ala mice compared to WT animals, suggesting activation of the indirect motor pathway as the circuit underlying motor dysfunction. ACh evoked DA release from Leu9'Ala striatal synaptosomes revealed agonist hypersensitivity only at α4(non-α6)* nAChRs. Similarly, α6 nAChR subunit deletion in an α4 hypersensitive nAChR (Leu9'Ala/α6 KO) background had little effect on the DHβE-induced phenotype, suggesting an α4(non-α6)* nAChR-dependent mechanism. Together, these data indicate

  8. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Mediates Nicotine-Induced Actin Cytoskeletal Remodeling and Extracellular Matrix Degradation by Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhizhan; Fonseca, Vera; Hai, Chi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a significant risk factor for atherosclerosis, which involves the invasion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from the media to intima. A hallmark of many invasive cells is actin cytoskeletal remodeling in the form of podosomes, accompanied by extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. A7r5 VSMCs form podosomes in response to PKC activation. In this study, we found that cigarette smoke extract, nicotine, and the cholinergic agonist, carbachol, were similarly effective in inducing the formation of podosome rosettes in A7r5 VSMCs. α-Bungarotoxin and atropine experiments confirmed the involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Western blotting and immunofluorescence experiments revealed the aggregation of nAChRs at podosome rosettes. Cycloheximide experiments and media exchange experiments suggested that autocrine factor(s) and intracellular phenotypic modulation are putative mechanisms. In situ zymography experiments indicated that, in response to PKC activation, nicotine-treated cells degraded ECM near podosome rosettes, and possibly endocytose ECM fragments to intracellular compartments. Invasion assay of human aortic smooth muscle cells indicated that nicotine and PKC activation individually and synergistically enhanced cell invasion through ECM. Results from this study suggest that nicotine enhances the ability of VSMCs to degrade and invade ECM. nAChR activation, actin cytoskeletal remodeling and phenotypic modulation are possible mechanisms. PMID:22940282

  9. Myasthenogenicity of the main immunogenic region and endogenous muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    OpenAIRE

    LUO, JIE; LINDSTROM, JON

    2011-01-01

    In myasthenia gravis (MG) and experimental autoimmune MG (EAMG) many pathologically significant autoantibodies are directed at the main immunogenic region (MIR), a conformation-dependent region at the extracellular tip of α1 subunits of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). Human muscle AChR α1 MIR sequences were integrated into Aplysia ACh binding protein (AChBP). The chimera was potent at inducing both acute and chronic EAMG, though less potent than Torpedo electric organ AChR. ...

  10. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene family of the honey bee, Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Andrew K.; Raymond-Delpech, Valerie; Thany, Steeve H.; Gauthier, Monique; Sattelle, David B.

    2006-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate fast cholinergic synaptic transmission and play roles in many cognitive processes. They are under intense research as potential targets of drugs used to treat neurodegenerative diseases and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Invertebrate nAChRs are targets of anthelmintics as well as a major group of insecticides, the neonicotinoids. The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is one of the most beneficial insects worldw...

  11. Bispyridinium Compounds Inhibit Both Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Human Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avi Ring

    Full Text Available Standard treatment of poisoning by organophosphorus anticholinesterases uses atropine to reduce the muscarinic effects of acetylcholine accumulation and oximes to reactivate acetylcholinesterase (the effectiveness of which depends on the specific anticholinesterase, but does not directly address the nicotinic effects of poisoning. Bispyridinium molecules which act as noncompetitive antagonists at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have been identified as promising compounds and one has been shown to improve survival following organophosphorus poisoning in guinea-pigs. Here, we have investigated the structural requirements for antagonism and compared inhibitory potency of these compounds at muscle and neuronal nicotinic receptors and acetylcholinesterase. A series of compounds was synthesised, in which the length of the polymethylene linker between the two pyridinium moieties was increased sequentially from one to ten carbon atoms. Their effects on nicotinic receptor-mediated calcium responses were tested in muscle-derived (CN21 and neuronal (SH-SY5Y cells. Their ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity was tested using human erythrocyte ghosts. In both cell lines, the nicotinic response was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner and the inhibitory potency of the compounds increased with greater linker length between the two pyridinium moieties, as did their inhibitory potency for human acetylcholinesterase activity in vitro. These results demonstrate that bispyridinium compounds inhibit both neuronal and muscle nicotinic receptors and that their potency depends on the length of the hydrocarbon chain linking the two pyridinium moieties. Knowledge of structure-activity relationships will aid the optimisation of molecular structures for therapeutic use against the nicotinic effects of organophosphorus poisoning.

  12. Selectivity optimization of substituted 1,2,3-triazoles as α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunrungvichian, Kuntarat; Fokin, Valery V; Vajragupta, Opa; Taylor, Palmer

    2015-08-19

    Three series of substituted anti-1,2,3-triazoles (IND, PPRD, and QND), synthesized by cycloaddition from azide and alkyne building blocks, were designed to enhance selectivity and potency profiles of a lead α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) agonist, TTIn-1. Designed compounds were synthesized and screened for affinity by a radioligand binding assay. Their functional characterization as agonists and antagonists was performed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay using cell lines expressing transfected cDNAs, α7-nAChRs, α4β2-nAChRs, and 5HT3A receptors, and a fluorescence cell reporter. In the IND series, a tropane ring of TTIn-1, substituted at N1, was replaced by mono- and bicyclic amines to vary length and conformational flexibility of a carbon linker between nitrogen atom and N1 of the triazole. Compounds with a two-carbon atom linker optimized binding with Kd's at the submicromolar level. Further modification at the hydrophobic indole of TTIn-1 was made in PPRD and QND series by fixing the amine center with the highest affinity building blocks in the IND series. Compounds from IND and PPRD series are selective as agonists for the α7-nAChRs over α4β2-nAChRs and 5HT3A receptors. Lead compounds in the three series have EC50's between 28 and 260 nM. Based on the EC50, affinity, and selectivity determined from the binding and cellular responses, two of the leads have been advanced to behavioral studies described in the companion article (DOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.5b00059).

  13. Theoretical investigation of interaction between the set of ligands and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Prytkova, T. R.; Shmygin, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are neuron receptor proteins that provide a transmission of nerve impulse through the synapses. They are composed of a pentametric assembly of five homologous subunits (5 α7 subunits for α7nAChR, for example), oriented around the central pore. These receptors might be found in the chemical synapses of central and peripheral nervous system, and also in the neuromuscular synapses. Transmembrane domain of the one of such receptors constitutes ion channel. The conductive properties of ion channel strongly depend on the receptor conformation changes in the response of binding with some molecule, f.e. acetylcholine. Investigation of interaction between ligands and acetylcholine receptor is important for drug design. In this work we investigate theoretically the interaction between the set of different ligands (such as vanillin, thymoquinone, etc.) and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (primarily with subunit of the α7nAChR) by different methods and packages (AutodockVina, GROMACS, KVAZAR, HARLEM, VMD). We calculate interaction energy between different ligands in the subunit using molecular dynamics. On the base of obtained calculation results and using molecular docking we found an optimal location of different ligands in the subunit.

  14. Allosteric modulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by physostigmine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Lucie; Krůšek, Jan; Hendrych, Tomáš; Vyskočil, František

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1048, - (2005), s. 355-358 ISSN 0077-8923 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/02/1213; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/02/1333; GA ČR(CZ) GD305/03/H148 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : nicotinic ACh receptor * serine * desensitization Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.971, year: 2005

  15. Sub-anesthetic concentrations of (R,S)-ketamine metabolites inhibit acetylcholine-evoked currents in α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaddel, Ruin; Abdrakhmanova, Galia; Kozak, Joanna; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Toll, Lawrence; Jimenez, Lucita; Rosenberg, Avraham; Tran, Thao; Xiao, Yingxian; Zarate, Carlos A; Wainer, Irving W

    2013-01-05

    The effect of the (R,S)-ketamine metabolites (R,S)-norketamine, (R,S)-dehydronorketamine, (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine and (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine on the activity of α7 and α3β4 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors was investigated using patch-clamp techniques. The data indicated that (R,S)-dehydronorketamine inhibited acetylcholine-evoked currents in α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, IC(50) = 55 ± 6 nM, and that (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine, (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine and (R,S)-norketamine also inhibited α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function at concentrations ≤ 1 μM, while (R,S)-ketamine was inactive at these concentrations. The inhibitory effect of (R,S)-dehydronorketamine was voltage-independent and the compound did not competitively displace selective α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands [(125)I]-α-bungarotoxin and [(3)H]-epibatidine indicating that (R,S)-dehydronorketamine is a negative allosteric modulator of the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. (R,S)-Ketamine and (R,S)-norketamine inhibited (S)-nicotine-induced whole-cell currents in cells expressing α3β4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, IC(50) 3.1 and 9.1 μM, respectively, while (R,S)-dehydronorketamine, (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine and (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine were weak inhibitors, IC(50) >100 μM. The binding affinities of (R,S)-dehydronorketamine, (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine and (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine at the NMDA receptor were also determined using rat brain membranes and the selective NMDA receptor antagonist [(3)H]-MK-801. The calculated K(i) values were 38.95 μM for (S)-dehydronorketamine, 21.19 μM for (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine and>100 μM for (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine. The results suggest that the inhibitory activity of ketamine metabolites at the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor may contribute to the clinical effect of the drug. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Agonist actions of clothianidin on synaptic and extrasynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on cockroach sixth abdominal ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thany, Steeve H

    2009-11-01

    Clothianidin is new neonicotinoid insecticide acting selectively on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Its effects on nAChRs expressed on cercal afferent/giant interneuron synapses and DUM neurons have been studied using mannitol-gap and whole-cell patch-clamp techniques, respectively. Bath-application of clothianidin-induced dose-dependent depolarizations of cockroach cercal afferent/giant interneuron synapses which were not reversed after wash-out suggesting a strong desensitization of postsynaptic interneurons at the 6th abdominal ganglion (A6). Clothinidin activity on the nerve preparation was characterized by an increased firing rate of action potentials which then ceased when the depolarization reached a peak. Clothianidin responses were insensitive to all muscarinic antagonists tested but were blocked by co-application of specific nicotinic antagonists methyllicaconitine, alpha-bungarotoxin and d-tubocurarine. In a second round of experiment, clothianidin actions were tested on DUM neurons isolated from the A6. There was a strong desensitization of nAChRs which was not affected by muscarinic antagonists, pirenzepine and atropine, but was reduced with nicotinic antagonist alpha-bungarotoxin. In addition, clothianidin-induced currents were completely blocked by methyllicaconitine suggesting that (1) clothianidin acted as a specific agonist of nAChR subtypes and (2) a small proportion of receptors blocked by MLA was insensitive to alpha-bungarotoxin. Moreover, because clothianidin currents were blocked by d-tubocurarine and mecamylamine, we provided that clothianidin was an agonist of both nAChRs: imidacloprid-sensitive nAChR1 and -insensitive nAChR2 subtypes.

  17. The Role of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus in Trace Fear Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Raybuck, J. D.; Gould, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    Acute nicotine enhances multiple types of learning including trace fear conditioning but the underlying neural substrates of these effects are not well understood. Trace fear conditioning critically involves the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, which both express nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Therefore, nicotine could act in either or both areas to enhance trace fear conditioning. To identify the underlying neural areas and nAChR subtypes, we examined the effects of inf...

  18. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in attention circuitry: the role of layer VI neurons of prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Eliane; Piva, Matthew; Tian, Michael K; Bailey, Craig D C; Lambe, Evelyn K

    2014-04-01

    Cholinergic modulation of prefrontal cortex is essential for attention. In essence, it focuses the mind on relevant, transient stimuli in support of goal-directed behavior. The excitation of prefrontal layer VI neurons through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors optimizes local and top-down control of attention. Layer VI of prefrontal cortex is the origin of a dense feedback projection to the thalamus and is one of only a handful of brain regions that express the α5 nicotinic receptor subunit, encoded by the gene chrna5. This accessory nicotinic receptor subunit alters the properties of high-affinity nicotinic receptors in layer VI pyramidal neurons in both development and adulthood. Studies investigating the consequences of genetic deletion of α5, as well as other disruptions to nicotinic receptors, find attention deficits together with altered cholinergic excitation of layer VI neurons and aberrant neuronal morphology. Nicotinic receptors in prefrontal layer VI neurons play an essential role in focusing attention under challenging circumstances. In this regard, they do not act in isolation, but rather in concert with cholinergic receptors in other parts of prefrontal circuitry. This review urges an intensification of focus on the cellular mechanisms and plasticity of prefrontal attention circuitry. Disruptions in attention are one of the greatest contributing factors to disease burden in psychiatric and neurological disorders, and enhancing attention may require different approaches in the normal and disordered prefrontal cortex.

  19. Activation of nicotinic receptors can contribute to endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine in the rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qian; Leung, Susan W S; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2012-06-01

    Acetylcholine causes endothelium-dependent relaxations in the rat aorta. Both muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in endothelial cells. It is generally accepted that mAChRs are responsible for the endothelium-dependent relaxations evoked by acetylcholine. The present study was designed to investigate whether nAChRs can also be involved in such responses evoked by the cholinergic transmitter. Rings with or without endothelium of aortae of spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) normotensive rats were suspended in organ chambers for the measurement of isometric tension. In WKY aortae the muscarinic antagonist atropine abolished the relaxations to increasing concentrations of acetylcholine, confirming that mAChRs are responsible mainly for the response under control conditions. In SHR aortae, atropine caused only partial inhibition of the endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine; the remaining decreases in tension were inhibited by the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine, which did not significantly affect the response in the absence of atropine in either SHR or WKY preparations. Thus, when mAChRs are inhibited, nAChRs mediate relaxation to the cholinergic transmitter in the SHR but not the WKY aorta. Nicotine, a direct agonist of the nicotinic receptor, induced endothelium-dependent relaxations in both SHR and WKY rats via the activation of α7-nAChRs, but not by mecamylamine-sensitive nicotinic receptors (α3 subtype). The acetylcholine-induced, atropine-insensitive relaxations and those to nicotine both involve the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway. The present study demonstrates that the activation of nAChRs can contribute to acetylcholine-induced, endothelium-dependent relaxations in the aortae of hypertensive animals and suggests that these receptors may contribute to the endothelium-dependent regulation of vascular tone.

  20. Chronic nicotine modifies skeletal muscle Na,K-ATPase activity through its interaction with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and phospholemman.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V Chibalin

    Full Text Available Our previous finding that the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR and the Na,K-ATPase interact as a regulatory complex to modulate Na,K-ATPase activity suggested that chronic, circulating nicotine may alter this interaction, with long-term changes in the membrane potential. To test this hypothesis, we chronically exposed rats to nicotine delivered orally for 21-31 days. Chronic nicotine produced a steady membrane depolarization of ∼3 mV in the diaphragm muscle, which resulted from a net change in electrogenic transport by the Na,K-ATPase α2 and α1 isoforms. Electrogenic transport by the α2 isoform increased (+1.8 mV while the activity of the α1 isoform decreased (-4.4 mV. Protein expression of Na,K-ATPase α1 or α2 isoforms and the nAChR did not change; however, the content of α2 subunit in the plasma membrane decreased by 25%, indicating that its stimulated electrogenic transport is due to an increase in specific activity. The physical association between the nAChR, the Na,K-ATPase α1 or α2 subunits, and the regulatory subunit of the Na,K-ATPase, phospholemman (PLM, measured by co-immuno precipitation, was stable and unchanged. Chronic nicotine treatment activated PKCα/β2 and PKCδ and was accompanied by parallel increases in PLM phosphorylation at Ser(63 and Ser(68. Collectively, these results demonstrate that nicotine at chronic doses, acting through the nAChR-Na,K-ATPase complex, is able to modulate Na,K-ATPase activity in an isoform-specific manner and that the regulatory range includes both stimulation and inhibition of enzyme activity. Cholinergic modulation of Na,K-ATPase activity is achieved, in part, through activation of PKC and phosphorylation of PLM.

  1. Iptakalim inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated currents in dopamine neurons acutely dissociated from rat substantia nigra pars compacta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J; DeChon, J; Yan, K C; Liu, Q; Hu, G; Wu, J

    2006-07-31

    Iptakalim hydrochloride, a novel cardiovascular ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel opener, has shown remarkable antihypertensive and neuroprotective effects in a variety of studies using in vivo and in vitro preparations. We recently found that iptakalim blocked human alpha4-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) heterologously expressed in the human SH-EP1 cell line. In the present study, we examined the effects of iptakalim on several neurotransmitter-induced current responses in single DA neurons freshly dissociated from rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), using perforated patch-clamp recordings combined with a U-tube rapid drug application. In identified DA neurons under voltage-clamp configuration, glutamate-, NMDA-, and GABA-induced currents were insensitive to co-application with iptakalim (100 microM), while whole-cell currents induced by ACh (1 mM+1 microM atropine) or an alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors relatively selective agonist, RJR-2403 (300 microM), were eliminated by iptakalim. Iptakalim inhibited RJR-2403-induced current in a concentration-dependent manner, and reduced maximal RJR-2403-induced currents at the highest agonist concentration, suggesting a non-competitive block. In current-clamp mode, iptakalim failed to affect resting membrane potential and spontaneous action potential firing, but abolished RJR-2403-induced neuronal firing acceleration. Together, these results indicate that in dissociated SNc DA neurons, alpha4-containing nAChRs, rather than ionotropic glutamate receptors, GABA(A) receptors or perhaps K-ATP channels are the sensitive targets to mediate iptakalim's pharmacological roles.

  2. Cyclic imine toxins from dinoflagellates: a growing family of potent antagonists of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molgó, Jordi; Marchot, Pascale; Aráoz, Rómulo; Benoit, Evelyne; Iorga, Bogdan I; Zakarian, Armen; Taylor, Palmer; Bourne, Yves; Servent, Denis

    2017-08-01

    We present an overview of the toxicological profile of the fast-acting, lipophilic macrocyclic imine toxins, an emerging family of organic compounds associated with algal blooms, shellfish contamination and neurotoxicity. Worldwide, shellfish contamination incidents are expanding; therefore, the significance of these toxins for the shellfish food industry deserves further study. Emphasis is directed to the dinoflagellate species involved in their production, their chemical structures, and their specific mode of interaction with their principal natural molecular targets, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or with the soluble acetylcholine-binding protein, used as a surrogate receptor model. The dinoflagellates Karenia selliformis and Alexandrium ostenfeldii / A. peruvianum have been implicated in the biosynthesis of gymnodimines and spirolides, while Vulcanodinium rugosum is the producer of pinnatoxins and portimine. The cyclic imine toxins are characterized by a macrocyclic skeleton comprising 14-27 carbon atoms, flanked by two conserved moieties, the cyclic imine and the spiroketal ring system. These phycotoxins generally display high affinity and broad specificity for the muscle type and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, a feature consistent with their binding site at the receptor subunit interfaces, composed of residues highly conserved among all nAChRs, and explaining the diverse toxicity among animal species. This is an article for the special issue XVth International Symposium on Cholinergic Mechanisms. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  3. Frequent occurrence of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in GABAergic neurons of the chick visual system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Torrão

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Double-labeling immunohistochemical methods were used to investigate the occurrence of the alpha8 and alpha5 nicotinic receptor subunits in presumptive GABAergic neurons of the chick nervous system. Nicotinic receptor immunoreactivity was often found in cells exhibiting GABA-like immunoreactivity, especially in the visual system. The alpha8 subunit appeared to be present in presumptive GABAergic cells of the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus, nucleus of the basal optic root of the accessory optic system, and the optic tectum, among several other structures. The alpha5 subunit was also found in GABA-positive neurons, as observed in the lentiform nucleus of the mesencephalon and other pretectal nuclei. The numbers of alpha8- and alpha5-positive neurons that were also GABA-positive represented high percentages of the total number of neurons containing nicotinic receptor labeling in several brain areas, which indicates that most of the alpha8 and alpha5 nicotinic receptor subunits are present in GABAergic cells. Taken together with data from other studies, our results indicate an important role of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the functional organization of GABAergic circuits in the visual system.

  4. A behavioral economic analysis of the value-enhancing effects of nicotine and varenicline and the role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Scott T; Geary, Trevor N; Steiner, Amy N; Bevins, Rick A

    2018-04-09

    Reinforcement value enhancement by nicotine of non-nicotine rewards is believed to partially motivate smoking behavior. Recently, we showed that the value-enhancing effects of nicotine are well characterized by reinforcer demand models and that the value-enhancing effects of the smoking-cessation aid bupropion (Zyban) are distinct from those of nicotine and differ between the sexes. The present study evaluated potential sex differences in the enhancement effects of nicotine and varenicline (Chantix) using a reinforcer demand methodology. The role of α4β2* and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the enhancing effects of nicotine and varenicline is also evaluated. Male and female rats (n=12/sex) were trained to lever press maintained by sensory reinforcement by visual stimulus (VS) presentations. Changes in the VS value following nicotine and varenicline administration were assessed using an established reinforcer demand approach. Subsequently, the effects of antagonism of α4β2* and α7 nAChRs on varenicline and nicotine-induced enhancement active lever-pressing were assessed using a progressive ratio schedule. Nicotine and varenicline enhanced VS demand equivalently between the sexes as evaluated by reinforcer demand. However, α4β2* receptor antagonism attenuated value enhancement by nicotine and varenicline in females, but only of nicotine in males.

  5. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine and opioid systems of the ventral orbital cortex in modulation of formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousofizadeh, Shahnaz; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Farshid, Amir Abbas

    2015-07-05

    Nicotinic acetylcholine and opioid receptors are involved in modulation of pain. In the present study, we investigated the effects of microinjection of nicotinic acetylcholine and opioid compounds into the ventral orbital cortex (VOC) on the formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats. For this purpose, two guide cannulas were placed into the left and right sides of the VOC of the brain. Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous injection of a diluted formalin solution (50μl, 1.5%) into the right vibrissa pad and face rubbing durations were recorded at 3-min blocks for 45min. Formalin produced a marked biphasic pain response (first phase: 0-3min and second phase: 15-33min). Epibatidine (a nicotinic receptor agonist) at doses of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2μg/site, morphine (an opioid receptor agonist) at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2μg/site and their sub-analgesic doses (0.025μg/site epibatidine with 0.25μg/site morphine) combination treatment suppressed the second phase of pain. The antinociceptive effect induced by 0.2μg/site of epibatidine, but not morphine (2μg/site), was prevented by 2μg/site of mecamylamine (a nicotinic receptor antagonist). Naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist) at a dose of 2μg/site prevented the antinociceptive effects induced by 2μg/site of morphine and 0.2μg/site of epibatidine. No above-mentioned chemical compounds affected locomotor activity. These results showed that at the VOC level, epibatidine and morphine produced antinociception. In addition, opioid receptor might be involved in epibatidine-induced antinociception, but the antinociception induced by morphine was not mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are important targets for alcohol reward and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Gao, Ming; Taylor, Devin H

    2014-03-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are important targets for alcohol reward and dependence. Alcoholism is a serious public health problem and has been identified as the third major cause of preventable mortality in the world. Worldwide, about 2 billion people consume alcohol, with 76.3 million having diagnosable alcohol use disorders. Alcohol is currently responsible for the death of 4% of adults worldwide (about 2.5 million deaths each year), and this number will be significantly increased by 2020 unless effective action is taken. Alcohol is the most commonly abused substance by humans. Ethanol (EtOH) is the intoxicating agent in alcoholic drinks that can lead to abuse and dependence. Although it has been extensively studied, the mechanisms of alcohol reward and dependence are still poorly understood. The major reason is that, unlike other addictive drugs (eg, morphine, cocaine or nicotine) that have specific molecular targets, EtOH affects much wider neuronal functions. These functions include phospholipid membranes, various ion channels and receptors, synaptic and network functions, and intracellular signaling molecules. The major targets in the brain that mediate EtOH's effects remain unclear. This knowledge gap results in a therapeutic barrier in the treatment of alcoholism. Interestingly, alcohol and nicotine are often co-abused, which suggests that neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the molecular targets for nicotine, may also contribute to alcohol's abusive properties. Here, we briefly summarize recent lines of evidence showing how EtOH modulates nAChRs in the mesolimbic pathway, which provides a perspective that nAChRs are important targets mediating alcohol abuse.

  7. Activation of a7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Prevents Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Osteoarthritis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Although some evidence suggests that the prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA is lower in smokers compared to nonsmokers, the mechanisms of nicotine-induced protection remain unclear. Stimulation of the a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (a7-nAChR appears to be a critical mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory potential of cholinergic agonists in immune cells. The inhibition of secreted inflammatory molecules and the subsequent inflammatory processes have been proposed as a novel strategy for the treatment of OA. The objective of the present study was to determine whether nicotine-induced protection in a monosodium iodoacetate (MIA rat model of OA occurs via a7-nAChR-mediated inhibition of chondrocytes. Methods: Both in vivo (MIA and in vitro (MIA; Interleukin-1ß, IL-1ß models of OA were used to investigate the roles and the possible mechanisms whereby a7-nAChRs protect against knee joint degradation. Multiple experimental approaches, including macroscopic, histological analysis, chondrocyte cell cultures, confocal microscopy, and western blotting, were employed to elucidate the mechanisms of a7-nAChR-mediated protection. Results: Systemic administration of nicotine alleviated MIA-induced joint degradation. The protective effects of nicotine were abolished by administration of the a7-nAChR-selective antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA. In primary cultured rat chondrocytes, pretreatment with nicotine suppressed both p38, extracellular regulated kinase (Erk 1/2 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK phosphorylation and phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65 activation induced by MIA- or IL-1ß, and these effects were also reversed by MLA. Conclusion: Taken together, our results suggest that activation a7-nAChRs is an important mechanism underlying the protective effects of nicotine.

  8. Unorthodox Acetylcholine Binding Sites Formed by α5 and β3 Accessory Subunits in α4β2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Akansha; Kuryatov, Alexander; Wang, Jingyi; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Lindstrom, Jon

    2016-11-04

    All nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) evolved from homomeric nAChRs in which all five subunits are involved in forming acetylcholine (ACh) binding sites at their interfaces. Heteromeric α4β2* nAChRs typically have two ACh binding sites at α4/β2 interfaces and a fifth accessory subunit surrounding the central cation channel. β2 accessory subunits do not form ACh binding sites, but α4 accessory subunits do at the α4/α4 interface in (α4β2) 2 α4 nAChRs. α5 and β3 are closely related subunits that had been thought to act only as accessory subunits and not take part in forming ACh binding sites. The effect of agonists at various subunit interfaces was determined by blocking homologous sites at these interfaces using the thioreactive agent 2-((trimethylammonium)ethyl) methanethiosulfonate (MTSET). We found that α5/α4 and β3/α4 interfaces formed ACh binding sites in (α4β2) 2 α5 and (α4β2) 2 β3 nAChRs. The α4/α5 interface in (β2α4) 2 α5 nAChRs also formed an ACh binding site. Blocking of these sites with MTSET reduced the maximal ACh evoked responses of these nAChRs by 30-50%. However, site-selective agonists NS9283 (for the α4/α4 site) and sazetidine-A (for the α4/β2 site) did not act on the ACh sites formed by the α5/α4 or β3/α4 interfaces. This suggests that unorthodox sites formed by α5 and β3 subunits have unique ligand selectivity. Agonists or antagonists for these unorthodox sites might be selective and effective drugs for modulating nAChR function to treat nicotine addiction and other disorders. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Intersubunit bridge formation governs agonist efficacy at nicotinic acetylcholine alpha4beta2 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Line Aagot Hede; Ahring, Philip Kiær; Jensen, Marianne Lerbech

    2012-01-01

    The a4ß2 subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been pursued as a drug target for treatment of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders and smoking cessation aids for decades. Still, a thorough understanding of structure-function relationships of a4ß2 agonists is lacking....... Using binding experiments, electrophysiology and X-ray crystallography we have investigated a consecutive series of five prototypical pyridine-containing agonists derived from 1-(pyridin-3-yl)-1,4-diazepane. A correlation between binding affinities at a4ß2 and the acetylcholine binding protein from...... Lymnaea stagnalis (Ls-AChBP) confirms Ls-AChBP as structural surrogate for a4ß2 receptors. Crystal structures of five agonists with efficacies at a4ß2 from 21-76% were determined in complex with Ls-AChBP. No variation in closure of loop C is observed despite large efficacy variations. Instead...

  10. Molecular characterization of off-target activities of telithromycin: a potential role for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Daniel; Bertrand, Sonia; Neveu, Estelle; Fernandes, Prabhavathi

    2010-12-01

    Adverse effects have limited the clinical use of telithromycin. Preferential inhibition of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) at the neuromuscular junction (α3β2 and NMJ), the ciliary ganglion of the eye (α3β4 and α7), and the vagus nerve innervating the liver (α7) could account for the exacerbation of myasthenia gravis, the visual disturbance, and the liver failure seen with telithromycin use. The studies presented here enable the prediction of expected side effects of macrolides in development, such as solithromycin (CEM-101).

  11. Nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone induce cyclooxygenase-2 activity in human gastric cancer cells: Involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and β-adrenergic receptor signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Vivian Yvonne; Jin, H.C.; Ng, Enders K.O.; Yu Jun; Leung, W.K.; Cho, C.H.; Sung, J.J.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) associates with cigarette smoke exposure in many malignancies. Nicotine and its derivative, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are the two important components in cigarette smoke that contributes to cancer development. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which nicotine or NNK promotes gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We found that nicotine and NNK significantly enhanced cell proliferation in AGS cells that expressed both alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) and β-adrenergic receptors. Treatment of cells with α-bungarotoxin (α-BTX, α7nAChR antagonist) or propranolol (β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) blocked NNK-induced COX-2/PGE 2 and cell proliferation, while nicotine-mediated cell growth and COX-2/PGE 2 induction can only be suppressed by propranolol, but not α-BTX. Moreover, in contrast to the dependence of growth promoting effect of nicotine on Erk activation, inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) repressed NNK-induced COX-2 upregulation and resulted in suppression of cell growth. In addition, nicotine and NNK mediated COX-2 induction via different receptors to modulate several G1/S transition regulatory proteins and promote gastric cancer cell growth. Selective COX-2 inhibitor (SC-236) caused G1 arrest and abrogated nicotine/NNK-induced cell proliferation. Aberrant expression of cyclin D1 and other G1 regulatory proteins are reversed by blockade of COX-2. These results pointed to the importance of adrenergic and nicotinic receptors in gastric tumor growth through MAPK/COX-2 activation, which may perhaps provide a chemoprevention strategy for cigarette smoke-related gastric carcinogenesis

  12. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphism, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Bojesen, Stig E; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    We examined the associations between the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphism (rs1051730) on chromosome 15q25 marking the gene cluster CHRNA3-CHRNB4-CHRNA5, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases in the general population.......We examined the associations between the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphism (rs1051730) on chromosome 15q25 marking the gene cluster CHRNA3-CHRNB4-CHRNA5, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases in the general population....

  13. Nicotine attenuates activation of tissue resident macrophages in the mouse stomach through the β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Nemethova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is an endogenous mechanism by which the autonomic nervous system attenuates macrophage activation via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR. This concept has however not been demonstrated at a cellular level in intact tissue. To this end, we have studied the effect of nicotine on the activation of resident macrophages in a mouse stomach preparation by means of calcium imaging. METHODS: Calcium transients ([Ca(2+]i in resident macrophages were recorded in a mouse stomach preparation containing myenteric plexus and muscle layers by Fluo-4. Activation of macrophages was achieved by focal puff administration of ATP. The effects of nicotine on activation of macrophages were evaluated and the nAChR involved was pharmacologically characterized. The proximity of cholinergic nerves to macrophages was quantified by confocal microscopy. Expression of β2 and α7 nAChR was evaluated by β2 immunohistochemistry and fluorophore-tagged α-bungarotoxin. RESULTS: In 83% of macrophages cholinergic varicose nerve fibers were detected at distances <900 nm. The ATP induced [Ca(2+]i increase was significantly inhibited in 65% or 55% of macrophages by 100 µM or 10 µM nicotine, respectively. This inhibitory effect was reversed by the β2 nAChR preferring antagonist dihydro-β-eryhtroidine but not by hexamethonium (non-selective nAChR-antagonist, mecamylamine (α3β4 nAChR-preferring antagonist, α-bungarotoxin or methyllycaconitine (both α7 nAChR-preferring antagonist. Macrophages in the stomach express β2 but not α7 nAChR at protein level, while those in the intestine express both receptor subunits. CONCLUSION: This study is the first in situ demonstration of an inhibition of macrophage activation by nicotine suggesting functional signaling between cholinergic neurons and macrophages in the stomach. The data suggest that the β2 subunit of the nAChR is critically involved in the nicotine-induced inhibition

  14. Cross-reactivity of acid-sensing ion channel and Na+–H+ exchanger antagonists with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Torres, Julio; Ślimak, Marta A; Auer, Sebastian; Ibañez-Tallon, Inés

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are widely distributed throughout the mammalian central and peripheral nervous systems, where they contribute to neuronal excitability and synaptic communication. It has been reported that nAChRs are modulated by BK channels and that BK channels, in turn, are inhibited by acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). Here we investigate the possible functional interaction between these channels in medial habenula (MHb) neurones. We report that selective antagonists of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and ASIC1a channels, paxilline and psalmotoxin 1, respectively, did not induce detectable changes in nicotine-evoked currents. In contrast, the non-selective ASIC and Na+–H+ exchanger (NHE1) antagonists, amiloride and its analogues, suppressed nicotine-evoked responses in MHb neurones of wild-type and ASIC2 null mice, excluding a possible involvement of ASIC2 in the nAChR inhibition by amiloride. Zoniporide, a more selective inhibitor of NHE1, reversibly inhibited α3β4-, α7- and α4-containing (*) nAChRs in Xenopus oocytes and in brain slices, as well as in PS120 cells deficient in NHE1 and virally transduced with nAChRs, suggesting a generalized effect of zoniporide in most neuronal nAChR subtypes. Independently from nAChR antagonism, zoniporide profoundly blocked synaptic transmission onto MHb neurones without affecting glutamatergic and GABA receptors. Taken together, these results indicate that amiloride and zoniporide, which are clinically used to treat hypertension and cardiovascular disease, have an inhibitory effect on neuronal nAChRs when used experimentally at high doses. The possible cross-reactivity of these compounds with nAChRs in vivo will require further investigation. PMID:21911609

  15. Monkey adrenal chromaffin cells express α6β4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Hernández-Vivanco

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs that contain α6 and β4 subunits have been demonstrated functionally in human adrenal chromaffin cells, rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, and on noradrenergic terminals in the hippocampus of adolescent mice. In human adrenal chromaffin cells, α6β4* nAChRs (the asterisk denotes the possible presence of additional subunits are the predominant subtype whereas in rodents, the predominant nAChR is the α3β4* subtype. Here we present molecular and pharmacological evidence that chromaffin cells from monkey (Macaca mulatta also express α6β4* receptors. PCR was used to show the presence of transcripts for α6 and β4 subunits and pharmacological characterization was performed using patch-clamp electrophysiology in combination with α-conotoxins that target the α6β4* subtype. Acetylcholine-evoked currents were sensitive to inhibition by BuIA[T5A,P6O] and MII[H9A,L15A]; α-conotoxins that inhibit α6-containing nAChRs. Two additional agonists were used to probe for the expression of α7 and β2-containing nAChRs. Cells with currents evoked by acetylcholine were relatively unresponsive to the α7-selctive agonist choline but responded to the agonist 5-I-A-85380. These studies provide further insights into the properties of natively expressed α6β4* nAChRs.

  16. The non-competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor APS12-2 is a potent antagonist of skeletal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandič, Marjana [Institute of Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbičeva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Aráoz, Romulo; Molgó, Jordi [CNRS, Institut de Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard, FRC 2118, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie et Développement, UPR 3294, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Turk, Tom; Sepčić, Kristina [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Večna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Benoit, Evelyne [CNRS, Institut de Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard, FRC 2118, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie et Développement, UPR 3294, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Frangež, Robert, E-mail: robert.frangez@vf.uni-lj.si [Institute of Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbičeva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-12-01

    APS12-2, a non-competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, is one of the synthetic analogs of polymeric alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS) isolated from the marine sponge Reniera sarai. In the present work the effects of APS12-2 were studied on isolated mouse phrenic nerve–hemidiaphragm muscle preparations, using twitch tension measurements and electrophysiological recordings. APS12-2 in a concentration-dependent manner blocked nerve-evoked isometric muscle contraction (IC{sub 50} = 0.74 μM), without affecting directly-elicited twitch tension up to 2.72 μM. The compound (0.007–3.40 μM) decreased the amplitude of miniature endplate potentials until a complete block by concentrations higher than 0.68 μM, without affecting their frequency. Full size endplate potentials, recorded after blocking voltage-gated muscle sodium channels, were inhibited by APS12-2 in a concentration-dependent manner (IC{sub 50} = 0.36 μM) without significant change in the resting membrane potential of the muscle fibers up to 3.40 μM. The compound also blocked acetylcholine-evoked inward currents in Xenopus oocytes in which Torpedo (α1{sub 2}β1γδ) muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been incorporated (IC{sub 50} = 0.0005 μM), indicating a higher affinity of the compound for Torpedo (α1{sub 2}β1γδ) than for the mouse (α1{sub 2}β1γε) nAChR. Our data show for the first time that APS12-2 blocks neuromuscular transmission by a non-depolarizing mechanism through an action on postsynaptic nAChRs of the skeletal neuromuscular junction. -- Highlights: ► APS12-2 produces concentration-dependent inhibition of nerve-evoked muscle contraction in vitro. ► APS12-2 blocks MEPPs and EPPs at the neuromuscular junction. APS12-2 blocks ACh-activated current in Xenopus oocytes incorporated with Torpedo nAChRs.

  17. The non-competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor APS12-2 is a potent antagonist of skeletal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandič, Marjana; Aráoz, Romulo; Molgó, Jordi; Turk, Tom; Sepčić, Kristina; Benoit, Evelyne; Frangež, Robert

    2012-01-01

    APS12-2, a non-competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, is one of the synthetic analogs of polymeric alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS) isolated from the marine sponge Reniera sarai. In the present work the effects of APS12-2 were studied on isolated mouse phrenic nerve–hemidiaphragm muscle preparations, using twitch tension measurements and electrophysiological recordings. APS12-2 in a concentration-dependent manner blocked nerve-evoked isometric muscle contraction (IC 50 = 0.74 μM), without affecting directly-elicited twitch tension up to 2.72 μM. The compound (0.007–3.40 μM) decreased the amplitude of miniature endplate potentials until a complete block by concentrations higher than 0.68 μM, without affecting their frequency. Full size endplate potentials, recorded after blocking voltage-gated muscle sodium channels, were inhibited by APS12-2 in a concentration-dependent manner (IC 50 = 0.36 μM) without significant change in the resting membrane potential of the muscle fibers up to 3.40 μM. The compound also blocked acetylcholine-evoked inward currents in Xenopus oocytes in which Torpedo (α1 2 β1γδ) muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been incorporated (IC 50 = 0.0005 μM), indicating a higher affinity of the compound for Torpedo (α1 2 β1γδ) than for the mouse (α1 2 β1γε) nAChR. Our data show for the first time that APS12-2 blocks neuromuscular transmission by a non-depolarizing mechanism through an action on postsynaptic nAChRs of the skeletal neuromuscular junction. -- Highlights: ► APS12-2 produces concentration-dependent inhibition of nerve-evoked muscle contraction in vitro. ► APS12-2 blocks MEPPs and EPPs at the neuromuscular junction. APS12-2 blocks ACh-activated current in Xenopus oocytes incorporated with Torpedo nAChRs.

  18. Biophysical and pharmacological characterization of α6-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in HEK293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Andreas H; Strøbæk, Dorte; Dyhring, Tino; Jensen, Marianne L; Peters, Dan; Grunnet, Morten; Timmermann, Daniel B; Ahring, Philip K

    2014-01-13

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR's) containing the α6 subunit (α6) are putative drug targets of relevance to Parkinson's disease and nicotine addiction. However, heterologous expression of α6 receptors has proven challenging which has stifled drug discovery efforts. Here, we investigate potential new avenues for achieving functional α6 receptor expression. Combinations of chimeric and mutated α6, β2 and β3 subunits were co-expressed in the human HEK293 cell line and receptor expression was assessed using Ca(2+)-imaging (FLIPR™) and whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. Transient transfections of a chimeric α6/α3 subunit construct in combination with β2 and β3(V9'S) gave rise to significant acetylcholine-evoked whole-cell currents. Increasing the β3(V9'S):β2:α6/α3 cDNA ratio, resulted in a significantly higher fraction of cells with robust current levels. Using an excess of wild-type β3, significant functional expression of α6/α3β2β3 was also demonstrated. Comparing the acetylcholine concentration-response relationship of α6/α3β2β3(V9'S) to that of α6/α3β2β3 revealed the β3 point mutation to result in decreased current decay rate and increased ACh agonist potency. Ca(2+)-imaging experiments showed preservation of basic α6 receptor pharmacology. Our results establish that α6/α3β2β3(V9'S) replicate several basic features of native α6 receptors but also highlight several caveats associated with using this construct and may therefore provide guidance for future drug hunting efforts. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Differential Contribution of Subunit Interfaces to α9α10 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffi, Juan Carlos; Marcovich, Irina; Gill-Thind, JasKiran K.; Corradi, Jeremías; Collins, Toby; Lipovsek, María Marcela; Moglie, Marcelo; Plazas, Paola V.; Craig, Patricio O.; Millar, Neil S.; Bouzat, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors can be assembled from either homomeric or heteromeric pentameric subunit combinations. At the interface of the extracellular domains of adjacent subunits lies the acetylcholine binding site, composed of a principal component provided by one subunit and a complementary component of the adjacent subunit. Compared with neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine cholinergic receptors (nAChRs) assembled from α and β subunits, the α9α10 receptor is an atypical member of the family. It is a heteromeric receptor composed only of α subunits. Whereas mammalian α9 subunits can form functional homomeric α9 receptors, α10 subunits do not generate functional channels when expressed heterologously. Hence, it has been proposed that α10 might serve as a structural subunit, much like a β subunit of heteromeric nAChRs, providing only complementary components to the agonist binding site. Here, we have made use of site-directed mutagenesis to examine the contribution of subunit interface domains to α9α10 receptors by a combination of electrophysiological and radioligand binding studies. Characterization of receptors containing Y190T mutations revealed unexpectedly that both α9 and α10 subunits equally contribute to the principal components of the α9α10 nAChR. In addition, we have shown that the introduction of a W55T mutation impairs receptor binding and function in the rat α9 subunit but not in the α10 subunit, indicating that the contribution of α9 and α10 subunits to complementary components of the ligand-binding site is nonequivalent. We conclude that this asymmetry, which is supported by molecular docking studies, results from adaptive amino acid changes acquired only during the evolution of mammalian α10 subunits. PMID:28069778

  20. Orthosteric and Allosteric Ligands of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors for Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasnim S. Mohamed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine addiction, the result of tobacco use, leads to over six million premature deaths world-wide, a number that is expected to increase by a third within the next two decades. While more than half of smokers want and attempt to quit, only a small percentage of smokers are able to quit without pharmacological interventions. Therefore, over the past decades, researchers in academia and the pharmaceutical industry have focused their attention on the development of more effective smoking cessation therapies, which is now a growing 1.9 billion dollar market. Because the role of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR in nicotine addiction is well established, nAChR based therapeutics remain the leading strategy for smoking cessation. However, the development of neuronal nAChR drugs that are selective for a nAChR subpopulation is challenging, and only few neuronal nAChR drugs are clinically available. Among the many neuronal nAChR subtypes that have been identified in the brain, the α4β2 subtype is the most abundant and plays a critical role in nicotine addiction. Here, we review the role of neuronal nAChRs, especially the α4β2 subtype, in the development and treatment of nicotine addiction. We also compare available smoking cessation medications and other nAChR orthosteric and allosteric ligands that have been developed with emphasis on the difficulties faced in the development of clinically useful compounds with high nAChR subtype selectivity.

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of new imaging agent for central nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subtype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Mikako; Nishiyama, Shingo; Tsukada, Hideo; Hatano, Kentaro; Fuchigami, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Matsushima, Yoshitaka; Ito, Kengo; Magata, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α7 subtype (α 7 nAChR) is one of the major nAChR subtypes in the brain. We synthesized C-11 labeled α 7 nAChR ligands, (R)-2-[ 11 C]methylamino-benzoic acid 1-aza-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl ester ([ 11 C](R)-MeQAA) and its isomer (S)-[ 11 C]MeQAA, for in vivo investigation with positron emission tomography (PET). Then, the potential of (R)- and (S)-[ 11 C]MeQAA for in vivo imaging of α 7 nAChR in the brain was evaluated in mice and monkeys. Methods: The binding affinity for α 7 nAChR was measured using rat brain. Biodistribution and in vivo receptor blocking studies were undertaken in mice. Dynamic PET scans were performed in conscious monkeys. Results: The affinity for α 7 nAChR was 41 and 182 nM for (R)- and (S)-MeQAA, respectively. The initial uptake in the mouse brain was high ([ 11 C](R)-MeQAA: 7.68 and [ 11 C](S)-MeQAA: 6.65 %dose/g at 5 min). The clearance of [ 11 C](R)-MeQAA was slow in the hippocampus (α 7 nAChR-rich region) but was rapid in the cerebellum (α 7 nAChR-poor region). On the other hand, the clearance was fast for [ 11 C](S)-MeQAA in all regions. The brain uptake of [ 11 C](R)-MeQAA was decreased by methyllycaconitine (α 7 nAChR antagonist) treatment. In monkeys, α 7 nAChRs were highly distributed in the thalamus and cortex but poorly distributed in the cerebellum. The high accumulation was observed in the cortex and thalamus for [ 11 C](R)-MeQAA, while the uptake was rather homogeneous for [ 11 C](S)-MeQAA. Conclusions: [ 11 C](R)-MeQAA was successfully synthesized and showed high uptake to the brain. However, since the in vivo selectivity for α 7 nAChR was not enough, further PET kinetic analysis or structure optimization is needed for specific visualization of brain α 7 nAChRs in vivo.

  2. Hippocampal α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor levels in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Weyn, Annelies; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2011-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is involved in cognitive function and synaptic plasticity. Consequently, changes in α7 nAChR function have been implicated in a variety of mental disorders, especially schizophrenia. However, there is little knowledge regarding the levels of the α7 n...

  3. NMR Structure and Action on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors of Water-soluble Domain of Human LYNX1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lyukmanova, E. N.; Shenkarev, Z. O.; Shulepko, M. A.; Mineev, K. S.; D´Hoedt, D.; Kasheverov, I. E.; Filkin, S. Yu.; Krivolapova, A. P.; Janíčková, Helena; Doležal, Vladimír; Dolgikh, D. A.; Arseniev, A. S.; Bertrand, D.; Tsetlin, V.I.; Kirpichnikov, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 286, č. 12 (2011), s. 10618-10627 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0681 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : NMR structure * nicotinic acetylcholine receptor * water-soluble domain Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.773, year: 2011

  4. The role of the a7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the acute toxicosis of methyllycaconitine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adverse physiological effects of methyllycaconitine (MLA) have been attributed to its competitive antagonism of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Recent research demonstrated a correlation between the LD50 of MLA and the amount of a7 nAChR in various mouse strains, suggesting that mice...

  5. The Actions of Piperidine Alkaloids at Fetal Muscle-Type and Autonomic-Type Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperidine alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Conium maculatum, Nicotiana spp., and Lupinus spp. A pharmacodynamic comparison was made of the alkaloids ammodendrine, anabasine, anabaseine, and coniine in; SH-SY5Y cells which express autonomic-type nicotinic acetylcholine recept...

  6. Activation and desensitization of peripheral muscle and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by selected, naturally-occurring pyridine alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teratogenic alkaloids can cause developmental defects due to inhibition of fetal movement that results from desensitization of fetal muscletype nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We investigated the ability of two known teratogens, the piperidinyl-pyridine anabasine and its 1,2-dehydropiper...

  7. Changes in Temperature Have Opposing Effects on Current Amplitude in alpha 7 and alpha 4 beta 2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindřichová, Marie; Lansdell, S. J.; Millar, N. S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2012), e32073 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : effect of temperature * nicotinic acetylcholine receptor * voltage- clamp recording Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  8. Lynx1 and Aβ1-42 bind competitively to multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Arvaniti, Maria; Jensen, Majbrit M

    2016-01-01

    Lynx1 regulates synaptic plasticity in the brain by regulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). It is not known to which extent Lynx1 can bind to endogenous nAChR subunits in the brain or how this interaction is affected by Alzheimer's disease pathology. We apply affinity purification...... to demonstrate that a water-soluble variant of human Lynx1 (Ws-Lynx1) isolates α3, α4, α5, α6, α7, β2, and β4 nAChR subunits from human and rat cortical extracts, and rat midbrain and olfactory bulb extracts, suggesting that Lynx1 forms complexes with multiple nAChR subtypes in the human and rodent brain....... Incubation with Ws-Lynx1 decreases nicotine-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in PC12 cells and striatal neurons, indicating that binding of Ws-Lynx1 is sufficient to inhibit signaling downstream of nAChRs. The effect of nicotine in PC12 cells is independent of α7 or α4β2 nACh...

  9. Acetylcholine release in mouse hippocampal CA1 preferentially activates inhibitory-selective interneurons via alpha4 beta2* nicotinic receptor activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Andrew Bell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh release onto nicotinic receptors directly activates subsets of inhibitory interneurons in hippocampal CA1. However, the specific interneurons activated and their effect on the hippocampal network is not completely understood. Therefore, we investigated subsets of hippocampal CA1 interneurons that respond to ACh release through the activation of nicotinic receptors and the potential downstream effects this may have on hippocampal CA1 network function. ACh was optogenetically released in mouse hippocampal slices by expressing the excitatory optogenetic protein oChIEF-tdTomato in medial septum/diagonal band of Broca cholinergic neurons using Cre recombinase-dependent adeno-associated viral mediated transfection. The actions of optogenetically released ACh were assessed on both pyramidal neurons and different interneuron subtypes via whole cell patch clamp methods. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP-expressing interneurons that selectively innervate other interneurons (VIP/IS were excited by ACh through the activation of nicotinic receptors containing alpah4 and beta2 subunits (alpha4 beta2*. ACh release onto VIP/IS was presynaptically inhibited by M2 muscarinic autoreceptors. ACh release produced spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (sIPSC barrages blocked by dihydro-beta-erythroidine in interneurons but not pyramidal neurons. Optogenetic suppression of VIP interneurons did not inhibit these sIPSC barrages suggesting other interneuron-selective interneurons were also excited by 42* nicotinic receptor activation. In contrast, interneurons that innervate pyramidal neuron perisomatic regions were not activated by ACh release onto nicotinic receptors. Therefore, we propose ACh release in CA1 facilitates disinhibition through activation of 42* nicotinic receptors on interneuron-selective interneurons whereas interneurons that innervate pyramidal neurons are less affected by nicotinic receptor activation.

  10. Super agonist actions of clothianidin and related compounds on the SAD beta 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Makoto; Matsuda, Kazuhiko; Shimomura, Masaru; Sattelle, David B; Komai, Koichiro

    2004-03-01

    To compare the actions of clothianidin, a neonicotinoid acting on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and related compounds with that of imidacloprid, the compounds were tested on the Drosophila SAD-chicken beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology. The maximum response of the SAD beta 2 nicotinic receptor to clothianidin was larger than that observed for acetylcholine. Ring breakage of the imidazolidine ring of imidacloprid resulting in the generation of a guanidine group was critical for this super agonist action.

  11. Nicotine promotes cell proliferation via α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes-mediated pathway in human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Helen Pui Shan; Yu Le; Lam, Emily Kai Yee; Tai, Emily Kin Ki; Wu, William Ka Kei; Cho, Chi Hin

    2007-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been implicated in colon cancer. Nicotine is a major alkaloid in cigarette smoke. In the present study, we showed that nicotine stimulated HT-29 cell proliferation and adrenaline production in a dose-dependent manner. The stimulatory action of nicotine was reversed by atenolol and ICI 118,551, a β 1 - and β 2 -selective antagonist, respectively, suggesting the role of β-adrenoceptors in mediating the action. Nicotine also significantly upregulated the expression of the catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes [tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase]. Inhibitor of TH, a rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine-biosynthesis pathway, reduced the actions of nicotine on cell proliferation and adrenaline production. Expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) was demonstrated in HT-29 cells. Methyllycaconitine, an α7-nAChR antagonist, reversed the stimulatory actions of nicotine on cell proliferation, TH and DβH expression as well as adrenaline production. Taken together, through the action on α7-nAChR nicotine stimulates HT-29 cell proliferation via the upregulation of the catecholamine-synthesis pathway and ultimately adrenaline production and β-adrenergic activation. These data reveal the contributory role α7-nAChR and β-adrenoceptors in the tumorigenesis of colon cancer cells and partly elucidate the carcinogenic action of cigarette smoke on colon cancer

  12. Structural characterization of binding mode of smoking cessation drugs to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors through study of ligand complexes with acetylcholine-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucktooa, Prakash; Haseler, Claire A; van Elk, René; Smit, August B; Gallagher, Timothy; Sixma, Titia K

    2012-07-06

    Smoking cessation is an important aim in public health worldwide as tobacco smoking causes many preventable deaths. Addiction to tobacco smoking results from the binding of nicotine to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain, in particular the α4β2 receptor. One way to aid smoking cessation is by the use of nicotine replacement therapies or partial nAChR agonists like cytisine or varenicline. Here we present the co-crystal structures of cytisine and varenicline in complex with Aplysia californica acetylcholine-binding protein and use these as models to investigate binding of these ligands binding to nAChRs. This analysis of the binding properties of these two partial agonists provides insight into differences with nicotine binding to nAChRs. A mutational analysis reveals that the residues conveying subtype selectivity in nAChRs reside on the binding site complementary face and include features extending beyond the first shell of contacting residues.

  13. An experimental study on (131I-CHIBA-1001: a radioligand for α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs play a vital role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and depression. However, there is currently no suitable positron emission tomography (PET or Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT radioligands for imaging α7 nAChRs in brain. Here our aim is to radiosynthesize a novel SPECT radioligand (131I-CHIBA-1001 for whole body biodistribution study and in vivo imaging of α7 nAChRs in brain. METHOD: (131I-CHIBA-1001 was radiosynthesized by chloramine-T method. Different conditions of reaction time and temperature were tested to get a better radiolabeling yield. Radiolabeling yield and radiochemical purities of (131I-CHIBA-1001 were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC system. Whole body biodistribution study was performed at different time points post injection of (131I-CHIBA-1001 in KM mice. Monkey subject was used for in vivo SPECT imaging in brain. RESULT: The radiolabeling yield of (131I-CHIBA-1001 reached 96% within 1.5∼2.0 h at 90∼95°C. The radiochemical purity reached more than 99% after HPLC purification. (131I-CHIBA-1001 was highly stable in saline and fresh human serum in room temperature and 37°C separately. The biodistribution data of brain at 15, 30, and 60 min were 11.05±1.04%ID/g, 8.8±0.04%ID/g and 6.28±1.13%ID/g, respectively. In experimental SPECT imaging, the distribution of radioactivity in the brain regions was paralleled with the distribution of α7 nAChRs in the monkey brain. Moreover, in the blocking SPECT imaging study, the selective α7 nAChR agonist SSR180711 blocked the radioactive uptake in the brain successfully. CONCLUSION: The CHIBA-1001 can be successfully radiolabeled with (131I using the chloramine-T method. (131I-CHIBA-1001 can successfully accumulate in the monkey brain and image the α7 acetylcholine receptors. (131I-CHIBA-1001 can be a

  14. alpha(7) Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation prevents behavioral and molecular changes induced by repeated phencyclidine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Christensen, Ditte Z; Hansen, Henrik H

    2009-01-01

    in a modified Y-maze test. Polymorphisms in the alpha(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene have been linked to schizophrenia. Here we demonstrate that acute administration of the selective alpha(7) nAChR partial agonist SSR180711 dose-dependently reversed the behavioral impairment induced by PCP......, and administration of the NMDA-antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) in rodents is a well validated model of such cognitive deficits. Here we show that repeated PCP treatment (10 mg/kg/day for 10 days) decreased the expression of parvalbumin and synaptophysin mRNA in the mouse PFC, which corresponds to changes seen....... Importantly, repeated co-administration of SSR180711 (3 mg/kg) with PCP prevented both the changes in parvalbumin, synaptophysin, and Arc mRNA expression in the PFC, and the behavioral impairment induced by PCP. These results are the first to demonstrate prevention of the deleterious effects induced...

  15. Sarsasapogenin reverses depressive-like behaviors and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors induced by olfactory bulbectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bo; Zhao, Xiao-Yang; Song, Yi-Zhou; Liang, Wen-Na; Liu, Ji-Liang

    2017-02-03

    Cholinergic signalling in the hippocampus may contribute to the aetiology of mood regulation. Antidepressants can reverse the increase in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity induced by olfactory bulbectomy. The activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) also alleviates the symptoms of depression. This study advances the development of sarsasapogenin, which interacts with cholinergic signalling and has a favourable antidepressant profile in olfactory bulbectomised (OB) rats. We examined OB-induced changes in cholinergic signalling, as well as AChE, α4-nAChR, and α7-nAChR expression in the hippocampus. The results indicate that abnormal cholinergic signalling in the hippocampus contributes to the development of depression in the OB rat model. This depression may be alleviated following treatment with sarsasapogenin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on human B-lymphoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skok M. V.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To find a correlation between the level of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR expression and B lymphocyte differentiation or activation state. Methods. Expression of nAChRs in the REH, Ramos and Daudi cell lines was studied by flow cytometry using nAChR subunit-specific antibodies; cell proliferation was studied by MTT test. Results. It is shown that the level of 42/4 and 7 nAChRs expression increased along with B lymphocyte differentiation (Ramos > REH and activation (Daudi > > Ramos and depended on the antigen-specific receptor expression. The nAChR stimulation/blockade did not influence the intensity of cell proliferation.

  17. Distinct neural pathways mediate alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent activation of the forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Hansen, Henrik H

    2010-01-01

    alpha(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists are candidates for the treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Selective alpha(7) nAChR agonists, such as SSR180711, activate neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens shell (ACCshell) in rats, regions......, as measured by c-Fos immunoreactivity, a marker of neuronal activation. Selective depletion of these cholinergic neurons abolishes the SSR180711-induced activation of the mPFC but not the ACCshell, demonstrating their critical importance for alpha(7) nAChR-dependent activation of the mPFC. Contrarily......, selective depletion of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area abolishes the SSR180711-induced activation of the ACCshell but not the mPFC or HDB. These results demonstrate 2 distinct neural pathways activated by SSR180711. The BF and mPFC are important for attentional function and may subserve...

  18. Natural Compounds Interacting with Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: From Low-Molecular Weight Ones to Peptides and Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Kudryavtsev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs fulfill a variety of functions making identification and analysis of nAChR subtypes a challenging task. Traditional instruments for nAChR research are d-tubocurarine, snake venom protein α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt, and α-conotoxins, neurotoxic peptides from Conus snails. Various new compounds of different structural classes also interacting with nAChRs have been recently identified. Among the low-molecular weight compounds are alkaloids pibocin, varacin and makaluvamines C and G. 6-Bromohypaphorine from the mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis does not bind to Torpedo nAChR but behaves as an agonist on human α7 nAChR. To get more selective α-conotoxins, computer modeling of their complexes with acetylcholine-binding proteins and distinct nAChRs was used. Several novel three-finger neurotoxins targeting nAChRs were described and α-Bgt inhibition of GABA-A receptors was discovered. Information on the mechanisms of nAChR interactions with the three-finger proteins of the Ly6 family was found. Snake venom phospholipases A2 were recently found to inhibit different nAChR subtypes. Blocking of nAChRs in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons was shown for venom C-type lectin-like proteins, appearing to be the largest molecules capable to interact with the receptor. A huge nAChR molecule sensible to conformational rearrangements accommodates diverse binding sites recognizable by structurally very different compounds.

  19. Natural compounds interacting with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from low-molecular weight ones to peptides and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Denis; Shelukhina, Irina; Vulfius, Catherine; Makarieva, Tatyana; Stonik, Valentin; Zhmak, Maxim; Ivanov, Igor; Kasheverov, Igor; Utkin, Yuri; Tsetlin, Victor

    2015-05-14

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) fulfill a variety of functions making identification and analysis of nAChR subtypes a challenging task. Traditional instruments for nAChR research are d-tubocurarine, snake venom protein α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt), and α-conotoxins, neurotoxic peptides from Conus snails. Various new compounds of different structural classes also interacting with nAChRs have been recently identified. Among the low-molecular weight compounds are alkaloids pibocin, varacin and makaluvamines C and G. 6-Bromohypaphorine from the mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis does not bind to Torpedo nAChR but behaves as an agonist on human α7 nAChR. To get more selective α-conotoxins, computer modeling of their complexes with acetylcholine-binding proteins and distinct nAChRs was used. Several novel three-finger neurotoxins targeting nAChRs were described and α-Bgt inhibition of GABA-A receptors was discovered. Information on the mechanisms of nAChR interactions with the three-finger proteins of the Ly6 family was found. Snake venom phospholipases A2 were recently found to inhibit different nAChR subtypes. Blocking of nAChRs in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons was shown for venom C-type lectin-like proteins, appearing to be the largest molecules capable to interact with the receptor. A huge nAChR molecule sensible to conformational rearrangements accommodates diverse binding sites recognizable by structurally very different compounds.

  20. Natural Compounds Interacting with Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: From Low-Molecular Weight Ones to Peptides and Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Denis; Shelukhina, Irina; Vulfius, Catherine; Makarieva, Tatyana; Stonik, Valentin; Zhmak, Maxim; Ivanov, Igor; Kasheverov, Igor; Utkin, Yuri; Tsetlin, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) fulfill a variety of functions making identification and analysis of nAChR subtypes a challenging task. Traditional instruments for nAChR research are d-tubocurarine, snake venom protein α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt), and α-conotoxins, neurotoxic peptides from Conus snails. Various new compounds of different structural classes also interacting with nAChRs have been recently identified. Among the low-molecular weight compounds are alkaloids pibocin, varacin and makaluvamines C and G. 6-Bromohypaphorine from the mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis does not bind to Torpedo nAChR but behaves as an agonist on human α7 nAChR. To get more selective α-conotoxins, computer modeling of their complexes with acetylcholine-binding proteins and distinct nAChRs was used. Several novel three-finger neurotoxins targeting nAChRs were described and α-Bgt inhibition of GABA-A receptors was discovered. Information on the mechanisms of nAChR interactions with the three-finger proteins of the Ly6 family was found. Snake venom phospholipases A2 were recently found to inhibit different nAChR subtypes. Blocking of nAChRs in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons was shown for venom C-type lectin-like proteins, appearing to be the largest molecules capable to interact with the receptor. A huge nAChR molecule sensible to conformational rearrangements accommodates diverse binding sites recognizable by structurally very different compounds. PMID:26008231

  1. Isotopic rubidium ion efflux assay for the functional characterization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on clonal cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukas, R.J.; Cullen, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    An isotopic rubidium ion efflux assay has been developed for the functional characterization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on cultured neurons. This assay first involves the intracellular sequestration of isotopic potassium ion analog by the ouabain-sensitive action of a sodium-potassium ATPase. Subsequently, the release of isotopic rubidium ion through nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-coupled monovalent cation channels is activated by application of nicotinic agonists. Specificity of receptor-mediated efflux is demonstrated by its sensitivity to blockade by nicotinic, but not muscarinic, antagonists. The time course of agonist-mediated efflux, within the temporal limitations of the assay, indicates a slow inactivation of receptor function on prolonged exposure to agonist. Dose-response profiles (i) have characteristic shapes for different nicotinic agonists, (ii) are described by three operationally defined parameters, and (iii) reflect different affinities of agonists for binding sites that control receptor activation and functional inhibition. The rubidium ion efflux assay provides fewer hazards but greater sensitivity and resolution than isotopic sodium or rubidium ion influx assays for functional nicotinic receptors

  2. Unraveling the high- and low-sensitivity agonist responses of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Kasper; Ahring, Philip K; Christensen, Jeppe K

    2011-01-01

    The neuronal a4ß2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors exist as two distinct subtypes, (a4)(2)(ß2)(3) and (a4)(3)(ß2)(2), and biphasic responses to acetylcholine and other agonists have been ascribed previously to coexistence of these two receptor subtypes. We offer a novel and radical explanation...... for the observation of two distinct agonist sensitivities. Using different expression ratios of mammalian a4 and ß2 subunits and concatenated constructs, we demonstrate that a biphasic response is an intrinsic functional property of the (a4)(3)(ß2)(2) receptor. In addition to two high-sensitivity sites at a4ß2...... interfaces, the (a4)(3)(ß2)(2) receptor contains a third low-sensitivity agonist binding site in the a4a4 interface. Occupation of this site is required for full activation and is responsible for the widened dynamic response range of this receptor subtype. By site-directed mutagenesis, we show that three...

  3. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in adult Brugia malayi muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A P; Buxton, S K; Martin, R J

    2013-12-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a debilitating disease caused by clade III parasites like Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti. Current recommended treatment regimen for this disease relies on albendazole, ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine, none of which targets the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in these parasitic nematodes. Our aim therefore has been to develop adult B. malayi for electrophysiological recordings to aid in characterizing the ion channels in this parasite as anthelmintic target sites. In that regard, we recently demonstrated the amenability of adult B. malayi to patch-clamp recordings and presented results on the single-channel properties of nAChR in this nematode. We have built on this by recording whole-cell nAChR currents from adult B. malayi muscle. Acetylcholine, levamisole, pyrantel, bephenium and tribendimidine activated the receptors on B. malayi muscle, producing robust currents ranging from >200 pA to ~1.5 nA. Levamisole completely inhibited motility of the adult B. malayi within 10 min and after 60 min, motility had recovered back to control values. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Selective potentiation of (α4)3(β2)2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors augments amplitudes of prefrontal acetylcholine- and nicotine-evoked glutamatergic transients in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupe, Morten; Paolone, Giovanna; Jensen, Anders A; Sandager-Nielsen, Karin; Sarter, Martin; Grunnet, Morten

    2013-11-15

    Prefrontal glutamate release evoked through activation of α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) situated on thalamic glutamatergic afferents mediates cue detection processes and thus contributes to attentional performance. However, little is known about the respective contributions of the high sensitivity and low sensitivity (LS) stoichiometries of the α4β2 nAChR, (α4)2(β2)3 and (α4)3(β2)2, to these processes. In the present study we employed glutamate-sensitive microelectrodes and the (α4)3(β2)2-selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM) NS9283 to investigate the importance of the LS α4β2 nAChR for glutamate release in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Firstly, the signaling evoked by physiologically relevant ACh concentrations through the (α4)3(β2)2 nAChR in HEK293 cells was potentiated by NS9283, consistent with the classification of NS9283 as a PAM. In urethane-anesthetized rats, intra-prefrontal pressure ejections of NS9283 evoked glutamatergic transients. Importantly, this glutamate release was attenuated by removal of cholinergic projections to the recording area. This finding indicates that the effects of NS9283 depend on endogenous ACh, again consistent with effects of a PAM. We then conducted microdialysis to demonstrate the presence of extracellular ACh in urethane-anesthetized control rats. While detectable, those levels were significantly lower than in awake rats. Finally, the amplitudes of glutamatergic transients evoked by local pressure ejections of a low concentration of nicotine were significantly augmented following systemic administration of NS9283 (3.0mg/kg). In conclusion, our results indicate that a LS α4β2 nAChR PAM such as NS9283 may enhance the cholinergic modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the cortex, thereby perhaps alleviating the attentional impairments common to a range of brain disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibition of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by cobra venom α-neurotoxins: is there a perspective in lung cancer treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Alama

    Full Text Available Nicotine exerts its oncogenic effects through the binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs and the activation of downstream pathways that block apoptosis and promote neo-angiogenesis. The nAChRs of the α7 subtype are present on a wide variety of cancer cells and their inhibition by cobra venom neurotoxins has been proposed in several articles and reviews as a potential innovative lung cancer therapy. However, since part of the published results was recently retracted, we believe that the antitumoral activity of cobra venom neurotoxins needs to be independently re-evaluated.We determined the activity of α-neurotoxins from Naja atra (short-chain neurotoxin, α-cobrotoxin and Naja kaouthia (long-chain neurotoxin, α-cobratoxin in vitro by cytotoxicity measurements in 5 lung cancer cell lines, by colony formation assay with α7nAChRs expressing and non-expressing cell lines and in vivo by assessing tumor growth in an orthotopic Non-Obese Diabetic/Severe Combined Immunodeficient (NOD/SCID mouse model system utilizing different treatment schedules and dosages.No statistically significant reduction in tumor growth was observed in the treatment arms in comparison to the control for both toxins. Paradoxically α-cobrotoxin from Naja atra showed the tendency to enhance tumor growth although, even in this case, the statistical significance was not reached.In conclusion our results show that, in contrast with other reports, the nAChR inhibitors α-cobratoxin from N. kaouthia and α-cobrotoxin from N. atra neither suppressed tumor growth nor prolonged the survival of the treated animals.

  6. Acetylcholine Attenuates Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Intracellular Calcium Dyshomeostasis Through Both Muscarinic and Nicotinic Receptors in Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palee, Siripong; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Shinlapawittayatorn, Krekwit; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress induced intracellular Ca2+ overload plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several heart diseases. Acetylcholine (ACh) has been shown to suppress reactive oxygen species generation during oxidative stress. However, there is little information regarding the effects of ACh on the intracellular Ca2+ regulation in the presence of oxidative stress. Therefore, we investigated the effects of ACh applied before or after hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment on the intracellular Ca2+ regulation in isolated cardiomyocytes. Single ventricular myocytes were isolated from the male Wistar rats for the intracellular Ca2+ transient study by a fluorimetric ratio technique. H2O2 significantly decreased both of intracellular Ca2+ transient amplitude and decay rate. ACh applied before, but not after, H2O2 treatment attenuated the reduction of intracellular Ca2+ transient amplitude and decay rate. Both atropine (a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor blocker) and mecamylamine (a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor blocker) significantly decreased the protective effects of acetylcholine on the intracellular Ca2+ regulation. Moreover, the combination of atropine and mecamylamine completely abolished the protective effects of acetylcholine on intracellular Ca2+ transient amplitude and decay rate. ACh pretreatment attenuates H2O2-induced intracellular Ca2+ dyshomeostasis through both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Acetylcholine-Binding Protein Engineered to Mimic the α4-α4 Binding Pocket in α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Reveals Interface Specific Interactions Important for Binding and Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahsavar, Azadeh; Ahring, Philip K; Olsen, Jeppe A

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are attractive drug targets for psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders and smoking cessation aids. Recently, a third agonist binding site between two α4 subunits in the (α4)(3)(β2)(2) receptor subpopulation was discovered. In particular, three...... specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor interfaces....... by introduction of three point mutations, R104H, L112Q, and M114T, into the binding pocket of Lymnaea stagnalis acetylcholine-binding protein (Ls-AChBP). Cocrystallization with two agonists possessing distinct pharmacologic profiles, NS3920 [1-(6-bromopyridin-3-yl)-1,4-diazepane] and NS3573 [1-(5-ethoxypyridin-3...

  8. Neuroprotection of rat retinal ganglion cells mediated through alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, K; Mata, D; Linn, D M; Linn, C L

    2013-05-01

    Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity is thought to play an important role in several neurodegenerative diseases in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, neuroprotection against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity was analyzed using acetylcholine (ACh), nicotine and the α7 specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) agonist, N-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl]-4-chlorobenzamide hydrochloride (PNU-282987), in cultured adult rat retinal neurons. Adult Long Evans rat retinas were dissociated and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were isolated from all other retinal tissue using a two-step panning technique. Once isolated, RGCs were cultured under various pharmacological conditions to demonstrate excitotoxicity and neuroprotection against excitotoxicity. After 3 days, RGCs were immunostained with antibodies against the glycoprotein, Thy 1.1, counted and cell survival was assessed relative to control untreated conditions. 500 μM glutamate induced excitotoxicity in large and small RGCs in an adult rat dissociated culture. After 3 days in culture with glutamate, the cell survival of large RGCs decreased by an average of 48.16% while the cell survival of small RGCs decreased by an average of 42.03%. Using specific glutamate receptor agonists and antagonists, we provide evidence that the excitotoxic response was mediated through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainic acid (KA) and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors through an apoptotic mechanism. However, the excitotoxic effect of glutamate on all RGCs was eliminated if cells were cultured for an hour with 10 μM ACh, 100 μM nicotine or 100 nM of the α7 nAChR agonist, PNU-282987, before the glutamate insult. Inhibition studies using 10nM methyllycaconitine (MLA) or α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt) supported the hypothesis that neuroprotection against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity on rat RGCs was mediated through α7 nAChRs. In immunocytochemical studies, double

  9. Rescue of amyloid-Beta-induced inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by a peptide homologous to the nicotine binding domain of the alpha 7 subtype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur A Nery

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by brain accumulation of the neurotoxic amyloid-β peptide (Aβ and by loss of cholinergic neurons and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs. Recent evidence indicates that memory loss and cognitive decline in AD correlate better with the amount of soluble Aβ than with the extent of amyloid plaque deposits in affected brains. Inhibition of nAChRs by soluble Aβ40 is suggested to contribute to early cholinergic dysfunction in AD. Using phage display screening, we have previously identified a heptapeptide, termed IQ, homologous to most nAChR subtypes, binding with nanomolar affinity to soluble Aβ40 and blocking Aβ-induced inhibition of carbamylcholine-induced currents in PC12 cells expressing α7 nAChRs. Using alanine scanning mutagenesis and whole-cell current recording, we have now defined the amino acids in IQ essential for reversal of Aβ40 inhibition of carbamylcholine-induced responses in PC12 cells, mediated by α7 subtypes and other endogenously expressed nAChRs. We further investigated the effects of soluble Aβ, IQ and analogues of IQ on α3β4 nAChRs recombinantly expressed in HEK293 cells. Results show that nanomolar concentrations of soluble Aβ40 potently inhibit the function of α3β4 nAChRs, and that subsequent addition of IQ or its analogues does not reverse this effect. However, co-application of IQ makes the inhibition of α3β4 nAChRs by Aβ40 reversible. These findings indicate that Aβ40 inhibits different subtypes of nAChRs by interacting with specific receptor domains homologous to the IQ peptide, suggesting that IQ may be a lead for novel drugs to block the inhibition of cholinergic function in AD.

  10. Selective down-regulation of α4β2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain of uremic rats with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesta, Juan J; del Pozo, Carlos; Castelló-Banyuls, Juan; Faura, Clara C

    2012-07-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors modulate cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. Pharmacological cholinergic enhancement is useful in patients with cognitive dysfunction. The major nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in the brain are heteromeric α4β2 and homomeric α7 receptors. To study the involvement of neuronal acetylcholine receptors in cognitive impairment in uremic rats, bilateral nephrectomy was performed. 24 weeks after nephrectomy, memory was assessed using the one trial step-down inhibitory avoidance test. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain were studied by radioligand binding, immunoprecipitation, Western blot and sucrose gradient experiments. We demonstrated that rats with severe renal failure show disorders of short term memory. Long term memory was not altered in these rats. The number of functional α4β2 heteromeric neuronal nicotinic receptors was decreased in the brains of rats with severe renal failure. There was a significant correlation between the degree of renal impairment and the number of heteromeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain. The down-regulation of functional α4β2 receptors in the brains of rats with severe renal failure was not due to a reduction of α4 or β2 subunit proteins. The number of α7 homomeric neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors was not altered. These findings may have important clinical significance for the management of cognitive impairment in patients with chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. PI3K/Akt-independent NOS/HO activation accounts for the facilitatory effect of nicotine on acetylcholine renal vasodilations: modulation by ovarian hormones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Y Gohar

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of chronic nicotine on cholinergically-mediated renal vasodilations in female rats and its modulation by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS/heme oxygenase (HO pathways. Dose-vasodilatory response curves of acetylcholine (0.01-2.43 nmol were established in isolated phenylephrine-preconstricted perfused kidneys obtained from rats treated with or without nicotine (0.5-4.0 mg/kg/day, 2 weeks. Acetylcholine vasodilations were potentiated by low nicotine doses (0.5 and 1 mg/kg/day in contrast to no effect for higher doses (2 and 4 mg/kg/day. The facilitatory effect of nicotine was acetylcholine specific because it was not observed with other vasodilators such as 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA, adenosine receptor agonist or papaverine. Increases in NOS and HO-1 activities appear to mediate the nicotine-evoked enhancement of acetylcholine vasodilation because the latter was compromised after pharmacologic inhibition of NOS (L-NAME or HO-1 (zinc protoporphyrin, ZnPP. The renal protein expression of phosphorylated Akt was not affected by nicotine. We also show that the presence of the two ovarian hormones is necessary for the nicotine augmentation of acetylcholine vasodilations to manifest because nicotine facilitation was lost in kidneys of ovariectomized (OVX and restored after combined, but not individual, supplementation with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and estrogen (E2. Together, the data suggests that chronic nicotine potentiates acetylcholine renal vasodilation in female rats via, at least partly, Akt-independent HO-1 upregulation. The facilitatory effect of nicotine is dose dependent and requires the presence of the two ovarian hormones.

  12. Structural differences in the two agonist binding sites of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor revealed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, K. L.; Corringer, P. J.; Edelstein, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo marmorata carries two nonequivalent agonist binding sites at the αδ and αγ subunit interfaces. These sites have been characterized by time-resolved fluorescence with the partial nicotinic agonist dansyl-C6-choline (Dnscho). When bound...

  13. Interaction of Synthetic Human SLURP-1 with the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durek, Thomas; Shelukhina, Irina V; Tae, Han-Shen; Thongyoo, Panumart; Spirova, Ekaterina N; Kudryavtsev, Denis S; Kasheverov, Igor E; Faure, Grazyna; Corringer, Pierre-Jean; Craik, David J; Adams, David J; Tsetlin, Victor I

    2017-11-30

    Human SLURP-1 is a secreted protein of the Ly6/uPAR/three-finger neurotoxin family that co-localizes with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and modulates their functions. Conflicting biological activities of SLURP-1 at various nAChR subtypes have been based on heterologously produced SLURP-1 containing N- and/or C-terminal extensions. Here, we report the chemical synthesis of the 81 amino acid residue human SLURP-1 protein, characterization of its 3D structure by NMR, and its biological activity at nAChR subtypes. Radioligand assays indicated that synthetic SLURP-1 did not compete with [ 125 I]-α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt) binding to human neuronal α7 and Torpedo californica muscle-type nAChRs, nor to mollusk acetylcholine binding proteins (AChBP). Inhibition of human α7-mediated currents only occurred in the presence of the allosteric modulator PNU120596. In contrast, we observed robust SLURP-1 mediated inhibition of human α3β4, α4β4, α3β2 nAChRs, as well as human and rat α9α10 nAChRs. SLURP-1 inhibition of α9α10 nAChRs was accentuated at higher ACh concentrations, indicating an allosteric binding mechanism. Our results are discussed in the context of recent studies on heterologously produced SLURP-1 and indicate that N-terminal extensions of SLURP-1 may affect its activity and selectivity on its targets. In this respect, synthetic SLURP-1 appears to be a better probe for structure-function studies.

  14. A model for short alpha-neurotoxin bound to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordvintsev, Dmitry Y; Polyak, Yakov L; Kuzmine, Dmitry A; Levtsova, Olga V; Tourleigh, Yegor V; Kasheverov, Igor E

    2006-01-01

    Short- and long-chain alpha-neurotoxins from snake venoms are potent blockers of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Short alpha-neurotoxins consist of 60-62 amino acid residues and include 4 disulfide bridges, whereas long alpha-neurotoxins have 66-75 residues and 5 disulfides. The spatial structure of these toxins is built by three loops, I-III "fingers," confined by four disulfide bridges; the fifth disulfide of long-chain alpha-neurotoxins is situated close to the tip of central loop II. An accurate knowledge of the mode of alpha-neurotoxin-nAChR interaction is important for rational design of new nAChR agonists and antagonists for medical purposes. Ideas on the topography of toxin-nAChR complexes were based until recently on nAChR interactions with selectively labeled alpha-neurotoxins, mutations in toxins, nAChR, or both. Recently, crystal structures have been solved for the Torpedo marmorata nAChR (4A[Unwin, 2005]) and for the acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) complexed with mollusk alpha-conotoxin (2.4 A[Celie et al., 2005]) or alpha-cobratoxin, long-chain alpha-neurotoxin (4 A [Bourne et al., 2005]). However, there were no angstrom-resolution models for complexes of short-chain alpha-neurotoxins. Here, we report the model of the Torpedo californica nAChR extracellular domain complexed to a short-chain alpha-neurotoxin II (NTII) from Naja oxiana cobra venom.

  15. Computational determination of the binding mode of α-conotoxin to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Nargis; Yu, Rilei; Jiang, Tao

    2016-12-01

    Conotoxins belong to the large families of disulfide-rich peptide toxins from cone snail venom, and can act on a broad spectrum of ion channels and receptors. They are classified into different subtypes based on their targets. The α-conotoxins selectively inhibit the current of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Because of their unique selectivity towards distinct nAChR subtypes, α-conotoxins become valuable tools in nAChR study. In addition to the X-ray structures of α-conotoxins in complex with acetylcholine-binding protein, a homolog of the nAChR ligand-binding domain, the high-resolution crystal structures of the extracellular domain of the α1 and α9 subunits are also obtained. Such structures not only revealed the details of the configuration of nAChR, but also provided higher sequence identity templates for modeling the binding modes of α-conotoxins to nAChR. This mini-review summarizes recent modeling studies for the determination of the binding modes of α-conotoxins to nAChR. As there are not crystal structures of the nAChR in complex with conotoxins, computational modeling in combination of mutagenesis data is expected to reveal the molecular recognition mechanisms that govern the interactions between α-conotoxins and nAChR at molecular level. An accurate determination of the binding modes of α-conotoxins on AChRs allows rational design of α-conotoxin analogues with improved potency or selectivity to nAChRs.

  16. Mode of action of the positive modulator PNU-120596 on α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Anett K; Pesti, Krisztina; Mike, Arpad; Vizi, E Sylvester

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the mode of action of PNU-120596, a type II positive allosteric modulator of the rat α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed by GH4C1 cells, using patch-clamp and fast solution exchange. We made two important observations: first, while PNU-120596 rapidly associated to desensitized receptors, it had at least hundredfold lower affinity to resting conformation, therefore at 10 μM concentration it dissociated from resting receptors; and second, binding of PNU-120596 slowed down dissociation of choline molecules from the receptor radically. We propose that when agonist concentration is transiently elevated in the continuous presence of the modulator (as upon the neuronal release of acetylcholine in a modulator-treated animal) these two elements together cause occurrence of a cycle of events: Binding of the modulator is limited in the absence of the agonist. When the agonist is released, it binds to the receptor, and induces desensitization, thereby enabling modulator binding. Modulator binding in turn traps the agonist within its binding site for a prolonged period of time. Once the agonist finally dissociated, the modulator can also dissociate without re-binding, and the receptor assumes its original resting conformation. In kinetic simulations this "trapped agonist cycle" mechanism did not require that the orthosteric and allosteric ligands symmetrically modify each other's affinity, only the modulator must decrease agonist accessibility, and the agonist must induce a conformation that is accessible to the modulator. This mechanism effectively prolongs and amplifies the effect of the agonist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Baroreflex deficiency aggravates atherosclerosis via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Liu, Dian-Hua; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, En-Hui; Liu, Chong; Su, Ding-Feng; Cai, Guo-Jun

    2016-12-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress play a key role in the initiation, propagation, and development of atherosclerosis. Arterial baroreflex (ABR) dysfunction induced by sinoaortic denervation (SAD) promoted the development of atherosclerosis in ApoE -/- mice. The present work was designed to examine whether ABR deficiency affected inflammation and oxidative stress via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) leading to the aggravation of atherosclerosis in mice. ApoE -/- mice were fed with a high-cholesterol diet for 6weeks and half of the mice received sinoaortic denervation that destroyed ABR. We studied the expression of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), α7nAChR and levels of inflammatory response and oxidative stress. The results showed that baroreflex dysfunction could promote atherosclerosis, meanwhile, decrease the expression of VAChT and α7nAChR and significantly increase the levels of oxidative stress and inflammation in SAD mice. After treated with PNU-282987 (a selective α7nAChR agonist, 0.53mg/kg/day) for 6weeks in SAD and Sham mice, we found that PNU-282987 could attenuate atherosclerosis and significantly decreased oxidative stress and inflammation after SAD. In addition, α7nAChR +/+ and α7nAChR -/- mice fed with a high-cholesterol diet for 8weeks were co-treated with ketanserin (0.6mg/kg/day), a drug that can enhance baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Ketanserin could alleviate atherosclerosis and markedly decrease oxidative stress and inflammation in α7nAChR +/+ mice. But there were no effects in α7nAChR knockout mice. Our results demonstrate that ABR dysfunction aggravates atherosclerosis in mice via the vagus-ACh-α7nAChR-inflammation and oxidative stress pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Modes of Action, Resistance and Toxicity of Insecticides Targeting Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Makoto; Buckingham, Steven D; Matsuda, Kazuhiko; Sattelle, David B

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of insects play a key role in fast excitatory neurotransmission. Several classes of insecticides target insect nAChRs, which are composed of subunit members of a family of multiple subunit encoding genes. Alternative splicing and RNA A-to-I editing can add further to receptor diversity. Native and recombinant receptors have been explored as sites of insecticide action using radioligands, electrophysiology and site-directed mutagenesis. We have reviewed the properties of native and recombinant insect nAChRs, the challenges of functional recombinant insect nAChR expression, nAChR interactions with ligands acting at orthosteric and allosteric sites and in particular their interactions with insecticides. Actions on insect nAChRs of cartap, neonicotinoids, spinosyns, sulfoxamines, butenolides and mesoionic insecticides are reviewed and current knowledge of their modes of action are addressed. Mutations that add to our understanding of insecticide action and those leading to resistance are discussed. Co-crystallisation of neonicotinoids with the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), a surrogate for the nAChR ligand binding domain, has proved instructive. Toxicity issues relating to insecticides targeting nAChRs are also considered. An overview of insecticide classes targeting insect nAChRs has enhanced our understanding of these important receptors and their insecticide binding sites. However, the subunit composition of native nAChRs remains poorly understood and functional expression still presents difficulties. These topics together with improved understanding of the precise sites of insecticide actions on insect nAChRs will be the subject of future research. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Nicotinic receptor activation contrasts pathophysiological bursting and neurodegeneration evoked by glutamate uptake block on rat hypoglossal motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, Silvia; Tortora, Maria; Nistri, Andrea

    2016-11-15

    Impaired uptake of glutamate builds up the extracellular level of this excitatory transmitter to trigger rhythmic neuronal bursting and delayed cell death in the brainstem motor nucleus hypoglossus. This process is the expression of the excitotoxicity that underlies motoneuron degeneration in diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis affecting bulbar motoneurons. In a model of motoneuron excitotoxicity produced by pharmacological block of glutamate uptake in vitro, rhythmic bursting is suppressed by activation of neuronal nicotinic receptors with their conventional agonist nicotine. Emergence of bursting is facilitated by nicotinic receptor antagonists. Following excitotoxicity, nicotinic receptor activity decreases mitochondrial energy dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress and production of toxic radicals. Globally, these phenomena synergize to provide motoneuron protection. Nicotinic receptors may represent a novel target to contrast pathological overactivity of brainstem motoneurons and therefore to prevent their metabolic distress and death. Excitotoxicity is thought to be one of the early processes in the onset of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) because high levels of glutamate have been detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of such patients due to dysfunctional uptake of this transmitter that gradually damages brainstem and spinal motoneurons. To explore potential mechanisms to arrest ALS onset, we used an established in vitro model of rat brainstem slice preparation in which excitotoxicity is induced by the glutamate uptake blocker dl-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartate (TBOA). Because certain brain neurons may be neuroprotected via activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by nicotine, we investigated if nicotine could arrest excitotoxic damage to highly ALS-vulnerable hypoglossal motoneurons (HMs). On 50% of patch-clamped HMs, TBOA induced intense network bursts that were inhibited by 1-10 μm nicotine, whereas nAChR antagonists

  20. Nicotinic receptor activation contrasts pathophysiological bursting and neurodegeneration evoked by glutamate uptake block on rat hypoglossal motoneurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, Silvia; Tortora, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Key points Impaired uptake of glutamate builds up the extracellular level of this excitatory transmitter to trigger rhythmic neuronal bursting and delayed cell death in the brainstem motor nucleus hypoglossus.This process is the expression of the excitotoxicity that underlies motoneuron degeneration in diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis affecting bulbar motoneurons.In a model of motoneuron excitotoxicity produced by pharmacological block of glutamate uptake in vitro, rhythmic bursting is suppressed by activation of neuronal nicotinic receptors with their conventional agonist nicotine. Emergence of bursting is facilitated by nicotinic receptor antagonists.Following excitotoxicity, nicotinic receptor activity decreases mitochondrial energy dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress and production of toxic radicals. Globally, these phenomena synergize to provide motoneuron protection.Nicotinic receptors may represent a novel target to contrast pathological overactivity of brainstem motoneurons and therefore to prevent their metabolic distress and death. Abstract Excitotoxicity is thought to be one of the early processes in the onset of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) because high levels of glutamate have been detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of such patients due to dysfunctional uptake of this transmitter that gradually damages brainstem and spinal motoneurons. To explore potential mechanisms to arrest ALS onset, we used an established in vitro model of rat brainstem slice preparation in which excitotoxicity is induced by the glutamate uptake blocker dl‐threo‐β‐benzyloxyaspartate (TBOA). Because certain brain neurons may be neuroprotected via activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by nicotine, we investigated if nicotine could arrest excitotoxic damage to highly ALS‐vulnerable hypoglossal motoneurons (HMs). On 50% of patch‐clamped HMs, TBOA induced intense network bursts that were inhibited by 1–10 μm nicotine

  1. State of the art on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function in learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Acetylcholine is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the insect brain and the most numerous acetylcholine receptors are the nicotinic ones (nAChRs). The genome sequencing of diverse insect species has demonstrated the existence of at least 10 nAChR genes coding for alpha and beta subunits, suggesting the existence in the insect CNS of several subtypes ofnAChRs whose molecular composition and pharmacological properties are still unknown. Insect nAChRs have given rise to an abundance of literature about their sensitivity to neonicotinoid insecticides but only limited data are available on the functional role of nAChRs in insect cognitive functions. The data we have collected on honeybees are the only data that shed light on the role of nAChRs in learning and memory processes. The behavioral response of proboscis extension (PER), which appears when the honeybee perceives sugar, was used to quantify learning and memory performances in associative and non-associative learning procedures. Habituation of the PER, which consists in ceasing to respond to sucrose upon repetitive antennal sucrose stimulation, was facilitated by the injection into the brain of one of the nicotinic antagonists mecamylamine, alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BGT) or methyllycaconitine (MLA). Pavlovian associative protocol was used to condition the PER to olfactory or tactile stimulus after single- or multiple-trial training. Localized brain injections of the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine were performed before or after one-trial olfactory learning in the mushroom bodies (MB), the integrative structures of the insect brain. The results showed that the calical input structures of the MB are necessary for the acquisition processes and the output a-lobe regions are involved in retrieval processes. Brain injection of one of the three nicotinic antagonists mecamylamine, alpha-BGT and MLA was combined with single- and multiple-trial olfactory and tactile learning and memory performances were

  2. Effects of cannabidiol on the function of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahgoub, Mohamed; Keun-Hang, Susan Yang; Sydorenko, Vadym; Ashoor, Abrar; Kabbani, Nadine; Al Kury, Lina; Sadek, Bassem; Howarth, Christopher F; Isaev, Dmytro; Galadari, Sehamuddin; Oz, Murat

    2013-11-15

    The effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive ingredient of cannabis plant, on the function of the cloned α7 subunit of the human nicotinic acetylcholine (α7 nACh) receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes were tested using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. CBD reversibly inhibited ACh (100 μM)-induced currents with an IC50 value of 11.3 µM. Other phytocannabinoids such as cannabinol and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol did not affect ACh-induced currents. CBD inhibition was not altered by pertussis toxin treatment. In addition, CBD did not change GTP-γ-S binding to the membranes of oocytes injected with α7 nACh receptor cRNA. The effect of CBD was not dependent on the membrane potential. CBD (10 µM) did not affect the activity of endogenous Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channels, since the extent of inhibition by CBD was unaltered by intracellular injection of the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA and perfusion with Ca(2+)-free bathing solution containing 2mM Ba(2+). Inhibition by CBD was not reversed by increasing ACh concentrations. Furthermore, specific binding of [(125)I] α-bungarotoxin was not inhibited by CBD (10 µM) in oocytes membranes. Using whole cell patch clamp technique in CA1 stratum radiatum interneurons of rat hippocampal slices, currents induced by choline, a selective-agonist of α7-receptor induced currents were also recoded. Bath application of CBD (10 µM) for 10 min caused a significant inhibition of choline induced currents. Finally, in hippocampal slices, [(3)H] norepinephrine release evoked by nicotine (30 µM) was also inhibited by 10 µM CBD. Our results indicate that CBD inhibits the function of the α7-nACh receptor. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Antagonist pharmacology of desensitizing and non-desensitizing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in cockroach neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Vincent L

    2016-09-01

    Two α-bungarotoxin-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor subtypes in neurons of the American cockroach have been identified as desensitizing (nAChD) and selectively inhibitable with 100nM imidacloprid, and non-desensitizing (nAChN) and selectively inhibitable with 100pM methyllycaconitine. In this paper, the single-electrode voltage-clamp technique was used to measure concentration-response relations for the action of ACh and five antagonists on pharmacologically separated nAChD and nAChN receptors of acutely dissociated neurons from thoracic ganglia of the American cockroach. A dual bath and U-tube perfusion system was used to achieve rapid application of ACh in the continued presence of antagonists, which was essential to accurately measure inhibition by rapidly-reversible antagonists. ACh activated both receptors with an EC 50 of 7μM and the antagonist potencies were (nAChD/nAChN in nM): dihydro-β-erythroidine: 1.0/5.6, d-tubocurarine: 1000/34, condelphine: 0.39/0.65, phencyclidine: 74/980 and mecamylamine 47/1150. While each of these antagonists displayed some subtype selectivity, none are selective enough to be used as subtype-selective tools. These results bring to a total of 16 the number of nicotinic compounds that have been measured on nAChD and nAChN currents. Characterization of these receptors is important for understanding the role of nAChRs in the insect nervous system and the mechanism of action of insecticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability in cigarette smokers: effect of heavy caffeine or marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Arthur L; Hubert, Robert; Mamoun, Michael S; Enoki, Ryutaro; Garcia, Lizette Y; Abraham, Paul; Young, Paulina; Mandelkern, Mark A

    2016-09-01

    Upregulation of α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is one of the most well-established effects of chronic cigarette smoking on the brain. Prior research by our group gave a preliminary indication that cigarette smokers with concomitant use of caffeine or marijuana have altered nAChR availability. We sought to determine if smokers with heavy caffeine or marijuana use have different levels of α4β2* nAChRs than smokers without these drug usages. One hundred and one positron emission tomography (PET) scans, using the radiotracer 2-FA (a ligand for β2*-containing nAChRs), were obtained from four groups of males: non-smokers without heavy caffeine or marijuana use, smokers without heavy caffeine or marijuana use, smokers with heavy caffeine use (mean four coffee cups per day), and smokers with heavy marijuana use (mean 22 days of use per month). Total distribution volume (Vt/fp) was determined for the brainstem, prefrontal cortex, and thalamus, as a measure of nAChR availability. A significant between-group effect was found, resulting from the heavy caffeine and marijuana groups having the highest Vt/fp values (especially for the brainstem and prefrontal cortex), followed by smokers without such use, followed by non-smokers. Direct between-group comparisons revealed significant differences for Vt/fp values between the smoker groups with and without heavy caffeine or marijuana use. Smokers with heavy caffeine or marijuana use have higher α4β2* nAChR availability than smokers without these drug usages. These findings are likely due to increased nicotine exposure but could also be due to an interaction on a cellular/molecular level.

  5. Activation and modulation of human α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by the neonicotinoids clothianidin and imidacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Ann, Jason; Akk, Gustav

    2011-08-01

    Neonicotinoids are synthetic, nicotine-derived insecticides used for agricultural and household pest control. Though highly effective at activating insect nicotinic receptors, many neonicotinoids are also capable of directly activating and/or modulating the activation of vertebrate nicotinic receptors. In this study, we have investigated the actions of the neonicotinoids clothianidin (CTD) and imidacloprid (IMI) on human neuronal α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The data demonstrate that the compounds are weak agonists of the human receptors with relative peak currents of 1-4% of the response to 1 mM acetylcholine (ACh). Coapplication of IMI strongly inhibited currents elicited by ACh. From Schild plot analysis, we estimate that the affinity of IMI for the human α4β2 receptor is 18 μM. The application of low concentrations of CTD potentiated responses to low concentrations of ACh, suggesting that receptors occupied by one ACh and one CTD molecule have a higher gating efficacy than receptors with one ACh bound. Interestingly, subunit stoichiometry affected inhibition by CTD, with (α4)(2) (β2)(3) receptors significantly more strongly inhibited than the (α4)(3) (β2)(2) receptors. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Effect of secondhand smoke on occupancy of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Arthur L; Mandelkern, Mark A; London, Edythe D; Khan, Aliyah; Kozman, Daniel; Costello, Matthew R; Vellios, Evan E; Archie, Meena M; Bascom, Rebecca; Mukhin, Alexey G

    2011-09-01

    Despite progress in tobacco control, secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure remains prevalent worldwide and is implicated in the initiation and maintenance of cigarette smoking. To determine whether moderate SHS exposure results in brain α(4)β(2)* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) occupancy. Positron emission tomography scanning and the radiotracer 2-[18F]fluoro-3-(2(S)azetidinylmethoxy) pyridine (also known as 2-[(18)F]fluoro-A-85380, or 2-FA) were used to determine α(4)β(2)* nAChR occupancy from SHS exposure in 24 young adult participants (11 moderately dependent cigarette smokers and 13 nonsmokers). Participants underwent two bolus-plus-continuous-infusion 2-FA positron emission tomography scanning sessions during which they sat in the passenger's seat of a car for 1 hour and either were exposed to moderate SHS or had no SHS exposure. The study took place at an academic positron emission tomography center. Main Outcome Measure  Changes induced by SHS in 2-FA specific binding volume of distribution as a measure of α(4)β(2)* nAChR occupancy. An overall multivariate analysis of variance using specific binding volume of distribution values revealed a significant main effect of condition (SHS vs control) (F(1,22) = 42.5, P effect. Exposure to SHS led to a mean 19% occupancy of brain α(4)β(2)* nAChRs (1-sample t test, 2-tailed, P < .001). Smokers had both a mean 23% increase in craving with SHS exposure and a correlation between thalamic α(4)β(2)* nAChR occupancy and craving alleviation with subsequent cigarette smoking (Spearman ρ = -0.74, P = .01). Nicotine from SHS exposure results in substantial brain α(4)β(2)* nAChR occupancy in smokers and nonsmokers. Study findings suggest that such exposure delivers a priming dose of nicotine to the brain that contributes to continued cigarette use in smokers. This study has implications for both biological research into the link between SHS exposure and cigarette use and public policy regarding the need

  7. α7-Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: role in early odor learning preference in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Hellier

    Full Text Available Recently, we have shown that mice with decreased expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 in the olfactory bulb were associated with a deficit in odor discrimination compared to wild-type mice. However, it is unknown if mice with decreased α7-receptor expression also show a deficit in early odor learning preference (ELP, an enhanced behavioral response to odors with attractive value observed in rats. In this study, we modified ELP methods performed in rats and implemented similar conditions in mice. From post-natal days 5-18, wild-type mice were stroked simultaneously with an odor presentation (conditioned odor for 90 s daily. Control mice were only stroked, exposed to odor, or neither. On the day of testing (P21, mice that were stroked in concert with a conditioned odor significantly investigated the conditioned odor compared to a novel odor, as observed similarly in rats. However, mice with a decrease in α7-receptor expression that were stroked during a conditioned odor did not show a behavioral response to that odorant. These results suggest that decreased α7-receptor expression has a role in associative learning, olfactory preference, and/or sensory processing deficits.

  8. Synthesis and 125I labelling of a precursor for imaging nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuxia; Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Zan Liangbiao; Liao Jiali; Jin Jiannan; Sichuan Univ., Chengdu

    2006-01-01

    Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors (nAChRs) are involved in various pharmacological effects or diseases, such as Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and tobacco addiction. It will be very appealing to image nAChRs in vivo, diagnose and treat the above diseases, and probe the mechanism of nAChRs in tobacco addiction if the suitable radioactive labeled compound can be synthesized. In this study, (s)-5-(tri-butylstannyl)-3{[1-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-2-azetidinyl]methoxy} pyridine, a precursor for imaging nAChRs, was synthesized with commercial 2-furfurylamine and (s)-2-azetidinecarboxylic acid as starting materials, and was further labeled with 125/123 I. The whole procedure for radiosynthesis needs 50-55 min and more than 30% of the 125 I are found in the purified 5-[ 125 I]-A-85380. Even staying for 3 days at room temperature in vitro, the purified 5-[ 125 I]-I-85380 can maintain its stability, with a radiochemical purity of more than 95%. (authors)

  9. Neonicotinoids target distinct nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and neurons, leading to differential risks to bumblebees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Christopher; Buckland, Stephen T.; Samson, Andrew J.; McArthur, Robin; Chamosa Pino, Victor; Bollan, Karen A.; Huang, Jeffrey T.-J.; Connolly, Christopher N.

    2016-04-01

    There is growing concern over the risk to bee populations from neonicotinoid insecticides and the long-term consequences of reduced numbers of insect pollinators to essential ecosystem services and food security. Our knowledge of the risk of neonicotinoids to bees is based on studies of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam and these findings are extrapolated to clothianidin based on its higher potency at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. This study addresses the specificity and consequences of all three neonicotinoids to determine their relative risk to bumblebees at field-relevant levels (2.5 ppb). We find compound-specific effects at all levels (individual cells, bees and whole colonies in semi-field conditions). Imidacloprid and clothianidin display distinct, overlapping, abilities to stimulate Kenyon cells, indicating the potential to differentially influence bumblebee behavior. Bee immobility was induced only by imidacloprid, and an increased vulnerability to clothianidin toxicity only occurred following chronic exposure to clothianidin or thiamethoxam. At the whole colony level, only thiamethoxam altered the sex ratio (more males present) and only clothianidin increased queen production. Finally, both imidacloprid and thiamethoxam caused deficits in colony strength, while no detrimental effects of clothianidin were observed. Given these findings, neonicotinoid risk needs to be considered independently for each compound and target species.

  10. Functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor reconstitution in Au(111)-supported thiolipid monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissinis, Diego E.; Diaz, Carolina; Maza, Eliana; Bonini, Ida C.; Barrantes, Francisco J.; Salvarezza, Roberto C.; Schilardi, Patricia L.

    2015-09-01

    The insertion and function of the muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in Au(111)-supported thiolipid self-assembled monolayers have been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and electrochemical techniques. It was possible for the first time to resolve the supramolecular arrangement of the protein spontaneously inserted in a thiolipid monolayer in an aqueous solution. Geometric supramolecular arrays of nAChRs were observed, most commonly in a triangular form compatible with three nAChR dimers of ~20 nm each. Addition of the full agonist carbamoylcholine activated and opened the nAChR ion channel, as revealed by the increase in capacitance relative to that of the nAChR-thiolipid system under basal conditions. Thus, the self-assembled system appears to be a viable biomimetic model to measure ionic conductance mediated by ion-gated ion channels under different experimental conditions, with potential applications in biotechnology and pharmacology.

  11. Gating of long-term potentiation by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the cerebellum input stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Prestori

    Full Text Available The brain needs mechanisms able to correlate plastic changes with local circuit activity and internal functional states. At the cerebellum input stage, uncontrolled induction of long-term potentiation or depression (LTP or LTD between mossy fibres and granule cells can saturate synaptic capacity and impair cerebellar functioning, which suggests that neuromodulators are required to gate plasticity processes. Cholinergic systems innervating the cerebellum are thought to enhance procedural learning and memory. Here we show that a specific subtype of acetylcholine receptors, the α7-nAChRs, are distributed both in cerebellar mossy fibre terminals and granule cell dendrites and contribute substantially to synaptic regulation. Selective α7-nAChR activation enhances the postsynaptic calcium increase, allowing weak mossy fibre bursts, which would otherwise cause LTD, to generate robust LTP. The local microperfusion of α7-nAChR agonists could also lead to in vivo switching of LTD to LTP following sensory stimulation of the whisker pad. In the cerebellar flocculus, α7-nAChR pharmacological activation impaired vestibulo-ocular-reflex adaptation, probably because LTP was saturated, preventing the fine adjustment of synaptic weights. These results show that gating mechanisms mediated by specific subtypes of nicotinic receptors are required to control the LTD/LTP balance at the mossy fibre-granule cell relay in order to regulate cerebellar plasticity and behavioural adaptation.

  12. Heteromeric α7β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jie; Liu, Qiang; Tang, Pei

    2016-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) is highly expressed in the brain, where it maintains various neuronal functions including (but not limited to) learning and memory. In addition, the protein expression levels of α7 nAChRs are altered in various brain disorders. The classic rule...... governing α7 nAChR assembly in the mammalian brain was that it was assembled from five α7 subunits to form a homomeric receptor pentamer. However, emerging evidence demonstrates the presence of heteromeric α7 nAChRs in heterologously expressed systems and naturally in brain neurons, where α7 subunits are co......-assembled with β2 subunits to form a novel type of α7β2 nAChR. Interestingly, the α7β2 nAChR exhibits distinctive function and pharmacology from traditional homomeric α7 nAChRs. We review recent advances in probing the distribution, function, pharmacology, pathophysiology, and stoichiometry of the heteromeric α7β2...

  13. alpha7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout selectively enhances ethanol-, but not beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, Nancyellen C; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2005-01-03

    The alpha7 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been implicated as a potential site of action for two neurotoxins, ethanol and the Alzheimer's disease related peptide, beta-amyloid. Here, we utilized primary neuronal cultures of cerebral cortex from alpha7 nAChR null mutant mice to examine the role of this receptor in modulating the neurotoxic properties of subchronic, "binge" ethanol and beta-amyloid. Knockout of the alpha7 nAChR gene selectively enhanced ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in a gene dosage-related fashion. Susceptibility of cultures to beta-amyloid induced toxicity, however, was unaffected by alpha7 nAChR gene null mutation. Further, beta-amyloid did not inhibit the binding of the highly alpha7-selective radioligand, [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin. On the other hand, in studies in Xenopus oocytes ethanol efficaciously inhibited alpha7 nAChR function. These data suggest that alpha7 nAChRs modulate the neurotoxic effects of binge ethanol, but not the neurotoxicity produced by beta-amyloid. It is hypothesized that inhibition of alpha7 nAChRs by ethanol provides partial protection against the neurotoxic properties of subchronic ethanol.

  14. Functional interaction of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and Na+/K+ ATPase from Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Haibo; Sun, Huahua; Xiao, Youxin; Zhang, Yixi; Wang, Xin; Xu, Xiaoyong; Liu, Zewen; Fang, Jichao; Li, Zhong

    2015-03-06

    Associated proteins are important for the correct functioning of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In the present study, a neonicotinoid-agarose affinity column was used to isolate related proteins from a solubilized membrane preparation from the nervous system of Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). 1530 peptides were identified and most of them were involved in the membranous structure, molecular interaction and cellular communication. Among these peptides, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase had the highest MASCOT score and were involved in the molecular interaction, which suggested that Na(+)/K(+) ATPase and nAChRs might have strong and stable interactions in insect central nervous system. In the present study, functional interactions between nAChRs and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase were examined by heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes. The results showed that the activated nAChRs increased pump currents of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, which did not require current flow through open nAChRs. In turn, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase significantly increased agonist sensitivities of nAChRs in a pump activity-independent manner and reduced the maximum current (Imax) of nAChRs. These findings provide novel insights concerning the functional interactions between insect nAChRs and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase.

  15. Mesoionic insecticides: a novel class of insecticides that modulate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoke, Caleb W; Cordova, Daniel; Zhang, Wenming; Barry, James D; Leighty, Robert M; Dietrich, Robert F; Rauh, James J; Pahutski, Thomas F; Lahm, George P; Tong, My-Hanh Thi; Benner, Eric A; Andreassi, John L; Smith, Rejane M; Vincent, Daniel R; Christianson, Laurie A; Teixeira, Luis A; Singh, Vineet; Hughes, Kenneth A

    2017-04-01

    As the world population grows towards 9 billion by 2050, it is projected that food production will need to increase by 60%. A critical part of this growth includes the safe and effective use of insecticides to reduce the estimated 20-49% loss of global crop yields owing to pests. The development of new insecticides will help to sustain this protection and overcome insecticide resistance. A novel class of mesoionic compounds has been discovered, with exceptional insecticidal activity on a range of Hemiptera and Lepidoptera. These compounds bind to the orthosteric site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and result in a highly potent inhibitory action at the receptor with minimal agonism. The synthesis, biological activity, optimization and mode of action will be discussed. Triflumezopyrim insect control will provide a powerful tool for control of hopper species in rice throughout Asia. Dicloromezotiaz can provide a useful control tool for lepidopteran pests, with an underexploited mode of action among these pests. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Early postnatal nicotine exposure disrupts the α2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated control of oriens-lacunosum moleculare cells during adolescence in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang; Nakauchi, Sakura; Su, Hailing; Tanimoto, Saki; Sumikawa, Katumi

    2015-01-01

    Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and maternal nicotine exposure in animal models are associated with cognitive impairments in offspring. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Oriens-lacunosum moleculare (OLM) cells expressing α2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are an important component of hippocampal circuitry, gating information flow and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region. Here we investigated whether early postnatal nicotine exposure alters the normal role of α2*-nAChR-expressing OLM cells during adolescence in rats. We found that early postnatal nicotine exposure significantly decreased not only the number of α2-mRNA-expressing interneurons in the stratum oriens/alveus, but also α2*-nAChR-mediated responses in OLM cells. These effects of nicotine were prevented by co-administration with the nonselective nAChR antagonist mecamylamine, suggesting that nicotine-induced activation, but not desensitization, of nAChRs mediates the effects. α2*-nAChR-mediated depolarization of OLM cells normally triggers action potentials, causing an increase in spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in synaptically connected pyramidal cells. However, these α2*-nAChR-mediated effects were profoundly reduced after early postnatal nicotine exposure, suggesting altered control of CA1 circuits by α2*-nAChR-expressing OLM cells. Furthermore, these effects were associated with altered excitatory neural activity and LTP as well as the loss of normal α2*-nAChR-mediated control of excitatory neural activity and LTP. These findings suggest the altered function of α2*-nAChR-expressing OLM cells as an important target of further study for identifying the mechanisms underlying the cognitive impairment induced by maternal smoking during pregnancy. PMID:26386153

  17. Calcium pathways such as cAMP modulate clothianidin action through activation of α-bungarotoxin-sensitive and -insensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas-List, Delphine; List, Olivier; Quinchard, Sophie; Thany, Steeve H

    2013-07-01

    Clothianidin is a neonicotinoid insecticide developed in the early 2000s. We have recently demonstrated that it was a full agonist of α-bungarotoxin-sensitive and -insensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in the cockroach dorsal unpaired median neurons. Clothianidin was able to act as an agonist of imidacloprid-insensitive nAChR2 receptor and internal regulation of cAMP concentration modulated nAChR2 sensitivity to clothianidin. In the present study, we demonstrated that cAMP modulated the agonist action of clothianidin via α-bungarotoxin-sensitive and insensitive receptors. Clothianidin-induced current-voltage curves were dependent to clothianidin concentrations. At 10 μM clothianidin, increasing cAMP concentration induced a linear current-voltage curve. Clothianidin effects were blocked by 0.5 μM α-bungarotoxin suggesting that cAMP modulation occurred through α-bungarotoxin-sensitive receptors. At 1 mM clothianidin, cAMP effects were associated to α-bungarotoxin-insensitive receptors because clothianidin-induced currents were blocked by 5 μM mecamylamine and 20 μM d-tubocurarine. In addition, we found that application of 1mM clothianidin induced a strong increase of intracellular calcium concentration. These data reinforced the finding that calcium pathways including cAMP modulated clothianidin action on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. We proposed that intracellular calcium pathways such as cAMP could be a target to modulate the mode of action of neonicotinoid insecticides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential Modulation of GABAA and NMDA Receptors by an α7-nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist in Chronic Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xujiao Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Presynaptic modulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA release by an alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR agonist promotes retinal ganglion cell (RGC survival and function, as suggested by a previous study on a chronic glaucomatous model from our laboratory. However, the role of excitatory and inhibitory amino acid receptors and their interaction with α7-nAChR in physiological and glaucomatous events remains unknown. In this study, we investigated GABAA and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor activity in control and glaucomatous retinal slices and the regulation of amino acid receptor expression and function by α7-nAChR. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from RGCs revealed that the α7-nAChR specific agonist PNU-282987 enhanced the amplitude of currents elicited by GABA and reduced the amplitude of currents elicited by NMDA. The positive modulation of GABAA receptor and the negative modulation of NMDA receptor (NMDAR by PNU-282987-evoked were prevented by pre-administration of the α7-nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA. The frequency and the amplitude of glutamate receptor-mediated miniature glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs were not significantly different between the control and glaucomatous RGCs. Additionally, PNU-282987-treated slices showed no alteration in the frequency or amplitude of mEPSCs relative to control RGCs. Moreover, we showed that expression of the α1 subunit of the GABAA receptor was downregulated and the expression of the NMDAR NR2B subunit was upregulated by intraocular pressure (IOP elevation, and the changes of high IOP were blocked by PNU-282987. In conclusion, retina GABAA and NMDARs are modulated positively and negatively, respectively, by activation of α7-nAChR in in vivo chronic glaucomatous models.

  19. Mechanisms involved in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-induced neurotransmitter release from sympathetic nerve terminals in the mouse vas deferens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian J Williams

    Full Text Available Prejunctional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs amplify postganglionic sympathetic neurotransmission, and there are indications that intraterminal Ca(2+ stores might be involved. However, the mechanisms by which nAChR activation stimulates neurotransmitter release at such junctions is unknown. Rapid local delivery (picospritzing of the nAChR agonist epibatidine was combined with intracellular sharp microelectrode recording to monitor spontaneous and field-stimulation-evoked neurotransmitter release from sympathetic nerve terminals in the mouse isolated vas deferens. Locally applied epibatidine (1 µM produced 'epibatidine-induced depolarisations' (EIDs that were similar in shape to spontaneous excitatory junction potentials (SEJPs and were abolished by nonselective nAChR antagonists and the purinergic desensitizing agonist α,β-methylene ATP. The amplitude distribution of EIDs was only slightly shifted towards lower amplitudes by the selective α7 nAChR antagonists α-bungarotoxin and methyllcaconitine, the voltage-gated Na(+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin or by blocking voltage-gated Ca(2+ channels with Cd(2+. Lowering the extracellular Ca(2+ concentration reduced the frequency of EIDs by 69%, but more surprisingly, the Ca(2+-induced Ca(2+ release blocker ryanodine greatly decreased the amplitude (by 41% and the frequency of EIDs by 36%. Ryanodine had no effect on electrically-evoked neurotransmitter release, paired-pulse facilitation, SEJP frequency, SEJP amplitude or SEJP amplitude distribution. These results show that activation of non-α7 nAChRs on sympathetic postganglionic nerve terminals induces high-amplitude junctional potentials that are argued to represent multipacketed neurotransmitter release synchronized by intraterminal Ca(2+-induced Ca(2+ release, triggered by Ca(2+ influx directly through the nAChR. This nAChR-induced neurotransmitter release can be targeted pharmacologically without affecting spontaneous or electrically

  20. Neonicotinoid binding, toxicity and expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

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    Emiliane Taillebois

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and are particularly effective against sucking pests. They are widely used in crops protection to fight against aphids, which cause severe damage. In the present study we evaluated the susceptibility of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum to the commonly used neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid (IMI, thiamethoxam (TMX and clothianidin (CLT. Binding studies on aphid membrane preparations revealed the existence of high and low-affinity binding sites for [3H]-IMI (Kd of 0.16 ± 0.04 nM and 41.7 ± 5.9 nM and for the nicotinic antagonist [125I]-α-bungarotoxin (Kd of 0.008 ± 0.002 nM and 1.135 ± 0.213 nM. Competitive binding experiments demonstrated that TMX displayed a higher affinity than IMI for [125I]-α-bungarotoxin binding sites while CLT affinity was similar for both [125I]-α-bungarotoxin and [3H]-IMI binding sites. Interestingly, toxicological studies revealed that at 48 h, IMI (LC50 = 0.038 µg/ml and TMX (LC50 = 0.034 µg/ml were more toxic than CLT (LC50 = 0.118 µg/ml. The effect of TMX could be associated to its metabolite CLT as demonstrated by HPLC/MS analysis. In addition, we found that aphid larvae treated either with IMI, TMX or CLT showed a strong variation of nAChR subunit expression. Using semi-quantitative PCR experiments, we detected for all insecticides an increase of Apisumα10 and Apisumβ1 expressions levels, whereas Apisumβ2 expression decreased. Moreover, some other receptor subunits seemed to be differently regulated according to the insecticide used. Finally, we also demonstrated that nAChR subunit expression differed during pea aphid development. Altogether these results highlight species specificity that should be taken into account in pest management strategies.

  1. Neonicotinoid Binding, Toxicity and Expression of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subunits in the Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillebois, Emiliane; Beloula, Abdelhamid; Quinchard, Sophie; Jaubert-Possamai, Stéphanie; Daguin, Antoine; Servent, Denis; Tagu, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and are particularly effective against sucking pests. They are widely used in crops protection to fight against aphids, which cause severe damage. In the present study we evaluated the susceptibility of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum to the commonly used neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid (IMI), thiamethoxam (TMX) and clothianidin (CLT). Binding studies on aphid membrane preparations revealed the existence of high and low-affinity binding sites for [3H]-IMI (Kd of 0.16±0.04 nM and 41.7±5.9 nM) and for the nicotinic antagonist [125I]-α-bungarotoxin (Kd of 0.008±0.002 nM and 1.135±0.213 nM). Competitive binding experiments demonstrated that TMX displayed a higher affinity than IMI for [125I]-α-bungarotoxin binding sites while CLT affinity was similar for both [125I]-α-bungarotoxin and [3H]-IMI binding sites. Interestingly, toxicological studies revealed that at 48 h, IMI (LC50 = 0.038 µg/ml) and TMX (LC50 = 0.034 µg/ml) were more toxic than CLT (LC50 = 0.118 µg/ml). The effect of TMX could be associated to its metabolite CLT as demonstrated by HPLC/MS analysis. In addition, we found that aphid larvae treated either with IMI, TMX or CLT showed a strong variation of nAChR subunit expression. Using semi-quantitative PCR experiments, we detected for all insecticides an increase of Apisumα10 and Apisumβ1 expressions levels, whereas Apisumβ2 expression decreased. Moreover, some other receptor subunits seemed to be differently regulated according to the insecticide used. Finally, we also demonstrated that nAChR subunit expression differed during pea aphid development. Altogether these results highlight species specificity that should be taken into account in pest management strategies. PMID:24801634

  2. Potential of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor PET imaging in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswijk, Ellen; Bauwens, Matthias; Mottaghy, Felix M; Wildberger, Joachim E; Bucerius, Jan

    2017-11-01

    Atherosclerotic events are usually acute and often strike otherwise asymptomatic patients. Although multiple clinical risk factors have been associated with atherosclerosis, as of yet no further individual prediction can be made as to who will suffer from its consequences based on biomarker analysis or traditional imaging methods like CT, MRI or angiography. Previously, non-invasive imaging with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) PET was shown to potentially fill this niche as it offers high sensitive detection of metabolic processes associated with inflammatory changes in atherosclerotic plaques. However, 18 F-FDG PET imaging of arterial vessels suffers from non-specificity and has still to be proven to reliably identify vulnerable plaques, carrying a high risk of rupture. Therefore, it may be regarded only as a secondary marker for monitoring treatment effects and it does not offer alternative treatment options or direct insight in treatment mechanisms. In this review, an overview is given of the current status and the potential of PET imaging of inflammation and angiogenesis in atherosclerosis in general and special emphasis is given to imaging of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs). Due to the gaps that still exist in our understanding of atherogenesis and the limitations of the available PET tracers, the search continues for a more specific radioligand, able to differentiate between stable atherosclerosis and plaques prone to rupture. The potential role of the α7 nAChR as imaging marker for plaque vulnerability is explored. Today, strong evidence exists that nAChRs are involved in the atherosclerotic disease process. They are suggested to mediate the deleterious effects of the major tobacco component, nicotine, a nAChR agonist. Mainly based on in vitro data, α7 nAChR stimulation might increase plaque burden via increased neovascularization. However, in animal studies, α7 nAChR manipulation appears to reduce plaque size due to its inhibitory

  3. Re-evaluation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in rat brain by a tissue-segment binding assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Hsien Wang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs of cerebral cortex and cerebellum of rats were evaluated by a radioligand binding assay, employing tissue segments or homogenates as materials. [3H]-epibatidine specifically bound to nAChRs in rat cortex or cerebellum, but the dissociation constants for [3H]-epibatidine differed between segments and homogenates (187 and 42 pM in cortex, and 160 and 84 pM in cerebellum, respectively. The abundance of total nAChRs was approximately 310 and 170 fmol/mg protein in the segments of cortex and cerebellum, respectively, which were significantly higher than those (115 and 76 fmol/mg protein estimated in the homogenates of cortex and cerebellum. Most of [3H]-epibatidine binding sites in the cortex segments (approximately 70 % in population showed high affinity for nicotine, dihydro--erythroidine or cytisine, but the binding sites in cerebellum segments were mostly low affinity for nicotine. An upregulation of nAChRs by chronic administration of nicotine was observed in the cortex segments but was not in the cerebellum segments with [3H]-epibatidine as a ligand. The upregulation in the cortex was caused by a specific increase in high affinity sites for nicotine. The present study shows that tissue integrity is important for a precise quantitative as well as qualitative estimation of nAChRs in rat brain. Nicotine-induced upregulation was caused by a specific increase in high affinity sites for nicotine (probably 42 of cerebral cortex.

  4. Structure-activity relationships of acetylcholine derivatives with Lucilia cuprina nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α1 and α2 subunits in chicken β2 subunit hybrid receptors in comparison with chicken nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4/β2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dederer, H; Berger, M; Meyer, T; Werr, M; Ilg, T

    2013-04-01

    Insect nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of several insecticide classes. In the present study, we report the gene identification and cloning of nAChR α1 and α2 subunits (Lcα1 and Lcα2) from the sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina. Xenopus oocytes voltage clamp experiments as hybrids with the chicken β2 nAChR (Ggβ2) subunit resulted in ACh-gated ion channels with distinct dose-response curves for Lcα1/Ggβ2 (effective concentration 50% [EC50 ] = 80 nM; nH  = 1.05), and Lcα2/Ggβ2 (EC50  = 5.37 μM, nH  = 1.46). The neonicotinoid imidacloprid was a potent agonist for the α-bungarotoxin-sensitive Lcα1/Ggβ2 (EC50 ∼ 20 nM), while the α-bungarotoxin-resistant Lcα2/Ggβ2 showed a 30-fold lower sensitivity to this insecticide (EC50  = 0.62 μM). Thirteen close derivatives of ACh were analysed in EC50 , Hill coefficient and maximum current (relative to ACh) determinations for Lcα1/Ggβ2 and Lcα2/Ggβ2 and the chicken Ggα4/Ggβ2 nAChRs, and comparisons relative to ACh allowed the definition of novel structure-activity and structure-selectivity relationships. In the case of N-ethyl-acetylcholine, the EC50 of the chicken Ggα4/Ggβ2 rose by a factor of 1000, while for both Lcα1/Ggβ2 and Lcα2/Ggβ2, potency remained unchanged. Further derivatives with insect nAChR selectivity potential were acetyl-α-methylcholine and trimethyl-(3-methoxy-3-oxopropyl)ammonium, followed by acetylhomocholine and trimethyl-(4-oxopentyl) ammonium. Our results may provide guidance for the identification or design of insect-specific nAChR agonists using structure-based or in silico methods. © 2013 Royal Entomological Society.

  5. Resistance to cycloxaprid in Laodelphax striatellus is associated with altered expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yueliang; Han, Yangchun; Yang, Qiong; Wang, Lihua; He, Peng; Liu, Zewen; Li, Zhong; Guo, Huifang; Fang, Jichao

    2018-04-01

    Cycloxaprid is a new oxabridged cis-configuration neonicotinoid insecticide, the resistance development potential and underlying resistance mechanism of which were investigated in the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), an important agricultural pest of rice. A cycloxaprid-resistant strain (YN-CPD) only achieved 10-fold higher resistance, in contrast to 106-fold higher resistance to buprofezin and 332-fold higher resistance to chlorpyrifos achieved after exposure to similar selection pressure, and the cycloxaprid selected line showed no cross-resistance to the buprofezin and chlorpyrifos-selected resistance strains. Moreover, we identified 10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits from the transcriptome of L. striatellus, and six segments had open reading frames (ORFs). While we did not find mutations in the nAChR genes of L. striatellus, subunits Lsα1 and Lsβ1 exhibited, respectively, 9.60-fold and 3.36-fold higher expression in the resistant strain, while Lsα8 exhibited 0.44-fold lower expression. Suppression of Lsα1 through ingestion of dsLsα1 led to an increase in susceptibility to cycloxaprid. The findings indicate that resistance to cycloxaprid develops slowly compared with resistance to other chemicals and without cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos or buprofezin; over-expressed Lsα1 is associated with low cycloxaprid resistance levels, but the importance of over-expressed Lsβ1 and reduced expression of Lsα8 could not be excluded. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and the structural basis of neuromuscular transmission: insights from Torpedo postsynaptic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Nigel

    2013-11-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor, at the neuromuscular junction, is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel that has been fine-tuned through evolution to transduce a chemical signal into an electrical signal with maximum efficiency and speed. It is composed from three similar and two identical polypeptide chains, arranged in a ring around a narrow membrane pore. Central to the design of this assembly is a hydrophobic gate in the pore, more than 50 Å away from sites in the extracellular domain where ACh binds. Although the molecular properties of the receptor have been explored intensively over the last few decades, only recently have structures emerged revealing its complex architecture and illuminating how ACh entering the binding sites opens the distant gate. Postsynaptic membranes isolated from the (muscle-derived) electric organ of the Torpedo ray have underpinned most of the structural studies: the membranes form tubular vesicles having receptors arranged on a regular surface lattice, which can be imaged directly in frozen physiological solutions. Advances in electron crystallographic techniques have also been important, enabling analysis of the closed- and open-channel forms of the receptor in unreacted tubes or tubes reacted briefly with ACh. The structural differences between these two forms show that all five subunits participate in a concerted conformational change communicating the effect of ACh binding to the gate, but that three of them (αγ, β and δ) play a dominant role. Flexing of oppositely facing pore-lining α-helices is the principal motion determining the closed/open state of the gate. These results together with the findings of biochemical, biophysical and other structural studies allow an integrated description of the receptor and of its mode of action at the synapse.

  7. Intra-subunit flexibility underlies activation and allosteric modulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisman, Paul A; Podair, Julie I; Jobe, Emily M; Levandoski, Mark M

    2014-04-01

    Allosteric modulation is a general feature of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, yet the structural components and movements important for conversions among functional states are not well understood. In this study, we examine the communication between the binding sites for agonist and the modulator morantel (Mor) of neuronal α3β2 receptors, measuring evoked currents of receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes with the two-electrode voltage-clamp method. We hypothesized that movement along an interface of β sheets connecting the agonist and modulator sites is necessary for allosteric modulation. To address this, we created pairs of substituted cysteines that span the cleft formed where the outer β sheet meets the β sheet constituting the (-)-face of the α3 subunit; the three pairs were L158C-A179C, L158C-G181C and L158C-K183C. Employing a disulfide trapping approach in which bonds are formed between neighboring cysteines under oxidation conditions, we found that oxidation treatments decreased the amplitude of currents evoked by either the agonist (ACh) or co-applied agonist and modulator (ACh + Mor), by as much as 51%, consistent with the introduced bond decreasing channel efficacy. Reduction treatment increased evoked currents up to 89%. The magnitude of the oxidation effects depended on whether agonists were present during oxidation and on the cysteine pair. Additionally, the cysteine mutations themselves decreased Mor potentiation, implicating these residues in modulation. Our findings suggest that these β sheets in the α3 subunit move with respect to each other during activation and modulation, and the residues studied highlight the contribution of this intramolecular allosteric pathway to receptor function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Kinetic properties and open probability of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesti, Krisztina; Szabo, Anett K; Mike, Arpad; Vizi, E Sylvester

    2014-06-01

    The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has some peculiar kinetic properties. From the literature of α7 nAChR-mediated currents we concluded that experimentally measured kinetic properties reflected properties of the solution exchange system, rather than genuine kinetic properties of the receptors. We also concluded that all experimentally measured EC50 values for agonists must inherently be inaccurate. The aim of this study was to assess the undistorted kinetic properties of α7 nAChRs, and to construct an improved kinetic model, which can also serve as a basis of modeling the effect of the positive allosteric modulator PNU-120596, as it is described in the accompanying paper. Agonist-evoked currents were recorded from GH4C1 cells stably transfected with pCEP4/rat α7 nAChR using patch-clamp and fast solution exchange. We used two approaches to circumvent the problem of insufficient solution exchange rate: extrapolation and kinetic modeling. First, using different solution exchange rates we recorded evoked currents, and extrapolated their amplitude and kinetics to instantaneous solution exchange. Second, we constructed a kinetic model that reproduced concentration-dependence and solution exchange rate-dependence of receptors, and then we simulated receptor behavior at experimentally unattainably fast solution exchange. We also determined open probabilities during choline-evoked unmodulated and modulated currents using nonstationary fluctuation analysis. The peak open probability of 10 mM choline-evoked currents was 0.033 ± 0.006, while in the presence of choline (10 mM) and PNU-120596 (10 μM), it was increased to 0.599 ± 0.058. Our kinetic model could adequately reproduce low open probability, fast kinetics, fast recovery and solution exchange rate-dependent kinetics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene family of the honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew K; Raymond-Delpech, Valerie; Thany, Steeve H; Gauthier, Monique; Sattelle, David B

    2006-11-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate fast cholinergic synaptic transmission and play roles in many cognitive processes. They are under intense research as potential targets of drugs used to treat neurodegenerative diseases and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Invertebrate nAChRs are targets of anthelmintics as well as a major group of insecticides, the neonicotinoids. The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is one of the most beneficial insects worldwide, playing an important role in crop pollination, and is also a valuable model system for studies on social interaction, sensory processing, learning, and memory. We have used the A. mellifera genome information to characterize the complete honey bee nAChR gene family. Comparison with the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae shows that the honey bee possesses the largest family of insect nAChR subunits to date (11 members). As with Drosophila and Anopheles, alternative splicing of conserved exons increases receptor diversity. Also, we show that in one honey bee nAChR subunit, six adenosine residues are targeted for RNA A-to-I editing, two of which are evolutionarily conserved in Drosophila melanogaster and Heliothis virescens orthologs, and that the extent of editing increases as the honey bee lifecycle progresses, serving to maximize receptor diversity at the adult stage. These findings on Apis mellifera enhance our understanding of nAChR functional genomics and provide a useful basis for the development of improved insecticides that spare a major beneficial insect species.

  10. The functional interaction between nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and Ly-6/neurotoxin proteins in Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Haibo; Zhang, Yixi; Liu, Yang; Yu, Na; Liu, Zewen

    2017-09-01

    Failures in expressing insect nAChRs (nicotinic acetylcholine receptors) limit the understanding of their functional properties, although insect nAChRs have been developed as insecticide targets for decades. Some accessory proteins can modulate nAChRs, but only a few have been identified in insects, including lynx from Ly-6/neurotoxin superfamily. Until now, only one to three lynx were identified in one insect species. Here, 11 lynx were identified in Locusta migratoria with common features of Ly-6/neurotoxin members. The effects of these lynx on seven hybrid nAChRs functionally constructed in Xenopus oocytes were tested, in which each nAChR subtype contained one L. migratoria α subunit plus rat β2 subunit. One lynx could selectively modulate several nAChR subtypes to significantly increase the amplitude of epibatidine-evoked currents, while Loc-lynx10 acted on all test nAChRs. Among nine lynx with obvious modulation effects to increase inward currents, only four significantly increased the specific [ 3 H]epibatidine binding, and the binding increase existed in all modulated nAChRs by these lynx. The results indicated that the modulation mode was decided by the specific lynx and had nothing to do with nAChR subtypes. This study provides an approximate panorama for the functional interaction net between L. migratoria lynx and nAChRs, although some other nAChRs need further tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. α6β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors influence locomotor activity and ethanol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamens, Helen M; Peck, Colette; Garrity, Caitlin; Gechlik, Alex; Jenkins, Brenita C; Rajan, Akshat

    2017-06-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the mesolimbic dopamine system have been implicated in ethanol behaviors. In particular, work in genetically engineered mice has demonstrated that α6-containing nAChRs are involved in ethanol consumption and sedation. A limitation of these studies is that the alteration in the receptor was present throughout development. The recently described α6β2 antagonist, N,N-decane-1,10-diyl-bis-3-picolinium diiodide (bPiDI), now makes it possible to test for the involvement of these receptors using a pharmacological approach. The aim of this study was to examine the role of α6β2 nAChRs in ethanol behaviors using a pharmacological approach. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice were treated with bPiDI 30 min prior to testing the mice for binge-like ethanol consumption in the drinking-in-the-dark (DID) test, ethanol-induced motor incoordination using the balance beam, and ethanol-induced sedation using the Loss of Righting Reflex (LORR) paradigm. Adolescent animals were chosen because they express a high amount of α6 mRNA relative to adult animals. Control studies were also performed to determine the effect of bPiDI on locomotor activity and ethanol metabolism. Female mice treated with 20 mg/kg bPiDI had reduced locomotor activity compared to saline-treated animals during the first 30 min following an acute injection. Pretreatment with the α6β2 antagonist reduced adolescent ethanol consumption but also reduced saccharin consumption. No significant effects were observed on ethanol-induced ataxia, sedation, or metabolism. This study provides evidence that α6β2 nAChRs are involved in locomotor activity as well as ethanol and saccharin consumption in adolescent animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel neonicotinoid-agarose affinity column for Drosophila and Musca nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, M; Latli, B; Casida, J E

    1996-10-01

    Neonicotinoids such as the insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) act as agonists at the insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Head membranes of Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica have a single high-affinity binding site for [3H]IMI with KD values of 1-2 nM and Bmax values of 560-850 fmol/mg of protein. Locusta and Periplaneta nAChRs isolated with an alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BGT)-agarose affinity column are known to be alpha-subunit homooligomers. This study uses 1-[N-(6-chloro-3-pyridylmethyl)-N-ethyl]amino-1-amino-2-nitroethene++ + (which inhibits [3H]IMI binding to Drosophila and Musca head membranes at 2-3 nM) to develop a neonicotinoid-agarose affinity column. The procedure-introduction of Triton-solubilized Drosophila or Musca head membranes into this neonicotinoid-based column, elution with IMI, and analysis by lithium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamicle gel electrophoresis-gives only three proteins (69, 66, and 61 kDa) tentatively assigned as putative subunits of the nAChR; the same three proteins are obtained with Musca using the alpha-BGT-agarose affinity column. Photoaffinity labeling of the Drosophila and Musca putative subunits from the neonicotinoid column with 125I-alpha-BGT-4-azidosalicylic acid gives a labeled derivative of 66-69 kDa. The yield is 2-5 micrograms of receptor protein from 1 g of Drosophila or Musca heads. Neonicotinoid affinity chromatography to isolate native Drosophila and Musca receptors will facilitate studies on the structure and function of insect nAChRs.

  13. Gastrointestinal hypomotility with loss of enteric nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: active immunization model in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeusen, Jeffrey W.; Haselkorn, Keegan E.; Fryer, James P.; Kryzer, Thomas J.; Gibbons, Simon J.; Xiao, Yingxian; Lennon, Vanda A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Autoimmune gastrointestinal dysmotility (AGID) is a limited form of dysautonomia. The only proven effector to date is IgG specific for ganglionic nicotinic-acetylcholine receptors containing α3 subunits (α3*-nAChR). Rabbits immunized with recombinant α3-polypeptide produce α3*-nAChR autoantibodies, and profound AGID ensues. Human and rabbit α3*-nAChR-specific-IgGs induce transient hypomotility when injected into mice. Here we describe success and problems encountered inducing gastrointestinal hypomotility in mice by active immunization. Methods We repeatedly injected young adult mice of seven different strains susceptible to autoimmunity (spontaneous diabetes or neural antigen immunization-induced myasthenia gravis or encephalomyelitis) with: i) α3-polypeptide, intradermally, or ii) live α3*-nAChR-expressing xenogeneic cells, intraperitoneally. We measured serum α3*-nAChR-IgG twice monthly, and terminally assessed blue dye gastrointestinal transit, total small intestinal α3*-nAChR content (radiochemically) and myenteric plexus neuron numbers (immunohistochemically, ileal-jejunal whole-mount preparations). Key Results Standard cutaneous inoculation with α3-polypeptide was minimally immunogenic, regardless of dose. Intraperitoneally-injected live cells were potently immunogenic. Self-reactive α3*-nAChR-IgG was induced only by rodent immunogen; small intestinal transit slowing and enteric α3*-nAChR loss required high serum levels. Ganglionic neurons were not lost. Conclusions & Inferences AGID is inducible in mice by active immunization. Accompanying enteric α3*-nAChR reduction without neuronal death is consistent with an IgG-mediated rather than T cell-mediated pathogenesis, as is improvement of symptoms in patients receiving antibody-depleting therapies. PMID:23072523

  14. Activation of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. The contribution of residues alphaArg55 and gammaGlu93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Ankur; Davies, Martin; Dryden, William F; Dunn, Susan M J

    2006-03-01

    The Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is a heteropentamer (alpha2betagammadelta) in which structurally homologous subunits assemble to form a central ion pore. Viewed from the synaptic cleft, the likely arrangement of these subunits is alpha-gamma-alpha-delta-beta lying in an anticlockwise orientation. High affinity binding sites for agonists and competitive antagonists have been localized to the alpha-gamma and alpha-delta subunit interfaces. We investigated the involvement of amino acids lying at an adjacent interface (gamma-alpha) in receptor properties. Recombinant Torpedo receptors, expressed in Xenopus oocytes, were used to investigate the consequences of mutating alphaArg55 and gammaGlu93, residues that are conserved in most species of the peripheral nicotinic receptors. Based on homology modeling, these residues are predicted to lie in close proximity to one another and it has been suggested that they may form a salt bridge in the receptor's three-dimensional structure (Sine et al. 2002 J Biol Chem277, 29 210-29 223). Although substitution of alphaR55 by phenylalanine or tryptophan resulted in approximately a six-fold increase in the EC50 value for acetylcholine activation, the charge reversal mutation (alphaR55E) had no significant effect. In contrast, the replacement of gammaE93 by an arginine conferred an eight-fold increase in the potency for acetylcholine-induced receptor activation. In the receptor carrying the double mutations, alphaR55E-gammaE93R or alphaR55F-gammaE93R, the potency for acetylcholine activation was partially restored to that of the wild-type. The results suggest that, although individually these residues influence receptor activation, direct interactions between them are unlikely to play a major role in the stabilization of different conformational states of the receptor.

  15. Monepantel is a non-competitive antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum dentatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Abongwa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Zolvix® is a recently introduced anthelmintic drench containing monepantel as the active ingredient. Monepantel is a positive allosteric modulator of DEG-3/DES-2 type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs in several nematode species. The drug has been reported to produce hypercontraction of Caenorhabditis elegans and Haemonchus contortus somatic muscle. We investigated the effects of monepantel on nAChRs from Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum dentatum heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Using two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology, we studied the effects of monepantel on a nicotine preferring homomeric nAChR subtype from A. suum comprising of ACR-16; a pyrantel/tribendimidine preferring heteromeric subtype from O. dentatum comprising UNC-29, UNC-38 and UNC-63 subunits; and a levamisole preferring subtype (O. dentatum comprising UNC-29, UNC-38, UNC-63 and ACR-8 subunits. For each subtype tested, monepantel applied in isolation produced no measurable currents thereby ruling out an agonist action. When monepantel was continuously applied, it reduced the amplitude of acetylcholine induced currents in a concentration-dependent manner. In all three subtypes, monepantel acted as a non-competitive antagonist on the expressed receptors. ACR-16 from A. suum was particularly sensitive to monepantel inhibition (IC50 values: 1.6 ± 3.1 nM and 0.2 ± 2.3 μM. We also investigated the effects of monepantel on muscle flaps isolated from adult A. suum. The drug did not significantly increase baseline tension when applied on its own. As with acetylcholine induced currents in the heterologously expressed receptors, contractions induced by acetylcholine were antagonized by monepantel. Further investigation revealed that the inhibition was a mixture of competitive and non-competitive antagonism. Our findings suggest that monepantel is active on multiple nAChR subtypes. Keywords: Monepantel, Zolvix®, Nicotinic acetylcholine

  16. Carbamoylcholine analogs as nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists--structural modifications of 3-(dimethylamino)butyl dimethylcarbamate (DMABC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Petrycer; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn; Balle, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Compounds based on the 3-(dimethylamino)butyl dimethylcarbamate (DMABC) scaffold were synthesized and pharmacologically characterized at the alpha(4)beta(2), alpha(3)beta(4,) alpha(4)beta(4) and alpha(7) neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The carbamate functionality and a small...... hydrophobic substituent in the C-3 position were found to be vital for the binding affinity to the nAChRs, whereas the carbamate nitrogen substituents were important for nAChR subtype selectivity. Finally, the compounds were found to be agonists at the alpha(3)beta(4) nAChR....

  17. An allosteric modulator of the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor possessing cognition-enhancing properties in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Daniel B; Grønlien, Jens Halvard; Kohlhaas, Kathy L; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Dam, Eva; Jørgensen, Tino D; Ahring, Philip K; Peters, Dan; Holst, Dorte; Christensen, Jeppe K; Chrsitensen, Jeppe K; Malysz, John; Briggs, Clark A; Gopalakrishnan, Murali; Olsen, Gunnar M

    2007-10-01

    Augmentation of nicotinic alpha7 receptor function is considered to be a potential therapeutic strategy aimed at ameliorating cognitive and mnemonic dysfunction in relation to debilitating pathological conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. In the present report, a novel positive allosteric modulator of the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), 1-(5-chloro-2-hydroxy-phenyl)-3-(2-chloro-5-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-urea (NS1738), is described. NS1738 was unable to displace or affect radioligand binding to the agonist binding site of nicotinic receptors, and it was devoid of effect when applied alone in electrophysiological paradigms. However, when applied in the presence of acetylcholine (ACh), NS1738 produced a marked increase in the current flowing through alpha7 nAChRs, as determined in both oocyte electrophysiology and patch-clamp recordings from mammalian cells. NS1738 acted by increasing the peak amplitude of ACh-evoked currents at all concentrations; thus, it increased the maximal efficacy of ACh. Oocyte experiments indicated an increase in ACh potency as well. NS1738 had only marginal effects on the desensitization kinetics of alpha7 nAChRs, as determined from patch-clamp studies of both transfected cells and cultured hippocampal neurons. NS1738 was modestly brain-penetrant, and it was demonstrated to counteract a (-)-scopolamine-induced deficit in acquisition of a water-maze learning task in rats. Moreover, NS1738 improved performance in the rat social recognition test to the same extent as (-)-nicotine, demonstrating that NS1738 is capable of producing cognitive enhancement in vivo. These data support the notion that alpha7 nAChR allosteric modulation may constitute a novel pharmacological principle for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction.

  18. Agonist and antagonist effects of tobacco-related nitrosamines on human α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eBrusco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of the ‘neuronal’ nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs is implicated in both tobacco addiction and smoking-dependent tumor promotion. Some of these effects are caused by the tobacco-derived N-nitrosamines, which are carcinogenic compounds that avidly bind to nAChRs. However, the functional effects of these drugs on specific nAChR subtypes are largely unknown. By using patch-clamp methods, we tested 4-(methylnitrosamine-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK and N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN on human α4β2 nAChRs. These latter are widely distributed in the mammalian brain and are also frequently expressed outside the nervous system. NNK behaved as a partial agonist, with an apparent EC50 of 16.7 μM. At 100 μM, it activated 16 % of the maximal current activated by nicotine. When NNK was co-applied with nicotine, it potentiated the currents elicited by nicotine concentrations ≤ 100 nM. At higher concentrations of nicotine, NNK always inhibited the α4β2 nAChR. In contrast, NNN was a pure inhibitor of this nAChR subtype, with IC50 of approximately 1 nM in the presence of 10 μM nicotine. The effects of both NNK and NNN were mainly competitive and largely independent of Vm. The different actions of NNN and NNK must be taken into account when interpreting their biological effects in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Alpha5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mediates nicotine-induced HIF-1α and VEGF expression in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Xiaoli; Jia, Yanfei; Zu, Shanshan; Li, Ruisheng; Jia, Ying; Zhao, Yun; Xiao, Dongjie; Dang, Ningning; Wang, Yunshan

    2014-01-01

    By binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), nicotine induces the proliferation and apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previous studies have indicated that α5-nAChR is highly associated with lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence. However, the mechanisms through which α5-nAChRs may influence lung carcinogenesis are far from clear. In the present study, we investigated the roles of α5-nAChR in the nicotine-induced expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of α5-nAChR and HIF-1α in 60 specimens of lung cancer and para-carcinoma tissue. The correlations between the expression levels of α5-nAChR and HIF-1α and other clinicopathological data were analyzed. In a cell line that highly expressed α5-nAChR, the loss of α5-nAChR function by siRNA was used to study whether α5-nAChR is involved in the nicotine-induced expression of HIF-1α and VEGF through the activation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Cell growth was detected using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). α5-nAChR (78.3%) and HIF-1α (88.3%) were both overexpressed in NSCLC, and their expression levels were found to be correlated with each other (P < 0.05). In the A549 cell line, α5-nAChR and HIF-1α were found to be expressed under normal conditions, and their expression levels were significantly increased in response to nicotine treatment. The silencing of α5-nAChR significantly inhibited the nicotine-induced cell proliferation compared with the control group and attenuated the nicotine-induced upregulation of HIF-1α and VEGF, and these effects required the cooperation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These results show that the α5-nAChR/HIF-1α/VEGF axis is involved in nicotine-induced tumor cell proliferation, which suggests that α5-nAChR may serve as a potential anticancer target in nicotine-associated lung cancer. - Highlights

  20. Alpha5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mediates nicotine-induced HIF-1α and VEGF expression in non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiaoli; Jia, Yanfei; Zu, Shanshan [Central Laboratory, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250013 (China); Li, Ruisheng [Institute of Infectious Diseases, 302 Military Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China); Jia, Ying; Zhao, Yun; Xiao, Dongjie [Central Laboratory, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250013 (China); Dang, Ningning [Department of Dermatology, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250013 (China); Wang, Yunshan [Central Laboratory, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250013 (China)

    2014-07-15

    By binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), nicotine induces the proliferation and apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previous studies have indicated that α5-nAChR is highly associated with lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence. However, the mechanisms through which α5-nAChRs may influence lung carcinogenesis are far from clear. In the present study, we investigated the roles of α5-nAChR in the nicotine-induced expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of α5-nAChR and HIF-1α in 60 specimens of lung cancer and para-carcinoma tissue. The correlations between the expression levels of α5-nAChR and HIF-1α and other clinicopathological data were analyzed. In a cell line that highly expressed α5-nAChR, the loss of α5-nAChR function by siRNA was used to study whether α5-nAChR is involved in the nicotine-induced expression of HIF-1α and VEGF through the activation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Cell growth was detected using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). α5-nAChR (78.3%) and HIF-1α (88.3%) were both overexpressed in NSCLC, and their expression levels were found to be correlated with each other (P < 0.05). In the A549 cell line, α5-nAChR and HIF-1α were found to be expressed under normal conditions, and their expression levels were significantly increased in response to nicotine treatment. The silencing of α5-nAChR significantly inhibited the nicotine-induced cell proliferation compared with the control group and attenuated the nicotine-induced upregulation of HIF-1α and VEGF, and these effects required the cooperation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These results show that the α5-nAChR/HIF-1α/VEGF axis is involved in nicotine-induced tumor cell proliferation, which suggests that α5-nAChR may serve as a potential anticancer target in nicotine-associated lung cancer. - Highlights

  1. Prenatal Exposure to Nicotine and Childhood Asthma: Role of Nicotine Acetylcholine Receptors, Neuropeptides, and Fibronectin Expression in Lung

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roman, Jesse

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesize that prenatal exposure to nicotine, a major component of tobacco that transverses the placenta, is largely responsible for the development of asthma in children born of mothers who smoke...

  2. Thujone inhibits the function of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and impairs nicotine-induced memory enhancement in one-trial passive avoidance paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Ahmed; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Isaev, Dmitro; Nebrisi, Eslam El; Syed, Nurulain; Khan, Nadia; Howarth, Christopher F; Sadek, Bassem; Oz, Murat

    2017-06-01

    Effects of thujone, a major ingredient of absinthe, wormwood oil and some herbal medicines, were tested on the function of α 7 subunit of the human nicotinic acetylcholine (α 7 nACh) receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Thujone reversibly inhibited ACh (100μM)-induced currents with an IC 50 value of 24.7μM. The effect of thujone was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve Ca 2+ -dependent Cl - channels expressed endogenously in oocytes. Inhibition by thujone was not reversed by increasing ACh concentrations. Moreover, specific binding of [ 125 I] α-bungarotoxin was not altered by thujone. Further experiments in SH-EP1 cells expressing human α 7 nACh receptor indicated that thujone suppressed choline induced Ca 2+ transients in a concentration-dependent manner. In rat hippocampal CA3-dentate gyrus synapses, nicotine-induced enhancement of long-term potentiation was also inhibited by thujone. Furthermore, the results observed in in-vivo one-trial passive avoidance paradigm show that thujone (1.25mg/kg, i.p.) significantly impaired nicotine-induced enhancement of learning and memory in Wistar rats. Collectively, our results indicate that thujone inhibits the function of the α7-nACh receptor and impairs cellular and behavioral correlates of cholinergic modulation of learning and memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Thujone inhibits the function of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and impairs nicotine-induced memory enhancement in one-trial passive avoidance paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, Ahmed; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Isaev, Dmitro; Nebrisi, Eslam El; Syed, Nurulain; Khan, Nadia; Howarth, Christopher F.; Sadek, Bassem; Oz, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Effects of thujone, a major ingredient of absinthe, wormwood oil and some herbal medicines, were tested on the function of α 7 subunit of the human nicotinic acetylcholine (α 7 nACh) receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Thujone reversibly inhibited ACh (100 μM)-induced currents with an IC 50 value of 24.7 μM. The effect of thujone was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve Ca 2+ -dependent Cl − channels expressed endogenously in oocytes. Inhibition by thujone was not reversed by increasing ACh concentrations. Moreover, specific binding of [ 125 I] α-bungarotoxin was not altered by thujone. Further experiments in SH-EP1 cells expressing human α 7 nACh receptor indicated that thujone suppressed choline induced Ca 2+ transients in a concentration-dependent manner. In rat hippocampal CA3-dentate gyrus synapses, nicotine-induced enhancement of long-term potentiation was also inhibited by thujone. Furthermore, the results observed in in-vivo one-trial passive avoidance paradigm show that thujone (1.25 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly impaired nicotine-induced enhancement of learning and memory in Wistar rats. Collectively, our results indicate that thujone inhibits the function of the α7-nACh receptor and impairs cellular and behavioral correlates of cholinergic modulation of learning and memory.

  4. Mice Lacking the Alpha9 Subunit of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Exhibit Deficits in Frequency Difference Limens and Sound Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Clause

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sound processing in the cochlea is modulated by cholinergic efferent axons arising from medial olivocochlear neurons in the brainstem. These axons contact outer hair cells in the mature cochlea and inner hair cells during development and activate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors composed of α9 and α10 subunits. The α9 subunit is necessary for mediating the effects of acetylcholine on hair cells as genetic deletion of the α9 subunit results in functional cholinergic de-efferentation of the cochlea. Cholinergic modulation of spontaneous cochlear activity before hearing onset is important for the maturation of central auditory circuits. In α9KO mice, the developmental refinement of inhibitory afferents to the lateral superior olive is disturbed, resulting in decreased tonotopic organization of this sound localization nucleus. In this study, we used behavioral tests to investigate whether the circuit anomalies in α9KO mice correlate with sound localization or sound frequency processing. Using a conditioned lick suppression task to measure sound localization, we found that three out of four α9KO mice showed impaired minimum audible angles. Using a prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response paradigm, we found that the ability of α9KO mice to detect sound frequency changes was impaired, whereas their ability to detect sound intensity changes was not. These results demonstrate that cholinergic, nicotinic α9 subunit mediated transmission in the developing cochlear plays an important role in the maturation of hearing.

  5. Heterologous expression and nonsense suppression provide insights into agonist behavior at α6β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Michael R; Limapichat, Walrati; Lester, Henry A; Dougherty, Dennis A

    2015-10-01

    The α6-containing subtypes of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) are localized to presynaptic terminals of the dopaminergic pathways of the central nervous system. Selective ligands for these nAChRs are potentially useful in both Parkinson's disease and addiction. For these and other goals, it is important to distinguish the binding behavior of agonists at the α6-β2 binding site versus other subtypes. To study this problem, we apply nonsense suppression-based non-canonical amino acid mutagenesis. We report a combination of four mutations in α6β2 that yield high-level heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes. By varying mRNA injection ratios, two populations were observed with unique characteristics, likely due to differing stoichiometries. Responses to nine known nAChR agonists were analyzed at the receptor, and their corresponding EC50 values and efficacies are reported. The system is compatible with nonsense suppression, allowing structure-function studies between Trp149 - a conserved residue on loop B found to make a cation-π interaction at several nAChR subtypes - and several agonists. These studies reveal that acetylcholine forms a strong cation-π interaction with the conserved tryptophan, while nicotine and TC299423 do not, suggesting a unique pharmacology for the α6β2 nAChR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cross-reactivity of acid-sensing ion channel and Na⁺-H⁺ exchanger antagonists with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Torres, Julio; Ślimak, Marta A; Auer, Sebastian; Ibañez-Tallon, Inés

    2011-11-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are widely distributed throughout the mammalian central and peripheral nervous systems, where they contribute to neuronal excitability and synaptic communication. It has been reported that nAChRs are modulated by BK channels and that BK channels, in turn, are inhibited by acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). Here we investigate the possible functional interaction between these channels in medial habenula (MHb) neurones. We report that selective antagonists of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and ASIC1a channels, paxilline and psalmotoxin 1, respectively, did not induce detectable changes in nicotine-evoked currents. In contrast, the non-selective ASIC and Na(+)-H(+) exchanger (NHE1) antagonists, amiloride and its analogues, suppressed nicotine-evoked responses in MHb neurones of wild-type and ASIC2 null mice, excluding a possible involvement of ASIC2 in the nAChR inhibition by amiloride. Zoniporide, a more selective inhibitor of NHE1, reversibly inhibited α3β4-, α7- and α4-containing (*) nAChRs in Xenopus oocytes and in brain slices, as well as in PS120 cells deficient in NHE1 and virally transduced with nAChRs, suggesting a generalized effect of zoniporide in most neuronal nAChR subtypes. Independently from nAChR antagonism, zoniporide profoundly blocked synaptic transmission onto MHb neurones without affecting glutamatergic and GABA receptors. Taken together, these results indicate that amiloride and zoniporide, which are clinically used to treat hypertension and cardiovascular disease, have an inhibitory effect on neuronal nAChRs when used experimentally at high doses. The possible cross-reactivity of these compounds with nAChRs in vivo will require further investigation.

  7. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing the α7-like subunit mediate contractions of muscles responsible for space positioning of the snail, Helix pomatia L. tentacle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Kiss

    Full Text Available Three recently discovered tentacle muscles are crucial to perform patterned movements of upper tentacles of the terrestrial snail, Helix pomatia. The muscles receive central and peripheral excitatory cholinergic innervation lacking inhibitory innervation. Here, we investigate the pharmacology of acetylcholine (ACh responses in muscles to determine the properties of the ACh receptor (AChR, the functional availability of which was assessed using isotonic contraction measurement. Using broad spectrum of nicotinic and muscarinic ligands, we provide the evidence that contractions in the muscles are attributable to the activation of nAChRs that contain the α7-like subunit. Contractions could be evoked by nicotine, carbachol, succinylchloride, TMA, the selective α7-nAChR agonist choline chloride, 3-Bromocytisine and PNU-282987, and blocked by nAChR selective antagonists such as mytolon, hexamethonium, succinylchloride, d-tubocurarine, hemicholinium, DMDA (decamethonium, methyllycaconitine, α-Bungarotoxin (αBgTx and α-Conotoxin IMI. The specific muscarinic agonist oxotremorine and arecoline failed to elicit contractions. Based on these pharmacological properties we conclude that the Na+ and Ca2+ permeable AChRs of the flexor muscle are nicotinic receptors that contain the α7-like subunit. Immunodetection experiments confirmed the presence of α7- or α7-like AChRs in muscle cells, and α4-AChRs in nerves innervating the muscle. These results support the conclusion that the slowly desensitizing αBgTx-sensitive responses obtained from flexor muscles are produced by activation of α7- like AChRs. This is the first demonstration of postsynaptic expression and an obligatory role for a functional α7-like nAChR in the molluscan periphery.

  8. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing the α7-like subunit mediate contractions of muscles responsible for space positioning of the snail, Helix pomatia L. tentacle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Tibor; Krajcs, Nóra; Pirger, Zsolt; Hernádi, László

    2014-01-01

    Three recently discovered tentacle muscles are crucial to perform patterned movements of upper tentacles of the terrestrial snail, Helix pomatia. The muscles receive central and peripheral excitatory cholinergic innervation lacking inhibitory innervation. Here, we investigate the pharmacology of acetylcholine (ACh) responses in muscles to determine the properties of the ACh receptor (AChR), the functional availability of which was assessed using isotonic contraction measurement. Using broad spectrum of nicotinic and muscarinic ligands, we provide the evidence that contractions in the muscles are attributable to the activation of nAChRs that contain the α7-like subunit. Contractions could be evoked by nicotine, carbachol, succinylchloride, TMA, the selective α7-nAChR agonist choline chloride, 3-Bromocytisine and PNU-282987, and blocked by nAChR selective antagonists such as mytolon, hexamethonium, succinylchloride, d-tubocurarine, hemicholinium, DMDA (decamethonium), methyllycaconitine, α-Bungarotoxin (αBgTx) and α-Conotoxin IMI. The specific muscarinic agonist oxotremorine and arecoline failed to elicit contractions. Based on these pharmacological properties we conclude that the Na+ and Ca2+ permeable AChRs of the flexor muscle are nicotinic receptors that contain the α7-like subunit. Immunodetection experiments confirmed the presence of α7- or α7-like AChRs in muscle cells, and α4-AChRs in nerves innervating the muscle. These results support the conclusion that the slowly desensitizing αBgTx-sensitive responses obtained from flexor muscles are produced by activation of α7- like AChRs. This is the first demonstration of postsynaptic expression and an obligatory role for a functional α7-like nAChR in the molluscan periphery.

  9. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene family of the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chuan-Xi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs mediate fast synaptic cholinergic transmission in the insect central nervous system. The insect nAChR is the molecular target of a class of insecticides, neonicotinoids. Like mammalian nAChRs, insect nAChRs are considered to be made up of five subunits, coded by homologous genes belonging to the same family. The nAChR subunit genes of Drosophila melanogaster, Apis mellifera and Anopheles gambiae have been cloned previously based on their genome sequences. The silkworm Bombyx mori is a model insect of Lepidoptera, among which are many agricultural pests. Identification and characterization of B. mori nAChR genes could provide valuable basic information for this important family of receptor genes and for the study of the molecular mechanisms of neonicotinoid action and resistance. Results We searched the genome sequence database of B. mori with the fruit fly and honeybee nAChRs by tBlastn and cloned all putative silkworm nAChR cDNAs by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE methods. B. mori appears to have the largest known insect nAChR gene family to date, including nine α-type subunits and three β-type subunits. The silkworm possesses three genes having low identity with others, including one α and two β subunits, α9, β2 and β3. Like the fruit fly and honeybee counterparts, silkworm nAChR gene α6 has RNA-editing sites, and α4, α6 and α8 undergo alternative splicing. In particular, alternative exon 7 of Bmα8 may have arisen from a recent duplication event. Truncated transcripts were found for Bmα4 and Bmα5. Conclusion B. mori possesses a largest known insect nAChR gene family characterized to date, including nine α-type subunits and three β-type subunits. RNA-editing, alternative splicing and truncated transcripts were found in several subunit genes, which might enhance the diversity of the gene family.

  10. Strychnine, but not PMBA, inhibits neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed by rabbit retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, J M; Strang, C E; Amthor, F R; Keyser, K T

    2007-01-01

    Strychnine is considered a selective competitive antagonist of glycine gated Cl- channels (Saitoh et al., 1994) and studies have used strychnine at low micromolar concentrations to study the role of glycine in rabbit retina (Linn, 1998; Protti et al., 2005). However, other studies have shown that strychnine, in the concentrations commonly used, is also a potent competitive antagonist of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs; Matsubayashi et al., 1998). We tested the effects of low micromolar concentrations of strychnine and 3-[2'-phosphonomethyl[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl] alanine (PMBA), a specific glycine receptor blocker (Saitoh et al., 1994; Hosie et al., 1999) on the activation of both alpha7 nAChRs on retinal ganglion cells and on ganglion cell responses to a light flash. Extracellular recordings were obtained from ganglion cells in an isolated retina/choroid preparation and 500 microM choline was used as an alpha7 agonist (Alkondon et al., 1997). We recorded from brisk sustained and brisk transient OFF cells, many of which have been previously shown to have alpha7 receptors (Strang et al., 2005). Further, we tested the effect of strychnine, PMBA and alpha-bungarotoxin on the binding of tetramethylrhodamine alpha-bungarotoxin in the inner plexiform layer. Our data indicates that strychnine, at doses as low as 1.0 microM, can inhibit the alpha7 nAChR-mediated response to choline, but PMBA at concentrations as high as 0.4 microM does not. Binding studies show strychnine and alpha-bungarotoxin inhibit binding of labeled alpha-bungarotoxin in the IPL. Thus, the effects of strychnine application may be to inhibit glycine receptors expressed by ganglion cell or to inhibit amacrine cell alpha7 nAChRs, both of which would result in an increase in the ganglion cell responses. Further research will be required to disentangle the effects of strychnine previously believed to be caused by a single mechanism of glycine receptor inhibition.

  11. Probing the Structure of Affinity-Purified and Lipid-Reconstituted Torpedo Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Ayman K.; Chiara, David C.; Blanton, Michael P.; Cohen, Jonathan B.

    2010-01-01

    The Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is the only member of the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand gated ion channels (LGIC) that is available in high abundance in a native membrane preparation. To study the structure of the other LGICs using biochemical/biophysical techniques, detergent-solubilization, purification, and lipid-reconstitution are usually required. To assess the effects of purification on receptor structure, we used the hydrophobic photoreactive probe 3-trifluoromethyl-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)diazirine ([125I]TID) to compare the state-dependent photolabeling of Torpedo nAChR before and after purification and reincorporation into lipid. For purified nAChR, the agonist-sensitive photolabeling within the M2 ion channel domain of positions M2-6, M2-9 and M2-13, the agonist-enhanced labeling of δThr274 (δM2-18) within the δ subunit helix bundle, and the labeling at the lipid-protein interface (αM4) were the same as for nAChR in native membranes. However, addition of agonist did not enhance [125I]TID photolabeling of δIle288 within the δM2-M3 loop. These results indicate that after purification and reconstitution of Torpedo nAChR, the difference in structure between the resting and desensitized states within the M2 ion channel domain was preserved, but not the agonist-dependent change of structure of the δM2-M3 loop. To further characterize the pharmacology of [125I]TID binding sites in the nAChR in the desensitized state, we examined the effect of phencyclidine (PCP) on [125I]TID photolabeling. PCP inhibited [125I]TID labeling of amino acids at the cytoplasmic end of the ion channel (M2-2 and M2-6), while potentiating labeling at M2-9 and M2-13 and allosterically modulating the labeling of amino acids within the δ subunit helix bundle. PMID:18991407

  12. Probing the structure of the affinity-purified and lipid-reconstituted torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Ayman K; Chiara, David C; Blanton, Michael P; Cohen, Jonathan B

    2008-12-02

    The Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is the only member of the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) that is available in high abundance in a native membrane preparation. To study the structure of the other LGICs using biochemical and biophysical techniques, detergent solubilization, purification, and lipid reconstitution are usually required. To assess the effects of purification on receptor structure, we used the hydrophobic photoreactive probe 3-trifluoromethyl-3-(m-[(125)I]iodophenyl)diazirine ([(125)I]TID) to compare the state-dependent photolabeling of the Torpedo nAChR before and after purification and reincorporation into lipid. For the purified nAChR, the agonist-sensitive photolabeling within the M2 ion channel domain of positions M2-6, M2-9, and M2-13, the agonist-enhanced labeling of deltaThr274 (deltaM2-18) within the delta subunit helix bundle, and the labeling at the lipid-protein interface (alphaMu4) were the same as for the nAChR in native membranes. However, addition of agonist did not enhance [(125)I]TID photolabeling of deltaIle288 within the deltaM2-M3 loop. These results indicate that after purification and reconstitution of the Torpedo nAChR, the difference in structure between the resting and desensitized states within the M2 ion channel domain was preserved, but not the agonist-dependent change of structure of the deltaM2-M3 loop. To further characterize the pharmacology of [(125)I]TID binding sites in the nAChR in the desensitized state, we examined the effect of phencyclidine (PCP) on [(125)I]TID photolabeling. PCP inhibited [(125)I]TID labeling of amino acids at the cytoplasmic end of the ion channel (M2-2 and M2-6) while potentiating labeling at M2-9 and M2-13 and allosterically modulating the labeling of amino acids within the delta subunit helix bundle.

  13. Direct actions of organophosphate anticholinesterases on nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakry, N.M.; el-Rashidy, A.H.; Eldefrawi, A.T.; Eldefrawi, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Four nerve agents and one therapeutic organophosphate (OP) anticholinesterase (anti-ChE) bind to acetylcholine (ACh) receptors, inhibit or modulate binding of radioactive ligands to these receptors, and modify events regulated by them. The affinity of nicotinic (n) ACh receptors of Torpedo electric organs and most muscarinic (m) ACh receptors of rat brain and N1E-115 neuroblastoma cultures for the OP compounds was usually two to three orders of magnitude lower than concentrations required to inhibit 50% (IC-50) of ACh-esterase activity. However, a small population of m-ACh receptors had an affinity as high as that of ACh-esterase for the OP compound. This population is identified by its high-affinity [3H]-cis-methyldioxolane ([3H]-CD) binding. Although sarin, soman, and tabun had no effect, (O-ethyl S[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl)] methyl phosphonothionate (VX) and echothiophate inhibited competitively the binding of [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]-QNB) and [3H]-pirenzepine ([3H]-PZ) to m-ACh receptors. However, VX was more potent than echothiophate in inhibiting this binding and 50-fold more potent in inhibiting carbamylcholine (carb)-stimulated [3H]-cGMP synthesis in N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells--both acting as m receptor antagonist. All five OPs inhibited [3H]-CD binding, with IC-50s of 3, 10, 40, 100, and 800 nM for VX, soman, sarin, echothiophate, and tabun, respectively. The OP anticholinesterases also bound to allosteric sites on the n-ACh receptor (identified by inhibition of [3H]-phencyclidine binding), but some bound as well to the receptor's recognition site (identified by inhibition of [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin binding). Soman and echothiophate in micromolar concentrations acted as partial agonists of the n-ACh receptor and induced receptor desensitization. On the other hand, VX acted as an open channel blocker of the activated receptor and also enhanced receptor desensitization

  14. Nereistoxin and cartap neurotoxicity attributable to direct block of the insect nicotinic receptor/channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seog-Jong; Tomizawa, Motohiro; Casida, John E

    2003-04-23

    Nereistoxin (NTX) (4-dimethylamino-1,2-dithiolane) is the naturally occurring prototype for cartap [the bis(thiocarbamate) derivative of the NTX dithiol], which is generally regarded as a proinsecticide reverting to NTX. The aim of this study is to define the target site(s) for dithiolanes and dithiol esters. The affinity of [(3)H]NTX was not suitable for binding assays with honeybee (Apis mellifera) head membranes. However, NTX and cartap are equally potent, direct-acting, and competitive displacers of [(3)H]thienylcyclohexylpiperidine binding at the noncompetitive blocker (NCB) site of the Apis nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)/channel. NTX also binds at the Apis [(3)H]imidacloprid agonist site, but cartap does not. As candidate metabolic pathways, sequential N-desmethylation and S-oxidation of NTX progressively reduce its potency at the NCB site and toxicity to houseflies. A P450 inhibitor reduces the toxicity of NTX and enhances it with cartap. Surprisingly, cartap is not just a pro-NTX but instead directly induces inhibitory neurotoxicity by blocking the nAChR/channel, whereas NTX may have dual NCB and agonist targets.

  15. α6β2* and α4β2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors As Drug Targets for Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnacott, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a debilitating movement disorder characterized by a generalized dysfunction of the nervous system, with a particularly prominent decline in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Although there is currently no cure, drugs targeting the dopaminergic system provide major symptomatic relief. As well, agents directed to other neurotransmitter systems are of therapeutic benefit. Such drugs may act by directly improving functional deficits in these other systems, or they may restore aberrant motor activity that arises as a result of a dopaminergic imbalance. Recent research attention has focused on a role for drugs targeting the nicotinic cholinergic systems. The rationale for such work stems from basic research findings that there is an extensive overlap in the organization and function of the nicotinic cholinergic and dopaminergic systems in the basal ganglia. In addition, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) drugs could have clinical potential for Parkinson's disease. Evidence for this proposition stems from studies with experimental animal models showing that nicotine protects against neurotoxin-induced nigrostriatal damage and improves motor complications associated with l-DOPA, the “gold standard” for Parkinson's disease treatment. Nicotine interacts with multiple central nervous system receptors to generate therapeutic responses but also produces side effects. It is important therefore to identify the nAChR subtypes most beneficial for treating Parkinson's disease. Here we review nAChRs with particular emphasis on the subtypes that contribute to basal ganglia function. Accumulating evidence suggests that drugs targeting α6β2* and α4β2* nAChR may prove useful in the management of Parkinson's disease. PMID:21969327

  16. Preclinical abuse liability assessment of ABT-126, an agonist at the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudzik, Thomas J; Basso, Ana M; Lynch, James J; Bracken, William M; Mohler, Eric G; Kohlhaas, Kathy L; Xu, Hongyu; Haig, George; Gault, Laura

    2017-07-01

    ABT-126 is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist that is selective for the α7 subtype of the receptor. nAChRs are thought to play a role in a variety of neurocognitive processes and have been a pharmacologic target for disorders with cognitive impairment, including schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. As part of the preclinical safety package for ABT-126, its potential for abuse was assessed. While the involvement of the α4β2 subtype of the nicotinic receptor in the addictive properties of nicotine has been demonstrated, the role of the α7 receptor has been studied much less extensively. A number of preclinical assays of abuse potential including open-field, drug discrimination and self-administration were employed in male rats. ABT-126 had modest effects on locomotor activity in the open-field assay. In nicotine and d-amphetamine drug discrimination assays, ABT-126 administration failed to produce appreciable d-amphetamine-like or nicotine-like responding, suggesting that its interoceptive effects are distinct from those of these drugs of abuse. In rats trained to self-administer cocaine, substitution with ABT-126 was similar to substitution with saline, indicating that it lacks reinforcing effects. No evidence of physical dependence was noted following subchronic administration. Overall, these data suggest that ABT-126 has a low potential for abuse. Together with other literature on this drug class, it appears that drugs that selectively activate α7 nAChRs are not likely to result in abuse or dependence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability in juvenile pig brain with [{sup 18}F]NS10743

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Fischer, Steffen; Hiller, Achim; Funke, Uta; Brust, Peter [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiopharmacy, Leipzig (Germany); Becker, Georg; Sabri, Osama [Univ. of Leipzig, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Cumming, Paul; Xiong, Guoming [Univ. of Munich, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Peters, Dan [NeuroSearch A/S, Ballerup (Denmark)

    2011-08-15

    To conduct a quantitative PET assessment of the specific binding sites in the brain of juvenile pigs for [{sup 18}F]NS10743, a novel diazabicyclononane derivative targeting {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors ({alpha}7 nAChRs). Dynamic PET recordings were made in isoflurane-anaesthetized juvenile pigs during 120 min after administration of [{sup 18}F]NS10743 under baseline conditions (n = 3) and after blocking of the {alpha}7 nAChR with NS6740 (3 mg.kg{sup -1} bolus + 1 mg.kg{sup -1}.h{sup -1} continuous infusion; n = 3). Arterial plasma samples were collected for determining the input function of the unmetabolized tracer. Kinetic analysis of regional brain time-radioactivity curves was performed, and parametric maps were calculated relative to arterial input. Plasma [{sup 18}F]NS10743 passed readily into the brain, with peak uptake occurring in {alpha}7 nAChR-expressing brain regions such as the colliculi, thalamus, temporal lobe and hippocampus. The highest SUV{sub max} was approximately 2.3, whereas the lowest uptake was in the olfactory bulb (SUV{sub max} 1.53 {+-} 0.32). Administration of NS6740 significantly decreased [{sup 18}F]NS10743 binding late in the emission recording throughout the brain, except in the olfactory bulb, which was therefore chosen as reference region for calculation of BP{sub ND}. The baseline BP{sub ND} ranged from 0.39 {+-} 0.08 in the cerebellum to 0.76 {+-} 0.07 in the temporal lobe. Pretreatment and constant infusion with NS6740 significantly reduced the BP{sub ND} in regions with high [{sup 18}F]NS10743 binding (temporal lobe -29%, p = 0.01; midbrain: -35%, p = 0.02), without significantly altering the BP{sub ND} in low binding regions (cerebellum: -16%, p = 0.2). This study confirms the potential of [{sup 18}F]NS10743 as a target-specific radiotracer for the molecular imaging of central {alpha}7 nAChRs by PET. (orig.)

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of new imaging agent for central nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}{sub 7} subtype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Mikako [Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); Nishiyama, Shingo; Tsukada, Hideo [PET Center, Central Research Laboratory, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Hamamatsu (Japan); Hatano, Kentaro [National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu (Japan); Fuchigami, Takeshi [Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroshi [National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu (Japan); Molecular Imaging Frontier Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); Matsushima, Yoshitaka [Department of Chemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); Ito, Kengo [National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu (Japan); Magata, Yasuhiro [Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); Molecular Imaging Frontier Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan)], E-mail: magata@hama-med.ac.jp

    2010-04-15

    Introduction: The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) {alpha}7 subtype ({alpha}{sub 7} nAChR) is one of the major nAChR subtypes in the brain. We synthesized C-11 labeled {alpha}{sub 7} nAChR ligands, (R)-2-[{sup 11}C]methylamino-benzoic acid 1-aza-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl ester ([{sup 11}C](R)-MeQAA) and its isomer (S)-[{sup 11}C]MeQAA, for in vivo investigation with positron emission tomography (PET). Then, the potential of (R)- and (S)-[{sup 11}C]MeQAA for in vivo imaging of {alpha}{sub 7} nAChR in the brain was evaluated in mice and monkeys. Methods: The binding affinity for {alpha}{sub 7} nAChR was measured using rat brain. Biodistribution and in vivo receptor blocking studies were undertaken in mice. Dynamic PET scans were performed in conscious monkeys. Results: The affinity for {alpha}{sub 7} nAChR was 41 and 182 nM for (R)- and (S)-MeQAA, respectively. The initial uptake in the mouse brain was high ([{sup 11}C](R)-MeQAA: 7.68 and [{sup 11}C](S)-MeQAA: 6.65 %dose/g at 5 min). The clearance of [{sup 11}C](R)-MeQAA was slow in the hippocampus ({alpha}{sub 7} nAChR-rich region) but was rapid in the cerebellum ({alpha}{sub 7} nAChR-poor region). On the other hand, the clearance was fast for [{sup 11}C](S)-MeQAA in all regions. The brain uptake of [{sup 11}C](R)-MeQAA was decreased by methyllycaconitine ({alpha}{sub 7} nAChR antagonist) treatment. In monkeys, {alpha}{sub 7} nAChRs were highly distributed in the thalamus and cortex but poorly distributed in the cerebellum. The high accumulation was observed in the cortex and thalamus for [{sup 11}C](R)-MeQAA, while the uptake was rather homogeneous for [{sup 11}C](S)-MeQAA. Conclusions: [{sup 11}C](R)-MeQAA was successfully synthesized and showed high uptake to the brain. However, since the in vivo selectivity for {alpha}{sub 7} nAChR was not enough, further PET kinetic analysis or structure optimization is needed for specific visualization of brain {alpha}{sub 7} nAChRs in vivo.

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of [125I]I-TSA as a brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subtype imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Mikako; Tatsumi, Ryo; Fujio, Masakazu; Katayama, Jiro; Magata, Yasuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Some in vitro investigations have suggested that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α 7 subtype is implicated in Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and others. Recently, we developed (R)-3'-(5-bromothiophen-2-yl)spiro[1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-3,5'-[1',3'] oxazolidin]-2'-one (Br-TSA), which has a high affinity and selectivity for α 7 nAChRs. Therefore we synthesized (R)-3'-(5-[ 125 I]iodothiophen-2-yl)spiro[1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-3,5'- [1',3']oxazolidin]-2'-one ([ 125 I]I-TSA) and evaluated its potential for the in vivo detection of α 7 nAChR in brain. Methods: In vitro binding affinity of I-TSA was measured in rat brain homogenates. Radioiodination was accomplished by a Br-I exchange reaction. Biodistribution studies were undertaken in mice by tail vein injection of [ 125 I]I-TSA. In vivo receptor blocking studies were carried out by treating mice with methyllycaconitine (MLA; 5 nmol/5 μl, i.c.v.) or nonradioactive I-TSA (50 μmol/kg, i.v.). Results: I-TSA exhibited a high affinity and selectivity for the α 7 nAChR (K i for α 7 nAChR=0.54 nM). Initial uptake in the brain was high (4.42 %dose/g at 5 min), and the clearance of radioactivity was relatively slow in the hippocampus (α 7 nAChR-rich region) and was rather rapid in the cerebellum (α 7 nAChR poor region). The hippocampus to cerebellum uptake ratio was 0.9 at 5 min postinjection, but it was increased to 1.8 at 60 min postinjection. Although the effect was not statistically significant, administration of I-TSA and MLA decreased the accumulation of radioactivity in hippocampus. Conclusion: Despite its high affinity and selectivity, [ 125 I]I-TSA does not appear to be a suitable tracer for in vivo α 7 nAChR receptor imaging studies due to its high nonspecific binding. Further structural optimization is needed

  20. Association of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with central respiratory control in isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparation of neonatal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EIKI HATORI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine exposure is a risk factor in several breathing disorders Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs exist in the ventrolateral medulla, an important site for respiratory control. We examined the effects of nicotinic acetylcholine neurotransmission on central respiratory control by addition of a nAChR agonist or one of various antagonists into superfusion medium in the isolated brainstem-spinal cord from neonatal rats. Ventral C4 neuronal activity was monitored as central respiratory output, and activities of respiratory neurons in the ventrolateral medulla were recorded in whole-cell configuration. RJR-2403 (0.1-10mM, alpha4beta2 nAChR agonist induced dose-dependent increases in respiratory frequency. Non-selective nAChR antagonist mecamylamine (0.1-100mM, alpha4beta2 antagonist dihydro-beta-erythroidine (0.1-100mM, alpha7 antagonist methyllycaconitine (0.1-100mM, and a-bungarotoxin (0.01-10mM all induced dose-dependent reductions in C4 respiratory rate. We next examined effects of 20mM dihydro-beta-erythroidine and 20mM methyllycaconitine on respiratory neurons. Dihydro-beta-erythroidine induces hyperpolarization and decreases intraburst firing frequency of inspiratory and preinspiratory neurons. In contrast, methyllycaconitine has no effect on the membrane potential of inspiratory neurons, but does decrease their intraburst firing frequency while inducing hyperpolarization and decreasing intraburst firing frequency in preinspiratory neurons. These findings indicate that alpha4beta2 nAChR is involved in both inspiratory and preinspiratory neurons, whereas alpha7 nAChR functions only in preinspiratory neurons to modulate C4 respiratory rate

  1. Mice Lacking the β4 Subunit of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Show Memory Deficits, Altered Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behavior, and Diminished Nicotine-Induced Analgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, Svetlana; Contet, Candice; Roberts, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: The role of β4-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in cognition, anxiety, depression, and analgesia in the absence of nicotine is unclear. Methods: Wild-type (β4+/+) and knockout (β4−/−) mice for the nAChR β4 subunit were tested in behavioral tests assessing cognitive function, affective behaviors, and nociception. Results: There were no learning and memory deficits in β4−/− mice compared with β4+/+ mice during the acquisition of the Barnes maze, contextual fear conditioning, and Y maze tasks. In the Barnes maze memory retention test, male β4−/− mice showed reduced use of the spatial search strategy, indicating small spatial memory deficits compared with β4+/+ mice. In the cue-induced fear conditioning memory retention test, β4−/− mice exhibited reduced freezing time compared with β4+/+ mice. Compared with β4+/+ mice, β4−/− mice exhibited decreased anxiety-like behavior in the light–dark box. Depression-like behavior in β4−/− mice was decreased in the tail suspension test and increased in the forced swim test compared with β4+/+ mice. β4−/− mice did not differ from β4+/+ mice in basal nociception but were less sensitive to the antinociceptive effect of nicotine in 2 tests of acute thermal pain. Conclusions: Lack of β4-containing nAChRs resulted in small deficits in hippocampus- and amygdala-dependent memory retention functions. β4-containing nAChRs are involved in anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and contribute to the analgesic effects of nicotine. PMID:22573727

  2. The α4β2 nicotine acetylcholine receptor agonist ispronicline induces c-Fos expression in selective regions of the rat forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie; Hansen, Henrik H; Kiss, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The dominant nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype in the brain is the pentameric receptor containing both α4 and β2 subunits (α4β2). Due to the lack of selective agonists it has not been ruled out what neuronal circuits that are stimulated after systemic administration with nicotine. We...... or indirectly involved in acute stress regulation after a single dose of ispronicline, supports earlier studies that the α4β2 receptors are strongly involved in nicotine-dependent activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenocortical axis....

  3. Combined α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonism and partial serotonin transporter inhibition produce antidepressant-like effects in the mouse forced swim and tail suspension tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper T; Redrobe, John P; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence points to an involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in major depression. Nicotine improves symptoms of depression in humans and shows antidepressant-like effects in rodents. Monoamine release is facilitated by nAChR stimulation, and nicotine-evoked serotonin (5......-HT) release has been shown to depend on α7 nAChR activation. The α7 nAChR agonist PNU-282987 shows no antidepressant-like activity when tested alone in the mouse forced swim (mFST) or tail suspension tests (mTST). However, in combination with a sub-active dose of the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor...

  4. Alpha-conotoxin analogs with additional positive charge show increased selectivity towards Torpedo californica and some neuronal subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasheverov, I.E.; Zhmak, M.N.; Vulfius, C.A.; Corbacheva, E.V.; Mordvintsev, D.Y.; Utkin, Y.N.; van Elk, R.; Smit, A.B.; Tsetlin, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    α-Conotoxins from Conus snails are indispensable tools for distinguishing various subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and synthesis of α-conotoxin analogs may yield novel antagonists of higher potency and selectivity. We incorporated additional positive charges into α-conotoxins

  5. Positive allosteric modulators of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor potentiate glutamate release in the prefrontal cortex of freely-moving rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortz, D M; Upton, B A; Mikkelsen, J D

    2016-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) exhibit pro-cognitive effects in animal models of schizophrenia and are targets for the discovery of cognition-enhancing drugs. However, little is known about their in vivo mechanism of action because...

  6. The role of the a7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on motor coordination in mice treated with methyllcaconitine and anabasine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adverse effects of methyllycaconitine (MLA) have been attributed to competitive antagonism of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Research has indicated a correlation between the LD50 of MLA and the amount of a7 nAChR in various mouse strains, suggesting that mice with more a7 nAChR requi...

  7. Pharmacological characterisation of α6β4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors assembled from three different α6/α3 subunit chimeras in tsA201 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Bjørnskov; Hoestgaard-Jensen, Kirsten; Jensen, Anders A.

    2014-01-01

    should be made keeping the molecular modifications in the α6 surrogate subunits in mind, this study sheds light on the pharmacological properties of α6β4⁎ nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and demonstrates the applicability of the C6F223L and C16F223L chimeras for studies of these receptors....

  8. Engineered α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as models for measuring agonist binding and effect at the orthosteric low-affinity α4-α4 interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Philip K.; Olsen, Jeppe A.; Nielsen, Elsebet O.

    2015-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 beta 2 is important for normal mammalian brain function and is known to express in two different stoichiometries, (alpha 4)(2)(beta 2)(3) and (alpha 4)(3)(beta 2)(2). While these are similar in many aspects, the (alpha 4)(3)(beta 2)(2) stoichiometry di...

  9. Role of the cholinergic nervous system in rheumatoid arthritis: aggravation of arthritis in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 subunit gene knockout mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, Marjolein A.; Stoof, Susanne P.; Larosa, Gregory J.; Vervoordeldonk, Margriet J.; Tak, Paul P.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The alpha7 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (alpha7nAChR) can negatively regulate the synthesis and release of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages and fibroblast-like synoviocytes in vitro. In addition, stimulation of the alpha7nAChR can reduce the severity of arthritis

  10. Purification of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor protein by affinity chromatography using a regioselectively modified and reversibly immobilized alpha-toxin from Naja nigricollis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringler, P; Kessler, P; Menez, A; Brisson, A

    1997-01-01

    A new method of affinity chromatography purification of the detergent-solubilized nicotinic acetylcholine receptor protein (nAChR) is presented, based on the reversible coupling of a chemically monomodified alpha-toxin from Naja nigricollis to a resin. The alpha-toxin was monothiolated on the

  11. Acute Ethanol Administration Upregulates Synaptic α4-Subunit of Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors within the Nucleus Accumbens and Amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine R. Tarren

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and nicotine are two of the most frequently abused drugs, with their comorbidity well described. Previous data show that chronic exposure to nicotine upregulates high-affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs in several brain areas. Effects of ethanol on specific brain nAChR subtypes within the mesolimbic dopaminergic (DA pathway may be a key element in the comorbidity of ethanol and nicotine. However, it is unknown how alcohol affects the abundance of these receptor proteins. In the present study, we measured the effect of acute binge ethanol on nAChR α4 subunit levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC, nucleus accumbens (NAc, ventral tegmental area (VTA, and amygdala (Amg by western blot analysis using a knock-in mouse line, generated with a normally functioning α4 nAChR subunit tagged with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP. We observed a robust increase in α4-YFP subunit levels in the NAc and the Amg following acute ethanol, with no changes in the PFC and VTA. To further investigate whether this upregulation was mediated by increased local mRNA transcription, we quantified mRNA levels of the Chrna4 gene using qRT-PCR. We found no effect of ethanol on α4 mRNA expression, suggesting that the upregulation of α4 protein rather occurs post-translationally. The quantitative counting of YFP immunoreactive puncta further revealed that α4-YFP protein is upregulated in presynaptic boutons of the dopaminergic axons projecting to the shell and the core regions of the NAc as well as to the basolateral amygdala (BLA, but not to the central or lateral Amg. Together, our results demonstrate that a single exposure to binge ethanol upregulates level of synaptic α4∗ nAChRs in dopaminergic inputs to the NAc and BLA. This upregulation could be linked to the functional dysregulation of dopaminergic signalling observed during the development of alcohol dependence.

  12. Cognitive correlates of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in mild Alzheimer's dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Osama; Meyer, Philipp M; Gräf, Susanne; Hesse, Swen; Wilke, Stephan; Becker, Georg-Alexander; Rullmann, Michael; Patt, Marianne; Luthardt, Julia; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Hoepping, Alexander; Smits, Rene; Franke, Annegret; Sattler, Bernhard; Tiepolt, Solveig; Fischer, Steffen; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Hegerl, Ulrich; Barthel, Henryk; Schönknecht, Peter; Brust, Peter

    2018-04-17

    In early Alzheimer's dementia, there is a need for PET biomarkers of disease progression with close associations to cognitive dysfunction that may aid to predict further cognitive decline and neurodegeneration. Amyloid biomarkers are not suitable for that purpose. The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α4β2-nAChRs) are widely abundant in the human brain. As neuromodulators they play an important role in cognitive functions such as attention, learning and memory. Post-mortem studies reported lower expression of α4β2-nAChRs in more advanced Alzheimer's dementia. However, there is ongoing controversy whether α4β2-nAChRs are reduced in early Alzheimer's dementia. Therefore, using the recently developed α4β2-nAChR-specific radioligand (-)-18F-flubatine and PET, we aimed to quantify the α4β2-nAChR availability and its relationship to specific cognitive dysfunction in mild Alzheimer's dementia. Fourteen non-smoking patients with mild Alzheimer's dementia, drug-naïve for cholinesterase therapy, were compared with 15 non-smoking healthy controls matched for age, sex and education by applying (-)-18F-flubatine PET together with a neuropsychological test battery. The one-tissue compartment model and Logan plot method with arterial input function were used for kinetic analysis to obtain the total distribution volume (VT) as the primary, and the specific binding part of the distribution volume (VS) as the secondary quantitative outcome measure of α4β2-nAChR availability. VS was determined by using a pseudo-reference region. Correlations between VT within relevant brain regions and Z-scores of five cognitive functions (episodic memory, executive function/working memory, attention, language, visuospatial function) were calculated. VT (and VS) were applied for between-group comparisons. Volume of interest and statistical parametric mapping analyses were carried out. Analyses revealed that in patients with mild Alzheimer's dementia compared to healthy controls

  13. Characterization of the retina in the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marci L.

    Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are involved in visual processing and are expressed by inner retinal neurons in all species studied to date (Keyser et al., 2000; Dmitrieva et al., 2007; Liu et al., 2009), but their distribution in the mouse retina remains unknown. Reductions in alpha7 nicotinic AChRs (nAChRs) are thought to contribute to memory and visual deficits observed in Alzheimer's and schizophrenia (Coyle et al., 1983; Nordberg et al., 1999; Leonard et al., 2006). However, the alpha7 nAChR knockout (KO) mouse has a mild phenotype (Paylor et al., 1998; Fernandes et al., 2006; Young et al., 2007; Origlia et al., 2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of AChRs in wildtype (WT) mouse retina and to assess whether up-regulation of other AChRs in the alpha7 nAChR KO retina may explain the minimal deficits described in the KO mouse. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) showed that mRNA transcripts for alpha2-7, alpha 9, alpha10, beta2-4 nAChR subunits and m1-m5 muscarinic AChR (mAChR) subtypes were present in WT murine retina. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of alpha3-5, alpha9, and m1-m5 AChR proteins and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated nAChR and mAChR proteins expressed by subsets of bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells. This is the first reported expression of alpha9 and alpha10 nAChR transcripts and alpha9 nAChR proteins in the retina of any species. Quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) showed changes in AChR transcript expression in the alpha7 nAChR KO mouse retina relative to WT. Within whole retina alpha2, alpha9, alpha10, beta4, m1 and m4 AChR transcripts were up-regulated, while alpha5 nAChR transcripts were down-regulated. However, cell populations showed subtle differences; m4 mAChR transcripts were up-regulated in the ganglion cell layer and outer portion of the inner nuclear layer (oINL),while beta4 nAChR transcript up-regulation was limited to the oINL. Surprisingly, alpha2, alpha9, beta4, m2 and m4 transcripts were

  14. Promoted neuronal differentiation after activation of alpha4/beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in undifferentiated neural progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Takarada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neural progenitor is a generic term used for undifferentiated cell populations of neural stem, neuronal progenitor and glial progenitor cells with abilities for proliferation and differentiation. We have shown functional expression of ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA and gamma-aminobutyrate type-A receptors endowed to positively and negatively regulate subsequent neuronal differentiation in undifferentiated neural progenitors, respectively. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the possible functional expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR by undifferentiated neural progenitors prepared from neocortex of embryonic rodent brains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed mRNA expression of particular nAChR subunits in undifferentiated rat and mouse progenitors prepared before and after the culture with epidermal growth factor under floating conditions. Sustained exposure to nicotine significantly inhibited the formation of neurospheres composed of clustered proliferating cells and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction activity at a concentration range of 1 µM to 1 mM without affecting cell survival. In these rodent progenitors previously exposed to nicotine, marked promotion was invariably seen for subsequent differentiation into cells immunoreactive for a neuronal marker protein following the culture of dispersed cells under adherent conditions. Both effects of nicotine were significantly prevented by the heteromeric α4β2 nAChR subtype antagonists dihydro-β-erythroidine and 4-(5-ethoxy-3-pyridinyl-N-methyl-(3E-3-buten-1-amine, but not by the homomeric α7 nAChR subtype antagonist methyllycaconitine, in murine progenitors. Sustained exposure to nicotine preferentially increased the expression of Math1 among different basic helix-loop-helix proneural genes examined. In undifferentiated progenitors from embryonic mice

  15. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs are expressed in Trpm5 positive taste receptor cells (TRCs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Qian

    Full Text Available Nicotine evokes chorda tympani (CT taste nerve responses and an aversive behavior in Trpm5 knockout (KO mice. The agonists and antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs modulate neural and behavioral responses to nicotine in wildtype (WT mice, Trpm5 KO mice and rats. This indicates that nicotine evokes bitter taste by activating a Trpm5-dependent pathway and a Trpm5-independent but nAChR-dependent pathway. Rat CT responses to ethanol are also partially inhibited by nAChR blockers, mecamylamine and dihydro-β-erythroidine. This indicates that a component of the bitter taste of ethanol is also nAChR-dependent. However, at present the expression and localization of nAChR subunits has not been investigated in detail in taste receptor cells (TRCs. To this end, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and q-RT-PCR techniques were utilized to localize nAChR subunits in fungiform and circumvallate TRCs in WT mice, Trpm5-GFP transgenic mice, nAChR KO mice, and rats. The expression of mRNAs for α7, β2 and β4 nAChR subunits was observed in a subset of rat and WT mouse circumvallate and fungiform TRCs. Specific α3, α4, α7, β2, and β4 antibodies localized to a subset of WT mouse circumvallate and fungiform TRCs. In Trpm5-GFP mice α3, α4, α7, and β4 antibody binding was observed in a subset of Trpm5-positive circumvallate TRCs. Giving nicotine (100 μg/ml in drinking water to WT mice for 3 weeks differentially increased the expression of α3, α4, α5, α6, α7, β2 and β4 mRNAs in circumvallate TRCs to varying degrees. Giving ethanol (5% in drinking water to WT mice induced an increase in the expression of α5 and β4 mRNAs in circumvallate TRCs with a significant decrease in the expression of α3, α6 and β2 mRNAs. We conclude that nAChR subunits are expressed in Trpm5-positive TRCs and their expression levels are differentially altered by chronic oral exposure to nicotine and ethanol.

  16. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in Trpm5 positive taste receptor cells (TRCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jie; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Grider, John R; Damaj, M Imad; Lyall, Vijay

    2018-01-01

    Nicotine evokes chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve responses and an aversive behavior in Trpm5 knockout (KO) mice. The agonists and antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) modulate neural and behavioral responses to nicotine in wildtype (WT) mice, Trpm5 KO mice and rats. This indicates that nicotine evokes bitter taste by activating a Trpm5-dependent pathway and a Trpm5-independent but nAChR-dependent pathway. Rat CT responses to ethanol are also partially inhibited by nAChR blockers, mecamylamine and dihydro-β-erythroidine. This indicates that a component of the bitter taste of ethanol is also nAChR-dependent. However, at present the expression and localization of nAChR subunits has not been investigated in detail in taste receptor cells (TRCs). To this end, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and q-RT-PCR techniques were utilized to localize nAChR subunits in fungiform and circumvallate TRCs in WT mice, Trpm5-GFP transgenic mice, nAChR KO mice, and rats. The expression of mRNAs for α7, β2 and β4 nAChR subunits was observed in a subset of rat and WT mouse circumvallate and fungiform TRCs. Specific α3, α4, α7, β2, and β4 antibodies localized to a subset of WT mouse circumvallate and fungiform TRCs. In Trpm5-GFP mice α3, α4, α7, and β4 antibody binding was observed in a subset of Trpm5-positive circumvallate TRCs. Giving nicotine (100 μg/ml) in drinking water to WT mice for 3 weeks differentially increased the expression of α3, α4, α5, α6, α7, β2 and β4 mRNAs in circumvallate TRCs to varying degrees. Giving ethanol (5%) in drinking water to WT mice induced an increase in the expression of α5 and β4 mRNAs in circumvallate TRCs with a significant decrease in the expression of α3, α6 and β2 mRNAs. We conclude that nAChR subunits are expressed in Trpm5-positive TRCs and their expression levels are differentially altered by chronic oral exposure to nicotine and ethanol.

  17. Molecular determinants of subtype-selective efficacies of cytisine and the novel compound NS3861 at heteromeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Kasper; Hald, Helle; Timmermann, Daniel B

    2013-01-01

    Deciphering which specific agonist-receptor interactions affect efficacy levels is of high importance, because this will ultimately aid in designing selective drugs. The novel compound NS3861 and cytisine are agonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and both bind with high affinity...... electrophysiological measurements of efficacy levels at heteromeric combinations of a3- and a4-, with ß2- and ß4-subunits, and various chimeric constructs thereof. Compared with cytisine, which selectively activates receptors containing ß4- but not ß2-subunits, NS3861 displays the opposite ß-subunit preference...... and a complete lack of activation at a4-containing receptors. The maximal efficacy of NS3861 appeared solely dependent on the nature of the ligand-binding domain, whereas efficacy of cytisine was additionally affected by the nature of the ß-subunit transmembrane domain. Molecular docking to nAChR subtype...

  18. Synthetic α-Conotoxin Mutants as Probes for Studying Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and in the Development of Novel Drug Leads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Armishaw

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available α-Conotoxins are peptide neurotoxins isolated from venomous marine cone snails that are potent and selective antagonists for different subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs. As such, they are valuable probes for dissecting the role that nAChRs play in nervous system function. In recent years, extensive insight into the binding mechanisms of α-conotoxins with nAChRs at the molecular level has aided in the design of synthetic analogs with improved pharmacological properties. This review examines the structure-activity relationship studies involving α-conotoxins as research tools for studying nAChRs in the central and peripheral nervous systems and their use towards the development of novel therapeutics.

  19. 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-A-85380: an in vivo tracer for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffel, Ursula; Horti, Andrew G.; Koren, Andrei O.; Ravert, Hayden T.; Banta, Jeffrey P.; Finley, Paige A.; London, Edythe D.; Dannals, Robert F. E-mail: robert_dannals@tracer.nm.jhu.edu

    2000-01-01

    6-[{sup 18}F]Fluoro-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-A-85380 or 6-[{sup 18}F]FA), a new tracer for positron emission tomography, was synthesized by no-carrier-added [{sup 18}F] fluorination of 6-iodo-3-((1-tert-butoxycarbonyl-2(S)-azetidinyl)methoxy)pyridine followed by acidic deprotection. 6-[{sup 18}F]FA followed the regional densities of brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) reported in the literature. Evidence of binding to nAChRs and high specificity of the binding in vivo was demonstrated by inhibition with nAChR selective ligands as well as with unlabeled 6-FA. A preliminary toxicology study of the 6-FA showed a relatively low biological effect.

  20. 6-[18F]fluoro-A-85380: an in vivo tracer for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, Ursula; Horti, Andrew G.; Koren, Andrei O.; Ravert, Hayden T.; Banta, Jeffrey P.; Finley, Paige A.; London, Edythe D.; Dannals, Robert F.

    2000-01-01

    6-[ 18 F]Fluoro-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (6-[ 18 F]fluoro-A-85380 or 6-[ 18 F]FA), a new tracer for positron emission tomography, was synthesized by no-carrier-added [ 18 F] fluorination of 6-iodo-3-((1-tert-butoxycarbonyl-2(S)-azetidinyl)methoxy)pyridine followed by acidic deprotection. 6-[ 18 F]FA followed the regional densities of brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) reported in the literature. Evidence of binding to nAChRs and high specificity of the binding in vivo was demonstrated by inhibition with nAChR selective ligands as well as with unlabeled 6-FA. A preliminary toxicology study of the 6-FA showed a relatively low biological effect

  1. A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor transmembrane point mutation (G275E) associated with resistance to spinosad in Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puinean, Alin M; Lansdell, Stuart J; Collins, Toby; Bielza, Pablo; Millar, Neil S

    2013-03-01

    High levels of resistance to spinosad, a macrocyclic lactone insecticide, have been reported previously in western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, an economically important insect pest of vegetables, fruit and ornamental crops. We have cloned the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α6 subunit from F. occidentalis (Foα6) and compared the nucleotide sequence of Foα6 from susceptible and spinosad-resistant insect populations (MLFOM and R1S respectively). A single nucleotide change has been identified in Foα6, resulting in the replacement of a glycine (G) residue in susceptible insects with a glutamic acid (E) in resistant insects. The resistance-associated mutation (G275E) is predicted to lie at the top of the third α-helical transmembrane domain of Foα6. Although there is no direct evidence identifying the location of the spinosad binding site, the analogous amino acid in the C. elegans glutamate-gated chloride channel lies in close proximity (4.4 Å) to the known binding site of ivermectin, another macrocyclic lactone pesticide. The functional consequences of the resistance-associated mutation have been examined in the human nAChR α7 subunit. Introduction of an analogous (A272E) mutation in α7 abolishes the modulatory effects of spinosad whilst having no significant effect upon activation by acetylcholine, consistent with spinosad having an allosteric mechanism of action. © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  2. Bupropion-induced inhibition of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in heterologous cells and neurons from dorsal raphe nucleus and hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Gómez, Elizabeth; Arias, Hugo R; Feuerbach, Dominik; Miranda-Morales, Marcela; Mihailescu, Stefan; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; García-Colunga, Jesús

    2014-10-05

    The pharmacological activity of bupropion was compared between α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in heterologous cells and hippocampal and dorsal raphe nucleus neurons. The inhibitory activity of bupropion was studied on GH3-α7 cells by Ca2+ influx, as well as on neurons from the dorsal raphe nucleus and interneurons from the stratum radiatum of the hippocampal CA1 region by using a whole-cell voltage-clamp technique. In addition, the interaction of bupropion with the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor was determined by [3H]imipramine competition binding assays and molecular docking. The fast component of acetylcholine- and choline-induced currents from both brain regions was inhibited by methyllycaconitine, indicating the participation of α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Choline-induced currents in hippocampal interneurons were partially inhibited by 10 µM bupropion, a concentration that could be reached in the brain during clinical administration. Additionally, both agonist-induced currents were reversibly inhibited by bupropion at concentrations that coincide with its inhibitory potency (IC50=54 µM) and binding affinity (Ki=63 µM) for α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from heterologous cells. The [3H]imipramine competition binding and molecular docking results support a luminal location for the bupropion binding site(s). This study may help to understand the mechanisms of actions of bupropion at neuronal and molecular levels related with its therapeutic actions on depression and for smoking cessation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Methadone is a non-competitive antagonist at the α4β2 and α3* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and an agonist at the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talka, Reeta; Salminen, Outi; Tuominen, Raimo K

    2015-04-01

    Nicotine-methadone interactions have been studied in human beings and in various experimental settings regarding addiction, reward and pain. Most methadone maintenance treatment patients are smokers, and methadone administration has been shown to increase cigarette smoking. Previous in vitro studies have shown that methadone is a non-competitive antagonist at rat α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and an agonist at human α7 nAChRs. In this study, we used cell lines expressing human α4β2, α7 and α3* nAChRs to compare the interactions of methadone at the various human nAChRs under the same experimental conditions. A [(3) H]epibatidine displacement assay was used to determine whether methadone binds to the nicotinic receptors, and (86) Rb(+) efflux and changes in intracellular calcium [Ca(2+) ]i were used to assess changes in the functional activity of the receptors. Methadone displaced [(3) H]epibatidine from nicotinic agonist-binding sites in SH-EP1-hα7 and SH-SY5Y cells, but not in SH-EP1-hα4β2 cells. The Ki values for methadone were 6.3 μM in SH-EP1-hα7 cells and 19.4 μM and 1008 μM in SH-SY5Y cells. Methadone increased [Ca(2+) ]i in all cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner, and in SH-EP1-hα7 cells, the effect was more pronounced than the effect of nicotine treatment. In SH-EP1-hα4β2 cells, the effect of methadone was negligible compared to that of nicotine. Methadone pre-treatment abolished the nicotine-induced response in [Ca(2+) ]i in all cell lines expressing nAChRs. In SH-EP1-hα4β2 and SH-SY5Y cells, methadone had no effect on the (86) Rb(+) efflux, but it antagonized the nicotine-induced (86) Rb(+) ion efflux in a non-competitive manner. These results suggest that methadone is an agonist at human α7 nAChRs and a non-competitive antagonist at human α4β2 and α3* nAChRs. This study adds further support to the previous findings that opioids interact with nAChRs, which may underlie their frequent co

  4. Expression and functional properties of α7 acetylcholine nicotinic receptors are modified in the presence of other receptor subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Manuel; Valor, Luis M; Mulet, José; Gerber, Susana; Sala, Salvador; Sala, Francisco

    2012-11-01

    Although α7 nicotinic receptors are predominantly homopentamers, previous reports have indicated that α7 and β2 subunits are able to form heteromers. We have studied whether other nicotinic receptor subunits can also assemble with α7 subunits and the effect of this potential association. Coexpression of α7 with α2, α3, or β4 subunits reduced to about half, surface α-bungarotoxin binding sites and acetylcholine-gated currents. This is probably because of inhibition of membrane trafficking, as the total amount of α7 subunits was similar in all cases and a significant proportion of mature α7 receptors was present inside the cell. Only β4 subunits appeared to directly associate with α7 receptors at the membrane and these heteromeric receptors showed some kinetic and pharmacological differences when compared with homomeric α7 receptors. Finally, we emulated the situation of bovine chromaffin cells in Xenopus laevis oocytes by using the same proportion of α3, β4, α5, and α7 mRNAs, finding that α-bungarotoxin binding was similarly reduced in spite of increased currents, apparently mediated by α3β4(α5) receptors. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. Distribution of the a2, a3, and a5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in the chick brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrão A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs are ionotropic receptors comprised of a and ß subunits. These receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system, and previous studies have revealed specific patterns of localization for some nAChR subunits in the vertebrate brain. In the present study we used immunohistochemical methods and monoclonal antibodies to localize the a2, a3, and a5 nAChR subunits in the chick mesencephalon and diencephalon. We observed a differential distribution of these three subunits in the chick brain, and showed that the somata and neuropil of many central structures contain the a5 nAChR subunit. The a2 and a3 subunits, on the other hand, exhibited a more restricted distribution than a5 and other subunits previously studied, namely a7, a8 and ß2. The patterns of distribution of the different nAChR subunits suggest that neurons in many brain structures may contain several subtypes of nAChRs and that in a few regions one particular subtype may determine the cholinergic nicotinic responses

  6. Weak toxin WTX from Naja kaouthia cobra venom interacts with both nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mordvintsev, D.Y.; Polyak, Y.L.; Rodionov, D.I.; Jakubík, Jan; Doležal, Vladimír; Karlsson, E.; Tsetlin, V.I.; Utkin, Y.N.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 276, č. 18 (2009), s. 5065-5075 ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : acetylcholine receptors * allosteric interaction * toxins Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.042, year: 2009

  7. The prototoxin LYPD6B modulates heteromeric α3β4-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, but not α7 homomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Vanessa; George, Andrew A; Nishi, Rae; Whiteaker, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Prototoxins are a diverse family of membrane-tethered molecules expressed in the nervous system that modulate nicotinic cholinergic signaling, but their functions and specificity have yet to be completely explored. We tested the selectivity and efficacy of leukocyte antigen, PLAUR (plasminogen activator, urokinase receptor) domain-containing (LYPD)-6B on α3β4-, α3α5β4-, and α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). To constrain stoichiometry, fusion proteins encoding concatemers of human α3, β4, and α5 (D and N variants) subunits were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and tested with or without LYPD6B. We used the 2-electrode voltage-clamp method to quantify responses to acetylcholine (ACh): agonist sensitivity (EC50), maximal agonist-induced current (Imax), and time constant (τ) of desensitization. For β4-α3-α3-β4-α3 and β4-α3-β4-α3-α3, LYPD6B decreased EC50 from 631 to 79 μM, reduced Imax by at least 59%, and decreased τ. For β4-α3-α5D-β4-α3 and β4-α3-β4-α-α5D, LYPD6B decreased Imax by 63 and 32%, respectively. Thus, LYPD6B acted only on (α3)3(β4)2 and (α3)2(α5D)(β4)2 and did not affect the properties of (α3)2(β4)3, α7, or (α3)2(α5N)(β4)2 nAChRs. Therefore, LYPD6B acts as a mixed modulator that enhances the sensitivity of (α3)3(β4)2 nAChRs to ACh while reducing ACh-induced whole-cell currents. LYPD6B also negatively modulates α3β4 nAChRs that include the α5D common human variant, but not the N variant associated with nicotine dependence. © FASEB.

  8. Interaction of alpha-conotoxin ImII and its analogs with nicotinic receptors and acetylcholine-binding proteins: additional binding sites on Torpedo receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasheverov, Igor E; Zhmak, Maxim N; Fish, Alexander; Rucktooa, Prakash; Khruschov, Alexey Yu; Osipov, Alexey V; Ziganshin, Rustam H; D'hoedt, Dieter; Bertrand, Daniel; Sixma, Titia K; Smit, August B; Tsetlin, Victor I

    2009-11-01

    alpha-Conotoxins interact with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBPs) at the sites for agonists/competitive antagonists. alpha-Conotoxins blocking muscle-type or alpha7 nAChRs compete with alpha-bungarotoxin. However, alpha-conotoxin ImII, a close homolog of the alpha7 nAChR-targeting alpha-conotoxin ImI, blocked alpha7 and muscle nAChRs without displacing alpha-bungarotoxin (Ellison et al. 2003, 2004), suggesting binding at a different site. We synthesized alpha-conotoxin ImII, its ribbon isomer (ImIIiso), 'mutant' ImII(W10Y) and found similar potencies in blocking human alpha7 and muscle nAChRs in Xenopus oocytes. Both isomers displaced [(125)I]-alpha-bungarotoxin from human alpha7 nAChRs in the cell line GH(4)C(1) (IC(50) 17 and 23 microM, respectively) and from Lymnaea stagnalis and Aplysia californica AChBPs (IC(50) 2.0-9.0 microM). According to SPR measurements, both isomers bound to immobilized AChBPs and competed with AChBP for immobilized alpha-bungarotoxin (K(d) and IC(50) 2.5-8.2 microM). On Torpedo nAChR, alpha-conotoxin [(125)I]-ImII(W10Y) revealed specific binding (K(d) 1.5-6.1 microM) and could be displaced by alpha-conotoxin ImII, ImIIiso and ImII(W10Y) with IC(50) 2.7, 2.2 and 3.1 microM, respectively. As alpha-cobratoxin and alpha-conotoxin ImI displaced [(125)I]-ImII(W10Y) only at higher concentrations (IC(50)> or = 90 microM), our results indicate that alpha-conotoxin ImII and its congeners have an additional binding site on Torpedo nAChR distinct from the site for agonists/competitive antagonists.

  9. Effect of α{sub 7} nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, Kevin D., E-mail: kevin.welch@ars.usda.gov [USDA/ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, 1150 E. 1400N., Logan, UT 84341 (United States); Pfister, James A. [USDA/ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, 1150 E. 1400N., Logan, UT 84341 (United States); Lima, Flavia G. [Federal University of Goías, School of Veterinary Medicine, Goiânia, Goías (Brazil); Green, Benedict T.; Gardner, Dale R. [USDA/ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, 1150 E. 1400N., Logan, UT 84341 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated cation channels found throughout the body, and serve to mediate diverse physiological functions. Muscle-type nAChRs located in the motor endplate region of muscle fibers play an integral role in muscle contraction and thus motor function. The toxicity and teratogenicity of many plants (which results in millions of dollars in losses annually to the livestock industry) are due to various toxins that bind to nAChRs including deltaline and methyllycaconitine (MLA) from larkspur (Delphinium) species, and nicotine and anabasine from tobacco (Nicotiana) species. The primary result of the actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs is neuromuscular paralysis and respiratory failure. The objective of this study was to further characterize the motor coordination deficiencies that occur upon exposure to a non-lethal dose of nAChR antagonists MLA and deltaline as well as nAChR agonists nicotine and anabasine. We evaluated the effect of nAChR agonists and antagonists on the motor function and coordination in mice using a balance beam, grip strength meter, rotarod, open field analysis and tremor monitor. These analyses demonstrated that within seconds after treatment the mice had significant loss of motor function and coordination that lasted up to 1 min, followed by a short period of quiescence. Recovery to normal muscle coordination was rapid, typically within approximately 10 min post-dosing. However, mice treated with the nAChR agonist nicotine and anabasine required a slightly longer time to recover some aspects of normal muscle function in comparison to mice treated with the nAChR antagonist MLA or deltaline. -- Highlights: ► Mice treated with nAChR agonists and antagonists have a loss in motor function. ► These deficits are temporary as near normal motor function returns within 10 min. ► There are compound-specific differences in the effects on motor function.

  10. Dual Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α4β2 Antagonists/α7 Agonists: Synthesis, Docking Studies, and Pharmacological Evaluation of Tetrahydroisoquinolines and Tetrahydroisoquinolinium Salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Jensen, Anders A; Soerensen, Christian

    2018-01-01

    We describe the synthesis of tetrahydroisoquinolines and tetrahydroisoquinolinium salts together with their pharmacological properties at various nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In general, the compounds were α4β2 nAChR antagonists, with the tetrahydroisoquinolinium salts being more potent tha...... evaluation revealed antidepressant-like effects of both (R)-5c and (R)-6c in the mouse forced swim test, supporting the therapeutic potential of α4β2 nAChR antagonists for this indication....

  11. Functional analysis of Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in multiple activation states by SSM-based electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, K V; Muschik, S; Langguth, F; Rappenglück, S; Seeger, T; Thiermann, H; Worek, F

    2016-04-15

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPC), i.e. nerve agents or pesticides, are highly toxic due to their strong inhibition potency against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Inhibited AChE results in accumulation of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft and thus the desensitisation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in the postsynaptic membrane is provoked. Direct targeting of nAChR to reduce receptor desensitisation might be an alternative therapeutic approach. For drug discovery, functional properties of potent therapeutic candidates need to be investigated in addition to affinity properties. Solid supported membrane (SSM)-based electrophysiology is useful for functional characterisation of ligand-gated ion channels like nAChRs, as charge translocations via capacitive coupling of the supporting membrane can be measured. By varying the agonist (carbamoylcholine) concentration, different functional states of the nAChR were initiated. Using plasma membrane preparations obtained from Torpedo californica electric organ, functional properties of selected nAChR ligands and non-oxime bispyridinium compounds were investigated. Depending on overall-size, the bispyridinium compounds enhanced or inhibited cholinergic signals induced by 100 μM carbamoylcholine. Applying excessive concentrations of the agonist carbamoylcholine provoked desensitisation of the nAChRs, whereas addition of bispyridinium compounds bearing short alkyl linkers exhibited functional recovery of previously desensitised nAChRs. The results suggest that these non-oxime bispyridinium compounds possibly interacted with nAChR subtypes in a manner of a positive allosteric modulator (PAM). The described newly developed functional assay is a valuable tool for the assessment of functional properties of potential compounds such as nAChR modulating ligands, which might be a promising approach in the therapeutically treatment of OPC-poisonings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of allosteric modulators and transmembrane mutations on desensitisation and activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzidaki, Anna; D'Oyley, Jarryl M; Gill-Thind, JasKiran K; Sheppard, Tom D; Millar, Neil S

    2015-10-01

    Acetylcholine activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by binding at an extracellular orthosteric site. Previous studies have described several positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that are selective for homomeric α7 nAChRs. These include type I PAMs, which exert little or no effect on the rate of receptor desensitisation, and type II PAMs, which cause a dramatic loss of agonist-induced desensitisation. Here we report evidence that transmembrane mutations in α7 nAChRs have diverse effects on receptor activation and desensitisation by allosteric ligands. It has been reported previously that the L247T mutation, located toward the middle of the second transmembrane domain (at the 9' position), confers reduced levels of desensitisation. In contrast, the M260L mutation, located higher up in the TM2 domain (at the 22' position), does not show any difference in desensitisation compared to wild-type receptors. We have found that in receptors containing the L247T mutation, both type I PAMs and type II PAMs are converted into non-desensitising agonists. In contrast, in receptors containing the M260L mutation, this effect is seen only with type II PAMs. These findings, indicating that the M260L mutation has a selective effect on type II PAMs, have been confirmed both with previously described PAMs and also with a series of novel α7-selective PAMs. The novel PAMs examined in this study have close chemical similarity but diverse pharmacological properties. For example, they include compounds displaying effects on receptor desensitisation that are typical of classical type I and type II PAMs but, in addition, they include compounds with intermediate properties. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Trace eyeblink conditioning is impaired in α7 but not in β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knock-out mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin L Brown

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs are essentially involved in learning and memory. A neurobiologically and behaviorally well-characterized measure of learning and memory, eyeblink classical conditioning, is sensitive to disruptions in acetylcholine neurotransmission. The two most common forms of eyeblink classical conditioning – the delay and trace paradigms - differentially engage forebrain areas densely-populated with nAChRs. The present study used genetically modified mice to investigate the effects of selective nAChR subunit deletion on delay and trace eyeblink classical conditioning. α7 and β2 nAChR subunit knockout (KO mice and their wild-type littermates were trained for 10 daily sessions in a 500 ms delay or 500 ms trace eyeblink conditioning task, matched for the interstimulus interval (ISI between conditioned stimulus (CS and unconditioned stimulus (US onset. Impairments in conditioned responding were found in α7 KO mice trained in trace – but not delay – eyeblink conditioning. Relative to littermate controls, β2 KO mice were unimpaired in the trace task but displayed higher levels of conditioned responding in delay eyeblink conditioning. Elevated conditioned response levels in delay-conditioned β2 KOs corresponded to elevated levels of alpha responding in this group. These findings suggest that α7 nAChRs play a role in normal acquisition of 500 ms trace eyeblink classical conditioning in mice. The prominent distribution of α7 nAChRs in the hippocampus and other forebrain regions may account for these genotype-specific acquisition effects in this hippocampus-dependent trace paradigm.

  14. BLOCKADE OF CENTRAL NICOTINE ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR SIGNALING ATTENUATE GHRELIN-INDUCED FOOD INTAKE IN RODENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, S.L.; Hrabovszky, E.; Hansson, C.; Jerlhag, E.; Alvarez-Crespo, M.; Skibicka, K.P.; Molnar, C.S.; Liposits, Z.; Engel, J.A.; Egecioglu, E.

    2010-01-01

    Here we sought to determine whether ghrelin's central effects on food intake can be interrupted by nicotinic cholinergic receptor (nAChR) blockade. Ghrelin regulates mesolimbic dopamine neurons projecting from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), partly via cholinergic VTA afferents originating in the laterodorsal tegmental area (LDTg). Given that these cholinergic projections to the VTA have been implicated in natural as well as drug-induced reinforcement, we sou...

  15. Multiple transmembrane binding sites for p-trifluoromethyldiazirinyl-etomidate, a photoreactive Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Ayman K; Stewart, Deirdre S; Husain, S Shaukat; Cohen, Jonathan B

    2011-06-10

    Photoreactive derivatives of the general anesthetic etomidate have been developed to identify their binding sites in γ-aminobutyric acid, type A and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. One such drug, [(3)H]TDBzl-etomidate (4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl]benzyl-[(3)H]1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate), acts as a positive allosteric potentiator of Torpedo nACh receptor (nAChR) and binds to a novel site in the transmembrane domain at the γ-α subunit interface. To extend our understanding of the locations of allosteric modulator binding sites in the nAChR, we now characterize the interactions of a second aryl diazirine etomidate derivative, TFD-etomidate (ethyl-1-(1-(4-(3-trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl)phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate). TFD-etomidate inhibited acetylcholine-induced currents with an IC(50) = 4 μM, whereas it inhibited the binding of [(3)H]phencyclidine to the Torpedo nAChR ion channel in the resting and desensitized states with IC(50) values of 2.5 and 0.7 mm, respectively. Similar to [(3)H]TDBzl-etomidate, [(3)H]TFD-etomidate bound to a site at the γ-α subunit interface, photolabeling αM2-10 (αSer-252) and γMet-295 and γMet-299 within γM3, and to a site in the ion channel, photolabeling amino acids within each subunit M2 helix that line the lumen of the ion channel. In addition, [(3)H]TFD-etomidate photolabeled in an agonist-dependent manner amino acids within the δ subunit M2-M3 loop (δIle-288) and the δ subunit transmembrane helix bundle (δPhe-232 and δCys-236 within δM1). The fact that TFD-etomidate does not compete with ion channel blockers at concentrations that inhibit acetylcholine responses indicates that binding to sites at the γ-α subunit interface and/or within δ subunit helix bundle mediates the TFD-etomidate inhibitory effect. These results also suggest that the γ-α subunit interface is a binding site for Torpedo nAChR negative allosteric modulators (TFD-etomidate) and for positive

  16. Multiple Transmembrane Binding Sites for p-Trifluoromethyldiazirinyl-etomidate, a Photoreactive Torpedo Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Allosteric Inhibitor*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Ayman K.; Stewart, Deirdre S.; Husain, S. Shaukat; Cohen, Jonathan B.

    2011-01-01

    Photoreactive derivatives of the general anesthetic etomidate have been developed to identify their binding sites in γ-aminobutyric acid, type A and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. One such drug, [3H]TDBzl-etomidate (4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl]benzyl-[3H]1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate), acts as a positive allosteric potentiator of Torpedo nACh receptor (nAChR) and binds to a novel site in the transmembrane domain at the γ-α subunit interface. To extend our understanding of the locations of allosteric modulator binding sites in the nAChR, we now characterize the interactions of a second aryl diazirine etomidate derivative, TFD-etomidate (ethyl-1-(1-(4-(3-trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl)phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate). TFD-etomidate inhibited acetylcholine-induced currents with an IC50 = 4 μm, whereas it inhibited the binding of [3H]phencyclidine to the Torpedo nAChR ion channel in the resting and desensitized states with IC50 values of 2.5 and 0.7 mm, respectively. Similar to [3H]TDBzl-etomidate, [3H]TFD-etomidate bound to a site at the γ-α subunit interface, photolabeling αM2-10 (αSer-252) and γMet-295 and γMet-299 within γM3, and to a site in the ion channel, photolabeling amino acids within each subunit M2 helix that line the lumen of the ion channel. In addition, [3H]TFD-etomidate photolabeled in an agonist-dependent manner amino acids within the δ subunit M2-M3 loop (δIle-288) and the δ subunit transmembrane helix bundle (δPhe-232 and δCys-236 within δM1). The fact that TFD-etomidate does not compete with ion channel blockers at concentrations that inhibit acetylcholine responses indicates that binding to sites at the γ-α subunit interface and/or within δ subunit helix bundle mediates the TFD-etomidate inhibitory effect. These results also suggest that the γ-α subunit interface is a binding site for Torpedo nAChR negative allosteric modulators (TFD-etomidate) and for positive modulators (TDBzl

  17. Azemiopsin, a Selective Peptide Antagonist of Muscle Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: Preclinical Evaluation as a Local Muscle Relaxant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Shelukhina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Azemiopsin (Az, a linear peptide from the Azemiops feae viper venom, contains no disulfide bonds, is a high-affinity and selective inhibitor of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR of muscle type and may be considered as potentially applicable nondepolarizing muscle relaxant. In this study, we investigated its preclinical profile in regard to in vitro and in vivo efficacy, acute and chronic toxicity, pharmacokinetics, allergenic capacity, immunotoxicity and mutagenic potency. The peptide effectively inhibited (IC50 ~ 19 nM calcium response of muscle nAChR evoked by 30 μM (EC100 acetylcholine but was less potent (IC50 ~ 3 μM at α7 nAChR activated by 10 μM (EC50 acetylcholine and had a low affinity to α4β2 and α3-containing nAChR, as well as to GABAA or 5HT3 receptors. Its muscle relaxant effect was demonstrated at intramuscular injection to mice at doses of 30–300 µg/kg, 30 µg/kg being the initial effective dose and 90 µg/kg—the average effective dose. The maximal muscle relaxant effect of Az was achieved in 10 min after the administration and elimination half-life of Az in mice was calculated as 20–40 min. The longest period of Az action observed at a dose of 300 µg/kg was 55 min. The highest acute toxicity (LD50 510 μg/kg was observed at intravenous injection of Az, at intramuscular or intraperitoneal administration it was less toxic. The peptide showed practically no immunotoxic, allergenic or mutagenic capacity. Overall, the results demonstrate that Az has good drug-like properties for the application as local muscle relaxant and in its parameters, is not inferior to the relaxants currently used. However, some Az modification might be effective to extend its narrow therapeutic window, a typical characteristic and a weak point of all nondepolarizing myorelaxants.

  18. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in cognitively intact subjects at an early stage of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Ugo eIsaias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated in vivo brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR distribution in cognitively intact subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD at an early stage of the disease. Fourteen patients and 13 healthy subjects were imaged with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and the radiotracer 5-[123I]iodo-3-[2(S-2-azetidinylmethoxy]pyridine ([123I]5IA. Patients were selected according to several criteria, including short duration of motor signs (<7 years and normal scores at an extensive neuropsychological evaluation. In PD patients, nAChR density was significantly higher in the putamen, the insular cortex and the supplementary motor area and lower in the caudate nucleus, the orbitofrontal cortex and the middle temporal gyrus. Disease duration positively correlated with nAChR density in the putamen ipsilateral (ρ=0.56, p<0.05 but not contralateral (ρ=0.49, p=0.07 to the clinically most affected hemibody.We observed, for the first time in vivo, higher nAChR density in brain regions of the motor and limbic basal ganglia circuits of subjects with PD. Our findings support the notion of an up-regulated cholinergic activity at the striatal and possibly cortical level in cognitively intact PD patients at an early stage of disease.

  19. Virtual screening studies of Chinese medicine Coptidis Rhizoma as alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists for treatment of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li; Xu, Youdong; Zhang, Yan; Meng, Xianli; Wang, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease. Extensive in vitro and in vivo experiments have proved that the decreased activity of the cholinergic neuron is responsible for the memory and cognition deterioration. The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) is proposed to a drug target of AD, and compounds which acting as α7-nAChR agonists are considered as candidates in AD treatment. Chinese medicine CoptidisRhizoma and its compounds are reported in various anti-AD effects. In this study, virtual screening, docking approaches and hydrogen bond analyses were applied to screen potential α7-nAChR agonists from CoptidisRhizome. The 3D structure of the protein was obtained from PDB database. 87 reported compounds were included in this research and their structures were accessed by NCBI Pubchem. Docking analysis of the compounds was performed using AutoDock 4.2 and AutoDock Vina. The images of the binding modes hydrogen bonds and the hydrophobic interaction were rendered with PyMOL1.5.0.4. and LigPlot+ respectively. Finally, N-tran-feruloyltyramine, isolariciresinol, flavanone, secoisolariciresinol, (+)-lariciresinol and dihydrochalcone, exhibited the lowest docking energy of protein-ligand complex. The results indicate these 6 compounds are potential α7 nAChR agonists, and expected to be effective in AD treatment.

  20. Colorimetric microtiter plate receptor-binding assay for the detection of freshwater and marine neurotoxins targeting the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Fernando; Kamp, Lisa; Carpino, Justin; Faltin, Erin; Loftin, Keith A.; Molgó, Jordi; Aráoz, Rómulo

    2014-01-01

    Anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a, produced by cyanobacteria, are agonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Pinnatoxins, spirolides, and gymnodimines, produced by dinoflagellates, are antagonists of nAChRs. In this study we describe the development and validation of a competitive colorimetric, high throughput functional assay based on the mechanism of action of freshwater and marine toxins against nAChRs. Torpedo electrocyte membranes (rich in muscle-type nAChR) were immobilized and stabilized on the surface of 96-well microtiter plates. Biotinylated α-bungarotoxin (the tracer) and streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase (the detector) enabled the detection and quantitation of anatoxin-a in surface waters and cyclic imine toxins in shellfish extracts that were obtained from different locations across the US. The method compares favorably to LC/MS/MS and provides accurate results for anatoxin-a and cyclic imine toxins monitoring. Study of common constituents at the concentrations normally found in drinking and environmental waters, as well as the tolerance to pH, salt, solvents, organic and inorganic compounds did not significantly affect toxin detection. The assay allowed the simultaneous analysis of up to 25 samples within 3.5 h and it is well suited for on-site or laboratory monitoring of low levels of toxins in drinking, surface, and ground water as well as in shellfish extracts.

  1. Three-finger snake neurotoxins and Ly6 proteins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: pharmacological tools and endogenous modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsetlin, Victor I

    2015-02-01

    Snake venom neurotoxins and lymphocyte antigen 6 (Ly6) proteins, most of the latter being membrane tethered by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, have a variety of biological activities, but their three-finger (3F) folding combines them in one Ly6/neurotoxin family. Subsets of two groups, represented by α-neurotoxins and Lynx1, respectively, interact with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and, hence, are of therapeutic interest for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, pain, and cancer. Information on the mechanisms of action and 3D structure of the binding sites, which is required for drug design, is available from the 3D structure of α-neurotoxin complexes with nAChR models. Here, I compare the structural and functional features of α-neurotoxins versus Lynx1 and its homologs to get a clearer picture of Lynx1-nAChR interactions that is necessary for fundamental science and practical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Requirement of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subunit β2 in the Maintenance of Spiral Ganglion Neurons during Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jianxin; Lei, Debin; Du, Yafei; Ohlemiller, Kevin K.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Role, Lorna W.

    2008-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) is a major health concern for the elderly. Loss of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), the primary sensory relay of the auditory system, is associated consistently with presbycusis. The causative molecular events responsible for age-related loss of SGNs are unknown. Recent reports directly link age-related neuronal loss in cerebral cortex with the loss of high-affinity nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In cochlea, cholinergic synapses are made by olivocochlear efferent fibers on the outer hair cells that express α9 nAChR subunits and on the peripheral projections of SGNs that express α2, α4 –7, and β2–3 nAChR subunits. A significantly decreased expression of the β2 nAChR subunit in SGNs was found specifically in mice susceptible to presbycusis. Furthermore, mice lacking the β2 nAChR subunit (β2−/−), but not mice lacking the α5 nAChR subunit (α5−/−), have dramatic hearing loss and significant reduction in the number of SGNs. Our findings clearly established a requirement for β2 nAChR subunit in the maintenance of SGNs during aging. PMID:15788760

  3. Stimulation of Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Attenuates Nicotine-Induced Upregulation of MMP, MCP-1, and RANTES through Modulating ERK1/2/AP-1 Signaling Pathway in RAW264.7 and MOVAS Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vagus nerve stimulation through alpha7 nicotine acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChR signaling had been demonstrated attenuation of inflammation. This study aimed to determine whether PNU-282987, a selective α7-nAChR agonist, affected activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP and inflammatory cytokines in nicotine-treatment RAW264.7 and MOVAS cells and to assess the underlying molecular mechanisms. RAW264.7 and MOVAS cells were treated with nicotine at different concentrations (0, 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml for 0–120 min. Nicotine markedly stimulated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2 and c-Jun in RAW264.7 cells. Pretreatment with U0126 significantly suppressed phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and further attenuated nicotine-induced activation of c-Jun and upregulation of MMP-2, MMP-9, monocyte chemotactic protein- (MCP- 1, and regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES. Similarly, nicotine treatment also increased phosphorylation of c-Jun and expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9, MCP-1, and RANTES in MOVAS cells. When cells were pretreated with PNU-282987, nicotine-induced activations of ERK1/2 and c-Jun in RAW264.7 cells and c-Jun in MOVAS cells were effectively inhibited. Furthermore, nicotine-induced secretions of MMP-2, MMP-9, MCP-1, and RANTES were remarkably downregulated. Treatment with α7-nAChR agonist inhibits nicotine-induced upregulation of MMP and inflammatory cytokines through modulating ERK1/2/AP-1 signaling in RAW264.7 cells and AP-1 in MOVAS cells, providing a new therapeutic for abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  4. Alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated protection against ethanol-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, NancyEllen C; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2003-11-01

    The alpha(7)-selective nicotinic partial agonist 3-[2,4-dimethoxybenzylidene]anabaseine (DMXB) was examined for its ability to modulate ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultures of rat neurons. Primary cultures of hippocampal neurons were established from Long-Evans, embryonic day (E)-18 rat fetuses and maintained for 7 days. Ethanol (0-150 mM), DMXB (0-56 microM), or both were subsequently co-applied to cultures. Ethanol was added two additional times to the cultures to compensate for evaporation. After 5 days, neuronal viability was assessed with the MTT cell proliferation assay. Results demonstrated that ethanol reduces neuronal viability in a concentration-dependent fashion and that DMXB protects against this ethanol-induced neurotoxicity, also in a concentration-dependent fashion. These results support the suggestion that nicotinic partial agonists may be useful in treating binge drinking-induced neurotoxicity and may provide clues as to why heavy drinkers are usually smokers.

  5. Tryptophan scanning mutagenesis reveals distortions in the helical structure of the δM4 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Cruz-Nieves, Omar A; Oyola-Cintrón, Jessica; Torres-Nunez, David A; Otero-Cruz, Jose D; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2012-01-01

    The lipid-protein interface is an important domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) that has recently garnered increased relevance. Several studies have made significant advances toward determining the structure and dynamics of the lipid-exposed domains of the nAChR. However, there is still a need to gain insight into the mechanism by which lipid-protein interactions regulate the function and conformational transitions of the nAChR. In this study, we extended the tryptophan scanning mutagenesis (TrpScanM) approach to dissect secondary structure and monitor the conformational changes experienced by the δM4 transmembrane domain (TMD) of the Torpedo californica nAChR, and to identify which positions on this domain are potentially linked to the regulation of ion channel kinetics. The difference in oscillation patterns between the closed- and open-channel states suggests a substantial conformational change along this domain as a consequence of channel activation. Furthermore, TrpScanM revealed distortions along the helical structure of this TMD that are not present on current models of the nAChR. Our results show that a Thr-Pro motif at positions 462-463 markedly bends the helical structure of the TMD, consistent with the recent crystallographic structure of the GluCl Cys-loop receptor which reveals a highly bent TMD4 in each subunit. This Thr-Pro motif acts as a molecular hinge that delineates two gating blocks in the δM4 TMD. These results suggest a model in which a hinge-bending motion that tilts the helical structure is combined with a spring-like motion during transition between the closed- and open-channel states of the δM4 TMD.

  6. Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] is a potent ligand for selectively labeling alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, Arik J; Whiteaker, Paul; Mohn, Jesse L; Jacob, Michele H; McIntosh, J Michael

    2010-08-01

    The alpha7* (*denotes the possible presence of additional subunits) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype is widely expressed in the vertebrate nervous system and implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders that compromise thought and cognition. In this report, we demonstrate that the recently developed fluorescent ligand Cy3-ArIB[V11L;V16A] labels alpha7 nAChRs in cultured hippocampal neurons. However, photobleaching of this ligand during long image acquisition times prompted us to develop a new derivative. In photostability studies, this new ligand, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A], was significantly more resistant to bleaching than the Cy3 derivative. The classic alpha7 ligand alpha-bungarotoxin binds to alpha1* and alpha9* nAChRs. In contrast, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] potently (IC(50) 1.8 nM) and selectively blocked alpha7 nAChRs but not alpha1* or alpha9* nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Selectivity was further confirmed by competition binding studies of native nAChRs in rat brain membranes. The fluorescence properties of Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] were assessed using human embryonic kidney-293 cells stably transfected with nAChRs; labeling was observed on cells expressing alpha7 but not cells expressing alpha3beta2, alpha3beta4, or alpha4beta2 nAChRs. Further imaging studies demonstrate that Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] labels hippocampal neurons from wild-type mice but not from nAChR alpha7 subunit-null mice. Thus, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] represents a potent and selective ligand for imaging alpha7 nAChRs.

  7. Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A]is a potent ligand for selectively labeling α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, Arik J.; Whiteaker, Paul; Mohn, Jesse L.; Jacob, Michele H.; McIntosh, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The α7* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype is widely expressed in the vertebrate nervous system and implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders that compromise thought and cognition. In this report, we demonstrate that the recently developed fluorescent ligand Cy3-ArIB[V11L;V16A] labels α7 nAChRs in cultured hippocampal neurons. However, photobleaching of this ligand during long image acquisition times prompted us to develop a new derivative. In photostability studies, this new ligand, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A], was significantly more resistant to bleaching than the Cy3 derivative. The classic α7 ligand α-bungarotoxin binds to α1* and α9* nAChRs. In contrast, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] potently (IC50 1.8 nM) and selectively blocked α7 nAChRs but not α1* or α9* nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Selectivity was further confirmed by competition binding studies of native nAChRs in rat brain membranes. The fluorescence properties of Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] were assessed using human embryonic kidney-293 cells stably transfected with nAChRs; labeling was observed on cells expressing α7 but not cells expressing α3β2, α3β4, or α4β2 nAChRs. Further imaging studies demonstrate that Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] labels hippocampal neurons from wild type mice but not from nAChR α7 subunit-null mice. Thus, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] represents a potent and selective ligand for imaging α7 nAChRs. PMID:20492354

  8. Pharmacological characterisation of strychnine and brucine analogues at glycine and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Gharagozloo, Parviz; Birdsall, Nigel J M

    2006-01-01

    Strychnine and brucine from the plant Strychnos nux vomica have been shown to have interesting pharmacological effects on several neurotransmitter receptors, including some members of the superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels. In this study, we have characterised the pharmacological properties...... of tertiary and quaternary analogues as well as bisquaternary dimers of strychnine and brucine at human alpha1 and alpha1beta glycine receptors and at a chimera consisting of the amino-terminal domain of the alpha7 nicotinic receptor (containing the orthosteric ligand binding site) and the ion channel domain...... of the 5-HT3A serotonin receptor. Although the majority of the analogues displayed significantly increased Ki values at the glycine receptors compared to strychnine and brucine, a few retained the high antagonist potencies of the parent compounds. However, mirroring the pharmacological profiles...

  9. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 2-mediated interleukin-8 production in Cystic Fibrosis airway epithelial cells via the alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greene, Catherine M

    2010-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disorder characterised by chronic inflammation of the airways. The lung manifestations of CF include colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus leading to neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation and tissue damage. Inflammation in the CF lung is initiated by microbial components which activate the innate immune response via Toll-like receptors (TLRs), increasing airway epithelial cell production of proinflammatory mediators such as the neutrophil chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8). Thus modulation of TLR function represents a therapeutic approach for CF. Nicotine is a naturally occurring plant alkaloid. Although it is negatively associated with cigarette smoking and cardiovascular damage, nicotine also has anti-inflammatory properties. Here we investigate the inhibitory capacity of nicotine against TLR2- and TLR4-induced IL-8 production by CFTE29o- airway epithelial cells, determine the role of alpha7-nAChR (nicotinic acetylcholine receptor) in these events, and provide data to support the potential use of safe nicotine analogues as anti-inflammatories for CF.

  10. Subtype-specific mechanisms for functional interaction between α6β4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and P2X receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limapichat, Walrati; Dougherty, Dennis A; Lester, Henry A

    2014-09-01

    P2X receptors and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) display functional and physical interactions in many cell types and heterologous expression systems, but interactions between α6β4-containing (α6β4*) nAChRs and P2X2 receptors and/or P2X3 receptors have not been fully characterized. We measured several types of crosstalk in oocytes coexpressing α6β4 nAChRs and P2X2, P2X3, or P2X2/3 receptors. A novel form of crosstalk occurs between α6β4 nAChRs and P2X2 receptors. P2X2 receptors were forced into a prolonged desensitized state upon activation by ATP through a mechanism that does not depend on the intracellular C terminus of the P2X2 receptors. Coexpression of α6β4 nAChRs with P2X3 receptors shifts the ATP dose-response relation to the right, even in the absence of acetylcholine (ACh). Moreover, currents become nonadditive when ACh and ATP are coapplied, as previously reported for other Cys-loop receptors interacting with P2X receptors, and this crosstalk is dependent on the presence of the P2X3 C-terminal domain. P2X2 receptors also functionally interact with α6β4β3 but through a different mechanism from α6β4. The interaction with P2X3 receptors is less pronounced for the α6β4β3 nAChR than the α6β4 nAChR. We also measured a functional interaction between the α6β4 nAChRs and the heteromeric P2X2/3 receptor. Experiments with the nAChR channel blocker mecamylamine on P2X2-α6β4 oocytes point to the loss of P2X2 channel activity during the crosstalk, whereas the ion channel pores of the P2X receptors were fully functional and unaltered by the receptor interaction for P2X2-α6β4β3, P2X2/3-α6β4, and P2X2/3-α6β4β3. These results may be relevant to dorsal root ganglion cells and to other neurons that coexpress these receptor subunits. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. In vitro pharmacological characterization of a novel selective alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist ABT-107.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malysz, John; Anderson, David J; Grønlien, Jens H; Ji, Jianguo; Bunnelle, William H; Håkerud, Monika; Thorin-Hagene, Kirten; Ween, Hilde; Helfrich, Rosalind; Hu, Min; Gubbins, Earl; Gopalakrishnan, Sujatha; Puttfarcken, Pamela S; Briggs, Clark A; Li, Jinhe; Meyer, Michael D; Dyhring, Tino; Ahring, Philip K; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Peters, Dan; Timmermann, Daniel B; Gopalakrishnan, Murali

    2010-09-01

    Enhancement of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activity is considered a therapeutic approach for ameliorating cognitive deficits present in Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. In this study, we describe the in vitro profile of a novel selective alpha7 nAChR agonist, 5-(6-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2,2,2]oct-3-yloxy]pyridazin-3-yl)-1H-indole (ABT-107). ABT-107 displayed high affinity binding to alpha7 nAChRs [rat or human cortex, [(3)H](1S,4S)-2,2-dimethyl-5-(6-phenylpyridazin-3-yl)-5-aza-2-azoniabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane (A-585539), K(i) = 0.2-0.6 nM or [(3)H]methyllycaconitine (MLA), 7 nM] that was at least 100-fold selective versus non-alpha7 nAChRs and other receptors. Functionally, ABT-107 did not evoke detectible currents in Xenopus oocytes expressing human or nonhuman alpha3beta4, chimeric (alpha6/alpha3)beta4, or 5-HT(3A) receptors, and weak or negligible Ca(2+) responses in human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells (alpha3* function) and human alpha4beta2 and alpha4beta4 nAChRs expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. ABT-107 potently evoked human and rat alpha7 nAChR current responses in oocytes (EC(50), 50-90 nM total charge, approximately 80% normalized to acetylcholine) that were enhanced by the positive allosteric modulator (PAM) 4-[5-(4-chloro-phenyl)-2-methyl-3-propionyl-pyrrol-1-yl]-benzenesulfonamide (A-867744). In rat hippocampus, ABT-107 alone evoked alpha7-like currents, which were inhibited by the alpha7 antagonist MLA. In dentate gyrus granule cells, ABT-107 enhanced spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current activity when coapplied with A-867744. In the presence of an alpha7 PAM [A-867744 or N-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl]-4-chlorobenzamide hydrochloride (PNU-120596)], the addition of ABT-107 elicited MLA-sensitive alpha7 nAChR-mediated Ca(2+) signals in IMR-32 cells and rat cortical cultures and enhanced extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in differentiated PC-12 cells. ABT-107 was also effective in protecting rat

  12. Imaging of cerebral α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with (-)-[(18)F]Flubatine PET: Implementation of bolus plus constant infusion and sensitivity to acetylcholine in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmer, A T; Esterlis, I; Gallezot, J D; Bois, F; Zheng, M Q; Nabulsi, N; Lin, S F; Papke, R L; Huang, Y; Sabri, O; Carson, R E; Cosgrove, K P

    2016-11-01

    The positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand (-)-[(18)F]flubatine is specific to α4β2(⁎) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and has promise for future investigation of the acetylcholine system in neuropathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and substance use disorders. The two goals of this work were to develop a simplified method for α4β2(⁎) nAChR quantification with bolus plus constant infusion (B/I) (-)-[(18)F]flubatine administration, and to assess the radioligand's sensitivity to acetylcholine fluctuations in humans. Healthy human subjects were imaged following either bolus injection (n=8) or B/I (n=4) administration of (-)-[(18)F]flubatine. The metabolite-corrected input function in arterial blood was measured. Free-fraction corrected distribution volumes (VT/fP) were estimated with modeling and graphical analysis techniques. Next, sensitivity to acetylcholine was assessed in two ways: 1. A bolus injection paradigm with two scans (n=6), baseline (scan 1) and physostigmine challenge (scan 2; 1.5mg over 60min beginning 5min prior to radiotracer injection); 2. A single scan B/I paradigm (n=7) lasting up to 240min with 1.5mg physostigmine administered over 60min beginning at 125min of radiotracer infusion. Changes in VT/fP were measured. Baseline VT/fP values were 33.8±3.3mL/cm(3) in thalamus, 12.9±1.6mL/cm(3) in cerebellum, and ranged from 9.8 to 12.5mL/cm(3) in other gray matter regions. The B/I paradigm with equilibrium analysis at 120min yielded comparable VT/fP values with compartment modeling analysis of bolus data in extrathalamic gray matter regions (regional means acetylcholine levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Imaging of cerebral α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with (−)-[18F]Flubatine PET: Implementation of bolus plus constant infusion and sensitivity to acetylcholine in human brain☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmer, A.T.; Esterlis, I.; Gallezot, J.D.; Bois, F.; Zheng, M.Q.; Nabulsi, N.; Lin, S.F.; Papke, R.L.; Huang, Y.; Sabri, O.; Carson, R.E.; Cosgrove, K.P.

    2016-01-01

    The positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand (−)-[18F]flubatine is specific to α4β2∗ nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and has promise for future investigation of the acetylcholine system in neuropathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and substance use disorders. The two goals of this work were to develop a simplified method for α4β2∗ nAChR quantification with bolus plus constant infusion (B/I) (−)-[18F]flubatine administration, and to assess the radioligand's sensitivity to acetylcholine fluctuations in humans. Healthy human subjects were imaged following either bolus injection (n = 8) or B/I (n = 4) administration of (−)-[18F]flubatine. The metabolite-corrected input function in arterial blood was measured. Free-fraction corrected distribution volumes (VT/fP) were estimated with modeling and graphical analysis techniques. Next, sensitivity to acetylcholine was assessed in two ways: 1. A bolus injection paradigm with two scans (n = 6), baseline (scan 1) and physostigmine challenge (scan 2; 1.5 mg over 60 min beginning 5 min prior to radiotracer injection); 2. A single scan B/I paradigm (n = 7) lasting up to 240 min with 1.5 mg physostigmine administered over 60 min beginning at 125 min of radiotracer infusion. Changes in VT/fP were measured. Baseline VT/fP values were 33.8 ± 3.3 mL/cm3 in thalamus, 12.9 ± 1.6 mL/cm3 in cerebellum, and ranged from 9.8 to 12.5 mL/cm3 in other gray matter regions. The B/I paradigm with equilibrium analysis at 120 min yielded comparable VT/fP values with compartment modeling analysis of bolus data in extrathalamic gray matter regions (regional means acetylcholine levels. PMID:27426839

  14. Prostate stem cell antigen interacts with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and is affected in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majbrit Myrup; Mikkelsen, Jens D.; Arvaniti, Maria

    2015-01-01

    and modulating their function. Hence, changes in nAChR regulatory proteins such as Lynx proteins could underlie the dysregulation of nAChRs in AD. Using Western blotting, we detected bands corresponding to the Lynx proteins prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) and Lypd6 in human cortex indicating that both proteins...... are present in the human brain. We further showed that PSCA forms stable complexes with the α4 nAChR subunit and decreases nicotine-induced extracellular-signal regulated kinase phosphorylation in PC12 cells. In addition, we analyzed protein levels of PSCA and Lypd6 in postmortem tissue of medial frontal...... human transgenes that cause both age-dependent β-amyloidosis and tauopathy, whereas Tg2576 mice, which display β-amyloidosis only, had unchanged PSCA levels compared to wild-type animals. These findings identify PSCA as a nAChR-binding protein in the human brain that is affected in AD, suggesting...

  15. Varenicline and cytisine: two nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands reduce ethanol intake in University of Chile bibulous rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón; Gysling, Katia; Busto, Usoa E; Cassels, Bruce K; Tampier, Lutske; Quintanilla, María Elena

    2013-05-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pharmacological targets that have recently been implicated in the reinforcing effects of many drugs of abuse, including ethanol. Varenicline and cytisine are nAChR partial agonists in clinical use as smoking cessation aids. However, their efficacies to reduce alcohol consumption have not been fully studied. This study aims to compare the effects of varenicline and cytisine on ethanol consumption by rats bred for many generations as high ethanol drinkers (UChB). Repeated dosing (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg/day i.p.) of varenicline or cytisine, for three consecutive days, to male UChB rats pre-exposed to 10 % (v/v) ethanol and water 24 h/day for 4 weeks, significantly reduced alcohol intake and preference of ethanol over water during 1- and 24-h ethanol access periods. This effect was specific for ethanol intake and was not observed for 0.2 % saccharin or water consumption. Varenicline appears to be more effective than cytisine, probably due to its more favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Long-term use of both nAChRs ligands for more than 8-10 days induced tolerance to their effects on ethanol consumption. This preclinical study in UChB rats demonstrated that both varenicline and cytisine reduce alcohol intake, with varenicline producing a greater and longer-lasting reduction than cytisine. However, dose adjustment will have to be considered as a possible way to counter tolerance arising after continued use.

  16. 6-bromohypaphorine from marine nudibranch mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis is an agonist of human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasheverov, Igor E; Shelukhina, Irina V; Kudryavtsev, Denis S; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Spirova, Ekaterina N; Guzii, Alla G; Stonik, Valentin A; Tsetlin, Victor I

    2015-03-12

    6-Bromohypaphorine (6-BHP) has been isolated from the marine sponges Pachymatisma johnstoni, Aplysina sp., and the tunicate Aplidium conicum, but data on its biological activity were not available. For the nudibranch mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis no endogenous compounds were known, and here we describe the isolation of 6-BHP from this mollusk and its effects on different nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments on the chimeric α7 nAChR (built of chicken α7 ligand-binding and glycine receptor transmembrane domains) or on rat α4β2 nAChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes revealed no action of 6-BHP. However, in radioligand analysis, 6-BHP competed with radioiodinated α-bungarotoxin for binding to human α7 nAChR expressed in GH4C1 cells (IC50 23 ± 1 μM), but showed no competition on muscle-type nAChR from Torpedo californica. In Ca2+-imaging experiments on the human α7 nAChR expressed in the Neuro2a cells, 6-BHP in the presence of PNU120596 behaved as an agonist (EC50 ~80 μM). To the best of our knowledge, 6-BHP is the first low-molecular weight compound from marine source which is an agonist of the nAChR subtype. This may have physiological importance because H. crassicornis, with its simple and tractable nervous system, is a convenient model system for studying the learning and memory processes.

  17. 6-Bromohypaphorine from Marine Nudibranch Mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis is an Agonist of Human α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor E. Kasheverov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 6-Bromohypaphorine (6-BHP has been isolated from the marine sponges Pachymatisma johnstoni, Aplysina sp., and the tunicate Aplidium conicum, but data on its biological activity were not available. For the nudibranch mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis no endogenous compounds were known, and here we describe the isolation of 6-BHP from this mollusk and its effects on different nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR. Two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments on the chimeric α7 nAChR (built of chicken α7 ligand-binding and glycine receptor transmembrane domains or on rat α4β2 nAChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes revealed no action of 6-BHP. However, in radioligand analysis, 6-BHP competed with radioiodinated α-bungarotoxin for binding to human α7 nAChR expressed in GH4C1 cells (IC50 23 ± 1 μM, but showed no competition on muscle-type nAChR from Torpedo californica. In Ca2+-imaging experiments on the human α7 nAChR expressed in the Neuro2a cells, 6-BHP in the presence of PNU120596 behaved as an agonist (EC50 ~80 μM. To the best of our knowledge, 6-BHP is the first low-molecular weight compound from marine source which is an agonist of the nAChR subtype. This may have physiological importance because H. crassicornis, with its simple and tractable nervous system, is a convenient model system for studying the learning and memory processes.

  18. 6-Bromohypaphorine from Marine Nudibranch Mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis is an Agonist of Human α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasheverov, Igor E.; Shelukhina, Irina V.; Kudryavtsev, Denis S.; Makarieva, Tatyana N.; Spirova, Ekaterina N.; Guzii, Alla G.; Stonik, Valentin A.; Tsetlin, Victor I.

    2015-01-01

    6-Bromohypaphorine (6-BHP) has been isolated from the marine sponges Pachymatisma johnstoni, Aplysina sp., and the tunicate Aplidium conicum, but data on its biological activity were not available. For the nudibranch mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis no endogenous compounds were known, and here we describe the isolation of 6-BHP from this mollusk and its effects on different nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments on the chimeric α7 nAChR (built of chicken α7 ligand-binding and glycine receptor transmembrane domains) or on rat α4β2 nAChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes revealed no action of 6-BHP. However, in radioligand analysis, 6-BHP competed with radioiodinated α-bungarotoxin for binding to human α7 nAChR expressed in GH4C1 cells (IC50 23 ± 1 μM), but showed no competition on muscle-type nAChR from Torpedo californica. In Ca2+-imaging experiments on the human α7 nAChR expressed in the Neuro2a cells, 6-BHP in the presence of PNU120596 behaved as an agonist (EC50 ~80 μM). To the best of our knowledge, 6-BHP is the first low-molecular weight compound from marine source which is an agonist of the nAChR subtype. This may have physiological importance because H. crassicornis, with its simple and tractable nervous system, is a convenient model system for studying the learning and memory processes. PMID:25775422

  19. Biophysical and ion channel functional characterization of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in varying detergent-lipid environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar-Rovira, Guillermo A; Asseo-García, Aloysha M; Quesada, Orestes; Hanson, Michael A; Cheng, Anchi; Nogueras, Carlos; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A; Stevens, Raymond C

    2008-05-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) of Torpedo electric rays has been extensively characterized over the last three decades. However, high-resolution structural studies have been hampered by the lack of mechanistic molecular models that describe how detergents influence membrane protein stability and function. Furthermore, elucidation of the dynamic detergent-lipid-protein interactions of solubilized membrane proteins is a largely unexplored research field. This study examines the effects of nine detergents on: (1) nAChR-lipid composition (gas chromatography with flame ionization; GC-FID and/or mass selective detectors; GC-MSD), (2) stability and aggregation state (analytical size exclusion chromatography; A-SEC and electron microscopy; EM) and (3) ion channel function (planar lipid bilayers). Detergent solubilization of nAChR-enriched membranes did not result in significant native lipid depletion or destabilization. Upon purification, native lipid depletion occurred in all detergents, with lipid-analogue detergents CHAPS {(3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate}, FC-12 (n-dodecylphosphocholine) and sodium cholate (3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid) maintaining stability and supporting ion channel function, and non-lipid-analogue detergents Cymal-6 (6-cyclohexyl-1-hexyl-beta-D-maltoside), DDM (n-dodecyl-beta-D-maltopyranoside), LDAO (lauryldimethylamine-N-oxide) and OG (n-octyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside) decreasing stability and significantly reducing or completely suppressing ion channel function. Anapoe-C(12)E(9 )(polyoxyethylene-[9]-dodecyl ether) and BigCHAP (N,N'-bis-[3-d-gluconamidopropyl] cholamide) retained residual amounts of native lipid, maintaining moderate stability and ion channel function compared to lipid-analogue detergents. Therefore, the nAChR can be stable and functional in lipid-analogue detergents or in detergents that retain moderate amounts of residual native lipids, but not in non

  20. A novel inhibitor of α9α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from Conus vexillum delineates a new conotoxin superfamily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulan Luo

    Full Text Available Conotoxins (CTxs selectively target a range of ion channels and receptors, making them widely used tools for probing nervous system function. Conotoxins have been previously grouped into superfamilies according to signal sequence and into families based on their cysteine framework and biological target. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a new conotoxin, from Conus vexillum, named αB-conotoxin VxXXIVA. The peptide does not belong to any previously described conotoxin superfamily and its arrangement of Cys residues is unique among conopeptides. Moreover, in contrast to previously characterized conopeptide toxins, which are expressed initially as prepropeptide precursors with a signal sequence, a ''pro'' region, and the toxin-encoding region, the precursor sequence of αB-VxXXIVA lacks a ''pro'' region. The predicted 40-residue mature peptide, which contains four Cys, was synthesized in each of the three possible disulfide arrangements. Investigation of the mechanism of action of αB-VxXXIVA revealed that the peptide is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR antagonist with greatest potency against the α9α10 subtype. (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra indicated that all three αB-VxXXIVA isomers were poorly structured in aqueous solution. This was consistent with circular dichroism (CD results which showed that the peptides were unstructured in buffer, but adopted partially helical conformations in aqueous trifluoroethanol (TFE solution. The α9α10 nAChR is an important target for the development of analgesics and cancer chemotherapeutics, and αB-VxXXIVA represents a novel ligand with which to probe the structure and function of this protein.

  1. Molecular basis of reactive oxygen species-induced inactivation of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junjun; Zheng, Yan; Xue, Fenqin; Chang, Yongchang; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Jianliang

    2016-08-01

    The α4β2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the most widespread heteromeric nAChR subtype in the brain, mediating fast synaptic transmission. Previous studies showed that α4β2 nAChRs could be inactivated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the underlying mechanism is still obscure. We found that H2O2 induced the rundown of ACh-evoked currents in human α4β2 nAChRs and the replacement of the conserved cysteine in the M1-M2 linker of either α4 Cys245 or β2 Cys237 with an alanine residue could prevent the current rundown. Structurally, α4 Cys245 and β2 Cys237 are hypothesized to be in close proximity when the receptor is activated. Western blotting results showed that α4 and β2 subunits were cross-linked when the agonist-bound receptor encountered H2O2, which could be prevented by the substitution of the conserved cysteine in the M1-M2 linker to an alanine. Thus, when agonist bound to the receptor, α4 Cys245 and β2 Cys237 came close to each other and ROS oxidized these conserved cysteines, leading subunits to be cross-linked and trapping α4β2 nAChRs into the inactivation state. In addition, we mimicked an experimental Parkinson's disease (PD) model in PC12 cells and found that ROS, generated by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), could cause the current rundown in α4β2 nAChRs, which may play a role in PD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Human biodistribution and dosimetry of [18F]nifene, an α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor PET tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betthauser, Tobey J; Hillmer, Ansel T; Lao, Patrick J; Ehlerding, Emily; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Stone, Charles K; Christian, Bradley T

    2017-12-01

    The α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) system is implicated in many neuropsychiatric pathologies. [ 18 F]Nifene is a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand that has shown promise for in vivo imaging of the α4β2* nAChR system in preclinical models and humans. This work establishes the radiation burden associated with [ 18 F]nifene PET scans in humans. Four human subjects (2M, 2F) underwent whole-body PET/CT scans to determine the human biodistribution of [ 18 F]nifene. Source organs were identified and time-activity-curves (TACs) were extracted from the PET time-series. Dose estimates were calculated for each subject using OLINDA/EXM v1.1. [ 18 F]Nifene was well tolerated by all subjects with no adverse events reported. The mean whole-body effective dose was 28.4±3.8 mSv/MBq without bladder voiding, and 22.6±1.9 mSv/MBq with hourly micturition. The urinary bladder radiation dose limited the maximum injected dose for a single scan to 278 MBq without urinary bladder voiding, and 519 MBq with hourly voiding. [ 18 F]Nifene is a safe PET radioligand for imaging the α4β2* nAChR system in humans. This works presents human internal dosimetry for [ 18 F]nifene in humans for the first time. These results facilitate safe development of future [ 18 F]nifene studies to image the α4β2* nAChR system in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Stimulation Attenuates Neuroinflammation through JAK2-STAT3 Activation in Murine Models of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Krafft

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accounting for high mortality and morbidity rates, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH remains one of the most detrimental stroke subtypes lacking a specific therapy. Neuroinflammation contributes to ICH-induced brain injury and is associated with unfavorable outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate whether α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR stimulation ameliorates neuroinflammation after ICH. Male CD-1 mice and Sprague-Dawley were subjected to intracerebral injection of autologous blood or bacterial collagenase. ICH animals received either α7nAChR agonist PHA-543613 alone or combined with α7nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA or Janus kinase 2 (JAK2 antagonist AG490. Neurobehavioral deficits were evaluated at 24 hours, 72 hours, and 10 weeks after ICH induction. Perihematomal expressions of JAK2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and myeloperoxidase (MPO were quantified via Western blot. Histologic volumetric analysis of brain tissues was conducted after 10 weeks following ICH induction. PHA-543613 improved short-term neurobehavioral (sensorimotor deficits and increased activated perihematomal JAK2 and STAT3 expressions while decreasing TNF-α and MPO expressions after ICH. MLA reversed these treatment effects. PHA-543613 also improved long-term neurobehavioral (sensorimotor, learning, and memory deficits and ameliorated brain atrophy after ICH. These treatment effects were reduced by AG490. α7nAChR stimulation reduced neuroinflammation via activation of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway, thereby ameliorating the short- and long-term sequelae after ICH.

  4. Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligand [11C]CHIBA-1001 in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Muneyuki; Wu, Jin; Toyohara, Jun; Oda, Keiichi; Ishikawa, Masatomo; Ishii, Kenji; Hashimoto, Kenji; Ishiwata, Kiichi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: 4-[ 11 C]Methylphenyl 2,4-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonane-2-carboxylate ([ 11 C]CHIBA-1001) is a newly developed positron emission tomography (PET) ligand for mapping α 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. We investigated whole-body biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of [ 11 C]CHIBA-1001 in humans and compared the results with those obtained in mice. Methods: Dynamic whole-body PET was carried out for three human subjects after administering a bolus injection of [ 11 C]CHIBA-1001. Emission scans were collected in two-dimensional mode over five bed positions. Regions of interest were placed over 12 organs. Radiation dosimetry was estimated from the residence times of these source organs using the OLINDA program. Biodistribution data from mice were also used for the prediction of radiation dosimetry in humans, and results with and those without accommodation of different proportions of organ-to-total-body mass were compared with the results from the human PET study. Results: In humans, the highest accumulation was observed in the liver, whereas in mice, the highest accumulation was observed in the urinary bladder. The estimated effective dose from the human PET study was 6.9 μSv/MBq, and that from mice was much underestimated. Conclusion: Effective dose estimates for [ 11 C]CHIBA-1001 were compatible with those associated with other common nuclear medicine tests. Absorption doses among several organs were considerably different between the human and mouse studies. Human dosimetry studies for the investigation of radiation safety are desirable as one of the first clinical trials of new PET probes before their application in subsequent clinical investigations.

  5. Putative nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits express differentially through the life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jessica A; Garczynski, Stephen F

    2016-04-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Orchardists in Washington State are concerned about the possibility of codling moth field populations developing resistance to these two insecticides. In an effort to help mitigate this issue, we initiated a project to identify and characterize codling moth nAChR subunits expressed in heads. This study had two main goals; (i) identify transcripts from a codling moth head transcriptome that encode for nAChR subunits, and (ii) determine nAChR subunit expression profiles in various life stages of codling moth. From a codling moth head transcriptome, 24 transcripts encoding for 12 putative nAChR subunit classes were identified and verified by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequence determination. Characterization of the deduced protein sequences encoded by putative nAChR transcripts revealed that they share the distinguishing features of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel superfamily with 9 α-type subunits and 3 β-type subunits identified. Phylogenetic analysis comparing these protein sequences to those of other insect nAChR subunits supports the identification of these proteins as nAChR subunits. Stage expression studies determined that there is clear differential expression of many of these subunits throughout the codling moth life cycle. The information from this study will be used in the future to monitor for potential target-site resistance mechanisms to neonicotinoids and spinosads in tolerant codling moth populations. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Effects of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists on antipsychotic efficacy in a preclinical mouse model of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhaas, Kathy L; Bitner, Robert S; Gopalakrishnan, Murali; Rueter, Lynne E

    2012-04-01

    Antipsychotics normalize responses in the DBA/2 mouse model of prepulse inhibition (PPI), a preclinical model of sensorimotor gating deficits. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) as a molecular target is considered an attractive approach for improvement of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia (CDS). Assessment of clinical efficacy of novel agents in CDS involves treating patients already on antipsychotic medications. We evaluated the effects of the combination of α7 nAChR agonists ABT-107 (0.1-10.0 mg/kg i.p.), A-582941 (0.04-4.0 mg/kg i.p.), and PNU282987 (1.0-10.0 mg/kg i.p.) with risperidone (0.1-1.0 mg/kg i.p.) or haloperidol (0.3-3.0 mg/kg i.p.), representative atypical and typical antipsychotic agents in the DBA/2 mouse PPI model. The same α7 agonists were given alone or in combination with a dose of antipsychotic medication that induces a minimal level of catalepsy in rats, an assay with predictive validity for the induction of extrapyramidal symptoms. The α7 nAChR agonists ABT-107, A-582941, and PNU282987 had no effect in DBA/2 mouse PPI when given alone yet increased the effects of haloperidol and risperidone. The α7 nAChR agonists did not cause catalepsy in rats, nor did they enhance antipsychotic-induced catalepsy. When given in combination with either a typical or atypical antipsychotic, α7 nAChR agonists did not impair efficacy in the DBA/2 J mouse PPI model. The efficacy but not the motoric side effects of antipsychotics was enhanced, suggesting that adjunctive therapy of α7 nAChR agonists not only could be useful for the treatment of cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia but also could enhance the efficacy against positive symptoms.

  7. Acetylcholine induces GABA release onto rod bipolar cells through heteromeric nicotinic receptors expressed in A17 amacrine cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio eElgueta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acetylcholine (ACh is a major retinal neurotransmitter that modulates visual processing through a large repertoire of cholinergic receptors expressed on different retinal cell types. ACh is released from starburst amacrine cells under scotopic conditions, but its effects on cells of the rod pathway have not been investigated. Using whole-cell patch clamp recordings in slices of rat retina, we found that ACh application triggers GABA release onto rod bipolar (RB cells. GABA was released from A17 amacrine cells and activated postsynaptic GABAA and GABAC receptors in RB cells. The sensitivity of ACh-induced currents to nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR antagonists (TMPH ~ mecamylamine > erysodine > DhβE > MLA together with the differential potency of specific agonists to mimic ACh responses (cytisine >> RJR2403 ~ choline, suggest that A17 cells express heteromeric nAChRs containing the β4 subunit. Activation of nAChRs induced GABA release after Ca2+ accumulation in A17 cell dendrites and varicosities mediated by L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs and intracellular Ca2+ stores. Inhibition of acetyl-cholinesterase depolarized A17 cells and increased spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in RB cells, indicating that endogenous ACh enhances GABAergic inhibition of RB cells. Moreover, injection of neostigmine or cytisine reduced the b-wave of the scotopic flash electroretinogram, suggesting that cholinergic modulation of GABA release controls RB cell activity in vivo. These results describe a novel regulatory mechanism of RB cell inhibition and complement our understanding of the neuromodulatory control of retinal signal processing.

  8. Protective effect of an alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist against enterovirus 71 infection in neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Feng Xia; Zhao, Lin Qing; Zhu, Ru Nan; Song, Qin Wei; Deng, Jie; Tian, Run; Wang, Fang; Qian, Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Enterovirus 71, as one of the dominant pathogens associated with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease, has been well reported to trigger severe neurological symptoms among young children over the last decade, particularly among children in the Asia-Pacific region. To date, no effective antiviral agent has been developed for the treatment of severe enterovirus 71 infection. PNU-282987, a selective alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) agonist, has been reported to have a neuroprotective effect by participating in inflammatory regulation in previous studies. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to assess the cell-protective effect of PNU-282987 against enterovirus 71 infection in neuronal cells, and to discuss potential mechanisms underlying this cell-protective effect in order to elucidate the potential impact of such agonists in the treatment of neurotropic viral infection. We observed that treatment with PNU-282987 improved cell viability and inhibited viral replication in enterovirus 71-infected SH-SY5Y cells. Further investigation revealed that inhibition of enterovirus 71 production by PNU-282987 is likely associated with events of RNA replication, and that increased levels of INF mRNA and its downstream antiviral proteins stimulated by the JAK-STAT2 pathway may contribute to the antiviral effect of PNU-282987. Moreover, our findings suggest that both the antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects of PNU-282987 may contribute to the neural protective effect of the drug in enterovirus 71-infected cells. Taken together, the results suggest that selective α7nAChR agonists may represent viable candidates for future therapeutic treatment of severe enterovirus 71 infection, and for other cases of neurotropic viral infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Attenuation of Compulsive-Like Behavior Through Positive Allosteric Modulation of α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Non-Induced Compulsive-Like Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Swarup; Mucha, Mckenzie; Khatri, Shailesh N; Glenon, Richard; Schulte, Marvin K; Bult-Ito, Abel

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic α4β2 receptors are the most abundant subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in brain regions implicated in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). These receptors are known to modify normal and addictive behaviors by modulating neuronal excitability. Desformylflustrabromine (dFBr) is a novel, positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of high acetylcholine sensitivity (HS) and low acetylcholine sensitivity (LS) α4β2 nAChRs. The present study tested the hypothesis that positive allosteric modulation of α4β2 receptors by dFBr will attenuate compulsive-like behavior in a non-induced compulsive-like mouse model. Male mice ( Mus musculus ) selected for compulsive-like nesting behavior (NB; 48 animals; 12 per group) received acute (once) and chronic (every day for 32 days) subcutaneous injection of dFBr at 2, 4 and 6 mg/kg doses. Saline was used as a control (0 mg/kg). Compulsive-like NB was assessed after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 24 h, while compulsive-like marble burying (MB) and anxiety-like open field (OF) behaviors were performed 2 h after dFBr administration. In the acute administration protocol, dFBr dose dependently attenuated NB and MB. Rapid effects (1-2 h after drug administration) of dFBr on MB and NB were observed for the chronic administration which was in congruence with the acute study. Chronic administration also revealed sustained suppression of NB by dFBr following 5 weeks of treatment. In both the acute and chronic regimen dFBr did not modulate OF behaviors. This research demonstrates the novel role of positive allosteric modulation of α4β2 nicotinic receptors by dFBr as a translational potential for OCD.

  10. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eBecchetti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE is a focal epilepsy with attacks typically arising in the frontal lobe during non rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. It is characterized by clusters of complex and stereotyped hypermotor seizures, frequently accompanied by sudden arousals. Cognitive and psychiatric symptoms may be also observed. Approximately 12% of the ADNFLE families carry mutations on genes coding for subunits of the heteromeric neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChRs. This is consistent with the widespread expression of these receptors, particularly the α4β2* subtype, in the neocortex and thalamus. However, understanding how mutant nAChRs lead to partial frontal epilepsy is far from being straightforward because of the complexity of the cholinergic regulation in both developing and mature brains. The relation with the sleep-waking cycle must be also explained. We discuss some possible pathogenetic mechanisms in the light of recent advances about the nAChR role in prefrontal regions as well as the studies carried out in murine models of ADNFLE. Functional evidence points to alterations in prefrontal GABA release, and the synaptic unbalance probably arises during the cortical circuit maturation. Although most of the available functional evidence concerns mutations on nAChR subunit genes, other genes have been recently implicated in the disease, such as KCNT1 (coding for a Na+-dependent K+ channel, DEPD5 (Dishevelled, Egl-10 and Pleckstrin Domain-containing protein 5, and CRH (Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. Overall, the uncertainties about both the etiology and the pathogenesis of ADNFLE point to the current gaps in our knowledge the regulation of neuronal networks in the cerebral cortex.

  11. 11C-NS14492 as a novel PET radioligand for imaging cerebral alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: in vivo evaluation and drug occupancy measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettrup, Anders; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Lehel, Szabolcs

    2011-01-01

    Small-molecule α(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α(7)nAChR) agonists are currently validated for use as treatment for cognitive disturbances in schizophrenia and in Alzheimer disease. A suitable radiolabeled α(7)nAChR PET tracer would be important for in vivo quantification of α(7)nACh......R binding in humans and to measure α(7)nAChR occupancy of α(7)nAChR drug candidates. Here, we present the radiosynthesis and in vivo evaluation of (11)C-NS14492 as a selective α(7)nAChR PET radioligand....

  12. 11C-NS14492 as a novel PET radioligand for imaging cerebral alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: in vivo evaluation and drug occupancy measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettrup, Anders; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Lehel, Szabolcs

    2011-01-01

    Small-molecule a(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (a(7)nAChR) agonists are currently validated for use as treatment for cognitive disturbances in schizophrenia and in Alzheimer disease. A suitable radiolabeled a(7)nAChR PET tracer would be important for in vivo quantification of a(7)nACh......R binding in humans and to measure a(7)nAChR occupancy of a(7)nAChR drug candidates. Here, we present the radiosynthesis and in vivo evaluation of (11)C-NS14492 as a selective a(7)nAChR PET radioligand....

  13. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands methyllycaconitine, NS6740 and GTS-21 reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α release from microglia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2012-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory properties of, particularly the α7, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the peripheral immune system are well documented. There are also reports of anti-inflammatory actions of nicotine in the CNS, but it is unclear, whether this is due to activation or inhibition...... of nAChRs. Here we investigate the mechanisms behind α7 nAChR-mediated modulation of TNF-α release. We show that α7 nAChR agonists or positive allosteric modulators do not affect LPS-induced release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α from cultured microglia. This suggests that classical activation...... of, i.e. ion-flux through, the α7 nAChR does not reduce TNF-α release from activated microglia. Contrarily, the α7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine and the weak (...

  14. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of 3,8-diazabicyclo[4.2.0]octane ligands, potent nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jennifer M; Bunnelle, William H; Tietje, Karin R; Anderson, David J; Rueter, Lynne E; Curzon, Peter; Surowy, Carol S; Ji, Jianquo; Daanen, Jerome F; Kohlhaas, Kathy L; Buckley, Michael J; Henry, Rodger F; Dyhring, Tino; Ahring, Philip K; Meyer, Michael D

    2006-12-28

    A series of potent neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ligands based on a 3,8-diazabicyclo[4.2.0]octane core have been synthesized and evaluated for affinity and agonist efficacy at the human high affinity nicotine recognition site (halpha4beta2) and in a rat model of persistent nociceptive pain (formalin model). Numerous analogs in this series exhibit picomolar affinity in radioligand binding assays and nanomolar agonist potency in functional assays, placing them among the most potent nAChR ligands known for the halpha4beta2 receptor. Several of the compounds reported in this study (i.e., 24, 25, 28, 30, 32, and 47) exhibit equivalent or greater affinity for the halpha4beta2 receptor relative to epibatidine, and like epibatidine, many exhibit robust analgesic efficacy in the rat formalin model of persistent pain.

  15. Impact of human D398N single nucleotide polymorphism on intracellular calcium response mediated by α3β4α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammimäki, Anne; Herder, Penelope; Li, Ping; Esch, Caroline; Laughlin, James R.; Akk, Gustav; Stitzel, Jerry A.

    2013-01-01

    The human CHRNA5 D398N polymorphism (rs16969968) causes an aspartic acid to asparagine change in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α5 subunit gene. The N398 variant of CHRNA5 is linked to increased risk for nicotine dependence. In this study, we explored the effect of the CHRNA5 D398N polymorphism on the properties of human α3β4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Addition of either D398 or N398 variant of α5 subunit in the α3β4* receptor did not affect total [125I]-epibatidine binding or surface expression of the receptor. However, addition of α5D398 into α3β4* receptor decreased the maximal response to agonist without significantly affecting EC50 in aequorin intracellular calcium assay. α3β4α5N398 nAChRs showed further decreased maximal response. The differences in agonist efficacy between the receptor subtypes were found to be dependent upon the concentration of external calcium but independent of external sodium. Moreover, activation of α3β4α5 nAChRs led to significantly greater intracellular calcium release from IP3 stores relative to α3β4 nAChRs although no effect of the α5 polymorphism was observed. Finally, inclusion of the α5 variant caused a small shift to the left in IC50 for some of the antagonists tested, depending upon α5 variant but did not affect sensitivity of α3β4* receptors to desensitization in response to incubation with nicotine. In conclusion, addition of either variant of a5 into an α3β4α5 receptor similarly effects receptor pharmacology and function. However, the N398 variant exhibits a reduced response to agonists when extracellular calcium is high and it may lead to distinct downstream cellular signaling. PMID:22820273

  16. Type I and II positive allosteric modulators differentially modulate agonist-induced up-regulation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2012-01-01

    Long-term treatment with nicotine or selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists increases the number of α7 nAChRs and this up-regulation may be involved in the mechanism underlying the sustained procognitive effect of these compounds. Here, we investigate the influence of type I...... and II α7 nAChR positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) on agonist-induced α7 nAChR up-regulation. We show that the type II PAMs, PNU-120596 (10 μM) or TQS (1 and 10 μM), inhibit up-regulation, as measured by protein levels, induced by the α7 nAChR agonist A-582941 (10 nM or 10 μM), in SH-EP1 cells stably...... expressing human α7 nAChR, whereas the type I PAMs AVL-3288 or NS1738 do not. Contrarily, neither type I nor II PAMs affect 10 μM nicotine-induced receptor up-regulation, suggesting that nicotine and A-582941 induce up-regulation through different mechanisms. We further show in vivo that 3 mg/kg PNU-120596...

  17. A model for short alpha-neurotoxin bound to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica: comparison with long-chain alpha-neurotoxins and alpha-conotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordvintsev, D Yu; Polyak, Ya L; Levtsova, O V; Tourleigh, Ye V; Kasheverov, I E; Shaitan, K V; Utkin, Yu N; Tsetlin, V I

    2005-12-01

    Short-chain alpha-neurotoxins from snakes are highly selective antagonists of the muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Although their spatial structures are known and abundant information on topology of binding to nAChR is obtained by labeling and mutagenesis studies, the accurate structure of the complex is not yet known. Here, we present a model for a short alpha-neurotoxin, neurotoxin II from Naja oxiana (NTII), bound to Torpedo californica nAChR. It was built by comparative modeling, docking and molecular dynamics using 1H NMR structure of NTII, cross-linking and mutagenesis data, cryoelectron microscopy structure of Torpedo marmorata nAChR [Unwin, N., 2005. Refined structure of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at 4A resolution. J. Mol. Biol. 346, 967-989] and X-ray structures of acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) with agonists [Celie, P.H., van Rossum-Fikkert, S.E., van Dijk, W.J., Brejc, K., Smit, A.B., Sixma, T.K., 2004. Nicotine and carbamylcholine binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as studied in AChBP crystal structures. Neuron 41 (6), 907-914] and antagonists: alpha-cobratoxin, a long-chain alpha-neurotoxin [Bourne, Y., Talley, T.T., Hansen, S.B., Taylor, P., Marchot, P., 2005. Crystal structure of Cbtx-AChBP complex reveals essential interactions between snake alpha-neurotoxins and nicotinic receptors. EMBO J. 24 (8), 1512-1522] and alpha-conotoxin [Celie, P.H., Kasheverov, I.E., Mordvintsev, D.Y., Hogg, R.C., van Nierop, P., van Elk, R., van Rossum-Fikkert, S.E., Zhmak, M.N., Bertrand, D., Tsetlin, V., Sixma, T.K., Smit, A.B., 2005. Crystal structure of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor homolog AChBP in complex with an alpha-conotoxin PnIA variant. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 12 (7), 582-588]. In complex with the receptor, NTII was located at about 30 A from the membrane surface, the tip of its loop II plunges into the ligand-binding pocket between the alpha/gamma or alpha/delta nAChR subunits, while the loops I and III

  18. The Efficacy of LY293558 in Blocking Seizures and Associated Morphological, and Behavioral Alterations Induced by Soman in Immature Male Rats and the Role of the M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor in Organophosphate Induced Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-30

    Grunberg NE. 2001. Adult vs. adolescent rats differ in biobehavioral responses to chronic nicotine administration . Pharmacology, biochemistry, and...muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The use of OP nerve agents in attacks in Syria recently...higher AChE activity within the BLA. Seizures, if treated within 20 min or 60 min post-soman exposure could be arrested with the administration of

  19. Genetic Background Influences the Effects of Withdrawal from Chronic Nicotine on Learning and High-Affinity Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding in the Dorsal and Ventral Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Derek S.; Turner, Jill R.; Blendy, Julie A.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale The effects of nicotine on cognitive processes may play an important role in nicotine addiction. Nicotine withdrawal impairs hippocampus-dependent learning and genetic factors influence this effect. However, the neural changes that contribute to these impairments are unknown. Chronic nicotine upregulates hippocampal nicotinic acetycholine receptors (nAChRs), which may contribute to cognitive deficits when nicotine administration ceases. If nAChR upregulation underlies withdrawal-deficits in learning, then strains of mice exhibiting withdrawal-deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning should also show upregulation of hippocampal nAChRs. Objectives Here, we examined the effects of nicotine withdrawal on fear conditioning and [3H]epibatidine binding in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in two inbred mouse strains and their F1 hybrids. Methods Male C57BL/6NTac, 129S6/SvEvTac, and B6129SF1/Tac mice were administered chronic nicotine (18 mg/kg/d) for 12 days through osmotic pumps and then were trained and tested in fear conditioning 24 hours after cessation of nicotine treatment. Results Nicotine withdrawal impaired hippocampus-dependent contextual conditioning in C57BL/6NTac mice but not 129S6/SvEvTac or B6129SF1/Tac mice; no changes were observed in hippocampus-independent cued fear conditioning. Upregulated [3H]epibatidine binding was found in the dorsal, but not ventral, hippocampus of C57BL/6NTac mice and in the ventral hippocampus of B6129SF1/Tac mice after chronic nicotine. Conclusions Upregulation of high-affinity binding sites in the dorsal hippocampus of C57BL/6NTac mice, the only strain that exhibited nAChR upregulation in this region and withdrawal-deficits in contextual conditioning, suggests that upregulation of high-affinity binding sites in the dorsal hippocampus mediates, in part, nicotine withdrawal-deficits in contextual conditioning and genetic background modulates these effects. PMID:22836371

  20. Encenicline, an α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Partial Agonist, Reduces Immune Cell Infiltration in the Colon and Improves Experimental Colitis in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salaga, M; Blomster, L V; Piechota-Polańczyk, A

    2016-01-01

    The α7 pentamer nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are a target in transduction of anti-inflammatory signals from the central nervous system to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory action of the novel α7 nAChR partial agonist ence...... of the number and/or activation status of the immune cells in the gut, emphasizing a potential role of α7 nAChRs as a target for anticolitic drugs.......The α7 pentamer nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are a target in transduction of anti-inflammatory signals from the central nervous system to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory action of the novel α7 nAChR partial agonist...... as myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were recorded. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to measure the infiltration of immune cells in the colon. Furthermore, we employed flow cytometry to determine the effect of encenicline on frequencies of FoxP3(+) and interleukin (IL)-17A(+) T cells in the mouse colon. Encenicline...

  1. Mutation of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor β subunit is associated with resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in the aphid Myzus persicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Field Linda M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myzus persicae is a globally important aphid pest with a history of developing resistance to insecticides. Unusually, neonicotinoids have remained highly effective as control agents despite nearly two decades of steadily increasing use. In this study, a clone of M. persicae collected from southern France was found, for the first time, to exhibit sufficiently strong resistance to result in loss of the field effectiveness of neonicotinoids. Results Bioassays, metabolism and gene expression studies implied the presence of two resistance mechanisms in the resistant clone, one based on enhanced detoxification by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and another unaffected by a synergist that inhibits detoxifying enzymes. Binding of radiolabeled imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid to whole body membrane preparations showed that the high affinity [3H]-imidacloprid binding site present in susceptible M. persicae is lost in the resistant clone and the remaining lower affinity site is altered compared to susceptible clones. This confers a significant overall reduction in binding affinity to the neonicotinoid target: the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of six nAChR subunit (Mpα1-5 and Mpβ1 genes from resistant and susceptible aphid clones revealed a single point mutation in the loop D region of the nAChR β1 subunit of the resistant clone, causing an arginine to threonine substitution (R81T. Conclusion Previous studies have shown that the amino acid at this position within loop D is a key determinant of neonicotinoid binding to nAChRs and this amino acid change confers a vertebrate-like character to the insect nAChR receptor and results in reduced sensitivity to neonicotinoids. The discovery of the mutation at this position and its association with the reduced affinity of the nAChR for imidacloprid is the first example of field-evolved target-site resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides and also

  2. Human α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as a novel target of oligomeric α-synuclein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is associated with a decreased incidence of Parkinson disease (PD through unknown mechanisms. Interestingly, a decrease in the numbers of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α4β2-nAChRs in PD patients suggests an α4β2-nAChR-mediated cholinergic deficit in PD. Although oligomeric forms of α-synuclein have been recognized to be toxic and involved in the pathogenesis of PD, their direct effects on nAChR-mediated cholinergic signaling remains undefined. Here, we report for the first time that oligomeric α-synuclein selectively inhibits human α4β2-nAChR-mediated currents in a dose-dependent, non-competitive and use-independent manner. We show that pre-loading cells with guanyl-5'-yl thiophosphate fails to prevent this inhibition, suggesting that the α-synuclein-induced inhibition of α4β2-nAChR function is not mediated by nAChR internalization. By using a pharmacological approach and cultures expressing transfected human nAChRs, we have shown a clear effect of oligomeric α-synuclein on α4β2-nAChRs, but not on α4β4- or α7-nAChRs, suggesting nAChR subunit selectivity of oligomeric α-synuclein-induced inhibition. In addition, by combining the size exclusion chromatography and atomic force microscopy (AFM analyses, we find that only large (>4 nm oligomeric α-synuclein aggregates (but not monomeric, small oligomeric or fibrillar α-synuclein aggregates exhibit the inhibitory effect on human α4β2-nAChRs. Collectively, we have provided direct evidence that α4β2-nAChR is a sensitive target to mediate oligomeric α-synuclein-induced modulation of cholinergic signaling, and our data imply that therapeutic strategies targeted toward α4β2-nAChRs may have potential for developing new treatments for PD.

  3. Characterizing low affinity epibatidine binding to α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with ligand depletion and nonspecific binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Person Alexandra M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Along with high affinity binding of epibatidine (Kd1≈10 pM to α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR, low affinity binding of epibatidine (Kd2≈1-10 nM to an independent binding site has been reported. Studying this low affinity binding is important because it might contribute understanding about the structure and synthesis of α4β2 nAChR. The binding behavior of epibatidine and α4β2 AChR raises a question about interpreting binding data from two independent sites with ligand depletion and nonspecific binding, both of which can affect equilibrium binding of [3H]epibatidine and α4β2 nAChR. If modeled incorrectly, ligand depletion and nonspecific binding lead to inaccurate estimates of binding constants. Fitting total equilibrium binding as a function of total ligand accurately characterizes a single site with ligand depletion and nonspecific binding. The goal of this study was to determine whether this approach is sufficient with two independent high and low affinity sites. Results Computer simulations of binding revealed complexities beyond fitting total binding for characterizing the second, low affinity site of α4β2 nAChR. First, distinguishing low-affinity specific binding from nonspecific binding was a potential problem with saturation data. Varying the maximum concentration of [3H]epibatidine, simultaneously fitting independently measured nonspecific binding, and varying α4β2 nAChR concentration were effective remedies. Second, ligand depletion helped identify the low affinity site when nonspecific binding was significant in saturation or competition data, contrary to a common belief that ligand depletion always is detrimental. Third, measuring nonspecific binding without α4β2 nAChR distinguished better between nonspecific binding and low-affinity specific binding under some circumstances of competitive binding than did presuming nonspecific binding to be residual [3H]epibatidine binding after

  4. Biophysical and ion channel functional characterization of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in varying detergent-lipid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar-Rovira, Guillermo A.; Asseo-García, Aloysha M.; Quesada, Orestes; Hanson, Michael A.; Nogueras, Carlos; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A.; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2009-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) of Torpedo electric rays has been extensively characterized over the last three decades. However, the molecular mechanisms by which detergents influence membrane protein stability and function remain poorly understood, and elucidation of the dynamic detergent-lipid-protein interactions of solubilized membrane proteins is a largely unexplored research field. This study examined nine detergents upon nAChR solubilization and purification, to assess receptor lipid composition using GC (Gas Chromatography)-FID (Flame Ionization) and/or GC-MSD (Mass Selective Detectors), stability and aggregation state using A-SEC (Analytical Size-Exclusion Chromatography) and EM (Electron Microscopy), and planar lipid bilayers to measure ion channel function. Detergent solubilization of nAChR-enriched membranes did not result in significant native lipid depletion or destabilization. Upon purification, native lipid depletion occurred in all detergents, with lipid-analog detergents [CHAPS (3-[(3-Cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate), FC-12 (n-Dodecylphosphocholine) and sodium cholate (3α,7α,12α-Trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid)] maintaining stability and supporting ion channel function, while non-lipid analog detergents [Cymal-6 (6-Cyclohexyl-1-hexyl-β-d-maltoside), DDM (n-Dodecyl-β-d-maltopyranoside), LDAO (Lauryldimethylamine-N-oxide) and OG (n-Octyl-β-d-glucopyranoside)] showed decreased stability and significant reduction or loss of ion channel function. Anapoe-C12E9 (Polyoxyethylene-(9)-dodecyl ether) and BigCHAP (N,N′-bis-(3-d-Gluconamidopropyl) cholamide) retained residual amounts of native lipid, maintaining moderate stability and ion channel function when compared to lipid-analog detergents. Overall, these results show that the nAChR can be stable and functional in lipid-analog detergents or in detergents that retain moderate amounts of residual native lipids, while the opposite is true about non-lipid analog

  5. The Sleep–Wake Cycle in the Nicotinic Alpha-9 Acetylcholine Receptor Subunit Knock-Out Mice

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    Natalia Madrid-López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a neural matrix controlling the sleep–wake cycle (SWC embedded within high ranking integrative mechanisms in the central nervous system. Nicotinic alpha-9 acetylcholine receptor subunit (alpha-9 nAChR participate in physiological processes occurring in sensory, endocrine and immune systems. There is a relationship between the SWC architecture, body homeostasis and sensory afferents so that disruption of afferent signaling is expected to affect the temporal organization of sleep and wake states. The analysis of the SWC of 9 nAChR knock-out animals may help to reveal the contribution of alpha-9 nAChR to sleep chronobiological determinants. Here we explore the polysomnogram in chronically implanted alpha-9 nAChR knock-out (KO and wild-type (WT individuals of the hybrid CBA/Sv129 mouse strain. Records were obtained in isolation chambers under a stable 12:12 light:dark cycle (LD. To unmask the 24-h modulation of the SWC a skeleton photoperiod (SP protocol was performed. Under LD the daily quota (in % of wakefulness (W, NREM sleep and REM sleep obtained in KO and WT animals were 45, 48 and 7, and 46, 46 and 8 respectively. Both groups exhibit nocturnal phase preference of W as well as diurnal and unimodal phase preference of NREM and REM sleep. The acrophase mean angles of KO vs. WT genotypes were not different (Zeitgeber Time: 6.5 vs. 14.9 for W, 4.3 vs. 2.8 for NREM sleep and 5.3 vs. 3.4 for REM sleep, respectively. Transference to SP do not affect daily state quotas, phase preferences and acrophases among genotypes. Unmasking phenomena of the SWC such as wake increment during the rest phase under SP was evident only among WT mice suggesting the involvement of retinal structures containing alpha-9 nAChR in masking processes. Furthermore, KO animals exhibit longer NREM and REM sleep episodes that is independent of illumination conditions. Consolidated diurnal NREM sleep contributed to obtain higher values of NREM sleep delta-EEG activity

  6. A Distinct Functional Site in Ω-Neurotoxins: Novel Antagonists of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors from Snake Venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan-Puttaswamy, Varuna; Adams, David J; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2015-12-18

    Snake venom α-neurotoxins from the three-finger toxin (3FTx) family are competitive antagonists with nanomolar affinity and high selectivity for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Here, we report the characterization of a new group of competitive nAChR antagonists: Ω-neurotoxins. Although they belong to the 3FTx family, the characteristic functional residues of α-neurotoxins are not conserved. We evaluated the subtype specificity and structure-function relationships of Oh9-1, an Ω-neurotoxin from Ophiophagus hannah venom. Recombinant Oh9-1 showed reversible postsynaptic neurotoxicity in the micromolar range. Experiments with different nAChR subtypes expressed in Xenopus oocytes indicated Oh9-1 is selective for rat muscle type α1β1εδ (adult) and α1β1γδ (fetal) and rat neuronal α3β2 subtypes. However, Oh9-1 showed low or no affinity for other human and rat neuronal subtypes. Twelve individual alanine-scan mutants encompassing all three loops of Oh9-1 were evaluated for binding to α1β1εδ and α3β2 subtypes. Oh9-1's loop-II residues (M25, F27) were the most critical for interactions and formed the common binding core. Mutations at T23 and F26 caused a significant loss in activity at α1β1εδ receptors but had no effect on the interaction with the α3β2 subtype. Similarly, mutations at loop-II (H7, K22, H30) and -III (K45) of Oh9-1 had a distinctly different impact on its activity with these subtypes. Thus, Oh9-1 interacts with these nAChRs via distinct residues. Unlike α-neurotoxins, the tip of loop-II is not involved. We reveal a novel mode of interaction, where both sides of the β-strand of Oh9-1's loop-II interact with α1β1εδ, but only one side interacts with α3β2. Phylogenetic analysis revealed functional organization of the Ω-neurotoxins independent of α-neurotoxins. Thus, Ω-neurotoxin: Oh9-1 may be a new, structurally distinct class of 3FTxs that, like α-neurotoxins, antagonize nAChRs. However, Oh9-1 binds to the ACh

  7. The α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit of Frankliniella occidentalis is not involved in resistance to spinosad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wenjie; Liu, Qiulei; Tian, Lixia; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Miguel, Keri San; Funderburk, Joe; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2014-05-01

    Insects evolve resistance which constrains the sustainable use of insecticides. Spinosyns, a class of environmentally-friendly macrolide insecticides, is not an exception. The mode of inheritance and the mechanisms of resistance to spinosad (the most common spinosyn insecticide) in Frankliniella occidentalis (Western flower thrips, WFT) were investigated in this study. Resistance (170,000-fold) was autosomal and completely recessive. Recent studies showed that deletion of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 subunit gene resulted in strains of Drosophila melanogaster, Plutella xylostella and Bactrocera dorsalis that are resistant to spinosad, indicating that nAChRα6 subunit maybe important for the toxic action of this insecticide. Conversely, a G275E mutation of this subunit in F. occidentalis was recently proposed as the mechanism of resistance to spinosad. We cloned and characterized nAChRα6 from three susceptible and two spinosad resistant strains from China and the USA. The Foα6 cDNA is 1873bp and the open reading frame is 1458bp which encodes 485 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 53.5-kDa, the 5' and 3' UTRs are 121 and 294bp, respectively. There was no difference in the cDNA sequence between the resistant and susceptible thrips, suggesting the G275E mutation does not confer resistance in these populations. Ten isoforms of Foα6, arising from alternative splicing, were isolated and did not differ between the spinosad-susceptible and resistant strains. Quantitative real time PCR analysis showed Foα6 was highly expressed in the first instar larva, pupa and adult, and the expression levels were 3.67, 2.47, 1.38 times that of the second instar larva. The expression level was not significantly different between the susceptible and resistant strains. These results indicate that Foα6 is not involved in resistance to spinosad in F. occidentalis from China and the USA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An Unaltered Orthosteric Site and a Network of Long-Range Allosteric Interactions for PNU-120596 in α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Christopher B; Lester, Henry A; Dougherty, Dennis A

    2015-08-20

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are vital to neuronal signaling, are implicated in important processes such as learning and memory, and are therapeutic targets for neural diseases. The α7 nAChR has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, and allosteric modulators have become one focus of drug development efforts. We investigate the mode of action of the α7-selective positive allosteric modulator, PNU-120596, and show that the higher potency of acetylcholine in the presence of PNU-120596 is not due to an altered agonist binding site. In addition, we propose several residues in the gating interface and transmembrane region that are functionally important to transduction of allosteric properties, and link PNU-120596, the acetylcholine binding region, and the receptor gate. These results suggest global protein stabilization from a communication network through several key residues that alter the gating equilibrium of the receptor while leaving the agonist binding properties unperturbed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploration of the molecular architecture of the orthosteric binding site in the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor with analogs of 3-(dimethylamino)butyl dimethylcarbamate (DMABC) and 1-(pyridin-3-yl)-1,4-diazepane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Tinna Brøbech; Jensen, Anders A.; Petersen, Jette G.

    2015-01-01

    and protrudes along the interfacial cleft between subunits. To probe these putative extensions in functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), elongated analogs of 3-(dimethylamino)butyl dimethylcarbamate (DMABC) and 1-(pyridine-3-yl)-1,4-diazepane were prepared and characterized pharmacologically...

  10. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum: formation of two distinct drug targets by varying the relative expression levels of two subunits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally M Williamson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes are of medical and veterinary importance, adversely affecting human health and animal welfare. Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal parasite of pigs; in addition to its veterinary significance it is a good model of the human parasite Ascaris lumbricoides, estimated to infect approximately 1.4 billion people globally. Anthelmintic drugs are essential to control nematode parasites, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs on nerve and muscle are the targets of cholinergic anthelmintics such as levamisole and pyrantel. Previous genetic analyses of nematode nAChRs have been confined to Caenorhabditis elegans, which is phylogenetically distinct from Ascaris spp. and many other important parasites. Here we report the cloning and expression of two nAChR subunit cDNAs from A. suum. The subunits are very similar in sequence to C. elegans UNC-29 and UNC-38, are expressed on muscle cells and can be expressed robustly in Xenopus oocytes to form acetylcholine-, nicotine-, levamisole- and pyrantel-sensitive channels. We also demonstrate that changing the stoichiometry of the receptor by injecting different ratios of the subunit cRNAs can reproduce two of the three pharmacological subtypes of nAChR present in A. suum muscle cells. When the ratio was 5:1 (Asu-unc-38ratioAsu-unc-29, nicotine was a full agonist and levamisole was a partial agonist, and oocytes responded to oxantel, but not pyrantel. At the reverse ratio (1:5 Asu-unc-38ratioAsu-unc-29, levamisole was a full agonist and nicotine was a partial agonist, and the oocytes responded to pyrantel, but not oxantel. These results represent the first in vitro expression of any parasitic nicotinic receptor and show that their properties are substantially different from those of C. elegans. The results also show that changing the expression level of a single receptor subunit dramatically altered the efficacy of some anthelmintic drugs. In vitro expression of these subunits may permit the

  11. α6-Containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in midbrain dopamine neurons are poised to govern dopamine-mediated behaviors and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J N; Engle, S E; McIntosh, J M; Drenan, R M

    2015-09-24

    Acetylcholine (ACh) acts through nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptors in the ventral midbrain and striatal areas to influence dopamine (DA) transmission. This cholinergic control of DA transmission is important for processes such as attention and motivated behavior, and is manipulated by nicotine in tobacco products. Identifying and characterizing the key ACh receptors involved in cholinergic control of DA transmission could lead to small molecule therapeutics for treating disorders involving attention, addiction, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. α6-Containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are highly and specifically expressed in midbrain DA neurons, making them an attractive drug target. Here, we used genetic, pharmacological, behavioral, and biophysical approaches to study this nAChR subtype. For many experiments, we used mice expressing mutant α6 nAChRs ("α6L9S" mice) that increase the sensitivity of these receptors to agonists such as ACh and nicotine. Taking advantage of a simple behavioral phenotype exhibited by α6L9S mice, we compared the ability of full versus partial α6(∗) nAChR agonists to activate α6(∗) nAChRs in vivo. Using local infusions of both agonists and antagonists into the brain, we demonstrate that neurons and nAChRs in the midbrain are sufficient to account for this behavioral response. To complement these behavioral studies, we studied the ability of in vivo α6(∗) nAChR activation to support plasticity changes in midbrain DA neurons that are relevant to behavioral sensitization and addiction. By coupling local infusion of drugs and brain slice patch-clamp electrophysiology, we show that activating α6(∗) nAChRs in midbrain DA areas is sufficient to enhance glutamatergic transmission in ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons. Together, these results from in vivo studies strongly suggest that α6(∗) nAChRs expressed by VTA DA neurons are positioned to strongly influence both DA-mediated behaviors and the

  12. α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated neuroprotection against dopaminergic neuron loss in an MPTP mouse model via inhibition of astrocyte activation

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    Liu Yuan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although evidence suggests that the prevalence of Parkinson’s disease (PD is lower in smokers than in non-smokers, the mechanisms of nicotine-induced neuroprotection remain unclear. Stimulation of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR seems to be a crucial mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory potential of cholinergic agonists in immune cells, including astrocytes, and inhibition of astrocyte activation has been proposed as a novel strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as PD. The objective of the present study was to determine whether nicotine-induced neuroprotection in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP mouse model occurs via α7-nAChR-mediated inhibition of astrocytes. Methods Both in vivo (MPTP and in vitro (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS models of PD were used to investigate the role(s of and possible mechanism(s by which α7-nAChRs protect against dopaminergic neuron loss. Multiple experimental approaches, including behavioral tests, immunochemistry, and stereology experiments, astrocyte cell cultures, reverse transcriptase PCR, laser scanning confocal microscopy, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α assays, and western blotting, were used to elucidate the mechanisms of the α7-nAChR-mediated neuroprotection. Results Systemic administration of nicotine alleviated MPTP-induced behavioral symptoms, improved motor coordination, and protected against dopaminergic neuron loss and the activation of astrocytes and microglia in the substantia nigra. The protective effects of nicotine were abolished by administration of the α7-nAChR-selective antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA. In primary cultured mouse astrocytes, pretreatment with nicotine suppressed MPP+-induced or LPS-induced astrocyte activation, as evidenced by both decreased production of TNF-α and inhibition of extracellular regulated kinase1/2 (Erk1/2 and p38 activation in

  13. Block of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by philanthotoxins is strongly dependent on their subunit composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kachel, Hamid S; Patel, Rohit N; Franzyk, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Philanthotoxin-433 (PhTX-433) is an active component of the venom from the Egyptian digger wasp, Philanthus triangulum. PhTX-433 inhibits several excitatory ligand-gated ion channels, and to improve selectivity two synthetic analogues, PhTX-343 and PhTX-12, were developed. Previous work showed a ...

  14. Administration of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists ABT-089 and ABT-107 attenuates the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alycia M.; Arreola, Adrian C.; Kimmey, Blake A.; Schmidt, Heath D.

    2014-01-01

    Current smoking cessation pharmacotherapies have modest efficacy, and most smokers relapse within the first few days after a quit attempt. Nicotine withdrawal-induced craving and cognitive impairments predict smoking relapse during abstinence and suggest that cognitive-enhancing drugs may prevent relapse. ABT-089 and ABT-107 are subtype-selective nAChR agonists that improve cognitive performance in laboratory animals. However, there are no studies examining the effects of ABT-089 and ABT-107 on nicotine self-administration and the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior, an animal model of relapse in human smokers. The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of the α4β2*/α6β2* nAChR agonist ABT-089 and the α7 nAChR agonist ABT-107 on nicotine taking and seeking in rats. The effects of acute ABT-089 and ABT-107 pretreatment on nicotine self-administration and reinstatement were tested in male Sprague Dawley rats. Parallel studies of ABT-089 and ABT-107 on sucrose self-administration and reinstatement were tested in separate groups of rats to determine if the effects of these drug treatments generalized to other reinforced behaviors. Nicotine and sucrose self-administration behaviors were not altered following acute administration of ABT-089 (0, 0.12, 1.2 and 12.0 mg/kg) or ABT-107 (0, 0.03 and 0.3 mg/kg). In contrast, both ABT-089 and ABT-107 pretreatment dose-dependently attenuated nicotine reinstatement. These effects were reinforcer-specific as no effects of ABT-089 or ABT-107 pretreatment on sucrose seeking were noted. Taken together, these findings suggest that ABT-089 and ABT-107 do not affect nicotine consumption, but may reduce the likelihood that a smoking lapse will lead to relapse. PMID:25128791

  15. The Metabotropic Glutamate 2/3 Receptor Agonist LY379268 Blocked Nicotine-Induced Increases in Nucleus Accumbens Shell Dopamine only in the Presence of a Nicotine-Associated Context in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Manoranjan S; Liechti, Matthias E; Ramirez-Niño, Ana M; Kuczenski, Ronald; Markou, Athina

    2011-01-01

    The metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor agonist LY379268 ([−]-2-oxa-4-aminobicyclo [3.1.0] hexane-4,6-dicarboxylate) attenuates both nicotine self-administration and cue-induced nicotine seeking in rats. In this study, the effects of LY379268 (1 mg/kg) or saline pretreatment on nicotine-induced increases in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) shell dopamine were evaluated using in vivo microdialysis under different experimental conditions: (i) nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, base) was experimenter-administered subcutaneously to nicotine-naïve rats; (ii) nicotine was experimenter-administered either subcutaneously (0.4 mg/kg) or by a single experimenter-administered infusion (0.06 mg/kg, base) in rats with a history of nicotine self-administration (nicotine experienced) in the absence of a nicotine-associated context (ie, context and cues associated with nicotine self-administration); (iii) nicotine (0.06 mg/kg) was self-administered or experimenter-administered in nicotine-experienced rats in the presence of a nicotine-associated context. In saline-pretreated nicotine-naïve and nicotine-experienced rats, nicotine increased NAcc shell dopamine regardless of the context used for testing. Interestingly, LY379268 pretreatment blocked nicotine-induced increases in NAcc shell dopamine in nicotine-experienced rats only when tested in the presence of a nicotine-associated context. LY379268 did not block nicotine-induced increases in NAcc shell dopamine in nicotine-naïve or -experienced rats tested in the absence of a nicotine-associated context. These intriguing findings suggest that activation of mGlu2/3 receptors negatively modulates the combined effects of nicotine and nicotine-associated contexts/cues on NAcc dopamine. Thus, these data highlight a critical role for mGlu2/3 receptors in context/cue-induced drug-seeking behavior and suggest a neurochemical mechanism by which mGlu2/3 receptor agonists may promote smoking cessation by preventing relapse induced by the

  16. Engineered α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as models for measuring agonist binding and effect at the orthosteric low-affinity α4-α4 interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahring, Philip K; Olsen, Jeppe A; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Peters, Dan; Pedersen, Martin H F; Rohde, Line A; Kastrup, Jette S; Shahsavar, Azadeh; Indurthi, Dinesh C; Chebib, Mary; Gajhede, Michael; Balle, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4β2 is important for normal mammalian brain function and is known to express in two different stoichiometries, (α4)2(β2)3 and (α4)3(β2)2. While these are similar in many aspects, the (α4)3(β2)2 stoichiometry differs by harboring a third orthosteric acetylcholine binding site located at the α4-α4 interface. Interestingly, the third binding site has, so far, only been documented using electrophysiological assays, actual binding affinities of nicotinic receptor ligands to this site are not known. The present study was therefore aimed at determining binding affinities of nicotinic ligands to the α4-α4 interface. Given that epibatidine shows large functional potency differences at α4-β2 vs. α4-α4 interfaces, biphasic binding properties would be expected at (α4)3(β2)2 receptors. However, standard saturation binding experiments with [(3)H]epibatidine did not reveal biphasic binding under the conditions utilized. Therefore, an engineered β2 construct (β2(HQT)), which converts the β(-) face to resemble that of an α4(-) face, was utilized to create (α4)3(β2(HQT))2 receptors harboring three α4-α4 interfaces. With this receptor, low affinity binding of epibatidine with a Kd of ∼5 nM was observed in sharp contrast to a Kd value of ∼10 pM observed for wild-type receptors. A strong correlation between binding affinities at the (α4)3(β2(HQT))2 receptor and functional potencies at the wild-type receptor of a range of nicotinic ligands highlighted the validity of using the mutational approach. Finally, large differences in activities at α4-β2 vs. α4-α4 interfaces were observed for structurally related agonists underscoring the need for establishing all binding parameters of compounds at α4β2 receptors. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is involved in a direct inhibitory effect of nicotine on GnRH release: In vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messi, Elio; Pimpinelli, Federica; Andrè, Valentina; Rigobello, Chiara; Gotti, Cecilia; Maggi, Roberto

    2018-01-15

    The activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChR) inhibits the reproductive axis; however, it is not clear whether nicotine may directly modulate the release of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Experiments carried out in GT1-1 immortalized GnRH neurons reveal the presence of a single class of high affinity α4β2 and α7 nAchR subtypes. The exposure of GT1-1 cells to nicotine does not modify the basal accumulation of GnRH. However, nicotine was found to modify GnRH pulsatility in perifusion experiments and inhibits, the release of GnRH induced by prostaglandin E 1 or by K + -induced cell depolarization; these effects were reversed by D-tubocurarine and α-bungarotoxin. In conclusion, the results reported here indicate that: functional nAChRs are present on GT1-1 cells, the activation of the α-bungarotoxin-sensitive subclass (α7) produces an inhibitory effect on the release of GnRH and that the direct action of nicotine on GnRH neurons may be involved in reducing fertility of smokers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Repeated potentiation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 and the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulates behavioural and GABAergic deficits induced by early postnatal phencyclidine (PCP) treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerby, Celia; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Fejgin, Kim

    2013-01-01

    whether behavioural and GABAergic functional deficits induced by the NMDA receptor channel blocker, phencyclidine (PCP), could be reversed by repeated administration of two drugs known to enhance GABAergic transmission: the positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (m......GluR5), ADX47273, and the partial agonist of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR), SSR180711. Adolescent rats (4-5 weeks) subjected to PCP treatment during the second postnatal week displayed a consistent deficit in prepulse inhibition (PPI), which was reversed by a one-week treatment...... with ADX47273 and SSR180711 decreased the induction of spontaneous inhibitory current caused by acute and direct agonism of mGluR5s and α7 nAChRs in slices. These results show that repeated administration of ADX47273 or SSR180711 reverses certain behavioural and functional deficits induced by PCP, likely...

  19. Design, synthesis, and biological activity of 5'-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-3,3'-bipyridine analogues as potential antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yafei; Huang, Xiaoqin; Papke, Roger L; Jutkiewicz, Emily M; Showalter, Hollis D; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2017-09-15

    Starting from a known non-specific agonist (1) of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), rationally guided structural-based design resulted in the discovery of a small series of 5'-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-3,3'-bipyridines (3a-3e) incorporating a phenyl ring off the pyridine core of 1. The compounds were synthesized via successive Suzuki couplings on a suitably functionalized pyridine starting monomer 4 to append phenyl and pyridyl substituents off the 3- and 5-positions, respectively, and then subsequent modifications were made on the flanking pyridyl ring to provide target compounds. Compound 3a is a novel antagonist, which is highly selective for α3β4 nAChR (K i =123nM) over the α4β2 and α7 receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Design, synthesis, and pharmacological characterization of novel spirocyclic quinuclidinyl-Delta2 -isoxazoline derivatives as potent and selective agonists of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallanoce, Clelia; Magrone, Pietro; Matera, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    A set of racemic spirocyclic quinuclidinyl-¿(2) -isoxazoline derivatives was synthesized using a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition-based approach. Target compounds were assayed for binding affinity toward rat neuronal homomeric (a7) and heteromeric (a4ß2) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. ¿(2...... in electrophysiological experiments against human a7 and a4ß2 receptors stably expressed in cell lines, behaved as partial a7 agonists with varying levels of potency. The two enantiomers of (±)-3-methoxy-1-oxa-2,7-diaza-7,10-ethanospiro[4.5]dec-2-ene sesquifumarate 6¿a were prepared using (+)-dibenzoyl......-L- or (-)-dibenzoyl-D-tartaric acid as resolving agents. Enantiomer (R)-(-)-6¿a was found to be the eutomer, with K(i) values of 4.6 and 48.7 nM against rat and human a7 receptors, respectively....

  1. Solid-phase synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of analogues of PhTX-12-A potent and selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Mellor, Ian R; Andersen, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Philanthotoxin-12 (PhTX-12) is a novel potent and selective, noncompetitive antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Homologues of PhTX-12 with 7-11 methylene groups between the primary amino group and the aromatic head-group were synthesized using solid-phase methodology. In vitro...... electrophysiological studies of nAChR demonstrated that decreasing the number of methylene groups from 12 to 11 significantly increased potency. Antagonism by PhTX-11, like that of PhTX-12, was only weakly voltage-dependent. When the methylene spacer was reduced further, antagonism was decreased below that of PhTX-12......, and in some cases potentiation of ACh responses by up to 60% was observed....

  2. Decreased cerebral {alpha}4{beta}2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease assessed with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendziorra, Kai; Meyer, Philipp Mael; Barthel, Henryk; Hesse, Swen; Becker, Georg Alexander; Luthardt, Julia; Schildan, Andreas; Patt, Marianne; Sorger, Dietlind; Seese, Anita; Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Wolf, Henrike [University of Leipzig, Department of Psychiatry, Leipzig (Germany); University of Zurich, Department of Old Age Psychiatry and Psychiatry Research, Psychiatric University Hospital (PUK) Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Gertz, Herman-Josef [University of Leipzig, Department of Psychiatry, Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Postmortem studies indicate a loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to establish whether these changes in the cholinergic system occur at an early stage of AD, we carried out positron emission tomography (PET) with a specific radioligand for the {alpha}4{beta}2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}4{beta}2* nAChR) in patients with mild to moderate AD and in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), who have a high risk to progress to AD. Nine patients with moderate AD, eight patients with MCI and seven age-matched healthy controls underwent 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380) PET. After coregistration with individual magnetic resonance imaging the binding potential (BP{sub ND}) of 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 was calculated using either the corpus callosum or the cerebellum as reference regions. PET data were analysed by region of interest analysis and by voxel-based analysis. Both patients with AD and MCI showed a significant reduction in 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 BP{sub ND} in typical AD-affected brain regions. Thereby, the corpus callosum was identified as the most suitable reference region. The 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 BP{sub ND} correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment. Only MCI patients that converted to AD in the later course (n = 5) had a reduction in 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 BP{sub ND}. 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 PET appears to be a sensitive and feasible tool for the detection of a reduction in {alpha}4{beta}2* nAChRs which seems to be an early event in AD. In addition, 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 PET might give prognostic information about a conversion from MCI to AD. (orig.)

  3. In vivo pharmacological characterization of a novel selective alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist ABT-107: preclinical considerations in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitner, R Scott; Bunnelle, William H; Decker, Michael W; Drescher, Karla U; Kohlhaas, Kathy L; Markosyan, Stella; Marsh, Kennan C; Nikkel, Arthur L; Browman, Kaitlin; Radek, Rich; Anderson, David J; Buccafusco, Jerry; Gopalakrishnan, Murali

    2010-09-01

    We previously reported that alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonism produces efficacy in preclinical cognition models correlating with activation of cognitive and neuroprotective signaling pathways associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. In the present studies, the selective and potent alpha7 nAChR agonist 5-(6-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yloxy] pyridazin-3-yl)-1H-indole (ABT-107) was evaluated in behavioral assays representing distinct cognitive domains. Studies were also conducted to address potential issues that may be associated with the clinical development of an alpha7 nAChR agonist. Specifically, ABT-107 improved cognition in monkey delayed matching to sample, rat social recognition, and mouse two-trial inhibitory avoidance, and continued to improve cognitive performance at injection times when exposure levels continued to decline. Rats concurrently infused with ABT-107 and donepezil at steady-state levels consistent with clinical exposure showed improved short-term recognition memory. Compared with nicotine, ABT-107 did not produce behavioral sensitization in rats or exhibit psychomotor stimulant activity in mice. Repeated (3 days) daily dosing of ABT-107 increased extracellular cortical acetylcholine in rats, whereas acute administration increased cortical extracellular signal-regulated kinase and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation in mice, neurochemical and biochemical events germane to cognitive function. ABT-107 increased cortical phosphorylation of the inhibitory residue (Ser9) of glycogen synthase kinase-3, a primary tau kinase associated with AD pathology. In addition, continuous infusion of ABT-107 in tau/amyloid precursor protein transgenic AD mice reduced spinal tau hyperphosphorylation. These findings show that targeting alpha7 nAChRs may have potential utility for symptomatic alleviation and slowing of disease progression in the treatment AD, and expand the understanding of the potential

  4. Reduction in mRNA and protein expression of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α8 subunit is associated with resistance to imidacloprid in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixi; Wang, Xin; Yang, Baojun; Hu, Yuanyuan; Huang, Lixin; Bass, Chris; Liu, Zewen

    2015-11-01

    Target-site resistance is commonly caused by qualitative changes in insecticide target-receptors and few studies have implicated quantitative changes in insecticide targets in resistance. Here we show that resistance to imidacloprid in a selected strain of Nilaparvata lugens is associated with a reduction in expression levels of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit Nlα8. Synergism bioassays of the selected strain suggested resistance was conferred, in part, by a target-site mechanism. Sequencing of N. lugens nAChR subunit genes identified no mutations associated with resistance, however, a decrease in mRNA and protein levels of Nlα8 was observed during selection. RNA interference knockdown of Nlα8 decreased the sensitivity of N. lugens to imidacloprid, demonstrating that a decrease in Nlα8 expression is sufficient to confer resistance in vivo. Radioligand binding assays revealed that the affinity of the high-affinity imidacloprid-binding site of native nAChRs was reduced by selection, and reducing the amount of Nlα8 cRNA injected into Xenopus oocytes significantly decreased imidacloprid potency on recombinant receptors. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that a decrease in Nlα8 levels confers resistance to imidacloprid in N. lugens, and thus provides a rare example of target-site resistance associated with a quantitative rather than qualitative change. In insects, target-site mutations often cause high resistance to insecticides, such as neonicotinoids acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Here we found that a quantitative change in target-protein level, decrease in mRNA and protein levels of Nlα8, contributed importantly to imidacloprid resistance in Nilaparvata lugens. This finding provides a new target-site mechanism of insecticide resistance. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. The association between the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4 subunit gene (CHRNA4) rs1044396 and Internet gaming disorder in Korean male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jo-Eun; Rhee, Je-Keun; Kim, Tae-Min; Kwak, Su-Min; Bang, Sol-Hee; Cho, Hyun; Cheon, Young-Hoon; Min, Jung Ah; Yoo, Gil Sang; Kim, Kyudong; Choi, Jung-Seok; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the genetic predisposition of Internet gaming disorder (IGD), and the secondary aim was to compare the results to those of alcohol dependence (AD). Two independent case-control studies were conducted. A total of 30 male participants with IGD, diagnosed according to the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria, and 30 sex-matched controls participated in study 1. We designed targeted exome sequencing (TES) to test for 72 candidate genes that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of addiction. The genes included seven neurotransmitter (dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, r-aminobutyric acid (GABA), norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and opioid) system genes. A total of 31 male in-patients with AD and 29 normal male controls (NC) were enrolled in study 2. The same 72 genes included in study 1 and ten additional genes related to alcohol-metabolic enzyme were selected as the target genes, and we identified the genetic variants using the same method (TES). The IGD group had a lower frequency of the T allele of rs1044396 in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 subunit (CHRNA4), and this variant represents a protective allele against IGD. However, we did not find a significant difference in the polymorphisms of the 72 genes that encode neurotransmitter systems between the AD and NC groups. This study demonstrated that rs1044396 of CHRNA4 was significantly associated with IGD.

  6. Expression of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α4 and β2 Subunits on Direction-Selective Retinal Ganglion Cells in the Rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Seok; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Ahn, Chang-Hyun; Jeon, Chang-Jin

    2017-02-28

    The direction selectivity of the retina is a distinct mechanism that is critical function of eyes for survival. The direction-selective retinal ganglion cells (DS RGCs) strongly respond to a preferred direction, but rarely respond to opposite direction or null directional visual stimuli. The DS RGCs are sensitive to acetylcholine, which is secreted from starburst amacrine cells (SACs) to the DS RGCs. Here, we investigated the existence and distribution of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α4 and β2 subunits on the dendritic arbors of the DS RGCs in adult rabbit retina using immunocytochemistry. The DS RGCs were injected with Lucifer yellow to identify their dendritic morphology. The double-labeled images of dendrites and nAChR subunits were visualized for reconstruction using high-resolution confocal microscopy. Although our results revealed that the distributional pattern of the nAChR subunits on the dendritic arbors of the DS RGCs was not asymmetric in the adult rabbit retina, the distribution of nAChR α4 and β2 subunits and molecular profiles of cholinergic inputs to DS RGCs in adult rabbit retina provide anatomical evidence for direction selectivity.

  7. The association between the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4 subunit gene (CHRNA4 rs1044396 and Internet gaming disorder in Korean male adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo-Eun Jeong

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to investigate the genetic predisposition of Internet gaming disorder (IGD, and the secondary aim was to compare the results to those of alcohol dependence (AD. Two independent case-control studies were conducted. A total of 30 male participants with IGD, diagnosed according to the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 criteria, and 30 sex-matched controls participated in study 1. We designed targeted exome sequencing (TES to test for 72 candidate genes that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of addiction. The genes included seven neurotransmitter (dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, r-aminobutyric acid (GABA, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and opioid system genes. A total of 31 male in-patients with AD and 29 normal male controls (NC were enrolled in study 2. The same 72 genes included in study 1 and ten additional genes related to alcohol-metabolic enzyme were selected as the target genes, and we identified the genetic variants using the same method (TES. The IGD group had a lower frequency of the T allele of rs1044396 in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 subunit (CHRNA4, and this variant represents a protective allele against IGD. However, we did not find a significant difference in the polymorphisms of the 72 genes that encode neurotransmitter systems between the AD and NC groups. This study demonstrated that rs1044396 of CHRNA4 was significantly associated with IGD.

  8. Pharmacological and kinetic properties of alpha 4 beta 2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnet, P; Labarca, C; Cohen, B N; Davidson, N; Lester, H A; Pilar, G

    1992-01-01

    1. Co-injection of RNA synthesized from cloned neuronal acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits (alpha 4 and beta 2) in Xenopus oocytes produced functional receptors. In macroscopic voltage-clamp experiments, the agonist-induced current exhibited a strong inward rectification. 2. Voltage jumps from +50 mV to more negative potentials produced relaxations of the agonist-induced current with a single exponential time course. The relaxation rate constant was only weakly voltage dependent. 3. At the single-channel level, three conductances were recorded of 12, 22 and 34 pS. Their burst durations were similar and varied only weakly with voltage (e-fold for 120 to 370 mV), consistent with the poorly voltage-dependent relaxation rate constants. However, the burst durations were less than 10 ms, or less than 1/5 the value expected from voltage-jump relaxations. 4. Hexamethonium (Hex, 0.5 to 8 microM) inhibited the agonist-induced current and produced voltage-jump relaxations characterized by a rapid conductance increase and a slower conductance decrease. Analysis of these relaxations suggested that the Hex-receptor interaction is open-channel blockade characterized by a forward binding rate of 1 x 10(7) M-1 s-1 and a dissociation rate constant of about 25 s-1. 5. For the relaxations produced by QX222, the slowest phase was a conductance increase, suggesting that the dissociation rate constant for QX222 is 10-30-fold greater than for Hex. 6. Hex but not QX222 produced an additional use-dependent blockade that was manifest during repetitive hyperpolarizing pulses. 7. With mouse muscle ACh receptors expressed in oocytes, the blockade by Hex did not depend strongly on voltage. Neither Hex nor QX222 produced appreciable use-dependent block on muscle ACh receptors. 8. Of the four conditions studied (neuronal and muscle receptors, Hex and QX222), only the blockade of the neuronal AChR by Hex is characterized by a residence time longer than the normal open time. 9. It is concluded

  9. Structural and functional studies of the modulator NS9283 reveal agonist-like mechanism of action at α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jeppe A; Ahring, Philip K; Kastrup, Jette S; Gajhede, Michael; Balle, Thomas

    2014-09-05

    Modulation of Cys loop receptor ion channels is a proven drug discovery strategy, but many underlying mechanisms of the mode of action are poorly understood. We report the x-ray structure of the acetylcholine-binding protein from Lymnaea stagnalis with NS9283, a stoichiometry selective positive modulator that targets the α4-α4 interface of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Together with homology modeling, mutational data, quantum mechanical calculations, and pharmacological studies on α4β2 nAChRs, the structure reveals a modulator binding mode that overlaps the α4-α4 interface agonist (acetylcholine)-binding site. Analysis of contacts to residues known to govern agonist binding and function suggests that modulation occurs by an agonist-like mechanism. Selectivity for α4-α4 over α4-β2 interfaces is determined mainly by steric restrictions from Val-136 on the β2-subunit and favorable interactions between NS9283 and His-142 at the complementary side of α4. In the concentration ranges where modulation is observed, its selectivity prevents NS9283 from directly activating nAChRs because activation requires coordinated action from more than one interface. However, we demonstrate that in a mutant receptor with one natural and two engineered α4-α4 interfaces, NS9283 is an agonist. Modulation via extracellular binding sites is well known for benzodiazepines acting at γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. Like NS9283, benzodiazepines increase the apparent agonist potency with a minimal effect on efficacy. The shared modulatory profile along with a binding site located in an extracellular subunit interface suggest that modulation via an agonist-like mechanism may be a common mechanism of action that potentially could apply to Cys loop receptors beyond the α4β2 nAChRs. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Affinities of bispyridinium non-oxime compounds to [(3)H]epibatidine binding sites of Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptors depend on linker length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, K V; Seeger, T; Tattersall, J E H; Timperley, C M; Bird, M; Green, C; Thiermann, H; Worek, F

    2013-12-05

    The toxicity of organophosphorus nerve agents or pesticides arises from accumulation of acetylcholine and overstimulation of both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs) due to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Standard treatment by administration of atropine and oximes, e.g., obidoxime or pralidoxime, focuses on antagonism of mAChRs and reactivation of AChE, whereas nicotinic malfunction is not directly treated. An alternative approach would be to use nAChR active substances to counteract the effects of accumulated acetylcholine. Promising in vitro and in vivo results were obtained with the bispyridinium compounds SAD-128 (1,1'-oxydimethylene bis(4-tert-butylpyridinium) dichloride) and MB327 (1,1'-(propane-1,3-diyl)bis(4-tert-butylpyridinium) di(iodide)), which were partly attributed to their interaction with nAChRs. In this study, a homologous series of unsubstituted and 4-tert-butyl-substituted bispyridinium compounds with different alkane linker lengths was investigated in competition binding experiments using [(3)H]epibatidine as a reporter ligand. Additionally, the effect of the well-characterised MB327 on the [(3)H]epibatidine equilibrium dissociation (KD) constant in different buffers was determined. This study demonstrated that divalent cations increased the affinity of [(3)H]epibatidine. Since quaternary ammonium molecules are known to inhibit AChE, the obtained affinity constants of the tested bispyridinium compounds were compared with the inhibition of human AChE. In competition experiments, bispyridinium derivatives of longer linker length displaced [(3)H]epibatidine and inhibited AChE strongly. Bispyridinium compounds with short linkers, at most, have an allosteric interaction with the [(3)H]epibatidine binding sites and barely inhibited AChE. In dependence on alkane linker length, the bispyridinium compounds seemed to interact at different binding sites. However, the exact binding sites of the bispyridinium

  11. Curiouser and Curiouser: The Macrocyclic Lactone, Abamectin, Is also a Potent Inhibitor of Pyrantel/Tribendimidine Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors of Gastro-Intestinal Worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abongwa, Melanie; Buxton, Samuel K; Robertson, Alan P; Martin, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Nematode parasites may be controlled with drugs, but their regular application has given rise to concerns about the development of resistance. Drug combinations may be more effective than single drugs and delay the onset of resistance. A combination of the nicotinic antagonist, derquantel, and the macrocyclic lactone, abamectin, has been found to have synergistic anthelmintic effects against gastro-intestinal nematode parasites. We have observed in previous contraction and electrophysiological experiments that derquantel is a potent selective antagonist of nematode parasite muscle nicotinic receptors; and that abamectin is an inhibitor of the same nicotinic receptors. To explore these inhibitory effects further, we expressed muscle nicotinic receptors of the nodular worm, Oesophagostomum dentatum (Ode-UNC-29:Ode-UNC-63:Ode-UNC-38), in Xenopus oocytes under voltage-clamp and tested effects of abamectin on pyrantel and acetylcholine responses. The receptors were antagonized by 0.03 μM abamectin in a non-competitive manner (reduced Rmax, no change in EC50). This antagonism increased when abamectin was increased to 0.1 μM. However, when we increased the concentration of abamectin further to 0.3 μM, 1 μM or 10 μM, we found that the antagonism decreased and was less than with 0.1 μM abamectin. The bi-phasic effects of abamectin suggest that abamectin acts at two allosteric sites: one high affinity negative allosteric (NAM) site causing antagonism, and another lower affinity positive allosteric (PAM) site causing a reduction in antagonism. We also tested the effects of 0.1 μM derquantel alone and in combination with 0.3 μM abamectin. We found that derquantel on these receptors, like abamectin, acted as a non-competitive antagonist, and that the combination of derquantel and abamectin produced greater inhibition. These observations confirm the antagonistic effects of abamectin on nematode nicotinic receptors in addition to GluCl effects, and illustrate more complex

  12. Curiouser and Curiouser: The Macrocyclic Lactone, Abamectin, Is also a Potent Inhibitor of Pyrantel/Tribendimidine Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors of Gastro-Intestinal Worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Abongwa

    Full Text Available Nematode parasites may be controlled with drugs, but their regular application has given rise to concerns about the development of resistance. Drug combinations may be more effective than single drugs and delay the onset of resistance. A combination of the nicotinic antagonist, derquantel, and the macrocyclic lactone, abamectin, has been found to have synergistic anthelmintic effects against gastro-intestinal nematode parasites. We have observed in previous contraction and electrophysiological experiments that derquantel is a potent selective antagonist of nematode parasite muscle nicotinic receptors; and that abamectin is an inhibitor of the same nicotinic receptors. To explore these inhibitory effects further, we expressed muscle nicotinic receptors of the nodular worm, Oesophagostomum dentatum (Ode-UNC-29:Ode-UNC-63:Ode-UNC-38, in Xenopus oocytes under voltage-clamp and tested effects of abamectin on pyrantel and acetylcholine responses. The receptors were antagonized by 0.03 μM abamectin in a non-competitive manner (reduced Rmax, no change in EC50. This antagonism increased when abamectin was increased to 0.1 μM. However, when we increased the concentration of abamectin further to 0.3 μM, 1 μM or 10 μM, we found that the antagonism decreased and was less than with 0.1 μM abamectin. The bi-phasic effects of abamectin suggest that abamectin acts at two allosteric sites: one high affinity negative allosteric (NAM site causing antagonism, and another lower affinity positive allosteric (PAM site causing a reduction in antagonism. We also tested the effects of 0.1 μM derquantel alone and in combination with 0.3 μM abamectin. We found that derquantel on these receptors, like abamectin, acted as a non-competitive antagonist, and that the combination of derquantel and abamectin produced greater inhibition. These observations confirm the antagonistic effects of abamectin on nematode nicotinic receptors in addition to GluCl effects, and

  13. Use of Monoclonal Antibodies to Study the Structural Basis of the Function of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors on Electric Organ and Muscle and to Determine the Structure of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors on Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-30

    of chicken neurona .4receptor subunits. Sequences of al and a2 are from Net .Ot al. -l Sequences of a3 and a4 were determintl from clones described...Sucrose gradient analysis of neurona & nicotinic receptors was conducted as follows. Chicken ind rat brain receptors were extracted from crude

  14. PET imaging evaluation of [{sup 18}F]DBT-10, a novel radioligand specific to α{sub 7} nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, in nonhuman primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillmer, Ansel T.; Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Li, Songye; Lin, Shu-fei; Holden, Daniel; Labaree, David; Ropchan, Jim; Carson, Richard E.; Huang, Yiyun [Yale University, PET Center, 801 Howard Ave, PO Box 208048, New Haven, CT (United States); Scheunemann, Matthias; Teodoro, Rodrigo; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Brust, Peter [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research, Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands specific to α{sub 7} nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) afford in vivo imaging of this receptor for neuropathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and substance abuse. This work aims to characterize the kinetic properties of an α{sub 7}-nAChR-specific radioligand, 7-(1,4-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonan-4-yl)-2-[{sup 18}F]-fluorodibenzo[b,d]thiophene 5,5-dioxide ([{sup 18}F]DBT-10), in nonhuman primates. [{sup 18}F]DBT-10 was produced via nucleophilic substitution of the nitro-precursor. Four Macaca mulatta subjects were imaged with [{sup 18}F]DBT-10 PET, with measurement of [{sup 18}F]DBT-10 parent concentrations and metabolism in arterial plasma. Baseline PET scans were acquired for all subjects. Following one scan, ex vivo analysis of brain tissue was performed to inspect for radiolabeled metabolites in brain. Three blocking scans with 0.69 and 1.24 mg/kg of the α{sub 7}-nAChR-specific ligand ASEM were also acquired to assess dose-dependent blockade of [{sup 18}F]DBT-10 binding. Kinetic analysis of PET data was performed using the metabolite-corrected input function to calculate the parent fraction corrected total distribution volume (V{sub T}/f{sub P}). [{sup 18}F]DBT-10 was produced within 90 min at high specific activities of 428 ± 436 GBq/μmol at end of synthesis. Metabolism of [{sup 18}F]DBT-10 varied across subjects, stabilizing by 120 min post-injection at parent fractions of 15-55 %. Uptake of [{sup 18}F]DBT-10 in brain occurred rapidly, reaching peak standardized uptake values (SUVs) of 2.9-3.7 within 30 min. The plasma-free fraction was 18.8 ± 3.4 %. No evidence for radiolabeled [{sup 18}F]DBT-10 metabolites was found in ex vivo brain tissue samples. Kinetic analysis of PET data was best described by the two-tissue compartment model. Estimated V{sub T}/f{sub P} values were 193-376 ml/cm{sup 3} across regions, with regional rank order of thalamus > frontal cortex > striatum

  15. Detection of human neuronal α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by conjugates of snake α-neurotoxin with quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Ya V; Shelukhina, I V; Mukherjee, A K; Kuznetsov, D V; Tsetlin, V I; Utkin, Yu N

    2017-07-01

    Fluorescent derivatives are widely used to study the structure and functions of proteins. Quantum dots (QDs), fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals, have a high quantum yield and are much more resistant to bleaching compared to organic dyes. Conjugates of α-neurotoxins with QDs were used for visualization of human α7 acetylcholine receptors heterologously expressed in GH4C1 pituitary adenoma cells. Specific staining of cells by the conjugated toxins was observed.

  16. The Chemistry and Pharmacology of Anatoxin-a and Related Homotropanes with respect to Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Gallagher

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This chapter covers the chemistry and nicotinic pharmacology of naturally occurring homotropane alkaloids, with an emphasis of anatoxin-a. In addition to anatoxin-a, homoanatoxin and pinnamine, as well as the major classes of synthetic derivatives of anatoxin-a including UB-165, are discussed.

  17. Marine natural products acting on the acetylcholine-binding protein and nicotinic receptors: from computer modeling to binding studies and electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Denis; Makarieva, Tatyana; Utkina, Natalia; Santalova, Elena; Kryukova, Elena; Methfessel, Christoph; Tsetlin, Victor; Stonik, Valentin; Kasheverov, Igor

    2014-03-28

    For a small library of natural products from marine sponges and ascidians, in silico docking to the Lymnaea stagnalis acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP), a model for the ligand-binding domains of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), was carried out and the possibility of complex formation was revealed. It was further experimentally confirmed via competition with radioiodinated α-bungarotoxin ([¹²⁵I]-αBgt) for binding to AChBP of the majority of analyzed compounds. Alkaloids pibocin, varacin and makaluvamines С and G had relatively high affinities (K(i) 0.5-1.3 μM). With the muscle-type nAChR from Torpedo californica ray and human neuronal α7 nAChR, heterologously expressed in the GH4C1 cell line, no competition with [¹²⁵I]-αBgt was detected in four compounds, while the rest showed an inhibition. Makaluvamines (K(i) ~ 1.5 μM) were the most active compounds, but only makaluvamine G and crambescidine 359 revealed a weak selectivity towards muscle-type nAChR. Rhizochalin, aglycone of rhizochalin, pibocin, makaluvamine G, monanchocidin, crambescidine 359 and aaptamine showed inhibitory activities in electrophysiology experiments on the mouse muscle and human α7 nAChRs, expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Thus, our results confirm the utility of the modeling studies on AChBPs in a search for natural compounds with cholinergic activity and demonstrate the presence of the latter in the analyzed marine biological sources.

  18. Marine Natural Products Acting on the Acetylcholine-Binding Protein and Nicotinic Receptors: From Computer Modeling to Binding Studies and Electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Kudryavtsev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For a small library of natural products from marine sponges and ascidians, in silico docking to the Lymnaea stagnalis acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP, a model for the ligand-binding domains of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, was carried out and the possibility of complex formation was revealed. It was further experimentally confirmed via competition with radioiodinated α-bungarotoxin ([125I]-αBgt for binding to AChBP of the majority of analyzed compounds. Alkaloids pibocin, varacin and makaluvamines С and G had relatively high affinities (Ki 0.5–1.3 μM. With the muscle-type nAChR from Torpedo californica ray and human neuronal α7 nAChR, heterologously expressed in the GH4C1 cell line, no competition with [125I]-αBgt was detected in four compounds, while the rest showed an inhibition. Makaluvamines (Ki ~ 1.5 μM were the most active compounds, but only makaluvamine G and crambescidine 359 revealed a weak selectivity towards muscle-type nAChR. Rhizochalin, aglycone of rhizochalin, pibocin, makaluvamine G, monanchocidin, crambescidine 359 and aaptamine showed inhibitory activities in electrophysiology experiments on the mouse muscle and human α7 nAChRs, expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Thus, our results confirm the utility of the modeling studies on AChBPs in a search for natural compounds with cholinergic activity and demonstrate the presence of the latter in the analyzed marine biological sources.

  19. [(3)H]Epibatidine photolabels non-equivalent amino acids in the agonist binding site of Torpedo and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shouryadeep; Hamouda, Ayman K; Pandhare, Akash; Duddempudi, Phaneendra K; Sanghvi, Mitesh; Cohen, Jonathan B; Blanton, Michael P

    2009-09-11

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, such as epibatidine and its molecular derivatives, are potential therapeutic agents for a variety of neurological disorders. In order to identify determinants for subtype-selective agonist binding, it is important to determine whether an agonist binds in a common orientation in different nAChR subtypes. To compare the mode of binding of epibatidine in a muscle and a neuronal nAChR, we photolabeled Torpedo alpha(2)betagammadelta and expressed human alpha4beta2 nAChRs with [(3)H]epibatidine and identified by Edman degradation the photolabeled amino acids. Irradiation at 254 nm resulted in photolabeling of alphaTyr(198) in agonist binding site Segment C of the principal (+) face in both alpha subunits and of gammaLeu(109) and gammaTyr(117) in Segment E of the complementary (-) face, with no labeling detected in the delta subunit. For affinity-purified alpha4beta2 nAChRs, [(3)H]epibatidine photolabeled alpha4Tyr(195) (equivalent to Torpedo alphaTyr(190)) in Segment C as well as beta2Val(111) and beta2Ser(113) in Segment E (equivalent to Torpedo gammaLeu(109) and gammaTyr(111), respectively). Consideration of the location of the photolabeled amino acids in homology models of the nAChRs based upon the acetylcholine-binding protein structure and the results of ligand docking simulations suggests that epibatidine binds in a single preferred orientation within the alpha-gamma transmitter binding site, whereas it binds in two distinct orientations in the alpha4beta2 nAChR.

  20. [3H]Epibatidine Photolabels Non-equivalent Amino Acids in the Agonist Binding Site of Torpedo and α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shouryadeep; Hamouda, Ayman K.; Pandhare, Akash; Duddempudi, Phaneendra K.; Sanghvi, Mitesh; Cohen, Jonathan B.; Blanton, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, such as epibatidine and its molecular derivatives, are potential therapeutic agents for a variety of neurological disorders. In order to identify determinants for subtype-selective agonist binding, it is important to determine whether an agonist binds in a common orientation in different nAChR subtypes. To compare the mode of binding of epibatidine in a muscle and a neuronal nAChR, we photolabeled Torpedo α2βγδ and expressed human α4β2 nAChRs with [3H]epibatidine and identified by Edman degradation the photolabeled amino acids. Irradiation at 254 nm resulted in photolabeling of αTyr198 in agonist binding site Segment C of the principal (+) face in both α subunits and of γLeu109 and γTyr117 in Segment E of the complementary (−) face, with no labeling detected in the δ subunit. For affinity-purified α4β2 nAChRs, [3H]epibatidine photolabeled α4Tyr195 (equivalent to Torpedo αTyr190) in Segment C as well as β2Val111 and β2Ser113 in Segment E (equivalent to Torpedo γLeu109 and γTyr111, respectively). Consideration of the location of the photolabeled amino acids in homology models of the nAChRs based upon the acetylcholine-binding protein structure and the results of ligand docking simulations suggests that epibatidine binds in a single preferred orientation within the α-γ transmitter binding site, whereas it binds in two distinct orientations in the α4β2 nAChR. PMID:19620239

  1. Acetylcholine α7 nicotinic and dopamine D2 receptors are targeted to many of the same postsynaptic dendrites and astrocytes in the rodent prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Aine M; Fitzgerald, Megan L; Chan, June; Robinson, Danielle C; Milner, Teresa A; Mackie, Kenneth; Pickel, Virginia M

    2011-12-01

    The alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) and the dopamine D(2) receptor (D(2) R) are both implicated in attentional processes and cognition, mediated in part through the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We examined the dual electron microscopic immunolabeling of α7nAChR and either D(2) R or the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in rodent PFC to assess convergent functional activation sites. Immunoreactivity (ir) for α7nAChR and/or D(2) R was seen in the same as well as separate neuronal and glial profiles. At least half of the dually labeled profiles were somata and dendrites, while most labeled axon terminals expressed only D(2) R-ir. The D(2) R-labeled terminals were without synaptic specializations or formed inhibitory or excitatory-type synapses with somatodendritic profiles, some of which expressed the α7nAChR and/or D(2) R. Astrocytic glial processes comprised the majority of nonsomatodendritic α7nAChR or α7nAChR and D(2) R-labeled profiles. Glial processes containing α7nAChR-ir were frequently located near VAChT-labeled terminals and also showed perisynaptic and perivascular associations. We conclude that in rodent PFC α7nACh and D(2) R activation can dually modulate (1) postsynaptic dendritic responses within the same or separate but synaptically linked neurons in which the D(2) R has the predominately presynaptic distribution, and (2) astrocytic signaling that may be crucial for synaptic transmission and functional hyperemia. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Involvement of arterial baroreflex and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunit pathway in the protection of metformin against stroke in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin-Min; Zhang, Li; Niu, Xue-Cai; Shu, He; Wang, Lei; Su, Ding-Feng; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Ai-Jun; Zhu, De-Qiu; Xu, Jian-Jiang

    2017-03-05

    Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and disability worldwide. There is growing evidence that metformin (Met) has potent neuroprotective effects; however, its mechanisms remain unclear. We examined the role of the arterial baroreflex and cholinergic-α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) anti-inflammory pathway in the beneficial effects of Met against stroke. Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) were used to observe stroke development indicated by lifespan of SHRSP and the ischemic injury induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Sinoaortic denervation was used to inactivate the arterial baroreflex. MCAO were also performed in α7nAChR knockout (KO) mice. Briefly, Met increased the life span of SHRSP and reduced the infarct area induced by MCAO. Met also improved the function of arterial baroreflex. The beneficial effects of Met on stroke were markedly attenuated by blunting the arterial baroreflex. Met up-regulated the expression of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and α7nAChR, down-regulated the level of pro-inflammtory cytokines in serum and peri-infarct of ischemic brain. Arterial baroreflex dysfunction decreased the expression of VAchT and α7nAChR, showed upward tendency in the level of pro-inflammtory cytokines. Most importantly, arterial baroreflex dysfunction nearly abolished such effect of Met on cholinergic signaling. In addition, the α7nAChR KO mice also had significantly worse ischemic damage induced by MCAO, and neuroprotection of Met disappeared in α7nAChR KO mice. In conclusion, Met improved the arterial baroreflex function, and then enhancing cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in an α7nAChR-dependent manner, thereby effectively prevent ischemic induced brain injury and delayed stroke onset in SHRSP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy regulates the expression of specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in the human placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaalani, R., E-mail: rita.machaalani@sydney.edu.au [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia); Ghazavi, E. [Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Medical Sciences (Pharmacology), The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Hinton, T. [School of Medical Sciences (Pharmacology), The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Waters, K.A. [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia); Hennessy, A. [School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, NSW 2751 (Australia); Heart Research Institute, 7 Eliza St Newtown, NSW 2042 (Australia)

    2014-05-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, premature delivery, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Nicotine, a major pathogenic compound of cigarette smoke, binds to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). A total of 16 nAChR subunits have been identified in mammals (9 α, 4 β, and 1 δ, γ and ε subunits). The effect of cigarette smoking on the expression of these subunits in the placenta has not yet been determined, thus constituting the aim of this study. Using RT-qPCR and western blotting, this study investigated all 16 mammalian nAChR subunits in the normal healthy human placenta, and compared mRNA and protein expressions in the placentas from smokers (n = 8) to controls (n = 8). Our data show that all 16 subunit mRNAs are expressed in the normal, non-diseased human placenta and that the expression of α2, α3, α4, α9, β2 and β4 subunits is greater than the other subunits. For mRNA, cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased expression of the α9 subunit, and decreased expression of the δ subunit. At the protein level, expression of both α9 and δ was increased. Thus, cigarette smoking in pregnancy is sufficient to regulate nAChR subunits in the placenta, specifically α9 and δ subunits, and could contribute to the adverse effects of vasoconstriction and decreased re-epithelialisation (α9), and increased calcification and apoptosis (δ), seen in the placentas of smoking women. - Highlights: • All 16 mammalian nAChR subunits are expressed in the human placenta. • Cigarette smoking increases α9 mRNA and protein in the placenta. • Cigarette smoking decreases δ mRNA but increases δ protein in the placenta.

  4. Use of an α3-β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit concatamer to characterize ganglionic receptor subtypes with specific subunit composition reveals species-specific pharmacologic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Clare; Papke, Roger L.

    2012-01-01

    Drug development for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) is challenged by subtype diversity arising from variations in subunit composition. On-target activity for neuronal heteromeric receptors is typically associated with CNS receptors that contain α4 and other subunits, while off-target activity could be associated with ganglionic-type receptors containing α3β4 binding sites and other subunits, including β4, β2, α5, or α3 as a structural subunit in the pentamer. Additional interest in α3 β4 α5-containing receptors arises from genome-wide association studies linking these genes, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in α5 in particular, to lung cancer and heavy smoking. While α3 and β4 readily form receptors in expression system such as the Xenopus oocyte, since α5 is not required for function, simple co-expression approaches may under-represent α5-containing receptors. We used a concatamer of human α3 and β4 subunits to form ligand-binding domains, and show that we can force the insertions of alternative structural subunits into the functional pentamers. These α3β4 variants differ in sensitivity to ACh, nicotine, varenicline, and cytisine. Our data indicated lower efficacy for varenicline and cytisine than expected for β4-containing receptors, based on previous studies of rodent receptors. We confirm that these therapeutically important α4 receptor partial agonists may present different autonomic-based side-effect profiles in humans than will be seen in rodent models, with varenicline being more potent for human than rat receptors and cytisine less potent. Our initial characterizations failed to find functional effects of the α5 SNP. However, our data validate this approach for further investigations. PMID:22580377

  5. Association of Common Polymorphisms in the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Alpha4 Subunit Gene with an Electrophysiological Endophenotype in a Large Population-Based Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mobascher

    Full Text Available Variation in genes coding for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR subunits affect cognitive processes and may contribute to the genetic architecture of neuropsychiatric disorders. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the CHRNA4 gene that codes for the alpha4 subunit of alpha4/beta2-containing receptors have previously been implicated in aspects of (mostly visual attention and smoking-related behavioral measures. Here we investigated the effects of six synonymous but functional CHRNA4 exon 5 SNPs on the N100 event-related potential (ERP, an electrophysiological endophenotype elicited by a standard auditory oddball. A total of N = 1,705 subjects randomly selected from the general population were studied with electroencephalography (EEG as part of the German Multicenter Study on nicotine addiction. Two of the six variants, rs1044396 and neighboring rs1044397, were significantly associated with N100 amplitude. This effect was pronounced in females where we also observed an effect on reaction time. Sequencing of the complete exon 5 region in the population sample excluded the existence of additional/functional variants that may be responsible for the observed effects. This is the first large-scale population-based study investigation the effects of CHRNA4 SNPs on brain activity measures related to stimulus processing and attention. Our results provide further evidence that common synonymous CHRNA4 exon 5 SNPs affect cognitive processes and suggest that they also play a role in the auditory system. As N100 amplitude reduction is considered a schizophrenia-related endophenotype the SNPs studied here may also be associated with schizophrenia outcome measures.

  6. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy regulates the expression of specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in the human placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaalani, R.; Ghazavi, E.; Hinton, T.; Waters, K.A.; Hennessy, A.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, premature delivery, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Nicotine, a major pathogenic compound of cigarette smoke, binds to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). A total of 16 nAChR subunits have been identified in mammals (9 α, 4 β, and 1 δ, γ and ε subunits). The effect of cigarette smoking on the expression of these subunits in the placenta has not yet been determined, thus constituting the aim of this study. Using RT-qPCR and western blotting, this study investigated all 16 mammalian nAChR subunits in the normal healthy human placenta, and compared mRNA and protein expressions in the placentas from smokers (n = 8) to controls (n = 8). Our data show that all 16 subunit mRNAs are expressed in the normal, non-diseased human placenta and that the expression of α2, α3, α4, α9, β2 and β4 subunits is greater than the other subunits. For mRNA, cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased expression of the α9 subunit, and decreased expression of the δ subunit. At the protein level, expression of both α9 and δ was increased. Thus, cigarette smoking in pregnancy is sufficient to regulate nAChR subunits in the placenta, specifically α9 and δ subunits, and could contribute to the adverse effects of vasoconstriction and decreased re-epithelialisation (α9), and increased calcification and apoptosis (δ), seen in the placentas of smoking women. - Highlights: • All 16 mammalian nAChR subunits are expressed in the human placenta. • Cigarette smoking increases α9 mRNA and protein in the placenta. • Cigarette smoking decreases δ mRNA but increases δ protein in the placenta

  7. Human Secreted Ly-6/uPAR Related Protein-1 (SLURP-1) Is a Selective Allosteric Antagonist of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Kudryavtsev, Denis; Bychkov, Maxim L; Kulbatskii, Dmitrii S; Kasheverov, Igor E; Astapova, Maria V; Feofanov, Alexey V; Thomsen, Morten S; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Tsetlin, Victor I; Dolgikh, Dmitry A; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P

    2016-01-01

    SLURP-1 is a secreted toxin-like Ly-6/uPAR protein found in epithelium, sensory neurons and immune cells. Point mutations in the slurp-1 gene cause the autosomal inflammation skin disease Mal de Meleda. SLURP-1 is considered an autocrine/paracrine hormone that regulates growth and differentiation of keratinocytes and controls inflammation and malignant cell transformation. The majority of previous studies of SLURP-1 have been made using fusion constructs containing, in addition to the native protein, extra polypeptide sequences. Here we describe the activity and pharmacological profile of a recombinant analogue of human SLURP-1 (rSLURP-1) differing from the native protein only by one additional N-terminal Met residue. rSLURP-1 significantly inhibited proliferation (up to ~ 40%, EC50 ~ 4 nM) of human oral keratinocytes (Het-1A cells). Application of mecamylamine and atropine,--non-selective inhibitors of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, respectively, and anti-α7-nAChRs antibodies revealed α7 type nAChRs as an rSLURP-1 target in keratinocytes. Using affinity purification from human cortical extracts, we confirmed that rSLURP-1 binds selectively to the α7-nAChRs. Exposure of Xenopus oocytes expressing α7-nAChRs to rSLURP-1 caused a significant non-competitive inhibition of the response to acetylcholine (up to ~ 70%, IC50 ~ 1 μM). It was shown that rSLURP-1 binds to α7-nAChRs overexpressed in GH4Cl cells, but does not compete with 125I-α-bungarotoxin for binding to the receptor. These findings imply an allosteric antagonist-like mode of SLURP-1 interaction with α7-nAChRs outside the classical ligand-binding site. Contrary to rSLURP-1, other inhibitors of α7-nAChRs (mecamylamine, α-bungarotoxin and Lynx1) did not suppress the proliferation of keratinocytes. Moreover, the co-application of α-bungarotoxin with rSLURP-1 did not influence antiproliferative activity of the latter. This supports the hypothesis that

  8. Human Secreted Ly-6/uPAR Related Protein-1 (SLURP-1 Is a Selective Allosteric Antagonist of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina N Lyukmanova

    Full Text Available SLURP-1 is a secreted toxin-like Ly-6/uPAR protein found in epithelium, sensory neurons and immune cells. Point mutations in the slurp-1 gene cause the autosomal inflammation skin disease Mal de Meleda. SLURP-1 is considered an autocrine/paracrine hormone that regulates growth and differentiation of keratinocytes and controls inflammation and malignant cell transformation. The majority of previous studies of SLURP-1 have been made using fusion constructs containing, in addition to the native protein, extra polypeptide sequences. Here we describe the activity and pharmacological profile of a recombinant analogue of human SLURP-1 (rSLURP-1 differing from the native protein only by one additional N-terminal Met residue. rSLURP-1 significantly inhibited proliferation (up to ~ 40%, EC50 ~ 4 nM of human oral keratinocytes (Het-1A cells. Application of mecamylamine and atropine,--non-selective inhibitors of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, respectively, and anti-α7-nAChRs antibodies revealed α7 type nAChRs as an rSLURP-1 target in keratinocytes. Using affinity purification from human cortical extracts, we confirmed that rSLURP-1 binds selectively to the α7-nAChRs. Exposure of Xenopus oocytes expressing α7-nAChRs to rSLURP-1 caused a significant non-competitive inhibition of the response to acetylcholine (up to ~ 70%, IC50 ~ 1 μM. It was shown that rSLURP-1 binds to α7-nAChRs overexpressed in GH4Cl cells, but does not compete with 125I-α-bungarotoxin for binding to the receptor. These findings imply an allosteric antagonist-like mode of SLURP-1 interaction with α7-nAChRs outside the classical ligand-binding site. Contrary to rSLURP-1, other inhibitors of α7-nAChRs (mecamylamine, α-bungarotoxin and Lynx1 did not suppress the proliferation of keratinocytes. Moreover, the co-application of α-bungarotoxin with rSLURP-1 did not influence antiproliferative activity of the latter. This supports the

  9. In vitro pharmacological characterization of (+/-)-4-[2-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)ethyl]thio]phenol hydrochloride (SIB-1553A), a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Tadimeti S; Adams, Pamala B; Correa, Lucia D; Santori, Emily M; Sacaan, Aida I; Reid, Richard T; Suto, Carla M; Vernier, Jean Michel

    2003-08-15

    SIB-1553A ((+/-)-4-[2-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)ethyl]thio]phenol HCl) is a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ligand which displaced the binding of [3H]nicotine (NIC) to the rat brain nAChRs with an IC(50) value of 110 nM with no appreciable affinity to the alpha7 nAhRs. SIB-1553A showed modest affinity for histaminergic (H3) and serotonergic (5-HT1 and 5-HT2) receptors, and sigma binding sites. In calcium flux assays, SIB-1553A (0.1-5 microM), in contrast to nicotine, showed a greater selectivity for beta4-subunit containing recombinant hnAChRs (alpha2beta4, alpha3beta4 and alpha4beta4) vs. beta2-subunit containing nAChRs (alpha4beta2 and alpha3beta2) both in terms of efficacy and potency. While NIC (10-30 microM) and epibatidine (0.01-0.1 microM) fully activated human muscle-type AChRs expressed by RD cell line, SIB-1553A was virtually ineffective for up to >100 microM and elicited less than 10% of the response due to suberyldicholine. SIB-1553A (< or =30 microM) evoked [3H]DA release from striatum, olfactory tubercles and prefrontal cortex (PFC), and [3H]NE release from hippocampus and PFC, and this evoked release was sensitive to mecamylamine (MEC). SIB-1553A-evoked neurotransmitter release exhibited region- and transmitter-specific antagonism by dehydro-beta-erythroidine (DHbetaE). SIB-1553A was less efficacious than NIC at evoking [3H]NE from the rat hippocampus and antagonized NIC response upon co-application implying partial agonist properties. SIB-1553A did not evoke basal [3H]ACh release from the rat striatum or hippocampus, but attenuated NMDA-evoked [3H]ACh release from the rat striatum. SIB-1553A did not inhibit rat brain cholinesterase for up to 1 mM. Multiple receptor affinities and release of several neurotransmitters may underlie the cognitive-enhancing effects of SIB-1553A documented in rodent and primate models.

  10. Pharmacological profile of Ascaris suum ACR-16, a new homomeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptor widely distributed in Ascaris tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abongwa, Melanie; Buxton, Samuel K; Courtot, Elise; Charvet, Claude L; Neveu, Cédric; McCoy, Ciaran J; Verma, Saurabh; Robertson, Alan P; Martin, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    Control of nematode parasite infections relies largely on anthelmintic drugs, several of which act on nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs), and there are concerns about the development of resistance. There is an urgent need for development of new compounds to overcome resistance and novel anthelmintic drug targets. We describe the functional expression and pharmacological characterization of a homomeric nAChR, ACR-16, from a nematode parasite. Using RT-PCR, molecular cloning and two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology, we localized acr-16 mRNA in Ascaris suum (Asu) and then cloned and expressed acr-16 cRNA in Xenopus oocytes. Sensitivity of these receptors to cholinergic anthelmintics and a range of nicotinic agonists was tested. Amino acid sequence comparison with vertebrate nAChR subunits revealed ACR-16 to be most closely related to α7 receptors, but with some striking distinctions. acr-16 mRNA was recovered from Asu somatic muscle, pharynx, ovijector, head and intestine. In electrophysiological experiments, the existing cholinergic anthelmintic agonists (morantel, levamisole, methyridine, thenium, bephenium, tribendimidine and pyrantel) did not activate Asu-ACR-16 (except for a small response to oxantel). Other nAChR agonists: nicotine, ACh, cytisine, 3-bromocytisine and epibatidine, produced robust current responses which desensitized at a rate varying with the agonists. Unlike α7, Asu-ACR-16 was insensitive to α-bungarotoxin and did not respond to genistein or other α7 positive allosteric modulators. Asu-ACR-16 had lower calcium permeability than α7 receptors. We suggest that ACR-16 has diverse tissue-dependent functions in nematode parasites and is a suitable drug target for development of novel anthelmintic compounds. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Interaction of bispyridinium compounds with the orthosteric binding site of human α7 and Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, K V; Tattersall, J E H; Timperley, C M; Bird, M; Green, C; Seeger, T; Thiermann, H; Worek, F

    2011-09-25

    Standard treatment of poisoning by organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents with atropine and oximes lacks efficacy with different nerve agents. A direct pharmacologic intervention at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) was proposed as an alternative therapeutic approach and promising in vitro and in vivo results were obtained with the bispyridinium compound SAD-128. In addition, a number of SAD-128 analogues improved neuromuscular transmission of soman-poisoned diaphragms in vitro. We investigated the interaction of six of these SAD-128 analogues with the orthosteric binding site of the human α7 nAChR and Torpedo californica nAChR with a high-throughput assay using radioactive ligands. The determined affinity constants indicate a weak interaction of three test compounds (K(i) in the micromolar range) with both receptors, but no interaction could be recorded with the other three test compounds. The six SAD-128 analogues showed a low intrinsic inhibitory potency with human acetylcholinesterase (IC₅₀ > 400 μM). In conclusion, the results of the present study do not indicate a correlation between the affinity to the orthosteric binding site and the functional improvement of neuromuscular transmission and it is assumed that other mechanisms contribute to the therapeutic effect of the tested compounds. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. α7 and β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subunits Form Heteromeric Receptor Complexes that Are Expressed in the Human Cortex and Display Distinct Pharmacological Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Zwart, Ruud; Ursu, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The existence of α7β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) has recently been demonstrated in both the rodent and human brain. Since α7-containing nAChRs are promising drug targets for schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, it is critical to determine whether α7β2 nAChRs are present...... in the human brain, in which brain areas, and whether they differ functionally from α7 nAChR homomers. We used α-bungarotoxin to affinity purify α7-containing nAChRs from surgically excised human temporal cortex, and found that α7 subunits co-purify with β2 subunits, indicating the presence of α7β2 nACh......Rs in the human brain. We validated these results by demonstrating co-purification of β2 from wild-type, but not α7 or β2 knock-out mice. The pharmacology and kinetics of human α7β2 nAChRs differed significantly from that of α7 homomers in response to nAChR agonists when expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293...

  13. Radiosynthesis and preliminary evaluation of 5-[123/125I]iodo-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine: a radioligand for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horti, Andrew G.; Koren, Andrei O.; Lee, Kan Sam; Mukhin, Alexey G.; Vaupel, D. Bruce; Kimes, Alane S.; Stratton, Morgan; London, Edythe D.

    1999-01-01

    The radiochemical syntheses of 5-[ 125 I]iodo-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (5-[ 125 I]-iodo-A-85380, [ 125 I]1) and 5-[ 123 I]-iodo-A-85380, [ 123 I]1, were accomplished by radioiodination of 5-trimethylstannyl-3-((1-tert-butoxycarbonyl-2(S) -azetidinyl)methoxy)pyridine, 2, followed by acidic deprotection. Average radiochemical yields of [ 125 I]1 and [ 123 I]1 were 40-55%; and the average specific radioactivities were 1,700 and 7,000 mCi/μmol, respectively. Binding affinities of [ 125 I]1 and [ 123 I]1 in vitro (rat brain membranes) were each characterized by a K d value of 11 pM. Preliminary in vivo assay and ex vivo autoradiography of mouse brain indicated that [ 125 I]1 selectively labels nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with very high affinity and specificity. These studies suggest that [ 123 I]1 may be useful as a radioligand for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of nAChRs

  14. Radiosynthesis and preliminary evaluation of 5-[{sup 123/125}I]iodo-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine: a radioligand for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horti, Andrew G.; Koren, Andrei O.; Lee, Kan Sam; Mukhin, Alexey G.; Vaupel, D. Bruce; Kimes, Alane S.; Stratton, Morgan; London, Edythe D. E-mail: elondon@intra.nida.nih.gov

    1999-02-01

    The radiochemical syntheses of 5-[{sup 125}I]iodo-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (5-[{sup 125}I]-iodo-A-85380, [{sup 125}I]1) and 5-[{sup 123}I]-iodo-A-85380, [{sup 123}I]1, were accomplished by radioiodination of 5-trimethylstannyl-3-((1-tert-butoxycarbonyl-2(S) -azetidinyl)methoxy)pyridine, 2, followed by acidic deprotection. Average radiochemical yields of [{sup 125}I]1 and [{sup 123}I]1 were 40-55%; and the average specific radioactivities were 1,700 and 7,000 mCi/{mu}mol, respectively. Binding affinities of [{sup 125}I]1 and [{sup 123}I]1 in vitro (rat brain membranes) were each characterized by a K{sub d} value of 11 pM. Preliminary in vivo assay and ex vivo autoradiography of mouse brain indicated that [{sup 125}I]1 selectively labels nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with very high affinity and specificity. These studies suggest that [{sup 123}I]1 may be useful as a radioligand for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of nAChRs.

  15. A combined α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist and monoamine reuptake inhibitor, NS9775, represents a novel profile with potential benefits in emotional and cognitive disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper T; Redrobe, John P; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø

    2013-01-01

    also improve by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activation. Preclinical studies have corroborated this and also demonstrated a synergistic antidepressant-like action when nAChR agonists and MRIs are combined. Here, we present the in vitro and in vivo profile of NS9775, a combined full α7 nAChR......-induced deficits in a modified Y-maze and MK-801-induced learning deficits in 5-trial inhibitory avoidance. Swim distance in the forced swim test was increased by 30 mg/kg NS9775, and 10 and 30 mg/kg NS9775 reduced digging behaviour in the marble burying paradigm and increased the number of punished crossings...... in the four plate test. This pro-cognitive, antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effect of NS9775 suggests that combining α7 nAChR agonism and triple monoamine reuptake inhibition could be a step in the evolution of pharmacological treatments of affective and/or cognitive disturbances....

  16. Molecular modeling of sulfoxaflor and neonicotinoid binding in insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: impact of the Myzus β1 R81T mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nick X; Watson, Gerald B; Loso, Michael R; Sparks, Thomas C

    2016-08-01

    Sulfoxaflor (Isoclast™ active), a new sulfoximine-class insecticide, targets sap-feeding insect pests, including those resistant to neonicotinoids. Sulfoxaflor acts on the insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in a distinct manner relative to neonicotinoids. Unlike any of the neonicotinoids, sulfoxaflor has four stereoisomers. A homology model of Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) based on the ACh binding protein from Aplysia californica, overlaid with M. persicae nAChR sequence (α2 and β1 subunits) was used to investigate the interactions of the sulfoxaflor stereoisomers with WT and R81T versions of the nAChR. Whole-molecule van der Waals interactions are highly correlated with the binding affinity for the neonicotinoids and correctly predict the rank order of binding affinity for neonicotinoids and sulfoxaflor. The R81T mutation in M. persicae nAChR is predicted to have much less effect on binding of sulfoxaflor's stereoisomers than that of the neonicotinoids. All four stereoisomers predictably contribute to the activity of sulfoxaflor. The WT and R81T nAChR homology models suggest that changes in a whole-molecule electrostatic energy component can potentially explain the effects of this target-site mutation on the pattern of reduced efficacy for the modeled neonicotinoids, and provide a basis for the reduced effect of this mutation on sulfoxaflor. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effects of Lipid-Analog Detergent Solubilization on the Functionality and Lipidic Cubic Phase Mobility of the Torpedo californica Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Morales, Luis F.; Morales-Pérez, Claudio L.; De La Cruz-Rivera, Pamela C.; Asmar-Rovira, Guillermo; Báez-Pagán, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been one of the most extensively studied membrane protein systems. However, the effects of detergent solubilization on nAChR stability and function are poorly understood. The use of lipid-analog detergents for nAChR solubilization has been shown to preserve receptor stability and functionality. The present study used lipid-analog detergents from phospholipid-analog and cholesterol-analog detergent families for solubilization and affinity purification of the receptor and probed nAChR ion channel function using planar lipid bilayers (PLBs) and stability using analytical size exclusion chromatography (A-SEC) in the detergent-solubilized state. We also examined receptor mobility on the lipidic cubic phase (LCP) by measuring the nAChR mobile fraction and diffusion coefficient through fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments using lipid-analog and non-lipid-analog detergents. Our results show that it is possible to isolate stable and functional nAChRs using lipid-analog detergents, with characteristic ion channel currents in PLBs and minimal aggregation as observed in A-SEC. Furthermore, fractional mobility and diffusion coefficient values observed in FRAP experiments were similar to the values observed for these parameters in the recently LCP-crystallized β2-adrenergic receptor. The overall results show that phospholipid-analog detergents with 16 carbon acyl-chains support nAChR stability, functionality and LCP mobility. PMID:21922299

  18. Structural Analysis and Deletion Mutagenesis Define Regions of QUIVER/SLEEPLESS that Are Responsible for Interactions with Shaker-Type Potassium Channels and Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilin Wu

    Full Text Available Ly6 proteins are endogenous prototoxins found in most animals. They show striking structural and functional parallels to snake α-neurotoxins, including regulation of ion channels and cholinergic signaling. However, the structural contributions of Ly6 proteins to regulation of effector molecules is poorly understood. This question is particularly relevant to the Ly6 protein QUIVER/SLEEPLESS (QVR/SSS, which has previously been shown to suppress excitability and synaptic transmission by upregulating potassium (K channels and downregulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs in wake-promoting neurons to facilitate sleep in Drosophila. Using deletion mutagenesis, co-immunoprecipitations, ion flux assays, surface labeling and confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that only loop 2 is required for many of the previously described properties of SSS in transfected cells, including interactions with K channels and nAChRs. Collectively our data suggest that QVR/SSS, and by extension perhaps other Ly6 proteins, target effector molecules using limited protein motifs. Mapping these motifs may be useful in rational design of drugs that mimic or suppress Ly6-effector interactions to modulate nervous system function.

  19. Structural Analysis and Deletion Mutagenesis Define Regions of QUIVER/SLEEPLESS that Are Responsible for Interactions with Shaker-Type Potassium Channels and Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meilin; Liu, Clifford Z; Joiner, William J

    2016-01-01

    Ly6 proteins are endogenous prototoxins found in most animals. They show striking structural and functional parallels to snake α-neurotoxins, including regulation of ion channels and cholinergic signaling. However, the structural contributions of Ly6 proteins to regulation of effector molecules is poorly understood. This question is particularly relevant to the Ly6 protein QUIVER/SLEEPLESS (QVR/SSS), which has previously been shown to suppress excitability and synaptic transmission by upregulating potassium (K) channels and downregulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in wake-promoting neurons to facilitate sleep in Drosophila. Using deletion mutagenesis, co-immunoprecipitations, ion flux assays, surface labeling and confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that only loop 2 is required for many of the previously described properties of SSS in transfected cells, including interactions with K channels and nAChRs. Collectively our data suggest that QVR/SSS, and by extension perhaps other Ly6 proteins, target effector molecules using limited protein motifs. Mapping these motifs may be useful in rational design of drugs that mimic or suppress Ly6-effector interactions to modulate nervous system function.

  20. Poly(ethylene glycol as a scaffold for high-affinity open-channel blockers of the mouse nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Chen Lin

    Full Text Available High-affinity blockers for an ion channel often have complex molecular structures that are synthetically challenging and/or laborious. Here we show that high-affinity blockers for the mouse nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR can be prepared from a structurally simple material, poly(ethylene glycol (PEG. The PEG-based blockers (PQ1-5, comprised of a flexible octa(ethylene glycol scaffold and two terminal quaternary ammonium groups, exert low- to sub-micromolar affinities for the open AChR pore (measured via single-channel analysis of AChRs expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. PQ1-5 are comparable in pore-binding affinity to the strongest AChR open-channel blockers previously reported, which have complex molecular structures. These results suggest a general approach for designing potent open-channel blockers from a structurally flexible polymer. This design strategy involves simple synthetic procedures and does not require detailed information about the structure of an ion-channel pore.

  1. Involvement of stimulation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the suppressive effect of tropisetron on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaka, Yuichi; Yasunaga, Daiki; Kiyoi, Takeshi; Tanaka, Mamoru; Tanaka, Akihiro; Suemaru, Katsuya; Araki, Hiroaki

    2015-03-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) involves chronic inflammation of the large intestine. Several agents are used to treat UC, but adverse side effects are remaining problems. We examined the effect of tropisetron as a new type of drug for UC using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced model of colitis in mice. We developed a DSS-induced model of colitis and calculated the Disease Activity Index and colon length. We measured myeloperoxidase activity and determined the protein level and mRNA level of cytokines in the colon. DSS-induced colitis was ameliorated by administration of tropisetron and PNU282987. Pre-administration of methyllycaconitine diminished the suppressive effect of tropisetron upon DSS-induced colitis. These findings suggested that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs) were related to the suppressive effect of tropisetron on DSS-induced colitis. Additionally, stimulation of α7 nAChRs decreased the colon level of interleukin-6 and interferon-γ upon DSS administration. Furthermore, stimulation of α7 nAChRs decreased macrophage infiltration, with expression of α7 nAChR increased by DSS administration. These results suggest that the underlying mechanism of this suppressive effect on DSS-induced colitis is via stimulation of α7 nAChRs and involves suppression of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Tropisetron could be a new type of therapeutic agent for UC. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Stoichiometry for α-bungarotoxin block of α7 acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacosta, Corrie J. B.; Free, Chris R.; Sine, Steven M.

    2015-08-01

    α-Bungarotoxin (α-Btx) binds to the five agonist binding sites on the homopentameric α7-acetylcholine receptor, yet the number of bound α-Btx molecules required to prevent agonist-induced channel opening remains unknown. To determine the stoichiometry for α-Btx blockade, we generate receptors comprised of wild-type and α-Btx-resistant subunits, tag one of the subunit types with conductance mutations to report subunit stoichiometry, and following incubation with α-Btx, monitor opening of individual receptor channels with defined subunit stoichiometry. We find that a single α-Btx-sensitive subunit confers nearly maximal suppression of channel opening, despite four binding sites remaining unoccupied by α-Btx and accessible to the agonist. Given structural evidence that α-Btx locks the agonist binding site in an inactive conformation, we conclude that the dominant mechanism of antagonism is non-competitive, originating from conformational arrest of the binding sites, and that the five α7 subunits are interdependent and maintain conformational symmetry in the open channel state.

  3. Positive allosteric modulator of alpha 7 nicotinic-acetylcholine receptors, PNU-120596 augments the effects of donepezil on learning and memory in aged rodents and non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Patrick M.; Hutchings, Elizabeth J.; Kille, Nancy J.; Chapman, James M.; Terry, Alvin V.

    2012-01-01

    The development of novel therapeutic agents for disorders of cognition such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is of paramount importance given the ever-increasing elderly population, however; there is also considerable interest in any strategy that might enhance the clinical efficacy of currently available treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an adjunctive treatment strategy to memory enhancement, namely combining the commonly prescribed acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) donepezil, with a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of α7 nicotinic-acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs), PNU-120596. The treatment strategy was evaluated in a (non-spatial) spontaneous novel object recognition (NOR) task in young rats; a water maze spatial learning and recall procedure in aged, cognitively-impaired rats, and a delayed match to sample (working/short term memory) task in aged rhesus monkeys. In all three experiments a similar drug response was observed, namely that donepezil administered alone improved task performance in a dose-dependent manner; that PNU-120596 administered alone was without significant effect, but that the combination of PNU-120596 with a subthreshold dose of donepezil was effective. The positive effect of the drug combination appeared to be α7-nAChR mediated given that it was blocked in the NOR task by the selective α7-nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA). Collectively, these data indicate that PNU-120596 increases the effective dose range of donepezil in learning/memory-related tasks in young and age-impaired animal models. The results suggest that α7-nAChR-selective PAMs like PNU-120596 have potential as adjunctive treatments with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (e.g., donepezil) for age-related illnesses such as AD as well memory disorders not necessarily associated with advanced age. PMID:23168113

  4. Positive allosteric modulator of α7 nicotinic-acetylcholine receptors, PNU-120596 augments the effects of donepezil on learning and memory in aged rodents and non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Patrick M; Hutchings, Elizabeth J; Kille, Nancy J; Chapman, James M; Terry, Alvin V

    2013-04-01

    The development of novel therapeutic agents for disorders of cognition such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) is of paramount importance given the ever-increasing elderly population, however; there is also considerable interest in any strategy that might enhance the clinical efficacy of currently available treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an adjunctive treatment strategy to memory enhancement, namely combining the commonly prescribed acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) donepezil, with a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of α7 nicotinic-acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs), PNU-120596. The treatment strategy was evaluated in a (non-spatial) spontaneous novel object recognition (NOR) task in young rats; a water maze spatial learning and recall procedure in aged, cognitively-impaired rats, and a delayed match to sample (working/short term memory) task in aged rhesus monkeys. In all three experiments a similar drug response was observed, namely that donepezil administered alone improved task performance in a dose-dependent manner; that PNU-120596 administered alone was without significant effect, but that the combination of PNU-120596 with a subthreshold dose of donepezil was effective. The positive effect of the drug combination appeared to be α7-nAChR mediated given that it was blocked in the NOR task by the selective α7-nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA). Collectively, these data indicate that PNU-120596 increases the effective dose range of donepezil in learning/memory-related tasks in young and age-impaired animal models. The results suggest that α7-nAChR-selective PAMs like PNU-120596 have potential as adjunctive treatments with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (e.g., donepezil) for age-related illnesses such as AD as well memory disorders not necessarily associated with advanced age. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nicotine Blocks Brain Estrogen Synthase (Aromatase): In Vivo Positron Emission Tomography Studies in Female Baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biegon, A.; Biegon, A.; Kim, S.-W.; Logan, J.; Hooker, J.M.; Muench, L.; Fowler, J.S.

    2010-01-12

    Cigarette smoking and nicotine have complex effects on human physiology and behavior, including some effects similar to those elicited by inhibition of aromatase, the last enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis. We report the first in vivo primate study to determine whether there is a direct effect of nicotine administration on brain aromatase. Brain aromatase availability was examined with positron emission tomography and the selective aromatase inhibitor [{sup 11}C]vorozole in six baboons before and after exposure to IV nicotine at .015 and .03 mg/kg. Nicotine administration produced significant, dose-dependent reductions in [{sup 11}C]vorozole binding. The amygdala and preoptic area showed the largest reductions. Plasma levels of nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine were similar to those found in cigarette smokers. Nicotine interacts in vivo with primate brain aromatase in regions involved in mood, aggression, and sexual behavior.

  6. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits {alpha}7 and {beta}2 in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) brainstem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaalani, Rita, E-mail: rita.machaalani@sydney.edu.au [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia); Say, Meichien [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Waters, Karen A. [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    It is postulated that nicotine, as the main neurotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke, influences SIDS risk through effects on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal. This study compared {alpha}7 and {beta}2 nAChR subunit expression in eight nuclei of the caudal and rostral medulla and seven nuclei of the pons between SIDS (n = 46) and non-SIDS infants (n = 14). Evaluation for associations with known SIDS risk factors included comparison according to whether infants had a history of exposure to cigarette smoke in the home, and stratification for sleep position and gender. Compared to non-SIDS infants, SIDS infants had significantly decreased {alpha}7 in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS), gracile and cuneate nuclei, with decreased {beta}2 in the cNTS and increased {beta}2 in the facial. When considering only the SIDS cohort: 1-cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased {alpha}7 in the vestibular nucleus and increased {beta}2 in the rostral dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, rNTS and Cuneate, 2-there was a gender interaction for {alpha}7 in the gracile and cuneate, and {beta}2 in the cNTS and rostral arcuate nucleus, and 3-there was no effect of sleep position on {alpha}7, but prone sleep was associated with decreased {beta}2 in three nuclei of the pons. In conclusion, SIDS infants demonstrate differences in expression of {alpha}7 and {beta}2 nAChRs within brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal, which is independent on prior history of cigarette smoke exposure, especially for the NTS, with additional differences for smoke exposure ({beta}2), gender ({alpha}7 and {beta}2) and sleep position ({beta}2) evident. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 'normal' response to smoke exposure is decreased {alpha}7 and {beta}2 in certain nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIDS infants have decreased {alpha}7 in cNTS, Grac and Cun. Black

  7. Transmembrane potential polarization, calcium influx, and receptor conformational state modulate the sensitivity of the imidacloprid-insensitive neuronal insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor to neonicotinoid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodereau-Dubois, Béatrice; List, Olivier; Calas-List, Delphine; Marques, Olivier; Communal, Pierre-Yves; Thany, Steeve H; Lapied, Bruno

    2012-05-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides act selectively on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Recent studies revealed that their efficiency was altered by the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation process and the intracellular signaling pathway involved in the regulation of nAChRs. Using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology adapted for dissociated cockroach dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons, we demonstrated that intracellular factors involved in the regulation of nAChR function modulated neonicotinoid sensitivity. DUM neurons were known to express two α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR subtypes: nAChR1 and nAChR2. Whereas nAChR1 was sensitive to imidacloprid, nAChR2 was insensitive to this insecticide. Here, we demonstrated that, like nicotine, acetamiprid and clothianidin, other types of neonicotinoid insecticides, acted as agonists on the nAChR2 subtype. Using acetamiprid, we revealed that both steady-state depolarization and hyperpolarization affected nAChR2 sensitivity. The measurement of the input membrane resistance indicated that change in the acetamiprid-induced agonist activity was related to the receptor conformational state. Using cadmium chloride, ω-conotoxin GVIA, and (R,S)-(3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-isoquinoline-1-yl)-2-phenyl-N,N-di-acetamide (LOE 908), we found that inhibition of calcium influx through high voltage-activated calcium channels and transient receptor potential γ (TRPγ) activated by both depolarization and hyperpolarization increased nAChR2 sensitivity to acetamiprid. Finally, using N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide hydrochloride (W7), forskolin, and cAMP, we demonstrated that adenylyl cyclase sensitive to the calcium/calmodulin complex regulated internal cAMP concentration, which in turn modulated TRPγ function and nAChR2 sensitivity to acetamiprid. Similar TRPγ-induced modulatory effects were also obtained when clothianidin was tested. These findings bring insights into the signaling pathway modulating

  8. Radiosynthesis of (S)-[18F]T1: The first PET radioligand for molecular imaging of α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarasamkan, Jiradanai; Fischer, Steffen; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Ludwig, Friedrich-Alexander; Scheunemann, Matthias; Arunrungvichian, Kuntarat; Vajragupta, Opa; Brust, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Recent pharmacologic data revealed the implication of α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in nicotine and drug addiction. To image α3β4 nAChRs in vivo, we aimed to establish the synthesis of a [ 18 F]-labelled analog of the highly affine and selective α3β4 ligand (S)-3-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)quinuclidine ((S)-T1). (S)-[ 18 F]T1 was synthesized from ethynyl-4-[ 18 F]fluorobenzene ([ 18 F]5) and (S)-azidoquinuclidine by click reaction. After a synthesis time of 130 min (S)-[ 18 F]T1 was obtained with a radiochemical yield (non-decay corrected) of 4.3±1.3%, a radiochemical purity of >99% and a molar activity of >158 GBq/μmol. The brain uptake and the brain-to-blood ratio of (S)-[ 18 F]T1 in mice at 30 min post injection were 2.02 (SUV) and 6.1, respectively. According to an ex-vivo analysis, the tracer remained intact (>99%) in brain. Only one major radiometabolite was detected in plasma and urine samples. In-vitro autoradiography on pig brain slices revealed binding of (S)-[ 18 F]T1 to brain regions associated with the expression of α3β4 nAChRs, which could be reduced by the α3β4 nAChR selective drug AT-1001. These findings make (S)-[ 18 F]T1 a potential tool for the non-invasive imaging of α3β4 nAChRs in the brain by PET. - Highlights: • (S)-[ 18 F]T1 is a promising α3ß4 nAChR ligand for PET imaging. • The novel radioligand (S)-[ 18 F]T1 was synthesized by click reaction. • The potential of (S)-[ 18 F]T1 was shown by in vitro autoradiography and in vivo evaluation in mice.

  9. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits α7 and β2 in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) brainstem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaalani, Rita; Say, Meichien; Waters, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    It is postulated that nicotine, as the main neurotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke, influences SIDS risk through effects on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal. This study compared α7 and β2 nAChR subunit expression in eight nuclei of the caudal and rostral medulla and seven nuclei of the pons between SIDS (n = 46) and non-SIDS infants (n = 14). Evaluation for associations with known SIDS risk factors included comparison according to whether infants had a history of exposure to cigarette smoke in the home, and stratification for sleep position and gender. Compared to non-SIDS infants, SIDS infants had significantly decreased α7 in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS), gracile and cuneate nuclei, with decreased β2 in the cNTS and increased β2 in the facial. When considering only the SIDS cohort: 1—cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased α7 in the vestibular nucleus and increased β2 in the rostral dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, rNTS and Cuneate, 2—there was a gender interaction for α7 in the gracile and cuneate, and β2 in the cNTS and rostral arcuate nucleus, and 3—there was no effect of sleep position on α7, but prone sleep was associated with decreased β2 in three nuclei of the pons. In conclusion, SIDS infants demonstrate differences in expression of α7 and β2 nAChRs within brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal, which is independent on prior history of cigarette smoke exposure, especially for the NTS, with additional differences for smoke exposure (β2), gender (α7 and β2) and sleep position (β2) evident. -- Highlights: ► The ‘normal’ response to smoke exposure is decreased α7 and β2 in certain nuclei. ► SIDS infants have decreased α7 in cNTS, Grac and Cun. ► SIDS infants have decreased β2 in cNTS and increased β2 in facial. ► The NTS is more sensitive to both α7 and β2 regulation in SIDS. ► Smoke exposure

  10. Baroreflex deficiency hampers angiogenesis after myocardial infarction via acetylcholine-α7-nicotinic ACh receptor in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian-Guang; Song, Shu-Wei; Shu, He; Fan, Sai-Jun; Liu, Ai-Jun; Liu, Chong; Guo, Wei; Guo, Jin-Min; Miao, Chao-Yu; Su, Ding-Feng

    2013-08-01

    Angiogenesis is critical for re-establishing blood supply to ischaemic myocardium after myocardial infarction (MI). Human studies have associated arterial baroreflex (ABR) deficiency with higher rate of sudden death after MI. The present work was designed to examine whether ABR deficiency affects angiogenesis in MI rats. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was determined in conscious rats at 1 month after occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The survival time was significantly shorter in Sprague-Dawley rats with BRS ACh) transporter and α7-nicotinic ACh receptor (α7-nAChR). Angiogenesis after MI was significantly attenuated in α7-nAChR knockout mice. In contrast, increase in endogenous ACh with cholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine (30 mg/kg/day) increased angiogenesis after MI. In cultured cardiac microvascular endothelial cells, ACh stimulated the expression of VEGF, phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2, and tube formation in a manner dependent upon α7-nAChR. Our results demonstrated that ABR deficiency could attenuate angiogenesis in ischaemic myocardium. These findings provide further mechanistic basis for enhancing baroreflex function in the treatment of MI.

  11. The p38 mitogen activated protein kinase regulates β-amyloid protein internalization through the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kai-Ge; Lv, Jia; Yang, Wei-Na; Chang, Ke-Wei; Hu, Xiao-Dan; Shi, Li-Li; Zhai, Wan-Ying; Zong, Hang-Fan; Qian, Yi-Hua

    2018-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most devastating neurodegenerative disorders. Intracellular β-amyloid protein (Aβ) is an early event in AD. It induces the formation of amyloid plaques and neuron damage. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) has been suggested to play an important role in Aβ caused cognition. It has high affinity with Aβ and could mediate Aβ internalization in vitro. However, whether in mouse brain the p38 MAPK signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of the α7nAChR mediated Aβ internalization and their role in mitochondria remains little known. Therefore, in this study, we revealed that Aβ is internalized by cholinergic and GABAergic neurons. The internalized Aβ were found deposits in lysosomes/endosomes and mitochondria. Aβ could form Aβ-α7nAChR complex with α7nAChR, activates the p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). And the increasing of α7nAChR could in return mediate Aβ internalization in the cortex and hippocampus. In addition, by using the α7nAChR agonist PNU282987, the p38 phosphorylation level decreases, rescues the biochemical changes which are tightly associated with Aβ-induced apoptosis, such as Bcl2/Bax level, cytochrome c (Cyt c) release. Collectively, the p38 MAPK signaling pathway could regulate the α7nAChR-mediated internalization of Aβ. The activation of α7nAChR or the inhibition of p38 MAPK signaling pathway may be a beneficial therapy to AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Arecoline inhibits interleukin-2 secretion in Jurkat cells by decreasing the expression of alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and prostaglandin E2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, G S; Hu, S; Lin, Y H; Chen, S T; Tang, T K; Wang, P S; Wang, S W

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the effect of arecoline on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion, the expression of alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs), prostaglandin E2(PGE2) protein, and IL-2 mRNA in human lymphocyte cells (Jurkat cell line). The IL-2 and PGE2 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expressions of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and α7-nAChRs were determined by Western blotting. The level of IL-2 mRNA was determined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Arecoline, in a dose-dependent manner, significantly decreased IL-2 and PGE2 secretion by Jurkat cells incubated with 0 or 5 μg/ml 5 μg/ml PHA. PGE2 also significantly inhibited IL-2 secretion by Jurkat cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, reduced expression of PHA-induced ERK phosphorylation was observed in Jurkat cells treated with arecoline. PHA-enhanced IL-2 mRNA expression was also inhibited by arecoline. These results imply that arecoline inhibits the release of PGE2 and PHA-induced IL-2 secretion by Jurkat cells and that these effects seem to occur, at least in part, either through the attenuation of ERK in conjunction with a decrease of PHA-induced IL-2 mRNA expression. These results imply that arecoline inhibits the protein expression of α7-nAChRs , the release of PGE2 and PHA-induced IL-2 secretion by Jurkat cells.

  13. Functional α7β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in hippocampal interneurons exhibit high sensitivity to pathological level of amyloid β peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Qiang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background β-amyloid (Aβ accumulation is described as a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Aβ perturbs a number of synaptic components including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α7 subunits (α7-nAChRs, which are abundantly expressed in the hippocampus and found on GABAergic interneurons. We have previously demonstrated the existence of a novel, heteromeric α7β2-nAChR in basal forebrain cholinergic neurons that exhibits high sensitivity to acute Aβ exposure. To extend our previous work, we evaluated the expression and pharmacology of α7β2-nAChRs in hippocampal interneurons and their sensitivity to Aβ. Results GABAergic interneurons in the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus expressed functional α7β2-nAChRs, which were characterized by relatively slow whole-cell current kinetics, pharmacological sensitivity to dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE, a nAChR β2* subunit selective blocker, and α7 and β2 subunit interaction using immunoprecipitation assay. In addition, α7β2-nAChRs were sensitive to 1 nM oligomeric Aβ. Similar effects were observed in identified hippocampal interneurons prepared from GFP-GAD mice. Conclusion These findings suggest that Aβ modulation of cholinergic signaling in hippocampal GABAergic interneurons via α7β2-nAChRs could be an early and critical event in Aβ-induced functional abnormalities of hippocampal function, which may be relevant to learning and memory deficits in AD.

  14. Identifying the binding site(s) for antidepressants on the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: [3H]2-azidoimipramine photolabeling and molecular dynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghvi, Mitesh; Hamouda, Ayman K; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Blanton, Michael P; Trudell, James R; Arias, Hugo R

    2008-12-01

    Radioligand binding, photoaffinity labeling, and docking and molecular dynamics were used to characterize the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) binding sites in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Competition experiments indicate that the noncompetitive antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) inhibits [3H]imipramine binding to resting (closed) and desensitized nAChRs. [3H]2-azidoimipramine photoincorporates into each subunit from the desensitized nAChR with approximately 25% of the labeling specifically inhibited by TCP (a PCP analog), whereas no TCP-inhibitable labeling was observed in the resting (closed) state. For the desensitized nAChR and within the alpha subunit, the majority of specific [3H]2-azidoimipramine labeling mapped to a approximately 20 kDa Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease fragment (alphaV8-20; Ser173-Glu338). To further map the labeling site, the alphaV8-20 fragment was further digested with endoproteinase Lys-C and resolved by Tricine SDS-PAGE. The principal labeled fragment (11 kDa) was further purified by rpHPLC and subjected to N-terminal sequencing. Based on the amino terminus (alphaMet243) and apparent molecular weight, the 11 kDa fragment contains the channel lining M2 segment. Finally, docking and molecular dynamics results indicate that imipramine and PCP interact preferably with the M2 transmembrane segments in the middle of the ion channel. Collectively, these results are consistent with a model where PCP and TCA bind to overlapping sites within the lumen of the Torpedo nAChR ion channel.

  15. Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis identifies a bending point on the lipid-exposed δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Cruz-Nieves, Omar A; Oyola-Cintrón, Jessica; Torres-Núñez, David A; Otero-Cruz, Jose D; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2011-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate diverse physiological functions, including fast synaptic transmission along the peripheral and central nervous systems. Several studies have made significant advances toward determining the structure and dynamics of the lipid-exposed domains of the nAChR. However, a high-resolution atomic structure of the nAChR still remains elusive. In this study, we extended the Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis (FT-TrpScanM) approach to gain insight into the secondary structure of the δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nAChR, to monitor conformational changes experienced by this domain during channel gating, and to identify which lipid-exposed positions are linked to the regulation of ion channel kinetics. The perturbations produced by periodic tryptophan substitutions along the δM3 transmembrane domain were characterized by two-electrode voltage clamp and (125)I-labeled α-bungarotoxin binding assays. The periodicity profiles and Fourier transform spectra of this domain revealed similar helical structures for the closed- and open-channel states. However, changes in the oscillation patterns observed between positions Val-299 and Val-304 during transition between the closed- and open-channel states can be explained by the structural effects caused by the presence of a bending point introduced by a Thr-Gly motif at positions 300-301. The changes in periodicity and localization of residues between the closed-and open-channel states could indicate a structural transition between helix types in this segment of the domain. Overall, the data further demonstrate a functional link between the lipid-exposed transmembrane domain and the nAChR gating machinery.

  16. Activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor reduces ischemic stroke injury through reduction of pro-inflammatory macrophages and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenying Han

    Full Text Available Activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAchR has a neuro-protective effect on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. However, the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. We hypothesized that α-7 nAchR agonist protects brain injury after ischemic stroke through reduction of pro-inflammatory macrophages (M1 and oxidative stress. C57BL/6 mice were treated with PHA568487 (PHA, α-7 nAchR agonist, methyllycaconitine (MLA, nAchR antagonist, or saline immediately and 24 hours after permanent occlusion of the distal middle cerebral artery (pMCAO. Behavior test, lesion volume, CD68(+, M1 (CD11b(+/Iba1(+ and M2 (CD206/Iba1+ microglia/macrophages, and phosphorylated p65 component of NF-kB in microglia/macrophages were quantified using histological stained sections. The expression of M1 and M2 marker genes, anti-oxidant genes and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase were quantified using real-time RT-PCR. Compared to the saline-treated mice, PHA mice had fewer behavior deficits 3 and 7 days after pMCAO, and smaller lesion volume, fewer CD68(+ and M1 macrophages, and more M2 macrophages 3 and 14 days after pMCAO, whereas MLA's effects were mostly the opposite in several analyses. PHA increased anti-oxidant genes and NADPH oxidase expression associated with decreased phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 in microglia/macrophages. Thus, reduction of inflammatory response and oxidative stress play roles in α-7 nAchR neuro-protective effect.

  17. Immunohistochemical detection and regulation of α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR subunits by FoxA2 during mouse lung organogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willnauer Charles P

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR subunits structurally stabilize functional nAChRs in many non-neuronal tissue types. The expression of α5 nAChR subunits and cell-specific markers were assessed during lung morphogenesis by co-localizing immunohistochemistry from embryonic day (E 13.5 to post natal day (PN 20. Transcriptional control of α5 nAChR expression by FoxA2 and GATA-6 was determined by reporter gene assays. Results Steady expression of α5 nAChR subunits was observed in distal lung epithelial cells during development while proximal lung expression significantly alternates between abundant prenatal expression, absence at PN4 and PN10, and a return to intense expression at PN20. α5 expression was most abundant on luminal edges of alveolar type (AT I and ATII cells, non-ciliated Clara cells, and ciliated cells in the proximal lung at various periods of lung formation. Expression of α5 nAChR subunits correlated with cell differentiation and reporter gene assays suggest expression of α5 is regulated in part by FoxA2, with possible cooperation by GATA-6. Conclusions Our data reveal a highly regulated temporal-spatial pattern of α5 nAChR subunit expression during important periods of lung morphogenesis. Due to specific regulation by FoxA2 and distinct identification of α5 in alveolar epithelium and Clara cells, future studies may identify possible mechanisms of cell differentiation and lung homeostasis mediated at least in part by α5-containing nAChRs.

  18. Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis identifies a bending point on the lipid-exposed δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Cruz-Nieves, Omar A; Oyola-Cintrón, Jessica; Torres-Núñez, David A; Otero-Cruz, José D

    2011-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate diverse physiological functions, including fast synaptic transmission along the peripheral and central nervous systems. Several studies have made significant advances toward determining the structure and dynamics of the lipid-exposed domains of the nAChR. However, a high-resolution atomic structure of the nAChR still remains elusive. In this study, we extended the Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis (FT-TrpScanM) approach to gain insight into the secondary structure of the δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nAChR, to monitor conformational changes experienced by this domain during channel gating, and to identify which lipid-exposed positions are linked to the regulation of ion channel kinetics. The perturbations produced by periodic tryptophan substitutions along the δM3 transmembrane domain were characterized by two-electrode voltage clamp and 125I-labeled α-bungarotoxin binding assays. The periodicity profiles and Fourier transform spectra of this domain revealed similar helical structures for the closed- and open-channel states. However, changes in the oscillation patterns observed between positions Val-299 and Val-304 during transition between the closed- and open-channel states can be explained by the structural effects caused by the presence of a bending point introduced by a Thr-Gly motif at positions 300–301. The changes in periodicity and localization of residues between the closed-and open-channel states could indicate a structural transition between helix types in this segment of the domain. Overall, the data further demonstrate a functional link between the lipid-exposed transmembrane domain and the nAChR gating machinery. PMID:21785268

  19. Radiosynthesis and ex vivo evaluation of [{sup 11}C]-SIB-1553A as a PET radiotracer for {beta}4 selective subtype nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrio, Franck [CEA, DSV, I2BM, CINAPS, LDMTEP, Caen, F-14074 (France); Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, UMR CEA E2, Centre Cyceron, Caen, F-14074 (France)], E-mail: sobrio@cyceron.fr; Quentin, Thomas; Dhilly, Martine; Bourdier, Thomas; Tymciu, Sylvie; Debruyne, Daniele; Barre, Louisa [CEA, DSV, I2BM, CINAPS, LDMTEP, Caen, F-14074 (France); Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, UMR CEA E2, Centre Cyceron, Caen, F-14074 (France)

    2008-04-15

    [{sup 11}C]-SIB-1553A (({+-})-4-[2-((N-[{sup 11}C]-methyl)-2-pyrrolidinyl)ethyl]thiophenol) was labelled with carbon-11 (t{sub 1/2}=20.4 min) and evaluated in vivo as potential radiotracer for noninvasive assessment of the {beta}4 subunit nicotinic acetylcholine neurotransmission system with positron emission tomography (PET). The labelling precursor was obtained within five steps from N-Boc-prolinal in 45-56% overall yields. The radiosynthesis of [{sup 11}C]-SIB-1553A was achieved by a selective N-[{sup 11}C]-methylation in 32 min with a radiochemical purity greater than 97%, 7.5-30 GBq/{mu}mol of specific radioactivity and 55-65% radiochemical yield (decay corrected, based on [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide). The ex vivo pharmacological profile of [{sup 11}C]-SIB-1553A was evaluated in rats with biodistribution studies in organs and in brain structures by autoradiography. The radiotracer uptake in the brain reached 0.49 %ID/g at 10 min and no brain radiometabolite was detected 40 min after intravenous injection. The quantification of radioactivity in various cerebral structures indicated a significantly higher radioactivity level at 15 min than at 30 min. Among the {beta}4 nAChR subunit-rich structures studied in the rat brain, only the thalamus at 15 and 30 min and the hippocampus at 30 min showed significantly higher uptake. Moreover, competition studies performed with SIB-1553A (15 min before the radiotracer injection) revealed only a low specific binding estimated to 7% of the total binding at 15 min and 13% at 30 min.

  20. Binding properties of the cerebral {alpha}4{beta}2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligand 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-A-85380 to plasma proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorger, Dietlind [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: sord@medizin.uni-leipzig.de; Becker, Georg Alexander [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Hauber, Katharina; Schildan, Andreas [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Patt, Marianne [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Birkenmeier, Gerd [Institute of Biochemistry, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Otto, Andreas [Institute of Biochemistry, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Meyer, Philipp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Kluge, Magnus [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Schliebs, Reinhard [Paul Flechsig Institute of Brain Research, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Sabri, Osama [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    Introduction: To determine the availability of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different human brain regions using the positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-A-85380 (2-[{sup 18}F]FA) and invasive approaches for quantification, it is important to correct the arterial input function as well for plasma protein binding (PPB) of the radioligand as for radiolabeled metabolites accumulating in blood. This study deals with some aspects of PPB of 2-[{sup 18}F]FA. Methods: Patients with different neurological disorders (n=72), such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis, and a group of healthy volunteers (n=15) subjected for PET imaging were analyzed for their PPB level of 2-[{sup 18}F]FA using ultrafiltration. Protein gel electrophoresis of plasma samples was performed to identify the binding protein of 2-[{sup 18}F]FA. The dependency of PPB on time and on free ligand concentration was analyzed to obtain the binding parameters B {sub max} and K {sub d}. Results: Albumin was identified to be the binding protein of 2-[{sup 18}F]FA. PPB of 2-[{sup 18}F]FA was low at 17{+-}4% and did not show significant differences between the groups of patients. Corresponding to this, a narrow range of plasma albumin of 0.62{+-}0.05 mM was observed. B {sub max} was determined as twice the albumin concentration, which indicates two binding sites for 2-[{sup 18}F]FA on the protein. No time dependence of the PPB could be observed. By relating PPB to B {sub max}, an average K {sub d} value of 6.0{+-}1.5 mM was obtained. Conclusion: This study shows the dependency of PPB of 2-[{sup 18}F]FA on human albumin plasma concentration. An equation utilizing B {sub max} and K {sub d} to easily estimate PPB is presented.

  1. {alpha}4 {beta}2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: a study with 5-[I-123]iodo-A-85380 SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun Kyung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Yun; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    It has been reported that the number of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is decreased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the degree of cholinergic deficit is correlated with cognitive impairment. We examined neuronal nAChR distribution of AD patients using 5-[I-123]iodo-A85380 (5-IA) SPECT and correlated it with the pattern of cerebral glucose metabolic impairment and the severity of cognitive impairment. Five clinically diagnosed AD patients, 5 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were studied with 5-IA SPECT and brain FDG PET. 5-IA SPECT was performed for 30 min at 120 min after radiotracer injection. FDG PET was done within one month interval. Neuropsychological tests were done for cognitive evaluation. A nAChR parameter DV was calculated in brain regions using cerebellum as reference tissue. All scan images were analyzed using SPM2 and ANOVA was done for group comparison. P value less than 0.005 was considered significant. 5-IA SPECT images of AD patients revealed significantly reduced nAChR distribution in the anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, and the left temporal cortex. MCI patients demonstrated decreased receptor distribution mainly in the subcortical areas. Cortical nAChR distribution showed correlation with cortical glucose metabolism and subcortical with that of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Episodic memory and semantic verbal fluency showed significant correlation with nAChR distribution of periventricular white matter (PVWM), visuospatial function evaluated with RCFT with that of PCC, left temporoparietal cortex, and frontal lobe white matter, and MMSE with that of PVWM, frontal cortex, and striatum. These data demonstrate reduction of nAChR distribution in patients with AD, which has significant correlation with cerebral glucose metabolism and cognitive impairment. It might be useful for diagnosis of AD, and for monitoring individualized treatments targeted at nAChRs.

  2. Quantification of cerebral nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by PET using 2-F-18 fluoro-A-85380 and the multi-injection approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallezot, J.D.; Bottlaender, M.A.; Delforge, J.; Valette, H.; Saba, W.; Dolle, F.; Coulon, C.M.; Ottaviani, M.P.; Hinnen, F.; Syrota, A. [CEA, DSV, Serv Hosp Frederic Joliot, I2BM, F-91401 Orsay (France); Gregoire, M.C. [CEA, Serv Hosp Frederic Joliot, CNRS, URA 2210, F-91401 Orsay (France)

    2008-07-01

    The multi-injection approach was used to study in vivo interactions between {alpha}4{beta}2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and 2-[{sup 18}F] fluoro-A-85380 in baboons. The ligand kinetics was modeled by the usual nonlinear compartment model composed of three compartments (arterial plasma, free and specifically bound ligand in tissue). Arterial blood samples were collected to generate a metabolite-corrected plasma input function. The experimental protocol, which consisted of three injections of labeled or unlabeled ligand, was aiming at identifying all parameters in one experiment. Various parameters, including B'max (the binding sites density) and K{sub d}V{sub R} (the apparent in vivo affinity of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-A-85380) could then be estimated in thalamus and in several receptor-poor regions. B'max estimate was 3.0 {+-} 0.3 pmol/ml in thalamus, and ranged from 0.25 to 1.58 pmol/ml in extra-thalamic regions. Although K{sub d}V{sub R} could be precisely estimated, the association and dissociation rate constants kon/V{sub R} and koff could not be identified separately. A second protocol was then used to estimate koff more precisely in the thalamus. Having estimated all model parameters, we performed simulations of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-A-85380 kinetics to test equilibrium hypotheses underlying simplified approaches. These showed that a pseudo-equilibrium is quickly reached between the free and bound compartments, a favorable situation to apply Logan graphical analysis. In contrast, the pseudo-equilibrium between the plasma and free compartments is only reached after several hours. The ratio of radioligand concentration in these two compartments then overestimates the true equilibrium value, an unfavorable situation to estimate distribution volumes from late images after a bolus injection. (authors)

  3. Species differences in the biotransformation of an alpha 4 beta 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist: the effects of distinct glucuronide metabolites on overall compound disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Christopher L; Gunduz, Mithat; Ryder, Tim F; O'Connell, Thomas N

    2010-02-01

    The metabolism and disposition of (1R,5S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7-(trifluoromethyl)-1,5-methano-1H-3-benzazepine (1), an alpha(4)beta(2) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats and cynomolgus monkeys receiving (1R,5S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7-(trifluoromethyl)-1,5-methano-1H-4[(14)C]-3- benzazepine hydrochloride ([(14)C]1) orally. Although both species chiefly (>or=62%) cleared 1 metabolically, species-specific dispositional profiles were observed for both 1 and total radioactivity. Radioactivity was excreted equally in the urine and feces of intact rats but largely (72%) in bile in bile duct-cannulated animals. In monkeys, radioactivity recoveries were 50-fold greater in urine than feces and minimal (<5%) in bile. Both species metabolized 1 similarly: four-electron oxidation to one of four amino acids or two lactams (minor) and glucuronide formation (major). In rats, the latter pathway predominantly formed an N-carbamoyl glucuronide (M6), exclusively present in bile (69% of dose), whereas in monkeys it afforded an N-O-glucuronide (M5), a minor biliary component (4%) but the major plasma (62%) and urinary (42%) entity. In rats, first-pass hepatic conversion of 1 to M6, which was confirmed in rat hepatocytes, and its biliary secretion resulted in the indirect enterohepatic cycling of 1 via M6 and manifested in double-humped plasma concentration-time curves and long t(1/2) for both 1 and total radioactivity. In monkeys, in which only M5 was formed, double-humped plasma concentration-time curves were absent, and moderate t(1/2) for both 1 and total radioactivity were observed. A seemingly subtle, yet critical, difference in the chemical structures of these two glucuronide metabolites considerably affected the overall disposition of 1 in rats versus monkeys.

  4. Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Play a Predominant Role in the Cholinergic Potentiation of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Evoked Firing Responses of Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt K. Bali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify in vivo electrophysiological correlates of the interaction between cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission underlying memory. Extracellular spike recordings were performed in the hippocampal CA1 region of anesthetized rats in combination with local microiontophoretic administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA and acetylcholine (ACh. Both NMDA and ACh increased the firing rate of the neurons. Furthermore, the simultaneous delivery of NMDA and ACh resulted in a more pronounced excitatory effect that was superadditive over the sum of the two mono-treatment effects and that was explained by cholinergic potentiation of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Next, animals were systemically treated with scopolamine or methyllycaconitine (MLA to assess the contribution of muscarinic ACh receptor (mAChR or α7 nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR receptor-mediated mechanisms to the observed effects. Scopolamine totally inhibited ACh-evoked firing, and attenuated the firing rate increase evoked by simultaneous application of NMDA and ACh. However, the superadditive nature of the combined effect was preserved. The α7 nAChR antagonist MLA robustly decreased the firing response to simultaneous application of NMDA and ACh, suspending their superadditive effect, without modifying the tonic firing rate increasing effect of ACh. These results provide the first in vivo electrophysiological evidence that, in the hippocampal CA1 region, α7 nAChRs contribute to pyramidal cell activity mainly through potentiation of glutamatergic signaling, while the direct cholinergic modulation of tonic firing is notably mediated by mAChRs. Furthermore, the present findings also reveal cellular physiological correlates of the interplay between cholinergic and glutamatergic agents in behavioral pharmacological models of cognitive decline.

  5. Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of the {alpha}{sub 7} nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligand [{sup 11}C]CHIBA-1001 in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, Muneyuki [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 1-1 Naka-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0022 (Japan); Wu, Jin; Toyohara, Jun [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 1-1 Naka-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0022 (Japan); Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Oda, Keiichi [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 1-1 Naka-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0022 (Japan); Ishikawa, Masatomo [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 1-1 Naka-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0022 (Japan); Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Ishii, Kenji [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 1-1 Naka-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0022 (Japan); Hashimoto, Kenji [Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Ishiwata, Kiichi, E-mail: ishiwata@pet.tmig.or.j [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 1-1 Naka-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0022 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Introduction: 4-[{sup 11}C]Methylphenyl 2,4-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonane-2-carboxylate ([{sup 11}C]CHIBA-1001) is a newly developed positron emission tomography (PET) ligand for mapping {alpha}{sub 7} nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. We investigated whole-body biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of [{sup 11}C]CHIBA-1001 in humans and compared the results with those obtained in mice. Methods: Dynamic whole-body PET was carried out for three human subjects after administering a bolus injection of [{sup 11}C]CHIBA-1001. Emission scans were collected in two-dimensional mode over five bed positions. Regions of interest were placed over 12 organs. Radiation dosimetry was estimated from the residence times of these source organs using the OLINDA program. Biodistribution data from mice were also used for the prediction of radiation dosimetry in humans, and results with and those without accommodation of different proportions of organ-to-total-body mass were compared with the results from the human PET study. Results: In humans, the highest accumulation was observed in the liver, whereas in mice, the highest accumulation was observed in the urinary bladder. The estimated effective dose from the human PET study was 6.9 {mu}Sv/MBq, and that from mice was much underestimated. Conclusion: Effective dose estimates for [{sup 11}C]CHIBA-1001 were compatible with those associated with other common nuclear medicine tests. Absorption doses among several organs were considerably different between the human and mouse studies. Human dosimetry studies for the investigation of radiation safety are desirable as one of the first clinical trials of new PET probes before their application in subsequent clinical investigations.

  6. α4 β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: a study with 5-[I-123]iodo-A-85380 SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun Kyung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Yun; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    It has been reported that the number of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is decreased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the degree of cholinergic deficit is correlated with cognitive impairment. We examined neuronal nAChR distribution of AD patients using 5-[I-123]iodo-A85380 (5-IA) SPECT and correlated it with the pattern of cerebral glucose metabolic impairment and the severity of cognitive impairment. Five clinically diagnosed AD patients, 5 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were studied with 5-IA SPECT and brain FDG PET. 5-IA SPECT was performed for 30 min at 120 min after radiotracer injection. FDG PET was done within one month interval. Neuropsychological tests were done for cognitive evaluation. A nAChR parameter DV was calculated in brain regions using cerebellum as reference tissue. All scan images were analyzed using SPM2 and ANOVA was done for group comparison. P value less than 0.005 was considered significant. 5-IA SPECT images of AD patients revealed significantly reduced nAChR distribution in the anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, and the left temporal cortex. MCI patients demonstrated decreased receptor distribution mainly in the subcortical areas. Cortical nAChR distribution showed correlation with cortical glucose metabolism and subcortical with that of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Episodic memory and semantic verbal fluency showed significant correlation with nAChR distribution of periventricular white matter (PVWM), visuospatial function evaluated with RCFT with that of PCC, left temporoparietal cortex, and frontal lobe white matter, and MMSE with that of PVWM, frontal cortex, and striatum. These data demonstrate reduction of nAChR distribution in patients with AD, which has significant correlation with cerebral glucose metabolism and cognitive impairment. It might be useful for diagnosis of AD, and for monitoring individualized treatments targeted at nAChRs

  7. A three amino acid deletion in the transmembrane domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 subunit confers high-level resistance to spinosad in Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Xingliang; Lansdell, Stuart J; Zhang, Jianheng; Millar, Neil S; Wu, Yidong

    2016-04-01

    Spinosad is a macrocyclic lactone insecticide that acts primarily at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of target insects. Here we describe evidence that high levels of resistance to spinosad in the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) are associated with a three amino acid (3-aa) deletion in the fourth transmembrane domain (TM4) of the nAChR α6 subunit (Pxα6). Following laboratory selection with spinosad, the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella exhibited 940-fold resistance to spinosad. In addition, the selected insect population had 1060-fold cross-resistance to spinetoram but, in contrast, no cross-resistance to abamectin was observed. Genetic analysis indicates that spinosad resistance in SZ-SpinR is inherited as a recessive and autosomal trait, and that the 3-aa deletion (IIA) in TM4 of Pxα6 is tightly linked to spinosad resistance. Because of well-established difficulties in functional expression of cloned insect nAChRs, the analogous resistance-associated deletion mutation was introduced into a prototype nAChR (the cloned human α7 subunit). Two-electrode voltage-clamp recording with wild-type and mutated nAChRs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that the mutation causes a complete loss of agonist activation. In addition, radioligand binding studies indicated that the 3-aa deletion resulted in significantly lower-affinity binding of the extracellular neurotransmitter-binding site. These findings are consistent with the 3-amino acid (IIA) deletion within the transmembrane domain of Pxα6 being responsible for target-site resistance to spinosad in the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Augmentation of cognitive function by NS9283, a stoichiometry-dependent positive allosteric modulator of α2- and α4-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, DB; Sandager-Nielsen, K; Dyhring, T; Smith, M; Jacobsen, A-M; Nielsen, EØ; Grunnet, M; Christensen, JK; Peters, D; Kohlhaas, K; Olsen, GM; Ahring, PK

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Positive allosteric modulation of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors could add a new dimension to the pharmacology and therapeutic approach to these receptors. The novel modulator NS9283 was therefore tested extensively. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Effects of NS9283 were evaluated in vitro using fluorescence-based Ca2+ imaging and electrophysiological voltage clamp experiments in Xenopus oocytes, mammalian cells and thalamocortical neurons. In vivo the compound was tested in models covering a range of cognitive domains in mice and rats. KEY RESULTS NS9283 was shown to increase agonist-evoked response amplitude of (α4)3(β2)2 nACh receptors in electrophysiology paradigms. (α2)3(β2)2, (α2)3(β4)2 and (α4)3(β4)2 were modulated to comparable extents, but no effects were detected at α3-containing or any 2α : 3β stoichiometry nACh receptors. Native nACh receptors in thalamocortical neurons similarly displayed DHβE-sensitive currents that were receptive to modulation. NS9283 had favourable effects on sensory information processing, as shown by reversal of PCP-disrupted pre-pulse inhibition. NS9283 further improved performance in a rat model of episodic memory (social recognition), a rat model of sustained attention (five-choice serial reaction time task) and a rat model of reference memory (Morris water maze). Importantly, the effects in the Morris water maze could be fully reversed with mecamylamine, a blocker of nACh receptors. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results provide compelling evidence that positive allosteric modulators acting at the (α4)3(β2)2 nACh receptors can augment activity across a broad range of cognitive domains, and that α4β2 nACh receptor allosteric modulation therefore constitutes a promising therapeutic approach to symptomatic treatment of cognitive impairment. PMID:22506660

  9. Activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor decreases on-site mortality in crush syndrome through insulin signaling-Na/K-ATPase pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Shi eFan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On-site mortality in crush syndrome remains high due to lack of effective drugs based on definite diagnosis. Anisodamine is widely used in China for treatment of shock, and activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR mediates such antishock effect. The present work was designed to test whether activation of α7nAChR with anisodamine decreased mortality in crush syndrome shortly after decompression. Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice with crush syndrome were injected with anisodamine (20 mg/kg and 28 mg/kg respectively, i.p. 30 min before decompression. Survival time, serum potassium, insulin, and glucose levels were observed shortly after decompression. Involvement of α7nAChR was verified with methyllycaconitine (selective α7nAChR antagonist and PNU282987 (selective α7nAChR agonist, or in α7nAChR knockout mice. Effect of anisodamine was also appraised in C2C12 myotubes. Anisodamine reduced mortality and serum potassium and enhanced insulin sensitivity shortly after decompression in animals with crush syndrome, and PNU282987 exerted similar effects. Such effects were counteracted by methyllycaconitine or in α7nAChR knockout mice. Mortality and serum potassium in rats with hyperkalemia were also reduced by anisodamine. Phosphorylation of Na/K-ATPase was enhanced by anisodamine in C2C12 myotubes. Inhibition of tyrosine kinase on insulin receptor, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and Na/K-ATPase counteracted the effect of anisodamine on extracellular potassium. These findings demonstrated that activation of α7nAChR could decrease on-site mortality in crush syndrome, at least in part based on the decline of serum potassium through insulin signaling-Na/K-ATPase pathway.

  10. In vivo evaluation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists [11C]A-582941 and [11C]A-844606 in mice and conscious monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Toyohara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs play an important role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The goal of this study was to evaluate the two carbon-11-labeled alpha7 nAChR agonists [(11C]A-582941 and [(11C]A-844606 for their potential as novel positron emission tomography (PET tracers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The two tracers were synthesized by methylation of the corresponding desmethyl precursors using [(11C]methyl triflate. Effects of receptor blockade in mice were determined by coinjection of either tracer along with a carrier or an excess amount of a selective alpha7 nAChR agonist (SSR180711. Metabolic stability was investigated using radio-HPLC. Dynamic PET scans were performed in conscious monkeys with/without SSR180711-treatment. [(11C]A-582941 and [(11C]A-844606 showed high uptake in the mouse brain. Most radioactive compounds in the brain were detected as an unchanged form. However, regional selectivity and selective receptor blockade were not clearly observed for either compound in the mouse brain. On the other hand, the total distribution volume of [(11C]A-582941 and [(11C]A-844606 was high in the hippocampus and thalamus but low in the cerebellum in the conscious monkey brain, and reduced by pretreatment with SSR180711. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A nonhuman primate study suggests that [(11C]A-582941 and [(11C]A-844606 would be potential PET ligands for imaging alpha7 nAChRs in the human brain.

  11. α7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-specific antibody induces inflammation and amyloid β42 accumulation in the mouse brain to impair memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Lykhmus

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs expressed in the brain are involved in regulating cognitive functions, as well as inflammatory reactions. Their density is decreased upon Alzheimer disease accompanied by accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ42, memory deficit and neuroinflammation. Previously we found that α7 nAChR-specific antibody induced pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 production in U373 glioblastoma cells and that such antibodies were present in the blood of humans. We raised a hypothesis that α7 nAChR-specific antibody can cause neuroinflammation when penetrating the brain. To test this, C57Bl/6 mice were either immunized with extracellular domain of α7 nAChR subunit α7(1-208 or injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS for 5 months. We studied their behavior and the presence of α3, α4, α7, β2 and β4 nAChR subunits, Aβ40 and Aβ42 and activated astrocytes in the brain by sandwich ELISA and confocal microscopy. It was found that either LPS injections or immunizations with α7(1-208 resulted in region-specific decrease of α7 and α4β2 and increase of α3β4 nAChRs, accumulation of Aβ42 and activated astrocytes in the brain of mice and worsening of their episodic memory. Intravenously transferred α7 nAChR-specific-antibodies penetrated the brain parenchyma of mice pre-injected with LPS. Our data demonstrate that (1 neuroinflammation is sufficient to provoke the decrease of α7 and α4β2 nAChRs, Aβ42 accumulation and memory impairment in mice and (2 α7(1-208 nAChR-specific antibodies can cause inflammation within the brain resulting in the symptoms typical for Alzheimer disease.

  12. Schwann cells sense and control acetylcholine spillover at the neuromuscular junction by α7 nicotinic receptors and butyrylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Konstantin A; Girard, Emmanuelle; Nikitashina, Alexandra D; Colasante, Cesare; Bernard, Véronique; Nurullin, Leniz; Leroy, Jacqueline; Samigullin, Dmitry; Colak, Omer; Nikolsky, Evgenii; Plaud, Benoit; Krejci, Eric

    2014-09-03

    Terminal Schwann cells (TSCs) are key components of the mammalian neuromuscular junction (NMJ). How the TSCs sense the synaptic activity in physiological conditions remains unclear. We have taken advantage of the distinct localization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at the NMJ to bring out the function of different ACh receptors (AChRs). AChE is clustered by the collagen Q in the synaptic cleft and prevents the repetitive activation of muscle nicotinic AChRs. We found that BChE is anchored at the TSC by a proline-rich membrane anchor, the small transmembrane protein anchor of brain AChE. When BChE was specifically inhibited, ACh release was significant depressed through the activation of α7 nAChRs localized on the TSC and activated by the spillover of ACh. When both AChE and BChE were inhibited, the spillover increased and induced a dramatic reduction of ACh release that compromised the muscle twitch triggered by the nerve stimulation. α7 nAChRs at the TSC may act as a sensor for spillover of ACh adjusted by BChE and may represent an extrasynaptic sensor for homeostasis at the NMJ. In myasthenic rats, selective inhibition of AChE is more effective in rescuing muscle function than the simultaneous inhibition of AChE and BChE because the concomitant inhibition of BChE counteracts the positive action of AChE inhibition. These results show that inhibition of BChE should be avoided during the treatment of myasthenia and the pharmacological reversal of residual curarization after anesthesia. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411870-14$15.00/0.

  13. Analysis of gait in rats with olivocerebellar lesions and ability of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist varenicline to attenuate impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C S; Philpot, R M; Engberg, M E; Johns, B E; Wecker, L

    2015-09-15

    Studies have demonstrated that administration of the neuronal nicotinic receptor agonist varenicline to rats with olivocerebellar lesions attenuates balance deficits on a rotorod and balance beam, but the effects of this drug on gait deficits have not been investigated. To accomplish this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to walk on a motorized treadmill at 25 and 35 cm/s and baseline performance determined; both temporal and spatial gait parameters were analyzed. A principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the key components of gait, and the cumulative gait index (CGI) was calculated, representing deviations from prototypical gait patterns. Subsequently, animals either remained as non-lesioned controls or received injections of 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP)/nicotinamide to destroy the climbing fibers innervating Purkinje cells. The gait of the non-lesioned group was assessed weekly to monitor changes in the normal population, while the gait of the lesioned group was assessed 1 week following 3-AP administration, and weekly following the daily administration of saline or varenicline (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0mg free base/kg) for 2 weeks. Non-lesioned animals exhibited a 60-70% increased CGI over time due to increases in temporal gait measures, whereas lesioned animals exhibited a nearly 3-fold increased CGI as a consequence of increases in spatial measures. Following 2 weeks of treatment with the highest dose of varenicline (3.0mg free base/kg), the swing duration of lesioned animals normalized, and stride duration, stride length and step angle in this population did not differ from the non-lesioned population. Thus, varenicline enabled animals to compensate for their impairments and rectify the timing of the gait cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nicotine aversion: Neurobiological mechanisms and relevance to tobacco dependence vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Christie D.; Kenny, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine stimulates brain reward circuitries, most prominently the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, and this action is considered critical in establishing and maintaining the tobacco smoking habit. Compounds that attenuate nicotine reward are considered promising therapeutic candidates for tobacco dependence, but many of these agents have other actions that limit their potential utility. Nicotine is also highly noxious, particularly at higher doses, and aversive reactions to nicotine after initial exposure can decrease the likelihood of developing a tobacco habit in many first time smokers. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the mechanisms of nicotine aversion. The purpose of this review is to present recent new insights into the neurobiological mechanisms that regulate avoidance of nicotine. First, the role of the mesocorticolimbic system, so often associated with nicotine reward, in regulating nicotine aversion is highlighted. Second, genetic variation that modifies noxious responses to nicotine and thereby influences vulnerability to tobacco dependence, in particular variation in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit gene cluster, will be discussed. Third, the role of the habenular complex in nicotine aversion, primarily medial habenular projections to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) but also lateral habenular projections to rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) are reviewed. Forth, brain circuits that are enriched in nAChRs, but whose role in nicotine avoidance has not yet been assessed, will be proposed. Finally, the feasibility of developing novel therapeutic agents for tobacco dependence that act not by blocking nicotine reward but by enhancing nicotine avoidance will be considered. PMID:24055497

  15. Nicotine induces mitochondrial fission through mitofusin degradation in human multipotent embryonic carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Naoya; Yamada, Shigeru; Asanagi, Miki; Sekino, Yuko; Kanda, Yasunari

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine is considered to contribute to the health risks associated with cigarette smoking. Nicotine exerts its cellular functions by acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and adversely affects normal embryonic development. However, nicotine toxicity has not been elucidated in human embryonic stage. In the present study, we examined the cytotoxic effects of nicotine in human multipotent embryonal carcinoma cell line NT2/D1. We found that exposure to 10 μM nicotine decreased intracellular ATP levels and inhibited proliferation of NT2/D1 cells. Because nicotine suppressed energy production, which is a critical mitochondrial function, we further assessed the effects of nicotine on mitochondrial dynamics. Staining with MitoTracker revealed that 10 μM nicotine induced mitochondrial fragmentation. The levels of the mitochondrial fusion proteins, mitofusins 1 and 2, were also reduced in cells exposed to nicotine. These nicotine effects were blocked by treatment with mecamylamine, a nonselective nAChR antagonist. These data suggest that nicotine degrades mitofusin in NT2/D1 cells and thus induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell growth inhibition in a nAChR-dependent manner. Thus, mitochondrial function in embryonic cells could be used to assess the developmental toxicity of chemicals.

  16. Nicotine induces mitochondrial fission through mitofusin degradation in human multipotent embryonic carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Naoya; Yamada, Shigeru [Division of Pharmacology, National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan); Asanagi, Miki [Division of Pharmacology, National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan); Faculty of Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yokohama National University (Japan); Sekino, Yuko [Division of Pharmacology, National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan); Kanda, Yasunari, E-mail: kanda@nihs.go.jp [Division of Pharmacology, National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan)

    2016-02-05

    Nicotine is considered to contribute to the health risks associated with cigarette smoking. Nicotine exerts its cellular functions by acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and adversely affects normal embryonic development. However, nicotine toxicity has not been elucidated in human embryonic stage. In the present study, we examined the cytotoxic effects of nicotine in human multipotent embryonal carcinoma cell line NT2/D1. We found that exposure to 10 μM nicotine decreased intracellular ATP levels and inhibited proliferation of NT2/D1 cells. Because nicotine suppressed energy production, which is a critical mitochondrial function, we further assessed the effects of nicotine on mitochondrial dynamics. Staining with MitoTracker revealed that 10 μM nicotine induced mitochondrial fragmentation. The levels of the mitochondrial fusion proteins, mitofusins 1 and 2, were also reduced in cells exposed to nicotine. These nicotine effects were blocked by treatment with mecamylamine, a nonselective nAChR antagonist. These data suggest that nicotine degrades mitofusin in NT2/D1 cells and thus induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell growth inhibition in a nAChR-dependent manner. Thus, mitochondrial function in embryonic cells could be used to assess the developmental toxicity of chemicals.

  17. PET imaging of α{sub 7} nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: a comparative study of [{sup 18}F]ASEM and [{sup 18}F]DBT-10 in nonhuman primates, and further evaluation of [{sup 18}F]ASEM in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillmer, Ansel T.; Li, Songye; Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Lin, Shu-fei; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Holden, Daniel; Pracitto, Richard; Labaree, David; Ropchan, Jim; Esterlis, Irina; Cosgrove, Kelly P.; Carson, Richard E.; Huang, Yiyun [Yale University, PET Center, New Haven, CT (United States); Scheunemann, Matthias; Teodoro, Rodrigo; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Brust, Peter [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research, Leipzig (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    The α{sub 7} nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders, making it an important target for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The first aim of this work was to compare two α{sub 7} nAChRs PET radioligands, [{sup 18}F]ASEM 3-(1,4-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonan-4-yl)-6-([{sup 18}F]fluorodibenzo[b,d]thiophene 5,5-dioxide) and [{sup 18}F]DBT-10 7-(1,4-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonan-4-yl)-2-([{sup 18}F]fluorodibenzo[b,d]thiophene 5,5-dioxide), in nonhuman primates. The second aim was to assess further the quantification and test-retest variability of [{sup 18}F]ASEM in humans. PET scans with high specific activity [{sup 18}F]ASEM or [{sup 18}F]DBT-10 were acquired in three rhesus monkeys (one male, two female), and the kinetic properties of these radiotracers were compared. Additional [{sup 18}F]ASEM PET scans with blocking doses of nicotine, varenicline, and cold ASEM were acquired separately in two animals. Next, six human subjects (five male, one female) were imaged with [{sup 18}F]ASEM PET for 180 min, and arterial sampling was used to measure the parent input function. Different modeling approaches were compared to identify the optimal analysis method and scan duration for quantification of [{sup 18}F]ASEM distribution volume (V{sub T}). In addition, retest scans were acquired in four subjects (three male, one female), and the test-retest variability of V{sub T} was assessed. In the rhesus monkey brain [{sup 18}F]ASEM and [{sup 18}F]DBT-10 exhibited highly similar kinetic profiles. Dose-dependent blockade of [{sup 18}F]ASEM binding was observed, while administration of either nicotine or varenicline did not change [{sup 18}F]ASEM V{sub T}. [{sup 18}F]ASEM was selected for further validation because it has been used in humans. Accurate quantification of [{sup 18}F]ASEM V{sub T} in humans was achieved using multilinear analysis with at least 90 min of data acquisition, resulting in V{sub T} values ranging from 19.6 ± 2

  18. Chronic nicotine pretreatment is sufficient to upregulate α4* nicotinic receptors and increase oral nicotine self-administration in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Renda, Anthony; Nashmi, Raad

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding the underlying causes of nicotine addiction will require a multidisciplinary approach examining the key molecular, cellular and neuronal circuit functional changes that drive escalating levels of nicotine self-administration. In this study, we examined whether mice pretreated with chronic nicotine, at a dosing regimen that results in maximal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) upregulation, would display evidence of nicotine-dependent behaviour during nicotine se...

  19. Altered nicotine reward-associated behavior following α4 nAChR subunit deletion in ventral midbrain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Peng

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4 subunits (α4β2* nAChRs are critical for nicotinic cholinergic transmission and the addictive action of nicotine. To identify specific activities of these receptors in the adult mouse brain, we coupled targeted deletion of α4 nAChR subunits with behavioral and and electrophysiological measures of nicotine sensitivity. A viral-mediated Cre/lox approach allowed us to delete α4 from ventral midbrain (vMB neurons. We used two behavioral assays commonly used to assess the motivational effects of drugs of abuse: home-cage oral self-administration, and place conditioning. Mice lacking α4 subunits in vMB consumed significantly more nicotine at the highest offered nicotine concentration (200 μg/mL compared to control mice. Deletion of α4 subunits in vMB blocked nicotine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP without affecting locomotor activity. Acetylcholine-evoked currents as well as nicotine-mediated increases in synaptic potentiation were reduced in mice lacking α4 in vMB. Immunostaining verified that α4 subunits were deleted from both dopamine and non-dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA. These results reveal that attenuation of α4* nAChR function in reward-related brain circuitry of adult animals may increase nicotine intake by enhancing the rewarding effects and/or reducing the aversive effects of nicotine.

  20. [{sup 123}I]-3-Iodcytisin as possible radiotracer for the imaging of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors using single photon emission computer tomography; [{sup 123}I]-3-Iodcytisin als moeglicher Radiotracer fuer die Darstellung der nikotinergen Acetylcholin Rezeptoren mittels Single-Photon-Emissions-Computertomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulik, Dagmar Julia

    2015-03-06

    For the synthesis of [{sup 123}I]-3-Iodcytisin as possible radiotracer for the imaging of nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors using SPECT two different technologies were used: the radio-iodination with iodogen and the radio-iodination with nitric acid. The latter one showed higher efficiency. The radiotracer will allow to detect degenerative processes and other nACh-depending diseases in the brain (Alzheimer, Parkinson) and to observe the progress. The autoradiography is aimed to the imaging of the nACh receptors in the brain bypassing the brain-blood barrier. The highest activity was measured in the thalamus of mice and rat brains.

  1. Effects of new beta-type Ti-40Nb implant materials, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, acetylcholine and nicotine on human mesenchymal stem cells of osteoporotic and non osteoporotic donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauschke, Vivien; Gebert, Annett; Calin, Mariana; Eckert, Jürgen; Scheich, Sebastian; Heiss, Christian; Lips, Katrin Susanne

    2018-01-01

    Treatment of osteoporotic fractures is still challenging and an urgent need exists for new materials, better adapted to osteoporotic bone by adjusted Young's modulus, appropriate surface modification and pharmaceuticals. Titanium-40-niobium alloys, mechanically ground or additionally etched and titanium-6-aluminium-4-vanadium were analyzed in combination with brain-derived neurotrophic factor, acetylcholine and nicotine to determine their effects on human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro over 21 days using lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase assays, live cell imaging and immunofluorescence microscopy. Cell number of human mesenchymal stem cells of osteoporotic donors was increased after 14 d in presence of ground titanium-40-niobium or titanium-6-aluminium-4-vanadium, together with brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Cell number of human mesenchymal stem cells of non osteoporotic donors increased after 21 d in presence of titanium-6-aluminium-4-vanadium without pharmaceuticals. No significant increase was measured for ground or etched titanium-40-niobium after 21 d. Osteoblast differentiation of osteoporotic donors was significantly higher than in non osteoporotic donors after 21 d in presence of etched, ground titanium-40-niobium or titanium-6-aluminium-4-vanadium accompanied by all pharmaceuticals tested. In presence of all alloys tested brain-derived neurotrophic factor, acetylcholine and nicotine increased differentiation of cells of osteoporotic donors and accelerated it in non osteoporotic donors. We conclude that ground titanium-40-niobium and brain-derived neurotrophic factor might be most suitable for subsequent in vivo testing.

  2. Imidacloprid and thiacloprid neonicotinoids bind more favourably to cockroach than to honeybee α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: insights from computational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, Balaji; Graton, Jérôme; Laurent, Adèle D; Alamiddine, Zakaria; Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Lebreton, Jacques; Coqueret, Olivier; Olivier, Christophe; Thany, Steeve H; Le Questel, Jean-Yves

    2015-02-01

    The binding interactions of two neonicotinoids, imidacloprid (IMI) and thiacloprid (THI) with the extracellular domains of cockroach and honeybee α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in an homomeric receptor have been studied through docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The binding mode predicted for the two neonicotinoids is validated through the good agreement observed between the theoretical results with the crystal structures of the corresponding complexes with Ac-AChBP, the recognized structural surrogate for insects nAChR extracellular ligand binding domain. The binding site of the two insect α6 receptors differs by only one residue of loop D, a serine residue (Ser83) in cockroach being replaced by a lysine residue (Lys108) in honeybee. The docking results show very close interactions for the two neonicotinoids with both α6 nAChR models, in correspondence to the trends observed in the experimental neonicotinoid-Ac-AChBP complexes. However, the docking parameters (scores and energies) are not significantly different between the two insect α6 nAChRs to draw clear conclusions. The MD results bring distinct trends. The analysis of the average interaction energies in the two insects α6 nAChRs shows indeed better affinity of neonicotinoids bound to α6 cockroach compared to honeybee nAChR. This preference is explained by tighter contacts with aromatic residues (Trp and Tyr) of the binding pocket. Interestingly, the non-conserved residue Lys108 of loop D of α6 honeybee nAChR interacts through van der Waals contacts with neonicotinoids, which appear more favourable than the direct or water mediated hydrogen-bond interaction between the OH group of Ser83 of α6 cockroach nAChR and the electronegative terminal group of the two neonicotinoids (nitro in IMI and cyano in THI). Finally, in both insects nAChRs, THI is consistently found to bind more favourably than IMI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bupropion Binds to Two Sites in the Torpedo Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Transmembrane Domain: A Photoaffinity Labeling Study with the Bupropion Analog [125I]-SADU-3-72

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandhare, Akash; Hamouda, Ayman K.; Staggs, Brandon; Aggarwal, Shaili; Duddempudi, Phaneendra K.; Lever, John R.; Lapinsky, David J.; Jansen, Michaela; Cohen, Jonathan B.; Blanton, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Bupropion, a clinically-used antidepressant and smoking-cessation drug, acts as a noncompetitive antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). To identify its binding site(s) in nAChRs, we developed a photoreactive bupropion analog, (±)-2-(N-tert-butylamino)-3′-[125I]-iodo-4′-azidopropiophenone (SADU-3-72). Based upon inhibition of [125I]SADU-3-72 binding, SADU-3-72 binds with high affinity (IC50 = 0.8 μM) to the Torpedo nAChR in the resting (closed channel) state and in the agonist-induced desensitized state, and bupropion binds to that site with three-fold higher affinity in the desensitized (IC50 = 1.2 μM) than in the resting state. Photolabeling of Torpedo nAChRs with [125I]SADU-3-72 followed by limited in-gel digestion of nAChR subunits with endoproteinase Glu-C established the presence of [125I]SADU-3-72 photoincorporation within nAChR subunit fragments containing M1-M2-M3 helices (αV8-20K, βV8-22/23K and γV8-24K) or M1-M2 helices (δV8-14). Photolabeling within βV8-22/23K, γV8-24K and δV8-14 was reduced in the desensitized state and inhibited by ion channel blockers selective for the resting (tetracaine) or desensitized (thienycyclohexylpiperidine (TCP)) state, and this pharmacologically specific photolabeling was localized to the M2-9 leucine ring (δLeu265, βLeu257) within the ion channel. In contrast, photolabeling within the αV8-20K was enhanced in the desensitized state and not inhibited by TCP, but was inhibited by bupropion. This agonist-enhanced photolabeling was localized to αTyr213 in αM1. These results establish the presence of two distinct bupropion binding sites within the Torpedo nAChR transmembrane domain: a high affinity site at the middle (M2-9) of the ion channel and a second site near the extracellular end of αM1 within a previously described halothane (general anesthetic) binding pocket. PMID:22394379

  4. [(3)H]chlorpromazine photolabeling of the torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor identifies two state-dependent binding sites in the ion channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, David C; Hamouda, Ayman K; Ziebell, Michael R; Mejia, Luis A; Garcia, Galo; Cohen, Jonathan B

    2009-10-27

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ), a potent nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) noncompetitive antagonist, binds with higher affinity in the ion channel in the desensitized state than in the closed channel state and with low affinity to additional sites in nAChR-rich membranes. For nAChR equilibrated with agonist, we confirm previous reports that [(3)H]CPZ occupies a site near the cytoplasmic end of the M2 ion channel domain, photolabeling positions M2-2, M2-6, and/or M2-9 in each subunit. We find that [(3)H]CPZ also binds at the extracellular end of the channel, photolabeling amino acids at positions M2-16 (alpha,gamma), M2-17 (alpha,beta,delta), and M2-20 (alpha,beta,delta). The photolabeling at the cytoplasmic end of the channel is fully inhibitable by phencyclidine or proadifen, whereas neither drug inhibits [(3)H]CPZ photolabeling at the extracellular end, establishing that positively charged drugs can bind simultaneously at the cytoplasmic and extracellular ends of the ion channel. [(3)H]CPZ photolabeling is not detected in the transmembrane domain outside the ion channel, but it photolabels alphaMet-386 and alphaSer-393 in the cytoplasmic alphaMA helix. In the nAChR equilibrated with alpha-bungarotoxin to stabilize the nAChR in a closed state, [(3)H]CPZ photolabels amino acids at M2-5 (alpha), M2-6 (alpha,beta,delta), and M2-9 (beta,delta), with no labeling at M2-2. These results provide novel information about the modes of drug binding within the nAChR ion channel and indicate that within the nAChR transmembrane domain, the binding of cationic aromatic amine antagonists can be restricted to the ion channel domain, in contrast to the uncharged, allosteric potentiators and inhibitors that also bind within the delta subunit helix bundle and at subunit interfaces.

  5. Bupropion binds to two sites in the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor transmembrane domain: a photoaffinity labeling study with the bupropion analogue [(125)I]-SADU-3-72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandhare, Akash; Hamouda, Ayman K; Staggs, Brandon; Aggarwal, Shaili; Duddempudi, Phaneendra K; Lever, John R; Lapinsky, David J; Jansen, Michaela; Cohen, Jonathan B; Blanton, Michael P

    2012-03-27

    Bupropion, a clinically used antidepressant and smoking-cessation drug, acts as a noncompetitive antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). To identify its binding site(s) in nAChRs, we developed a photoreactive bupropion analogue, (±)-2-(N-tert-butylamino)-3'-[(125)I]-iodo-4'-azidopropiophenone (SADU-3-72). Based on inhibition of [(125)I]SADU-3-72 binding, SADU-3-72 binds with high affinity (IC(50) = 0.8 μM) to the Torpedo nAChR in the resting (closed channel) state and in the agonist-induced desensitized state, and bupropion binds to that site with 3-fold higher affinity in the desensitized (IC(50) = 1.2 μM) than in the resting state. Photolabeling of Torpedo nAChRs with [(125)I]SADU-3-72 followed by limited in-gel digestion of nAChR subunits with endoproteinase Glu-C established the presence of [(125)I]SADU-3-72 photoincorporation within nAChR subunit fragments containing M1-M2-M3 helices (αV8-20K, βV8-22/23K, and γV8-24K) or M1-M2 helices (δV8-14). Photolabeling within βV8-22/23K, γV8-24K, and δV8-14 was reduced in the desensitized state and inhibited by ion channel blockers selective for the resting (tetracaine) or desensitized (thienycyclohexylpiperidine (TCP)) state, and this pharmacologically specific photolabeling was localized to the M2-9 leucine ring (δLeu(265), βLeu(257)) within the ion channel. In contrast, photolabeling within the αV8-20K was enhanced in the desensitized state and not inhibited by TCP but was inhibited by bupropion. This agonist-enhanced photolabeling was localized to αTyr(213) in αM1. These results establish the presence of two distinct bupropion binding sites within the Torpedo nAChR transmembrane domain: a high affinity site at the middle (M2-9) of the ion channel and a second site near the extracellular end of αM1 within a previously described halothane (general anesthetic) binding pocket.

  6. Molecular imaging of {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: design and evaluation of the potent radioligand [{sup 18}F]NS10743

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Fischer, Steffen; Hiller, Achim; Brust, Peter [Institute of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, Leipzig (Germany); Oestergaard Nielsen, Elsebet; Brunicardi Timmermann, Daniel; Peters, Dan [NeuroSearch A/S, Ballerup (Denmark); Steinbach, Joerg [Institute of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, Leipzig (Germany); Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiopharmacy, Dresden (Germany); Sabri, Osama [Universitaet Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    The outstanding diversity of cellular properties mediated by neuronal and nonneuronal {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors ({alpha}7 nAChR) points to the diagnostic potential of quantitative nuclear molecular imaging of {alpha}7 nAChR in neurology and oncology. It was our goal to radiolabel the {alpha}7 nAChR agonist 4-[5-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-[1,3,4]oxadiazol-2-yl]-1,4-diaza-bicyclo[3.2.2]nonane (NS10743) and to assess the selectivity of [{sup 18}F]NS10743 binding site occupancy in animal experiments. [{sup 18}F]NS10743 was synthesized by nucleophilic substitution of the nitro precursor. In vitro receptor affinity and selectivity were assessed by radioligand competition and autoradiography. The radiotracer properties were evaluated in female CD-1 mice by brain autoradiography and organ distribution. Target specificity was validated after treatment with SSR180711 (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and metabolic stability was investigated using radio-HPLC. The specific activity of [{sup 18}F]NS10743 exceeded 150 GBq/{mu}mol at a radiochemical purity >99%. In vitro, NS10743 and [{sup 18}F]NS10743 showed high affinity and specificity towards {alpha}7 nAChR. The brain permeation of [{sup 18}F]NS10743 was fast and sufficient with values of 4.83 and 1.60% injected dose per gram and brain to plasma ratios of 3.83 and 2.05 at 5 and 60 min after radiotracer administration. Brain autoradiography and organ distribution showed target-specific accumulation of [{sup 18}F]NS10743 in brain substructures and various {alpha}7 nAChR-expressing organs. The radiotracer showed a high metabolic stability in vivo with a single polar radiometabolite, which did not cross the blood-brain barrier. The good in vitro and in vivo features of [{sup 18}F]NS10743 make this radioligand a promising candidate for quantitative in vivo imaging of {alpha}7 nAChR expression and encourage further investigations. (orig.)

  7. Influence of Puffing Parameters and Filter Vent Blocking Condition on Nicotine Fate in a Burning Cigarette - Part 1. Full Flavor Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette testing regulations based on more intensive puffing conditions than standard Federal Trade Commission/International Organisation for Standardization (FTC/ISO conditions, together with intentional filter vent-blocking of cigarettes during testing, are currently required in some countries. Recently, an initial recommendation under the auspices of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, has called for international machine-testing of cigarettes with a 55 cc/30 s/2 s puffing regimen after 100% filter vent-blocking. While much is currently known regarding changes in smoke yields with different machine smoking parameters, a more limited understanding of potential changes in smoke composition exists. In the present work, the influence of smoking conditions on nicotine fate in a burning cigarette was studied by gas chromatography with atomic emission detection (GC-AED using core-injected nicotine-d4. Tobacco rods were injected via a syringe to a fixed length with a constant volume of a methanol solution of known concentration of deuterated nicotine. Four different puffing conditions and two different vent-blocking conditions were studied. GC with mass spectrometric detection was used to identify the deuterium-labeled compounds that gave an enhanced deuterium AED-response. A comparison of the distribution of compounds containing deuterium in the mainstream smoke, sidestream smoke, and cigarette remains (butt and ash of a full flavor cigarette brand under the four smoking conditions studied indicated that a greater percentage of labeled nicotine remained intact during the smoking process as the intensity of the puffing regimen increased. As smoking regimen intensity increased, the amounts of nicotine pyrolysis and oxidation products detected in sidestream smoke decreased, while marginal increases in these compounds were observed in mainstream smoke and in the cigarette butt. The sidestream/mainstream nicotine ratio decreased significantly

  8. Effects of (+/-)-4-[[2-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)ethyl]thio]phenol hydrochloride (SIB-1553A), a selective ligand for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, in tests of visual attention and distractibility in rats and monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, A V; Risbrough, V B; Buccafusco, J J; Menzaghi, F

    2002-04-01

    Nicotine, a nonselective ligand for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), has been shown to improve attention and reduce distractibility in humans. Although the numerous side effects induced by nicotine prevent its use as a therapeutic agent, it is hypothesized that subtype-selective nAChR ligands may offer a potential therapeutic benefit to humans with attention deficits. In this study, we evaluated the attention-enhancing properties of (+/-)-4-[[2-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)ethyl]thio]phenol hydrochloride (SIB-1553A), a ligand selective for neuronal nAChRs with predominant activity at the human beta 4 subtype. SIB-1553A was evaluated in a test of attention (i.e., five-choice serial reaction time task or SRTT) and distractibility (i.e., delayed matching to sample task with distractor or DMTS-D) in adult rats and monkeys, respectively. SIB-1553A did not improve SRTT performance in normal rats, but reversed deficits induced by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist dizocilpine. In the DMTS-D, SIB-1553A improved accuracy across several doses at the short delay intervals, which were affected most by distracting stimuli in adult monkeys. Subsequent testing with optimal doses for each monkey was also associated with significant improvements in DMTS-D accuracy at short delays, indicating the reproducibility of the drug effect. In both species, SIB-1553A had no significant effects on latencies for sample or choice selection and was not associated with adverse effects at efficacious doses. Although it remains to be further demonstrated, SIB-1553A may act through combined nicotinic and non-nicotinic mechanisms. Collectively, the present data suggest that in specific conditions SIB-1553A may improve certain aspects of attentional function in young adult rats and nonhuman primates without adverse side effects.

  9. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation blocks long-term potentiation at cerebellar parallel fiber–Purkinje cell synapses via cannabinoid signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, Lorenzo; Hansel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are known to modulate synaptic plasticity in various brain areas. A signaling pathway triggered by mAChR activation is the production and release of endocannabinoids that bind to type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) located on synaptic terminals. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from rat cerebellar slices, we have demonstrated that the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-m (oxo-m) blocks the induction of presynaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) at parallel fiber (PF)–Purkinje cell synapses in a CB1R-dependent manner. Under control conditions, LTP was induced by delivering 120 PF stimuli at 8 Hz. In contrast, no LTP was observed when oxo-m was present during tetanization. PF-LTP was restored when the CB1R antagonist N-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-1-piperidinyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251) was coapplied with oxo-m. Furthermore, the suppressive effect of oxo-m on PF-LTP was abrogated by the GDP analog GDP-β-S (applied intracellularly), the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122, and the diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor tetrahydrolipstatin (THL), suggesting that cannabinoid synthesis results from the activation of Gq-coupled mAChRs present on Purkinje cells. The oxo-m–mediated suppression of LTP was also prevented in the presence of the M3 receptor antagonist DAU 5884, and was absent in M1/M3 receptor double-KO mice, identifying M3 receptors as primary oxo-m targets. Our findings allow for the possibility that cholinergic signaling in the cerebellum—which may result from long-term depression (LTD)-related disinhibition of cholinergic neurons in the vestibular nuclei—suppresses presynaptic LTP to prevent an up-regulation of transmitter release that opposes the reduction of postsynaptic responsiveness. This modulatory capacity of mAChR signaling could promote the functional penetrance of LTD. PMID:23776234

  10. Flexible synthesis of poison-frog alkaloids of the 5,8-disubstituted indolizidine-class. II: Synthesis of (--209B, (--231C, (--233D, (--235B", (--221I, and an epimer of 193E and pharmacological effects at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garraffo H Martin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines constitute the largest class of poison-frog alkaloids. Some alkaloids have been shown to act as noncompetitive blockers at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors but the proposed structures and the biological activities of most of the 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines have not been determined because of limited supplies of the natural products. We have therefore conducted experiments to confirm proposed structures and determine biological activities using synthetic compounds. Recently, we reported that one of this class of alkaloids, (--235B', acts as a noncompetitive antagonist for α4β2 nicotinic receptors, and its sensitivity is comparable to that of the classical competitive antagonist for this receptor, dihydro-β-erythroidine. Results The enantioselective syntheses of (--209B, (--231C, (--233D, (--235B", (--221I, and what proved to be an epimer of natural 193E, starting from common chiral lactams have been achieved. When we performed electrophysiological recordings to examine the effects of the synthetic alkaloids on two major subtypes of nicotinic receptors (α4β2 and α7 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, (--231C effectively blocked α4β2 receptor responses (IC50 value, 1.5 μM with a 7.0-fold higher potency than for blockade of α7 receptor responses. In contrast, synthetic (--221I and (--epi-193E were more potent in blocking α7 receptor responses (IC50 value, 4.4 μM and 9.1 μM, respectively than α4β2 receptor responses (5.3-fold and 2.0-fold, respectively. Conclusion We achieved the total synthesis of (--209B, (--231C, (--233D, (--235B", (--221I, and an epimer of 193E starting from common chiral lactams, and the absolute stereochemistry of natural (--233D was determined. Furthermore, the relative stereochemistry of (--231C and (--221I was also determined. The present asymmetric synthesis of the proposed structure for 193E revealed that the C-8 configuration of natural 193E

  11. Nicotine inhibits potassium currents in Aplysia bag cell neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sean H.; Sturgeon, Raymond M.

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholine and the archetypal cholinergic agonist, nicotine, are typically associated with the opening of ionotropic receptors. In the bag cell neurons, which govern the reproductive behavior of the marine snail, Aplysia californica, there are two cholinergic responses: a relatively large acetylcholine-induced current and a relatively small nicotine-induced current. Both currents are readily apparent at resting membrane potential and result from the opening of distinct ionotropic receptors. We now report a separate current response elicited by applying nicotine to cultured bag cell neurons under whole cell voltage-clamp. This current was ostensibly inward, best resolved at depolarized voltages, presented a noncooperative dose-response with a half-maximal concentration near 1.5 mM, and associated with a decrease in membrane conductance. The unique nicotine-evoked response was not altered by intracellular perfusion with the G protein blocker GDPβS or exposure to classical nicotinic antagonists but was occluded by replacing intracellular K+ with Cs+. Con